WorldWideScience

Sample records for autistic spectrum disorders

  1. Autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, Rajeshree

    2005-04-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders is a complex developmental disorder with social and communication dysfunction at its core. It has a wide clinical spectrum with a common triad of impairments -- social communication, social interaction and social imagination. Even mild or subtle difficulties can have a profound and devastating impact on the child. To be able to provide suitable treatments and interventions the distinctive way of thinking and learning of autistic children has to be understood. The core areas of social, emotional, communication and language deficits have to be addressed at all levels of functioning. The important goals of assessment include a categorical diagnosis of autism that looks at differential diagnosis, a refined precise documentation of the child's functioning in various developmental domains and ascertaining presence of co-morbid conditions. The interventions have to be adapted to the individual's chronological age, developmental phase and level of functioning. The strategies of curriculum delivery and teaching the child with autism is distinctive and includes presence of structure to increase predictability and strategies to reduce arousal of anxiety.

  2. Catatonia and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Malone, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of catatonic-like states in people with autistic spectrum disorders is discussed in the context of current knowledge about catatonia as it occurs in severe mental illness and, less frequently documented, in conjunction with developmental disorders. The existing literature on catatonic-like states in people with autistic spectrum…

  3. Deafness and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, McCay; Rhodes, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    An orientation to autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), also known as autism, is provided, and the specific syndrome of autism and deafness is addressed. The two conditions have in common a major problem: communication. Case histories are provided, the development of treatment for autism is discussed, and the separate disorders that make up ASD are…

  4. Autistic spectrum disorders in preschool children.

    OpenAIRE

    Zwaigenbaum, L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review existing data on early signs of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and on how these disorders can be distinguished from other atypical patterns of development, and to describe a developmental surveillance approach that family physicians can use to ensure that children with these diagnoses are detected as early as possible. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to July 2000 using the MeSH terms autistic disorder/diagnosis AND diagnosis, differential AN...

  5. The intestinal lesion of autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jass, Jeremy R

    2005-08-01

    This editorial briefly reviews the significance of lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in the intestinal tract of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The distinction between physiological and pathological lymphoid hyperplasia of the intestinal tract is of importance in the context of a possible causative link with autism. A primary intestinal lesion may occur as part of the broad spectrum of immunological disorders to which autistic children are prone. This could result in increased intestinal permeability to peptides of dietary origin which may then lead to disruption of neuroregulatory mechanisms required for normal brain development. Alternatively, there could be a primary defect in the translocation and processing of factors derived from the intestinal lumen. These possibilities deserve further investigation and should not be lost in the fog of the controversy regarding the role of measles/mumps/rubella vaccination in the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder.

  6. Autistic spectrum disorders 2: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alice; Cork, Christine; Chowdhury, Uttom

    2006-04-01

    As many as six in every 1000 children may be affected by an autistic spectrum disorder. The previous article of this two-part series discussed the distinction between autism, Asperger's syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder, and examined the assessment process. This article looks at potential differential diagnoses that must be considered, as well as conditions associated with autism. Many theories about the causes of autism have been suggested, including the MMR vaccine. Recent research has suggested that there is no link between the vaccine and autism. There is no cure for autism, but intervention and management techniques should be aimed at educating parents and carers about the disorder and behavioural interventions to aid the child's skills development.

  7. Iron Deficiency in Preschool Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Gurkan, Kagan; Turkoglu, Serhat; Akca, Omer Faruk; Kilic, Birim Gunay; Uslu, Runa

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) causes negative outcomes on psychomotor and behavioral development of infants and young children. Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are under risk for ID and this condition may increase the severity of psychomotor and behavioral problems, some of which already inherently exist in these children. In the present…

  8. Neurofeedback improves executive functioning in children with autistic spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouijzer, M.E.J.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Gerrits, B.J.L.; Congedo, M.; Schie, H.T. van

    2009-01-01

    Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children’s heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation ove

  9. Motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zikl Pavel; Petrů Dita; Daňková Aneta; Doležalová Hana; Šafaříková Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    The contribution contains results of a research of motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The group of children represents besides major triad of symptoms, also described difficulties in the field of motor skills. Our aim to find out what motor skills of these children are in comparison with intact population and what differences are found in individual motor items, i.e. in fine motor skills, gross motor skills and in balance. The data was gained with the use of standardize...

  10. The epidemiology of autistic spectrum disorders: is the prevalence rising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Lorna; Potter, David

    2002-01-01

    For decades after Kanner's original paper on the subject was published in 1943, autism was generally considered to be a rare condition with a prevalence of around 2-4 per 10,000 children. Then, studies carried out in the late 1990s and the present century reported annual rises in incidence of autism in pre-school children, based on age of diagnosis, and increases in the age-specific prevalence rates in children. Prevalence rates of up to 60 per 10,000 for autism and even more for the whole autistic spectrum were reported. Reasons for these increases are discussed. They include changes in diagnostic criteria, development of the concept of the wide autistic spectrum, different methods used in studies, growing awareness and knowledge among parents and professional workers and the development of specialist services, as well as the possibility of a true increase in numbers. Various environmental causes for a genuine rise in incidence have been suggested, including the triple vaccine for measles, mumps and rubella (MMR]. Not one of the possible environmental causes, including MMR, has been confirmed by independent scientific investigation, whereas there is strong evidence that complex genetic factors play a major role in etiology. The evidence suggests that the majority, if not all, of the reported rise in incidence and prevalence is due to changes in diagnostic criteria and increasing awareness and recognition of autistic spectrum disorders. Whether there is also a genuine rise in incidence remains an open question.

  11. [Asperger's syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD) refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term,,autistic spectrum disorders" was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger's Syndrome (AS) remains the most controversial diagnosis in terms of its place within autism spectrum disorders. AS if often described as an equivalent of High Functioning Autism (HFA) or as a separate spectrum-related disorder with unique diagnostic criteria. Another important issue is the relationship between AS and speech disorders. Although it is relatively easy to draw a line between children with classical autism and speech disorders, the clear cut frontiers between them still remain to be found. The main distinguishing feature is the lack of stereotypic interests and unimpaired social interaction observed in children with speech disorders, such as semantic-pragmatic disorder. PMID:22220491

  12. Motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zikl Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution contains results of a research of motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The group of children represents besides major triad of symptoms, also described difficulties in the field of motor skills. Our aim to find out what motor skills of these children are in comparison with intact population and what differences are found in individual motor items, i.e. in fine motor skills, gross motor skills and in balance. The data was gained with the use of standardized Movement Assessment Battery test for Children 2 (MABC-2. Objective testing of this group of children is relatively difficult. There were successfully tested 36 children with ASD during this phase of research. The research demonstrated evident motor disorder at 86% of children in the observed sample. Statistically significant were worse results in the field of fine motor skills compared to the results in gross motor skills and balance.

  13. Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels; S. Perrin

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic tec

  14. Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Perrin, Sean

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic…

  15. Parental Perceptions of a Manchester Service for Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mischa Mockett

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. User feedback is now an integral part of both clinical governance and service development, and it also provides a key route to engaging parents and children. Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs can impact on all members of a family, and close working between parents and professionals is essential. Aim. To explore parental satisfaction rates and identify areas in need of improvement. Method. A postal survey was completed by parents whose children had been diagnosed with an ASD in the past 18 months in a Manchester Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service. The National Autism Plan for Children was used as a gold standard. Results. Parents were particularly satisfied with the way team members dealt with them and their children during appointments. However, the standard of written information provided about the condition, diagnosis, and support available could be improved. The findings show the benefits of receiving a diagnosis in the recommended timeframe. Discussion. We discuss ways of effectively using scarce resources.

  16. The Screening and Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipek, Pauline A.; Accardo, Pasquale J.; Baranek, Grace T.; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Dawson, Geraldine; Gordon, Barry; Gravel, Judith S.; Johnson, Chris P.; Kallen, Ronald J.; Levy, Susan E.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Prizant, Barry M.; Rapin, Isabelle; Rogers, Sally J.; Stone, Wendy L.; Teplin, Stuart; Tuchman, Roberto F.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents detailed recommendations for diagnosis of autism established by a multidisciplinary panel of the Child Neurology Society and the American Academy of Neurology. The paper offers dual-level (general development and specific symptoms) guidelines for diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative…

  17. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all…

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk Factors and Autistic Traits in Gender Dysphoric Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Doug P.; Leef, Jonathan H.; Wood, Hayley; Hughes, S. Kathleen; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated. In 49 GD children (40 natal males), we examined ASD risk factors (i.e., birth weight, parental age, sibling sex ratio) in relation to autistic traits. Data were gathered on autistic traits, birth weight, parents' ages at birth, sibling sex ratio, gender nonconformity, age,…

  19. Factors Impacting on the Outcomes of Greek Intervention Programmes for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the best predictors of the progress of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), on some developmental domains (autistic severity, language, communication and socialisation), which are related to the core features of ASD. Eighty-six children (2.5-14 years old) with ASD, from 10 schools in Greece, were included in the…

  20. Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Steensel, van, A.; Bögels, S.M.; Perrin, S

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic review of the literature identified 31 studies involving 2,121 young people (aged

  1. [Language in autistic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas, J

    1999-02-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder affecting social relationships, communication and flexibility of thought. These three basic aspects of autism may present in many different forms and degrees. Therefore autism should be considered to be a spectrum of autistic disorders rather than a single strictly defined condition. The spectrum of autistic disorders extends from intelligent individuals with acceptable social integration, to severely retarded patients with scarcely any social interaction. Language is almost always affected either in its formal aspects or in its usage. Autistic linguistic disorders form a specific language disorder (developmental dysphasia) and a pragmatic disorder linked both to the primary language problem and to the social cognitive deficit. We discuss the different linguistic syndromes observed in autistic patients with special emphasis on the semantic-pragmatic disorder. PMID:10778500

  2. Parental and Grandparental Ages in the Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Golding; Colin Steer; Marcus Pembrey

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of studies have assessed ages of parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), and reported both maternal and paternal age effects. Here we assess relationships with grandparental ages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the parental and grandparental ages of children in the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), according to their scores in regard to 4 autistic trait measures and whether they had been given a diagnosis of ...

  3. A Review of Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Research in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Attention, Inhibition and Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jane; Johnson, Katherine A.; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Gallagher, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are devastating neurodevelopmental disorders of unknown aetiology with characteristic deficits in social interaction, communication and behaviour. Individuals with ASD show deficits in executive function (EF), which are hypothesised to underlie core repetitive, stereotyped behaviours of autism. Neuroimaging…

  4. Clinical and anatomical heterogeneity in autistic spectrum disorder: a structural MRI study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toal, F

    2010-07-01

    Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by stereotyped\\/obsessional behaviours and social and communicative deficits. However, there is significant variability in the clinical phenotype; for example, people with autism exhibit language delay whereas those with Asperger syndrome do not. It remains unclear whether localized differences in brain anatomy are associated with variation in the clinical phenotype.

  5. Why Youngsters with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Remain Underrepresented in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    Although numerous investigations have examined the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in the general population, have special education identification rates of autism kept pace? From the 1992-1993 to 2001-2002 school years, U.S. Department of Education data indicate an increase from 15,580 to 97,904 students with autism, an expansion…

  6. Social information processing in boys with autistic spectrum disorder and mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Nieuwenhuijzen, M. van

    2009-01-01

    Background - Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) have less adaptive behaviour and more behaviour problems than children with mild to borderline ID. Social information processing appears to be an important mechanism in the explanation of

  7. Social Information Processing in Boys with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embregts, P.; van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) have less adaptive behaviour and more behaviour problems than children with mild to borderline ID. Social information processing appears to be an important mechanism in the explanation of the socially inadequate behaviour of children…

  8. Brief Report: Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed S.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Waly, Mostafa I.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in Oman is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of ASD among 0-14 year old children. Diagnoses were made as per DSM-IV-TR criteria and supplemented with information collected with the standard Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) questionnaire. A total 113 cases of…

  9. Factors Contributing to Stress in Parents of Individuals with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehee, Erin; Honan, Rita; Hevey, David

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study explores the experiences of parents of individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs), and examines the influences of parent gender and child age on perceived stress, stress and coping, child-rearing involvement, support and information/education accessed. Methods and Materials: Questionnaires assessed general perceived…

  10. Alzheimer's Disease and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Is there any Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarah A; Khan, Shahida A; Narendra, A R; Mushtaq, Gohar; Zahran, Solafa A; Khan, Shahzad; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders respectively, with devastating effects not only on the individual but also the society. Collectively, a number of factors contribute to the expression of ASD and AD. It is of utmost curiosity that these disorders express at different stages of life and there is an involvement of certain susceptible genes. This genetic basis makes the background of common associations like memory deficits, cognition changes, demyelination, oxidative stress and inflammation, an integral part of both disorders. Modern technology resulting in genetically modified crops and increase in gadgets emitting electromagnetic frequencies have resulted in enhanced risks for neurological dysfunctions and disorders like ASD and AD. Subsequent advances in the psychological, pharmacological, biochemical and nutritional aspects of the disorders have resulted in the development of newer therapeutic approaches. The common clinical features like language impairment, executive functions, and motor problems have been discussed along with the patho-physiological changes, role of DNA methylation, myelin development, and heavy metals in the expression of these disorders. Psychopharmacological and nutritional approaches towards the reduction and management of risk factors have gained attention from the researchers in recent years. Current major therapies either target the inflammatory pathways or reduce cellular oxidative stress. This contribution focuses on the commonalities of the two disorders. PMID:26996178

  11. Judicial Perceptions of Media Portrayals of Offenders with High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Berryessa, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, sensational media reporting focusing on crimes committed by those diagnosed with or thought to have High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders (hfASDs) has caused societal speculation that there is a link between the disorder and violent criminality. No research exists on how and if the judiciary understands and is affected by this coverage. Therefore this study aims to examine how judges perceive and are influenced by media attention surrounding hfASDs and criminality. Sem...

  12. The effect of epilepsy on autistic symptom severity assessed by the social responsiveness scale in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Chanyoung; Kim, Namwook; Kim, Eunjoo; Song, Dong Ho; Cheon, Keun-Ah

    2016-01-01

    Background As the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in people with epilepsy ranges from 15 to 47 % (Clarke et al. in Epilepsia 46:1970–1977, 2005), it is speculated that there is a special relationship between the two disorders, yet there has been a lack of systematic studies comparing the behavioral phenotype between autistic individuals and autistic individuals with epilepsy. This study aims to investigate how the co-occurrence of epilepsy and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects au...

  13. Evaluation of Planning Dysfunction in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorders Using the Zoo Map Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Marin, M. D.; Moreno-Granados, J. M.; Ruiz-Veguilla, M.; Ferrin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorders (ADHD) and Autistic-Spectrum-Disorders (ASD) share overlapping clinical and cognitive features that may confuse the diagnosis. Evaluation of executive problems and planning dysfunction may aid the clinical diagnostic process and help disentangle the neurobiological process underlying these conditions. This…

  14. Fluoxetine response in children with autistic spectrum disorders: correlation with familial major affective disorder and intellectual achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, G Robert; Ritch, Chad R; Burch, Sherri

    2002-10-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine children, 2 to 8 years old, with idiopathic autistic spectrum disorder diagnosed by standard instruments (Childhood Austim Ratings Scale and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were treated with fluoxetine (0.15 to 0.5mg/kg) for 5 to 76 months (mean 32 to 36 months), with discontinuation trials. Response criteria are described. Family histories were obtained using the family history method in repeated interviews. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder, and unusual intellectual achievement, pretreatment language, and hyperlexia were used to define a coherent subgroup of autistic spectrum disorder. Statistical analyses were post hoc. Of the children, 22 (17%) had an excellent response, 67 (52%) good, and 40 (31%) fair/poor. Treatment age did not correlate with response. Fluoxetine response correlated robustly with familial major affective disorder and unusual intellectual achievement, and with hyperlexia in the child. Family history of bipolar disorder and of unusual intellectual achievement correlated strongly. Five children developed bipolar disorder during follow-up. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder (especially bipolar), unusual achievement, and hyperlexia in the children appear to define a homogeneous autistic subgroup. Bipolar disorder, unusual intellectual achievement, and autistic spectrum disorders cluster strongly in families and may share genetic determinants.

  15. The autistic spectrum: subgroups, boundaries, and treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, S.H.N.

    2002-01-01

    There is consensus about the disorders that comprise the autistic spectrum, with autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-NOS as the most typical examples and Rett's disorder and disintegrative disorder as the other components. Important controversies regarding the precise definitions of auti

  16. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jinah

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviours in children with autistic spectrum disorder. The study was designed to look at these behaviours in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and free play, and use both standardized tools and DVD analysis of sessions to evaluate changes in joint attention behaviours.A repeated measures, within subject comparison design was used and children were randomly assigned in to two group...

  17. Anesthetic management of a child with autistic spectrum disorder and homocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Choudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD is a developmental disability of the central nervous system with rapid worsening. A subset of patients also has mitochondrial dysfunction leading to increased sensitivity to various anesthetic agents. Rarely, gene mutation in these patients results in homocysteinemia which causes higher incidences of thromboembolism, hypoglycemia, and seizures. Anesthetic management of ASD with homocysteinemia and refractory seizures has not been previously reported.

  18. A girl with increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner's syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shohreh Mohseni Ahouee; Mitra Hakim Shooshtari; Reza Bidaki

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the findings on the evaluation of a 9-year-old girl with disabling and pronounced increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner′s syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder. She spent most of the time doing these activities which affected not only her academic performance, but also social relationships. A comprehensive treatment plan consists of both biological and psychological aspects, is the main point of this case. Low dose of risperidone (0.5 mg/day)...

  19. Hyperlexia in a 4-year-old boy with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Atkin, K; Lorch, Marjorie P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a 4-year-old boy with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and a mental age of approximately 1:5 who demonstrates precocious oral-reading behaviour in the absence of spontaneous speech. Tests of reading regular and irregular words, pseudowords, homographic heterophones, single sentences and texts were carried out. Performance on a variety of reading tasks suggests the ability to use grapheme–phoneme correspondences and whole word reading for decoding...

  20. Genetic studies in children with intellectual disability and autistic spectrum of disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Bhanumathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is one of the five disorders that falls under the umbrella of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, a category of neurological disorders characterized by "severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development." ASD is characterized by varying degrees of impairment in communication skills, social interaction and restricted, repetitive stereotyped patterns of behavior. The five disorders under PDD are autistic disorder, Asperger′s disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, Rett′s disorder and PDD-not otherwise specified. ASD can often be reliably detected by the age of 3 years and, in some cases, as early as 18 months. The appearance of any warning signs of ASD is reason to have the child evaluated by a professional specializing in these disorders.

  1. Autism and autistic spectrum disorders in the context of new DSM-V classification, and clinical and epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is one of disorders from the autism spectrum, besides Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. They are classified as mental disorders as being manifested by a wide range of cognitive, emotional and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Key categorical characteristics of the disorder are clear impairments of the development of the child’s socialisation, understanding and production of verbal and non-verbal communication and restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Demarcation boundaries are not clear, neither within the very group of the disorders from the autistic spectrum, nor with respect to the autistic behavioural features in the general population. For this reason, the term spectrum points out the significance of the dimensional assessment of autistic disorders, which will most likely be the basis of the new diagnostic classification of the disorders belonging to the current group of pervasive developmental disorders in the new DSM-V classification. The understanding, as well as the prevalence of the autistic spectrum disorders has changed drastically in the last four decades. From the previous 4 per 10,000 people, today’s prevalence estimates range from 0.6 to around 1%, and the increase of prevalence cannot be explained solely by better recognition on the part of experts and parents or by wider diagnostic criteria. The general conclusion is that the autistic spectrum disorders are no longer rare conditions and that the approach aimed at acknowledging the warning that this is an urgent public health problem is completely justified.

  2. Early interpersonal neurobiological assessment of attachment and autistic spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, Allan N.

    2014-01-01

    There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the “emotional brain.” Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile–gestural non-verbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant’s developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant’s emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant–mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant–mother dyads. Throughout I offer implications of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early

  3. Antibodies against Food Antigens in Patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura de Magistris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Immune system of some autistic patients could be abnormally triggered by gluten/casein assumption. The prevalence of antibodies to gliadin and milk proteins in autistic children with paired/impaired intestinal permeability and under dietary regimen either regular or restricted is reported. Methods. 162 ASDs and 44 healthy children were investigated for intestinal permeability, tissue-transglutaminase (tTG, anti-endomysium antibodies (EMA-IgA, and total mucosal IgA to exclude celiac disease; HLA-DQ2/-DQ8 haplotypes; total systemic antibodies (IgA, IgG, and IgE; specific systemic antibodies: α-gliadin (AGA-IgA and IgG, deamidated–gliadin-peptide (DGP-IgA and IgG, total specific gliadin IgG (all fractions: α, β, γ, and ω, β-lactoglobulin IgG, α-lactalbumin IgG, casein IgG; and milk IgE, casein IgE, gluten IgE, -lactoglobulin IgE, and α-lactalbumin IgE. Results. AGA-IgG and DPG-IgG titers resulted to be higher in ASDs compared to controls and are only partially influenced by diet regimen. Casein IgG titers resulted to be more frequently and significantly higher in ASDs than in controls. Intestinal permeability was increased in 25.6% of ASDs compared to 2.3% of healthy children. Systemic antibodies production was not influenced by paired/impaired intestinal permeability. Conclusions. Immune system of a subgroup of ASDs is triggered by gluten and casein; this could be related either to AGA, DPG, and Casein IgG elevated production or to impaired intestinal barrier function.

  4. Early interpersonal neurobiological assessment of attachment and autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, Allan N

    2014-01-01

    There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the "emotional brain." Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile-gestural non-verbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant's developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant's emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant-mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant-mother dyads. Throughout I offer implications of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early intervention.

  5. Early Interpersonal Neurobiological Assessment of Attachment and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Nelson Schore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally-laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the emotional brain. Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile-gestural nonverbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant’s developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily-based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant’s emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant-mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant-mother dyads. Throughout I offer implication of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early

  6. Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

  7. Parental and grandparental ages in the autistic spectrum disorders: a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Golding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A number of studies have assessed ages of parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD, and reported both maternal and paternal age effects. Here we assess relationships with grandparental ages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the parental and grandparental ages of children in the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, according to their scores in regard to 4 autistic trait measures and whether they had been given a diagnosis of ASD. Mean maternal and paternal ages of ASD cases were raised, but this appears to be secondary to a maternal grandmother age effect (P = 0.006: OR = 1.66[95%CI 1.16, 2.37] for each 10-year increase in the grandmother's age at the birth of the mother. Trait measures also revealed an association between the maternal grandmother's age and the major autistic trait-the Coherence Scale (regression coefficient b = 0.142, [95%CI = 0.057, 0.228]P = 0.001. After allowing for confounders the effect size increased to b = 0.217[95%CI 0.125, 0.308](P<0.001 for each 10 year increase in age. CONCLUSIONS: Although the relationship between maternal grandmother's age and ASD and a major autistic trait was unexpected, there is some biological plausibility, for the maternal side at least, given that the timing of female meiosis I permits direct effects on the grandchild's genome during the grandmother's pregnancy. An alternative explanation is the meiotic mismatch methylation (3 M hypothesis, presented here for the first time. Nevertheless the findings should be treated as hypothesis generating pending corroborative results from other studies.

  8. Parents' Experiences of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)-Based Interventions for Children Diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhilemy, Catherine; Dillenburger, Karola

    2013-01-01

    Applied behaviour analysis (ABA)-based programmes are endorsed as the gold standard for treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in most of North America. This is not the case in most of Europe, where instead a non-specified "eclectic" approach is adopted. We explored the social validity of ABA-based interventions with…

  9. Objective Investigation of the Sleep-Wake Cycle in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, D. J.; Jones, S.; Evershed, K.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Disturbances in circadian rhythm functioning, as manifest in abnormal sleep-wake cycles, have been postulated to be present in people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). To date, research into the sleep-wake cycle in people with ASDs has been primarily dependant on third-party data collection. Method: The utilization of…

  10. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effectiveness of Behavioural Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of behavioural intervention programs for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders was addressed by a meta-analysis, which reviewed 14 studies. The findings suggest that the behavioural programs are effective in improving several developmental aspects in the children, in terms of their treatment gains, and also relative to…

  11. Parents' Views and Experiences about Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments for Their Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senel, Hatice Gunayer

    2010-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments have been increasing for children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, 38 Turkish parents of children with ASD were surveyed related with their use of CAM treatments, experiences, and views for each treatment. They mentioned "Vitamins and minerals", "Special Diet",…

  12. Using Aromatherapy Massage to Increase Shared Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Severe Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) characteristically display a lack of shared attention behaviours and the lack of these behaviours impacts on their ability to develop social interactions and relationships with others. Steve Solomons, assistant headteacher at Rectory Paddock School and Research Unit in the London Borough of Bromley,…

  13. Epidemiology and management of insomnia in children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Silvia; Ferri, Raffaele

    2010-04-01

    Insomnia is the predominant sleep concern in children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and its nature is most likely multifactorial, with neurochemical (abnormalities in serotonergic transmission or melatonin levels), psychiatric (anxiety), and behavioral (poor sleep habits) etiological factors involved. Children with ASD experience sleep problems similar to those of typically developing children, although the prevalence is markedly higher, occurring in 44-83% of school-aged children with ASD. Caregivers usually report that insomnia is the most frequent sleep disorder, described as disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, restless sleep, bedtime resistance, co-sleeping, alterations of sleep hygiene, and early awakenings in the morning. Many actigraphic studies have added information on sleep disorders, confirming the questionnaire findings in the majority of cases. There are relatively few polysomnographic data for ASD, compared with questionnaire studies, and most of these studies reported a reduction in total sleep time and more undifferentiated sleep in the youngest patients. These findings were associated with several sleep microstructure alterations during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and with non-REM (NREM) sleep microstructure changes that appeared to be related to cognitive impairment rather than to the autistic core. Moreover, few data about other less frequent sleep disorders, such as periodic limb movements disorder and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, bruxism, and the influence of epilepsy and EEG abnormalities, are available. Both pharmacologic and behavioral interventions have been suggested for the treatment of sleep problems in autistic children. The most common types of behavioral interventions are complete extinction (removing reinforcement to reduce a behavior) and various forms of graduated extinction. Melatonin has shown promising results in the treatment of insomnia in children with ASD. Although controlled studies are limited

  14. A girl with increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner's syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahouee, Shohreh Mohseni; Shooshtari, Mitra Hakim; Bidaki, Reza

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the findings on the evaluation of a 9-year-old girl with disabling and pronounced increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner's syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder. She spent most of the time doing these activities which affected not only her academic performance, but also social relationships. A comprehensive treatment plan consists of both biological and psychological aspects, is the main point of this case. Low dose of risperidone (0.5 mg/day) was started to decrease the patient's stereotypic behaviors. Sertraline (12.5 mg/day) was prescribed for her phobia. She was also referred to an occupational therapist in order to improve her social skills. PMID:26015917

  15. Brief Report: The Impact of Changing from DSM-IV "Asperger's" to DSM-5 "Autistic Spectrum Disorder" Diagnostic Labels on Stigma and Treatment Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan, Jeneva L.; Ellefson, Sarah E.; Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    In the DSM-5, "Asperger's Disorder" was incorporated into "Autistic Spectrum Disorder" (ASD). One key concern in this change has been that the ASD label will increase negative attitudes relative to the Asperger's label. To test this, we asked 465 American adults to read a vignette describing a child with autistic symptoms that…

  16. Technologies as Support Tools for Persons with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Aresti-Bartolome

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the technologies most widely used to work on areas affected by the Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Technologies can focus on the strengths and weaknesses of this disorder as they make it possible to create controlled environments, reducing the anxiety produced by real social situations. Extensive research has proven the efficiency of technologies as support tools for therapy and their acceptation by ASD sufferers and the people who are with them on a daily basis. This article is organized by the types of systems developed: virtual reality applications, telehealth systems, social robots and dedicated applications, all of which are classified by the areas they center on: communication, social learning and imitation skills and other ASD-associated conditions. 40.5% of the research conducted is found to be focused on communication as opposed to 37.8% focused on learning and social imitation skills and 21.6% which underlines problems associated with this disorder. Although most of the studies reveal how useful these tools are in therapy, they are generic tools for ASD sufferers in general, which means there is a lack of personalised tools to meet each person’s needs.

  17. Prenatal alcohol exposure and autistic spectrum disorders--a population-based prospective study of 80,552 children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Tolstrup, Janne S; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake > or =5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism.......To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake > or =5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism....

  18. Speech Preference Is Associated with Autistic-Like Behavior in 18-Months-Olds at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether infants' preference for speech at 12 months is associated with autistic-like behaviors at 18 months in infants who are at increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have an older sibling diagnosed with ASD and in low-risk infants. Only low-risk infants listened significantly longer to speech than to…

  19. Are autistic traits measured equivalently in individuals with and without an autism spectrum disorder? An invariance analysis of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Aja L; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen; Kuenssberg, Renate; O'Donnell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It is common to administer measures of autistic traits to those without autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with, for example, the aim of understanding autistic personality characteristics in non-autistic individuals. Little research has examined the extent to which measures of autistic traits actually measure the same traits in the same way across those with and without an ASD. We addressed this question using a multi-group confirmatory factor invariance analysis of the Autism Quotient Short Form (AQ-S: Hoekstra et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 41(5):589-596, 2011) across those with (n = 148) and without (n = 168) ASD. Metric variance (equality of factor loadings), but not scalar invariance (equality of thresholds), held suggesting that the AQ-S measures the same latent traits in both groups, but with a bias in the manner in which trait levels are estimated. We, therefore, argue that the AQ-S can be used to investigate possible causes and consequences of autistic traits in both groups separately, but caution is due when combining or comparing levels of autistic traits across the two groups.

  20. Distinguishing and Improving Mouse Behavior with Educational Computer Games in Young Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Executive Function-Based Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Baukje; van Geert, Paul L. C.; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.

    2012-01-01

    In this exploratory multiple case study, it is examined how a computer game focused on improving ineffective learning behavior can be used as a tool to assess, improve, and study real-time mouse behavior (MB) in different types of children: 18 children (3.8-6.3 years) with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder…

  1. Hypnosis Without Empathy? Perspectives From Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Stage Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David B

    2016-01-01

    Despite volumes of published studies supporting the efficacy of hypnosis for ego-strengthening, performance, and physical and psychological disorders, the precise nature of hypnosis, and in particular, the neurobiological underpinnings of trance-phenomenon, remains tenuous at best. With his empathic involvement theory of hypnosis, Wickramasekera II (2015) brings us closer to an understanding of the elusive nature of hypnotic processes by proposing a bridging of two long-standing and seemingly incongruent theories of hypnosis (i.e., neodissociative versus socio-cognitive). Borrowing from neuroscientific studies of empathy, the empathic involvement theory maintains that empathy, beyond any other human dynamic (including emotions, behavior, personality, and imagination), facilitates and enhances hypnotic experiences for both recipient and provider alike. By the same token, one can reasonably infer from the empathic involvement theory that non-empathic individuals are less likely to benefit from hypnosis. With this perspective in mind, the empathic involvement theory's identification of empathy as an apparent "Holy Grail" of the neural underpinnings and precise nature of hypnosis may be challenged on a number of grounds. Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder, especially those suffering from alexithymia, have been identified as empathy deficient, and therefore according to the empathic involvement theory would be classified as "low-hypnotizable," yet empirical studies, albeit limited in number, suggest otherwise. Furthermore, hypnotic inductions of audience volunteers by stage hypnotists challenge the empathic involvement theory's supposition that empathy is a required component of hypnosis. It is this author's contention that empathy is a beneficial, though not essential, element of successful hypnosis.

  2. The potential importance of steroids in the treatment of autistic spectrum disorders and other disorders involving mercury toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Mark R; Geier, David A

    2005-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) affects 1 in 150 children in the United States. Autism is characterized by impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, abnormal movements, and sensory dysfunction. Recently emerging evidence suggests that mercury, especially from childhood vaccines, appears to be a factor in the development of the autistic disorders, and that autistic children have higher than normal body-burdens of mercury. In considering mercury toxicity, it has previously been shown that testosterone significantly potentates mercury toxicity, whereas estrogen is protective. Examination of autistic children has shown that the severity of autistic disorders correlates with the amount of testosterone present in the amniotic fluid, and an examination of a case-series of autistic children has shown that some have plasma testosterone levels that were significantly elevated in comparison neurotypical control children. A review of some of the current biomedical therapies for autistics, such as glutathione and cysteine, chelation, secretin, and growth hormone, suggests that they may in fact lower testosterone levels. We put forward the medical hypothesis that autistic disorders, in fact, represents a form of testosterone mercury toxicity, and based upon this observation, one can design novel treatments for autistics directed towards higher testosterone levels in autistic children. We suggest a series of experiments that need to be conducted in order to evaluate the exact mechanisms for mercury-testosterone toxicity, and various types of clinical manipulations that may be employed to control testosterone levels. It is hoped by devising therapies that address the steroid hormone pathways, in addition to the current treatments that successful lower heavy metal body-burdens of mercury, will work synergistically to improve clinical outcomes. In light of the fact that

  3. [Follow up of patients with developmental delay and autistic spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Riesgo, Rudimar; Becker, Michele M; Ranzan, Josiane; Bragatti Winckler, María I; Ohlweiler, Lygia

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of autism symptoms during life were revised, from childhood to adulthood. Little information is available. After a search in PubMed, no more than 40 publications address this issue. The review was divided into two parts: a) how change the three main symptoms of autism change; b) how change the other autism-associated symptoms. The three main symptoms, called "Triad of Wing" (communication problems, social skills deficits, and a restricted repertoire of interests) do not change significantly during lifetime. The diagnosis of autism remains stable during lifetime, and 80% of children continue with this diagnosis in adulthood. Furthermore, it is difficult to establish first diagnostic of autism in adults. In relation to the associated symptoms, one of the earliest are sleep disturbances and one of the most prevalent is both bipolar and anxiety disorders. Sleep disturbances are age-limited and disappear easily. Bipolar disorders are usually more severe in children with autism when compared to children without autism. The mood transitions are faster in autistic children. Anxiety is usually more intense in cognitive preserved autistic patients and tends to increase with age. The two main prognostic factors for autism in adults are: a) total IQ above 70. b) functional language before 6 years of age.

  4. Is There a Need for a Focused Health Care Service for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? A Keyhole Look at This Problem in Tripoli, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeglam, Adel M.; Maouna, Ameena

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autism is a global disorder, but relatively little is known about its presentation and occurrence in many developing countries, including Libya. Aims: 1.) To estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in children referred to Al-Khadra hospital (KH). 2.) To increase the awareness among pediatrician and primary health care…

  5. Traits Contributing to the Autistic Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Steer, Colin D; Jean Golding; Bolton, Patrick F

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is increasingly recognised that traits associated with autism reflect a spectrum with no clear boundary between typical and atypical behaviour. Dimensional traits are needed to investigate the broader autism phenotype. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety-three individual measures reflecting components of social, communication and repetitive behaviours characterising autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) were identified between the ages of 6 months and 9 years from the ALSPAC data...

  6. MRI or not to MRI! Should brain MRI be a routine investigation in children with autistic spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeglam, Adel M; Al-Ogab, Marwa F; Al-Shaftery, Thouraya

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the routine usage of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain and estimate the prevalence of brain abnormalities in children presenting to the Neurodevelopment Clinic of Al-Khadra Hospital (NDC-KH), Tripoli, Libya with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The records of all children with ASD presented to NDC-KH over 4-year period (from January 2009 to December 2012) were reviewed. All MRIs were acquired with a 1.5-T Philips (3-D T1, T2, FLAIR coronal and axial sequences). MRIs were reported to be normal, abnormal or no significant abnormalities by a consultant neuroradiologist. One thousand and seventy-five children were included in the study. Seven hundred and eighty-two children (72.7 %) had an MRI brain of whom 555 (71 %) were boys. 26 children (24 males and 2 females) (3.3 %) demonstrated MRI abnormalities (8 leukodystrophic changes, 4 periventricular leukomalacia, 3 brain atrophy, 2 tuberous sclerosis, 2 vascular changes, 1 pineoblastoma, 1 cerebellar angioma, 1 cerebellar hypoplasia, 3 agenesis of corpus callosum, 1 neuro-epithelial cyst). An unexpectedly high rate of MRI abnormalities was found in the first large series of clinical MRI investigations in children with autism. These results could contribute to further research into the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorder. PMID:25344829

  7. Imitation and Action Understanding in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: How Valid Is the Hypothesis of a Deficit in the Mirror Neuron System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.; Brindley, Rachel M.; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    The motor mirror neuron system supports imitation and goal understanding in typical adults. Recently, it has been proposed that a deficit in this mirror neuron system might contribute to poor imitation performance in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and might be a cause of poor social abilities in these children. We aimed to test…

  8. A girl with increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner′s syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Mohseni Ahouee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the findings on the evaluation of a 9-year-old girl with disabling and pronounced increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner′s syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder. She spent most of the time doing these activities which affected not only her academic performance, but also social relationships. A comprehensive treatment plan consists of both biological and psychological aspects, is the main point of this case. Low dose of risperidone (0.5 mg/day was started to decrease the patient′s stereotypic behaviors. Sertraline (12.5 mg/day was prescribed for her phobia. She was also referred to an occupational therapist in order to improve her social skills.

  9. EEG correlates of emotions in dream narratives from typical young adults and individuals with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoust, Anne-Marie; Lusignan, Félix-Antoine; Braun, Claude M J; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2008-03-01

    The relationship between emotional dream content and Alpha and Beta REM sleep EEG activity was investigated in typical individuals and in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Dream narratives of persons with ASD contained fewer emotional elements. In both groups, emotions correlated positively with slow Alpha (8.0-10.0 Hz) spectral power over parieto-occipital and left central regions, as well as with a right occipital EEG asymmetry. Slow Alpha activity in ASD individuals was lower over midline and parasagittal areas and higher over lateral areas compared to controls. Both groups displayed a right-biased slow Alpha activity for midparietal and occipital (significantly higher in control) sites. Results indicate that Alpha EEG activity may represent a neurophysiological substrate associated with emotional dream content. Distinctive Alpha EEG patterns and asymmetries suggest that dream generation implies different brain connectivity in ASD.

  10. Application of custom-designed oligonucleotide array CGH in 145 patients with autistic spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wiśniowiecka-Kowalnik, Barbara; Kastory-Bronowska, Monika; Bartnik, Magdalena; Derwińska, Katarzyna; Dymczak-Domini, Wanda; Szumbarska, Dorota; Ziemka, Ewa; Szczałuba, Krzysztof; Sykulski, Maciej; Gambin, Tomasz; Gambin, Anna; Shaw, Chad A.; Mazurczak, Tadeusz; Obersztyn, Ewa; Bocian, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders, including childhood autism, atypical autism, and Asperger syndrome, with an estimated prevalence of 1.0–2.5% in the general population. ASDs have a complex multifactorial etiology, with genetic causes being recognized in only 10–20% of cases. Recently, copy-number variants (CNVs) have been shown to contribute to over 10% of ASD cases. We have applied a custom-designed oligonucleotide array comparative ...

  11. Eye-Movement Patterns Are Associated with Communicative Competence in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Brock, Jon; Cragg, Lucy; Einav, Shiri; Griffiths, Helen; Nation, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Background: Investigations using eye-tracking have reported reduced fixations to salient social cues such as eyes when participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) view social scenes. However, these studies have not distinguished different cognitive phenotypes. Methods: The eye-movements of 28 teenagers with ASD and 18 typically developing…

  12. Secure Attachment in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Maternal Insightfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2008-01-01

    Do children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) form attachments to their caregivers? This article reviews research challenging the conventional view that children with autism are unable to form healthy attachment relationships. The authors describe a study examining the role of maternal insightfulness into the inner world of the child in…

  13. Can Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Extract Emotions out of Contextual Cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, David; Santos, Andreia; Bastard-Rosset, Delphine; Rondan, Cecilie; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are able to recognize facial expressions of emotion and objects missing on the basis of contextual cues. While most of these studies focused on facial emotion recognition, here we examined the ability to extract emotional information on the basis…

  14. Autistic Tendencies: Are There Different Pathways for Blindness and Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Rebecca; Wyver, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    For many of the children who are blind and who also display features of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) it is possible that their characteristics, while being representative of ASD, actually follow a different pathway to those children who have ASD and are sighted. It is proposed that these children should be viewed as having specific features…

  15. A Systematic Review of Interventions Used to Treat Catatonic Symptoms in People with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Hannah; Bunton, Penny; Hare, Dougal J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the efficacy of a range of treatments for autistic catatonia. The review identified 22 relevant papers, reporting a total of 28 cases including both adult and paediatric patients. Treatment methods included electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), medication, behavioural and sensory interventions. Quality…

  16. A survey of parents' reactions to the diagnosis of an autistic spectrum disorder by a local service: access to information and use of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Warren; Morris, Kathleen

    2004-12-01

    We conducted a postal survey of parents whose child had been diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder by a district diagnostic service. The service was regarded as having improved significantly following recent changes, but there were still shortcomings. Parents had obtained useful information from a range of other sources, including a parents' support group, school teachers, speech and language therapists, educational psychologists, the Internet, books and academic journals. Special units and schools were rated as the most useful source of support and treatment, but many other interventions were rated highly. Parents reported a diverse range of both negative and positive consequences of diagnosis, and many reported a change in their attitudes to diagnosis over time. Many expressed frustration with trying to get an early diagnosis, with the social, educational and health services, and with the way that autistic spectrum disorders are regarded by lay people and other parents.

  17. Autistic Traits and Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Clinical Validity of Two Measures Presuming a Continuum of Social Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Sven; Westerwald, Eva; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine; Poustka, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that autism is the extreme end of a continuously distributed trait. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC) aim to assess autistic traits. The objective of this study was to compare their clinical validity. The SRS showed sensitivities of 0.74 to 0.80 and specificities of…

  18. Fatty acid metabolism in neurodevelopmental disorder: a new perspective on associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, dyspraxia and the autistic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A J; Ross, M A

    2000-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that abnormalities of fatty acid and membrane phospholipid metabolism play a part in a wide range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. This proposal is discussed here in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder (dyspraxia) and the autistic spectrum. These are among the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood, with significant implications for society as well as for those directly affected. However, controversy still surrounds both the identification and management of these conditions, and while their aetiology is recognized as being complex and multifactorial, little progress has yet been made in elucidating predisposing factors at the biological level. An overview is provided here of the contents of this Special Issue, which contains a selection of reports from a unique multidisciplinary workshop involving both researchers and clinicians. Its purpose was to explore the possibility that ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and autism fall within a phospholipid spectrum of disorders. This proposal could explain the high degree of co-morbidity between these conditions, their aggregation within families and relation to other psychiatric disorders, and a range of associated features that are already well known at a clinical level. The existing evidence for fatty acid abnormalities in these disorders is summarized, and new approaches are outlined that have the potential to improve both the identification and the management of these and related neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions. PMID:10970706

  19. Parent-child gesture use during problem solving in autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Kristen; Winsler, Adam

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between child language skills and parent and child gestures of 58 youths with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Frequencies and rates of total gesture use as well as five categories of gestures (deictic, conventional, beat, iconic, and metaphoric) were reliably coded during the collaborative Tower of Hanoi task. Children with ASD had lower Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores and gestured less and at lower rates compared to typically developing children. Gesture use was unrelated to vocabulary for typically developing children, but positively associated with vocabulary for those with ASD. Demographic correlates of gesturing differed by group. Gesture may be a point of communication intervention for families with children with ASD. PMID:24535577

  20. Review of foreign approaches to development of communication in children with autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldatenkova E.N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a generalized overview of international approaches to the evaluation and formation of communication in children with autism spectrum disor ders (ASD. Described radicals communication disorders in children with ASD. Analyzed foreign approaches (Communication system for the exchange of images (PECS Lori Frost and Andrew Bondy; options piktogramme6ideogrammic communication (bliss6symbolism, Loeb system, a system of sign language; Program in Applied verbal behavior; a Method of facilitating communication (FC and others used for the development of communication in children with ASD and donditions underlying these approaches. Examined differences in focus for the development of communication in children with ASD in domestic and foreign schools. The main conditions for the development of communication in children with ASD described in the framework of cultural historical psychology and activity approach, ensuring the inclusion of children with ASD in education.

  1. Applying the Hexagon-Spindle Model to the design of school environments for children with Autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Andrée; Woolner, Alex; Benedyk, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Schools and other educational environments beyond serving as the primary work places of children provide the backdrop against which formative emotional, psychological, cognitive and physical development takes place. However, ergonomists have paid little attention to the design of these environments, the interactions within them or their organization from a child's perspective. Children with special education needs, such as those with hearing or visual difficulties, cognitive or social disabilities, or even those with different learning styles may be placed in mainstream schools ill-equipped to suit their needs. Rather than retrofitting classrooms as children with different requirements enter the school, a ground-up approach could be taken to create effective educational environments based on an understanding of the learning tasks to be supported, the learner characteristics and the facilities and interactions needed to effect task completion. The application of an holistic ergonomic model, such as the Hexagon-Spindle model provides a means of systematically considering the variables which need to be included in the design and evaluation of such environments. This paper presents a case study of the application of this model to the design of low sensory classrooms and interactive learning experiences for children with an autistic spectrum disorder. PMID:19369717

  2. Reducing auditory hypersensitivities in autistic spectrum disorders: Preliminary findings evaluating the Listening Project Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W Porges

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hypersensitivities are a common feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. In the present study the effectiveness of a novel intervention, the Listening Project Protocol (LPP was evaluated in two trials conducted with children diagnosed with ASD. LPP was developed to reduce auditory hypersensitivities. LPP is based on a theoretical neural exercise model that uses computer altered acoustic stimulation to recruit the neural regulation of middle ear muscles. Features of the intervention stimuli were informed by basic research in speech and hearing sciences that has identified the specific acoustic frequencies necessary to understand speech, which must pass through middle ear structures before being processed by other components of the auditory system. LPP was hypothesized to reduce auditory hypersensitivities by increasing the neural tone to the middle ear muscles to functionally dampen competing sounds in frequencies lower than human speech. The trials demonstrated that LPP, when contrasted to control conditions, selectively reduced auditory hypersensitivities. These findings are consistent with the Polyvagal Theory, which emphasizes the role of the middle ear muscles in social communication.

  3. Brief report: the impact of changing from DSM-IV 'Asperger's' to DSM-5 'autistic spectrum disorder' diagnostic labels on stigma and treatment attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan, Jeneva L; Ellefson, Sarah E; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2015-10-01

    In the DSM-5, 'Asperger's Disorder' was incorporated into 'Autistic Spectrum Disorder' (ASD). One key concern in this change has been that the ASD label will increase negative attitudes relative to the Asperger's label. To test this, we asked 465 American adults to read a vignette describing a child with autistic symptoms that included an ASD label, an Asperger's label, or no label, and rate their stigma and treatment attitudes (help-seeking and perceived effectiveness). Contrary to predictions, label did not impact stigma. Label did impact treatment attitudes, with greater help-seeking and perceived treatment effectiveness for both Asperger's and ASD labels. In sum, concern that the ASD label will increase negative perceptions, at least amongst the general public, is not supported. PMID:26043847

  4. The utility of patient specific induced pluripotent stem cells for the modelling of Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cocks, Graham; Curran, Sarah; Gami, Priya; Uwanogho, Dafe; Jeffries, Aaron R.; Kathuria, Annie; Lucchesi, Walter; Wood, Victoria; Dixon, Rosemary; Ogilvie, Caroline; Steckler, Thomas; Price, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Until now, models of psychiatric diseases have typically been animal models. Whether they were to be used to further understand the pathophysiology of the disorder, or as drug discovery tools, animal models have been the choice of preference in mimicking psychiatric disorders in an experimental setting. While there have been cellular models, they have generally been lacking in validity. This situation is changing with the advent of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In t...

  5. Autistic disorder and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbey, Jane E; Sweeten, Thayne L; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions, which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very early in development. The mechanism, by which viral infection may lead to autism, be it through direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS), through infection elsewhere in the body acting as a trigger for disease in the CNS, through alteration of the immune response of the mother or offspring, or through a combination of these, is not yet known. Animal models in which early viral infection results in behavioral changes later in life include the influenza virus model in pregnant mice and the Borna disease virus model in newborn Lewis rats. Many studies over the years have presented evidence both for and against the association of autism with various viral infections. The best association to date has been made between congenital rubella and autism; however, members of the herpes virus family may also have a role in autism. Recently, controversy has arisen as to the involvement of measles virus and/or the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in the development of autism. Biological assays lend support to the association between measles virus or MMR and autism whereas epidemiologic studies show no association between MMR and autism. Further research is needed to clarify both the mechanisms whereby viral infection early in development may lead to autism and the possible involvement of the MMR vaccine in the development of autism.

  6. Autistic traits and autism spectrum disorders : the clinical validity of two measures presuming a continuum of social communication skills

    OpenAIRE

    Bölte, Sven; Westerwald, Eva; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine M.; Poustka, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that autism is the extreme end of a continuously distributed trait. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC) aim to assess autistic traits. The objective of this study was to compare their clinical validity. The SRS showed sensitivities of .74 to .80 and specificities of .69 to 1.00 for autism. Sensitivities were .85 to .90 and specificities .28 to.82 for the SCDC. Correlations with the ADI-R, ADOS and SCQ were higher...

  7. Autistic Traits in Couple Dyads as a Predictor of Anxiety Spectrum Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The link between parental autistic tendency and anxiety symptoms was studied in 491 Taiwanese couples raising biological children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Parental autistic tendency as measured by Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was associated with anxiety symptoms across all domains. Large effect sizes were found in social phobia and…

  8. Autism and autistic spectrum disorders in the context of new DSM-V classification, and clinical and epidemiological data

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Miodrag; Lakić Aneta; Ilić Neda

    2012-01-01

    Autism is one of disorders from the autism spectrum, besides Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. They are classified as mental disorders as being manifested by a wide range of cognitive, emotional and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Key categorical characteristics of the disorder are clear impairments of the development of the child’s socialisation, understanding and production of verbal and non-verbal communication and restri...

  9. Autistic Disorder Symptoms in Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulffaert, Josette; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; Scholte, Evert M.

    2009-01-01

    According to the major classification systems it is not possible to diagnose a comorbid autistic disorder in persons with Rett syndrome. However, this is a controversial issue, and given the level of functioning of persons with Rett syndrome, the autistic disorder is expected to be present in a comparable proportion as in people with the same…

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

  11. Asperger’s syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders? [Miejsce zespołu Aspergera w grupie całościowych zaburzeń rozwoju: kontinuum czy spektrum zaburzeń autystycznych?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD) refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term „autistic spectrum disorders” was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger’s Syndrome (AS) remains the most controversial diagnosis in t...

  12. Traits contributing to the autistic spectrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Steer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is increasingly recognised that traits associated with autism reflect a spectrum with no clear boundary between typical and atypical behaviour. Dimensional traits are needed to investigate the broader autism phenotype. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety-three individual measures reflecting components of social, communication and repetitive behaviours characterising autistic spectrum disorder (ASD were identified between the ages of 6 months and 9 years from the ALSPAC database. Using missing value imputation, data for 13,138 children were analysed. Factor analysis suggested the existence of 7 factors explaining 85% of the variance. The factors were labelled: verbal ability, language acquisition, social understanding, semantic-pragmatic skills, repetitive-stereotyped behaviour, articulation and social inhibition. Four factors (1, 3, 5 and 7 were specific to ASD being more strongly associated with this phenotype than other co-morbid conditions while other factors were more associated with learning difficulties and specific language impairment. Nevertheless, all 7 factors contributed independently to the explanation of ASD (p<0.001. Exploration of putative genetic causal factors such as variants in the CNTNAP2 gene showed a varying pattern of associations with these traits. An alternative predictive model of ASD was derived using four individual measures: the coherence subscale of the Children's Communication Checklist (9y, the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (91 m, repetitive behaviour (69 m and the sociability subscale of the Emotionality Activity and Sociability measure (38 m. Although univarably these traits performed better than some factors, their combined explanations of ASD were similar (R(2 =  0.48. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results support the fractional nature of ASD with different aetiological origins for these components despite pleiotropic genetic effects being observed. These traits are

  13. Autistic traits in couple dyads as a predictor of anxiety spectrum symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2014-11-01

    The link between parental autistic tendency and anxiety symptoms was studied in 491 Taiwanese couples raising biological children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Parental autistic tendency as measured by Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was associated with anxiety symptoms across all domains. Large effect sizes were found in social phobia and post traumatic stress disorders for both parents, and in general anxiety disorder and agoraphobia for mothers. These associations were irrespective of child's autistic tendency, spouse's AQ scores and the couples' compatibility in their autistic tendency. Perceived family support and parental education moderated the link but not child's autistic severity. Research and clinical implications regarding psychiatric vulnerability of parents of children with ASD were drawn and discussed.

  14. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Correlations with Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Parletta

    Full Text Available There is evidence that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD have lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA levels compared with controls and conflicting evidence regarding omega-6 (n-6 PUFA levels.This study investigated whether erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were lower and n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA higher in children with ADHD, ASD and controls, and whether lower n-3 and higher n-6 PUFAs correlated with poorer scores on the Australian Twin Behaviour Rating Scale (ATBRS; ADHD symptoms and Test of Variable Attention (TOVA in children with ADHD, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS in children with ASD.Assessments and blood samples of 565 children aged 3-17 years with ADHD (n = 401, ASD (n = 85 or controls (n = 79 were analysed. One-way ANOVAs with Tukey's post-hoc analysis investigated differences in PUFA levels between groups and Pearson's correlations investigated correlations between PUFA levels and ATBRS, TOVA and CARS scores.Children with ADHD and ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA, higher AA/EPA ratio and lower n-3/n-6 than controls (P<0.001 except AA between ADHD and controls: P = 0.047. Children with ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA than children with ADHD (P<0.001 for all comparisons. ATBRS scores correlated negatively with EPA (r = -.294, P<0.001, DHA (r = -.424, P<0.001, n-3/n-6 (r = -.477, P<0.001 and positively with AA/EPA (r = .222, P <.01. TOVA scores correlated positively with DHA (r = .610, P<0.001, EPA (r = .418, P<0.001 AA (r = .199, P<0.001, and n-3/n-6 (r = .509, P<0.001 and negatively with AA/EPA (r = -.243, P<0.001. CARS scores correlated significantly with DHA (r = .328, P = 0.002, EPA (r = -.225, P = 0.038 and AA (r = .251, P = 0.021.Children with ADHD and ASD had low levels of EPA, DHA and AA and high ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and these correlated significantly with symptoms. Future research should further

  15. [Autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Early infantile autism' as defined by Kanner has grown into a spectrum of autistic disorders. The recognition of Asperger's disorder and of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), has led to increased demand for appropriate diagnostic assessment of autism in adults. The e

  16. Sex-Related Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum Disorders Diagnosed Late in Life: Implications for the Female Autistic Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnhardt, Fritz-Georg; Falter, Christine Michaela; Gawronski, Astrid; Pfeiffer, Kathleen; Tepest, Ralf; Franklin, Jeremy; Vogeley, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Females with high-functioning ASD are known to camouflage their autistic symptoms better than their male counterparts, making them prone to being under-ascertained and delayed in diagnostic assessment. Thus far the underlying cognitive processes that enable such successful socio-communicative adaptation are not well understood. The current results…

  17. Early diagnosis and identification of children with autistic spectrum disorder%孤独症谱系障碍儿童的早期诊断与识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳娟; 卢云; 吴晓庆; 陈娟; 郑芹

    2012-01-01

    目的:在进行婴幼儿孤独症谱系障碍患病情况流行病学调查的同时早期诊断孤独症患儿,为早期干预做准备,并总结早期识别患儿的方法.方法:采用随机分层整群抽样方法,对连云港市8 532名0~3岁儿童进行横断面调查;应用婴幼儿孤独症筛查表(CHAT)筛查出可疑儿童,以儿童孤独症家长评定量表(ABC)、儿童期孤独症评定量表(CARS)及美国精神障碍诊断和统计手册(DSM-IV)的诊断依据进行确诊.结果:8 532名儿童中9名为孤独症阳性,阳性率为10.55/万,其中1岁内1例,1~2岁3例,2~3岁5例;男孩8例,女孩1例,男孩发病率高于女孩(P<0.05).结论:加强对孤独症谱系障碍患儿的早期识别、早期诊断,对孤独症患儿的日后康复意义重大;总结出的早期识别孤独症谱系障碍儿童方法,为婴幼儿父母及医务工作者提供早期筛查孤独症患儿的依据.%Objective: To diagnose the children with autism at early stage at the same time of conducting epidemiological investigation of prevalence of infantile autistic spectrum disorder, make preparations for early intervention, and summarize the methods to identify the children with autism early. Methods: A random stratified cluster sampling method was used to carry out cross - section survey among 8 532 children aged 0-3 years old; CHAT was used to screen out suspected children, then they were diagnosed definitely according to the diagnostic criteria of ABC, CARS, and DSM - IV. Results: Among 8 532 children, 9 children were found with autism, the positive rate was 10. 55/ten thousand, including one child within one year, three children aged 1-2 years old, and five children aged 2-3 years old; eight boys and one girl were included, the incidence of autism in boys was statistically significantly higher than that in girls ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion ; Enhancing early identification and diagnosis of children with autistic spectrum disorder has important

  18. Auditory hypersensitivity in children and teenagers with autistic spectrum disorder Hipersensibilidade auditiva em crianças e adolescentes com transtorno do espectro autista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erissandra Gomes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify if the clinical behavior of auditory hypersensitivity, reported in interviews with parents/caregivers and therapists/teachers of 46 children and teenagers suffering from autistic spectrum disorder, correspond to audiological findings. METHOD: The clinical diagnosis for auditory hypersensitivity was investigated by means of an interview. Subsequently, a test of the acoustic stapedial reflex was conducted, and responses to intense acoustic stimulus in open field were observed. RESULTS: Of the 46 subjects, 11 (23.9% were clinically diagnosed as oversensitive to sound and only 2 showed discomfort when exposed to intense acoustic stimulus in open field. There was no statistically significant difference for the test of the ipsilateral acoustic stapedial reflex between the groups. CONCLUSION: Behavioral manifestations to sounds are not associated to hypersensitivity of the auditory pathways, but instead these are associated to difficulties in the upper processing, involving systems that usually are impaired in autistic spectrum patients, such as the limbic system.OBJETIVO: Verificar se o comportamento clínico de hipersensibilidade auditiva, relatado nas entrevistas com os pais/cuidadores e terapeutas/professores de crianças e adolescentes com transtorno do espectro autista, corresponde aos achados audiológicos. MÉTODO: O diagnóstico clínico para a hipersensibilidade auditiva foi investigado a partir do protocolo de entrevista. Após, foi utilizada a pesquisa do reflexo acústico estapédico e observadas as reações ao estímulo sonoro intenso em campo aberto. RESULTADOS: Dos 46 sujeitos, 11 (23,9% foram diagnosticados clinicamente como hipersensíveis ao som, e somente 2 demonstraram desconforto quando expostos ao estímulo sonoro intenso em campo aberto. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante para a pesquisa do reflexo acústico estapédico ipsilateral entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: As manifesta

  19. Structural and functional deficits in a neuronal calcium sensor-1 mutant identified in a case of autistic spectrum disorder.

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    Mark T W Handley

    Full Text Available Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1 is a Ca(2+ sensor protein that has been implicated in the regulation of various aspects of neuronal development and neurotransmission. It exerts its effects through interactions with a range of target proteins one of which is interleukin receptor accessory protein like-1 (IL1RAPL1 protein. Mutations in IL1RAPL1 have recently been associated with autism spectrum disorders and a missense mutation (R102Q on NCS-1 has been found in one individual with autism. We have examined the effect of this mutation on the structure and function of NCS-1. From use of NMR spectroscopy, it appeared that the R102Q affected the structure of the protein particularly with an increase in the extent of conformational exchange in the C-terminus of the protein. Despite this change NCS-1(R102Q did not show changes in its affinity for Ca(2+ or binding to IL1RAPL1 and its intracellular localisation was unaffected. Assessment of NCS-1 dynamics indicated that it could rapidly cycle between cytosolic and membrane pools and that the cycling onto the plasma membrane was specifically changed in NCS-1(R102Q with the loss of a Ca(2+ -dependent component. From these data we speculate that impairment of the normal cycling of NCS-1 by the R102Q mutation could have subtle effects on neuronal signalling and physiology in the developing and adult brain.

  20. Parents' perspectives on care of children with autistic spectrum disorder in South Asia - Views from Pakistan and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Ayesha; Vajaratkar, Vivek; Divan, Gauri; Hamdani, Syed Usman; Leadbitter, Kathy; Taylor, Carol; Aldred, Catherine; Tariq, Ahmareen; Tariq, Mahjabeen; Cardoza, Percy; Green, Jonathan; Patel, Vikram; Rahman, Atif

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects about 1.4% of the population in South Asia but very few have access to any form of health care service. The objective of this study was to explore the beliefs and practices related to the care of children with ASD to inform strategies for intervention. In Pakistan, primary data were collected through in-depth interviews of parents (N = 15), while in India a narrative review of existing studies was conducted. The results show that the burden of care is almost entirely on the mother, leading to high levels of stress. Poor awareness of the condition in both family members and front-line health-providers leads to delay in recognition and appropriate management. There is considerable stigma and discrimination affecting children with autism and their families. Specialist services are rare, concentrated in urban areas, and inaccessible to the majority. Strategies for intervention should include building community and family support networks to provide respite to the main carer. In the absence of specialists, community members such as community health workers, traditional practitioners and even motivated family members could be trained in recognizing and providing evidence-based interventions. Such task-shifting strategies should be accompanied by campaigns to raise awareness so greater inclusivity can be achieved.

  1. Sex-Related Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum Disorders Diagnosed Late in Life: Implications for the Female Autistic Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnhardt, Fritz-Georg; Falter, Christine Michaela; Gawronski, Astrid; Pfeiffer, Kathleen; Tepest, Ralf; Franklin, Jeremy; Vogeley, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Females with high-functioning ASD are known to camouflage their autistic symptoms better than their male counterparts, making them prone to being under-ascertained and delayed in diagnostic assessment. Thus far the underlying cognitive processes that enable such successful socio-communicative adaptation are not well understood. The current results show sex-related differences in the cognitive profile of ASD individuals, which were diagnosed late in life exclusively. Higher verbal abilities were found in males (n = 69) as opposed to higher processing speed and better executive functions in females with ASD (n = 38). Since both sexes remained unidentified during childhood and adolescence, these results are suggestive for sex-distinctive cognitive strategies as an alternative to typically-developed reciprocal social behavior and social mimicry in high functioning ASD.

  2. ON DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS BETWEEN AUTISTIC DISORDER AND ASPERGER’S SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Todorov; Mariana Arnaoudova

    2012-01-01

    The differential diagnosis between Autistic disorder (AD) and Asperger’s syndrome (AS) in most cases is quite difficult since most of the symptoms are clinically undistinguished. Several factors complicate the diagnosis of AS- an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is considered by some authors to be simply a milder version of autistic disorder. Problems in diagnosis include disagreement among diagnostic criteria, controversy over the distinction between AS and other ASD forms or even whether ...

  3. Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…

  4. CONCEPTOS GENERALES SOBRE ABA EN NIÑOS CON TRASTORNO DEL ESPECTRO AUTISTA General concepts concerning applied behaviour analysis (ABA in children suffering autistic spectrum disorders (ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Elizabeth Piñeros-Ortiz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos del espectro autista (TEA son entidades que generan discapacidad. Diversas intervenciones psicofarmacológicas y psicosociales modulan algunas de las alteraciones comportamentales asociadas y mejoran la calidad de vida de las personas afectadas y de sus cuidadores. La terapia ABA es una de las intervenciones psicosociales más conocidas y utilizada en población con TEA. Mediante de la formulación de preguntas clave y sus respuestas, este artículo realiza una breve descripción de los aspectos históricos, las principales características y los fundamentos teóricos del ABA. Se discuten los resultados de diversos estudios que señalan las limitaciones metodológicas de las investigaciones sobre la efectividad de esta terapia y sus implicaciones para la práctica clínica.Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD cause disability. Psychopharmacological and psychosocial interventions modulate some of the associated behavioural alterations and improve the quality of life for those affected and the people caring for them. Applied behaviour analysis (ABA therapy is one of the most well-known psychosocial interventions and is used with populations suffering ASD. This article gives a brief description of the historical aspects, the main characteristics and theoretical foundations regarding applied behaviour analysis (ABA by formulating key questions and their (expected responses. The results of some pertinent studies are discussed, pointing out the methodological limitations of research into the effectiveness of this therapy and its implications for clinical practice.

  5. Asperger’s syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders? [Miejsce zespołu Aspergera w grupie całościowych zaburzeń rozwoju: kontinuum czy spektrum zaburzeń autystycznych?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term „autistic spectrum disorders” was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger’s Syndrome (AS remains the most controversial diagnosis in terms of its place within autism spectrum disorders. AS if often described as an equivalent of High Functioning Autism (HFA or as a separate spectrum-related disorder with unique diagnostic criteria. Another important issue is the relationship between AS and speech disorders. Although it is relatively easy to draw a line between children with classical autism and speech disorders, the clear cut frontiers between them still remain to be found. The main distinguishing feature is the lack of stereotypic interests and unimpaired social interaction observed in children with speech disorders, such as semantic-pragmatic disorder.

  6. Caracterization of the motor profile of students with autistic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Matiko Okuda

    2010-01-01

    Thematic focus: The motor abnormalities may be part of so-called comorbidities that can coexist with autistic disorder. Objective: To characterize the motor profile of students with autistic disorder. Method: the study included six children with autistic disorder in elementary school, male, aged 5 years and 5 months and 10 years and 9 months. After signing the consent form by parents or guardians, the students were submitted to the Motor Development Scale for assessment of fine motor, gross m...

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...

  8. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient and Visual Search: Shallow and Deep Autistic Endophenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, B. L.; Plaisted-Grant, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    A high Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score (Baron-Cohen et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord" 31(1):5-17, 2001) is increasingly used as a proxy in empirical studies of perceptual mechanisms in autism. Several investigations have assessed perception in non-autistic people measured for AQ, claiming the same relationship exists between…

  9. The savant syndrome and autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffert, D A

    1999-12-01

    Savant syndrome, characterized by remarkable islands of mental ability in otherwise mentally handicapped persons, may occur in autistic as well as nonautistic individuals. Overall, approximately 10% of autistic persons exhibit savant abilities; roughly 50% of those with savant syndrome have autism, and the remaining 50% have other forms of developmental disability. Most commonly, savant syndrome takes the form of extraordinary musical abilities, but may also include calendar-calculation, artistic, mathematical, spatial, mechanical, and memory skills. While savant syndrome was first described more than a century ago, only recently have researchers begun to employ a more uniform nomenclature and more standardized testing in an effort to compare the abilities of savants with those of normal persons. Males show signs of savant syndrome approximately four times more often than females. Along with imaging study findings, this fact suggests the presence of a developmental disorder involving left-brain damage with right-brain compensation.

  10. Audio Linguistic Disorders in Autistic Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore auditory function abnormalities and language disorder in autistic children. Twelve children with criteria of infantile autism were tested using Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA), Immitancemetry, Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission Test (TEOAE), Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR), Standardized Arabic Test of Early Language Development (for both receptive and expressive language). For comparison twlive normal children were chosen as control group. Statistically significant increase in hearing threshold level for the autistic children at low frequency region 250, 500 and 1000 Hz, significant reduction of the amplitude of TEOAE test and significant increase in wave I and V latency and I-V inter-peak latency at both RR 21.2 and 51.2 msec when compared to the control group. A positive correlation was found in this study between the changes in ABR latency and the severity of verbal disability. These resuts leed to the conclusion that Auditory dysfunction in autistic children can be verified through the presence of cochlear involvement and a delay in the brain stem transmission time in those patients. Disturbed verbal communication can be due to dysfunction in the auditory processing mechanisms

  11. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient and Visual Search: Shallow and Deep Autistic Endophenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, B L; Plaisted-Grant, K C

    2016-05-01

    A high Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score (Baron-Cohen et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 31(1):5-17, 2001) is increasingly used as a proxy in empirical studies of perceptual mechanisms in autism. Several investigations have assessed perception in non-autistic people measured for AQ, claiming the same relationship exists between performance on perceptual tasks in high-AQ individuals as observed in autism. We question whether the similarity in performance by high-AQ individuals and autistics reflects the same underlying perceptual cause in the context of two visual search tasks administered to a large sample of typical individuals assessed for AQ. Our results indicate otherwise and that deploying the AQ as a proxy for autism introduces unsubstantiated assumptions about high-AQ individuals, the endophenotypes they express, and their relationship to Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) individuals. PMID:24077740

  12. Autistic-like traits in adult patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Matsuo

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and whether such an association is independent of symptom severity. The subjects were 290 adults of normal intelligence between 25 and 59 years of age (MDD, n=125; bipolar disorder, n=56; schizophrenia, n=44; healthy controls, n=65. Autistic-like traits/symptoms were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults. Symptom severity was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and/or the Young Mania Rating Scale. Almost half of the clinical subjects, except those with remitted MDD, exhibited autistic-like traits/symptoms at levels typical for sub-threshold or threshold autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the proportion of psychiatric patients that demonstrated high autistic-like traits/symptoms was significantly greater than that of healthy controls, and not different between that of remitted or unremitted subjects with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. On the other hand, remitted subjects with MDD did not differ from healthy controls with regard to the prevalence or degree of high autistic-like traits/symptoms. A substantial proportion of adults with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed high autistic-like traits/symptoms independent of symptom severity, suggesting a shared pathophysiology among autism spectrum disorder and these psychiatric disorders. Conversely, autistic-like traits among subjects with MDD were associated with the depressive symptom severity. These findings suggest the

  13. Autistic-like traits in adult patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Junko; Kamio, Yoko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ota, Miho; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Nagashima, Anna; Takei, Reiko; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Motohashi, Nobutaka; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and whether such an association is independent of symptom severity. The subjects were 290 adults of normal intelligence between 25 and 59 years of age (MDD, n=125; bipolar disorder, n=56; schizophrenia, n=44; healthy controls, n=65). Autistic-like traits/symptoms were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults. Symptom severity was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and/or the Young Mania Rating Scale. Almost half of the clinical subjects, except those with remitted MDD, exhibited autistic-like traits/symptoms at levels typical for sub-threshold or threshold autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the proportion of psychiatric patients that demonstrated high autistic-like traits/symptoms was significantly greater than that of healthy controls, and not different between that of remitted or unremitted subjects with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. On the other hand, remitted subjects with MDD did not differ from healthy controls with regard to the prevalence or degree of high autistic-like traits/symptoms. A substantial proportion of adults with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed high autistic-like traits/symptoms independent of symptom severity, suggesting a shared pathophysiology among autism spectrum disorder and these psychiatric disorders. Conversely, autistic-like traits among subjects with MDD were associated with the depressive symptom severity. These findings suggest the importance of

  14. "I'm thrilled that you see that": guiding parents to see success in interactions with children with deafness and autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilnick, Alison; James, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Children with deafness who are also on the autistic spectrum are a group with complex support needs. Carers worry about their ability to communicate with them, and are often uncertain about what constitutes 'good' communication in this context. This paper analyses the use of a therapeutic intervention, Video Interaction Guidance (VIG), which originates in developmental psychology and focuses on the relational foundations of communication. We draw on a single case using an ethnomethodological/conversation analytic framework, and in particular Goodwin's (1994) work on 'professional vision', to show how the ability to see 'success' is a socially situated activity. Since what counts as success in this setting is often far removed from everyday ideas of good communication, how guiders facilitate particular 'ways of seeing' are critical for both the support of carers and the impact of the intervention. We argue that this work has implications in three areas: for the practice of VIG itself; for the role of qualitative, interactional research addressing the way in which interaction-based interventions are protocolised, enacted and assessed; and for the way in which expertise is conceptualised in professional/client interactions in health and social care. PMID:24355475

  15. “I'm thrilled that you see that”: Guiding parents to see success in interactions with children with deafness and autistic spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilnick, Alison; James, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Children with deafness who are also on the autistic spectrum are a group with complex support needs. Carers worry about their ability to communicate with them, and are often uncertain about what constitutes ‘good’ communication in this context. This paper analyses the use of a therapeutic intervention, Video Interaction Guidance (VIG), which originates in developmental psychology and focuses on the relational foundations of communication. We draw on a single case using an ethnomethodological/conversation analytic framework, and in particular Goodwin's (1994) work on ‘professional vision’, to show how the ability to see ‘success’ is a socially situated activity. Since what counts as success in this setting is often far removed from everyday ideas of good communication, how guiders facilitate particular ‘ways of seeing’ are critical for both the support of carers and the impact of the intervention. We argue that this work has implications in three areas: for the practice of VIG itself; for the role of qualitative, interactional research addressing the way in which interaction-based interventions are protocolised, enacted and assessed; and for the way in which expertise is conceptualised in professional/client interactions in health and social care. PMID:24355475

  16. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic…

  17. Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: Implications for environmental toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To address a possible environmental contribution to autism, we carried out a retrospective study on urinary porphyrin levels, a biomarker of environmental toxicity, in 269 children with neurodevelopmental and related disorders referred to a Paris clinic (2002-2004), including 106 with autistic disorder. Urinary porphyrin levels determined by high-performance liquid chromatography were compared between diagnostic groups including internal and external control groups. Coproporphyrin levels were elevated in children with autistic disorder relative to control groups. Elevation was maintained on normalization for age or to a control heme pathway metabolite (uroporphyrin) in the same samples. The elevation was significant (P < 0.001). Porphyrin levels were unchanged in Asperger's disorder, distinguishing it from autistic disorder. The atypical molecule precoproporphyrin, a specific indicator of heavy metal toxicity, was also elevated in autistic disorder (P < 0.001) but not significantly in Asperger's. A subgroup with autistic disorder was treated with oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) with a view to heavy metal removal. Following DMSA there was a significant (P = 0.002) drop in urinary porphyrin excretion. These data implicate environmental toxicity in childhood autistic disorder

  18. Does Gender Matter? A One Year Follow-Up of Autistic, Attention and Anxiety Symptoms in High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Tamara; Cornish, Kim; Rinehart, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Gender differences in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms and associated problem behaviours over development may provide clues regarding why more males than females are diagnosed with ASD. Fifty-six high-functioning children with ASD, and 44 typically developing controls, half of the participants female, were assessed at baseline (aged…

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout a person's life. ... be known as Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorders. It is called a "spectrum" disorder because people ...

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4:1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and 4 Iranian databases (IranPsych,IranMedex, Irandoc and Scientific Information Database (SID to find Iranian studies on  ASDs. The results of 39 investigations, comprising original, review and editorial articles; proceedings; and available dissertations were categorized by prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.ConclusionSeveral preliminary investigations have been done to evaluate the prevalence of ASDs, and risk factors and effective variables have been studied with regard to etiology. The diagnostic evaluation of ASDs, especially based on EEG, and several pharmacological and behavioral interventions for ASD have been implemented in Iran. Mental health, stress levels, and personality characteristics were examined in the parents of children with ASDs, which were focused on mothers.ReferencesFirst MB, Frances A, Pincus HA. DSM-IV-TR: Handbook of differential diagnosis. United States of America:American Psychiatric Publishing; 2002.Parker S, Zuckerman B, Augustyn M. Developmental and behavioral pediatrics, 2 th ed. United States of America:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.Howlin P. Autism and Asperger syndrome, 2 th ed. United States of America: Routledge; 2005.Mohammadi MR, Akhondzadeh S. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Etiology and Pharmacotherapy. Curr Drug ther2007; 2: 97-103.Newschaffer CJ, Croen LA, Daniels J, Giarelli E, GretherJK, Levy SE, et al. The epidemiology of autism spectrumdisorders. Annu Rev Public Health

  1. ON DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS BETWEEN AUTISTIC DISORDER AND ASPERGER’S SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Todorov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis between Autistic disorder (AD and Asperger’s syndrome (AS in most cases is quite difficult since most of the symptoms are clinically undistinguished. Several factors complicate the diagnosis of AS- an autism spectrum disorder (ASD. It is considered by some authors to be simply a milder version of autistic disorder. Problems in diagnosis include disagreement among diagnostic criteria, controversy over the distinction between AS and other ASD forms or even whether AS exists as a separate syndrome, and over- and under-diagnosis. Our paper is based on the diagnostic and differential diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV, ICD-10 and our clinical experience.In the process of diagnosis and differential diagnosis we, naturally, illustrate and discuss the similarities and differences between the two disorders.

  2. [Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercadante, M.T.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Schwartzman, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative

  3. Caracterization of the motor profile of students with autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Matiko Okuda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Thematic focus: The motor abnormalities may be part of so-called comorbidities that can coexist with autistic disorder. Objective: To characterize the motor profile of students with autistic disorder. Method: the study included six children with autistic disorder in elementary school, male, aged 5 years and 5 months and 10 years and 9 months. After signing the consent form by parents or guardians, the students were submitted to the Motor Development Scale for assessment of fine motor, gross motor performance, balance, body scheme, spatial organization, temporal organization and laterality. Results: The results revealed a significant difference between the motor age and chronological age. According to the classification of the Scale of Motor Development, students in this study showed motor development lower than expected for age. Conclusion: The students with autistic disorder in this study presented a profile of Developmental Coordination Disorder in comorbidity, showing that participants of this research presented difficulties in activities that required skills such as handwriting. Thus, motor and psychomotor needs of these students were focused on educational and clinical environment to reduce the impact of behavioral and social manifestations.

  4. Alunos com distúrbios do espectro autístico em interação com professores na educação inclusiva: descrição de habilidades pragmáticas Students with autistic spectrum disorders in the interaction with teachers in inclusive education: description of pragmatic skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar as habilidades pragmáticas de alunos com distúrbios do espectro autístico durante a interação com suas professoras em salas comuns de escolas públicas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 14 alunos com distúrbios do espectro autístico, de ambos os gêneros, com idade entre três e oito anos (média=5,9; DP=1,8. Como parte do procedimento, foram realizadas filmagens em situações de sala de aula e para análise dos aspectos pragmáticos da comunicação dos participantes, foi utilizado o Protocolo de Pragmática. Os resultados foram tratados estatisticamente (pPURPOSE: To investigate the pragmatic skills of students with autistic spectrum disorders during interaction with their teachers, in regular classrooms of public schools. METHODS: Fourteen students with autistic spectrum disorders, both male and female, with ages between three and eight years (mean=5.9; SD=1.8, participated in the study. As part of the procedure, classroom situations were filmed for the analysis of the children's pragmatic aspects of communication, using the Pragmatic Protocol. Data were statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon, Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Spearman tests, with a significance level of p<0.05 and, in some cases, p<0.01. RESULTS: In average, the number of communicative acts expressed per minute by the teachers (3.4 acts/minute was superior (p<0.05 to the number presented by the students with autistic spectrum disorders (2.7 acts/minute. The students demonstrated prevalence in the use of the gestural communication mean, with an average of 36.2 occurrences, and of less interactive communicative functions, with an average of 24.1 occurrences. Moreover, there was positive correlation between students' and teachers' acts/minute (p=0.01. It was also observed that age and level of education did not present correlations with communication establishment in the dyads. CONCLUSION: It was possible to identify deficits and abilities of students with

  5. Identification of Four Novel Synonymous Substitutions in the X-Linked Genes Neuroligin 3 and Neuroligin 4X in Japanese Patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

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    Kumiko Yanagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the X-linked genes neuroligin 3 (NLGN3 and neuroligin 4X (NLGN4X were first implicated in the pathogenesis of X-linked autism in Swedish families. However, reports of mutations in these genes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients from various ethnic backgrounds present conflicting results regarding the etiology of ASD, possibly because of genetic heterogeneity and/or differences in their ethnic background. Additional mutation screening study on another ethnic background could help to clarify the relevance of the genes to ASD. We scanned the entire coding regions of NLGN3 and NLGN4X in 62 Japanese patients with ASD by polymerase chain reaction-high-resolution melting curve and direct sequencing analyses. Four synonymous substitutions, one in NLGN3 and three in NLGN4X, were identified in four of the 62 patients. These substitutions were not present in 278 control X-chromosomes from unrelated Japanese individuals and were not registered in the database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms build 132 or in the Japanese Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms database, indicating that they were novel and specific to ASD. Though further analysis is necessary to determine the physiological and clinical importance of such substitutions, the possibility of the relevance of both synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions with the etiology of ASD should be considered.

  6. Long-term oxytocin administration improves social behaviors in a girl with autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosaka Hirotaka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs exhibit core autistic symptoms including social impairments from early childhood and mostly show secondary disabilities such as irritability and aggressive behavior based on core symptoms. However, there are still no radical treatments of social impairments in these patients. Oxytocin has been reported to play important roles in multiple social behaviors dependent on social recognition, and has been expected as one of the effective treatments of social impairments of patients with ASDs. Case presentation We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with autistic disorder who treated by long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray. Her autistic symptoms were successfully treated by two month administration; the girl’s social interactions and social communication began to improve without adverse effects. Her irritability and aggressive behavior also improved dramatically with marked decreases in aberrant behavior checklist scores from 69 to 7. Conclusion This case is the first to illustrate long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray in the targeted treatment of social impairments in a female with autistic disorder. This case suggests that long-term nasal oxytocin spray is promising and well-tolerated for treatment of social impairments of patients with ASDs.

  7. Computational Approach To Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Włodzisław Duch; Wiesław Nowak; Jaroslaw Meller; Grzegorz Osiński; Krzysztof Dobosz; Dariusz Mikołajewski; Grzegorz Marcin Wójcik

    2012-01-01

    Every year the prevalence of Autism Spectrum of Disorders (ASD) is rising. Is there a unifying mechanism of various ASD cases at the genetic, molecular, cellular or systems level? The hypothesis advanced in this paper is focused on neural dysfunctions that lead to problems with attention in autistic people. Simulations of attractor neural networks performing cognitive functions help to assess system long-term neurodynamics. The Fuzzy Symbolic Dynamics (FSD) technique is used for the visualiza...

  8. Cultural Basis of Social "Deficits" in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepa, Prithvi

    2014-01-01

    There is very little research that specifically looks at how autism spectrum disorders are perceived in various communities. This qualitative research was conducted with parents who had children on the autistic spectrum belonging to four different ethnic communities (White British, Somali, West African and South Asian--63 in total) and living in…

  9. Sleep Disturbances and Correlates of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianchen; Hubbard, Julie A.; Fabes, Richard A.; Adam, James B.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sleep patterns, sleep problems, and their correlates in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Subjects consisted of 167 ASD children, including 108 with autistic disorder, 27 with Asperger's syndrome, and 32 with other diagnoses of ASD. Mean age was 8.8 years (SD = 4.2), 86% were boys. Parents completed a…

  10. Otitis and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Zambrano-Enriquez, Diana; de Anta, Laura; Zelmanova, Julie; De Dios Vega, Jose Luis; Lopez-Ibor, Juan Jose

    2010-01-01

    The case of a 5-year-old child diagnosed as having pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), autistic type, from age 1 is reported. After surgery of vegetation in middle ear for repetitive otitis, the child presented an improvement in autistic behaviours, previously expressed as impaired social interactions, qualitative abnormalities in communication, a marked delay in language development, echolalia, stereotypies and self-aggressive behaviours. The aim of this paper is to bring attention to oc...

  11. Catatonia in Autistic Disorder: A Sign of Comorbidity or Variable Expression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, George M.; August, Gerald J.

    1991-01-01

    Case studies are presented of three autistic adolescents who exhibited catatonia, and it is concluded that catatonia may be a sign of a comorbid condition (such as bipolar disorder) in autistic individuals. Autistic individuals with various other psychiatric, neurological, medical, and drug-related conditions may be at greater risk for catatonic…

  12. [Autism Spectrum Disorder and DSM-5: Spectrum or Cluster?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Xaver; Freiberger, Verena; Greulich, Heide; Blank, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Within the new DSM-5, the currently differentiated subgroups of "Autistic Disorder" (299.0), "Asperger's Disorder" (299.80) and "Pervasive Developmental Disorder" (299.80) are replaced by the more general "Autism Spectrum Disorder". With regard to a patient-oriented and expedient advising therapy planning, however, the issue of an empirically reproducible and clinically feasible differentiation into subgroups must still be raised. Based on two Autism-rating-scales (ASDS and FSK), an exploratory two-step cluster analysis was conducted with N=103 children (age: 5-18) seen in our social-pediatric health care centre to examine potentially autistic symptoms. In the two-cluster solution of both rating scales, mainly the problems in social communication grouped the children into a cluster "with communication problems" (51 % and 41 %), and a cluster "without communication problems". Within the three-cluster solution of the ASDS, sensory hypersensitivity, cleaving to routines and social-communicative problems generated an "autistic" subgroup (22%). The children of the second cluster ("communication problems", 35%) were only described by social-communicative problems, and the third group did not show any problems (38%). In the three-cluster solution of the FSK, the "autistic cluster" of the two-cluster solution differentiated in a subgroup with mainly social-communicative problems (cluster 1) and a second subgroup described by restrictive, repetitive behavior. The different cluster solutions will be discussed with a view to the new DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, for following studies a further specification of some of the ASDS and FSK items could be helpful. PMID:26289149

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  14. Management of children with autism spectrum disorder in the dental setting : Concerns, behavioural approaches and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, Konstantina; Reichart, Peter A.; Bornstein, Michael M.; Livas, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This article reviews the present literature on the issues encountered while coping with children with autistic spectrum disorder from the dental perspective. The autistic patient profile and external factors affecting the oral health status of this patient population are discussed upon t

  15. Clinical trials of fatty acid treatment in ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and the autistic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A J

    2004-04-01

    Considerable clinical and experimental evidence now supports the idea that deficiencies or imbalances in certain highly unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to a range of common developmental disorders including ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Definitive evidence of a causal contribution, however, can only come from intervention studies in the form of randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Published studies of this kind are still fairly few in number, and mainly involve the diagnostic categories of ADHD and dyslexia, although other trials involving individuals with dyspraxia or ASD are in progress. The main findings to date from such studies are reviewed and evaluated here with the primary aim of guiding future research, although given that fatty acid supplementation for these conditions is already being adopted in many quarters, it is hoped that some of the information provided may also help to inform clinical practice. PMID:15041031

  16. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to…

  17. 自闭症谱系儿童驭物动作模仿能力的试验研究%The research on imitation of action involved objects in children with autistic spectrum disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光华; 方俊明

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨自闭症谱系儿童的驭物动作模仿缺陷特点.方法 采用不同呈现时间、不同动作数量和不同动作意义的条件下进行的驭物动作模仿任务,对12名自闭症谱系儿童、与年龄和非语言智商匹配的聋童(n=12),年龄和语言智商匹配的弱智儿童(n=12)的2个对照组进行测试,使用SPSS 10.0分析测试结果 .结果 3组被试的驭物模仿成绩呈现出显著统计意义差异(F(2.33)=10.138,P<0.01);自闭症谱系儿童的模仿成绩最差[(0.766±0.029)分],显著落后于弱智儿童[(0.861±0.029)分],更落后于聋童[(0.949±0.029)分].这一驭物动作模仿缺陷主要体现在延迟模仿和无意义动作模仿成绩方面.结论 自闭症谱系儿童具有明显的驭物动作模仿缺陷.%Objective To explore the characteristics of deficit in action imitation upon objects for the children with autistic spectrum disorder(ASD). Methods Imitative tasks involved objects under the condition of different time after the modelling action ,different action number, different action meaning were used to examine the variations between 12 young children with ASD,and with deaf children(D) matched with the non-verbal IQ and CA( n= 12) ,and children with mental retardation (MR) matched with verbal IQ and CA( n= 12). Results Analyses of repeated ANOVA revealed that: there were significant main effect on the imitation of action involved objects within three subjects(F(2.33) = 10. 138, P<0.01 ) ;the individuals with ASD achieved lower scores(0.766 ±0.029 ) than the children with MR (0.861 ± 0. 029 ), and the children with deaf significantly ( 0. 949 ± 0. 029). Especially,the autistic imitation deficit was shown on tasks of deferred and meaningless action imitation. Conclusion Children with ASD show deficit on imitation involved objects significantly.

  18. Self-reported social skills impairment explains elevated autistic traits in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Natasha A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Fernandez, Katya C; Lim, Michelle H

    2016-03-01

    Screening for autism in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) is complicated by symptom overlap between GSAD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of self-reported autistic traits within a sample of participants with a diagnosis of GSAD (n=37) compared to individuals without a GSAD diagnosis (NOSAD; n=26). Of the GSAD sample participants, 70.84% self-reported autistic traits above a cut-off of 65 on the Autism Quotient-Short (AQ-S) and reported significantly more autistic traits on 3 of 5 AQ-S subscales compared to the NOSAD group. Diagnosis uniquely predicted variation in the social skills subscale above and beyond the other subscales and other predictors. Furthermore, variation in the social skills subscale largely explained group differences on the other subscales. Our results suggest caution in utilizing measures like the AQ-S with clinical populations characterized by social difficulties such as individuals with a GSAD diagnosis.

  19. Phonological and Visuospatial Working Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, P; Soriano, M F; Paredes, N

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated phonological and visuospatial working memory (WM) in autism spectrum disorders. Autistic children and typically developing children were compared. We used WM tasks that measured phonological and visuospatial WM up to the capacity limit of each children. Overall measures of WM did not show differences between autistic children and control children. However, when the recall of children was examined in detail, autistic children showed reduced phonological WM compared with control children. Moreover, phonological and visuospatial WM did not increase with the age of autistic children while a development of phonological and visuospatial WM with age was found in control children. The pattern of results is discussed in terms of previous studies about WM and autism. PMID:27314268

  20. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-03-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic traits. Seven studies were identified and subsequent meta-analysis indicated that those with AN appear to have significant difficulties of a manner characteristic of ASD, relative to controls. Whilst this analysis supports previous indications of higher prevalence of ASD in AN, the aetiology of these traits remains unclear. Studies using more robust clinical measures of ASD within AN are needed to confirm what self-report measures appear to show.

  1. Is fever a predictive factor in the autism spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megremi, Amalia S F

    2013-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display such a marked increase in recent decades that researchers speak of "epidemic outbreak" of the disease. Although the diagnostic framework has been expanded and thus more disorders now fall within the autistic spectrum, no one disputes the increased incidence of autism in modern societies, making it a major public health problem. On the other hand, heterogeneity is a major feature of the disorder, both in terms of the etiopathogenesis as well as to the phenotypic expression, natural history and evolution. Consequently, there is considerable research interest in determining factors which are etiopathogenetically, prognostically, preventively or/and therapeutically associated with the disorder. Literature data indicate that probably there are differences in susceptibility to various infections between normal and autistic children. In addition, some autistic children show improvement in the characteristics of their autistic behavior during febrile incident and repression of fever (through antipyretics) might be associated with the onset of autistic disorder. Since fever has been associated with mental illness since the time of Hippocrates already and the presence of fever is associated with a favorable outcome in various pathologic conditions, it is assumed that there are probably two subgroups of autistic children: those who have the possibility to develop acute febrile incidents and those who develop acute incidents without fever. If this is the case, it is important to know whether there are differences between the two subgroups in various biological markers (cytokines/chemokines, autoantibodies), neuroimaging findings, personal and family history of these children (use of drugs, vaccinations, history of autoimmunity, etc.) and, if the first subgroup consists of autistic people of higher functionality and better outcome, or not. If such a classification is real, is there a possibility for the fever to be used as a predictor of

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such as trouble with Learning and remembering Understanding and following directions Controlling emotions Communicating and socializing Daily life skills, such as ...

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental ... key findings. About Us Overview of CDC’s work. Autism: What's New New Data on Autism: Five Facts ...

  4. Neurofeedback Improves Executive Functioning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Congedo, Marco; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children's heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation over sessions. Following treatment, children's…

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available objectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This articlereviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and 4 Iranian databases (IranPsych,IranMedex, Irandoc and Scientific Information Database (SID to find Iranian studies on ASDs. The results of 39 investigations, comprising original, reviewand editorial articles; proceedings; and available dissertations were categorized by prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.ConclusionSeveral preliminary investigations have been done to evaluate the prevalence of ASDs, and risk factors and effective variables have been studied with regard to etiology. The diagnostic evaluation of ASDs, especially based on EEG, and several pharmacological and behavioral interventions for ASD have been implemented in Iran. Mental health, stress levels, and personality characteristics were examined in the parents of children with ASDs, which were focused on mothers.

  6. Transition from Pervasive Developmental Disorders to Autism Spectrum Disorder: Proposed Changes for the Upcoming DSM-5

    OpenAIRE

    Banu Tortamis Ozkaya

    2013-01-01

    American Psychiatry Assosiation has scheduled to release The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) in May 2013. According to the main changes being proposed about autism, there will be one unified Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5 classification. This unified diagnosis will eliminate the distinct diagnostic categories under Pervasive Developmental Disorders in the DSM-IV-TR, namely autistic disorder, asperger syndrome, pervasive development...

  7. Agreement in Multi-Informant Assessment of Behaviour and Emotional Problems and Social Functioning in Adolescents with Autistic and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Matthew I.; Gray, Kylie M.; Taffe, John R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of evidence concerning the patterns of multi-informant agreement in populations with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study compared ratings of behaviour and emotional problems and social functioning provided by 45 adolescents aged 12-18 years, with Autistic or Asperger's Disorder with ratings by their parents and teachers.…

  8. Heritability of autistic traits in the general population.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, R A; Bartels, M.; Verweij, C.J.H.; Boomsma, D I

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent research has indicated that autism is not a discrete disorder and that family members of autistic probands have an increased likelihood of exhibiting autistic symptoms with a wide range of severity, often below the threshold for a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder. Objective To examine the distribution and genetic structure of autistic traits in the general population using a newly established quantitative measure of autistic traits, the Social Responsiveness S...

  9. Acupuncture for Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Ming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There has been lack of reviews of evidence on efficacy, methodology, and/or safety of acupuncture in autism spectrum disorders. This paper examines the emerging evidence of the effects of acupuncture in the treatment of autistic children. Method. A literature review was completed via Medline and three Chinese search engines. A total of 31 studies were evaluated for acupuncture methodology, study design, treatment effects, and tolerability. Results. The acupoints used, the duration of needling, the frequency of treatment, the choice of stimulation, and the course of the treatment were highly variable amongst the studies. Behavioral and/or developmental improvements were reported in all acupuncture treatment studies. All studies reported general tolerability. Weakness of experimental designs was discussed. Conclusions. Vigorously controlled double-blinded clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in children with autism spectrum disorders.

  10. Neurotensin is increased in serum of young children with autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelidou Asimenia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed in early childhood. They are associated with a set of "core symptoms" that include disabilities in social interaction skills, verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. There is no definite pathogenetic mechanism or diagnostic tests. Many children with ASD also have "allergic-like" symptoms, but test negative implying mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. We measured by Milliplex arrays serum levels of 3 neuropeptides that could stimulate mast cells in children with autistic disorder (n = 19; 16 males and 3 females; mean age 3.0 ± 0.4 years and healthy, unrelated controls (n = 16; 13 males and 3 females; mean age 3 ± 1.2 years. Only neurotensin (NT was significantly increased from 60.5 ± 6.0 pg/ml in controls to 105.6 ± 12.4 pg/ml in autistic disorder (p = 0.004. There was no statistically significant difference in the serum levels of β-endorphin or substance P (SP. NT could stimulate immune cells, especially mast cells, and/or have direct effects on brain inflammation and ASD.

  11. AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (ASD)

    OpenAIRE

    Middha Akanksha; Kataria Sahil; Sandhu Premjeet; Kapoor Bhawna

    2011-01-01

    Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a serious neurological disorder affecting communication skills, social interactions, adaptability in an individual, and also causes dramatic changes in behavioral patterns. This condition typically lasts throughout one’s lifetime and affects both, children as well as adults. Research has shown a tenfold increase in autism cases over the past decade and still rising at an alarming pace. The origins of autism are not known even to modern science. Aut...

  12. Coexisting Disorders and Problems in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Höglund Carlsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To analyze cooccurring disorders and problems in a representative group of 198 preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD who had had interventions at a specialized habilitation center. Methods. Parents and children were seen by a research team. Data were based on parental interviews, pediatric assessments, and tests of the child. Information on autistic symptoms, general cognitive function, speech and language, motor function, epilepsy, vision, hearing, activity level, behavior, and sleep was collected. Results. Three ASD categories were used: (1 autistic disorder (AD, (2 autistic-like condition (ALC or Asperger syndrome, and (3 one group with autistic symptoms/traits but not entirely all its criteria met for ASD. Children with autism had a mean of 3.2 coexisting disorders or problems, the ALC/Asperger group had a mean of 1.6, and children with autistic traits had a mean of 1.6. The most common disorder/problems in the total group pertained to language problems (78%, intellectual disability (ID (49%, below average motor function (37%, and severe hyperactivity/ADHD (33%. Conclusions. The results accord with the concept of early symptomatic syndromes eliciting neurodevelopmental clinical examination (ESSENCE, and highlight the need of considering ASD in a broad perspective taking also other cooccurring developmental disorders into account.

  13. Molecular genetics and animal models in autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Autistic disorder is a behavioural syndrome beginning before the age of 3 years and lasting over the whole lifetime. It is characterised by impaired communication, impaired social interactions, and repetitive interests and behaviour. The prevalence is about 7/10,000 taking a restrictive definition and more than 1/500 with a broader definition, including all the pervasive developmental disorders. The importance of genetic factors has been highlighted by epidemiological studies showing that autistic disorder is one of the most genetic neuropsychiatric diseases. The relative risk of first relatives is about 100-fold higher than the risk in the normal population and the concordance in monozygotic twin is about 60%. Different strategies have been applied on the track of susceptibility genes. The systematic search of linked loci led to contradictory results, in part due to the heterogeneity of the clinical definitions, to the differences in the DNA markers, and to the different methods of analysis used. An oversimplification of the inferred model is probably also cause of our disappointment. More work is necessary to give a clearer picture. One region emerges more frequently: the long arm of chromosome 7. Several candidate genes have been studied and some gave indications of association: the Reelin gene and the Wnt2 gene. Cytogenetical abnormalities are frequent at 15q11-13, the region of the Angelman and Prader-Willi syndrome. Imprinting plays an important role in this region, no candidate gene has been identified in autism. Biochemical abnormalities have been found in the serotonin system. Association and linkage studies gave no consistent results with some serotonin receptors and in the transporter, although it seems interesting to go further in the biochemical characterisation of the serotonin transporter activity, particularly in platelets, easily accessible. Two monogenic diseases have been associated with autistic disorder: tuberous sclerosis and fragile X. A

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-02

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.  Created: 4/2/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 4/2/2014.

  15. Comparative analysis of autistic traits and behavioral disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome and Asperger disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dae Kwang; Sawada, Masayuki; Yokota, Shingo; Kuroda, Kenji; Uenishi, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Hiroshi; Nagai, Toshiro; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neuro-genetic disorder caused by the absence/loss of expression of one or more paternally expressed genes on chromosome 15 (q11-13). In this study, a comparative analysis of intelligence level and autistic traits was conducted between children with PWS (n = 30; 18 males, 12 females; age = 10.6 ± 2.8 years) and those with Asperger disorder (AD; n = 31; 24 males, 7 females; age = 10.5 ± 3.1 years). The children were compared by age group: lower elementary school age (6-8 years), upper elementary school age (9-12 years), and middle school age (13-15 years). As results, the intelligence levels of children with PWS were significantly lower than those with AD across all age groups. Autistic traits, assessed using the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), revealed that among elementary school age children, those with PWS had less prominent autistic traits than those with AD, however, among middle school age children, those with PWS and AD showed similar prominence. An analysis of the PARS subscale scores by age group showed that while the profiles of autistic traits for children with PWS differed from those of children with AD at elementary school age, the profiles showed no significant differences between the groups at middle school age. The findings suggest that autistic traits in PWS become gradually more prominent with increasing of age and that these autistic traits differ in their fundamental nature from those observed in AD.

  16. Transverse myelitis spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandit Lekha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute transverse myelitis (ATM is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder that affects the spinal cord focally resulting in motor sensory and autonomic dysfunction. Establishing the diagnosis of ATM is not as difficult as determining the possible etiology. There is a difference in the perception of ATM seen in the West as compared to developing countries. In the West multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. An attack of ATM may be the beginning of MS. However, this may not be the case in developing countries where MS is uncommon. Most often transverse myelitis is monophasic and at best represents a site-restricted form of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM. Traditionally the combination of optic neuritis and ATM, occurring as a monophasic illness would have been called as neuromyelitis optica (NMO. Changing concepts in the definition of NMO and the discovery of a biomarker, neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin (NMO_IgG, has changed the way relapsing autoimmune disorders are being perceived currently. A variety of idiopathic inflammatory disorders such as Japanese form of optic spinal MS, recurrent myelitis, and recurrent optic neuritis have been brought under the umbrella of neuromyelitis spectrum disorders because of the association with NMO-IgG. Complete transverse myelitis accompanied by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis which is seronegative for this biomarker has also been reported from several countries including Japan, Australia, and India. Thus, ATM is a heterogeneous disorder with a varied clinical spectrum, etiology, and outcome.

  17. Disorders of regulation of cognitive activity in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrien, J L; Martineau, J; Barthélémy, C; Bruneau, N; Garreau, B; Sauvage, D

    1995-06-01

    Infantile autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by disturbances concerning not only the areas of socialization and communication ("aloneness") but also the ability to modify and change behavior ("need for sameness"). In most recent studies, various abnormal and deviant cognitive activities, such as the ability to regulate one's behavior, were considered as accounting for these signs. In this report, we examined the regulation of cognitive activity, from a developmental perspective in comparing autistic with mentally retarded children matched in a pairwise manner by global, verbal, and nonverbal developmental ages. All children were tested with tasks adapted from the Object Permanence Test which corresponds to Piaget's sensorimotor development Stages IV to VI. Results showed that autistic children had a pervasive difficulty in maintenance set, made more perseverative errors when the abstraction degree of task was higher, and were more variable in their behavioral strategies. Discussion is focused on the interests and limits of these tasks for the examination of regulation activity from diagnostic and developmental perspectives. Finally, interpretations about recent neuropsychological and neurophysiological works, and additional interdisciplinary studies are suggested. PMID:7559291

  18. Recent update of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Koo

    2015-01-01

    In patients with a language developmental delay, it is necessary to make a differential diagnosis for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), specific language impairment, and mental retardation. It is important that pediatricians recognize the signs and symptoms of ASDs, as many patients with language developmental delays are ultimately diagnosed with ASDs. Pediatricians play an important role in the early recognition of ASDs, because they are usually the first point of contact for children with ASDs. A revision of the diagnostic criteria of ASDs was proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) that was released in May 2013. The autism spectrum describes a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders in the fifth edition of the DSM. The new diagnostic criteria encompasses previous elements from the diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified. An additional change to the DSM includes synthesizing the section on social and communication deficits into one domain. In ASD patients, the appropriate behavioral therapies and rehabilitation treatments significantly affect the prognosis. Therefore, this makes early diagnosis and treatment very important. In conclusion, pediatricians need to be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of ASDs and be attentive to them in order to make an early diagnosis and provide treatment. PMID:25729393

  19. Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebel, Antony; Brams, Matthew; Goldman, Robert S; Silva, Robert; Hernandez, David; Deng, Ling; Mankoski, Raymond; Findling, Robert L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of lurasidone in treating irritability associated with autistic disorder. In this multicenter trial, outpatients age 6-17 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, and who demonstrated irritability, agitation, and/or self-injurious behaviors were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with lurasidone 20 mg/day (N = 50), 60 mg/day (N = 49), or placebo (N = 51). Efficacy measures included the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale (ABC-I, the primary endpoint) and the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement (CGI-I) scale, and were analyzed using a likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures. Least squares (LS) mean (standard error [SE]) improvement from baseline to Week 6 in the ABC-I was not significantly different for lurasidone 20 mg/day (-8.8 [1.5]) and lurasidone 60 mg/day (-9.4 [1.4]) versus placebo (-7.5 [1.5]; p = 0.55 and 0.36, respectively). CGI-I scores showed significantly greater LS mean [SE] improvement at Week 6 for lurasidone 20 mg/day versus placebo (2.8 [0.2] vs. 3.4 [0.2]; p = 0.035) but not for lurasidone 60 mg/day (3.1 [0.2]; p = 0.27). Discontinuation rates due to adverse events were: lurasidone 20 mg/day, 4.1%; 60 mg/day, 3.9%; and placebo, 8.2%. Adverse events with an incidence ≥10% (lurasidone combined, placebo) included vomiting (18.0, 4.1%) and somnolence (12.0, 4.1%). Modest changes were observed in weight and selected metabolic parameters. In this study, once-daily, fixed doses of 20 and 60 mg/day of lurasidone were not demonstrated to be efficacious compared to placebo for the short-term treatment of children and adolescents with moderate-to-severe irritability associated with autistic disorder.

  20. Withdrawal Study of Memantine in Pediatric Patients With Autism, Asperger's Disorder, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Previously Treated With Memantine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Autism; Autistic Disorder; Asperger's Disorder; Asperger's; Pediatric Autism; Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS); Pervasive Child Development Disorder

  1. Narrowly versus Broadly Defined Autism Spectrum Disorders: Differences in Pre-and Perinatal Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Janne C.; Rommelse, Nanda; Vink, Lianne; Schrieken, Margo; Oosterling, Iris J.; Gaag, Rutger J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the differential contribution of pre-and perinatal risks in narrowly versus broadly defined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and across core symptom domains, IQ and co-morbid problems. Children with a DSM-IV diagnosis of autistic disorder (AD) (n = 121) or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)…

  2. Melatonin in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Daniel A.; Frye, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate melatonin-related findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorders, not otherwise specified. Method: Comprehensive searches were conducted in the PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and ERIC…

  3. The Effect of Parenting Behaviors on Subsequent Child Behavior Problems in Autistic Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Lisa A.; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The current research explored the relationship between parenting behaviors in parents of children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) and subsequent child behavior problems. The sample consisted of 72 children (aged 5-16 years) and their parents, who were assessed over a period of 9-10 months. There was a relationship between parenting…

  4. How Sensory Experiences Affect Adolescents with an Autistic Spectrum Condition within the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Fiona E.; Stagg, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory processing difficulties are consistently reported amongst individuals with an autistic spectrum condition (ASC); these have a significant impact on daily functioning. Evidence in this area comes from observer reports and first-hand accounts; both have limitations. The current study used the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP; Brown and…

  5. Do the Traits of Autism-Spectrum Overlap with Those of Schizophrenia or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in the General Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Akio; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Ashwin, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Social and communicative deficits, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors are diagnostic features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study examined the relationship between autistic characteristics and schizophrenia-spectrum traits as well as between autistic characteristics and obsessive-compulsive traits in typically…

  6. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, Mrc Aims; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2016-02-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a 'whole brain' non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate--predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms. Overall these

  7. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to communication, behavior and interests of their child, which impact their quality of life. There were also differences between boys and girls.

  8. Atribuição de estados mentais no discurso de crianças do espectro autístico The attribution of mental states in the speech of children with autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyvia Christina Camarotto Battiston Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a atribuição de estados mentais no discurso de crianças pertencentes aos Distúrbios do Espectro Autístico e verificar a modificação no vocabulário e extensão frasal desses, após período de terapia fonoaudiológica. MÉTODOS: Foram colhidas amostras de fala da avaliação fonoaudiológica inicial, após seis meses e um ano de terapia fonoaudiológica, registradas nos prontuários de cinco crianças com autismo infantil e cinco com síndrome de Asperger para caracterização do desempenho verbal e da habilidade de atribuição de estados mentais de cada criança. Considerando-se apenas as emissões espontâneas, foram verificadas as palavras pertencentes às classes substantivo e verbo e classificadas como termos que referem estados físicos e mentais. A comparação entre os três momentos foi realizada por meio da avaliação da significância entre as medianas das amostras obtidas (teste da mediana, com diferença significativa ao nível de 10%. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se aumento no número de palavras emitidas e também no número de palavras por frase emitida entre os períodos de avaliação e após um ano de terapia fonoaudiológica para crianças com autismo infantil. Não foram encontradas diferenças para a atribuição de verbos de estados físicos e mentais e substantivos de estados mentais para ambos os grupos, sendo observada diminuição na emissão de substantivos de estados físicos no grupo autismo infantil. CONCLUSÃO: A atribuição de estados mentais aumentou após período de intervenção terapêutica fonoaudiológica, porém, sem diferença significativa, verificando-se aumento no comportamento verbal de crianças com autismo infantil.PURPOSE: To analyze the attribution of mental states in the speech of children within the Autistic Spectrum Disorders, and verify the modification in their vocabulary and phrasal extension, after a period of speech-language therapy. METHODS: Speech samples from the

  9. Plasma level of transforming growth factor β 1 in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek Mohamed El Gohary; Nahal Abd El Aziz; Mohamed Darweesh; Ebtihal Shukery Sadaa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by pervasive abnormalities in social interaction and communication, and repetitive and restricted behavioral patterns and interests. ASD include autistic disorder, Asperger’s disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specific and childhood disintegrative disorders. Objectives: To detect plasma level of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβl) in children with ASD and to fi...

  10. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms moderate cognition and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Sokoloff, Jennifer L.; Shook, Devon A.; James, Joette D.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that over 30% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) meet diagnostic criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and another 20% of children with ASD exhibit subthreshold clinical ADHD symptoms. Presence of ADHD symptoms in the context of ASD could have a variety of effects on cognition, autistic traits, and adaptive/maladaptive behaviors including: exacerbating core ASD impairments; adding unique impairments specific to ADHD; producing new...

  11. Neurofeedback improves executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kouijzer, Mirjam,; De Moor, Jan,; Gerrits, Berrie,; Congedo, Marco; Van Schie, Hein,

    2009-01-01

    International audience Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children's heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation over sessions. Following treatment, children's executive capacities were found to have improved greatly relative to pre-treatment assessment on a range of executive function ...

  12. Temporal Cognitive Disorders of Autistic Patients%孤独症患者的时间认知障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹; 黄希庭

    2003-01-01

    Besides cognitive disorders, such as disorders of learning, language, etc, the autistic patients generally have tempo-ral cognitive disorders as well, including disorders of sense of time, disorders of memory of time, disorders of temporal behaviour,and disorders of self - consistency. Researchers discussed the possible causes of the temporal cognitive disorders of autistic patients from various ways such as of physiology, heredity, and environment;whereas, there axe no generally accepted conclusions till now. Further researches axe still needed.

  13. Computational Approach To Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzisław Duch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year the prevalence of Autism Spectrum of Disorders (ASD is rising. Is there a unifying mechanism of various ASD cases at the genetic, molecular, cellular or systems level? The hypothesis advanced in this paper is focused on neural dysfunctions that lead to problems with attention in autistic people. Simulations of attractor neural networks performing cognitive functions help to assess system long-term neurodynamics. The Fuzzy Symbolic Dynamics (FSD technique is used for the visualization of attractors in the semantic layer of the neural model of reading. Large-scale simulations of brain structures characterized by a high order of complexity requires enormous computational power, especially if biologically motivated neuron models are used to investigate the influence of cellular structure dysfunctions on the network dynamics. Such simulations have to be implemented on computer clusters in a grid-based architectures

  14. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Do Not Help Support DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Janssen, Joost; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aims to determine whether or not structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data support the DSM-5 proposal of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic category, and whether or not classical DSM-IV autistic disorder (AD) and Asperger syndrome (AS) categories should be subsumed into it. The most replicated sMRI findings…

  15. Breastfeeding, infant formula supplementation, and Autistic Disorder: the results of a parent survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Stephen T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Autistic Disorder is associated with several congenital conditions, the cause for most cases is unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine whether breastfeeding or the use of infant formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid is associated with Autistic Disorder. The hypothesis is that breastfeeding and use of infant formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid are protective for Autistic Disorder. Methods This is a case-control study using data from the Autism Internet Research Survey, an online parental survey conducted from February to April 2005 with results for 861 children with Autistic Disorder and 123 control children. The analyses were performed using logistic regression. Results Absence of breastfeeding when compared to breastfeeding for more than six months was significantly associated with an increase in the odds of having autistic disorder when all cases were considered (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.42, 4.35 and after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.01, 3.78. Use of infant formula without docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid supplementation versus exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a significant increase in the odds of autistic disorder when all cases were considered (OR 4.41, 95% CI 1.24, 15.7 and after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 12.96, 95% CI 1.27, 132. Conclusion The results of this preliminary study indicate that children who were not breastfed or were fed infant formula without docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid supplementation were significantly more likely to have autistic disorder.

  16. Stoppage in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Therese Koops; Hansen, Stefan Nygaard; Nielsen, Svend V;

    2015-01-01

    of bias in sibling recurrence risk estimation. This study investigated whether stoppage occurs in Danish families with a firstborn child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, and if stoppage was differential. We found that stoppage occurs moderately in Danish families affected by autism spectrum...... disorders, and that stoppage is differential. However, differential stoppage is a minor source of estimation bias in Danish sibling recurrence risk studies of autism spectrum disorders....

  17. Channelopathy Pathogenesis in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina eSchmunk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting body of evidence implies a role of various ion channel gene defects (channelopathies in the pathogenesis of autism. Indeed, recent genome-wide association, and whole exome- and whole- genome resequencing studies linked polymorphisms and rare variants in calcium, sodium and potassium channels and their subunits with susceptibility to ASD, much as they do with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and animal models with these genetic variations recapitulate endophenotypes considered to be correlates of autistic behavior seen in patients. An ion flux across the membrane regulates a variety of cell functions, from generation of action potentials to gene expression and cell morphology, thus it is not surprising that channelopathies have profound effects on brain functions. In the present work, we summarize existing evidence for the role of ion channel gene defects in the pathogenesis of autism with a focus on calcium signaling and its downstream effects.

  18. Prodromal and autistic symptoms in schizotypal personality disorder and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterberg, Michelle L; Ousley, Opal Y; Cubells, Joseph F; Walker, Elaine F

    2013-02-01

    Despite clear diagnostic distinctions, schizophrenia and autism share symptoms on several dimensions. Recent research has suggested the two disorders overlap in etiology, particularly with respect to inherited and noninherited genetic factors. Studying the relationship between psychotic-like and autistic-like symptoms in risk groups such as 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) has the potential to shed light on such etiologic factors; thus, the current study examined prodromal symptoms and autistic features in samples of 22q11DS and SPD subjects using standardized diagnostic measures, including the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS) and the Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised (ADI-R). Results showed that SPD subjects manifested significantly more severe childhood and current social as well as stereotypic autistic features, as well as more severe positive prodromal symptoms. The two groups did not differ on negative, disorganized, or general prodromal symptoms, but were distinguishable based on correlations between prodromal and autistic features; the relationships between childhood autistic features and current prodromal symptoms were stronger for the SPD group. The results suggest that childhood autistic features are less continuous with subsequent prodromal signs in 22q11DS patients relative to those with SPD, and the findings highlight the importance of studying the overlap in diagnostic phenomenology in groups at risk for developing psychosis and/or autism.

  19. 早期孤独谱系障碍社区筛查量表的编制与信度、效度分析%Compiling of early autistic spectrum disorders screening scale for community and its reliability and validity analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓勉; 赵玮

    2012-01-01

    目的 编制适用于社区的简单、便利、灵敏度高的早期孤独谱系障碍筛查量表,并对该量表进行信度和效度分析.方法 以美国精神障碍诊断统计手册第四版(DSM-Ⅳ)的孤独症临床表现和诊断标准为基础,参考婴幼儿孤独症筛查量表(CHAT)、孤独症行为量表(ABC)、儿童孤独症评定量表(CARS)、孤独症诊断访谈量表(中文修订本)(ADI-R)等编制成早期孤独谱系障碍社区筛查量表(EASSC).在深圳市随机选取6~24月龄儿童9 860人作为筛查对象,对该量表进行信度、效度检验.结果 该量表各因子和总分的评定者信度分别为0.945、0.973、0.874、0.952、0.962;重测信度分别为0.936、0.910、0.925、0.853、0.949.该量表的分半信度为0.917.该量表和ABC量表间的校标关联效度为0.835.当分界值为9分时,该量表的灵敏度为0.912,特异度为0.898.结论 该量表具有较好的信度和效度,费时少,容易填写,适用于早期孤独谱系障碍的社区筛查,具有一定的推广使用价值.%Objective To work out an easy and convenient screening scale of early autistic spectrum disorders with high sensitivity used in community, and to explore its reliability and validity. Methods Based on clinical manifestations and diagnostic standards of autism in DSM-Ⅳ , and referring CHAT, ABC, CARS and ADI-R, early autistic spectrum disorders screening scale for community ( EASSC ) was worked out. In Shenzhen 9 860 infants aged 6-24 months were randomly selected as screening objects, and the reliability and validity of the scale were tested. Results The rater reliability of each factor and total score was 0. 945, 0. 973 , 0. 874, 0. 952 and 0. 962, respectively, and the re-test reliability was 0.936, 0. 910, 0. 925, 0. 853 and 0. 949, respectively. The split reliability was 0. 917. Criterion-related validity between the scale and ABC was 0. 835. The sensitivity and specificity were 0. 912 and 0. 898, respectively when the

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  1. [Differential diagnosis between Schizotypal Personality Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünver, Buket; Öner, Özgür; Yurtbaşı, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by social and interpersonal deficits marked by discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior. Inappropriate or constricted affect, reduced capacity for relationships, lack of close friends and reduced capacity for social life are the symptoms that overlap both schizotypal personality disorder and autism spectrum disorders. The making of differential diagnosis may be difficult since several symptoms are similar between these disorders. In this study, we discussed the differential diagnosis issues on the basis of an adolescent case. Odd appearance, magical thoughts, reference thoughts suggests Schizotypal Personality Disorder whereas lack of eye contact at 2 years old, a preference to be isolated and play alone and referral to a child psychiatrist at 4 years old suggest Autism Spectrum Disorders. Based on the results of psychological assessment, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) profile is compatible with autistic children's profiles. Based on Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the patient's anxiety, lack of close friends, constricted affect symptoms which take place in the category of interpersonal schizotypy seems to overlap with lack of communication of Autism Spectrum Disorders. This case report indicates that, separation of autism and schizophrenia, a very important historical breakthrough in autism research, may be blurred in cases with less typical clinical pictures representing autistic and schizophrenic "spectrum" diagnosis.

  2. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use, Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, and Autistic Disorder: The Results of a Parent Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T.; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Akshoomoff, Natacha A.; Macera, Caroline A.; Ji, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80…

  3. A Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose Study of Aripiprazole in Children and Adolescents with Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Ronald N.; Owen, Randall; Kamen, Lisa; Manos, George; McQuade, Robert D.; Carson, William H.; Aman, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Method: Two hundred eighteen children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) with a diagnosis of autistic disorder, and with behaviors such as tantrums, aggression, self-injurious behavior, or a…

  4. Mirror system based therapy for autism spectrum disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei CHEN; Jing ZHANG; Jun DING

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the present theories and empirical research of autisms' cognitive research and mir-ror systems and introduces a new hypothesis about the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD): autistic mir-ror neuron dysfunction hypothesis. ASD subjects show obvious lack of the activation of the mirror system during the task of observation or emotional cognition. It is sig-nificant to investigate the mirror system for revealing the causes of autism and it is also helpful for developing new ways to diagnose or treat this disorder.

  5. Aggression in low functioning children and adolescents with autistic disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Bronsard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parents, caregivers and mental health professionals have often reported violence and aggression in children or adolescents with autistic disorder. However, most of these observations derived from anecdotal reports, and studies on frequency and characterization of aggression in autism remain limited. Our objective was to better characterize and understand the different types of aggressive behaviors displayed by a large group of individuals with autism in different observational situations. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The study was conducted on 74 children and adolescents with autism and 115 typically developing control individuals matched for sex, age and pubertal stage. Other-Injurious Behaviors (OIB were assessed in three observational situations (parents at home, two caregivers at day-care, a nurse and a child psychiatrist during blood drawing using validated scales. The frequency of OIB was significantly higher in individuals with autism compared to typically developing control individuals during the blood drawing (23% vs. 0%, P<0 .01. The parents observed significantly less OIB in their children than caregivers (34% vs. 58%, P<0.05. In addition, the most frequent concurrent behaviors occurring just before the appearance of OIB in individuals with autism were anxiety-related behaviors and excitation according to the parental as well as the caregiver observation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that in a stressful situation, such as the blood drawing, individuals with autism release their stress through behaviors such as OIB, whereas typically developing individuals regulate and express their stress through cognitive skills such as mental coping strategies, symbolization skills with representation and anticipation of the stressful situation, social interaction and verbal or non-verbal communication. The findings underline also the key role of the environment in assessing OIB and developing therapeutic perspectives, with an

  6. Autism spectrum disorders – epidemiology, symptoms, comorbidity and diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Rybakowski,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the new classification of American Psychiatric Association – DSM-5 – a category of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD was introduced, which replaced autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. ASD are defined by two basic psychopathological dimensions: communication disturbances and stereotyped behaviors, and the diagnosis is complemented with the assessment of language development and intellectual level. In successive epidemiological studies conducted in 21 century the prevalence of ASD has been rising, and currently is estimated at 1% in general population. The lifetime psychiatric comorbidity is observed in majority of patients. The most common coexisting diagnoses comprise disorders of anxiety-affective spectrum, and in about 1/3 of patients attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorders could be diagnosed. Prodromal symptoms of ASD may emerge before 12 months of life, however reliability of diagnosis at such an early age is poor. Several screening instruments, based on the parental and/or healthcare professional assessments may be helpful in ASD detection. However, structured interviews and observation schedules remain the gold standard of diagnosis.

  7. Autistic disorders and schizophrenia: related or remote? An anatomical likelihood estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlton Cheung

    Full Text Available Shared genetic and environmental risk factors have been identified for autistic spectrum disorders (ASD and schizophrenia. Social interaction, communication, emotion processing, sensorimotor gating and executive function are disrupted in both, stimulating debate about whether these are related conditions. Brain imaging studies constitute an informative and expanding resource to determine whether brain structural phenotype of these disorders is distinct or overlapping. We aimed to synthesize existing datasets characterizing ASD and schizophrenia within a common framework, to quantify their structural similarities. In a novel modification of Anatomical Likelihood Estimation (ALE, 313 foci were extracted from 25 voxel-based studies comprising 660 participants (308 ASD, 352 first-episode schizophrenia and 801 controls. The results revealed that, compared to controls, lower grey matter volumes within limbic-striato-thalamic circuitry were common to ASD and schizophrenia. Unique features of each disorder included lower grey matter volume in amygdala, caudate, frontal and medial gyrus for schizophrenia and putamen for autism. Thus, in terms of brain volumetrics, ASD and schizophrenia have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms. However, the distinctive neuroanatomy also mapped in each condition raises the question about how this is arrived in the context of common etiological pressures.

  8. Supporting and treating families with children on the autistic spectrum: The unique role of the generalist psychologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Research findings indicate that intensive behavior therapy (e.g., applied behavioral analysis, or ABA) represents an effective treatment for autistic spectrum disorders. Unfortunately, children with autism represent an underserved patient population. Parents often make treatment decisions with insufficient information and report problems in establishing and maintaining treatment programs. This practice review asserts that psychologists, including those without professional certification or coursework in ABA, are in a unique position to assist affected children and their families. Psychologists can provide critical information about evidence-based treatment; offer assistance in overcoming barriers to intensive treatment, including personnel selection; and provide ongoing support to family members. Case examples also illustrate how psychologists can help families address specific barriers to intensive treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122105

  9. Broader Autism Phenotype in Iranian Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders vs. Normal Children

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Hadi Zarafshan; Salehe Ghasempour

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to compare the broader autism phenotype in Iranian parents of children with autism spectrum disorders and parents of typically developing children. Method Parents of children with ASD and parents of typically developing children were asked to complete the Persian version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). In the ASD group, families included 204 parents (96 fathers and 108 mothers) of children diagnosed as having autism (Autistic Disorder, or AD) (...

  10. Capturing the world of physical education through the eyes of pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Research Aims The potential benefits of physical education are universal for all children. However, facilitating such benefits in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) requires careful planning. This poster reports on a small-scale case study at one school in eastern England, exploring physical education through the eyes of children (n=5), aged 12-16, with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Methodology Photo-elicitation was adopted as the research tool to accord authority to the voice...

  11. Annotation: The Similarities and Differences between Autistic Disorder and Asperger's Disorder--A Review of the Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Kathleen E.; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    Background: The ongoing controversy over the distinction between autistic disorder and Asperger's disorder is important to resolve because of the implications regarding an understanding of the aetiology and prognosis, and the diagnostic and clinical practices relating to these conditions. This paper provides a critical evaluation of current…

  12. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maria; Armangué, Thaís; Sola-Valls, Nuria; Arrambide, Georgina; Meca-Lallana, José E.; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Mendibe, Mar; Alvarez de Arcaya, Amaya; Aladro, Yolanda; Casanova, Bonaventura; Olascoaga, Javier; Jiménez-Huete, Adolfo; Fernández-Fournier, Mireya; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluis; Cobo-Calvo, Alvaro; Viñals, Montserrat; de Andrés, Clara; Meca-Lallana, Virginia; Cervelló, Angeles; Calles, Carmen; Rubio, Manuel Barón; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Caminero, Ana; Munteis, Elvira; Antigüedad, Alfredo R.; Blanco, Yolanda; Villoslada, Pablo; Montalban, Xavier; Graus, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To (1) determine the value of the recently proposed criteria of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorder (NMOSD) that unify patients with NMO and those with limited forms (NMO/LF) with aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG) antibodies; and (2) investigate the clinical significance of the serologic status in patients with NMO. Methods: This was a retrospective, multicenter study of 181 patients fulfilling the 2006 NMO criteria (n = 127) or NMO/LF criteria with AQP4-IgG (n = 54). AQP4-IgG and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein immunoglobulin G (MOG-IgG) antibodies were tested using cell-based assays. Results: Patients were mainly white (86%) and female (ratio 6.5:1) with median age at onset 39 years (range 10–77). Compared to patients with NMO and AQP4-IgG (n = 94), those with NMO/LF presented more often with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) (p < 0.001), and had lower relapse rates (p = 0.015), but similar disability outcomes. Nonwhite ethnicity and optic neuritis presentation doubled the risk for developing NMO compared with white race (p = 0.008) or LETM presentation (p = 0.008). Nonwhite race (hazard ratio [HR] 4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–13.6) and older age at onset were associated with worse outcome (for every 10-year increase, HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3–2.2). Patients with NMO and MOG-IgG (n = 9) had lower female:male ratio (0.8:1) and better disability outcome than AQP4-IgG-seropositive or double-seronegative patients (p < 0.001). Conclusions: In patients with AQP4-IgG, the similar outcomes regardless of the clinical phenotype support the unified term NMOSD; nonwhite ethnicity and older age at onset are associated with worse outcome. Double-seronegative and AQP4-IgG-seropositive NMO have a similar clinical outcome. The better prognosis of patients with MOG-IgG and NMO suggests that phenotypic and serologic classification is useful. PMID:27144216

  13. Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Portugal: Prevalence, Clinical Characterization, and Medical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Guiomar; Ataide, Assuncao; Marques, Carla; Miguel, Teresa S.; Coutinho, Ana Margarida; Mota-Vieira, Luisa; Goncalves, Esmeralda; Lopes, Nazare Mendes; Rodrigues, Vitor; Carmona da Mota, Henrique; Vicente, Astrid Moura

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identify its clinical characterization, and medical conditions in a paediatric population in Portugal. A school survey was conducted in elementary schools, targeting 332 808 school-aged children in the mainland and 10 910 in the Azores islands.…

  14. Alternative/Complementary Approaches to Treatment of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Susan E.; Hyman, Susan L.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews common complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) treatments used to address symptoms of autistic spectrum disorders, including vitamin supplements, medications, antibiotics, antifungals, diet strategies, chelation/mercury detoxification, and nonbiologic treatments. Strategies that professionals may use in assessing the…

  15. Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; SOURANDER, ANDRE

    2013-01-01

    The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender,...

  16. [Autistic-like behavioural disorders and deafness in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deggouj, N; Eliot, M M

    2005-01-01

    There is a co-morbidity between autism spectrum behaviour disorders and deafness in children. Their behavioural difficulties may appear primary and/or secondary to hearing deprivation. In this paper, we present how we manage those patients on the base of our clinical experience. The auditory assessment must be based on subjective tests taking account of their special reactions. It needs objective tests to complete and help the behavioural responses. The hearing aids amplification is increased progressively, to allow the development of a tolerance to the sounds world. The multidisciplinary team tends to open them to the world and to the communication. PMID:16676561

  17. MTHFR Gene C677T Polymorphism in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Funda Sener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Autism is a subgroup of autism spectrum disorders, classified as a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder and symptoms occur in the first three years of life. The etiology of autism is largely unknown, but it has been accepted that genetic and environmental factors may both be responsible for the disease. Recent studies have revealed that the genes involved in the folate/homocysteine pathway may be risk factors for autistic children. In particular, C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene as a possible risk factor for autism is still controversial. We aimed to investigate the possible effect of C677T polymorphism in a Turkish cohort. Methods. Autism patients were diagnosed by child psychiatrists according to DSM-IV and DSM-V criteria. A total of 98 children diagnosed as autistic and 70 age and sex-matched children who are nonautistic were tested for C677T polymorphism. This polymorphism was studied by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods. Results. MTHFR 677T-allele frequency was found to be higher in autistic children compared with nonautistic children (29% versus 24%, but it was not found statistically significant. Conclusions. We conclude that other MTHFR polymorphisms such as A1298C or other folate/homocysteine pathway genes may be studied to show their possible role in autism.

  18. Investigating mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental phenotypes of autistic and intellectual disability disorders: a perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tim eKroon; Martijn eSierksma; Rhiannon Mair Meredith

    2013-01-01

    Brain function and behaviour undergo significant plasticity and refinement, particularly during specific critical and sensitive periods. In autistic and intellectual disability neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and their corresponding genetic mouse models, impairments in many neuronal and behavioural phenotypes are temporally regulated and in some cases, transient. However, the links between neurobiological mechanisms governing typically normal brain and behavioural development (referred to...

  19. Comparing the Intelligence Profiles of Savant and Nonsavant Individuals with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    It is yet unknown whether individuals with and without savant abilities being affected by the same mental disorder display differences with regard to their intelligence profile. To examine this issue, we compared the test performance of 33 savant and 26 nonsavant autistic subjects using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales-Revised for children or…

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a friend or colleague Request free mailed brochure Autismo Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... list of all NINDS Disorders Publicaciones en Español Autismo Prepared by: Office of Communications and Public Liaison ...

  1. Transverse myelitis spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pandit Lekha

    2009-01-01

    Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder that affects the spinal cord focally resulting in motor sensory and autonomic dysfunction. Establishing the diagnosis of ATM is not as difficult as determining the possible etiology. There is a difference in the perception of ATM seen in the West as compared to developing countries. In the West multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. An attack of ATM may be the beg...

  2. Dental Survey of Institutionalized Children with Autistic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mohinderpal Chadha, Gagandeep; Kakodkar, Pradnya; Chaugule, Vishwas; Nimbalkar, Vidya

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the oral hygiene practices, dietary pattern, dental caries status and needs of institutionalized autistic children. The sample consisted of 35 children (28 males and 7 females) in the age group of 5 to 10 years from two institutions in Maharashtra, India. The parents of the children were interviewed regarding oral hygiene practices of their respective ward and instructed to maintain a 4-day diet chart for their children. A clinical examinatio...

  3. Limited Activity Monitoring in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shic, Frederick; Bradshaw, Jessica; Klin, Ami; Scassellati, Brian; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking to examine how 20-month old toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (N=28), typical development (TD) (N=34), and non-autistic developmental delays (DD) (N=16) monitored the activities occurring in a context of an adult-child play interaction. Toddlers with ASD, in comparison to control groups, showed less attention to the activities of others and focused more on background objects (e.g. toys). In addition, while all groups spent the same time overall looking ...

  4. Assessing the Influence of Researcher-Partner Involvement on the Process and Outcomes of Participatory Research in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2014-01-01

    Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify…

  5. Gray matter reduction in the vermis and CRUS-II is associated with social and interaction deficits in low-functioning children with autistic spectrum disorders: a VBM-DARTEL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Daria; Annunziata, Silvia; Contarino, Valeria; Erbetta, Alessandra; Aquino, Domenico; Bulgheroni, Sara

    2013-10-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have reported abnormalities in brain regions involved in functions that are commonly impaired in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, little is known about brain structure anomalies in low-functioning (LF) young children with ASD. A VBM analysis was carried out to assess brain regions involved in ASD LF children, and a multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between regional volume changes and autism symptom measures. Twenty-six LF ASD children (2-10 years) were compared with 21 controls. A VBM-Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration analysis using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to evaluate gray matter (GM) and white matter alterations, covaried with Intelligence Quotient, age, and total brain volume. The resulting altered regions were correlated with Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI)-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)-Generic scores. GM bilateral reduction was noted in the cerebellum (Crus II and vermis) and in the hippocampi in ASD group. GM reduction was also detected in the inferior and superior frontal gyri, in the occipital medial and superior gyri, and in the inferior temporal gyrus of the left cerebral hemisphere. In the right hemisphere, GM reduction was found in the post-central cortex and in the occipital inferior gyrus. Multiple regression analysis showed a correlation between alterations in GM volume in the cerebellum (Crus II and vermis) and ADI-communication and ADOS-total (communication and interaction) scores. These findings seem to confirm that the cerebellum is involved in integrating and regulating emotional and cognitive functions which are impaired in ASD. PMID:23572290

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In May 2013, a new version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the common manual health care providers ... use these terms to describe someone with ASD. Diagnostic and Statistical ... , 5th Edition. (2013). American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC. [ ...

  7. Anxiety Disorders in Typically Developing Youth: Autism Spectrum Symptoms as a Predictor of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puleo, Connor M.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were assessed (Social Responsiveness Scale-Parent (SRS-P); coded in-session behavior) in typically-developing, anxiety-disordered children (N = 50) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). "Study 1": children with moderate autistic symptomology (per SRS-P) were significantly more likely to improve…

  8. The PDD-MRS : An instrument for identification of autism spectrum disorders in persons with mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraijer, D; de Bildt, A

    2005-01-01

    The Scale of Pervasive Developmental Disorder in Mentally Retarded Persons (PDD-MRS) is described. The PDD-MRS is a simple classification and screening instrument devised for identification of autistic disorders (of the entire spectrum) in persons with mental retardation from mild to profound levels

  9. Motor Skill Abilities in Toddlers with Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill C.; Hess, Julie A.; Neal, Daniene

    2010-01-01

    Motor skills were assessed in 397 toddlers, and it was demonstrated that atypically developing toddlers exhibited significantly greater motor skill abilities than toddlers with autistic disorder. No significant difference on gross or fine motor skill abilities were found between atypically developing toddlers and toddlers with pervasive…

  10. Exploring the Association between Cognitive Functioning and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social Understanding and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L.; Hill, Trenesha

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ,…

  11. Bipolar spectrum disorders. New perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Piver, Andre; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Raymond W. Lam

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review new perspectives on diagnosis, clinical features, epidemiology, and treatment of bipolar II and related disorders. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified by searching MEDLINE and ClinPSYCH from January 1994 to August 2001 using the key words bipolar disorder, type II or 2; hypomania; spectrum; or variants. Reference lists from articles were reviewed. Overall, the quality of evidence was not high; we found no randomized controlled trials that specifically addressed ...

  12. STX209 (Arbaclofen) for Autism Spectrum Disorders: An 8-Week Open-Label Study

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Craig A.; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy M.; Melmed, Raun D.; McCracken, James T.; Ginsberg, Lawrence D.; Sikich, Linmarie; Scahill, Lawrence; Cherubini, Maryann; Zarevics, Peter; Walton-Bowen, Karen; Carpenter, Randall L.; Wang, Paul P.; King, Bryan H.; Bear, Mark

    2013-01-01

    STX209 (arbaclofen), a selective GABA-B agonist, is hypothesized to modulate the balance of excitatory to inhibitory neurotransmission, and has shown preliminary evidence of benefit in fragile X syndrome. We evaluated its safety, tolerability, and efficacy in non-syndromic autism spectrum disorders, in an 8-week open-label trial enrolling 32 children and adolescents with either Autistic Disorder or Pervasive Developmental Disorder—Not Otherwise Specified, and a score ≥17 on the Aberrant Behav...

  13. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data do not help support DSM-5 autism spectrum disorder category

    OpenAIRE

    Pina Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Janssen, Joost; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aims to determine whether or not structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data support the DSM-5 proposal of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic category, and whether or not classical DSM-IV autistic disorder (AD) and Asperger syndrome (AS) categories should be subsumed into it. The most replicated sMRI findings in patients with ASD compared with healthy controls are increased total brain volume in early childhood and decreased corpus callosum volume. Regar...

  14. Online Training of Discrete‐Trials Teaching for Educating Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Thomson, Kendra; Boris, Ashley;

    2015-01-01

    with autism spectrum disor-ders to a confederate role-playing a child with autistic disorder. During training, participants studied a self-instructional manual using CAPSI to demonstrate mastery of study questions about DTT. Overall mean baseline accuracy was 54.9%, and improved to 84.7% in post......-training, a 30% improvement. These prelimi-nary results are suggestive that CAPSI is an effective educational tool for the delivery of the DTT self-instructional manual....

  15. Do Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Show a Shape Bias in Word Learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Tek, Saime; Jaffery, Gul; Fein, Deborah; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2008-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) acquire a sizeable lexicon. However, these children also seem to understand and/or store the meanings of words differently from typically developing children. One of the mechanisms that helps typically developing children learn novel words is the shape bias, in which the referent of a noun is mapped onto the shape of an object, rather than onto its color, texture, or size. We hypothesized that children with Autistic Disorder would show reduce...

  16. Neurofeedback in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtmann, Martin; Steiner, Sabina; Hohmann, Sarah; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bolte, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To review current studies on the effectiveness of neurofeedback as a method of treatment of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Studies were selected based on searches in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, and CINAHL using combinations of the following keywords: "Neurofeedback" OR "EEG Biofeedback" OR "Neurotherapy"…

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafodatskaya, Daria; Chung, Brian; Szatmari, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate…

  18. Assessment of Metabolic Parameters For Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananth N Rao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a brain development disorder that first appears during infancy or childhood, and generally follows a steady course without remission. Impairments result from maturation-related changes in various systems of the brain. Autism is one of the five pervasive developmental disorders (PDD, which are characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, and severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior. The reported incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs has increased markedly over the past decade. The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention has recently estimated the prevalence of ASDs in the United States at approximately 5.6 per 1000 (1 of 155 to 1 of 160 children. Several metabolic defects, such as phenylketonuria, are associated with autistic symptoms. In deciding upon the appropriate evaluation scheme a clinician must consider a host of different factors. The guidelines in this article have been developed to assist the clinician in the consideration of these factors.

  19. Discrepancy between WISC-III and WISC-IV Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum: What Does It Reveal about Autistic Cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Jelenic, Patricia; Soulières, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive profile and measured intellectual level vary according to assessment tools in children on the autism spectrum, much more so than in typically developing children. The recent inclusion of intellectual functioning in the diagnostic process for autism spectrum disorders leads to the crucial question on how to assess intelligence in autism, especially as some tests and subtests seem more sensitive to certain neurodevelopmental conditions. Our first aim was to examine the cognitive profile on the current version of the most widely used test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV), for a homogenous subgroup of children on the autism spectrum, i.e. corresponding to DSM-IV diagnosis of "autism". The second aim was to compare cognitive profiles obtained on the third edition versus 4th edition of WISC, in order to verify whether the WISC-IV yields a more distinctive cognitive profile in autistic children. The third aim was to examine the impact of the WISC-IV on the cognitive profile of another subgroup, children with Asperger's Syndrome. 51 autistic, 15 Asperger and 42 typically developing children completed the WISC-IV and were individually matched to children who completed the WISC-III. Divergent WISC-IV profiles were observed despite no significant intelligence quotient difference between groups. Autistic children scored significantly higher on the Perceptual Reasoning Index than on the Verbal Comprehension Index, a discrepancy that nearly tripled in comparison to WISC-III results. Asperger children scored higher on the VCI than on other indexes, with the lowest score found on the Processing Speed Index. WISC-IV cognitive profiles were consistent with, but more pronounced than WISC-III profiles. Cognitive profiles are a valuable diagnostic tool for differential diagnosis, keeping in mind that children on the autism spectrum might be more sensitive to the choice of subtests used to assess intelligence. PMID:26673881

  20. Discrepancy between WISC-III and WISC-IV Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum: What Does It Reveal about Autistic Cognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Nader

    Full Text Available The cognitive profile and measured intellectual level vary according to assessment tools in children on the autism spectrum, much more so than in typically developing children. The recent inclusion of intellectual functioning in the diagnostic process for autism spectrum disorders leads to the crucial question on how to assess intelligence in autism, especially as some tests and subtests seem more sensitive to certain neurodevelopmental conditions. Our first aim was to examine the cognitive profile on the current version of the most widely used test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV, for a homogenous subgroup of children on the autism spectrum, i.e. corresponding to DSM-IV diagnosis of "autism". The second aim was to compare cognitive profiles obtained on the third edition versus 4th edition of WISC, in order to verify whether the WISC-IV yields a more distinctive cognitive profile in autistic children. The third aim was to examine the impact of the WISC-IV on the cognitive profile of another subgroup, children with Asperger's Syndrome. 51 autistic, 15 Asperger and 42 typically developing children completed the WISC-IV and were individually matched to children who completed the WISC-III. Divergent WISC-IV profiles were observed despite no significant intelligence quotient difference between groups. Autistic children scored significantly higher on the Perceptual Reasoning Index than on the Verbal Comprehension Index, a discrepancy that nearly tripled in comparison to WISC-III results. Asperger children scored higher on the VCI than on other indexes, with the lowest score found on the Processing Speed Index. WISC-IV cognitive profiles were consistent with, but more pronounced than WISC-III profiles. Cognitive profiles are a valuable diagnostic tool for differential diagnosis, keeping in mind that children on the autism spectrum might be more sensitive to the choice of subtests used to assess intelligence.

  1. Keys to Success with Autistic Children: Structure, Predictability, and Consistency Are Essential for Students on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseminger, Scott H.

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood and elementary music teachers face particular challenges when including children with special needs in the music classroom. Children with autism act out and misbehave not because they are autistic, but because their fears and anxieties are so great. Knowing that children with autism and other neurological disorders have distinct…

  2. [Empirically based early intervention programs for children with autistic disorders - a selective literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M

    2010-07-01

    Autistic Disorders (AD) are characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, as well as by stereotyped behaviors and interests. Early intervention programs in AD aim to improve several aspects of the child's abilities: joint attention, play abilities, language development, and especially social interaction and communication. In this review article based on a selective literature search, the relatively best empirically based early intervention programs will be discussed with a focus on the proven efficacy of these interventions.

  3. Parasympathetic Response Profiles Related to Social Functioning in Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; A. Rebecca Neal-Beevers; Levine, Todd P.; Cynthia Miller-Loncar; Barry Lester

    2013-01-01

    Psychophysiology studies of heart rate and heart rate variability can be employed to study regulatory processes in children with autism. The objective of this study was to test for differences in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; a measure of heart rate variability) and to examine the relationship between physiologic responses and measures of social behavior. Participants included 2- to 6-year-old children with Autistic Disorder and children without autism. Heart rate and RSA were derived f...

  4. The sociocommunicative deficit subgroup in anorexia nervosa: autism spectrum disorders and neurocognition in a community-based, longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Anckarsäter, Henrik; Hofvander, Björn; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Carina; Gillberg, Christopher; Wentz, Elisabet; Råstam, Maria

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A subgroup of persons with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been proposed to have sociocommunicative problems corresponding to autism spectrum disorders [ASDs, i.e. DSM-IV pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs): autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, PDD not otherwise specified (NOS)]. Here, clinical problems, personality traits, cognitive test results and outcome are compared across 16 subjects (32%) with teenage-onset AN who meet or have met ASD criteria (AN+ASD), 34 ASD-negati...

  5. Evidence for gender-specific endophenotypes in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder during empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Karla; Regenbogen, Christina; Pauly, Katharina D; Gossen, Anna; Schneider, Daniel A; Mevissen, Lea; Michel, Tanja M; Gur, Ruben C; Habel, Ute; Schneider, Frank

    2013-12-01

    Despite remarkable behavioral gender differences in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and growing evidence for a diminished male : female ratio for the putative "male disorder" ASD, aspects of gender are not addressed accordingly in ASD research. Our study aims at filling this gap by exploring empathy abilities in a group of 28 patients with high-functioning ASD and 28 gender-, age- and education-matched non-autistic subjects, for the first time by means of functional neuroimaging (fMRI). In an event-related fMRI paradigm, emotional ("E") and neutral ("N") video clips presented actors telling self-related short stories. After each clip, participants were asked to indicate their own emotion and its intensity as well as the emotion and intensity perceived for the actor. Behaviorally, we found significantly less empathic responses in the overall ASD group compared with non-autistic subjects, and inadequate emotion recognition for the neutral clips in the female ASD group compared with healthy women. Neurally, increased activation of the bilateral medial frontal gyrus was found in male patients compared with female patients, a pattern which was not present in the non-autistic group. Additionally, autistic women exhibited decreased activation of midbrain and limbic regions compared with non-autistic women, whereas there was no significant difference within the male group. While we did not find a fundamental empathic deficit in autistic patients, our data propose different ways of processing empathy in autistic men and women, suggesting stronger impairments in cognitive aspects of empathy/theory of mind for men, and alterations of social reciprocity for women.

  6. Transition from Pervasive Developmental Disorders to Autism Spectrum Disorder: Proposed Changes for the Upcoming DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Tortamis Ozkaya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available American Psychiatry Assosiation has scheduled to release The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 in May 2013. According to the main changes being proposed about autism, there will be one unified Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5 classification. This unified diagnosis will eliminate the distinct diagnostic categories under Pervasive Developmental Disorders in the DSM-IV-TR, namely autistic disorder, asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified, and childhood disintegrative disorder. Rett syndrome will be excluded from autism spectrum disorder due to its genetic basis. In addition, severity of symptoms will be measured among individuals with autism spectrum disorder based on the support level required due to the impairment in their lives. The basic rationale behind this revision is that it is better to conceptualize autism as a spectrum including various individuals whose symptoms in different developmental areas range from mild to severe. It is aimed to increase the specificity of autism diagnosis by using one single diagnostic category with its specified severity rather than differentiating several subtypes. The major concern raised over the DSM-5 proposal has been the possibility that some of the individuals who were diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder according to the DSM-IV-TR might not get a diagnosis in this new system. After the DSM-5 is released, clinical, legal, and educational rearrengements regarding the use of new autism spectrum disorder diagnostic criteria are expected to accelerate worldwide and in Turkey. This paper aims to review briefly the upcoming autism spectrum disorder diagnosis planned to appear in the DSM-5, the rationale of the proposed revision, main critics to the DSM-5 draft that has been publicized, and some of the regulations expected to occur in practice after the changes.

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Related Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Q: Do vaccines cause autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? A: Many studies that have ... whether there is a relationship between vaccines and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, the studies continue ...

  8. Action perception is intact in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, James P; Williams, Justin H G; Neri, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Autistic traits span a wide spectrum of behavioral departures from typical function. Despite the heterogeneous nature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there have been attempts at formulating unified theoretical accounts of the associated impairments in social cognition. A class of prominent theories capitalizes on the link between social interaction and visual perception: effective interaction with others often relies on discrimination of subtle nonverbal cues. It has been proposed that individuals with ASD may rely on poorer perceptual representations of other people's actions as returned by dysfunctional visual circuitry and that this, in turn, may lead to less effective interpretation of those actions for social behavior. It remains unclear whether such perceptual deficits exist in ASD: the evidence currently available is limited to specific aspects of action recognition, and the reported deficits are often attributable to cognitive factors that may not be strictly visual (e.g., attention). We present results from an exhaustive set of measurements spanning the entire action processing hierarchy, from motion detection to action interpretation, designed to factor out effects that are not selectively relevant to this function. Our results demonstrate that the ASD perceptual system returns functionally intact signals for interpreting other people's actions adequately; these signals can be accessed effectively when autistic individuals are prompted and motivated to do so under controlled conditions. However, they may fail to exploit them adequately during real-life social interactions. PMID:25653346

  9. Mood Stabilizers in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified as to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All these categories are grouped together in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, classification under the category of Autism Spectrum Disorders.Behavioral disorders including irritability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and aggression are additional symptoms found in up to 20% of children and adolescents with ASD and require careful evaluation for appropriate treatment. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is defined by impaired attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, whereas ASD is defined by social dysfunction, communicative impairment, and restricted/repetitive behaviors. They should be distinctly evaluated in children and adolescents with ASD and intellectual disability in contrast to individuals without intellectual disability, because significant differences between these conditions exist. Mood disorders are also common in ASD and should be systematically investigated in this population of children and adolescents. Approximately 50% of children and adolescents with ASD receive medication for comorbid behavioral/ADHD and mood symptoms, mostly stimulants, antiepileptics and antipsychotics. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment including medications for ADHD-like symptoms have recently been provided and should be carefully considered. Antiepileptic drugs are commonly used in ASDs with epilepsy, because seizures are associated with ASD in 10% to 30% of young patients, and as mood stabilizers. Lithium is another option for children and adolescents with ASD who present with symptoms of a mood disorder, such as elevated moods/euphoria, mania, and paranoia, whether accompanied or not by irritability. Experimental treatments are under

  10. Tetrasomy 15q11-q13 Diagnosed by FISH in a Patient with Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Ouldim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a Moroccan boy with mental retardation, hyperactivity, epilepsy, developmental problems and behavioural disorders. Cytogenetic analysis showed the presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome. Molecular cytogenetics allowed us to determine the marker as an inverted duplication of chromosome 15. It is the first case of a Moroccan patient with tetrasomy 15q in which fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH enabled us to specify the diagnosis. Interestingly, this patient has an infantile autism with cytogenetic abnormalities on chromosomal region 15q11-q13 as reported in patients with Autistic Disorder.

  11. The applicability of Webster-Stratton Parenting Programmes to deaf children with emotional and behavioural problems, and autism, and their families: annotation and case report of a child with autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ruth; Turk, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a pilot project whose objective was to explore whether the Webster-Stratton Parenting Programme may be effective for hearing parents and their deaf children who present with conduct disorders and other emotional, behavioural and developmental problems. Outcome measures aimed at overall impact in decreasing behavioural problems and improving overall family function were used. Participants were hearing parents of deaf children referred to our specialist service whose assessment had recommended a parenting skills group as treatment of choice. The children had been diagnosed with behavioural problems with or without additional comorbidity. This pilot phase focused deliberately on one participant, in order to explore whether the approach justified further, more comprehensive evaluative research. Outcome was positive, suggesting that modified Webster-Stratton approaches may well be of use in deaf children of hearing parents. PMID:17375814

  12. Risk factors for bullying among children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Anderson, Connie M; Law, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Although children with disabilities have been found to be at an increased risk of bullying, there are limited studies investigating predictors of bullying involvement in children with autism spectrum disorders. The current study presents findings from 1221 parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who were selected from a national web-based registry. Parents completed a survey dedicated to the school and bullying experiences of their child, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify child and school risk factors for involvement as victim, bully, or bully-victim. Additional analyses examined the risk of bullying involvement based on the amount of time spent in general education classrooms. Children diagnosed with Asperger's disorder, attending a public school or a school with a general education population, were at the greatest risk of being victimized in the past month. Children with comorbid conditions and a high level of autistic traits were the most likely to be victims, bullies, and bully-victims. Finally, children in full inclusion classrooms were more likely to be victimized than those who spend the majority of their time in special education settings. Future research studies should be invested in finding appropriate supports for children with autism spectrum disorder placed in inclusive settings.

  13. Risk factors for bullying among children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Anderson, Connie M; Law, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Although children with disabilities have been found to be at an increased risk of bullying, there are limited studies investigating predictors of bullying involvement in children with autism spectrum disorders. The current study presents findings from 1221 parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who were selected from a national web-based registry. Parents completed a survey dedicated to the school and bullying experiences of their child, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify child and school risk factors for involvement as victim, bully, or bully-victim. Additional analyses examined the risk of bullying involvement based on the amount of time spent in general education classrooms. Children diagnosed with Asperger's disorder, attending a public school or a school with a general education population, were at the greatest risk of being victimized in the past month. Children with comorbid conditions and a high level of autistic traits were the most likely to be victims, bullies, and bully-victims. Finally, children in full inclusion classrooms were more likely to be victimized than those who spend the majority of their time in special education settings. Future research studies should be invested in finding appropriate supports for children with autism spectrum disorder placed in inclusive settings. PMID:23901152

  14. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder: the results of a parent survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S; Wingard, Deborah L; Akshoomoff, Natacha A; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming

    2008-05-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80 control children. Acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was significantly associated with autistic disorder when considering children 5 years of age or less (OR 6.11, 95% CI 1.42-26.3), after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.11-14.3), and when considering only children who had post-vaccination sequelae (OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.56-43.3), adjusting for age, gender, mother's ethnicity, and the presence of illness concurrent with measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Ibuprofen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was not associated with autistic disorder. This preliminary study found that acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was associated with autistic disorder.

  15. [Autism Spectrum Disorder in DSM-5 - concept, validity, and reliability, impact on clinical care and future research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M

    2014-05-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in DSM-5 comprises the former DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder and PDD-nos. The criteria for ASD in DSM-5 were considerably revised from those of ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR. The present article compares the diagnostic criteria, presents studies on the validity and reliability of ASD, and discusses open questions. It ends with a clinical and research perspective. PMID:24846867

  16. Psychiatric and psychosocial problems in adults with normal-intelligence autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Herbrecht Evelyn; Ståhlberg Ola; Wentz Elisabet; Nydén Agneta; Chaste Pauline; Delorme Richard; Hofvander Björn; Stopin Astrid; Anckarsäter Henrik; Gillberg Christopher; Råstam Maria; Leboyer Marion

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) often display symptoms from other diagnostic categories. Studies of clinical and psychosocial outcome in adult patients with ASDs without concomitant intellectual disability are few. The objective of this paper is to describe the clinical psychiatric presentation and important outcome measures of a large group of normal-intelligence adult patients with ASDs. Methods Autistic symptomatology according to the DSM-IV-criteria a...

  17. A Review of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) from A Perspective of Classical Chinese Medicine (CCM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first two years of man's life and is the result of a neurological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain, and the development in social interaction and communication skills. Both children and adults along the autistic spectrum typically show difficulties in verbal and non-verbal communication, social interactions, and leisure or play activities.

  18. Dysautonomia in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Case Reports of a Family with Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Derrick Lonsdale; Shamberger, Raymond J.; Obrenovich, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Case histories of a mother and her two children are reported. The mother was a recovered alcoholic. She and her two children, both of whom had symptoms that are typical of autistic spectrum disorder, had dysautonomia. All had intermittently abnormal erythrocyte transketolase studies indicating abnormal thiamine pyrophosphate homeostasis. Both children had unusual concentrations of urinary arsenic. All had symptomatic improvement with diet restriction and supplementary vitamin therapy but quic...

  19. Autonomic and Neuroendocrine Responses to a Psychosocial Stressor in Adults with Autistic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C.; Wiegant, Victor M.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Lahuis, Bertine E.; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Objective of the study was to replicate in adults our previous findings of decreased heart rate and normal endocrine responses to stress in autistic children and to elucidate the discrepancy between autonomic and endocrine stress responses by including epinephrine, norepinephrine, oxytocin and vasopressin measurements. Ten autistic spectrum…

  20. Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders - Importance Of Early Developmental And Behavioural Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders have impairment in reciprocal social interaction and impairment in communication skills. They also have repetitive behaviours and preoccupation with stereotyped patterns of behaviours. The most important therapy is early individualized intensive behavioural intervention. Intensive behavioural interventions should be provided to all young children at the onset of symptoms. If not, they will have lifelong difficulties in communication and social interaction. Parent mediated behavioural interventions are effective in the management of young children with autism spectrum disorders. Children with autistic symptoms who receive earlier referrals to specialists and obtain intensive behavioural intervention achieve optimal outcomes.

  1. Coping strategies as mediators and moderators between stress and quality of life among parents of children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine coping strategies as mediators and moderators between stress and quality of life (QoL) among parents of children with autistic disorder. The convenience sample of the study consisted of 184 parents of children with autistic disorder. Advanced statistical methods for analyses of mediator and moderator effects of coping strategies were used. The results revealed that 'accepting responsibility' was the only mediator strategy in the relationship between stress and QoL. The results also revealed that only 'seeking social support' and 'escape avoidance' were moderator strategies in the relationship between stress and QoL. This study is perhaps the first to investigate the mediating and moderating effects of coping on QoL of parents of children with autistic disorder. Recommendations for practice and future research are presented. PMID:23868562

  2. Blood and Brain Glutamate Levels in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Tamer H.; Abdelrahman, Hadeel M.; Fattah, Nelly R. Abdel; El-Masry, Nagda M.; Hashim, Haitham M.; El-Gerby, Khaled M.; Fattah, Nermin R. Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Despite of the great efforts that move forward to clarify the pathophysiologic mechanisms in autism, the cause of this disorder, however, remains largely unknown. There is an increasing body of literature concerning neurochemical contributions to the pathophysiology of autism. We aimed to determine blood and brain levels of glutamate in children…

  3. Food selectivity in children with and without an autism spectrum disorder: investigation of diagnosis and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighley, Jennifer S; Matson, Johnny L; Rieske, Robert D; Adams, Hilary L

    2013-10-01

    Feeding problems are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), with food selectivity being the most frequently reported. Selectivity based on type and/or texture of food is of concern in those with ASD. Variations in symptom presentation of food selectivity in children with different autism spectrum diagnoses across childhood have not often been investigated. Parent-report of food selectivity was examined in 525 children age 2-18 years diagnosed with autistic disorder, PDD-NOS, Asperger's disorder, atypical development, and typical development using information garnered from the Autism Spectrum Disorder-Comorbidity for Children (ASD-CC), a tool to assess emotional issues and comorbid psychopathology. Individuals with an ASD were reported to have significantly more food selectivity than both the atypically developing group and the typically developing group. In addition, the ASD groups, when looked at together, showed a decrease in food selectivity across childhood with significant decrease in the Asperger's disorder group. PMID:23948127

  4. Overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits is not accounted for by anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane

    2014-10-30

    Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders.

  5. Visual Perspective Taking Impairment in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.; Brindley, Rachel; Frith, Uta

    2009-01-01

    Evidence from typical development and neuroimaging studies suggests that level 2 visual perspective taking--the knowledge that different people may see the same thing differently at the same time--is a mentalising task. Thus, we would expect children with autism, who fail typical mentalising tasks like false belief, to perform poorly on level 2…

  6. Early interpersonal neurobiological assessment of attachment and autistic spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Allan Nelson Schore

    2014-01-01

    There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurob...

  7. Sexuality and gender role in autism spectrum disorder: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, Susanne; Eriksson, Jonna M

    2014-01-01

    The 'extreme male brain theory of autism' describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness) was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder.

  8. Sexuality and gender role in autism spectrum disorder: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bejerot

    Full Text Available The 'extreme male brain theory of autism' describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder.

  9. An investigation of the relationship between functional impairment and autistic traits in a clinical population

    OpenAIRE

    Varrall, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Based on theories of dimensionality and fractionation of the autistic triad, this study investigates the role of autistic traits in adaptive functioning. The suitability of current diagnostic thresholds and classification criteria are explored with particular interest in partial and mild sub-threshold autistic presentations. Method: Seventy-two young people (mean age = 11.03 years), referred for assessment at a specialist autism spectrum disorder (ASD) clinic were administered the Vinel...

  10. Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A.

    2013-01-01

    A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n = 26, 55%) and pervasive…

  11. Atypical sulcal anatomy in young children with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Auzias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder is associated with an altered early brain development. However, the specific cortical structure abnormalities underlying this disorder remain largely unknown. Nonetheless, atypical cortical folding provides lingering evidence of early disruptions in neurodevelopmental processes and identifying changes in the geometry of cortical sulci is of primary interest for characterizing these structural abnormalities in autism and their evolution over the first stages of brain development. Here, we applied state-of-the-art sulcus-based morphometry methods to a large highly-selective cohort of 73 young male children of age spanning from 18 to 108 months. Moreover, such large cohort was selected through extensive behavioral assessments and stringent inclusion criteria for the group of 59 children with autism. After manual labeling of 59 different sulci in each hemisphere, we computed multiple shape descriptors for each single sulcus element, hereby separating the folding measurement into distinct factors such as the length and depth of the sulcus. We demonstrated that the central, intraparietal and frontal medial sulci showed a significant and consistent pattern of abnormalities across our different geometrical indices. We also found that autistic and control children exhibited strikingly different relationships between age and structural changes in brain morphology. Lastly, the different measures of sulcus shapes were correlated with the CARS and ADOS scores that are specific to the autistic pathology and indices of symptom severity. Inherently, these structural abnormalities are confined to regions that are functionally relevant with respect to cognitive disorders in ASD. In contrast to those previously reported in adults, it is very unlikely that these abnormalities originate from general compensatory mechanisms unrelated to the primary pathology. Rather, they most probably reflect an early disruption on developmental trajectory

  12. Inhibition, flexibility, working memory and planning in autism spectrum disorders with and without comorbid ADHD-symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt Martin H; Bruning Nicole; Morsch Dagmar; Sinzig Judith; Lehmkuhl Gerd

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent studies have not paid a great deal of attention to comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in autistic children even though it is well known that almost half of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suffer from hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity. The goal of this study was to evaluate and compare executive functioning (EF) profiles in children with ADHD and in children with ASD with and without comorbid ADHD. Methods Children...

  13. Progress in researches on autistic disorder%孤独症研究新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞锡; 江开达; 彭裕文

    2010-01-01

    @@ 认识孤独症 孤独症(autism),又称自闭症或孤独性障碍(autistic disorder)等,是广泛性发育障碍(pervasive developmental disorders,PDD)的代表性疾病.将PDD分为5种:孤独性障碍、Retts综合征、童年瓦解性障碍、Asperger综合征和未特定的PDD.其中,孤独性障碍与Asperger综合征较为常见.孤独症的患病率报道不一,一般认为约为儿童人口的2~5/万人,男女比例约为3:1~4:1,女孩症状一般较男孩严重[1].

  14. Higher Plasma Concentration of Food-Specific Antibodies in Persons with Autistic Disorder in Comparison to Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, Vladimir; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Trajkov, Dejan; Arsov, Todor; Strezova, Ana; Ajdinski, Ljubomir; Spiroski, Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Specific IgA, IgG, and IgE antibodies to food antigens in 35 participants with autistic disorder and 21 of their siblings in the Republic of Macedonia were examined. Statistically significant higher plasma concentration of IgA antibodies against alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, casein, and gliadin were found in the children with autistic…

  15. Dyadic and Triadic Behaviours in Infancy as Precursors to Later Social Responsiveness in Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Sally; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between dyadic (eye contact and affect) and triadic (joint attention) behaviours in infancy, and social responsiveness at pre-school age, was investigated in 36 children with Autistic Disorder. Measures of eye contact and affect, and joint attention, including requesting behaviours, were obtained retrospectively via parental…

  16. Developing Undergraduate Coursework in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Tracy Loye; Dimitriou, Francine; Turko, Kristine; McPartland, James

    2014-01-01

    With rates of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) continuing to rise alongside improvements in early identification and treatment, service providers are in great demand. Providing undergraduate students with opportunities for education and applied experiences with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can help fill a valuable niche in the autism community.…

  17. 自闭症患儿机构康复照顾者负担与社会支持的相关性研究%Study on correlations between burdens of caregivers in autistic - spectrum disorder children rehabilitation institutions and social supports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋忠燕; 陈玉明; 张小芳; 梁笛波; 梁小凤

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨自闭症(ASD)患儿机构康复照顾者负担与社会支持的相关性。方法:2015年6月运用一般人口学资料、照顾者负担量表及社会支持评定量表对我市某医院66例 ASD 患儿机构康复照顾者进行问卷调查。结果:ASD 患儿机构康复照顾者负担总分(48.82±15.25)分,照顾者有不同程度的负担;社会支持总分为(30.51±6.42)分,照顾者社会支持未达到高水平。社会支持总分与负担总分及角色负担呈负相关,客观支持与负担总分及角色负担呈负相关,主观支持与负担总分及个人负担呈负相关。结论:ASD 患儿机构康复照顾者负担与社会支持呈负相关,即所获得社会支持越多,照顾者的负担越少。机构、康复人员、特教老师、社会应给予照顾者更多的社会支持,以减轻照顾者身心照顾负担,使其能更好地承担照顾义务。%Objective:To discuss correlations between burdens of caregivers in autistic - spectrum disorder(ASD)children rehabilitation institutions and so-cial supports. Methods:Adopted general demographic data,caregiver burden inventory and social support revalued scale to investigate 66 caregivers from ASD children rehabilitation institution in a hospital of our city in June 2015. Results:Total score of caregivers in children rehabilitation institution was (48. 82 ± 15. 25),indicating that caregivers had different levels of burden;total score of social support was(30. 51 ± 6. 42),indicating that social support for caregivers failed to reach a high level. Social support total score was negatively correlated with burden total score and role burden,objective support was negatively correlated with burden total score and role burden,and subjective support was negatively correlated with burden total score and individual bur-den. Conclusion:Burden on caregivers in ASD children rehabilitation institutions is negatively correlated with social support

  18. Monogenic mouse models of autism spectrum disorders: Common mechanisms and missing links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, S W; Jiang, Y-H

    2016-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) present unique challenges in the fields of genetics and neurobiology because of the clinical and molecular heterogeneity underlying these disorders. Genetic mutations found in ASD patients provide opportunities to dissect the molecular and circuit mechanisms underlying autistic behaviors using animal models. Ongoing studies of genetically modified models have offered critical insight into possible common mechanisms arising from different mutations, but links between molecular abnormalities and behavioral phenotypes remain elusive. The challenges encountered in modeling autism in mice demand a new analytic paradigm that integrates behavioral assessment with circuit-level analysis in genetically modified models with strong construct validity. PMID:26733386

  19. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenberg, P.L.; David, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, dep

  20. Complementary and alternative medicine for autism spectrum disorders: rationale, safety and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O

    2013-09-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is widely used for children with autism spectrum disorder, despite uncertainty regarding efficacy. This review describes complementary and alternative practices commonly used among this population, the rationale for the use of each practice, as well as the side-effect profile and evidence for efficacy. The existing evidence base indicates that melatonin can be recommended as a treatment for sleeping disturbances associated with autism spectrum disorder, while secretin can be rejected as an efficacious treatment for broader autistic symptoms. There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on the efficacy of modified diets, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, immune therapy, and vitamin and fatty acid supplementation. There is a clear need for methodologically rigorous studies to provide evidence-based guidance to families and clinicians regarding complementary and alternative practices for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. PMID:23682728

  1. Treatment of Inattention, Overactivity, and Impulsiveness in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Aman, Michael G; Farmer, Cristan A.; Hollway, Jill; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2008-01-01

    We reviewed the recent literature on medicines used to manage inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity in children with pervasive developmental disorders (autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, Asperger’s disorder) using computer searches of pharmacological studies. A substantial number of reports were identified and summarized. The literature tends to be dominated by uncontrolled studies, although the number of controlled trials is growing. The findi...

  2. Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder

  3. Aggression in children with autism spectrum disorders and a clinic-referred comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive and the Aggression subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist were rated for 414 children with autism spectrum disorder (autistic disorder, 69%; pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 24%; Asperger's disorder, 7%) and 243 clinic-referred children without autism spectrum disorder, aged 1-21 years (mean age about 7 years). Participants were not selected for aggressive behavior. Relative to the comparison group, children with autism spectrum disorder were reported to have less aggression and were more likely to be rated as reactive rather than proactive. Among all subjects, sex was not associated with aggression; higher IQ/adaptive behavior and older age were associated with more sophisticated types of aggression, while lower scores on IQ, adaptive behavior, and communication measures were associated with more physical aggression. The interaction between demographic variables and diagnosis was significant only for age: younger but not older children with autism spectrum disorder showed less aggression than clinic-referred controls.

  4. Psychobiology of anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J

    2008-09-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is currently classified as an anxiety disorder. However, there is growing interest in the concept of an obsessive-compulsive spectrum of disorders (OCSDs). The relationship between anxiety disorders and OCSDs has been questioned. The psychobiology of anxiety disorders and OCSDs is briefly reviewed in this article. While there appear to be several distinct contrasts in the underlying psychobiology of these conditions, there is also evidence of overlapping mechanisms. In addition, there are crucial gaps in our current database, confounding nosological decision-making. Conceptualizing various anxiety disorders and putative OCSDs as lying within a broader spectrum of emotional disorders may be useful. However, clinicians must also recognize that individual anxiety and obsessive-compulsive spectrum conditions, including disorders characterized by body-focused repetitive behaviors, have distinct psychobiological underpinnings and require different treatment approaches.

  5. Self-Disorders in Individuals with Autistic Traits: Contribution of Reduced Autobiographical Reasoning Capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Fabrice; Göritz, Anja S; Schröder, Johanna; Coutelle, Romain; Danion, Jean-Marie; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine V; Moritz, Steffen

    2016-08-01

    The present web-based study (N = 840) aimed to illuminate the cognitive mechanisms underlying self-disorders in autism. Initially, participants selected three self-defining memories. Then, we assessed their capacity to give meaning to these events (i.e., meaning making), their tendency to scrutinize autobiographical memory to better understand themselves (i.e., self-continuity function of autobiographical memory) and their clarity of self-concept. The results showed that individuals with high autistic traits (ATs) had a lower clarity of self-concept than control participants. Meaning making was also reduced in AT individuals and mediated the relation between AT and self-concept clarity. Our results suggest that the reduced clarity of self-concept in AT individuals is related to an impaired capacity to make meaning of important past life events. PMID:27101235

  6. The Relationship between Autistic Traits and Social Anxiety, Worry, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Depressive Symptoms: Specific and Non-Specific Mediators in a Student Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Shi Min; Thevaraja, Nishta; Hong, Ryan Y.; Magiati, Iliana

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of anxiety symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorders has now been well documented. There is also a positive relationship between autistic traits and anxiety symptoms in unselected samples and individuals with anxiety disorders have more autistic traits compared to those without. Less is known, however, regarding…

  7. Psycho-Social Characteristics of Children and Adolescents with Siblings on the Autistic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Defingou, Georgia; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Kouvava, Sofia; Polychronopoulou, Stavroula

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the psycho-social characteristics of typically developing children who have siblings with autism and their sibling relationship. Children's adjustment at school, their self-esteem and social relations, as well as their friends' attitudes towards their autistic siblings were examined. Participants were 22 siblings…

  8. Social (pragmatic) communication disorders and autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, G; Norbury, C. F.

    2015-01-01

    Changes have been made to the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), and similar changes are likely in the WHO International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) due in 2017. In light of these changes, a new clinical disorder, social (pragmatic) communication disorder (SPCD), was added to the neurodevelopmental disorders section of DSM-5. This article describes the key features of ASD, ...

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Autism Spectrum Disorders What Are Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Fast Facts Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a group of developmental ...

  10. Schizophrenia Spectrum and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the differential severity of specific symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and child psychiatry outpatient referrals (controls). Each group was further subdivided into subgroups with and without co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).…

  11. Does WISC-IV Underestimate the Intelligence of Autistic Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Courchesne, Valérie; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is widely used to estimate autistic intelligence (Joseph in The neuropsychology of autism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Goldstein et al. in "Assessment of autism spectrum disorders." Guilford Press, New York, 2008; Mottron in "J Autism Dev Disord" 34(1):19-27, 2004).…

  12. Confirmatory Factor Analytic Structure and Measurement Invariance of Quantitative Autistic Traits Measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Ratliff, Kristin R.; Gruber, Chris; Zhang, Yi; Law, Paul A.; Constantino, John N.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factor structure of autistic symptomatology is critical to the discovery and interpretation of causal mechanisms in autism spectrum disorder. We applied confirmatory factor analysis and assessment of measurement invariance to a large ("N" = 9635) accumulated collection of reports on quantitative autistic traits using…

  13. Brief report: Examining the link between autistic traits and compulsive internet use in a non-clinical sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Finkenauer; M.M.H. Pollmann; S. Begeer; P. Kerkhof

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders or autistic traits may profit from Internet and computer-mediated interactions, but there is concern about their Internet use becoming compulsive. This study investigated the link between autistic traits and Internet use in a 2-wave longitudinal study with

  14. Neuropathological Changes and Clinical Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder Participants Are Similar to that Reported in Congenital and Chronic Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in Humans and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandota, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Anatomic, histopathologic, and MRI/SPET studies of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) patients' brains confirm existence of very early developmental deficits. In congenital and chronic murine toxoplasmosis several cerebral anomalies also have been reported, and worldwide, approximately two billion people are chronically infected with T. "gondii"…

  15. Adaptive Behaviors in High-Functioning Taiwanese Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Investigation of the Mediating Roles of Symptom Severity and Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chen-Lin; Lung, For-Wey; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship among cognitive level, autistic severity and adaptive function in a Taiwanese sample of 94 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (mean full scale intelligent quotients FSIQ = 84.8). Parents and teachers both completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II and the Social Responsiveness…

  16. Genetic Evidence for Elevated Pathogenicity of Mitochondrial DNA Heteroplasmy in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiqin; Picard, Martin; Gu, Zhenglong

    2016-01-01

    Increasing clinical and biochemical evidence implicate mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), but little is known about the biological basis for this connection. A possible cause of ASD is the genetic variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence, which has yet to be thoroughly investigated in large genomic studies of ASD. Here we evaluated mtDNA variation, including the mixture of different mtDNA molecules in the same individual (i.e., heteroplasmy), using whole-exome sequencing data from mother-proband-sibling trios from simplex families (n = 903) where only one child is affected by ASD. We found that heteroplasmic mutations in autistic probands were enriched at non-polymorphic mtDNA sites (P = 0.0015), which were more likely to confer deleterious effects than heteroplasmies at polymorphic mtDNA sites. Accordingly, we observed a ~1.5-fold enrichment of nonsynonymous mutations (P = 0.0028) as well as a ~2.2-fold enrichment of predicted pathogenic mutations (P = 0.0016) in autistic probands compared to their non-autistic siblings. Both nonsynonymous and predicted pathogenic mutations private to probands conferred increased risk of ASD (Odds Ratio, OR[95% CI] = 1.87[1.14–3.11] and 2.55[1.26–5.51], respectively), and their influence on ASD was most pronounced in families with probands showing diminished IQ and/or impaired social behavior compared to their non-autistic siblings. We also showed that the genetic transmission pattern of mtDNA heteroplasmies with high pathogenic potential differed between mother-autistic proband pairs and mother-sibling pairs, implicating developmental and possibly in utero contributions. Taken together, our genetic findings substantiate pathogenic mtDNA mutations as a potential cause for ASD and synergize with recent work calling attention to their unique metabolic phenotypes for diagnosis and treatment of children with ASD. PMID:27792786

  17. Disordered recognition of facial identity and emotions in three Asperger type autists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njiokiktjien, C; Verschoor, A; de Sonneville, L; Huyser, C; Op het Veld, V; Toorenaar, N

    2001-03-01

    In this report we aim to explore severe deficits in facial affect recognition in three boys all of whom meet the criteria of Asperger's syndrome (AS), as well as overt prosopagnosia in one (B) and covert prosopagnosia in the remaining two (C and D). Subject B, with a familially-based talent of being highly gifted in physics and mathematics, showed no interest in people, a quasi complete lack of comprehension of emotions, and very poor emotional reactivity. The marked neuropsychological deficits were a moderate prosopagnosia and severely disordered recognition of facial emotions, gender and age. Expressive facial emotion, whole body psychomotor expression and speech prosody were quasi absent as well. In all three boys these facial processing deficits were more or less isolated, and general visuospatial functions, attention, formal language and scholastic performances were normal or even highly developed with the exception of deficient gestalt perception in B. We consider the deficient facial emotion perception as an important pathogenetic symptom for the autistic behaviour in the three boys. Prosopagnosia, the absent facial and bodily expression, and speech prosody were important but varying co-morbid disorders. The total clinical picture of non-verbal disordered communication is a complex of predominantly bilateral and/or right hemisphere cortical deficits. Moreover, in B, insensitivity to pain, smells, noises and internal bodily feelings suggested a more general emotional anaesthesia and/or a deficient means of expression. It is possible that a limbic component might be involved, thus making affective appreciation also deficient. PMID:11315539

  18. White Matter Microstructure Predicts Autistic Traits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Miriam; Thapar, Anita; Jones, Derek K.

    2014-01-01

    Traits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have previously been found to index clinical severity. This study examined the association of ASD traits with diffusion parameters in adolescent males with ADHD (n = 17), and also compared WM microstructure relative to controls (n = 17).…

  19. A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, Russell L

    2008-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of related neurodevelopmental disorders that have been increasing in incidence since the 1980s. Despite a considerable amount of data being collected from cases, a central mechanism has not been offered. A careful review of ASD cases discloses a number of events that adhere to an immunoexcitotoxic mechanism. This mechanism explains the link between excessive vaccination, use of aluminum and ethylmercury as vaccine adjuvants, food allergies, gut dysbiosis, and abnormal formation of the developing brain. It has now been shown that chronic microglial activation is present in autistic brains from age 5 years to age 44 years. A considerable amount of evidence, both experimental and clinical, indicates that repeated microglial activation can initiate priming of the microglia and that subsequent stimulation can produce an exaggerated microglial response that can be prolonged. It is also known that one phenotypic form of microglia activation can result in an outpouring of neurotoxic levels of the excitotoxins, glutamate and quinolinic acid. Studies have shown that careful control of brain glutamate levels is essential to brain pathway development and that excesses can result in arrest of neural migration, as well as dendritic and synaptic loss. It has also been shown that certain cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, can, via its receptor, interact with glutamate receptors to enhance the neurotoxic reaction. To describe this interaction I have coined the term immunoexcitotoxicity, which is described in this article.

  20. Inflammatory Cytokines: Potential Biomarkers of Immunologic Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningan Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a disorder of neurobiological origin characterized by problems in communication and social skills and repetitive behavior. After more than six decades of research, the etiology of autism remains unknown, and no biomarkers have been proven to be characteristic of autism. A number of studies have shown that the cytokine levels in the blood, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of autistic subjects differ from that of healthy individuals; for example, a series of studies suggests that interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ are significantly elevated in different tissues in autistic subjects. However, the expression of some cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-2, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, is controversial, and different studies have found various results in different tissues. In this review, we focused on several types of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines that might affect different cell signal pathways and play a role in the pathophysiological mechanism of autistic spectrum disorders.

  1. Convergent Validity of the Autism Spectrum Disorders-Diagnostic Adult (ASD-DA) with the Pervasive Developmental Disorder/Autism Subscale of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belva, Brian C.; Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Kozlowski, Allison M.; Bamburg, Jay W.

    2012-01-01

    The "Autism Spectrum Disorders-Diagnosis for Adults" ("ASD-DA") is a standardized assessment used to measure autistic symptomatology in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). In order to further establish the validity of this measure, convergent validity of the "ASD-DA" was established by comparing "ASD-DA" total and subscales scores with the…

  2. Psychometric properties of a new measure to assess autism spectrum disorder in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolidge, Frederick L; Marle, Peter D; Rhoades, Camille S; Monaghan, Patricia; Segal, Daniel L

    2013-01-01

    This article presents preliminary psychometric properties of a new 45-item scale, the Coolidge Autistic Symptoms Survey (CASS), designed to differentiate between children within the autism spectrum (including Asperger's Disorder) and purportedly normal children, in anticipation of DSM-5 changes, in which a single diagnostic category is proposed: autism spectrum disorder. The final sample (N = 72) consisted of 19 children diagnosed with Asperger's Disorder, 19 children who were considered loners by their parents (without an autism diagnosis), and 34 purportedly normal children. The CASS and the 200-item, DSM-IV-TR aligned, Coolidge Personality and Neuropsychological Inventory were completed by a parent. The CASS had excellent internal scale reliability (α= .97) and test-retest (r = .91) reliability. ANOVA revealed the CASS was able to discriminate significantly among the 3 groups of children. Further research with the CASS appears warranted. PMID:23330630

  3. Autism and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R

    2012-01-01

    The pervasive developmental disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), and Rett's disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as autism spectrum disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiological characteristics compared to Rett's disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews research and clinical information to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  4. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rossignol Daniel A; Bradstreet James J; Van Dyke Kyle; Schneider Cindy; Freedenfeld Stuart H; O’Hara Nancy; Cave Stephanie; Buckley Julie A; Mumper Elizabeth A; Frye Richard E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Traditionally, hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) is indicated in several clinical disorders include decompression sickness, healing of problem wounds and arterial gas embolism. However, some investigators have used HBOT to treat individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A number of individuals with ASD possess certain physiological abnormalities that HBOT might ameliorate, including cerebral hypoperfusion, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Studies...

  5. [Recognition of autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, M.W.; Londen, L van; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder was diagnosed in three adults. The first patient, a married man aged 41, was referred to a psychiatrist with 'impending burn-out'. The second was a 32-year-old male student with schizophrenia and a depressive disorder who was referred to a centre for autism because a friend

  6. Abnormal speech spectrum and increased pitch variability in young autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoram S Bonneh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD who can speak often exhibit abnormal voice quality and speech prosody, but the exact nature and underlying mechanisms of these abnormalities, as well as their diagnostic power are currently unknown. Here we quantified speech abnormalities in terms of the properties of the long-term average spectrum (LTAS and pitch variability in speech samples of 83 children (41 with ASD, 42 controls ages 4-6.5 years, recorded while they named a sequence of daily-life pictures for 60 sec. We found a significant difference in the group’s average spectra, with ASD spectra being shallower and exhibiting less harmonic structure. Contrary to the common impression of monotonic speech in autism, the ASD children had a significantly larger pitch range and variability across time. A measure of this variability, optimally tuned for the sample, yielded 86% success (90% specificity, 80% sensitivity in classifying ASD in the sample. These results indicate that speech abnormalities in ASD are reflected in its spectral content and pitch variability. This variability could imply abnormal processing of auditory feedback or elevated noise and instability in the mechanisms that control pitch. The current results are a first step towards developing speech-spectrum-based bio-markers for early diagnosis of ASD.

  7. Channelopathy Pathogenesis in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Galina eSchmunk; J. Jay eGargus

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting bod...

  8. Channelopathy pathogenesis in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Schmunk, Galina; Gargus, J. Jay

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting bod...

  9. Social communication deficits and conduct disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Donno, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that a proportion of children with Conduct Disorder may have unidentified Autistic Spectrum Disorder (Gilchrist et al., 2001 Gilmour, Hill, Place & Skuse, 2004). This paper considers the argument that a subgroup of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder are undetected and subsumed under Conduct Disorder or similar descriptors. Diagnostic criteria are described and issues relevant to Conduct Disorder discussed. This is followed by an examination of the similariti...

  10. Anomalies of Imagination and Disordered Self in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Andreas Christian Rosén; Parnas, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Vivid mental imagery occurs frequently in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSDs). Overlapping phenomena, such as obsessions or ruminations, are also frequent in other psychiatric disorders, raising significant diagnostic challenges. Unfortunately, contemporary operational psychopathology lacks...... of 'irreality' of the fantasy may become compromised. We articulate these anomalies of imagination as being entailed by the underlying generative disorder of schizophrenia, namely the disorder of minimal self (unstable ipseity or first-person perspective). We propose that pathology of imagination...... is an important psychopathological aspect of the schizophrenia spectrum, with significant relevance for early diagnosis and differential diagnosis....

  11. Explore the Possibility of Using Sand Play to Distinguish the Function Level of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder%运用沙箱游戏区分自闭症谱系障碍儿童功能的可行性探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周念丽; 方俊明

    2012-01-01

    本研究力图探索通过沙箱游戏过程观察和作品分析来区分自闭症谱系障碍(ASD)儿奄功能水平的可能性。通过对152名已被诊断为ASD的3.2—14.5岁儿童的沙箱游戏过程观察及作品分析,提炼出“体验与适应”、“识认与选择”和“策略与操作”三个具有内在一致性和较高辨别力的等级性功能指标。研究表明:第一等级功能指标适用于对所有ASD儿童的功能评估,第二等级功能指标是区分ASD儿童功能水平的分水岭,第三等级功能指标是甄别中、高功能ASD儿童有力工具。%Sand play reflects player's mind and emotion. However, it is rarely used to distinguish the functional level of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). This study aims to explore the interplay. The subjects were 152 children diagnosed by hospital as having ASD, 121 boys, 31 girls, ranging from 3 years and 2 months old to 14 years and 5 months old, with a mean age of 8 years and 8 months. Based on IQ scores, parent questionnaires, and play observations, tbe subjects were grouped into four function levels: low, middle-low, middle-high, and high. During the study, children were told to play freely in the sandbox with toys and create something. Still and video cameras were used to record the play processes and products and then recordings were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Three hierarchical function indexes, "Experience and Adaption", "Recognition and Selection", and "Strategy and Operation" with three variables in each index, were used to quantitatively analyze the process and products of children's sand play. Function indexes are found to be consistent in all three levels. The range of correlation coefficients of the three variables, "attention", "action", and "adaptation", of the first function index is. 399 to. 536. The range of correlation coefficients of the three variables, "choosing plastic toys", "using plastic toys", and

  12. Social (pragmatic) communication disorders and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Gillian; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2016-08-01

    Changes have been made to the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), and similar changes are likely in the WHO International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) due in 2017. In light of these changes, a new clinical disorder, social (pragmatic) communication disorder (SPCD), was added to the neurodevelopmental disorders section of DSM-5. This article describes the key features of ASD, SPCD and the draft ICD-11 approach to pragmatic language impairment, highlighting points of overlap between the disorders and criteria for differential diagnosis. PMID:26699538

  13. Mood Disorders in Mothers of Children on the Autism Spectrum Are Associated with Higher Functioning Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roma A. Vasa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders occur more frequently in family members of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD than in the general population. There may be associations between maternal mood disorder history patterns and specific ASD phenotypes. We therefore examined the relationship between maternal mood disorders and child autism spectrum disorders in 998 mother-child dyads enrolled in a national online autism registry and database. Mothers of children with ASD completed online questionnaires addressing their child’s ASD as well as their own mood disorder history. In multivariate logistic regression models of ASD diagnoses, the odds of an Asperger disorder versus autistic disorder diagnosis were higher among those children whose mothers had a lifetime history of bipolar disorder (OR 2.11, CI 1.20, 3.69 or depression (OR 1.62, CI 1.19, 2.19. Further, maternal mood disorder onset before first pregnancy was associated with higher odds (OR 2.35, CI 1.48, 3.73 of an Asperger versus autism diagnosis among this sample of children with ASD. These data suggest that differences in maternal mood disorder history may be associated with ASD phenotype in offspring.

  14. Investigating mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental phenotypes of autistic and intellectual disability disorders: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eKroon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Brain function and behaviour undergo significant plasticity and refinement, particularly during specific critical and sensitive periods. In autistic and intellectual disability neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs and their corresponding genetic mouse models, impairments in many neuronal and behavioural phenotypes are temporally regulated and in some cases, transient. However, the links between neurobiological mechanisms governing typically normal brain and behavioural development (referred to also as ‘neurotypical’ development and timing of NDD impairments are not fully investigated.This perspective highlights temporal patterns of synaptic and neuronal impairment, with a restricted focus on autism and intellectual disability types of NDDs. Given the varying known genetic and environmental causes for NDDs, this perspective proposes two strategies for investigation: (1 a focus on neurobiological mechanisms underlying known critical periods in the (typically normal-developing brain (2 investigation of spatio-temporal expression profiles of genes implicated in monogenic syndromes throughout affected brain regions.This approach may help explain why many NDDs with differing genetic causes can result in overlapping phenotypes at similar developmental stages and better predict vulnerable periods within these disorders, with implications for both therapeutic rescue and ultimately, prevention.

  15. Effects of risperidone on core symptoms of autistic disorder based on childhood autism rating scale: An open label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padideh Ghaeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of risperidone in patients afflicted by autistic disorder especially with regards to its three core symptoms, including "relating to others", "communication skills", and "stereotyped behaviors" based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS. Materials and Methods: An 8-week open-label study of risperidone for treatment of autistic disorder in children 4-17 years old was designed. Risperidone dose titration was as follow: 0.02 mg/kg/day at the first week, 0.04 mg/kg/day at the second week, and 0.06 mg/kg/day at the third week and thereafter. The outcome measures were scores obtained by CARS, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I scale. Results: Fifteen patients completed this study. After 8 weeks, CARS total score decreased significantly, (P=0.001. At the end of the study, social interactions and verbal communication skills of the patients were significantly improved (P<0.001, P=0.03, respectively. However, stereotypic behaviors did not show any significant change in this study. Increase in appetite and somnolence were the most reported side effects. Conclusion: This study suggests that risperidone may be an effective treatment for the management of core symptoms of autistic disorder.

  16. An affordable compact humanoid robot for Autism Spectrum Disorder interventions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein-Fischer, Laurie; Alexander, Elizabeth; Yan, Xiaoan; Su, Hao; Harrington, Kevin; Fischer, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder impacts an ever-increasing number of children. The disorder is marked by social functioning that is characterized by impairment in the use of nonverbal behaviors, failure to develop appropriate peer relationships and lack of social and emotional exchanges. Providing early intervention through the modality of play therapy has been effective in improving behavioral and social outcomes for children with autism. Interacting with humanoid robots that provide simple emotional response and interaction has been shown to improve the communication skills of autistic children. In particular, early intervention and continuous care provide significantly better outcomes. Currently, there are no robots capable of meeting these requirements that are both low-cost and available to families of autistic children for in-home use. This paper proposes the piloting the use of robotics as an improved diagnostic and early intervention tool for autistic children that is affordable, non-threatening, durable, and capable of interacting with an autistic child. This robot has the ability to track the child with its 3 degree of freedom (DOF) eyes and 3-DOF head, open and close its 1-DOF beak and 1-DOF each eyelids, raise its 1-DOF each wings, play sound, and record sound. These attributes will give it the ability to be used for the diagnosis and treatment of autism. As part of this project, the robot and the electronic and control software have been developed, and integrating semi-autonomous interaction, teleoperation from a remote healthcare provider and initiating trials with children in a local clinic are in progress. PMID:22255539

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Part I: A Comparison of Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Shelley L.; Coons, Kelly D.; Hayes, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a long history of research on parents of children with disabilities, but to the authors' knowledge, no study has compared the stress of parents of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) to parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: Twenty-five parents of children with ASD and 25 parents of…

  18. Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…

  19. A Comparison of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities with and without ASD on Parallel Measures of Challenging Behaviour: The Behavior Problems Inventory-01 (BPI-01) and Autism Spectrum Disorders-Behavior Problems for Intellectually Disabled Adults (ASD-BPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojahn, Johannes; Wilkins, Jonathan; Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Challenging behaviour may not be part of the diagnostic criteria for Autistic Disorder but they are frequently exhibited by children and adults with this condition. Levels of challenging behaviours are highest in individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and co-occurring intellectual disability (ID). The sample for this study consisted of…

  20. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD. PMID:26072341

  1. Diagnosis lost: Differences between children who had and who currently have an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Stephen J; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Avila, Rosa M; Colpe, Lisa J; Pringle, Beverly A; Kogan, Michael D

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder diagnoses sometimes change due to misdiagnosis, maturation, or treatment. This study uses a probability-based national survey-the Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services-to compare currently diagnosed (n = 1420) and previously diagnosed (n = 187) children aged 6-17 years based on retrospective parental reports of early concerns about their children's development, responses to those concerns by doctors and other healthcare providers, the type of provider who made the first autism spectrum disorder diagnosis, and the autism spectrum disorder subtype diagnoses received (if any). Propensity score matching was used to control for differences between the groups on children's current level of functioning and other current characteristics that may have been related to diagnosis loss. Approximately 13% of the children ever diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder were estimated to have lost the diagnosis, and parents of 74% of them believed it was changed due to new information. Previously diagnosed children were less likely to have parents with early concerns about verbal skills, nonverbal communication, learning, and unusual gestures or movements. They were also less likely to have been referred to and diagnosed by a specialist. Previously diagnosed children were less likely to have ever received a diagnosis of Asperger's disorder or autistic disorder. PMID:26489772

  2. Diagnosis lost: Differences between children who had and who currently have an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Stephen J; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Avila, Rosa M; Colpe, Lisa J; Pringle, Beverly A; Kogan, Michael D

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder diagnoses sometimes change due to misdiagnosis, maturation, or treatment. This study uses a probability-based national survey-the Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services-to compare currently diagnosed (n = 1420) and previously diagnosed (n = 187) children aged 6-17 years based on retrospective parental reports of early concerns about their children's development, responses to those concerns by doctors and other healthcare providers, the type of provider who made the first autism spectrum disorder diagnosis, and the autism spectrum disorder subtype diagnoses received (if any). Propensity score matching was used to control for differences between the groups on children's current level of functioning and other current characteristics that may have been related to diagnosis loss. Approximately 13% of the children ever diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder were estimated to have lost the diagnosis, and parents of 74% of them believed it was changed due to new information. Previously diagnosed children were less likely to have parents with early concerns about verbal skills, nonverbal communication, learning, and unusual gestures or movements. They were also less likely to have been referred to and diagnosed by a specialist. Previously diagnosed children were less likely to have ever received a diagnosis of Asperger's disorder or autistic disorder.

  3. [Diagnosis and Therapeutic Interventions in Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, K; Gawronski, A; Vogeley, K

    2016-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by disturbed social interaction and communication as well as stereotyped or repetitive behaviors and interests. Although adults with ASD often acquire complex compensatory strategies that help them master social situations in a rule-based fashion, they still show impairments in intuitive processing of social signals and especially nonverbal communication in complex everyday situations. This constitutes a particular challenge for the psychotherapy of ASD. Psychotherapists are required to explicitly inform and act as an agent of the non-autistic world to enable patients to acquire the ability to take different perspectives. The overall aim of cognitive behavioral therapy interventions addressing ASD in adulthood is to extend the patients' behavioral repertoire to improve their quality of life. Thus, besides psychoeducation on ASD and its frequently associated comorbidities, psychotherapy for adults with ASD should focus on the training and development of social-communicative skills. Furthermore, dealing with stress in everyday situations is an important aspect of psychotherapy of these patients. PMID:27607072

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Neuropathology of the Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Hampson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum contains the largest number of neurons and synapses of any structure in the central nervous system. The concept that the cerebellum is solely involved in fine motor function has become outdated; substantial evidence has accumulated linking the cerebellum with higher cognitive functions including language. Cerebellar deficits have been implicated in autism for more than two decades. The computational power of the cerebellum is essential for many, if not most of the processes that are perturbed in autism including language and communication, social interactions, stereotyped behavior, motor activity and motor coordination, and higher cognitive functions. The link between autism and cerebellar dysfunction should not be surprising to those who study its cellular, physiological, and functional properties. Postmortem studies have revealed neuropathological abnormalities in cerebellar cellular architecture while studies on mouse lines with cell loss or mutations in single genes restricted to cerebellar Purkinje cells have also strongly implicated this brain structure in contributing to the autistic phenotype. This connection has been further substantiated by studies investigating brain damage in humans restricted to the cerebellum. In this review, we summarize advances in research on idiopathic autism and three genetic forms of autism that highlight the key roles that the cerebellum plays in this spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  5. Neurotensin is increased in serum of young children with autistic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Angelidou Asimenia; Francis Konstantinos; Vasiadi Magdalini; Alysandratos Konstantinos-Dionysios; Zhang Bodi; Theoharides Athanasios; Lykouras Lefteris; Sideri Kyriaki; Kalogeromitros Dimitrios; Theoharides Theoharis C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed in early childhood. They are associated with a set of "core symptoms" that include disabilities in social interaction skills, verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. There is no definite pathogenetic mechanism or diagnostic tests. Many children with ASD also have "allergic-like" symptoms, but test negative implying mast cell activation by non-a...

  6. Dysautonomia in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Case Reports of a Family with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Lonsdale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Case histories of a mother and her two children are reported. The mother was a recovered alcoholic. She and her two children, both of whom had symptoms that are typical of autistic spectrum disorder, had dysautonomia. All had intermittently abnormal erythrocyte transketolase studies indicating abnormal thiamine pyrophosphate homeostasis. Both children had unusual concentrations of urinary arsenic. All had symptomatic improvement with diet restriction and supplementary vitamin therapy but quickly relapsed after ingestion of sugar, milk, or wheat. The stress of a heavy metal burden, superimposed on existing genetic or epigenetic risk factors, may be important in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder when in combination. Dysautonomia has been associated with several diseases, including autism, without a common etiology. It is hypothesized that oxidative stress results in loss of cellular energy and causes retardation of hard wiring of the brain in infancy, affecting limbic system control of the autonomic nervous system.

  7. Therapeutic options in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitley, Joanna; Palace, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica is a relapsing inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system that manifests predominantly with attacks of optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis; attacks are often severe. In contrast to multiple sclerosis, a secondary progressive phase is rare, and disability in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders is related to relapses. Thus, prompt and effective treatment of relapses, and early initiation of long-term immunosuppression to prevent subsequent attacks is required in order to prevent morbidity and mortality. PMID:26840802

  8. Emotion processing in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Philip, Ruth Clare Margaret

    2009-01-01

    With an estimated prevalence of ~1%, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is relatively common. Whilst accepted as a neurodevelopmental disorder, currently the diagnosis of autism is based on the observation of characteristic behaviour: deficits in language, communication and social skills in addition to unusual or restricted interests. Research in the condition has been approached with psychological and physiological methodology however a full understanding of the underlying neuropa...

  9. The neurology of autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jeste, SS

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review: Neurological comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are not only common, but they are also associated with more clinical severity. This review highlights the most recent literature on three of autism's most prevalent neurological comorbidities: motor impairment, sleep disorders and epilepsy. Recent findings: Motor impairment in ASDs manifests as both delays and deficits, with delays found in gross and fine motor domains and deficits found in praxis, coordination ...

  10. Communicative competence and metalinguistic ability: performance by children and adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Fiona M; Murdoch, Bruce E; Woodyatt, Gail C

    2007-09-01

    The Test of Language Competence-Expanded Edition (TLC-E) was administered to children and adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Relative to controls, those with ASD were less competent on a range of TLC-E tasks. No differences were found for either child or adult ASD groups on any of the TLC-E measures when re-classified as Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) using DSM-IV language criterion. Hierarchical cluster analyses of individuals with ASD identified subgroups within the spectrum. The use of developmental language history as an identifying marker in autism is questioned. The findings suggest that comprehensive language assessments on individuals with ASD can provide clinically relevant information regarding the heterogeneity of language skills within the autistic spectrum.

  11. Autism spectrum disorder in adults : biological dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Manouilenko, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication and the presence of repetitive or stereotyped behaviors. Previous studies have demonstrated structural and functional abnormalities in different brain regions in ASD. Motor difficulties, unusual percept ion and minor physical anomalies have been reported but not systematically investigated in the adult population with ASD and n...

  12. Diagnosing autism spectrum disorders in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Niekerk, Maarten E. H.; Groen, Wouter; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; van Driel-de Jong, Dorine; Kan, Cees C.; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude

    2011-01-01

    Background: As autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have largely been neglected in old-age psychiatry, the objective of the present paper is to describe the diagnostic process in elderly patients. Methods: A systematic review of the literature on ASD in older age was undertaken and illustrated by a case

  13. A Comprehensive Book on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the book is to serve for clinical, practical, basic and scholarly practices. In twentyfive chapters it covers the most important topics related to Autism Spectrum Disorders in the efficient way and aims to be useful for health professionals in training or clinicians seeking an update. Different people with autism can have very different…

  14. Deaf Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Christen A.; Brice, Patrick J.; Lam, Kay H.; Hotto, Sue A.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies investigating the prevalence of autism have increased in recent years, within the United States and abroad. However, statistics as to how many of those children may also have a comorbid hearing loss is lacking. The prevalence of school-administrator reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (clinical diagnosis…

  15. Time Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory L.; Happe, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    Duration judgment has not been comprehensively examined in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), despite reports of perceptual idiosyncrasies in these individuals. Time estimation, production, and reproduction were tested in 25 individuals with ASD and 25 controls matched group-wise on age and IQ. Individuals with ASD performed comparably to matched…

  16. Unbroken Mirror Neurons in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Teng; Decety, Jean; Yang, Chia-Yen; Liu, Ji-Lin; Cheng, Yawei

    2010-01-01

    Background: The "broken mirror" theory of autism, which proposes that a dysfunction of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is responsible for the core social and cognitive deficits in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), has received considerable attention despite weak empirical evidence. Methods: In this electroencephalographic…

  17. Neuroimaging and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Andria L.; Crocker, Nicole; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain include structural brain anomalies as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits. Initial neuroimaging studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed previous autopsy reports of overall reduction in brain volume and…

  18. School Nurses' Knowledge of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine school nurses' working knowledge of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current knowledge of school nurses was investigated by means of a mixed-method exploratory descriptive pilot study. Instrumentation included a scale that measured the knowledge of school nurses in regard to ASD, including medication…

  19. Genetic Testing for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sarah C.; Msall, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have unique developmental and behavioral phenotypes, and they have specific challenges with communication, social skills, and repetitive behaviors. At this time, no single etiology for ASD has been identified. However, evidence from family studies and linkage analyses suggests that genetic factors play…

  20. Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

  1. The Embodied Nature of Autistic Learning: Implications for Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jespersen Ejgil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD and learning difficulties are difficult to separate in clinic manifestations and diagnoses. By taking learning as being-in-the-world, this article considers the embodied nature of autistic learning and urges its importance for understanding the phenomenological core of ASD. We begin by arguing that three mainstream contemporary ASD theories are inherently limited in offering an adequate account of autistic learning due to the disembodied ontology inscribed within them. Then, we provide an understanding of learning guided by the subjective dynamics of experience. Instead of having a disembodied and individualistic point of view, we suggest that autistic learning has an embodied nature. The “inappropriate” or “abnormal” affections and behaviors in the autistic experience of learning may actually be inherently meaningful for individuals with ASD. They strive to make sense of some basic disturbances and re-establish some form of coherence with the world, though this may only be possible in the form of delusions or autistic withdrawals. Finally, we explore the relationship between autistic learning and physical education and suggest in particular how spontaneous imitation can boost the development of children with ASD. We conclude that the application of implicit learning strategies in playful settings and the reduction of explicit strategies based upon intellectual reasoning rather than bodily reciprocity should be encouraged in the process of autistic learning.

  2. Cortico-cerebellar connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorder: what do we know so far?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eCrippa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is renowned to be a connectivity disorder and a condition characterized by cerebellar involvement, the connectivity between the cerebellum and other cortical brain regions is particularly under-examined. Indeed, converging evidence has recently suggested that the cerebellum could play a key role in the etiopathogenesis of ASD, since cerebellar anomalies have been consistently reported in ASD from the molecular to the behavioral level, and damage to the cerebellum early in development has been linked with signs of autistic features. In addition, current data have shown that the cerebellum is a key structure not only for sensory-motor control, but also for higher functions, such as social cognition and emotion, through its extensive connections with cortical areas. The disruption of these circuits could be implicated in the wide range of autistic symptoms that the term spectrum connotes. In this review, we present and discuss the recent findings from imaging studies that investigated cortico-cerebellar connectivity in people with ASD. The literature is still too limited to allow for definitive conclusions; however, this brief review reveals substantial areas for future studies, underlining currently unmet research perspectives.

  3. Discourse Cohesion in the Verbal Interactions of Individuals Diagnosed with Autistic Disorder or Schizotypal Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study compared high functioning adolescents and young adults with autism (n=8) or schizotypal personality disorder (n=9) in use of social language referencing. Both groups had similar rates, types, and patterns of cohesive reference errors, though subjects with schizotypal disorder used cohesive ties of reference more often and more correctly…

  4. [Review of psychopharmacological treatments in adolescents and adults with autistic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadli, A; Gonnier, V; Aussilloux, C

    2002-01-01

    Autism is an early developmental disorder. It leads to severe and durable disturbances. Given this problem, no treatment can be excluded a priori. Thus, many approaches are used to deal with autistic disorders. In France, pharmacological treatments are, for instance, largely and mostly used in adults. In the USA, these treatments concern 50% of persons with autism of any age. Nevertheless, they are rarely based on controlled studies. At the present, however, prescriptions and expected effects appear to be hard to localize. Furthermore, only few controlled studies validate their use. Aim - We offer a review of studies about medical treatments used in adolescents and adults with autism. They are classified in 3 categories: the first (category I) includes drugs used for their neurochemical effects focusing on autistic signs. The second (category II) covers drugs used for treatment of behavioural disorders frequently associated with autism. The third (category III) corresponds to a wide range of drugs or vitamins for wich only few case studies exist reporting irregular positive effects. The main hypothesis of this review is that autism involves a dysfunction of the neuromediation systems. This hypothesis opens new perspectives in the research of medical treatments in autism by focusing on molecules, which are supposed to have an effect on neuromediation systems. Method - Our review is based on studies, which have been published during the past twenty years. For many studies, data are limited to adolescents and adults. So we expanded our review to data available in children. The data bases that we have used are medline and psyclit. Keywords have been chosen according to: pharmacological considerations (psychotropic, psychoactive drugs, psychopharmacology) and clinical symptoms (autism, automutilations, aggressive behavior, and hyperactivity). Hypothesis of a dysfunction in the neuromediation systems in autism - Many studies exist about biochemical abnormalities in

  5. Self-disorders and the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, Julie; Parnas, Josef

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Self-disorders (SD) have been described as a core feature of schizophrenia both in classical and recent psychopathological literature. However, the specificity of SD for the schizophrenia spectrum disorders has never been demonstrated in a diagnostically heterogeneous sample, nor has...... the concurrent validity of SD been examined. AIM: (1) To examine the specificity of Examination of Anomalous Self-Experiences (EASE) measured SD to the schizophrenia spectrum disorder in first contact inpatients, (2) to explore the internal consistency and factorial structure of the EASE, (3) to assess...... the concurrent validity of SD by exploring correlations between SD and the canonical psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia, (4) to explore relations of SD to intelligence, sociodemographic, and extrinsic illness characteristics. METHODS: A total of 100 consecutive first admission patients underwent...

  6. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  7. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Siblings of Indian Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ankur; Juneja, Monica; Mishra, Devendra

    2016-06-01

    This study determined the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in 201 siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders. Siblings were screened using Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers and Social Responsiveness Scale, parent version. Screen-positive siblings were assessed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) criteria. The risk of autism spectrum disorder in siblings was correlated with various familial and disease characteristics of the index case. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in siblings was 4.97%. There was a significant effect of the presence of aggressive behavior, externalizing problems and total problems in the proband, assessed using Childhood Behavior Checklist, and the young age of the father at conception on sibling risk of autism spectrum disorder. Results of our study are in line with previous studies reporting similar prevalence but have also brought up the association with behavioral problems as a possible risk factor. Siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder should be routinely screened, and genetic counseling for this increased risk should be explained to the family. PMID:26733506

  8. Psychiatric and psychosocial problems in adults with normal-intelligence autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbrecht Evelyn

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs often display symptoms from other diagnostic categories. Studies of clinical and psychosocial outcome in adult patients with ASDs without concomitant intellectual disability are few. The objective of this paper is to describe the clinical psychiatric presentation and important outcome measures of a large group of normal-intelligence adult patients with ASDs. Methods Autistic symptomatology according to the DSM-IV-criteria and the Gillberg & Gillberg research criteria, patterns of comorbid psychopathology and psychosocial outcome were assessed in 122 consecutively referred adults with normal intelligence ASDs. The subjects consisted of 5 patients with autistic disorder (AD, 67 with Asperger's disorder (AS and 50 with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS. This study group consists of subjects pooled from two studies with highly similar protocols, all seen on an outpatient basis by one of three clinicians. Results Core autistic symptoms were highly prevalent in all ASD subgroups. Though AD subjects had the most pervasive problems, restrictions in non-verbal communication were common across all three subgroups and, contrary to current DSM criteria, so were verbal communication deficits. Lifetime psychiatric axis I comorbidity was very common, most notably mood and anxiety disorders, but also ADHD and psychotic disorders. The frequency of these diagnoses did not differ between the ASD subgroups or between males and females. Antisocial personality disorder and substance abuse were more common in the PDD NOS group. Of all subjects, few led an independent life and very few had ever had a long-term relationship. Female subjects more often reported having been bullied at school than male subjects. Conclusion ASDs are clinical syndromes characterized by impaired social interaction and non-verbal communication in adulthood as well as in childhood. They also

  9. Validity of the social responsiveness scale to differentiate between autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behaviour disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholemkery, Hannah; Kitzerow, Janina; Rohrmann, Sonja; Freitag, Christine M

    2014-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is characterised by difficulties in social interaction with peers. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) measures reciprocal social behaviour in children and adolescents and was originally developed as a quantitative measure of autistic traits. In the present study, we compare parent-rated SRS scores in children with ODD, CD, and ASD and examine the diagnostic validity of the SRS alone and in combination with additional questionnaires to differentiate between groups. We hypothesize that the SRS better differentiates ASD and typically developing controls (TD) than ASD and the disruptive behaviour disorders ODD and CD. The sample consists of three clinical groups: ASD without comorbid intellectual delay (N = 55), ODD/CD (N = 55), and TD (N = 55), between 6 and 18 years. The groups were matched by age, sex, and IQ. SRS scores were compared for the three groups. Sensitivity and specificity of the SRS total and sub-scores were examined by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses. Logistic regression analyses were calculated for estimating the rate of correctly specified individuals. The SRS differentiated excellently between ASD and TD (ROC-AUC = 1.00), but sensitivity and specificity were considerably lower when ASD was compared with ODD/CD (ROC-AUC = 0.82). A combination of three parent-rated questionnaires resulted in an improved validity to differentiate ASD and ODD/CD. For clinical screening purposes in children suspicious of ASD and/or ODD/CD, the SRS should be used in combination with additional disorder-specific questionnaires to improve the rate of correct classification of both disorders. PMID:23719758

  10. Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2, but Not Type 1, Is Up-Regulated in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Children Affected by Autistic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalco, Dario; Sapone, Anna; Giordano, Catia; Cirillo, Alessandra; de Magistris, Laura; Rossi, Francesco; Fasano, Alessio; Bradstreet, James Jeffrey; Maione, Sabatino; Antonucci, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Autistic disorders (ADs) are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders arised by the interaction of genes and environmental factors. Dysfunctions in social interaction and communication skills, repetitive and stereotypic verbal and non-verbal behaviours are common features of ADs. There are no defined mechanisms of pathogenesis, rendering…

  11. Correlation between hedgehog (hh) protein family and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) in autism spectrum disorder (asd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the correlation of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Indian Hedgehog (IHH), and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Study Design: An observational, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Autism Research and Treatment Center, Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2011 to May 2012. Methodology: Serum levels of SHH, IHH and BDNF were determined in recently diagnosed autistic patients and age matched healthy children (n=25), using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was used for the assessment of autistic severity. Spearman correlation co-efficient-r was determined. Results: The serum levels of IHH and SHH were significantly higher in autistic subjects than those of control subjects. There was significant correlation between age and IHH (r = 0.176, p = 0.03), BDNF and severe IHH (r = 0.1763, p = 0.003), and severe BDNF and severe SHH (r = 0.143, p < 0.001). However, there were no significant relationships among the serum levels of SHH, IHH and BDNF and the CARS score, age or gender. Conclusion: The findings support a correlation between SHH, IHH and BDNF in autistic children, suggesting their pathological role in autism. (author)

  12. Disordered Self in the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Henriksen, Mads Gram

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenological and empirical rediscovery of anomalous self-experience as a core feature of the schizophrenia spectrum disorders and presents the current status of research in this field. Historically, a disordered self was considered to be a constitutive phenotype...... of schizophrenia. Although the notion of a disordered self has continued to appear occasionally over the years-mainly in the phenomenologically or psychodynamically oriented literature-this notion was usually considered as a theoretical construct rather than as referring to concretely lived anomalous experiences....... Empirical research on the disorders of self-experience in schizophrenia can be traced back to the US-Denmark psychopathological collaboration in the well-known adoption and high-risk studies, which aimed at identifying trait or phenotypic vulnerability features. This research was later followed by clinical...

  13. Perinatal episodes across the mood disorder spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Florio, Arianna; Forty, Liz; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Heron, Jess; Jones, Lisa; Craddock, Nicholas; Jones, Ian

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Affective disorders are common in women, with many episodes having an onset in pregnancy or during the postpartum period. OBJECTIVE To investigate the occurrence and timing of perinatal mood episodes in women with bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and recurrent major depression (RMD). SETTING AND PATIENTS Women were recruited in our ongoing research on the genetic and nongenetic determinants of major affective disorders. Participants were interviewed and case notes were reviewed. Best-estimate diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV criteria. The 1785 parous women identified included 1212 women with bipolar disorder (980 with type I and 232 with type II) and 573 with RMD. Data were available on 3017 live births. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES We report the lifetime occurrence of perinatal mood episodes, the rates of perinatal episodes per pregnancy/postpartum period, and the timing of the onset of episodes in relation to delivery. RESULTS More than two-thirds of all diagnostic groups reported at least 1 lifetime episode of illness during pregnancy or the postpartum period. Women with bipolar I disorder reported an approximately 50% risk of a perinatal major affective episode per pregnancy/postpartum period. Risks were lower in women with RMD or bipolar II disorder, at approximately 40% per pregnancy/postpartum period. Mood episodes were significantly more common in the postpartum period in bipolar I disorder and RMD. Most perinatal episodes occurred within the first postpartum month, with mania or psychosis having an earlier onset than depression. CONCLUSIONS Although episodes of postpartum mood disorder are more common in bipolar I disorder and manic and psychotic presentations occur earlier in the postpartum period, perinatal episodes are highly prevalent across the mood disorder spectrum. PMID:23247604

  14. An Examination of Challenging Behaviors in Autistic Disorder versus Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: Significant Differences and Gender Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Alison M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are well-known for engagement in challenging behaviors. Unfortunately, due to its absence as a criterion for diagnosis in the "DSM-IV-TR", little attention has been paid to the endorsement rates of such behaviors. However, a recently developed measure to assist in the diagnosis of infants and toddlers…

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Amplified Pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Ciaran

    2015-05-01

    Among the core features of ASD, altered sensitivities in all modalities have been accorded increasing importance. Heightened sensitivity to pain and unusual expressions of and reaction to pain have not hitherto been widely recognised as a presenting feature of ASD in general paediatrics. Failure to recognise ASD as a common cause of pain can lead to late diagnosis, inappropriate treatment, distress, and further disability. Two cases are presented which illustrate the late presentation of Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asperger\\'s Syndrome subtype) with chronic unusual pain. Conclusion. Pain in autism can be atypical in its experience and expression and for this reason may go unrecognised by physicians treating chronic pain disorders.

  16. The complex genetics in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Rui; Wei, MengPing; Zhang, Chen

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a pervasive neurodevelopmental disease characterized by deficits in social interaction and nonverbal communication, as well as restricted interests and stereotypical behavior. Genetic changes/heritability is one of the major contributing factors, and hundreds to thousands of causative and susceptible genes, copy number variants (CNVs), linkage regions, and microRNAs have been associated with ASD which clearly indicates that ASD is a complex genetic disorder. Here, we will briefly summarize some of the high-confidence genetic changes in ASD and their possible roles in their pathogenesis. PMID:26335739

  17. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Parnas, Josef;

    2006-01-01

    A prospective study based on the U.S. National Collaborative Perinatal Project and using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) found lower test scores for the Coding subtest in preschizophrenic children than in their unaffected siblings. Using data on cognitive functioning...... in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years......), and the diagnostic assessment (DSM-IIIR) was conducted by senior clinicians 25 years later. The group with schizophrenia spectrum disorder consisted of 84 individuals, and this group obtained significantly lower scores on Coding than nonschizophrenic controls. This difference could not be explained by differences...

  18. Premorbid neurocognitive functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, E.L.; Parnas, Josef;

    2006-01-01

    in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were administered to 311 children and adolescents with a mean age of 15.1 years (range: 8 to 20 years...... was 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.00) (p = .022), and the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder decreased by 3% (95% CI 6 to 0%). The Coding deficit on the WISC may indicate deficits in perceptual motor speed or in working memory processing speed in young individuals who later develop schizophrenia, schizotypal......A prospective study based on the U.S. National Collaborative Perinatal Project and using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) found lower test scores for the Coding subtest in preschizophrenic children than in their unaffected siblings. Using data on cognitive functioning...

  19. Quantitative autistic traits ascertained in a national survey of 22 529 Japanese schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Kamio, Y; Inada, N.; Moriwaki, A; Kuroda, M; Koyama, T; Tsujii, H.; Kawakubo, Y; Kuwabara, H.; Tsuchiya, K J; Uno, Y; Constantino, J N

    2012-01-01

    Objective Recent epidemiologic studies worldwide have documented a rise in prevalence rates for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Broadening of diagnostic criteria for ASD may be a major contributor to the rise in prevalence, particularly if superimposed on an underlying continuous distribution of autistic traits. This study sought to determine the nature of the population distribution of autistic traits using a quantitative trait measure in a large national population sample of children. Meth...

  20. Changes in autistic trait indicators in parents and their children with ASD: A preliminary longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Chiaki; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Yuko; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Munesue, Toshio; Takesaki, Natsumi; Higashida, Haruhiro; Oi, Manabu; Minabe, Yoshio; Asada, Minoru

    2015-08-30

    This study investigated whether the longitudinal changes in symptom severity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with changes in the parents׳ autistic traits. The results demonstrated two significant correlations between the changes in children׳s Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) score changes in either the father or both parents. Autistic symptom mitigation in ASD children was associated with increased empathy levels in their parents. PMID:26099658

  1. Synchrony between sensory and cognitive networks is associated with subclinical variation in autistic traits

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Young; Smith, David V.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autistic spectrum disorders exhibit distinct personality traits linked to attentional, social, and affective functions, and those traits are expressed with varying levels of severity in the neurotypical and subclinical population. Variation in autistic traits has been linked to reduced functional and structural connectivity (i.e., underconnectivity, or reduced synchrony) with neural networks modulated by attentional, social, and affective functions. Yet, it remains unclear wh...

  2. Recent update of autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung Koo

    2015-01-01

    In patients with a language developmental delay, it is necessary to make a differential diagnosis for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), specific language impairment, and mental retardation. It is important that pediatricians recognize the signs and symptoms of ASDs, as many patients with language developmental delays are ultimately diagnosed with ASDs. Pediatricians play an important role in the early recognition of ASDs, because they are usually the first point of contact for children with A...

  3. Premorbid Neurocognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Holger J.; Erik L. Mortensen; Parnas, Josef; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2006-01-01

    A prospective study based on the U.S. National Collaborative Perinatal Project and using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) found lower test scores for the Coding subtest in preschizophrenic children than in their unaffected siblings. Using data on cognitive functioning in adolescence, the aim of the present prospective study was to examine whether low scores on Coding is associated with the risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The 12 subtests of the WISC were...

  4. Reward system dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kohls, Gregor; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Nehrkorn, Barbara; Müller, Kristin; Fink, Gereon R.; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Schultz, Robert T.; Konrad, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that social deficits of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are related to reward circuitry dysfunction, very little is known about the neural reward mechanisms in ASD. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated brain activations in response to both social and monetary reward in a group of children with ASD, relative to matched controls. Participants with ASD showed the expected hypoactivation in the mesocorticolimbic circuitry in r...

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Is Mesenchymal Stem Cell Personalized Therapy the Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Siniscalco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders. They are enigmatic conditions that have their origins in the interaction of genes and environmental factors. ASDs are characterized by dysfunctions in social interaction and communication skills, in addition to repetitive and stereotypic verbal and nonverbal behaviours. Immune dysfunction has been confirmed with autistic children. There are no defined mechanisms of pathogenesis or curative therapy presently available. Indeed, ASDs are still untreatable. Available treatments for autism can be divided into behavioural, nutritional, and medical approaches, although no defined standard approach exists. Nowadays, stem cell therapy represents the great promise for the future of molecular medicine. Among the stem cell population, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs show probably best potential good results in medical research. Due to the particular immune and neural dysregulation observed in ASDs, mesenchymal stem cell transplantation could offer a unique tool to provide better resolution for this disease.

  6. Is there a 'regressive phenotype' of Autism Spectrum Disorder associated with the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine? A CPEA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer; Luyster, Rhiannon; Risi, Susan; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Dawson, Geraldine; Bernier, Raphael; Dunn, Michelle; Hepburn, Susan; Hyman, Susan L; McMahon, William M; Goudie-Nice, Julie; Minshew, Nancy; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Spence, M Anne; Goldberg, Wendy A; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Volkmar, Fred R; Lord, Catherine

    2006-04-01

    A multi-site study of 351 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 31 typically developing children used caregiver interviews to describe the children's early acquisition and loss of social-communication milestones. For the majority of children with ASD who had experienced a regression, pre-loss development was clearly atypical. Children who had lost skills also showed slightly poorer outcomes in verbal IQ and social reciprocity, a later mean age of onset of autistic symptoms, and more gastrointestinal symptoms than children with ASD and no regression. There was no evidence that onset of autistic symptoms or of regression was related to measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. The implications of these findings for the existence of a 'regressive phenotype' of ASD are discussed.

  7. The role of executive functions in social impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Rachel C; Vogan, Vanessa M; Powell, Tamara L; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Taylor, Margot J

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by socio-communicative impairments. Executive dysfunction may explain some key characteristics of ASD, both social and nonsocial hallmarks. Limited research exists exploring the relations between executive function and social impairment in ASD and few studies have used a comparison control group. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the relations between executive functioning using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF), social impairment as measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and overall autistic symptomology as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in children and adolescents with and without ASD. Seventy children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD and 71 typically developing controls were included in this study. Findings showed that behavioral regulation executive processes (i.e., inhibition, shifting, and emotional control) predicted social function in all children. However, metacognitive executive processes (i.e., initiation, working memory, planning, organization, and monitoring) predicted social function only in children with ASD and not in typically developing children. Our findings suggest a distinct metacognitive executive function-social symptom link in ASD that is not present in the typical population. Understanding components of executive functioning that contribute to the autistic symptomology, particularly in the socio-communicative domain, is crucial for developing effective interventions that target key executive processes as well as underlying behavioral symptoms.

  8. The role of executive functions in social impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Rachel C; Vogan, Vanessa M; Powell, Tamara L; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Taylor, Margot J

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by socio-communicative impairments. Executive dysfunction may explain some key characteristics of ASD, both social and nonsocial hallmarks. Limited research exists exploring the relations between executive function and social impairment in ASD and few studies have used a comparison control group. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the relations between executive functioning using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF), social impairment as measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and overall autistic symptomology as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in children and adolescents with and without ASD. Seventy children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD and 71 typically developing controls were included in this study. Findings showed that behavioral regulation executive processes (i.e., inhibition, shifting, and emotional control) predicted social function in all children. However, metacognitive executive processes (i.e., initiation, working memory, planning, organization, and monitoring) predicted social function only in children with ASD and not in typically developing children. Our findings suggest a distinct metacognitive executive function-social symptom link in ASD that is not present in the typical population. Understanding components of executive functioning that contribute to the autistic symptomology, particularly in the socio-communicative domain, is crucial for developing effective interventions that target key executive processes as well as underlying behavioral symptoms. PMID:25731979

  9. Selected forms of therapy for individuals with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudzinska Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a condition of multiple origins. It is characterised by a range of behaviour patterns, in addition to disturbed social and emotional functioning. Of note, early therapy is conducive to better treatment results. A few recently discussed therapies have a particularly positive impact on children with ASD. Corbett et al. [2] proposed Sense Theatre. This involves instilling appropriate behaviours and communication patterns into the afflicted individual through acting. Role-playing and other similar techniques also offer an opportunity for children with ASD to improve their areas of empathy and social cooperation. With regard to bio-feedback-related techniques, Friedrich et al. [3] was noted for developing the Brain-computer method, a system of game interface connected to an external device. The method targets the mirror neuron system (MNS in order to enhance cognitive, emotional and behavioural functions through neurofeedback. An approach put forward by Solomon et al. [10] is called ‘Play and Language for Autistic Youngsters (PLAY Project Home Consultation’. Herein, volunteers visit patients’ homes on a regular basis to engage the children in play and games, after which they discuss with parents, the issues that came up. The PLAY reduces guardians’ stress levels and improves children’s skills. A pharmacological method is that of administering sulphoraphane [9], which reduces damaging effects. As others claim [8,1,7], other dietary approaches prove efficient as well. In summation, an early intervention and the employment of a multimodal treatment approach can be of importance for enhancing the life of ASD-affected children.

  10. Potential Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Screening of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental condition, which is typically characterized by a triad of symptoms: impaired social communication, social reciprocity and repetitive stereotypic behavior. While the behavioral phenotype of ASD is well described, the search for reliable ‘autism biomarkers’ continues. CONTENT: Insulin growth factor (IGF is essential for the myelination of developing fetal neurons; this is in addition to the well-known links between IGF, maternal inflammation, infection and autism supporting IGF as a potential marker. Combining IGF data with data regarding levels of the known markers, serotonin and anti-myelin basic protein, in order to calculate an autism index, could provide a new diagnostic method for at-risk neonates. Disruptions to multiple pathophysiological systems, including redox, folate, methylation, tryptophan metabolism, and mitochondrial metabolism, have been well documented in autistic patients. Maternal infection and inflammation have known links with autism. Autoimmunity has therefore been a well-studied area of autism research. The potential of using autoantibodies as novel biomarkers for autism, in addition to providing insights into the neurodevelopmental processes that lead to autism. SUMMARY: The six proposed causes of autism involve both metabolic and immunologic dysfunctions and include: increased oxidative stress; decreased methionine metabolism and trans-sulfuration: aberrant free and bound metal burden; gastrointestinal (GI disturbances; immune/inflammation dysregulation; and autoimmune targeting. A newborn screening program for early-onset ASD should be capable of utilizing a combination of ASD-associated biomarkers representative of the six proposed causes of autism in order to identify newborns at risk. The biomarkers discussed in this article are useful to guide the selection, efficacy and sufficiency of biomedical interventions, which would likely

  11. [The projection of autism spectrum disorders in adult life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, K

    2012-06-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) consist a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that are usually diagnosed in early childhood but they persist throughout life, although significant changes can happen. The prevalence of the ASDs is estimated to be 1-1.2%. Subjects with the more severe form of the disorder that are usually characterised by the absence of a communicative language and learning difficulties of various severity, are often referred as persons with lower functioning. In the other end of the spectrum we can find subjects with less severe symptomatology, communicative language and at least of normal intelligence that are referred as high functioning autistic people or -in case of an absence of a language delay- as suffering from Asperger syndrome. The lower functioning adults can be referred to an adult psychiatrist mainly due to their behavioral problems and disruptive behaviors. Their inability to express their difficulties, due to their language restrictions and empathy deficits, can lead these people to behavioural deviances (often self- or hetero-destructive) that challenge their personal environment ending up in the pursuit of psychiatric help. In most cases, although not always justified, psychotropic medications will be prescribed in an attempt to control their maladaptive behaviors. Special attention should be paid to the catatonic exacerbation of ASD, which can be exhibited after adolescence. The catatonic features presented shouldn't be perceived as a possible comorbidity with another disorder, such as schizophrenia, but rather as an extreme form anxiety within the context of an ASD. High Functioning adults with ASDs are more difficult to be detected, but they may also need psychiatric consultation. These subjects may have never been diagnosed with an ASD, but they could have in their history a variety of diagnostic categorizations. Their accurate diagnosis could be further hampered in cases where they are exhibiting remarkable abilities

  12. Low serum myeloperoxidase in autistic children with gastrointestinal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Russo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthony J Russo1, Arthur Krigsman2, Bryan Jepson2, Andy Wakefield21Research Director, Health Research Institute/Pfeiffer Treatment Center, Warrenville, IL, USA; 2Thoughtful House Center for Children, Austin, TX, USAAim: To assess serum myeloperoxidase (MPO levels in autistic children with severe gastrointestinal (GI disease and to test the hypothesis that there is an association between serum MPO concentration and inflammatory GI disease, including antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA, previously seen in a subgroup of autistic children.Subjects and methods: Serum from 40 autistic children with chronic digestive disease (most with ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH and inflammation of the colorectum, small bowel and/or stomach, and 48 controls (12 age-matched autistic children with no GI disease, 20 age-matched children without autism or GI disease, and 16 nonautistic individuals with no family history of autism were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays designed to quantitate serum MPO levels. MPO serum concentration of autistic children with GI disease was compared to GI disease severity (including LNH and erythema and presence of ANCA.Results: We found that a significant number of autistic children with chronic digestive disease had low serum levels of MPO. However, there was no significant relationship between these levels and severity of GI disease, including the presence of ANCA.Discussion: These results suggest a relationship between low MPO levels and GI disease seen in a subpopulation of autism spectrum disorders individuals. MPO concentration may therefore be a useful biomarker for GI disease in this group of autistic children.Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, autism, myeloperoxidase, GI disease, oxidative stress

  13. Otopalatodigital spectrum disorders: refinement of the phenotypic and mutational spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutton, Sébastien; Fergelot, Patricia; Naudion, Sophie; Cordier, Marie-Pierre; Solé, Guilhem; Guerineau, Elodie; Hubert, Christophe; Rooryck, Caroline; Vuillaume, Marie-Laure; Houcinat, Nada; Deforges, Julie; Bouron, Julie; Devès, Sylvie; Le Merrer, Martine; David, Albert; Geneviève, David; Giuliano, Fabienne; Journel, Hubert; Megarbane, André; Faivre, Laurence; Chassaing, Nicolas; Francannet, Christine; Sarrazin, Elisabeth; Stattin, Eva-Lena; Vigneron, Jacqueline; Leclair, Danielle; Abadie, Caroline; Sarda, Pierre; Baumann, Clarisse; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Arveiler, Benoit; Lacombe, Didier; Goizet, Cyril; Coupry, Isabelle

    2016-08-01

    Otopalatodigital spectrum disorders (OPDSD) constitute a group of dominant X-linked osteochondrodysplasias including four syndromes: otopalatodigital syndromes type 1 and type 2 (OPD1 and OPD2), frontometaphyseal dysplasia, and Melnick-Needles syndrome. These syndromes variably associate specific facial and extremities features, hearing loss, cleft palate, skeletal dysplasia and several malformations, and show important clinical overlap over the different entities. FLNA gain-of-function mutations were identified in these conditions. FLNA encodes filamin A, a scaffolding actin-binding protein. Here, we report phenotypic descriptions and molecular results of FLNA analysis in a large series of 27 probands hypothesized to be affected by OPDSD. We identified 11 different missense mutations in 15 unrelated probands (n=15/27, 56%), of which seven were novel, including one of unknown significance. Segregation analyses within families made possible investigating 20 additional relatives carrying a mutation. This series allows refining the phenotypic and mutational spectrum of FLNA mutations causing OPDSD, and providing suggestions to avoid the overdiagnosis of OPD1.

  14. Transcriptome Profiling of Peripheral Blood in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Reveals Functional Pathways Related to Psychosis and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Jalbrzikowski; Maria T Lazaro; Fuying Gao; Alden Huang; Carolyn Chow; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Giovanni Coppola; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Background 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) represents one of the greatest known genetic risk factors for the development of psychotic illness, and is also associated with high rates of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in childhood. We performed integrated genomic analyses of 22q11DS to identify genes and pathways related to specific phenotypes. Methods We used a high-resolution aCGH array to precisely characterize deletion breakpoints. Using peripheral blood, we examined differential exp...

  15. Cholinergic imaging in dementia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Roman; Niccolini, Flavia; Pagano, Gennaro; Politis, Marios

    2016-07-01

    The multifaceted nature of the pathology of dementia spectrum disorders has complicated their management and the development of effective treatments. This is despite the fact that they are far from uncommon, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) alone affecting 35 million people worldwide. The cholinergic system has been found to be crucially involved in cognitive function, with cholinergic dysfunction playing a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of dementia. The use of molecular imaging such as SPECT and PET for tagging targets within the cholinergic system has shown promise for elucidating key aspects of underlying pathology in dementia spectrum disorders, including AD or parkinsonian dementias. SPECT and PET studies using selective radioligands for cholinergic markers, such as [(11)C]MP4A and [(11)C]PMP PET for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), [(123)I]5IA SPECT for the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and [(123)I]IBVM SPECT for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, have been developed in an attempt to clarify those aspects of the diseases that remain unclear. This has led to a variety of findings, such as cortical AChE being significantly reduced in Parkinson's disease (PD), PD with dementia (PDD) and AD, as well as correlating with certain aspects of cognitive function such as attention and working memory. Thalamic AChE is significantly reduced in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy, whilst it is not affected in PD. Some of these findings have brought about suggestions for the improvement of clinical practice, such as the use of a thalamic/cortical AChE ratio to differentiate between PD and PSP, two diseases that could overlap in terms of initial clinical presentation. Here, we review the findings from molecular imaging studies that have investigated the role of the cholinergic system in dementia spectrum disorders. PMID:26984612

  16. Cholinergic imaging in dementia spectrum disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Roman; Niccolini, Flavia; Pagano, Gennaro; Politis, Marios [Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King' s College London, Neurodegeneration Imaging Group, Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-15

    The multifaceted nature of the pathology of dementia spectrum disorders has complicated their management and the development of effective treatments. This is despite the fact that they are far from uncommon, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) alone affecting 35 million people worldwide. The cholinergic system has been found to be crucially involved in cognitive function, with cholinergic dysfunction playing a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of dementia. The use of molecular imaging such as SPECT and PET for tagging targets within the cholinergic system has shown promise for elucidating key aspects of underlying pathology in dementia spectrum disorders, including AD or parkinsonian dementias. SPECT and PET studies using selective radioligands for cholinergic markers, such as [{sup 11}C]MP4A and [{sup 11}C]PMP PET for acetylcholinesterase (AChE), [{sup 123}I]5IA SPECT for the α{sub 4}β{sub 2} nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and [{sup 123}I]IBVM SPECT for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, have been developed in an attempt to clarify those aspects of the diseases that remain unclear. This has led to a variety of findings, such as cortical AChE being significantly reduced in Parkinson's disease (PD), PD with dementia (PDD) and AD, as well as correlating with certain aspects of cognitive function such as attention and working memory. Thalamic AChE is significantly reduced in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy, whilst it is not affected in PD. Some of these findings have brought about suggestions for the improvement of clinical practice, such as the use of a thalamic/cortical AChE ratio to differentiate between PD and PSP, two diseases that could overlap in terms of initial clinical presentation. Here, we review the findings from molecular imaging studies that have investigated the role of the cholinergic system in dementia spectrum disorders. (orig.)

  17. A Randomised Group Comparison Controlled Trial of "Preschoolers with Autism": A Parent Education and Skills Training Intervention for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; Mackinnon, Andrew; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder. Method: A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent…

  18. Assessing the influence of researcher-partner involvement on the process and outcomes of participatory research in autism spectrum disorder and neurodevelopmental disorders: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2014-10-01

    Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify and characterize published participatory research partnerships between researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders and examine the influence of participatory research partnerships on the research process and reported study outcomes. A search of databases and review of gray literature identified seven studies that described participatory research partnerships between academic researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders. A comparative analysis of the studies revealed two key themes: (1) variations in the participatory research design and (2) limitations during the reporting of the depth of the partner's involvement. Both themes potentially limit the application and generalizability of the findings. The results of the review are discussed in relation to the use of evaluative frameworks for such participatory research studies to determine the potential benefits of participatory research partnerships within the neurodevelopmental and autism spectrum disorder populations.

  19. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  20. Gestational Age and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atladóttir, H Ó; Schendel, D.E.; Henriksen, T B;

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder. Several previous studies have identified pre-term birth as a risk factor for ASD but none has studied whether the association between gestational age and ASD has changed over time. This is a Danish population-based follow......-up study including live-born singletons born in Denmark between 1980 and 2009, identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry, a study population of 1,775,397 children. We used a Cox regression model combined with spline to study the risk for ASD by gestational age across three decades of birth cohorts. We...... included 19,020 children diagnosed with ASD. Across all birth year cohorts, we found that the risk of being diagnosed with ASD increased with lower gestational age (P-value: gestational weeks, we found a statistically significant higher risk estimates in birth cohort 1980 to 1989...

  1. Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder Masquerading as Social Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Behere, Rishikesh V.; Rao, Mukund G.; Mishra, Shree; Varambally, Shivarama; Nagarajarao, Shivashankar; Bangalore N Gangadhar

    2015-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 47-year-old man who presented with treatment-resistant anxiety disorder. Behavioral observation raised clinical suspicion of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. The presence of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder was confirmed on audiological investigations. The patient was experiencing extreme symptoms of anxiety, which initially masked the underlying diagnosis of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. Challenges in diagnosis and treatment of auditory neur...

  2. Olfactory functions are not associated with autism severity in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudova I

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Iva Dudova, Michal HrdlickaDepartment of Child Psychiatry, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech RepublicBackground: Changes in olfactory functions have been found in many neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between olfactory functions (odor-detection thresholds, odor identification, and odor preference and autism severity and sensory-related behavior in children and adolescents with ASD.Subjects and methods: Our sample consisted of 35 high-functioning patients with ASD (mean age 10.8±3.6 years, 31 boys. Olfactory testing (threshold and identification used the Sniffin' Sticks test. Odor pleasantness was assessed on a 5-point scale using the Identification part of the Sniffin’ Sticks test. The severity of autistic psychopathology was measured using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS.Results: Using Spearman’s correlation, we found no significant correlations between autism severity (as expressed by total CARS score and odor-detection thresholds (R=0.144, P=0.409, odor identification (R=0.07, P=0.966, or odor pleasantness (R=-0.046, P=0.794. There was also no significant relationship between CARS item 9 (“Taste, smell, and touch response and use” and odor-detection thresholds (R=0.170, P=0.330, odor identification (R=0.282, P=0.100, or odor pleasantness (R=0.017, P=0.923.Conclusion: We did not find any significant relationship between the severity of autistic psychopathology and olfactory functions.Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, psychopathology, Sniffin’ Sticks, odor threshold, odor identification, odor pleasantness

  3. Female patient with autistic disorder, intellectual disability, and co-morbid anxiety disorder: Expanding the phenotype associated with the recurrent 3q13.2-q13.31 microdeletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintela, Ines; Gomez-Guerrero, Lorena; Fernandez-Prieto, Montse; Resches, Mariela; Barros, Francisco; Carracedo, Angel

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the advent of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and its use as a first genetic test for the diagnosis of patients with neurodevelopmental phenotypes has allowed the identification of novel submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities (namely, copy number variants or CNVs), imperceptible by conventional cytogenetic techniques. The 3q13.31 microdeletion syndrome (OMIM #615433) has been defined as a genomic disorder mainly characterized by developmental delay, postnatal overgrowth, hypotonia, genital abnormalities in males, and characteristic craniofacial features. Although the 3q13.31 CNVs are variable in size, a 3.4 Mb recurrently altered region at 3q13.2-q13.31 has been recently described and non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) mediated by flanking human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-H) elements has been suggested as the mechanism of deletion formation. We expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with this recurrent deletion performing the clinical description of a 9-year-old female patient with autistic disorder, total absence of language, intellectual disability, anxiety disorder and disruptive, and compulsive eating behaviors. The array-based molecular karyotyping allowed the identification of a de novo recurrent 3q13.2-q13.31 deletion encompassing 25 genes. In addition, we compare her clinical phenotype with previous reports of patients with neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders and proximal 3q microdeletions. Finally, we also review the candidate genes proposed so far for these phenotypes. PMID:26332054

  4. Traumatic Stress Disorders and Risk of Subsequent Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder or Bipolar Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Niels; Trabjerg, Betina; Arendt, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Traumatic stress disorders are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, there is a lack of prospective longitudinal studies investigating the risk of severe mental illness for people diagnosed with traumatic stress disorders. We aimed to assess if patients...... with acute stress reaction (ASR) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at increased risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders or bipolar disorder. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study covering the entire Danish population including information on inpatient and outpatient mental hospitals...... over 2 decades. Predictors were in- or outpatient diagnoses of ASR or PTSD. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% CIs of schizophrenia, schizophrenia spectrum disorder, and bipolar disorder. RESULTS: Persons with a traumatic stress disorder had a significantly increased risk...

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Part II: A Qualitative Comparison of Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Shelley L.; Hayes, Stephanie A.; Coons, Kelly D.; Radford-Paz, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Researchers investigating the impact of parenting children with disabilities suggest that regardless of the specific diagnosis, parents experience increased levels of stress. However, particular disabilities may be associated with distinct stressors and strains. Method: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and…

  6. Fractionation of Social Brain Circuits in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Milbury, Lydia A.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are developmental disorders characterized by impairments in social and communication abilities and repetitive behaviours. Converging neuroscientific evidence has suggested that the neuropathology of autism spectrum disorders is widely distributed, involving impaired connectivity throughout the brain. Here, we evaluate the…

  7. Training referential communicative skills to individuals with autism spectrum disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivar-Parra, José-Sixto; De-La-Iglesia-Gutiérrez, Myriam; Forns, Maria

    2011-12-01

    The present study reports the effects of referential communication training in individuals formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were 20 children with ASD (M age = 14.3 yr., SD = 4.2; 6 girls, 14 boys) in the role of speakers and 20 control children, who acted as listeners. They were all enrolled in mainstream compulsory education. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were defined according to the clinical diagnosis of ASD, the presence or absence of additional or associated disability, previous training in referential communication, and any drug treatment. Speakers were randomly assigned to one of two groups (trained vs untrained). Linguistic age, cognitive level and autistic symptoms were analyzed, respectively, with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WISC-R or WAIS-III), and the Autistic Behavior Checklist (ABC). Communicative abilities were analyzed through two indexes related to message complexity and self-regulation. The trained group was trained in referential communication tasks (task analysis, role taking, and task evaluation), while the untrained group took part in a communicative game but without any specific communicative training. The results showed that the complexity of emitted messages had improved statistically significantly in the trained group as an effect of training. Ecological referential communication is shown to be an appropriate paradigm for studying the communicative process and its products and could be used to develop and implement a training program focused on those skills in which individuals with ASD are most deficient.

  8. Clinical Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Israel: Impact of Ethnic and Social Diversities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahajnah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increased global prevalence and recognition of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD, it is still scarcely reported in the Arab world. Though Israel has a higher prevalence of ASD, a previous national survey of patients diagnosed between 1972 and 2004, demonstrated that 98% of them were of Jewish ancestry. The disproportional low number of Arab children with ASD in Israel is unclear but may reflect lower awareness and cultural bias. In the present study we collected clinical and demographic characteristics of 200 children with ASD from Arab and Jewish sectors in Israel that were evaluated in two child development centers. We compared the incidence and the medical comorbidity of autism between these two ethnics groups. The medical and psychiatric comorbidity profile in these children was similar to the worldwide published studies. In the present study the prevalence of autism in the Arab sector in Israel was similar to that of the Jewish sector. The Arab patients presented with more severe autistic manifestations and higher incidence of mental retardation, familial members with autism, and consanguinity (P<0.05, while in the Jewish sector milder forms (such as Asperger syndrome and PDD-NOS were more frequent. This discrepancy might be explained by both genetic and cultural factors.

  9. Alteration of functional connectivity in autism spectrum disorder: effect of age and anatomical distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhiliang; Duan, Xujun; Mantini, Dante; Chen, Huafu

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with disruption of local- and long-range functional connectivity (FC). The direction of those changes in FC (increase or decrease), however, is inconsistent across studies. Further, age-dependent changes of distance-specific FC in ASD remain unclear. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from sixty-four typical controls (TC) and sixty-four patients with ASD, whom we further classified into child (18 years). Functional connectivity (FC) analysis was conducted at voxel level. We employed a three-way analysis of covariance on FC to conduct statistical analyses. Results revealed that patients with ASD had lower FC than TC in cerebellum, fusiform gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus and posterior inferior temporal gyrus. Significant diagnosis-by-distance interaction was observed in ASD patients with reduced short-range and long-range FC in posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex. Importantly, we found significant diagnosis-by-age-by-distance interaction in orbitofrontal cortex with short-range FC being lower in autistic children, but –to a less extent– higher in autistic adults. Our findings suggest a major role of connection length in development changes of FC in ASD. We hope our study will facilitate deeper understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying ASD. PMID:27194227

  10. Risk Factors for Depression in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam De-la-Iglesia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD in the following aspects. (1 Prevalence. It was concluded that there are an elevated depression rate and the need for longitudinal studies to determine prevalence and incidence based on functioning level, autistic symptoms, gender, age, type of depression, prognosis, duration, and treatment. (2 Explicative Hypotheses and Vulnerability. The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3 Risk of Suicide. The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4 Depressive Symptoms. Indicators for early detection are proposed and their overlap with HFASD is analysed, examining the assessment techniques used and arguing that specific adapted tests are needed.

  11. Possible Role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family of survival-promoting molecules, plays a vital role in the growth, development, maintenance, and function of several neuronal systems. The purpose of this review is to document the support for the involvement of this molecule in the maintenance of normal cognitive, emotional functioning, and to outline recent developments in the content of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Current and future treatment development can be guided by developing understanding of this molecules actions in the brain and the ways the expression of BDNF can be planned. Over the years, research findings suggested a critical role played by BDNF in the development of autism including increased serum concentrations of BDNF in children with autism and identification of different forms of BDNF in families of autistic individuals. (author)

  12. Transcriptional activity of human endogenous retrovirus in Albanian children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrieri, Emanuela; Cipriani, Chiara; Matteucci, Claudia; Capodicasa, Natale; Pilika, Anita; Korca, Ina; Sorrentino, Roberta; Argaw-Denboba, Ayele; Bucci, Ilaria; Miele, Martino Tony; Coniglio, Antonella; Alessandrelli, Riccardo; Sinibaldi Vallebona, Paola

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors, whose possible links could be represented by epigenetic mechanisms. Here, we investigated the transcriptional activity of three human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) families, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from Albanian ASD children, by quantitative real-time PCR. We aimed to confirm the different expression profile already found in Italian ASD children, and to highlight any social and family health condition emerging from information gathered through a questionnaire, to be included among environmental risk factors. The presence of increased HERV-H transcriptional activity in all autistic patients could be understood as a constant epigenetic imprinting of the disease, potentially useful for early diagnosis and for the development of effective novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27602423

  13. Genetic and non-genetic animal models for autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergaz, Zivanit; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Ornoy, Asher

    2016-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal etiologies. We discuss the known animal models, mostly in mice and rats, of ASD that helps us to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and treatment of human ASD. We describe only models where behavioral testing has shown autistic like behaviors. Some genetic models mimic known human syndromes like fragile X where ASD is part of the clinical picture, and others are without defined human syndromes. Among the environmentally induced ASD models in rodents, the most common model is the one induced by valproic acid (VPA) either prenatally or early postnatally. VPA induces autism-like behaviors following single exposure during different phases of brain development, implying that the mechanism of action is via a general biological mechanism like epigenetic changes. Maternal infection and inflammation are also associated with ASD in man and animal models. PMID:27142188

  14. Risk Factors for Depression in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-la-Iglesia, Myriam; Olivar, José-Sixto

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) in the following aspects. (1) Prevalence. It was concluded that there are an elevated depression rate and the need for longitudinal studies to determine prevalence and incidence based on functioning level, autistic symptoms, gender, age, type of depression, prognosis, duration, and treatment. (2) Explicative Hypotheses and Vulnerability. The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3) Risk of Suicide. The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4) Depressive Symptoms. Indicators for early detection are proposed and their overlap with HFASD is analysed, examining the assessment techniques used and arguing that specific adapted tests are needed. PMID:26413564

  15. Dilemmas, diagnosis and de-stigmatization: parental perspectives on the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ginny; Norwich, Brahm

    2012-04-01

    Many children who display autistic behaviours at clinical levels do not receive a formal diagnosis. This study used qualitative methods to examine parental influence in pursuing or avoiding a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim was to explore the function of ASD diagnosis for parents, and examine whether a diagnosis affected how parents perceived ASD. Seventeen parents participated in in-depth semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed using thematic and grounded theory approaches. Data analysis revealed dilemmas faced by parents: whether to act to retain the 'normal' status of the child or to 'normalize' the child through diagnosis and subsequent remediation. Parents who had received an ASD diagnosis for their children became proactive in trying to reduce stigmatization of ASD more widely, and in some cases actively advocating ASD diagnosis to other parents. Thus their actions may make it more likely that others will opt for diagnosis in the future. PMID:22219019

  16. Atypical delayed auditory feedback effect and Lombard effect on speech production in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fan; Mochida, Takemi; Asada, Kosuke; Ayaya, Satsuki; Kumagaya, Shin-Ichiro; Kato, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show impaired social interaction and communication, which may be related to their difficulties in speech production. To investigate the mechanisms of atypical speech production in this population, we examined feedback control by delaying the auditory feedback of their own speech, which degraded speech fluency. We also examined feedforward control by adding loud pink noise to the auditory feedback, which led to increased vocal effort in producing speech. The results of Japanese speakers show that, compared with neurotypical (NT) individuals, high-functioning adults with ASD (including Asperger's disorder, autistic disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) were more affected by delayed auditory feedback but less affected by external noise. These findings indicate that, in contrast to NT individuals, those with ASD relied more on feedback control than on feedforward control in speech production, which is consistent with the hypothesis that this population exhibits attenuated Bayesian priors. PMID:26441607

  17. Atypical delayed auditory feedback effect and Lombard effect on speech production in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Fan Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD show impaired social interaction and communication, which may be related to their difficulties in speech production. To investigate the mechanisms of atypical speech production in this population, we examined feedback control by delaying the auditory feedback of their own speech, which degraded speech fluency. We also examined feedforward control by adding loud pink noise to the auditory feedback, which led to increased vocal effort in producing speech. The results of Japanese speakers show that, compared with neurotypical individuals, high-functioning adults with ASD (including Asperger's disorder, autistic disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified were more affected by delayed auditory feedback but less affected by external noise. These findings indicate that, in contrast to neurotypical individuals, those with ASD relied more on feedback control than on feedforward control in speech production, which is consistent with the hypothesis that this population exhibits attenuated Bayesian priors.

  18. 孤独症儿童家长生存质量的研究%Effects of life quality on autistic disorder children's parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振寰; 谢巧玲; 张勇

    2013-01-01

    [目的]分析孤独症患儿对其父母生存质量的影响,为有关机构展开工作提供参考依据. [方法]采用普适性生存质量测定量表(SF-36),对90例孤独症患儿父母及120例正常儿童的父母进行评定. [结果]1)孤独症组父母的生存质量总分及各领域评分均低于正常父母组(P<0.01);2)低功能孤独症组的父母生存质量评分明显低于高功能孤独症组(P<0.01);3)患儿家长的生存质量与患儿病情程度呈负相关,与智力水平呈正相关(P<0.01). [结论]孤独症儿童对患儿父母生存质量有影响,低功能孤独症患儿则影响更大.%【Objective】 To investigate the quality of life and related factors in parents of children with autism. 【Methods】 90 parents of autistic children and 120 parents of normal children were participated. SF-36 was employed to e-valuate both groups by questionnaire. Parents of autistic children also completed Clancy Autism Behavior Scale (CABS) Autistic Behavior Checklist (ABC),the Children Autistic Rating Scale (CARS)and Autistic children checked with the Gesell development diagnosis scale. 【Results】 1) Parents of autistic children reported substantially lower scores of SF-36 than that of parents with normal group (P<0. 01). 2) The quality of life of parents in low functioning intelligence group was worse than high functioning intelligence group(P<0. 01). 3) The quality of life of parents was positively correlated with intelligence of autistic children,and negative correlated with symptom of autistic children. 【Conclusion】 Children with autistic disorder took grievous influence on parents quality of life. Compared with high functioning intelligence group, the low functioning intelligence children's parents had even worse quality of life.

  19. Children with autism spectrum disorder have an exceptional explanatory drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M D; Subiaul, Francys

    2016-08-01

    An "explanatory drive" motivates children to explain ambiguity. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are interested in how systems work, but it is unknown whether they have an explanatory drive. We presented children with and without autism spectrum disorder unsolvable problems in a physical and in a social context and evaluated problem-solving and explanation-seeking responses. In the physical context (but not the social context), the children with autism spectrum disorder showed a stronger explanatory drive than controls. Importantly, the number of explanatory behaviors made by children with autism spectrum disorder in the social context was independent of social and communicative impairments. Children with autism spectrum disorder did not show an exceptional explanatory drive in the social domain. These results suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder have an explanatory drive and that the explanatory drive may be domain specific. PMID:26503988

  20. Autistic Traits in Neurotypical Adults: correlates of Graph Theoretical Functional Network Topology and White Matter Anisotropy Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Andras Jakab; Miklos Emri; Tamas Spisak; Anita Szeman-Nagy; Monika Beres; Sandor Attila Kis; Peter Molnar; Ervin Berenyi

    2013-01-01

    Attempts to explicate the neural abnormalities behind autism spectrum disorders frequently revealed impaired brain connectivity, yet our knowledge is limited about the alterations linked with autistic traits in the non-clinical population. In our study, we aimed at exploring the neural correlates of dimensional autistic traits using a dual approach of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and graph theoretical analysis of resting state functional MRI data. Subjects were sampled from a public neuroim...

  1. Visuomotor resonance in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eBecchio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available When we observe the actions performed by others, our motor system ‘resonates' along with that of the observed agent. Is a similar visuomotor resonant response observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD? Studies investigating action observation in ASD have yielded inconsistent findings. In this perspective article we examine behavioral and neuroscientific evidence in favor of visuomotor resonance in ASD, and consider the possible role of action-perception coupling in social cognition. We distinguish between different aspects of visuomotor resonance and conclude that while some aspects may be preserved in ASD, abnormalities exist in the way individuals with ASD convert visual information from observed actions into a program for motor execution. Such abnormalities, we surmise, may contribute to but also depend on the difficulties that individuals with ASD encounter during social interaction.

  2. Myopathy associated with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dian; Li, Ya; Dai, Qingqing; Zhang, Yifan; Xu, Zhu; Li, Yuan; Cai, Gang; Chu, Lan

    2016-10-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) were generally thought to affect only central nervous system and spare peripheral aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-expressing organs. In recent years, however, increasing evidence has shown that skeletal muscle is involved in NMOSD. We provided a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and summarized the clinical and pathological characteristics of myopathy associated with NMOSD. NMOSD-associated myopathy seems to be characterized by mild muscle symptoms with prominent hyperCKemia and minimal changes on conventional pathological staining. Loss of AQP4 and deposition of IgG and activated complement products on sarcolemma of type II fibers are diagnostic features on immunohistochemical examinations. Creatine kinase leakage as a result of AQP4-IgG-induced, complement-mediated sarcolemmal injury may be a potential mechanism for hyperCKemia. Myopathy should be considered a component of NMOSD unified by AQP4-IgG seropositivity. PMID:26514543

  3. Three cases of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsusue, Eiji; Fujihara, Yoshio; Suto, Yutaka; Takahashi, Shotaro; Tanaka, Kenichiro; Nakayasu, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2016-05-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is characterized by attacks of optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Cases positive for aquaporin 4 antibodies are classified to NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) which includes cases with optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, or with brain lesions typical of NMO. Our three cases with NMO/NMOSD revealed five imaging features: (i) extensive transverse cord lesions, extending more than three vertebral segments, partially persisting as cavitation; (ii) periependymal lesions; (iii) lesions of the corticospinal tracts; (iv) extensive and confluent hemispheric white matter lesions reflecting vasogenic edema and partially involving the cerebral cortices and basal ganglia; and (v) two patterns of serial hemispheric white matter lesions: one is cavitation and another is partial regression or disappearance. Cavitations, in the upper spinal cord and hemispheric white matter, are considered to be caused by severe vasogenic edema and are likely to be one of the characteristic findings in NMOSD. PMID:27293805

  4. Prenatal neurogenesis in autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Gaurav; Zarbalis, Konstantinos

    2016-03-01

    An ever-increasing body of literature describes compelling evidence that a subset of young children on the autism spectrum show abnormal cerebral growth trajectories. In these cases, normal cerebral size at birth is followed by a period of abnormal growth and starting in late childhood often by regression compared to unaffected controls. Recent work has demonstrated an abnormal increase in the number of neurons of the prefrontal cortex suggesting that cerebral size increase in autism is driven by excess neuronal production. In addition, some affected children display patches of abnormal laminar positioning of cortical projection neurons. As both cortical projection neuron numbers and their correct layering within the developing cortex requires the undisturbed proliferation of neural progenitors, it appears that neural progenitors lie in the center of the autism pathology associated with early brain overgrowth. Consequently, autism spectrum disorders associated with cerebral enlargement should be viewed as birth defects of an early embryonic origin with profound implications for their early diagnosis, preventive strategies, and therapeutic intervention.

  5. The Use of the Technique of «Theme Photobooks» in the Work with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Intellectual Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veksler D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The technique of «Theme Photobooks» is chosen out of the method of phototherapy and is developed by a group of American specialists in the process of remedial work with children or adults with disturbance of devel¬opment or autistic spectrum disorders. «Theme Photobooks» are an optional tool for remedial activities with children, enabling their development. Activities with Theme Photobooks consist of several stages: choice of an interesting or relevant for the child topic, selection of the objects for photographing, creation of photobooks (selection of images, their placement, making up the inscription to the photo, creation of the stories based on the pictures. The use of the technique of «Theme Photobooks» increases the intensity of communication pro¬cesses, which leads to the normalization of the child’s behaviour and considerably extends the chances of social integration. The article contracts the technique of «Theme Photobooks» with the methods PECS and «Social Stories», it also gives examples of activities with children with autistic spectrum disorders, beginning from the stage of the acquaintance of the teacher with the child to the selection of photos for the Theme Photobook «Rules of Behaviour Outdoors»

  6. Classroom Needs of Community College Students with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo, Ken; Shmulsky, Solvegi

    2012-01-01

    Community college students with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders can experience significant challenges from the social aspect of classroom learning and college life in comparison to their peers. This article explains unique challenges of postsecondary learners with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders. It also…

  7. Prevalence and Early Signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) among 18-36 Month Old Children in Tianjin of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jun Ping; CUI Shan Shan; HAN Yu; IRVA Hertz-Picciotto; QI Li Hong; ZHANG Xin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among 18-36 month old children in the Tianjin Municipality of China, and to identify early signs of autistic children and the predictability of each individual symptom. Methods A total of 8 000 children were screened to do a questionnaire based on CHAT modified to include more early signs of autism at the age of 18-36 months. Then the at-risk children were reexamined 1.5 years later and ASD children were identified based on DSM-IV. Early signs of autism were analyzed retrospectively by using discriminant function analysis performed among ASD children, children not followed up and children followed up but failing to meet ASD criteria. Results Three hundred and sixty seven children were screened as being at-risk to ASD, and 22 of them were identified as having ASD in the subsequent diagnosis. The prevalence of ASD was 27.5 per 10 000 in Tianjin of China with a male to female ratio of 4:1. Items addressing social interactions and communications had higher predictability than other items to distinguish autistic children from non-autistic ones. Pretend play, functional play, showing and reading parents’ facial expressions distinguished autistic children from those not followed up, nevertheless those followed up but failing to meet ASD criteria were not included. Conclusion The prevalence of ASD found in our study was lower than that reported in some studies by western researchers. Autism has its specific symptoms, such as deficits in social awareness, social relatedness, and social referencing.

  8. [Evolution of Devic's neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Valnet, Raphaël; Marignier, Romain

    2015-04-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system affecting mostly the optic nerve and the spinal cord. These last few years have been characterized by a dramatic improvement of NMO knowledge and care. A unique feature of NMO is the presence of autoantibodies directed against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Ab). Identification of this biomarker has enlarged the clinical spectrum of the disease to a broad variety of symptoms and syndromes including brain, brainstem and hypothalamus involvement. This modifies the acknowledged definition of NMO, switching from a clinical phenotype to a biological one and introducing the concept of "aquaporinopathy" or "autoimmune AQP4 channelopathy". AQP4-Ab plays an important role in NMO pathophysiology. In vitro and ex vivo experiments showed that AQP4-Ab can induce either direct astrocyte loss through complement activation (neuroinflammation) or astrocyte changes via internalization of AQP4 (neuromodulation). Recently, T cell involvement in NMO has been suggested. Based on relatively small retrospective and prospective case series, several treatments appear to be likely effective in preventing attacks and stabilizing disability in NMO patients. Relapse prevention in NMO is based on early and maintenance immunosuppressive treatments. Considering the antibody-driven hypothesis, treatment should target B-cells. MS-approved therapies are not currently recommended for NMO patients, several series suggesting poor efficacy or harmful effects. Despite recent improvement of the detection method, some patients remain seronegative for AQP4-Ab. This group expresses specific demographic and disease-related features different for AQP4-Ab positive ones. This raises the question of the place of seronegative AQP4-Ab NMO patients in the spectrum, of their intimate physiopathology and finally of the therapeutic strategy to adopt in such patients.

  9. No Evidence of Reaction Time Slowing in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F. Richard

    2016-01-01

    A total of 32 studies comprising 238 simple reaction time and choice reaction time conditions were examined in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (n?=?964) and controls (n?=?1032). A Brinley plot/multiple regression analysis was performed on mean reaction times, regressing autism spectrum disorder performance onto the control performance as…

  10. Risk Factors for Bullying among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Anderson, Connie M.; Law, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although children with disabilities have been found to be at an increased risk of bullying, there are limited studies investigating predictors of bullying involvement in children with autism spectrum disorders. The current study presents findings from 1221 parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who were selected from a…

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Natural Fit with DDD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Brenda Smith; Simpson, Richard L.; Babkie, Andrea M.

    2003-01-01

    This position statement from the Critical Issues Committee of the Developmental Disabilities Division of the Council for Exceptional Children focuses on clarifying the place of autism spectrum disorders within the field of developmental disabilities. The representation of concerns relating to autism spectrum disorders by the Developmental…

  12. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis accompanying neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Tomoya; Nishijima, Haruo; Haga, Rie; Funamizu, Yukihisa; Ueno, Tatsuya; Arai, Akira; Suzuki, Chieko; Nunomura, Jin-ichi; Baba, Masayuki; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2015-10-15

    We report a case of idiopathic cerebral hypertrophic pachymeningitis accompanying neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. No other identifiable cause of pachymeningitis was detected. Corticosteroid therapy was effective for both diseases. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is closely related to autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. This case supports the hypothesis that hypertrophic pachymeningitis can be a rare comorbidity of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

  13. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Have an Exceptional Explanatory Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M. D.; Subiaul, Francys

    2016-01-01

    An "explanatory drive" motivates children to explain ambiguity. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are interested in how systems work, but it is unknown whether they have an explanatory drive. We presented children with and without autism spectrum disorder unsolvable problems in a physical and in a social context and evaluated…

  14. Priorities for Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk Communication and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudell, Michael; Tabor, Holly K.; Dawson, Geraldine; Rossi, John; Newschaffer, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are an issue of increasing public health significance. The incidence of autism spectrum disorders has been increasing in recent years, and they are associated with significant personal and financial impacts for affected persons and their families. In recent years, a large number of scientific studies have been undertaken,…

  15. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut De Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G M; Bailey, Anthony J.; Bolton, Patrick F.; Carrington, Sarah; Daly, Eileen M.; Deoni, Sean C.; Happé, Francesca; Henty, Julian; Jezzard, Peter; Johnston, Patrick; Jones, Derek K.; Madden, Anya; Mullins, Diane; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Murphy, Declan G M; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Sadek, Susan A.; Spain, Debbie; Stewart, Rose; Williams, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism sp

  16. Metabolic Approaches to the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Theodore

    2000-01-01

    This review evaluates evidence for metabolic etiologies in autism spectrum disorders, as well as for the efficacy of dietary and vitamin treatments. The relationship between gastrointestinal abnormalities and autism spectrum disorders is also considered, and the need for more research on larger populations of individuals with autism is stressed.…

  17. Assessment of Infantile Mineral Imbalances in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyoharu Tsutsui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between genes and the environment are now regarded as the most probable explanation for autism. In this review, we summarize the results of a metallomics study in which scalp hair concentrations of 26 trace elements were examined for 1,967 autistic children (1,553 males and 414 females aged 0–15 years-old, and discuss recent advances in our understanding of epigenetic roles of infantile mineral imbalances in the pathogenesis of autism. In the 1,967 subjects, 584 (29.7% and 347 (17.6% were found deficient in zinc and magnesium, respectively, and the incidence rate of zinc deficiency was estimated at 43.5% in male and 52.5% in female infantile subjects aged 0–3 years-old. In contrast, 339 (17.2%, 168 (8.5% and 94 (4.8% individuals were found to suffer from high burdens of aluminum, cadmium and lead, respectively, and 2.8% or less from mercury and arsenic. High toxic metal burdens were more frequently observed in the infants aged 0–3 years-old, whose incidence rates were 20.6%, 12.1%, 7.5%, 3.2% and 2.3% for aluminum, cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury, respectively. These findings suggest that infantile zinc- and magnesium-deficiency and/or toxic metal burdens may be critical and induce epigenetic alterations in the genes and genetic regulation mechanisms of neurodevelopment in the autistic children, and demonstrate that a time factor “infantile window” is also critical for neurodevelopment and probably for therapy. Thus, early metallomics analysis may lead to early screening/estimation and treatment/prevention for the autistic neurodevelopment disorders.

  18. Longitudinal association between early atopic dermatitis and subsequent attention-deficit or autistic disorder: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Ying; Chen, Mu-Hong; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Bai, Ya-Mei; Hung, Giun-Yi; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the common allergic diseases in children. The presence of allergic diseases was found to have association with the risk of developing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in children, but it is still inconclusive. This study was to investigate the longitudinal relationship between AD developed during toddlerhood and subsequent development of ADHD or ASD in later childhood. Toddlers born between 1998 and 2008 and diagnosed with AD at the age younger than 3 years and older than 1 month were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Age- and gender-matched toddlers with no lifetime AD were enrolled as the control group. All enrolled toddlers were followed until 2011 to identify the development of ADHD or ASD. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to analyze the hazard ratios (HRs). The risks associated with allergic comorbidities were analyzed. A total of 18,473 toddlers were enrolled into the AD group. The presence of AD significantly increased the risk of developing ADHD (HR = 2.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.48-3.45) or ASD (HR = 8.90, 95% CI = 4.98-15.92) when aged 3 years or older. Children from the AD group with 3 comorbidities together, namely, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and asthma, had the greatest risk of developing ADHD and ASD (ADHD: HR = 4.67, 95% CI = 3.81-5.43; ASD: HR = 16.65, 95% CI = 8.63-30.60). In conclusion, toddlers who suffer from AD at the age younger than 3 years are at a higher risk of developing ADHD and ASD during later childhood. Pediatricians taking care of toddlers with AD should have knowledge of this increased risk of developing ADHD and ASD later in life, especially when children have certain comorbidities such as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and asthma. PMID:27684861

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossignol Daniel A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditionally, hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT is indicated in several clinical disorders include decompression sickness, healing of problem wounds and arterial gas embolism. However, some investigators have used HBOT to treat individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. A number of individuals with ASD possess certain physiological abnormalities that HBOT might ameliorate, including cerebral hypoperfusion, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Studies of children with ASD have found positive changes in physiology and/or behavior from HBOT. For example, several studies have reported that HBOT improved cerebral perfusion, decreased markers of inflammation and did not worsen oxidative stress markers in children with ASD. Most studies of HBOT in children with ASD examined changes in behaviors and reported improvements in several behavioral domains although many of these studies were not controlled. Although the two trials employing a control group reported conflicting results, a recent systematic review noted several important distinctions between these trials. In the reviewed studies, HBOT had minimal adverse effects and was well tolerated. Studies which used a higher frequency of HBOT sessions (e.g., 10 sessions per week as opposed to 5 sessions per week generally reported more significant improvements. Many of the studies had limitations which may have contributed to inconsistent findings across studies, including the use of many different standardized and non-standardized instruments, making it difficult to directly compare the results of studies or to know if there are specific areas of behavior in which HBOT is most effective. The variability in results between studies could also have been due to certain subgroups of children with ASD responding differently to HBOT. Most of the reviewed studies relied on changes in behavioral measurements, which may lag behind physiological changes. Additional studies

  20. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Daniel A; Bradstreet, James J; Van Dyke, Kyle; Schneider, Cindy; Freedenfeld, Stuart H; O'Hara, Nancy; Cave, Stephanie; Buckley, Julie A; Mumper, Elizabeth A; Frye, Richard E

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) is indicated in several clinical disorders include decompression sickness, healing of problem wounds and arterial gas embolism. However, some investigators have used HBOT to treat individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A number of individuals with ASD possess certain physiological abnormalities that HBOT might ameliorate, including cerebral hypoperfusion, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Studies of children with ASD have found positive changes in physiology and/or behavior from HBOT. For example, several studies have reported that HBOT improved cerebral perfusion, decreased markers of inflammation and did not worsen oxidative stress markers in children with ASD. Most studies of HBOT in children with ASD examined changes in behaviors and reported improvements in several behavioral domains although many of these studies were not controlled. Although the two trials employing a control group reported conflicting results, a recent systematic review noted several important distinctions between these trials. In the reviewed studies, HBOT had minimal adverse effects and was well tolerated. Studies which used a higher frequency of HBOT sessions (e.g., 10 sessions per week as opposed to 5 sessions per week) generally reported more significant improvements. Many of the studies had limitations which may have contributed to inconsistent findings across studies, including the use of many different standardized and non-standardized instruments, making it difficult to directly compare the results of studies or to know if there are specific areas of behavior in which HBOT is most effective. The variability in results between studies could also have been due to certain subgroups of children with ASD responding differently to HBOT. Most of the reviewed studies relied on changes in behavioral measurements, which may lag behind physiological changes. Additional studies enrolling children with ASD

  1. Sulforaphane treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Connors, Susan L; Macklin, Eric A; Smith, Kirby D; Fahey, Jed W; Talalay, Paul; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2014-10-28

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterized by both impaired communication and social interaction, and by stereotypic behavior, affects about 1 in 68, predominantly males. The medico-economic burdens of ASD are enormous, and no recognized treatment targets the core features of ASD. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial, young men (aged 13-27) with moderate to severe ASD received the phytochemical sulforaphane (n = 29)--derived from broccoli sprout extracts--or indistinguishable placebo (n = 15). The effects on behavior of daily oral doses of sulforaphane (50-150 µmol) for 18 wk, followed by 4 wk without treatment, were quantified by three widely accepted behavioral measures completed by parents/caregivers and physicians: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale (CGI-I). Initial scores for ABC and SRS were closely matched for participants assigned to placebo and sulforaphane. After 18 wk, participants receiving placebo experienced minimal change (social interaction, abnormal behavior, and verbal communication (P = 0.015-0.007). Upon discontinuation of sulforaphane, total scores on all scales rose toward pretreatment levels. Dietary sulforaphane, of recognized low toxicity, was selected for its capacity to reverse abnormalities that have been associated with ASD, including oxidative stress and lower antioxidant capacity, depressed glutathione synthesis, reduced mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuroinflammmation. PMID:25313065

  2. Beta-2-Microglobulin in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Goines

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental diseases of unknown etiology. There are no biological markers for ASD and current diagnosis is based on behavioral criteria. Recent data has shown that MHC I, a compound involved in adaptive immune function, is also involved in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity and behavior. It has been suggested that altered MHC I expression could play a part in neurodevelopmental diseases like ASD. To address this possibility, we measured plasma levels of beta-2-microglobulin (β2m, a molecule that associates with MHC I and is indicative of MHC I expression, in 36 children with autism, 28 typically developing controls and subjects with developmental disabilities (n=16 but not autism. The age range of our study population was 17-120 months. We found no statistically significant differences in plasma ß 2m levels between groups. Therefore, plasma levels of ß2m measured in early childhood in autism may not reflect changes in MHC class I in autism.

  3. Molecular aspects of autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisik, Małgorzata Z.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism, also known as autism spectrum disorders (ASD, is etiologically and clinically heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disabilities. ASD affects 1% of child’s population. The sex difference is observed with 4:1 male to female ratio. This is descriptive diagnosis based on observation and analysis of behavior and cognitive functions. ASD does not fit the criteria of known patterns of inheritance. For the majority of patients polygenic model of inheritance with many interacting genes is the most probable. The etiology of ASD is poorly understood. It is estimated that a specific genetic etiology can be determined in up to 20% of individuals with ASD. Advances in microarray technology and next generation sequencing are revealing copy variant numbers (CNV and single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNP with important roles in synapse formation and function. For families where a specific etiology has been identified, the risk of recurrence in siblings generally depends on the etiologic diagnosis. For autism of unknown cause, the sibling risk varies across studies but is generally considered to range from 5 to 10 %.

  4. Autistic Traits and Cognitive Performance in Young People with Mild Intellectual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jonathan M.; Best, Catherine S.; Moffat, Vivien J.; Spencer, Michael D.; Philip, Ruth C. M.; Power, Michael J.; Johnstone, Eve C.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive performance and the relationship between theory of mind (TOM), weak central coherence and executive function were investigated in a cohort of young people with additional learning needs. Participants were categorized by social communication questionnaire score into groups of 10 individuals within the autistic spectrum disorder (ASD)…

  5. Study the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in Egyptian autistic children: A clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-baz

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: HBOT is a treatment that has recently become quite popular in the autism spectrum disorder (ASD community. Its benefits cross a wide range of autistic traits as: improved language, increased awareness, behavior and socialization by affecting the pathophysiological findings in autism.

  6. Improvement of autism spectrum disorder symptoms in three children by using gastrin-releasing peptide,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Michelin Becker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability and potential therapeutic effects of gastrin-releasing peptide in three children with autistic spectrum disorder. Methods: Case series study with the intravenous administration of gastrin-releasing peptide in the dose of 160 pmol/kg for four consecutive days. To evaluate the results, parental impressions the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI Scale. Each child underwent a new peptide cycle after two weeks. The children were followed for four weeks after the end of the infusions. Results: The gastrin-releasing peptide was well tolerated and no child had adverse effects. Two children had improved social interaction, with a slight improvement in joint attention and the interaction initiatives. Two showed reduction of stereotypes and improvement in verbal language. One child lost his compulsion to bathe, an effect that lasted two weeks after each infusion cycle. Average reduction in CARS score was 2.8 points. CGI was "minimally better" in two children and "much better" in one. Conclusions: This study suggests that the gastrin-releasing peptide is safe and may be effective in improving key symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, but its results should be interpreted with caution. Controlled clinical trials-randomized, double-blinded, and with more children-are needed to better evaluate the possible therapeutic effects of gastrin-releasing peptide in autism.

  7. Enhancing Work Outcomes of Employees with Autism Spectrum Disorder through Leadership: Leadership for Employees with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alissa D.; Hunter, Samuel T.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was to identify leader behaviors that elicit successful engagement of employees with autism spectrum disorder, a population that is powerfully emerging into the workplace. The ultimate goal was to improve the quality of life of employees with autism spectrum disorder by facilitating an environment leading to their success.…

  8. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara;

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggest......, but not handedness, discriminated between those who developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders and those who did not. Left or mixed-laterality appears to signal neurological disruption relevant to the development of schizophrenia spectrum disorders....

  9. The lived experience of US parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Berry, Amber; Hill, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    Current US statistics indicate that 1 in 68 children is diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder (Centers for Disease Control (2014) Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years-autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 Sites, United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)). The lived experience of parents with children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is important to know since quantitative studies have indicated that higher rates of mental disorders exist in this population as compared to parents of typically developing children (Yirmiya and Shaked (2005) Psychiatric disorders in parents of children with autism: a meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46: 69-83). This study was a meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature in this area embedded within a systematic review. A comprehensive search and review yielded 14 studies. A total of six major themes were identified: (a) emotional stress and strain; (b) adaptation; (c) impact on the family; (d) services; (e) stigmatization; and (f) appreciating the little things. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25819433

  10. Anterior insular cortex regulation in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Caria, Andrea; De Falco, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by dramatic impairments of interpersonal behavior, communication, and empathy. Recent neuroimaging studies suggested that ASD are disorders characterized by widespread abnormalities involving distributed brain network, though clear evidence of differences in large-scale brain network interactions underlying the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of ASD are still lacking. Consistent findi...

  11. Tics and Tourette Syndrome in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Roberto; Vivanti, Giacomo

    2007-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are more frequently associated with tic disorders than expected by chance. Variable rates of comorbidity have been reported and common genetic and neurobiological factors are probably involved. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of tic disorders in a clinical sample (n = 105) of children and…

  12. Seizures and Epilepsy and Their Relationship to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders which often co-occur with intellectual disabilities. A disorder which is strongly correlated with both of these disabilities are seizures and epilepsy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of available research on seizures and epilepsy in the ASD population…

  13. Dissecting psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay H. Brodersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This proof-of-concept study examines the feasibility of defining subgroups in psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding, using dynamical system models which infer neuronal circuit mechanisms from neuroimaging data. To this end, we re-analysed an fMRI dataset of 41 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls performing a numerical n-back working-memory task. In our generative-embedding approach, we used parameter estimates from a dynamic causal model (DCM of a visual–parietal–prefrontal network to define a model-based feature space for the subsequent application of supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. First, using a linear support vector machine for classification, we were able to predict individual diagnostic labels significantly more accurately (78% from DCM-based effective connectivity estimates than from functional connectivity between (62% or local activity within the same regions (55%. Second, an unsupervised approach based on variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture modelling provided evidence for two clusters which mapped onto patients and controls with nearly the same accuracy (71% as the supervised approach. Finally, when restricting the analysis only to the patients, Gaussian mixture modelling suggested the existence of three patient subgroups, each of which was characterised by a different architecture of the visual–parietal–prefrontal working-memory network. Critically, even though this analysis did not have access to information about the patients' clinical symptoms, the three neurophysiologically defined subgroups mapped onto three clinically distinct subgroups, distinguished by significant differences in negative symptom severity, as assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. In summary, this study provides a concrete example of how psychiatric spectrum diseases may be split into subgroups that are defined in terms of neurophysiological mechanisms specified by a

  14. Explicit versus implicit social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 carefully matched typically developing controls completed the Dewey Story Test. 'Explicit' (multiple-choice answering format) and 'implicit' (free interview) measures of social cognition were obtained. Autism spectrum disorder participants did not differ from controls regarding explicit social cognition performance. However, the autism spectrum disorder group performed more poorly than controls on implicit social cognition performance in terms of spontaneous perspective taking and social awareness. Findings suggest that social cognition alterations in autism spectrum disorder are primarily implicit in nature and that an apparent absence of social cognition difficulties on certain tests using rather explicit testing formats does not necessarily mean social cognition typicality in autism spectrum disorder.

  15. The interplay between emotion and cognition in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Implications for developmental theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian B Gaigg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is clinically defined by abnormalities in reciprocal social and communicative behaviours and an inflexible adherence to routinised patterns of thought and behaviour. Laboratory studies repeatedly demonstrate that autistic individuals experience difficulties in recognising and understanding the emotional expressions of others and naturalistic observations show that they use such expressions infrequently and inappropriately to regulate social exchanges. Dominant theories attribute this facet of the ASD phenotype to abnormalities in a social brain network that mediates social-motivational and social-cognitive processes such as face processing, mental state understanding and empathy. Such theories imply that only emotion related processes relevant to social cognition are compromised in ASD but accumulating evidence suggests that the disorder may be characterised by more widespread anomalies in the domain of emotions. In this review I summarise the relevant literature and argue that the social-emotional characteristics of ASD may be better understood in terms of a disruption in the domain-general interplay between emotion and cognition. More specifically I will suggest that ASD is the developmental consequence of early-emerging anomalies in how emotional responses to the environment modulate a wide range of cognitive processes including those that are relevant to navigating the social world.

  16. Environmental factors influence language development in children with autism spectrum disorders.

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    Marine Grandgeorge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While it is clearly admitted that normal behavioural development is determined by the interplay of genetic and environmental influences, this is much less the case for psychiatric disorders for which more emphasis has been given in the past decades on biological determinism. Thus, previous studies have shown that Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD were not affected by parental style. However, animal research suggests that different behavioural traits can be differentially affected by genetic/environmental factors. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study we hypothesized that amongst the ASD, language disorders may be more sensitive to social factors as language is a social act that develops under social influences. Using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, we compared the early characteristics of sensori-motor and language development in a large sample of children with ASD (n = 162 with parents belonging to different levels of education. The results showed that children raised by parents with a high level of education displayed earlier language development. Moreover, they showed earlier first words and phrases if their mother was at a high level of education, which reveals an additional gender effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this study may trigger important new lines of thought and research, help equilibrate social and purely biological perspectives regarding ASD and bring new hopes for environmentally based therapies.

  17. Beery VMI performance in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ryan R; Bigler, Erin D; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly B D; Travers, Brittany G; Cariello, Annahir N; Anderson, Jeffrey S; Zielinski, Brandon A; Alexander, Andrew; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined the visuomotor integration (VMI) abilities of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An all-male sample consisting of 56 ASD participants (ages 3-23 years) and 36 typically developing (TD) participants (ages 4-26 years) completed the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (Beery VMI) as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. Participants were also administered standardized measures of intellectual functioning and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), which assesses autism and autism-like traits. The ASD group performed significantly lower on the Beery VMI and on all IQ measures compared to the TD group. VMI performance was significantly correlated with full scale IQ (FSIQ), performance IQ (PIQ), and verbal IQ (VIQ) in the TD group only. However, when FSIQ was taken into account, no significant Beery VMI differences between groups were observed. Only one TD participant scored 1.5 standard deviations (SDs) below the Beery VMI normative sample mean, in comparison to 21% of the ASD sample. As expected, the ASD group was rated as having significantly higher levels of social impairment on the SRS compared to the TD group across all major domains. However, level of functioning on the SRS was not associated with Berry VMI performance. These findings demonstrate that a substantial number of individuals with ASD experience difficulties compared to TD in performing VMI-related tasks, and that VMI is likely affected by general cognitive ability. The fact that lowered Beery VMI performance occurred only within a subset of individuals with ASD and did not correlate with SRS would indicate that visuomotor deficits are not a core feature of ASD, even though they present at a higher rate of impairment than observed in TD participants.

  18. Evidence Base Update for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tristram; Iadarola, Suzannah

    2015-01-01

    This evidence base update examines the level of empirical support for interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) younger than 5 years old. It focuses on research published since a previous review in this journal (Rogers & Vismara, 2008 ). We identified psychological or behavioral interventions that had been manualized and evaluated in either (a) experimental or quasi-experimental group studies or (b) systematic reviews of single-subject studies. We extracted data from all studies that met these criteria and were published after the previous review. Interventions were categorized across two dimensions. First, primary theoretical principles included applied behavior analysis (ABA), developmental social-pragmatic (DSP), or both. Second, practice elements included scope (comprehensive or focused), modality (individual intervention with the child, parent training, or classrooms), and intervention targets (e.g., spoken language or alternative and augmentative communication). We classified two interventions as well-established (individual, comprehensive ABA and teacher-implemented, focused ABA + DSP), 3 as probably efficacious (individual, focused ABA for augmentative and alternative communication; individual, focused ABA + DSP; and focused DSP parent training), and 5 as possibly efficacious (individual, comprehensive ABA + DSP; comprehensive ABA classrooms; focused ABA for spoken communication; focused ABA parent training; and teacher-implemented, focused DSP). The evidence base for ASD interventions has grown substantially since 2008. An increasing number of interventions have some empirical support; others are emerging as potentially efficacious. Priorities for future research include improving outcome measures, developing interventions for understudied ASD symptoms (e.g., repetitive behaviors), pinpointing mechanisms of action in interventions, and adapting interventions for implementation with fidelity by community providers. PMID:26430947

  19. Sulforaphane treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Connors, Susan L; Macklin, Eric A; Smith, Kirby D; Fahey, Jed W; Talalay, Paul; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2014-10-28

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterized by both impaired communication and social interaction, and by stereotypic behavior, affects about 1 in 68, predominantly males. The medico-economic burdens of ASD are enormous, and no recognized treatment targets the core features of ASD. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial, young men (aged 13-27) with moderate to severe ASD received the phytochemical sulforaphane (n = 29)--derived from broccoli sprout extracts--or indistinguishable placebo (n = 15). The effects on behavior of daily oral doses of sulforaphane (50-150 µmol) for 18 wk, followed by 4 wk without treatment, were quantified by three widely accepted behavioral measures completed by parents/caregivers and physicians: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale (CGI-I). Initial scores for ABC and SRS were closely matched for participants assigned to placebo and sulforaphane. After 18 wk, participants receiving placebo experienced minimal change (<3.3%), whereas those receiving sulforaphane showed substantial declines (improvement of behavior): 34% for ABC (P < 0.001, comparing treatments) and 17% for SRS scores (P = 0.017). On CGI-I, a significantly greater number of participants receiving sulforaphane had improvement in social interaction, abnormal behavior, and verbal communication (P = 0.015-0.007). Upon discontinuation of sulforaphane, total scores on all scales rose toward pretreatment levels. Dietary sulforaphane, of recognized low toxicity, was selected for its capacity to reverse abnormalities that have been associated with ASD, including oxidative stress and lower antioxidant capacity, depressed glutathione synthesis, reduced mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuroinflammmation.

  20. Psychopharmacological interventions in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politte, Laura C; Henry, Charles A; McDougle, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    After participating in this educational activity, the physician should be better able to1. Prescribe the appropriate psychotropic medication to treat symptoms of ASD.2. Identify the side effects of the psychotropic medications used to treat ASD.Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by core deficits in social communication and language, and restrictive and repetitive behaviors that cause significant functional impairment and distress for affected individuals and their caregivers. The increasing prevalence of ASD, most recently estimated as 1 in 88 children, presents an ever-increasing burden on families, schools, medical systems, and society at large. Individuals with ASD commonly present for treatment of associated emotional and behavioral disturbances that include anxiety, symptoms of ADHD, compulsions and other repetitive behaviors, mood lability, irritability, aggression, and sleep disturbance. Psychotropic medications are widely utilized in alleviating these symptoms, though rigorous clinical trials in ASD are lacking for most areas of impairment. Strong evidence from randomized, placebo-controlled trials supports the use of atypical antipsychotics, particularly risperidone and aripiprazole, for managing severe irritability and aggression in ASD. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are commonly used to treat anxiety and compulsions, though reports of efficacy in the literature are mixed, and behavioral side effects in children are common. Minimal evidence supports the utility of anticonvulsants and traditional mood stabilizers in managing mood lability and aggression. Stimulant and nonstimulant ADHD medications can be effective for reducing hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity, though to a lesser degree than in ADHD populations without ASD and with greater risk of adverse effects. Psychopharmacological interventions in development for core symptoms of autism include those that target the glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter systems and the

  1. Perception of causality in schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschacher, Wolfgang; Kupper, Zeno

    2006-10-01

    Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders often maintain deviating views on cause-effect relationships, especially when positive and disorganization symptoms are manifest. Altered perceived causality is prominent in delusional ideation, in ideas of reference, and in the mentalizing ability (theory of mind [ToM]) of patients. Perceiving causal relationships may be understood either as higher order cognitive reasoning or as low-level information processing. In the present study, perception of causality was investigated as a low-level, preattentional capability similar to gestalt-like perceptual organization. Thirty-one patients (24 men and 7 women with mean age 27.7 years) and the same number of healthy control subjects matched to patients with respect to age and sex were tested. A visual paradigm was used in which 2 identical discs move, from opposite sides of a monitor, steadily toward and then past one another. Their coincidence generates an ambiguous, bistable percept (discs either "stream through" or "bounce off" one another). The bouncing perception, ie, perceived causality, is enhanced when auditory stimuli are presented at the time of coincidence. Psychopathology was measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. It was found that positive symptoms were strongly associated with increased perceived causality and disorganization with attenuated perceived causality. Patients in general were not significantly different from controls, but symptom subgroups showed specifically altered perceived causality. Perceived causality as a basic preattentional process may contribute to higher order cognitive alterations and ToM deficiencies. It is suggested that cognitive remediation therapy should address both increased and reduced perception of causality. PMID:16896057

  2. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna

    2014-03-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD.

  3. AD/HD and autism spectrum disorders in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hofvander, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are early-onset, but often life-time impairing, neurodevelopmental disorders. They are highly overlapping and seem to carry considerable risks of negative outcomes, psychiatrically and psychosocially. Childhood hyperactivity is a known risk factor for early-onset conduct disorder (CD), but details concerning the associations between neurodevelopmental problems, aggression, and antisocial personal...

  4. Genetic Aspects of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights from Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Swati eBanerjee; Manzoor eBhat; Maeveen eRiordan

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that display a triad of core behavioral deficits including restricted interests, often accompanied by repetitive behavior, deficits in language and communication, and an inability to engage in reciprocal social interactions. ASD is among the most heritable disorders but is not a simple disorder with a singular pathology and has a rather complex etiology. It is interesting to note that perturbations in synaptic growth,...

  5. Successful Optometric Vision Therapy with Patients on the Autistic Spectrum: Engaging Patients with Visual-Cognitive Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz D. Azimi Green, OD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1 in every 68 children is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD. It is one of the fastest growing disabilities in the United States, yet there is a shortage of optometrists who are able, and willing, to provide care for these patients. Visual-cognitive therapy (VCT has been used for over 50 years to implement in-office vision therapy with challenging patients, including patients who have ASD. The following article presents the theory of VCT used with the DIR (Developmental, Individual differences, Relationship-based/Floortime model to engage our patients with ASD. A brief discussion of visual-cognitive therapy and the DIR/Floortime model is presented along with examples of visualcognitive therapy procedures.

  6. Cortical Gyrification in Autistic and Asperger Disorders: A Preliminary Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Roger J.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of Asperger disorder as a distinct syndrome from autism is unclear partly due to the paucity of differentiating neurobiological evidence. Frontal lobe cortical folding between these disorders was compared using the gyrification index. Twenty-three boys underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging: six with high-functioning autism, nine with Asperger disorder, and eight controls. Using the first coronal slice anterior to the corpus callosum, total and outer cortical contours we...

  7. Evaluation of a screening instrument for autism spectrum disorders in prisoners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Robinson

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: There have been concerns that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are over-represented but not recognised in prison populations. A screening tool for ASDs in prisons has therefore been developed. AIMS: We aimed to evaluate this tool in Scottish prisoners by comparing scores with standard measures of autistic traits (Autism Quotient (AQ, neurodevelopmental history (Asperger Syndrome (and High-Functioning Autism Diagnostic Interview (ASDI, and social cognition (Ekman 60 Faces test. METHODS: Prison officers across all 12 publicly-run closed prisons in Scotland assessed convicted prisoners using the screening tool. This sample included male and female prisoners and both adult and young offenders. Prisoners with high scores, along with an equal number of age and sex-matched controls, were invited to take part in interviews. Prisoners' relatives were contacted to complete a neurodevelopmental assessment. RESULTS: 2458 prisoners were screened using the tool, and 4% scored above the cut-off. 126 prisoners were further assessed using standardised measures. 7 of those 126 assessed scored 32 or above (cut-off on the AQ. 44 interviews were completed with prisoners' relatives, no prisoner reached the cut-off score on the ASDI. Scores on the screening tool correlated significantly with AQ and ASDI scores, and not with the Ekman 60 Faces Test or IQ. Sensitivity was 28.6% and specificity 75.6%; AUC was 59.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Although this screening tool measures autistic traits in this population, sensitivity for scores of 32 or above on the AQ is poor. We consider that this limits its usefulness and do not recommend that the tool is routinely used to screen for ASDs in prisons.

  8. What Are the Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parent-mediated therapy Physical therapy Social skills training Speech-language therapy Other FAQs NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are the treatments for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? Skip sharing on social media ...

  9. Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Strategies that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Clarissa

    2009-01-01

    Five types of autism are recognized under autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The author discusses the major characteristics associated with autism and offers some simple strategies for helping children with autism function in preschool settings.

  10. A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of "Ginkgo Biloba" Added to Risperidone in Patients with Autistic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Elmira; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rezazadeh, Shams-Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Rezaei, Farzin; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    "Ginkgo biloba" has been reported to affect the neurotransmitter system and to have antioxidant properties that could impact the pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Based on these studies, we decided to assess the effectiveness of "Ginkgo biloba" extract (Ginko T.D., Tolidaru, Iran) as an adjunctive agent to risperidone in the treatment of…

  11. Brief Report: Pilot Single-Blind Placebo Lead-in Study of Acamprosate in Youth with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Craig A.; Wink, Logan K.; Early, Maureen C.; Stiegelmeyer, Elizabeth; Mathieu-Frasier, Lauren; Patrick, Vanessa; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: An excitatory/inhibitory (E:I) imbalance marked by enhanced glutamate and deficient gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission may contribute to the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Objectives: We report on the first single-blind placebo lead-in trial of acamprosate, a drug with putative mechanisms restoring E:I…

  12. Event-based prospective memory performance in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Altgassen, Mareike; Schmitz-Hübsch, Maren; Kliegel, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate event-based prospective memory performance in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and to explore possible relations between laboratory-based prospective memory performance and everyday performance. Nineteen children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 matched neurotypical controls participated. The laboratory-based prospective memory test was embedded in a visuo-spatial working memory test and required participants to ...

  13. Special educational needs of students with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Khaustov A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Education of children with autism spectrum disorders is possible only if their special educational needs are taken into account. Special educational needs of children form the demand for special educational conditions. On the basis of the existing primary list of special educational needs in the approximate adapted basic general education program for students with autism spectrum disorders and with consideration of contemporary scientific data about particularities of their develo...

  14. Increased Functional Connectivity Between Subcortical and Cortical Resting-State Networks in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerliani, Leonardo; Mennes, Maarten; Thomas, Rajat M.; Di Martino, Adriana; Thioux, Marc; Keysers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Importance Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit severe difficulties in social interaction, motor coordination, behavioral flexibility, and atypical sensory processing, with considerable interindividual variability. This heterogeneous set of symptoms recently led to investigating the presence of abnormalities in the interaction across large-scale brain networks. To date, studies have focused either on constrained sets of brain regions or whole-brain analysis, rather than focusing on the interaction between brain networks. Objectives To compare the intrinsic functional connectivity between brain networks in a large sample of individuals with ASD and typically developing control subjects and to estimate to what extent group differences would predict autistic traits and reflect different developmental trajectories. Design, Setting, and Participants We studied 166 male individuals (mean age, 17.6 years; age range, 7-50 years) diagnosed as having DSM-IV-TR autism or Asperger syndrome and 193 typical developing male individuals (mean age, 16.9 years; age range, 6.5-39.4 years) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Participants were matched for age, IQ, head motion, and eye status (open or closed) in the MRI scanner. We analyzed data from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE), an aggregated MRI data set from 17 centers, made public in August 2012. Main Outcomes and Measures We estimated correlations between time courses of brain networks extracted using a data-driven method (independent component analysis). Subsequently, we associated estimates of interaction strength between networks with age and autistic traits indexed by the Social Responsiveness Scale. Results Relative to typically developing control participants, individuals with ASD showed increased functional connectivity between primary sensory networks and subcortical networks (thalamus and basal ganglia) (all t ≥ 3.13, P < .001 corrected). The strength of

  15. Estimation of autistic children by metallomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Yasuda, Yuichi; Tsutsui, Toyoharu

    2013-01-01

    Clarification of the pathogenesis and treatment of autism spectrum disorders is one of the challenges today. In this study, we examine scalp hair concentrations of 26 trace elements for 1,967 children with autistic disorders (1,553 males and 414 females). Five-hundred and eighty-four (29.7%), 347 (17.6%) and 114 (5.8%) subjects was found deficient in zinc, magnesium and calcium, respectively, and 2.0% or less in the other essential metals. The incidence rate of mineral deficiency was highly observed in infants aged 0-3 year-old. In contrast, 339 (17.2%), 168 (8.5%) and 94 (4.8%) individuals was found suffering from high burden of aluminium, cadmium and lead, and 2.8% or less from mercury and arsenic burden. These findings suggest that infantile zinc- and magnesium-deficiency and/or toxic metal burdens may epigenetically play principal roles as environmental factors in autistic disorders and that metallomics approach may lead to early screening and prevention of the neurodevelopment disorders.

  16. Down syndrome and comorbid autism-spectrum disorder: characterization using the aberrant behavior checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, George T; Grados, Marco A; Kaufmann, Walter E; Bernad-Ripoll, Susana; Jewell, Amy

    2005-05-01

    To report on the cognitive and behavioral attributes of 61 children with Down syndrome (DS) and autistic-spectrum disorder (ASD) according to DSM-IV criteria; to determine the utility of the aberrant behavior checklist (ABC) to characterize these subjects for research purposes; and to test the hypothesis that subjects with DS + ASD could be distinguished from their typical DS peers using the ABC. Cross-sectional design. Cases with DS + ASD (N = 61), comparison group of DS + stereotypy movement disorder (SMD) (N = 26) and typical DS controls without behavior problems (N = 44) were ascertained and enrolled sequentially upon presentation to a DS clinic at an academic medical center over a 10-year period from 1991 to 2001. All subjects underwent neurodevelopmental and medical evaluation, and standardized cognitive testing. The parents provided responses to standardized behavioral questionnaires. Cognitive function (IQ) differed markedly across the three groups. The Lethary and Stereotypy subscales of the ABC were highly significant (P PDD, P = 0.005; PDD < CDD, P = 0.002). Using a multivariate regression model, the ABC scales alone explained 62% of variance of ASD outcome; addition of demographic variables explained up to 68% of the variance. There is good correlation between DSM-IV criteria for autism and subscales scores on the ABC in subjects with DS. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using the ABC to characterize the neurobehavioral phenotype of a cohort of children with trisomy 21 and ASD for ongoing research purposes.

  17. Clinical and Neurobiological Relevance of Current Animal Models of Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Chan; Gonzales, Edson Luck; Lázaro, María T; Choi, Chang Soon; Bahn, Geon Ho; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Shin, Chan Young

    2016-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communication impairments, as well as repetitive and restrictive behaviors. The phenotypic heterogeneity of ASD has made it overwhelmingly difficult to determine the exact etiology and pathophysiology underlying the core symptoms, which are often accompanied by comorbidities such as hyperactivity, seizures, and sensorimotor abnormalities. To our benefit, the advent of animal models has allowed us to assess and test diverse risk factors of ASD, both genetic and environmental, and measure their contribution to the manifestation of autistic symptoms. At a broader scale, rodent models have helped consolidate molecular pathways and unify the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying each one of the various etiologies. This approach will potentially enable the stratification of ASD into clinical, molecular, and neurophenotypic subgroups, further proving their translational utility. It is henceforth paramount to establish a common ground of mechanistic theories from complementing results in preclinical research. In this review, we cluster the ASD animal models into lesion and genetic models and further classify them based on the corresponding environmental, epigenetic and genetic factors. Finally, we summarize the symptoms and neuropathological highlights for each model and make critical comparisons that elucidate their clinical and neurobiological relevance. PMID:27133257

  18. Amniotic fluid MMP-9 and neurotrophins in autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Pearce, Brad D; Larsen, Nanna;

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that some developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), are caused by errors in brain plasticity. Given the important role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and neurotrophins (NTs) in neuroplasticity, amniotic fluid samples for 331 ASD cases and 698...

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Gender Dysphoric Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Annelou L. C.; Noens, Ilse L. J.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; Doreleijers, Theo A.

    2010-01-01

    Only case reports have described the co-occurrence of gender identity disorder (GID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined this co-occurrence using a systematic approach. Children and adolescents (115 boys and 89 girls, mean age 10.8, SD = 3.58) referred to a gender identity clinic received a standardized assessment during which…

  20. Intestinal inflammation in a murine model of autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Theije, Caroline G.M.; Koelink, Pim J.; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A.H.; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, S. Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a cluster of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication, social interest and stereotypical behaviour. Dysfunction of the intestinal tract is reported in patients with ASD and implicated in the development and severity of ASD symptoms.

  1. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Putative Susceptibility Genes in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Gilling

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a significant genetic component as shown by family and twin studies. However, only a few genes have repeatedly been shown to be involved in the development of ASDs. The aim of this study has been...

  2. ESPECTRA: Searching the Bipolar Spectrum in Eating Disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Ricardo A; Cordas Taki A; Angst Jules; Campos Rodolfo N

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a chronic, recurrent and highly prevalent illness. Despite the need for correct diagnosis to allow proper treatment, studies have shown that reaching a diagnosis can take up to ten years due to the lack of recognition of the broader presentations of BD. Frequent comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders are a major cause of misdiagnosis and warrant thorough evaluation. Methods/Design ESPECTRA (Occurrence of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders in Eating...

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and language of a child and using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria for their evaluation. In addition, the diagnosis may be made after evaluating the child using ...

  4. Vibrational spectrum of topologically disordered systems

    OpenAIRE

    Grigera, T. S.; Martin-Mayor, V.; Parisi, G.; Verrocchio, P.

    2001-01-01

    The topological nature of the disorder of glasses and supercooled liquids strongly affects their high-frequency dynamics. In order to understand its main features, we analytically studied a simple topologically disordered model, where the particles oscillate around randomly distributed centers, interacting through a generic pair potential. We present results of a resummation of the perturbative expansion in the inverse particle density for the dynamic structure factor and density of states. T...

  5. Discrepancies between Self- and Parent-Perceptions of Autistic Traits and Empathy in High Functioning Children and Adolescents on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shannon A.; Filliter, Jillian H.; Murphy, Robin R.

    2009-01-01

    Self-perception in high-functioning children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was examined by comparing parent- and self-reports on the Autism Spectrum, Empathy, and Systemizing Quotients (AQ, EQ and SQ). Participants were 20 youths with ASD and 22 typically developing controls. Both parents and participants in the ASD group…

  6. Evidence for treatable inborn errors of metabolism in a cohort of 187 Greek patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilioti, Martha; Evangeliou, Athanasios E; Tramma, Despoina; Theodoridou, Zoe; Metaxas, Spyridon; Michailidi, Eleni; Bonti, Eleni; Frysira, Helen; Haidopoulou, A; Asprangathou, Despoina; Tsalkidis, Aggelos J; Kardaras, Panagiotis; Wevers, Ron A; Jakobs, Cornelis; Gibson, K Michael

    2013-01-01

    We screened for the presence of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) in 187 children (105 males; 82 females, ages 4-14 years old) who presented with confirmed features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twelve patients (7%) manifested increased 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-OH-IVA) excretion in urine, and minor to significant improvement in autistic features was observed in seven patients following supplementation with biotin. Five diagnoses included: Lesch Nyhan syndrome (2), succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency (2), and phenylketonuria (1) (2.7%). Additional metabolic disturbances suggestive of IEMs included two patients whose increased urine 3-OH-IVA was accompanied by elevated methylcitrate and lactate in sera, and 30 patients that showed abnormal glucose-loading tests. In the latter group, 16/30 patients manifested increased sera beta hydroxybutyrate (b-OH-b) production and 18/30 had a paradoxical increase of sera lactate. Six patients with elevated b-OH-b in sera showed improved autistic features following implementation of a ketogenic diet (KD). Five patients showed decreased serum ketone body production with glucose loading. Twelve of 187 patients demonstrated non-specific MRI pathology, while 25/187 had abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) findings. Finally, family history was positive for 22/187 patients (1st or 2nd degree relative with comparable symptomatology) and consanguinity was documented for 12/187 patients. Our data provide evidence for a new biomarker (3-OH-IVA) and novel treatment approaches in ASD patients. Concise 1 sentence take-home message: Detailed metabolic screening in a Greek cohort of ASD patients revealed biomarkers (urine 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and serum b-OH-b) in 7% (13/187) of patients for whom biotin supplementation or institution of a KD resulted in mild to significant clinical improvement in autistic features. PMID:24399946

  7. Self-Disorders in Individuals with Autistic Traits: Contribution of Reduced Autobiographical Reasoning Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Fabrice; Göritz, Anja S.; Schröder, Johanna; Coutelle, Romain; Danion, Jean-Marie; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine V.; Moritz, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The present web-based study (N = 840) aimed to illuminate the cognitive mechanisms underlying self-disorders in autism. Initially, participants selected three self-defining memories. Then, we assessed their capacity to give meaning to these events (i.e., meaning making), their tendency to scrutinize autobiographical memory to better understand…

  8. The roles of CC2D1A and HTR1A gene expressions in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Elif Funda; Cıkılı Uytun, Merve; Korkmaz Bayramov, Keziban; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Oztop, Didem Behice; Canatan, Halit; Ozkul, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    Classical autism belongs to a group of heterogeneous disorders known as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Autism is defined as a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by repetitive stereotypic behaviors or restricted interests, social withdrawal, and communication deficits. Numerous susceptibility genes and chromosomal abnormalities have been reported in association with autism but the etiology of this disorder is unknown in many cases. CC2D1A gene has been linked to mental retardation (MR) in a family with a large deletion before. Intellectual disability (ID) is a common feature of autistic cases. Therefore we aimed to investigate the expressions of CC2D1A and HTR1A genes with the diagnosis of autism in Turkey. Forty-four autistic patients (35 boys, 9 girls) and 27 controls were enrolled and obtained whole blood samples to isolate RNA samples from each participant. CC2D1A and HTR1A gene expressions were assessed by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) in Genome and Stem Cell Center, Erciyes University. Both expressions of CC2D1A and HTR1A genes studied on ASD cases and controls were significantly different (p < 0.001). The expression of HTR1A was undetectable in the ASD samples. Comparison of ID and CC2D1A gene expression was also found statistically significant (p = 0.028). CC2D1A gene expression may be used as a candidate gene for ASD cases with ID. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential roles of these CC2D1A and HTR1A genes in their related pathways in ASD.

  9. RELN mutations in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lammert, Dawn B.; Howell, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    RELN encodes a large, secreted glycoprotein integral to proper neuronal positioning during development and regulation of synaptic function postnatally. Rare, homozygous, null mutations lead to lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia, accompanied by developmental delay and epilepsy. Until recently, little was known about the frequency or consequences of heterozygous mutations. Several lines of evidence from multiple studies now implicate heterozygous mutations in RELN in autism spectrum dis...

  10. Autism Spectrum Disorder Scale Scores in Pediatric Mood and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Goldwin, Michelle; Towbin, Kenneth A.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    A study compares the scores on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom scales in healthy children and in children with mood or anxiety disorders. It is observed that children with mood or anxiety disorders obtained higher scores on ASD symptom scales than healthy children.

  11. Brief Report: Autism Spectrum Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: A Review and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengit, Ashy C.; McKowen, James W.; O'Brien, Julie; Howe, Yamini J.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    There is limited literature available on the comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and substance use disorder (SUD). This paper reviews existing literature and exemplifies the challenges of treating this population with a case report of an adult male with ASD and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. This review and case study seeks to…

  12. Response Inhibition in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K.; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with…

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorder: the Present Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, S.; Chatterjee, N

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a surge of awareness about autism among the public and professionals. Much revealing research is being done on this issue and the knowledge base has improved substantially and a set of professionals are specializing on the subject, focusing on its causative factors and management. Autism being a disorder stemming from early childhood and the prevalence rate rising alarmingly over the years, Pediatricians are expected to play a vital role in early detection and ea...

  14. Impaired representational gaze following in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congiu, Sara; Fadda, Roberta; Doneddu, Giuseppe; Striano, Tricia

    2016-10-01

    Using eye-tracking methodology, we compared spontaneous gaze following in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (mean age 5.8 years) to that of typically developing children (mean age 5.7 years). Participants saw videos in which the position of a hidden object was either perceptually visible or was only represented in another person's mind. The findings indicate that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder were significantly less accurate in gaze following and observed the attended object for less time than typically developing children only in the Representational Condition. These results show that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are responsive to gaze as a perceptual cue although they ignore its representational meaning. PMID:27348855

  15. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph;

    2002-01-01

    investigating early signs of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Many of the subjects had a parent with schizophrenia, leaving them at high risk for developing a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. In 1991, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 91.3% (N=242) of the original subjects, including 81 who were......OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia...

  16. Full spectrum of mental disorders linked with childhood residential mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Pearl L H; Webb, Roger T; Appleby, Louis; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2016-07-01

    Although links between childhood residential mobility and subsequently increased risks of psychopathology have been well documented, associations across the full spectrum of psychiatric disorders are unknown. We conducted a population-based study of all 1,439,363 persons born in Denmark during 1971-1997 to investigate relationships between childhood cross-municipality residential moves from year of birth to age 14 years and the development of a range of psychiatric disorders from mid-adolescence to early middle age. We examined: (1) Any substance misuse disorders; specifically alcohol misuse, and cannabis misuse; (2) Any personality disorders; specifically antisocial, and borderline personality disorders; (3) Schizophrenia and related disorders; specifically schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder; (4) Any mood disorders; specifically bipolar disorder, and depressive disorder; (5) Any anxiety and somatoform disorders; specifically obsessive compulsive disorder; (6) Any eating disorders; specifically anorexia nervosa. Childhood residential mobility was associated with elevated risks of developing most psychiatric disorders, even after controlling for potential confounders. The associations generally rose with increasing age at moving and were stronger for multiple moves in a year compared to a single move. Links were particularly strong for antisocial personality disorder, any substance misuse disorder, and cannabis misuse in particular, for which the highest increases in risks were observed if relocation occurred during adolescence. Childhood residential change was not linked to subsequent risk of developing an eating disorder. Frequent residential mobility could be a marker for familial adversities. Mental health services and schools need to be vigilant of the psychosocial needs of children, particularly adolescents, who have recently moved homes. PMID:27074536

  17. Full spectrum of mental disorders linked with childhood residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Pearl L.H.; Webb, Roger T.; Appleby, Louis; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2016-01-01

    Although links between childhood residential mobility and subsequently increased risks of psychopathology have been well documented, associations across the full spectrum of psychiatric disorders are unknown. We conducted a population-based study of all 1,439,363 persons born in Denmark during 1971–1997 to investigate relationships between childhood cross-municipality residential moves from year of birth to age 14 years and the development of a range of psychiatric disorders from mid-adolescence to early middle age. We examined: (1) Any substance misuse disorders; specifically alcohol misuse, and cannabis misuse; (2) Any personality disorders; specifically antisocial, and borderline personality disorders; (3) Schizophrenia and related disorders; specifically schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder; (4) Any mood disorders; specifically bipolar disorder, and depressive disorder; (5) Any anxiety and somatoform disorders; specifically obsessive compulsive disorder; (6) Any eating disorders; specifically anorexia nervosa. Childhood residential mobility was associated with elevated risks of developing most psychiatric disorders, even after controlling for potential confounders. The associations generally rose with increasing age at moving and were stronger for multiple moves in a year compared to a single move. Links were particularly strong for antisocial personality disorder, any substance misuse disorder, and cannabis misuse in particular, for which the highest increases in risks were observed if relocation occurred during adolescence. Childhood residential change was not linked to subsequent risk of developing an eating disorder. Frequent residential mobility could be a marker for familial adversities. Mental health services and schools need to be vigilant of the psychosocial needs of children, particularly adolescents, who have recently moved homes. PMID:27074536

  18. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinah

    2006-01-01

    play, and also in unstructured part than structured part. The findings highlighted the ‘motivational aspects’ of musical interaction between the child and the therapist, and supported the long-lived claims of improvisational music therapy, promoting self-expression’, emotional communication and social...... joint attention behaviours in children than free play. The most clinically relevant and important findings were that children displayed markedly more and longer events of ‘eye contact’ ‘joy’ ‘emotional synchronicity’ and ‘initiation of engagement’ spontaneously in improvisational music therapy than free...

  19. Electrodermal Reactivity to Emotion Processing in Adults with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, B. E.; Wicker, B.; Monfardini, E.; Deruelle, C.

    2009-01-01

    Although alterations of emotion processing are recognized as a core component of autism, the level at which alterations occur is still debated. Discrepant results suggest that overt assessment of emotion processing is not appropriate. In this study, skin conductance response (SCR) was used to examine covert emotional processes. Both behavioural…

  20. We Can Dream! Ways of Planning for the Future for Young People with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jill; Burke, Christine; Mattingly, Molly

    2009-01-01

    This booklet is for young people and their families, friends and supporters to read and talk about together. It is based on the stories of four young people. Big changes happened for some of them; others are still waiting for things to change. The goal of the booklet is to give students ideas about how they may want to plan or change things when…

  1. Behavioral benefits of camel milk in subjects with autism spectrum disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the possible therapeutic effects of camel milk on behavioral characteristics as an interventional strategy in autistic children. Study Design: Double-blind, Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Autism Research and Treatment Center, Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2012 to May 2013. Methodology: Changes in behavioral characteristics in 65 (boys=60, girls=5) children with autism (aged from 2 to 12 years) were assessed. The behavioral symptoms were evaluated by Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) before and after the 2 weeks of camel milk therapy. Results: Significant differences were detected on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) by CARS, SRS and ATEC scales, following 2 weeks of camel milk consumption, but not in the placebo group. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that camel milk could be very promising therapeutic intervention in ASD. Further wide scale studies are strongly recommended. (author)

  2. Anxiety, depression, and quality of life in Iranian mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousha, Maryam; Attar, Hoda Alizadeh; Shoar, Zohreh

    2016-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is being more recognized and diagnosed in developing as well as developed countries. We aimed to investigate the frequency of anxiety, depression, and quality of life in mothers of children with ASD in Iranian families. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study on demographic data and mental health characteristics of 127 mothers of children with ASD. Mothers of children with ASD had high levels of anxiety (72.4%), depression (49.6%), and low scores of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). There was strong association between the child's age and the severity of mother's depression and QOL. Duration since diagnosis of ASD positively correlated with maternal depression. Anxiety, depression, and low HRQOL are more common in Iranian mothers with autistic children in our study. Our findings have implications for further investigation in mental health status of mothers of children with ASD, and providing educational support and interventional strategies may improve the mental health status of the entire family.

  3. Classification of autism spectrum disorder using supervised learning of brain connectivity measures extracted from synchrostates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Wasifa; Das, Saptarshi; Oprescu, Ioana-Anastasia; Maharatna, Koushik; Apicella, Fabio; Sicca, Federico

    2014-08-01

    Objective. The paper investigates the presence of autism using the functional brain connectivity measures derived from electro-encephalogram (EEG) of children during face perception tasks. Approach. Phase synchronized patterns from 128-channel EEG signals are obtained for typical children and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The phase synchronized states or synchrostates temporally switch amongst themselves as an underlying process for the completion of a particular cognitive task. We used 12 subjects in each group (ASD and typical) for analyzing their EEG while processing fearful, happy and neutral faces. The minimal and maximally occurring synchrostates for each subject are chosen for extraction of brain connectivity features, which are used for classification between these two groups of subjects. Among different supervised learning techniques, we here explored the discriminant analysis and support vector machine both with polynomial kernels for the classification task. Main results. The leave one out cross-validation of the classification algorithm gives 94.7% accuracy as the best performance with corresponding sensitivity and specificity values as 85.7% and 100% respectively. Significance. The proposed method gives high classification accuracies and outperforms other contemporary research results. The effectiveness of the proposed method for classification of autistic and typical children suggests the possibility of using it on a larger population to validate it for clinical practice.

  4. 9-Hydroxyrisperidone-Induced Hyperprolactinaemia in Thai Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamsamut, Nattawat; Hongkaew, Yaowaluck; Vanwong, Natchaya; Srisawasdi, Pornpen; Puangpetch, Apichaya; Chamkrachangpada, Bhunnada; Tan-Khum, Theerarat; Limsila, Penkhae; Sukasem, Chonlaphat

    2016-09-01

    Although our previous study revealed an association between prolactin level and risperidone dosage, data regarding the plasma concentration of risperidone are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the association between plasma drug concentrations of risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone and serum prolactin level in Thai children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The individuals for this study were 103 children and adolescents with ASD (90 males and 13 females). In the 12th hour after the last risperidone dose, blood samples were collected for analysis. Serum prolactin, plasma risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone levels were measured. Patients' clinical data were collected from medical records - age, weight, height, body mass index, dose of risperidone and duration of treatment. Serum prolactin level was significantly positively correlated with plasma 9-hydroxyrisperidone level (rs = 0.355, p < 0.001). The median concentration of 9-hydroxyrisperidone in individuals with hyperprolactinaemia (7.59 ng/ml; IQR 4.86-15.55) was significantly higher than non-hyperprolactinaemic individuals (5.18 ng/ml; IQR 2.10-8.99) after risperidone treatment (p = 0.006). By multivariate analysis, high prolactin level was correlated to high 9-hydroxyrisperidone level (p = 0.010). The results of this study showed that serum prolactin levels, especially in autistic individuals with hyperprolactinaemia during risperidone treatment, were significantly correlated with the level of 9-hydroxyrisperidone. These results suggest that hyperprolactinaemia may develop during risperidone treatment. PMID:26879343

  5. Food selectivity in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Zazpe, Itziar; Mari-Sanchis, Amelia; Llopis-González, Agustín; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2014-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by difficulties with reciprocal social interactions and restricted patterns of behavior and interest; one of these characteristic behaviors is food selectivity. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature published between 1970 and 2013 concerning this eating behavior. The articles identified were analyzed in terms of sample size, study design, and criteria for assessment and intervention, as well as the results, level of evidence and grade of recommendation. The main search was conducted in Medline, Cochrane Library, Scielo, ScienceDirect, and Embase). There is empirical evidence and an overall scientific consensus supporting an association between food selectivity and autism spectrum disorders.

  6. Evidence of novel fine-scale structural variation at autism spectrum disorder candidate loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedges Dale J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASD represent a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by a core set of social-communicative and behavioral impairments. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, acting primarily via the GABA receptors (GABR. Multiple lines of evidence, including altered GABA and GABA receptor expression in autistic patients, indicate that the GABAergic system may be involved in the etiology of autism. Methods As copy number variations (CNVs, particularly rare and de novo CNVs, have now been implicated in ASD risk, we examined the GABA receptors and genes in related pathways for structural variation that may be associated with autism. We further extended our candidate gene set to include 19 genes and regions that had either been directly implicated in the autism literature or were directly related (via function or ancestry to these primary candidates. For the high resolution CNV screen we employed custom-designed 244 k comparative genomic hybridization (CGH arrays. Collectively, our probes spanned a total of 11 Mb of GABA-related and additional candidate regions with a density of approximately one probe every 200 nucleotides, allowing a theoretical resolution for detection of CNVs of approximately 1 kb or greater on average. One hundred and sixty-eight autism cases and 149 control individuals were screened for structural variants. Prioritized CNV events were confirmed using quantitative PCR, and confirmed loci were evaluated on an additional set of 170 cases and 170 control individuals that were not included in the original discovery set. Loci that remained interesting were subsequently screened via quantitative PCR on an additional set of 755 cases and 1,809 unaffected family members. Results Results include rare deletions in autistic individuals at JAKMIP1, NRXN1, Neuroligin4Y, OXTR, and ABAT. Common insertion/deletion polymorphisms were detected at several

  7. Training adults and children with an autism spectrum disorder to be compliant with a clinical dental assessment using a TEACCH-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Lorena M; Martínez-Sanchis, Sonia; Silvestre, Francisco J

    2014-04-01

    The specific neuropsychological and sensory profile found in persons with autism spectrum disorders complicate dental procedures and as a result of this, most are treated under general anesthesia or unnecessary sedation. The main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a short treatment and education of autistic and related communication-handicapped children-based intervention program (five sessions) to facilitate a 10-component oral assessment in children (n = 38, aged 4-9 years) and adults (n = 34, aged 19-41) with autism spectrum disorder (with or without associated intellectual disability). The assessment ranges from entering into the examination room to the evaluation of the dental occlusion. There were statistically significant differences in the number of components reached and in compliance before and after the training program.

  8. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara;

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... that some indications of lateralization abnormalities may be evident prior to the onset of schizophrenia, suggesting that disruptions in lateralization are inherent to the developmental course of the disorder. We attempted to replicate and extend upon findings indicating differences in lateralization...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  9. Greater disruption to control of voluntary saccades in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder: evidence for greater cerebellar involvement in autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley-Cary, Chloe; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce; White, Owen; Fielding, Joanne

    2011-03-01

    It remains unclear whether autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) exist on a symptom continuum or are separate disorders with discrete neurobiological underpinnings. In addition to impairments in communication and social cognition, motor deficits constitute a significant clinical feature in both disorders. It has been suggested that motor deficits and in particular the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may differentiate these disorders. We used a simple volitional saccade task to comprehensively profile the integrity of voluntary ocular motor behaviour in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or AD, and included measures sensitive to cerebellar dysfunction. We tested three groups of age-matched young males with normal intelligence (full scale, verbal, and performance IQ estimates >70) aged between 11 and 19 years; nine with AD, eight with HFA, and ten normally developing males as the comparison group. Overall, the metrics and dynamics of the voluntary saccades produced in this task were preserved in the AD group. In contrast, the HFA group demonstrated relatively preserved mean measures of ocular motricity with cerebellar-like deficits demonstrated in increased variability on measures of response time, final eye position, and movement dynamics. These deficits were considered to be consistent with reduced cerebellar online adaptation of movement. The results support the notion that the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may be different in AD and HFA, suggesting potentially differential neurobiological substrates may underpin these complex disorders.

  10. Autism spectrum disorders in children and adolescents with Moebius sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Briegel, Wolfgang; Schimek, Martina; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Hofmann, Christina; Schwab, K. Otfried

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Moebius sequence is a rare congenital disorder usually defined as a combination of facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction. A strong association of Moebius sequence with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been suggested in earlier studies with heterogenous age groups. The primary caregivers of all children and adolescents with Moebius sequence aged 6?17 years known to the German Moebius foundation were anonymously asked to complete two screening measures of A...

  11. Abnormalities of Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Monk, Christopher S.; Peltier, Scott J.; Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Weng, Shih-Jen; Carrasco, Melisa; Risi, Susan; Lord, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) impact social functioning and communication, and individuals with these disorders often have restrictive and repetitive behaviors. Accumulating data indicate that ASD is associated with alterations of neural circuitry. Functional MRI (FMRI) studies have focused on connectivity in the context of psychological tasks. However, even in the absence of a task, the brain exhibits a high degree of functional connectivity, known as intrinsic or resting connectivity. Not...

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorders Conference for educators, parents, and psychologist

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2006-01-01

    A conference designed to assist those who are supporting students from preschool through high school with autism spectrum disorders including Asperger's syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified PDD-NOS or atypical autism, will be held March 30 and 31, at the Southwest Virginia Higher Education Center in Abingdon, Va. Registration for the conference is $65 for both days and covers breaks, lunch, and materials.

  13. Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    White, Susan W.; Oswald, Donald; Ollendick, Thomas; Scahill, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety and poor stress management are common concerns in clinical samples of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Anxiety may worsen during adolescence, as young people face an increasingly complex social milieu and often become more aware of their differences and interpersonal difficulties. This review summarizes the state of research on the prevalence, phenomenology, and treatment of anxiety in youth with autism and related conditions such as Asperger’s disorder. Using search wor...

  14. Full spectrum of mental disorders linked with childhood residential mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, Pearl L. H.; Webb, Roger T.; Appleby, Louis; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2016-01-01

    Although links between childhood residential mobility and subsequently increased risks of psychopathology have been well documented, associations across the full spectrum of psychiatric disorders are unknown. We conducted a population-based study of all 1,439,363 persons born in Denmark during 1971–1997 to investigate relationships between childhood cross-municipality residential moves from year of birth to age 14 years and the development of a range of psychiatric disorders from mid-adolesce...

  15. The Construct Validity of Anxiety Disorders in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Renno, Patricia Ann

    2013-01-01

    The literature indicates that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are at a heightened risk for developing anxiety disorders. Between 11% and 84% of individuals with ASD are also diagnosed with a co-occurring anxiety disorder (Muris, 1998; de Bruin et al., 2007; Green et al., 2000; Simonoff et al., 2008; Sukhodolsky et al., 2007). Despite the high frequency of co-occurrence, little research has investigated the validity of the DSM-IV Anxiety Disorder classification system in the ASD ...

  16. Examining executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and typical development

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, Blythe A.; Constantine, Laura J.; Hendren, Robert; Rocke, David; Ozonoff, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning (EF) is an overarching term that refers to neuropsychological processes that enable physical, cognitive, and emotional self-control. Deficits in EF are often present in neurodevelopmental disorders, but the specificity of EF deficits and direct comparison across disorders is rare. The current study investigated EF in 7 to 12 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typical development using a comprehensive...

  17. Effectiveness of Methylcobalamin and Folinic Acid Treatment on Adaptive Behavior in Children with Autistic Disorder Is Related to Glutathione Redox Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Frye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatments targeting metabolic abnormalities in children with autism are limited. Previously we reported that a nutritional treatment significantly improved glutathione metabolism in children with autistic disorder. In this study we evaluated changes in adaptive behaviors in this cohort and determined whether such changes are related to changes in glutathione metabolism. Thirty-seven children diagnosed with autistic disorder and abnormal glutathione and methylation metabolism were treated with twice weekly 75 µg/Kg methylcobalamin and twice daily 400 µg folinic acid for 3 months in an open-label fashion. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS and glutathione redox metabolites were measured at baseline and at the end of the treatment period. Over the treatment period, all VABS subscales significantly improved with an average effect size of 0.59, and an average improvement in skills of 7.7 months. A greater improvement in glutathione redox status was associated with a greater improvement in expressive communication, personal and domestic daily living skills, and interpersonal, play-leisure, and coping social skills. Age, gender, and history of regression did not influence treatment response. The significant behavioral improvements observed and the relationship between these improvements to glutathione redox status suggest that nutritional interventions targeting redox metabolism may benefit some children with autism.

  18. Biological and psychological rhythms: an integrative approach to rhythm disturbances in autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botbol, Michel; Cabon, Philippe; Kermarrec, Solenn; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2013-09-01

    Biological rhythms are crucial phenomena that are perfect examples of the adaptation of organisms to their environment. A considerable amount of work has described different types of biological rhythms (from circadian to ultradian), individual differences in their patterns and the complexity of their regulation. In particular, the regulation and maturation of the sleep-wake cycle have been thoroughly studied. Its desynchronization, both endogenous and exogenous, is now well understood, as are its consequences for cognitive impairments and health problems. From a completely different perspective, psychoanalysts have shown a growing interest in the rhythms of psychic life. This interest extends beyond the original focus of psychoanalysis on dreams and the sleep-wake cycle, incorporating central theoretical and practical psychoanalytic issues related to the core functioning of the psychic life: the rhythmic structures of drive dynamics, intersubjective developmental processes and psychic containment functions. Psychopathological and biological approaches to the study of infantile autism reveal the importance of specific biological and psychological rhythmic disturbances in this disorder. Considering data and hypotheses from both perspectives, this paper proposes an integrative approach to the study of these rhythmic disturbances and offers an etiopathogenic hypothesis based on this integrative approach.

  19. Premedication in an autistic, combative child: Challenges and nuances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autistic spectrum disorders are often encountered in anesthesia practice mainly for outdoor procedural sedation or anesthesia in endoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging suites. We describe a case of a 7-year-old autistic boy who required management of dental caries. He had a phobia to intravenous cannulation, displayed increasing anxiety and became combative on the day of surgery. With parental involvement and distraction, we succeeded in giving oral midazolam by concealing it, with the intent of avoiding intramuscular injection or unnecessary restraint. Lack of knowledge about the medical condition of such a patient can lead to inadequate preoperative preparation and use of restraint on the patient, which might cause anxiety or panic attacks in the operative room. To effectively manage children with special needs one needs to have clear guidelines on the management of uncooperative children, involve parents perioperatively, plan ahead with an emphasis on perioperative analgesia and sometimes incorporate the ethical use of restraint.

  20. Autistic traits in neurotypical adults: correlates of graph theoretical functional network topology and white matter anisotropy patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Andras; Emri, Miklos; Spisak, Tamas; Szeman-Nagy, Anita; Beres, Monika; Kis, Sandor Attila; Molnar, Peter; Berenyi, Ervin

    2013-01-01

    Attempts to explicate the neural abnormalities behind autism spectrum disorders frequently revealed impaired brain connectivity, yet our knowledge is limited about the alterations linked with autistic traits in the non-clinical population. In our study, we aimed at exploring the neural correlates of dimensional autistic traits using a dual approach of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and graph theoretical analysis of resting state functional MRI data. Subjects were sampled from a public neuroimaging dataset of healthy volunteers. Inclusion criteria were adult age (age: 18-65), availability of DTI and resting state functional acquisitions and psychological evaluation including the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and Autistic Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ). The final subject cohort consisted of 127 neurotypicals. Global brain network structure was described by graph theoretical parameters: global and average local efficiency. Regional topology was characterized by degree and efficiency. We provided measurements for diffusion anisotropy. The association between autistic traits and the neuroimaging findings was studied using a general linear model analysis, controlling for the effects of age, gender and IQ profile. Significant negative correlation was found between the degree and efficiency of the right posterior cingulate cortex and autistic traits, measured by the combination of ASSQ and SRS scores. Autistic phenotype was associated with the decrease of whole-brain local efficiency. Reduction of diffusion anisotropy was found bilaterally in the temporal fusiform and parahippocampal gyri. Numerous models describe the autistic brain connectome to be dominated by reduced long-range connections and excessive short-range fibers. Our finding of decreased efficiency supports this hypothesis although the only prominent effect was seen in the posterior limbic lobe, which is known to act as a connector hub. The neural correlates of the autistic trait in neurotypicals

  1. Autistic traits in neurotypical adults: correlates of graph theoretical functional network topology and white matter anisotropy patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Jakab

    Full Text Available Attempts to explicate the neural abnormalities behind autism spectrum disorders frequently revealed impaired brain connectivity, yet our knowledge is limited about the alterations linked with autistic traits in the non-clinical population. In our study, we aimed at exploring the neural correlates of dimensional autistic traits using a dual approach of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and graph theoretical analysis of resting state functional MRI data. Subjects were sampled from a public neuroimaging dataset of healthy volunteers. Inclusion criteria were adult age (age: 18-65, availability of DTI and resting state functional acquisitions and psychological evaluation including the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS and Autistic Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ. The final subject cohort consisted of 127 neurotypicals. Global brain network structure was described by graph theoretical parameters: global and average local efficiency. Regional topology was characterized by degree and efficiency. We provided measurements for diffusion anisotropy. The association between autistic traits and the neuroimaging findings was studied using a general linear model analysis, controlling for the effects of age, gender and IQ profile. Significant negative correlation was found between the degree and efficiency of the right posterior cingulate cortex and autistic traits, measured by the combination of ASSQ and SRS scores. Autistic phenotype was associated with the decrease of whole-brain local efficiency. Reduction of diffusion anisotropy was found bilaterally in the temporal fusiform and parahippocampal gyri. Numerous models describe the autistic brain connectome to be dominated by reduced long-range connections and excessive short-range fibers. Our finding of decreased efficiency supports this hypothesis although the only prominent effect was seen in the posterior limbic lobe, which is known to act as a connector hub. The neural correlates of the autistic trait

  2. Discrepancy between WISC-III and WISC-IV Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum: What Does It Reveal about Autistic Cognition?

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Marie Nader; Patricia Jelenic; Isabelle Soulières

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive profile and measured intellectual level vary according to assessment tools in children on the autism spectrum, much more so than in typically developing children. The recent inclusion of intellectual functioning in the diagnostic process for autism spectrum disorders leads to the crucial question on how to assess intelligence in autism, especially as some tests and subtests seem more sensitive to certain neurodevelopmental conditions. Our first aim was to examine the cognitive p...

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; MacMullen, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a continuum of cognitive and social problems that vary considerably in both impact and presentation for each child affected. Although successful interventions have been developed that target specific skill deficits often exhibited by children with autism, many of those interventions are exclusively…

  4. Patterns of Autobiographical Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Laura; Pring, Linda; Jukes, Kaylee; Goddard, Lorna

    2012-01-01

    Two studies are presented that explored the effects of experimental manipulations on the quality and accessibility of autobiographical memories in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relative to a typical comparison group matched for age, gender and IQ. Both studies found that the adults with ASD generated fewer specific memories than the…

  5. Bullying Experiences among Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Pepler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have investigated bullying experiences among children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however, preliminary research suggests that children with ASD are at greater risk for being bullied than typically developing peers. The aim of the current study was to build an understanding of bullying experiences among children with…

  6. Maternal Infection Requiring Hospitalization during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atladottir, Hjordis O.; Thorsen, Poul; Ostergaard, Lars; Schendel, Diana E.; Lemcke, Sanne; Abdallah, Morsi; Parner, Erik T.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal infection has been suggested to cause deficiencies in fetal neurodevelopment. In this study we included all children born in Denmark from 1980, through 2005. Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and maternal infection were obtained through nationwide registers. Data was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards…

  7. Neonatal chemokine levels and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob;

    2013-01-01

    A potential role of chemokines in the pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) has been previously suggested. In a recent study we examined levels of three inflammatory chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1a and RANTES) in samples of amniotic fluid of children diagnosed later in life with ASD...

  8. Neonatal levels of cytokines and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Mortensen, Erik L;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in neonatal dried blood samples (n-DBSS) retrieved from The Danish Newborn Screening Biobank of children developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) later in life and controls. Samples of 359 ASD cases and 741 controls were analyzed using Luminex...

  9. Desire for social interaction in children with autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, A.; Roelofs, J.; Muris, P.E.H.M.; Rinck, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this experimental clinical study, a first attempt was made to examine the desire for social interaction in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children completed both an explicit measure (self-report) and an implicit measure (Face Turn Ap

  10. Defining Crisis in Families of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Wingsiong, Aranda; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder often report higher levels of depression, anxiety, and mental health-related issues. The combination of stressors and family adjustment difficulties can cause distress which may develop into a crisis. Understanding crisis in the family is important to mental health practice since it can…

  11. Emotion Recognition in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusikko, Sanna; Haapsamo, Helena; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Hurtig, Tuula; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Jussila, Katja; Bolte, Sven; Moilanen, Irma

    2009-01-01

    We examined upper facial basic emotion recognition in 57 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (M = 13.5 years) and 33 typically developing controls (M = 14.3 years) by using a standardized computer-aided measure (The Frankfurt Test and Training of Facial Affect Recognition, FEFA). The ASD group scored lower than controls on the total…

  12. Is Emotion Recognition Impaired in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Jessica L.; Robins, Richard W.; Schriber, Roberta A.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have argued that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) use an effortful "systematizing" process to recognize emotion expressions, whereas typically developing (TD) individuals use a more holistic process. If this is the case, individuals with ASDs should show slower and less efficient emotion recognition, particularly for…

  13. Early-Onset Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Diagnostic Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Stephanie; Fristad, Mary A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Birmaher, Boris; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Demeter, Christine; Findling, Robert L.; Kowatch, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid 1990s, early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSDs) have received increased attention in both the popular press and scholarly press. Rates of diagnosis of BPSD in children and adolescents have increased in inpatient, outpatient, and primary care settings. BPSDs remain difficult to diagnose, particularly in youth. The current…

  14. Prevalence of treated autism spectrum disorders in Aruba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Balkom, Ingrid D. C.; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Vogtlander, Marrit F.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Susser, Ezra; Hoek, Hans W.

    2009-01-01

    To study autism outside of a narrow range of settings previously studied, and in a particularly distinctive setting in the Caribbean. The aim of the Aruba Autism Project was to determine the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in birth years 1990-1999 in Aruba. A record review study was c

  15. Attachment and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Inbal; Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2009-01-01

    The association between attachment and symbolic play was examined in a sample of 45 preschool age boys with autism spectrum disorders. Attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure, and the frequency, duration, diversity and complexity of child-initiated symbolic play was assessed from observations of mother-child interactions…

  16. Sexuality Education for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullis, Christopher A.; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    As people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) mature from adolescents into adults, social deficits may become more pronounced and apparent in new areas (e.g., social functioning and sexuality). Like neurotypicals, sexuality may be directly related to quality of life for people with ASD. Current practice for addressing sexuality in the ASD…

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Sibling Relationships: Research and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Julia F.

    2009-01-01

    Significant attention has been paid in the literature to sibling relationships and the effects of birth order, family size, and gender on such relationships. Although these are important areas to study, there is relatively little research on the effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on sibling relationships. The existent research identifies…

  18. Psychiatry Trainees' Training and Experience in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Roy; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: Alcohol is a teratogen. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) affect about 1% of live births, causing severe impairment. Individuals affected by FASDs are overrepresented in psychiatric settings. This study reports on the education and experience of psychiatry trainees in approaching FASDs. Method: Data were collected from…

  19. Alexithymia in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmari, Peter; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Goldberg, Jeremy; Bennett, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Given the recent findings regarding the association between alexithymia and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and the accumulating evidence for the presence of the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) in relatives of individuals with ASD, we further explored the construct of alexithymia in parents of children with ASD as a potential part of the BAP. We…

  20. Polypharmacy Profiles and Predictors among Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Johanna K.; Balogh, Robert; Lunsky, Yona

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological interventions are frequently used to treat commonly associated mental health and behavioural issues in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite high rates of psychotropic drug use documented in children with ASD, very few studies have examined medication profiles, side effects, and rates of polypharmacy in…