WorldWideScience

Sample records for autistic disorders review

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all…

  2. [Language in autistic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas, J

    1999-02-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder affecting social relationships, communication and flexibility of thought. These three basic aspects of autism may present in many different forms and degrees. Therefore autism should be considered to be a spectrum of autistic disorders rather than a single strictly defined condition. The spectrum of autistic disorders extends from intelligent individuals with acceptable social integration, to severely retarded patients with scarcely any social interaction. Language is almost always affected either in its formal aspects or in its usage. Autistic linguistic disorders form a specific language disorder (developmental dysphasia) and a pragmatic disorder linked both to the primary language problem and to the social cognitive deficit. We discuss the different linguistic syndromes observed in autistic patients with special emphasis on the semantic-pragmatic disorder. PMID:10778500

  3. [Empirically based early intervention programs for children with autistic disorders - a selective literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M

    2010-07-01

    Autistic Disorders (AD) are characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, as well as by stereotyped behaviors and interests. Early intervention programs in AD aim to improve several aspects of the child's abilities: joint attention, play abilities, language development, and especially social interaction and communication. In this review article based on a selective literature search, the relatively best empirically based early intervention programs will be discussed with a focus on the proven efficacy of these interventions.

  4. Autistic spectrum disorders in preschool children.

    OpenAIRE

    Zwaigenbaum, L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review existing data on early signs of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and on how these disorders can be distinguished from other atypical patterns of development, and to describe a developmental surveillance approach that family physicians can use to ensure that children with these diagnoses are detected as early as possible. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to July 2000 using the MeSH terms autistic disorder/diagnosis AND diagnosis, differential AN...

  5. Catatonia and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Malone, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of catatonic-like states in people with autistic spectrum disorders is discussed in the context of current knowledge about catatonia as it occurs in severe mental illness and, less frequently documented, in conjunction with developmental disorders. The existing literature on catatonic-like states in people with autistic spectrum…

  6. Autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, Rajeshree

    2005-04-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders is a complex developmental disorder with social and communication dysfunction at its core. It has a wide clinical spectrum with a common triad of impairments -- social communication, social interaction and social imagination. Even mild or subtle difficulties can have a profound and devastating impact on the child. To be able to provide suitable treatments and interventions the distinctive way of thinking and learning of autistic children has to be understood. The core areas of social, emotional, communication and language deficits have to be addressed at all levels of functioning. The important goals of assessment include a categorical diagnosis of autism that looks at differential diagnosis, a refined precise documentation of the child's functioning in various developmental domains and ascertaining presence of co-morbid conditions. The interventions have to be adapted to the individual's chronological age, developmental phase and level of functioning. The strategies of curriculum delivery and teaching the child with autism is distinctive and includes presence of structure to increase predictability and strategies to reduce arousal of anxiety.

  7. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effectiveness of Behavioural Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of behavioural intervention programs for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders was addressed by a meta-analysis, which reviewed 14 studies. The findings suggest that the behavioural programs are effective in improving several developmental aspects in the children, in terms of their treatment gains, and also relative to…

  8. A Review of Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Research in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Attention, Inhibition and Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jane; Johnson, Katherine A.; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Gallagher, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are devastating neurodevelopmental disorders of unknown aetiology with characteristic deficits in social interaction, communication and behaviour. Individuals with ASD show deficits in executive function (EF), which are hypothesised to underlie core repetitive, stereotyped behaviours of autism. Neuroimaging…

  9. A Systematic Review of Interventions Used to Treat Catatonic Symptoms in People with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Hannah; Bunton, Penny; Hare, Dougal J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the efficacy of a range of treatments for autistic catatonia. The review identified 22 relevant papers, reporting a total of 28 cases including both adult and paediatric patients. Treatment methods included electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), medication, behavioural and sensory interventions. Quality…

  10. The intestinal lesion of autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jass, Jeremy R

    2005-08-01

    This editorial briefly reviews the significance of lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in the intestinal tract of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The distinction between physiological and pathological lymphoid hyperplasia of the intestinal tract is of importance in the context of a possible causative link with autism. A primary intestinal lesion may occur as part of the broad spectrum of immunological disorders to which autistic children are prone. This could result in increased intestinal permeability to peptides of dietary origin which may then lead to disruption of neuroregulatory mechanisms required for normal brain development. Alternatively, there could be a primary defect in the translocation and processing of factors derived from the intestinal lumen. These possibilities deserve further investigation and should not be lost in the fog of the controversy regarding the role of measles/mumps/rubella vaccination in the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder.

  11. Annotation: The Similarities and Differences between Autistic Disorder and Asperger's Disorder--A Review of the Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Kathleen E.; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    Background: The ongoing controversy over the distinction between autistic disorder and Asperger's disorder is important to resolve because of the implications regarding an understanding of the aetiology and prognosis, and the diagnostic and clinical practices relating to these conditions. This paper provides a critical evaluation of current…

  12. Deafness and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, McCay; Rhodes, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    An orientation to autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), also known as autism, is provided, and the specific syndrome of autism and deafness is addressed. The two conditions have in common a major problem: communication. Case histories are provided, the development of treatment for autism is discussed, and the separate disorders that make up ASD are…

  13. [Review of psychopharmacological treatments in adolescents and adults with autistic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadli, A; Gonnier, V; Aussilloux, C

    2002-01-01

    Autism is an early developmental disorder. It leads to severe and durable disturbances. Given this problem, no treatment can be excluded a priori. Thus, many approaches are used to deal with autistic disorders. In France, pharmacological treatments are, for instance, largely and mostly used in adults. In the USA, these treatments concern 50% of persons with autism of any age. Nevertheless, they are rarely based on controlled studies. At the present, however, prescriptions and expected effects appear to be hard to localize. Furthermore, only few controlled studies validate their use. Aim - We offer a review of studies about medical treatments used in adolescents and adults with autism. They are classified in 3 categories: the first (category I) includes drugs used for their neurochemical effects focusing on autistic signs. The second (category II) covers drugs used for treatment of behavioural disorders frequently associated with autism. The third (category III) corresponds to a wide range of drugs or vitamins for wich only few case studies exist reporting irregular positive effects. The main hypothesis of this review is that autism involves a dysfunction of the neuromediation systems. This hypothesis opens new perspectives in the research of medical treatments in autism by focusing on molecules, which are supposed to have an effect on neuromediation systems. Method - Our review is based on studies, which have been published during the past twenty years. For many studies, data are limited to adolescents and adults. So we expanded our review to data available in children. The data bases that we have used are medline and psyclit. Keywords have been chosen according to: pharmacological considerations (psychotropic, psychoactive drugs, psychopharmacology) and clinical symptoms (autism, automutilations, aggressive behavior, and hyperactivity). Hypothesis of a dysfunction in the neuromediation systems in autism - Many studies exist about biochemical abnormalities in

  14. [Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercadante, M.T.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Schwartzman, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative

  15. Autistic Disorder Symptoms in Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulffaert, Josette; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; Scholte, Evert M.

    2009-01-01

    According to the major classification systems it is not possible to diagnose a comorbid autistic disorder in persons with Rett syndrome. However, this is a controversial issue, and given the level of functioning of persons with Rett syndrome, the autistic disorder is expected to be present in a comparable proportion as in people with the same…

  16. Technologies as Support Tools for Persons with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Aresti-Bartolome

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the technologies most widely used to work on areas affected by the Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Technologies can focus on the strengths and weaknesses of this disorder as they make it possible to create controlled environments, reducing the anxiety produced by real social situations. Extensive research has proven the efficiency of technologies as support tools for therapy and their acceptation by ASD sufferers and the people who are with them on a daily basis. This article is organized by the types of systems developed: virtual reality applications, telehealth systems, social robots and dedicated applications, all of which are classified by the areas they center on: communication, social learning and imitation skills and other ASD-associated conditions. 40.5% of the research conducted is found to be focused on communication as opposed to 37.8% focused on learning and social imitation skills and 21.6% which underlines problems associated with this disorder. Although most of the studies reveal how useful these tools are in therapy, they are generic tools for ASD sufferers in general, which means there is a lack of personalised tools to meet each person’s needs.

  17. Autistic disorder and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbey, Jane E; Sweeten, Thayne L; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions, which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very early in development. The mechanism, by which viral infection may lead to autism, be it through direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS), through infection elsewhere in the body acting as a trigger for disease in the CNS, through alteration of the immune response of the mother or offspring, or through a combination of these, is not yet known. Animal models in which early viral infection results in behavioral changes later in life include the influenza virus model in pregnant mice and the Borna disease virus model in newborn Lewis rats. Many studies over the years have presented evidence both for and against the association of autism with various viral infections. The best association to date has been made between congenital rubella and autism; however, members of the herpes virus family may also have a role in autism. Recently, controversy has arisen as to the involvement of measles virus and/or the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in the development of autism. Biological assays lend support to the association between measles virus or MMR and autism whereas epidemiologic studies show no association between MMR and autism. Further research is needed to clarify both the mechanisms whereby viral infection early in development may lead to autism and the possible involvement of the MMR vaccine in the development of autism.

  18. Review of foreign approaches to development of communication in children with autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldatenkova E.N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a generalized overview of international approaches to the evaluation and formation of communication in children with autism spectrum disor ders (ASD. Described radicals communication disorders in children with ASD. Analyzed foreign approaches (Communication system for the exchange of images (PECS Lori Frost and Andrew Bondy; options piktogramme6ideogrammic communication (bliss6symbolism, Loeb system, a system of sign language; Program in Applied verbal behavior; a Method of facilitating communication (FC and others used for the development of communication in children with ASD and donditions underlying these approaches. Examined differences in focus for the development of communication in children with ASD in domestic and foreign schools. The main conditions for the development of communication in children with ASD described in the framework of cultural historical psychology and activity approach, ensuring the inclusion of children with ASD in education.

  19. Caracterization of the motor profile of students with autistic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Matiko Okuda

    2010-01-01

    Thematic focus: The motor abnormalities may be part of so-called comorbidities that can coexist with autistic disorder. Objective: To characterize the motor profile of students with autistic disorder. Method: the study included six children with autistic disorder in elementary school, male, aged 5 years and 5 months and 10 years and 9 months. After signing the consent form by parents or guardians, the students were submitted to the Motor Development Scale for assessment of fine motor, gross m...

  20. The savant syndrome and autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffert, D A

    1999-12-01

    Savant syndrome, characterized by remarkable islands of mental ability in otherwise mentally handicapped persons, may occur in autistic as well as nonautistic individuals. Overall, approximately 10% of autistic persons exhibit savant abilities; roughly 50% of those with savant syndrome have autism, and the remaining 50% have other forms of developmental disability. Most commonly, savant syndrome takes the form of extraordinary musical abilities, but may also include calendar-calculation, artistic, mathematical, spatial, mechanical, and memory skills. While savant syndrome was first described more than a century ago, only recently have researchers begun to employ a more uniform nomenclature and more standardized testing in an effort to compare the abilities of savants with those of normal persons. Males show signs of savant syndrome approximately four times more often than females. Along with imaging study findings, this fact suggests the presence of a developmental disorder involving left-brain damage with right-brain compensation.

  1. Audio Linguistic Disorders in Autistic Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore auditory function abnormalities and language disorder in autistic children. Twelve children with criteria of infantile autism were tested using Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA), Immitancemetry, Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission Test (TEOAE), Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR), Standardized Arabic Test of Early Language Development (for both receptive and expressive language). For comparison twlive normal children were chosen as control group. Statistically significant increase in hearing threshold level for the autistic children at low frequency region 250, 500 and 1000 Hz, significant reduction of the amplitude of TEOAE test and significant increase in wave I and V latency and I-V inter-peak latency at both RR 21.2 and 51.2 msec when compared to the control group. A positive correlation was found in this study between the changes in ABR latency and the severity of verbal disability. These resuts leed to the conclusion that Auditory dysfunction in autistic children can be verified through the presence of cochlear involvement and a delay in the brain stem transmission time in those patients. Disturbed verbal communication can be due to dysfunction in the auditory processing mechanisms

  2. Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Steensel, van, A.; Bögels, S.M.; Perrin, S

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic review of the literature identified 31 studies involving 2,121 young people (aged

  3. Autistic spectrum disorders 2: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alice; Cork, Christine; Chowdhury, Uttom

    2006-04-01

    As many as six in every 1000 children may be affected by an autistic spectrum disorder. The previous article of this two-part series discussed the distinction between autism, Asperger's syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder, and examined the assessment process. This article looks at potential differential diagnoses that must be considered, as well as conditions associated with autism. Many theories about the causes of autism have been suggested, including the MMR vaccine. Recent research has suggested that there is no link between the vaccine and autism. There is no cure for autism, but intervention and management techniques should be aimed at educating parents and carers about the disorder and behavioural interventions to aid the child's skills development.

  4. Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: Implications for environmental toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To address a possible environmental contribution to autism, we carried out a retrospective study on urinary porphyrin levels, a biomarker of environmental toxicity, in 269 children with neurodevelopmental and related disorders referred to a Paris clinic (2002-2004), including 106 with autistic disorder. Urinary porphyrin levels determined by high-performance liquid chromatography were compared between diagnostic groups including internal and external control groups. Coproporphyrin levels were elevated in children with autistic disorder relative to control groups. Elevation was maintained on normalization for age or to a control heme pathway metabolite (uroporphyrin) in the same samples. The elevation was significant (P < 0.001). Porphyrin levels were unchanged in Asperger's disorder, distinguishing it from autistic disorder. The atypical molecule precoproporphyrin, a specific indicator of heavy metal toxicity, was also elevated in autistic disorder (P < 0.001) but not significantly in Asperger's. A subgroup with autistic disorder was treated with oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) with a view to heavy metal removal. Following DMSA there was a significant (P = 0.002) drop in urinary porphyrin excretion. These data implicate environmental toxicity in childhood autistic disorder

  5. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenberg, P.L.; David, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, dep

  6. The Screening and Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipek, Pauline A.; Accardo, Pasquale J.; Baranek, Grace T.; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Dawson, Geraldine; Gordon, Barry; Gravel, Judith S.; Johnson, Chris P.; Kallen, Ronald J.; Levy, Susan E.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Prizant, Barry M.; Rapin, Isabelle; Rogers, Sally J.; Stone, Wendy L.; Teplin, Stuart; Tuchman, Roberto F.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents detailed recommendations for diagnosis of autism established by a multidisciplinary panel of the Child Neurology Society and the American Academy of Neurology. The paper offers dual-level (general development and specific symptoms) guidelines for diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative…

  7. Caracterization of the motor profile of students with autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Matiko Okuda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Thematic focus: The motor abnormalities may be part of so-called comorbidities that can coexist with autistic disorder. Objective: To characterize the motor profile of students with autistic disorder. Method: the study included six children with autistic disorder in elementary school, male, aged 5 years and 5 months and 10 years and 9 months. After signing the consent form by parents or guardians, the students were submitted to the Motor Development Scale for assessment of fine motor, gross motor performance, balance, body scheme, spatial organization, temporal organization and laterality. Results: The results revealed a significant difference between the motor age and chronological age. According to the classification of the Scale of Motor Development, students in this study showed motor development lower than expected for age. Conclusion: The students with autistic disorder in this study presented a profile of Developmental Coordination Disorder in comorbidity, showing that participants of this research presented difficulties in activities that required skills such as handwriting. Thus, motor and psychomotor needs of these students were focused on educational and clinical environment to reduce the impact of behavioral and social manifestations.

  8. Iron Deficiency in Preschool Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Gurkan, Kagan; Turkoglu, Serhat; Akca, Omer Faruk; Kilic, Birim Gunay; Uslu, Runa

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) causes negative outcomes on psychomotor and behavioral development of infants and young children. Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are under risk for ID and this condition may increase the severity of psychomotor and behavioral problems, some of which already inherently exist in these children. In the present…

  9. Neurofeedback improves executive functioning in children with autistic spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouijzer, M.E.J.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Gerrits, B.J.L.; Congedo, M.; Schie, H.T. van

    2009-01-01

    Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children’s heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation ove

  10. The potential importance of steroids in the treatment of autistic spectrum disorders and other disorders involving mercury toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Mark R; Geier, David A

    2005-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) affects 1 in 150 children in the United States. Autism is characterized by impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, abnormal movements, and sensory dysfunction. Recently emerging evidence suggests that mercury, especially from childhood vaccines, appears to be a factor in the development of the autistic disorders, and that autistic children have higher than normal body-burdens of mercury. In considering mercury toxicity, it has previously been shown that testosterone significantly potentates mercury toxicity, whereas estrogen is protective. Examination of autistic children has shown that the severity of autistic disorders correlates with the amount of testosterone present in the amniotic fluid, and an examination of a case-series of autistic children has shown that some have plasma testosterone levels that were significantly elevated in comparison neurotypical control children. A review of some of the current biomedical therapies for autistics, such as glutathione and cysteine, chelation, secretin, and growth hormone, suggests that they may in fact lower testosterone levels. We put forward the medical hypothesis that autistic disorders, in fact, represents a form of testosterone mercury toxicity, and based upon this observation, one can design novel treatments for autistics directed towards higher testosterone levels in autistic children. We suggest a series of experiments that need to be conducted in order to evaluate the exact mechanisms for mercury-testosterone toxicity, and various types of clinical manipulations that may be employed to control testosterone levels. It is hoped by devising therapies that address the steroid hormone pathways, in addition to the current treatments that successful lower heavy metal body-burdens of mercury, will work synergistically to improve clinical outcomes. In light of the fact that

  11. Catatonia in Autistic Disorder: A Sign of Comorbidity or Variable Expression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, George M.; August, Gerald J.

    1991-01-01

    Case studies are presented of three autistic adolescents who exhibited catatonia, and it is concluded that catatonia may be a sign of a comorbid condition (such as bipolar disorder) in autistic individuals. Autistic individuals with various other psychiatric, neurological, medical, and drug-related conditions may be at greater risk for catatonic…

  12. Motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zikl Pavel; Petrů Dita; Daňková Aneta; Doležalová Hana; Šafaříková Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    The contribution contains results of a research of motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The group of children represents besides major triad of symptoms, also described difficulties in the field of motor skills. Our aim to find out what motor skills of these children are in comparison with intact population and what differences are found in individual motor items, i.e. in fine motor skills, gross motor skills and in balance. The data was gained with the use of standardize...

  13. Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels; S. Perrin

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic tec

  14. Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Perrin, Sean

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic…

  15. The epidemiology of autistic spectrum disorders: is the prevalence rising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Lorna; Potter, David

    2002-01-01

    For decades after Kanner's original paper on the subject was published in 1943, autism was generally considered to be a rare condition with a prevalence of around 2-4 per 10,000 children. Then, studies carried out in the late 1990s and the present century reported annual rises in incidence of autism in pre-school children, based on age of diagnosis, and increases in the age-specific prevalence rates in children. Prevalence rates of up to 60 per 10,000 for autism and even more for the whole autistic spectrum were reported. Reasons for these increases are discussed. They include changes in diagnostic criteria, development of the concept of the wide autistic spectrum, different methods used in studies, growing awareness and knowledge among parents and professional workers and the development of specialist services, as well as the possibility of a true increase in numbers. Various environmental causes for a genuine rise in incidence have been suggested, including the triple vaccine for measles, mumps and rubella (MMR]. Not one of the possible environmental causes, including MMR, has been confirmed by independent scientific investigation, whereas there is strong evidence that complex genetic factors play a major role in etiology. The evidence suggests that the majority, if not all, of the reported rise in incidence and prevalence is due to changes in diagnostic criteria and increasing awareness and recognition of autistic spectrum disorders. Whether there is also a genuine rise in incidence remains an open question.

  16. [Asperger's syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD) refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term,,autistic spectrum disorders" was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger's Syndrome (AS) remains the most controversial diagnosis in terms of its place within autism spectrum disorders. AS if often described as an equivalent of High Functioning Autism (HFA) or as a separate spectrum-related disorder with unique diagnostic criteria. Another important issue is the relationship between AS and speech disorders. Although it is relatively easy to draw a line between children with classical autism and speech disorders, the clear cut frontiers between them still remain to be found. The main distinguishing feature is the lack of stereotypic interests and unimpaired social interaction observed in children with speech disorders, such as semantic-pragmatic disorder. PMID:22220491

  17. Molecular genetics and animal models in autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Autistic disorder is a behavioural syndrome beginning before the age of 3 years and lasting over the whole lifetime. It is characterised by impaired communication, impaired social interactions, and repetitive interests and behaviour. The prevalence is about 7/10,000 taking a restrictive definition and more than 1/500 with a broader definition, including all the pervasive developmental disorders. The importance of genetic factors has been highlighted by epidemiological studies showing that autistic disorder is one of the most genetic neuropsychiatric diseases. The relative risk of first relatives is about 100-fold higher than the risk in the normal population and the concordance in monozygotic twin is about 60%. Different strategies have been applied on the track of susceptibility genes. The systematic search of linked loci led to contradictory results, in part due to the heterogeneity of the clinical definitions, to the differences in the DNA markers, and to the different methods of analysis used. An oversimplification of the inferred model is probably also cause of our disappointment. More work is necessary to give a clearer picture. One region emerges more frequently: the long arm of chromosome 7. Several candidate genes have been studied and some gave indications of association: the Reelin gene and the Wnt2 gene. Cytogenetical abnormalities are frequent at 15q11-13, the region of the Angelman and Prader-Willi syndrome. Imprinting plays an important role in this region, no candidate gene has been identified in autism. Biochemical abnormalities have been found in the serotonin system. Association and linkage studies gave no consistent results with some serotonin receptors and in the transporter, although it seems interesting to go further in the biochemical characterisation of the serotonin transporter activity, particularly in platelets, easily accessible. Two monogenic diseases have been associated with autistic disorder: tuberous sclerosis and fragile X. A

  18. Motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zikl Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution contains results of a research of motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The group of children represents besides major triad of symptoms, also described difficulties in the field of motor skills. Our aim to find out what motor skills of these children are in comparison with intact population and what differences are found in individual motor items, i.e. in fine motor skills, gross motor skills and in balance. The data was gained with the use of standardized Movement Assessment Battery test for Children 2 (MABC-2. Objective testing of this group of children is relatively difficult. There were successfully tested 36 children with ASD during this phase of research. The research demonstrated evident motor disorder at 86% of children in the observed sample. Statistically significant were worse results in the field of fine motor skills compared to the results in gross motor skills and balance.

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk Factors and Autistic Traits in Gender Dysphoric Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Doug P.; Leef, Jonathan H.; Wood, Hayley; Hughes, S. Kathleen; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated. In 49 GD children (40 natal males), we examined ASD risk factors (i.e., birth weight, parental age, sibling sex ratio) in relation to autistic traits. Data were gathered on autistic traits, birth weight, parents' ages at birth, sibling sex ratio, gender nonconformity, age,…

  20. Factors Impacting on the Outcomes of Greek Intervention Programmes for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the best predictors of the progress of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), on some developmental domains (autistic severity, language, communication and socialisation), which are related to the core features of ASD. Eighty-six children (2.5-14 years old) with ASD, from 10 schools in Greece, were included in the…

  1. Comparative analysis of autistic traits and behavioral disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome and Asperger disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dae Kwang; Sawada, Masayuki; Yokota, Shingo; Kuroda, Kenji; Uenishi, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Hiroshi; Nagai, Toshiro; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neuro-genetic disorder caused by the absence/loss of expression of one or more paternally expressed genes on chromosome 15 (q11-13). In this study, a comparative analysis of intelligence level and autistic traits was conducted between children with PWS (n = 30; 18 males, 12 females; age = 10.6 ± 2.8 years) and those with Asperger disorder (AD; n = 31; 24 males, 7 females; age = 10.5 ± 3.1 years). The children were compared by age group: lower elementary school age (6-8 years), upper elementary school age (9-12 years), and middle school age (13-15 years). As results, the intelligence levels of children with PWS were significantly lower than those with AD across all age groups. Autistic traits, assessed using the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), revealed that among elementary school age children, those with PWS had less prominent autistic traits than those with AD, however, among middle school age children, those with PWS and AD showed similar prominence. An analysis of the PARS subscale scores by age group showed that while the profiles of autistic traits for children with PWS differed from those of children with AD at elementary school age, the profiles showed no significant differences between the groups at middle school age. The findings suggest that autistic traits in PWS become gradually more prominent with increasing of age and that these autistic traits differ in their fundamental nature from those observed in AD.

  2. Disorders of regulation of cognitive activity in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrien, J L; Martineau, J; Barthélémy, C; Bruneau, N; Garreau, B; Sauvage, D

    1995-06-01

    Infantile autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by disturbances concerning not only the areas of socialization and communication ("aloneness") but also the ability to modify and change behavior ("need for sameness"). In most recent studies, various abnormal and deviant cognitive activities, such as the ability to regulate one's behavior, were considered as accounting for these signs. In this report, we examined the regulation of cognitive activity, from a developmental perspective in comparing autistic with mentally retarded children matched in a pairwise manner by global, verbal, and nonverbal developmental ages. All children were tested with tasks adapted from the Object Permanence Test which corresponds to Piaget's sensorimotor development Stages IV to VI. Results showed that autistic children had a pervasive difficulty in maintenance set, made more perseverative errors when the abstraction degree of task was higher, and were more variable in their behavioral strategies. Discussion is focused on the interests and limits of these tasks for the examination of regulation activity from diagnostic and developmental perspectives. Finally, interpretations about recent neuropsychological and neurophysiological works, and additional interdisciplinary studies are suggested. PMID:7559291

  3. ON DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS BETWEEN AUTISTIC DISORDER AND ASPERGER’S SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Todorov; Mariana Arnaoudova

    2012-01-01

    The differential diagnosis between Autistic disorder (AD) and Asperger’s syndrome (AS) in most cases is quite difficult since most of the symptoms are clinically undistinguished. Several factors complicate the diagnosis of AS- an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is considered by some authors to be simply a milder version of autistic disorder. Problems in diagnosis include disagreement among diagnostic criteria, controversy over the distinction between AS and other ASD forms or even whether ...

  4. Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebel, Antony; Brams, Matthew; Goldman, Robert S; Silva, Robert; Hernandez, David; Deng, Ling; Mankoski, Raymond; Findling, Robert L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of lurasidone in treating irritability associated with autistic disorder. In this multicenter trial, outpatients age 6-17 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, and who demonstrated irritability, agitation, and/or self-injurious behaviors were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with lurasidone 20 mg/day (N = 50), 60 mg/day (N = 49), or placebo (N = 51). Efficacy measures included the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale (ABC-I, the primary endpoint) and the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement (CGI-I) scale, and were analyzed using a likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures. Least squares (LS) mean (standard error [SE]) improvement from baseline to Week 6 in the ABC-I was not significantly different for lurasidone 20 mg/day (-8.8 [1.5]) and lurasidone 60 mg/day (-9.4 [1.4]) versus placebo (-7.5 [1.5]; p = 0.55 and 0.36, respectively). CGI-I scores showed significantly greater LS mean [SE] improvement at Week 6 for lurasidone 20 mg/day versus placebo (2.8 [0.2] vs. 3.4 [0.2]; p = 0.035) but not for lurasidone 60 mg/day (3.1 [0.2]; p = 0.27). Discontinuation rates due to adverse events were: lurasidone 20 mg/day, 4.1%; 60 mg/day, 3.9%; and placebo, 8.2%. Adverse events with an incidence ≥10% (lurasidone combined, placebo) included vomiting (18.0, 4.1%) and somnolence (12.0, 4.1%). Modest changes were observed in weight and selected metabolic parameters. In this study, once-daily, fixed doses of 20 and 60 mg/day of lurasidone were not demonstrated to be efficacious compared to placebo for the short-term treatment of children and adolescents with moderate-to-severe irritability associated with autistic disorder.

  5. Parental Perceptions of a Manchester Service for Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mischa Mockett

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. User feedback is now an integral part of both clinical governance and service development, and it also provides a key route to engaging parents and children. Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs can impact on all members of a family, and close working between parents and professionals is essential. Aim. To explore parental satisfaction rates and identify areas in need of improvement. Method. A postal survey was completed by parents whose children had been diagnosed with an ASD in the past 18 months in a Manchester Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service. The National Autism Plan for Children was used as a gold standard. Results. Parents were particularly satisfied with the way team members dealt with them and their children during appointments. However, the standard of written information provided about the condition, diagnosis, and support available could be improved. The findings show the benefits of receiving a diagnosis in the recommended timeframe. Discussion. We discuss ways of effectively using scarce resources.

  6. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic…

  7. Temporal Cognitive Disorders of Autistic Patients%孤独症患者的时间认知障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹; 黄希庭

    2003-01-01

    Besides cognitive disorders, such as disorders of learning, language, etc, the autistic patients generally have tempo-ral cognitive disorders as well, including disorders of sense of time, disorders of memory of time, disorders of temporal behaviour,and disorders of self - consistency. Researchers discussed the possible causes of the temporal cognitive disorders of autistic patients from various ways such as of physiology, heredity, and environment;whereas, there axe no generally accepted conclusions till now. Further researches axe still needed.

  8. [Follow up of patients with developmental delay and autistic spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Riesgo, Rudimar; Becker, Michele M; Ranzan, Josiane; Bragatti Winckler, María I; Ohlweiler, Lygia

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of autism symptoms during life were revised, from childhood to adulthood. Little information is available. After a search in PubMed, no more than 40 publications address this issue. The review was divided into two parts: a) how change the three main symptoms of autism change; b) how change the other autism-associated symptoms. The three main symptoms, called "Triad of Wing" (communication problems, social skills deficits, and a restricted repertoire of interests) do not change significantly during lifetime. The diagnosis of autism remains stable during lifetime, and 80% of children continue with this diagnosis in adulthood. Furthermore, it is difficult to establish first diagnostic of autism in adults. In relation to the associated symptoms, one of the earliest are sleep disturbances and one of the most prevalent is both bipolar and anxiety disorders. Sleep disturbances are age-limited and disappear easily. Bipolar disorders are usually more severe in children with autism when compared to children without autism. The mood transitions are faster in autistic children. Anxiety is usually more intense in cognitive preserved autistic patients and tends to increase with age. The two main prognostic factors for autism in adults are: a) total IQ above 70. b) functional language before 6 years of age.

  9. Autistic-like traits in adult patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Matsuo

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and whether such an association is independent of symptom severity. The subjects were 290 adults of normal intelligence between 25 and 59 years of age (MDD, n=125; bipolar disorder, n=56; schizophrenia, n=44; healthy controls, n=65. Autistic-like traits/symptoms were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults. Symptom severity was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and/or the Young Mania Rating Scale. Almost half of the clinical subjects, except those with remitted MDD, exhibited autistic-like traits/symptoms at levels typical for sub-threshold or threshold autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the proportion of psychiatric patients that demonstrated high autistic-like traits/symptoms was significantly greater than that of healthy controls, and not different between that of remitted or unremitted subjects with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. On the other hand, remitted subjects with MDD did not differ from healthy controls with regard to the prevalence or degree of high autistic-like traits/symptoms. A substantial proportion of adults with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed high autistic-like traits/symptoms independent of symptom severity, suggesting a shared pathophysiology among autism spectrum disorder and these psychiatric disorders. Conversely, autistic-like traits among subjects with MDD were associated with the depressive symptom severity. These findings suggest the

  10. Autistic-like traits in adult patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Junko; Kamio, Yoko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ota, Miho; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Nagashima, Anna; Takei, Reiko; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Motohashi, Nobutaka; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and whether such an association is independent of symptom severity. The subjects were 290 adults of normal intelligence between 25 and 59 years of age (MDD, n=125; bipolar disorder, n=56; schizophrenia, n=44; healthy controls, n=65). Autistic-like traits/symptoms were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults. Symptom severity was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and/or the Young Mania Rating Scale. Almost half of the clinical subjects, except those with remitted MDD, exhibited autistic-like traits/symptoms at levels typical for sub-threshold or threshold autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the proportion of psychiatric patients that demonstrated high autistic-like traits/symptoms was significantly greater than that of healthy controls, and not different between that of remitted or unremitted subjects with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. On the other hand, remitted subjects with MDD did not differ from healthy controls with regard to the prevalence or degree of high autistic-like traits/symptoms. A substantial proportion of adults with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed high autistic-like traits/symptoms independent of symptom severity, suggesting a shared pathophysiology among autism spectrum disorder and these psychiatric disorders. Conversely, autistic-like traits among subjects with MDD were associated with the depressive symptom severity. These findings suggest the importance of

  11. Breastfeeding, infant formula supplementation, and Autistic Disorder: the results of a parent survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Stephen T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Autistic Disorder is associated with several congenital conditions, the cause for most cases is unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine whether breastfeeding or the use of infant formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid is associated with Autistic Disorder. The hypothesis is that breastfeeding and use of infant formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid are protective for Autistic Disorder. Methods This is a case-control study using data from the Autism Internet Research Survey, an online parental survey conducted from February to April 2005 with results for 861 children with Autistic Disorder and 123 control children. The analyses were performed using logistic regression. Results Absence of breastfeeding when compared to breastfeeding for more than six months was significantly associated with an increase in the odds of having autistic disorder when all cases were considered (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.42, 4.35 and after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.01, 3.78. Use of infant formula without docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid supplementation versus exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a significant increase in the odds of autistic disorder when all cases were considered (OR 4.41, 95% CI 1.24, 15.7 and after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 12.96, 95% CI 1.27, 132. Conclusion The results of this preliminary study indicate that children who were not breastfed or were fed infant formula without docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid supplementation were significantly more likely to have autistic disorder.

  12. Parental and Grandparental Ages in the Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Golding; Colin Steer; Marcus Pembrey

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of studies have assessed ages of parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), and reported both maternal and paternal age effects. Here we assess relationships with grandparental ages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the parental and grandparental ages of children in the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), according to their scores in regard to 4 autistic trait measures and whether they had been given a diagnosis of ...

  13. Prodromal and autistic symptoms in schizotypal personality disorder and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterberg, Michelle L; Ousley, Opal Y; Cubells, Joseph F; Walker, Elaine F

    2013-02-01

    Despite clear diagnostic distinctions, schizophrenia and autism share symptoms on several dimensions. Recent research has suggested the two disorders overlap in etiology, particularly with respect to inherited and noninherited genetic factors. Studying the relationship between psychotic-like and autistic-like symptoms in risk groups such as 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) has the potential to shed light on such etiologic factors; thus, the current study examined prodromal symptoms and autistic features in samples of 22q11DS and SPD subjects using standardized diagnostic measures, including the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS) and the Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised (ADI-R). Results showed that SPD subjects manifested significantly more severe childhood and current social as well as stereotypic autistic features, as well as more severe positive prodromal symptoms. The two groups did not differ on negative, disorganized, or general prodromal symptoms, but were distinguishable based on correlations between prodromal and autistic features; the relationships between childhood autistic features and current prodromal symptoms were stronger for the SPD group. The results suggest that childhood autistic features are less continuous with subsequent prodromal signs in 22q11DS patients relative to those with SPD, and the findings highlight the importance of studying the overlap in diagnostic phenomenology in groups at risk for developing psychosis and/or autism.

  14. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use, Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, and Autistic Disorder: The Results of a Parent Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T.; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Akshoomoff, Natacha A.; Macera, Caroline A.; Ji, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80…

  15. A Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose Study of Aripiprazole in Children and Adolescents with Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Ronald N.; Owen, Randall; Kamen, Lisa; Manos, George; McQuade, Robert D.; Carson, William H.; Aman, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Method: Two hundred eighteen children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) with a diagnosis of autistic disorder, and with behaviors such as tantrums, aggression, self-injurious behavior, or a…

  16. Aggression in low functioning children and adolescents with autistic disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Bronsard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parents, caregivers and mental health professionals have often reported violence and aggression in children or adolescents with autistic disorder. However, most of these observations derived from anecdotal reports, and studies on frequency and characterization of aggression in autism remain limited. Our objective was to better characterize and understand the different types of aggressive behaviors displayed by a large group of individuals with autism in different observational situations. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The study was conducted on 74 children and adolescents with autism and 115 typically developing control individuals matched for sex, age and pubertal stage. Other-Injurious Behaviors (OIB were assessed in three observational situations (parents at home, two caregivers at day-care, a nurse and a child psychiatrist during blood drawing using validated scales. The frequency of OIB was significantly higher in individuals with autism compared to typically developing control individuals during the blood drawing (23% vs. 0%, P<0 .01. The parents observed significantly less OIB in their children than caregivers (34% vs. 58%, P<0.05. In addition, the most frequent concurrent behaviors occurring just before the appearance of OIB in individuals with autism were anxiety-related behaviors and excitation according to the parental as well as the caregiver observation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that in a stressful situation, such as the blood drawing, individuals with autism release their stress through behaviors such as OIB, whereas typically developing individuals regulate and express their stress through cognitive skills such as mental coping strategies, symbolization skills with representation and anticipation of the stressful situation, social interaction and verbal or non-verbal communication. The findings underline also the key role of the environment in assessing OIB and developing therapeutic perspectives, with an

  17. Fluoxetine response in children with autistic spectrum disorders: correlation with familial major affective disorder and intellectual achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, G Robert; Ritch, Chad R; Burch, Sherri

    2002-10-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine children, 2 to 8 years old, with idiopathic autistic spectrum disorder diagnosed by standard instruments (Childhood Austim Ratings Scale and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were treated with fluoxetine (0.15 to 0.5mg/kg) for 5 to 76 months (mean 32 to 36 months), with discontinuation trials. Response criteria are described. Family histories were obtained using the family history method in repeated interviews. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder, and unusual intellectual achievement, pretreatment language, and hyperlexia were used to define a coherent subgroup of autistic spectrum disorder. Statistical analyses were post hoc. Of the children, 22 (17%) had an excellent response, 67 (52%) good, and 40 (31%) fair/poor. Treatment age did not correlate with response. Fluoxetine response correlated robustly with familial major affective disorder and unusual intellectual achievement, and with hyperlexia in the child. Family history of bipolar disorder and of unusual intellectual achievement correlated strongly. Five children developed bipolar disorder during follow-up. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder (especially bipolar), unusual achievement, and hyperlexia in the children appear to define a homogeneous autistic subgroup. Bipolar disorder, unusual intellectual achievement, and autistic spectrum disorders cluster strongly in families and may share genetic determinants.

  18. Evaluation of Planning Dysfunction in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorders Using the Zoo Map Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Marin, M. D.; Moreno-Granados, J. M.; Ruiz-Veguilla, M.; Ferrin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorders (ADHD) and Autistic-Spectrum-Disorders (ASD) share overlapping clinical and cognitive features that may confuse the diagnosis. Evaluation of executive problems and planning dysfunction may aid the clinical diagnostic process and help disentangle the neurobiological process underlying these conditions. This…

  19. Clinical and anatomical heterogeneity in autistic spectrum disorder: a structural MRI study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toal, F

    2010-07-01

    Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by stereotyped\\/obsessional behaviours and social and communicative deficits. However, there is significant variability in the clinical phenotype; for example, people with autism exhibit language delay whereas those with Asperger syndrome do not. It remains unclear whether localized differences in brain anatomy are associated with variation in the clinical phenotype.

  20. Why Youngsters with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Remain Underrepresented in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    Although numerous investigations have examined the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in the general population, have special education identification rates of autism kept pace? From the 1992-1993 to 2001-2002 school years, U.S. Department of Education data indicate an increase from 15,580 to 97,904 students with autism, an expansion…

  1. Social information processing in boys with autistic spectrum disorder and mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Nieuwenhuijzen, M. van

    2009-01-01

    Background - Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) have less adaptive behaviour and more behaviour problems than children with mild to borderline ID. Social information processing appears to be an important mechanism in the explanation of

  2. Social Information Processing in Boys with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embregts, P.; van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) have less adaptive behaviour and more behaviour problems than children with mild to borderline ID. Social information processing appears to be an important mechanism in the explanation of the socially inadequate behaviour of children…

  3. Brief Report: Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed S.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Waly, Mostafa I.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in Oman is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of ASD among 0-14 year old children. Diagnoses were made as per DSM-IV-TR criteria and supplemented with information collected with the standard Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) questionnaire. A total 113 cases of…

  4. Factors Contributing to Stress in Parents of Individuals with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehee, Erin; Honan, Rita; Hevey, David

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study explores the experiences of parents of individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs), and examines the influences of parent gender and child age on perceived stress, stress and coping, child-rearing involvement, support and information/education accessed. Methods and Materials: Questionnaires assessed general perceived…

  5. Investigating mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental phenotypes of autistic and intellectual disability disorders: a perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tim eKroon; Martijn eSierksma; Rhiannon Mair Meredith

    2013-01-01

    Brain function and behaviour undergo significant plasticity and refinement, particularly during specific critical and sensitive periods. In autistic and intellectual disability neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and their corresponding genetic mouse models, impairments in many neuronal and behavioural phenotypes are temporally regulated and in some cases, transient. However, the links between neurobiological mechanisms governing typically normal brain and behavioural development (referred to...

  6. Comparing the Intelligence Profiles of Savant and Nonsavant Individuals with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    It is yet unknown whether individuals with and without savant abilities being affected by the same mental disorder display differences with regard to their intelligence profile. To examine this issue, we compared the test performance of 33 savant and 26 nonsavant autistic subjects using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales-Revised for children or…

  7. Dental Survey of Institutionalized Children with Autistic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mohinderpal Chadha, Gagandeep; Kakodkar, Pradnya; Chaugule, Vishwas; Nimbalkar, Vidya

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the oral hygiene practices, dietary pattern, dental caries status and needs of institutionalized autistic children. The sample consisted of 35 children (28 males and 7 females) in the age group of 5 to 10 years from two institutions in Maharashtra, India. The parents of the children were interviewed regarding oral hygiene practices of their respective ward and instructed to maintain a 4-day diet chart for their children. A clinical examinatio...

  8. The effect of epilepsy on autistic symptom severity assessed by the social responsiveness scale in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Chanyoung; Kim, Namwook; Kim, Eunjoo; Song, Dong Ho; Cheon, Keun-Ah

    2016-01-01

    Background As the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in people with epilepsy ranges from 15 to 47 % (Clarke et al. in Epilepsia 46:1970–1977, 2005), it is speculated that there is a special relationship between the two disorders, yet there has been a lack of systematic studies comparing the behavioral phenotype between autistic individuals and autistic individuals with epilepsy. This study aims to investigate how the co-occurrence of epilepsy and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects au...

  9. Long-term oxytocin administration improves social behaviors in a girl with autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosaka Hirotaka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs exhibit core autistic symptoms including social impairments from early childhood and mostly show secondary disabilities such as irritability and aggressive behavior based on core symptoms. However, there are still no radical treatments of social impairments in these patients. Oxytocin has been reported to play important roles in multiple social behaviors dependent on social recognition, and has been expected as one of the effective treatments of social impairments of patients with ASDs. Case presentation We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with autistic disorder who treated by long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray. Her autistic symptoms were successfully treated by two month administration; the girl’s social interactions and social communication began to improve without adverse effects. Her irritability and aggressive behavior also improved dramatically with marked decreases in aberrant behavior checklist scores from 69 to 7. Conclusion This case is the first to illustrate long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray in the targeted treatment of social impairments in a female with autistic disorder. This case suggests that long-term nasal oxytocin spray is promising and well-tolerated for treatment of social impairments of patients with ASDs.

  10. ON DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS BETWEEN AUTISTIC DISORDER AND ASPERGER’S SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Todorov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis between Autistic disorder (AD and Asperger’s syndrome (AS in most cases is quite difficult since most of the symptoms are clinically undistinguished. Several factors complicate the diagnosis of AS- an autism spectrum disorder (ASD. It is considered by some authors to be simply a milder version of autistic disorder. Problems in diagnosis include disagreement among diagnostic criteria, controversy over the distinction between AS and other ASD forms or even whether AS exists as a separate syndrome, and over- and under-diagnosis. Our paper is based on the diagnostic and differential diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV, ICD-10 and our clinical experience.In the process of diagnosis and differential diagnosis we, naturally, illustrate and discuss the similarities and differences between the two disorders.

  11. Judicial Perceptions of Media Portrayals of Offenders with High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Berryessa, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, sensational media reporting focusing on crimes committed by those diagnosed with or thought to have High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders (hfASDs) has caused societal speculation that there is a link between the disorder and violent criminality. No research exists on how and if the judiciary understands and is affected by this coverage. Therefore this study aims to examine how judges perceive and are influenced by media attention surrounding hfASDs and criminality. Sem...

  12. Motor Skill Abilities in Toddlers with Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill C.; Hess, Julie A.; Neal, Daniene

    2010-01-01

    Motor skills were assessed in 397 toddlers, and it was demonstrated that atypically developing toddlers exhibited significantly greater motor skill abilities than toddlers with autistic disorder. No significant difference on gross or fine motor skill abilities were found between atypically developing toddlers and toddlers with pervasive…

  13. Genetic studies in children with intellectual disability and autistic spectrum of disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Bhanumathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is one of the five disorders that falls under the umbrella of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, a category of neurological disorders characterized by "severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development." ASD is characterized by varying degrees of impairment in communication skills, social interaction and restricted, repetitive stereotyped patterns of behavior. The five disorders under PDD are autistic disorder, Asperger′s disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, Rett′s disorder and PDD-not otherwise specified. ASD can often be reliably detected by the age of 3 years and, in some cases, as early as 18 months. The appearance of any warning signs of ASD is reason to have the child evaluated by a professional specializing in these disorders.

  14. Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

  15. Autism and autistic spectrum disorders in the context of new DSM-V classification, and clinical and epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is one of disorders from the autism spectrum, besides Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. They are classified as mental disorders as being manifested by a wide range of cognitive, emotional and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Key categorical characteristics of the disorder are clear impairments of the development of the child’s socialisation, understanding and production of verbal and non-verbal communication and restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Demarcation boundaries are not clear, neither within the very group of the disorders from the autistic spectrum, nor with respect to the autistic behavioural features in the general population. For this reason, the term spectrum points out the significance of the dimensional assessment of autistic disorders, which will most likely be the basis of the new diagnostic classification of the disorders belonging to the current group of pervasive developmental disorders in the new DSM-V classification. The understanding, as well as the prevalence of the autistic spectrum disorders has changed drastically in the last four decades. From the previous 4 per 10,000 people, today’s prevalence estimates range from 0.6 to around 1%, and the increase of prevalence cannot be explained solely by better recognition on the part of experts and parents or by wider diagnostic criteria. The general conclusion is that the autistic spectrum disorders are no longer rare conditions and that the approach aimed at acknowledging the warning that this is an urgent public health problem is completely justified.

  16. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-03-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic traits. Seven studies were identified and subsequent meta-analysis indicated that those with AN appear to have significant difficulties of a manner characteristic of ASD, relative to controls. Whilst this analysis supports previous indications of higher prevalence of ASD in AN, the aetiology of these traits remains unclear. Studies using more robust clinical measures of ASD within AN are needed to confirm what self-report measures appear to show.

  17. Early interpersonal neurobiological assessment of attachment and autistic spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, Allan N.

    2014-01-01

    There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the “emotional brain.” Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile–gestural non-verbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant’s developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant’s emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant–mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant–mother dyads. Throughout I offer implications of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early

  18. Antibodies against Food Antigens in Patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura de Magistris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Immune system of some autistic patients could be abnormally triggered by gluten/casein assumption. The prevalence of antibodies to gliadin and milk proteins in autistic children with paired/impaired intestinal permeability and under dietary regimen either regular or restricted is reported. Methods. 162 ASDs and 44 healthy children were investigated for intestinal permeability, tissue-transglutaminase (tTG, anti-endomysium antibodies (EMA-IgA, and total mucosal IgA to exclude celiac disease; HLA-DQ2/-DQ8 haplotypes; total systemic antibodies (IgA, IgG, and IgE; specific systemic antibodies: α-gliadin (AGA-IgA and IgG, deamidated–gliadin-peptide (DGP-IgA and IgG, total specific gliadin IgG (all fractions: α, β, γ, and ω, β-lactoglobulin IgG, α-lactalbumin IgG, casein IgG; and milk IgE, casein IgE, gluten IgE, -lactoglobulin IgE, and α-lactalbumin IgE. Results. AGA-IgG and DPG-IgG titers resulted to be higher in ASDs compared to controls and are only partially influenced by diet regimen. Casein IgG titers resulted to be more frequently and significantly higher in ASDs than in controls. Intestinal permeability was increased in 25.6% of ASDs compared to 2.3% of healthy children. Systemic antibodies production was not influenced by paired/impaired intestinal permeability. Conclusions. Immune system of a subgroup of ASDs is triggered by gluten and casein; this could be related either to AGA, DPG, and Casein IgG elevated production or to impaired intestinal barrier function.

  19. Early interpersonal neurobiological assessment of attachment and autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, Allan N

    2014-01-01

    There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the "emotional brain." Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile-gestural non-verbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant's developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant's emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant-mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant-mother dyads. Throughout I offer implications of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early intervention.

  20. Early Interpersonal Neurobiological Assessment of Attachment and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Nelson Schore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally-laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the emotional brain. Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile-gestural nonverbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant’s developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily-based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant’s emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant-mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant-mother dyads. Throughout I offer implication of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early

  1. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jinah

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviours in children with autistic spectrum disorder. The study was designed to look at these behaviours in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and free play, and use both standardized tools and DVD analysis of sessions to evaluate changes in joint attention behaviours.A repeated measures, within subject comparison design was used and children were randomly assigned in to two group...

  2. Anesthetic management of a child with autistic spectrum disorder and homocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Choudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD is a developmental disability of the central nervous system with rapid worsening. A subset of patients also has mitochondrial dysfunction leading to increased sensitivity to various anesthetic agents. Rarely, gene mutation in these patients results in homocysteinemia which causes higher incidences of thromboembolism, hypoglycemia, and seizures. Anesthetic management of ASD with homocysteinemia and refractory seizures has not been previously reported.

  3. A girl with increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner's syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shohreh Mohseni Ahouee; Mitra Hakim Shooshtari; Reza Bidaki

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the findings on the evaluation of a 9-year-old girl with disabling and pronounced increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner′s syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder. She spent most of the time doing these activities which affected not only her academic performance, but also social relationships. A comprehensive treatment plan consists of both biological and psychological aspects, is the main point of this case. Low dose of risperidone (0.5 mg/day)...

  4. Hyperlexia in a 4-year-old boy with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Atkin, K; Lorch, Marjorie P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a 4-year-old boy with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and a mental age of approximately 1:5 who demonstrates precocious oral-reading behaviour in the absence of spontaneous speech. Tests of reading regular and irregular words, pseudowords, homographic heterophones, single sentences and texts were carried out. Performance on a variety of reading tasks suggests the ability to use grapheme–phoneme correspondences and whole word reading for decoding...

  5. Parasympathetic Response Profiles Related to Social Functioning in Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; A. Rebecca Neal-Beevers; Levine, Todd P.; Cynthia Miller-Loncar; Barry Lester

    2013-01-01

    Psychophysiology studies of heart rate and heart rate variability can be employed to study regulatory processes in children with autism. The objective of this study was to test for differences in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; a measure of heart rate variability) and to examine the relationship between physiologic responses and measures of social behavior. Participants included 2- to 6-year-old children with Autistic Disorder and children without autism. Heart rate and RSA were derived f...

  6. MRI or not to MRI! Should brain MRI be a routine investigation in children with autistic spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeglam, Adel M; Al-Ogab, Marwa F; Al-Shaftery, Thouraya

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the routine usage of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain and estimate the prevalence of brain abnormalities in children presenting to the Neurodevelopment Clinic of Al-Khadra Hospital (NDC-KH), Tripoli, Libya with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The records of all children with ASD presented to NDC-KH over 4-year period (from January 2009 to December 2012) were reviewed. All MRIs were acquired with a 1.5-T Philips (3-D T1, T2, FLAIR coronal and axial sequences). MRIs were reported to be normal, abnormal or no significant abnormalities by a consultant neuroradiologist. One thousand and seventy-five children were included in the study. Seven hundred and eighty-two children (72.7 %) had an MRI brain of whom 555 (71 %) were boys. 26 children (24 males and 2 females) (3.3 %) demonstrated MRI abnormalities (8 leukodystrophic changes, 4 periventricular leukomalacia, 3 brain atrophy, 2 tuberous sclerosis, 2 vascular changes, 1 pineoblastoma, 1 cerebellar angioma, 1 cerebellar hypoplasia, 3 agenesis of corpus callosum, 1 neuro-epithelial cyst). An unexpectedly high rate of MRI abnormalities was found in the first large series of clinical MRI investigations in children with autism. These results could contribute to further research into the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorder. PMID:25344829

  7. Tetrasomy 15q11-q13 Diagnosed by FISH in a Patient with Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Ouldim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a Moroccan boy with mental retardation, hyperactivity, epilepsy, developmental problems and behavioural disorders. Cytogenetic analysis showed the presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome. Molecular cytogenetics allowed us to determine the marker as an inverted duplication of chromosome 15. It is the first case of a Moroccan patient with tetrasomy 15q in which fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH enabled us to specify the diagnosis. Interestingly, this patient has an infantile autism with cytogenetic abnormalities on chromosomal region 15q11-q13 as reported in patients with Autistic Disorder.

  8. Alzheimer's Disease and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Is there any Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarah A; Khan, Shahida A; Narendra, A R; Mushtaq, Gohar; Zahran, Solafa A; Khan, Shahzad; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders respectively, with devastating effects not only on the individual but also the society. Collectively, a number of factors contribute to the expression of ASD and AD. It is of utmost curiosity that these disorders express at different stages of life and there is an involvement of certain susceptible genes. This genetic basis makes the background of common associations like memory deficits, cognition changes, demyelination, oxidative stress and inflammation, an integral part of both disorders. Modern technology resulting in genetically modified crops and increase in gadgets emitting electromagnetic frequencies have resulted in enhanced risks for neurological dysfunctions and disorders like ASD and AD. Subsequent advances in the psychological, pharmacological, biochemical and nutritional aspects of the disorders have resulted in the development of newer therapeutic approaches. The common clinical features like language impairment, executive functions, and motor problems have been discussed along with the patho-physiological changes, role of DNA methylation, myelin development, and heavy metals in the expression of these disorders. Psychopharmacological and nutritional approaches towards the reduction and management of risk factors have gained attention from the researchers in recent years. Current major therapies either target the inflammatory pathways or reduce cellular oxidative stress. This contribution focuses on the commonalities of the two disorders. PMID:26996178

  9. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder: the results of a parent survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S; Wingard, Deborah L; Akshoomoff, Natacha A; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming

    2008-05-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80 control children. Acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was significantly associated with autistic disorder when considering children 5 years of age or less (OR 6.11, 95% CI 1.42-26.3), after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.11-14.3), and when considering only children who had post-vaccination sequelae (OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.56-43.3), adjusting for age, gender, mother's ethnicity, and the presence of illness concurrent with measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Ibuprofen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was not associated with autistic disorder. This preliminary study found that acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was associated with autistic disorder.

  10. Parental and grandparental ages in the autistic spectrum disorders: a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Golding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A number of studies have assessed ages of parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD, and reported both maternal and paternal age effects. Here we assess relationships with grandparental ages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the parental and grandparental ages of children in the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, according to their scores in regard to 4 autistic trait measures and whether they had been given a diagnosis of ASD. Mean maternal and paternal ages of ASD cases were raised, but this appears to be secondary to a maternal grandmother age effect (P = 0.006: OR = 1.66[95%CI 1.16, 2.37] for each 10-year increase in the grandmother's age at the birth of the mother. Trait measures also revealed an association between the maternal grandmother's age and the major autistic trait-the Coherence Scale (regression coefficient b = 0.142, [95%CI = 0.057, 0.228]P = 0.001. After allowing for confounders the effect size increased to b = 0.217[95%CI 0.125, 0.308](P<0.001 for each 10 year increase in age. CONCLUSIONS: Although the relationship between maternal grandmother's age and ASD and a major autistic trait was unexpected, there is some biological plausibility, for the maternal side at least, given that the timing of female meiosis I permits direct effects on the grandchild's genome during the grandmother's pregnancy. An alternative explanation is the meiotic mismatch methylation (3 M hypothesis, presented here for the first time. Nevertheless the findings should be treated as hypothesis generating pending corroborative results from other studies.

  11. Neurotensin is increased in serum of young children with autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelidou Asimenia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed in early childhood. They are associated with a set of "core symptoms" that include disabilities in social interaction skills, verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. There is no definite pathogenetic mechanism or diagnostic tests. Many children with ASD also have "allergic-like" symptoms, but test negative implying mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. We measured by Milliplex arrays serum levels of 3 neuropeptides that could stimulate mast cells in children with autistic disorder (n = 19; 16 males and 3 females; mean age 3.0 ± 0.4 years and healthy, unrelated controls (n = 16; 13 males and 3 females; mean age 3 ± 1.2 years. Only neurotensin (NT was significantly increased from 60.5 ± 6.0 pg/ml in controls to 105.6 ± 12.4 pg/ml in autistic disorder (p = 0.004. There was no statistically significant difference in the serum levels of β-endorphin or substance P (SP. NT could stimulate immune cells, especially mast cells, and/or have direct effects on brain inflammation and ASD.

  12. Brief Report: The Impact of Changing from DSM-IV "Asperger's" to DSM-5 "Autistic Spectrum Disorder" Diagnostic Labels on Stigma and Treatment Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan, Jeneva L.; Ellefson, Sarah E.; Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    In the DSM-5, "Asperger's Disorder" was incorporated into "Autistic Spectrum Disorder" (ASD). One key concern in this change has been that the ASD label will increase negative attitudes relative to the Asperger's label. To test this, we asked 465 American adults to read a vignette describing a child with autistic symptoms that…

  13. Coping strategies as mediators and moderators between stress and quality of life among parents of children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine coping strategies as mediators and moderators between stress and quality of life (QoL) among parents of children with autistic disorder. The convenience sample of the study consisted of 184 parents of children with autistic disorder. Advanced statistical methods for analyses of mediator and moderator effects of coping strategies were used. The results revealed that 'accepting responsibility' was the only mediator strategy in the relationship between stress and QoL. The results also revealed that only 'seeking social support' and 'escape avoidance' were moderator strategies in the relationship between stress and QoL. This study is perhaps the first to investigate the mediating and moderating effects of coping on QoL of parents of children with autistic disorder. Recommendations for practice and future research are presented. PMID:23868562

  14. Blood and Brain Glutamate Levels in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Tamer H.; Abdelrahman, Hadeel M.; Fattah, Nelly R. Abdel; El-Masry, Nagda M.; Hashim, Haitham M.; El-Gerby, Khaled M.; Fattah, Nermin R. Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Despite of the great efforts that move forward to clarify the pathophysiologic mechanisms in autism, the cause of this disorder, however, remains largely unknown. There is an increasing body of literature concerning neurochemical contributions to the pathophysiology of autism. We aimed to determine blood and brain levels of glutamate in children…

  15. [Autistic-like behavioural disorders and deafness in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deggouj, N; Eliot, M M

    2005-01-01

    There is a co-morbidity between autism spectrum behaviour disorders and deafness in children. Their behavioural difficulties may appear primary and/or secondary to hearing deprivation. In this paper, we present how we manage those patients on the base of our clinical experience. The auditory assessment must be based on subjective tests taking account of their special reactions. It needs objective tests to complete and help the behavioural responses. The hearing aids amplification is increased progressively, to allow the development of a tolerance to the sounds world. The multidisciplinary team tends to open them to the world and to the communication. PMID:16676561

  16. Self-reported social skills impairment explains elevated autistic traits in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Natasha A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Fernandez, Katya C; Lim, Michelle H

    2016-03-01

    Screening for autism in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) is complicated by symptom overlap between GSAD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of self-reported autistic traits within a sample of participants with a diagnosis of GSAD (n=37) compared to individuals without a GSAD diagnosis (NOSAD; n=26). Of the GSAD sample participants, 70.84% self-reported autistic traits above a cut-off of 65 on the Autism Quotient-Short (AQ-S) and reported significantly more autistic traits on 3 of 5 AQ-S subscales compared to the NOSAD group. Diagnosis uniquely predicted variation in the social skills subscale above and beyond the other subscales and other predictors. Furthermore, variation in the social skills subscale largely explained group differences on the other subscales. Our results suggest caution in utilizing measures like the AQ-S with clinical populations characterized by social difficulties such as individuals with a GSAD diagnosis.

  17. Epidemiology and management of insomnia in children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Silvia; Ferri, Raffaele

    2010-04-01

    Insomnia is the predominant sleep concern in children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and its nature is most likely multifactorial, with neurochemical (abnormalities in serotonergic transmission or melatonin levels), psychiatric (anxiety), and behavioral (poor sleep habits) etiological factors involved. Children with ASD experience sleep problems similar to those of typically developing children, although the prevalence is markedly higher, occurring in 44-83% of school-aged children with ASD. Caregivers usually report that insomnia is the most frequent sleep disorder, described as disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, restless sleep, bedtime resistance, co-sleeping, alterations of sleep hygiene, and early awakenings in the morning. Many actigraphic studies have added information on sleep disorders, confirming the questionnaire findings in the majority of cases. There are relatively few polysomnographic data for ASD, compared with questionnaire studies, and most of these studies reported a reduction in total sleep time and more undifferentiated sleep in the youngest patients. These findings were associated with several sleep microstructure alterations during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and with non-REM (NREM) sleep microstructure changes that appeared to be related to cognitive impairment rather than to the autistic core. Moreover, few data about other less frequent sleep disorders, such as periodic limb movements disorder and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, bruxism, and the influence of epilepsy and EEG abnormalities, are available. Both pharmacologic and behavioral interventions have been suggested for the treatment of sleep problems in autistic children. The most common types of behavioral interventions are complete extinction (removing reinforcement to reduce a behavior) and various forms of graduated extinction. Melatonin has shown promising results in the treatment of insomnia in children with ASD. Although controlled studies are limited

  18. Progress in researches on autistic disorder%孤独症研究新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞锡; 江开达; 彭裕文

    2010-01-01

    @@ 认识孤独症 孤独症(autism),又称自闭症或孤独性障碍(autistic disorder)等,是广泛性发育障碍(pervasive developmental disorders,PDD)的代表性疾病.将PDD分为5种:孤独性障碍、Retts综合征、童年瓦解性障碍、Asperger综合征和未特定的PDD.其中,孤独性障碍与Asperger综合征较为常见.孤独症的患病率报道不一,一般认为约为儿童人口的2~5/万人,男女比例约为3:1~4:1,女孩症状一般较男孩严重[1].

  19. Parents' Experiences of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)-Based Interventions for Children Diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhilemy, Catherine; Dillenburger, Karola

    2013-01-01

    Applied behaviour analysis (ABA)-based programmes are endorsed as the gold standard for treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in most of North America. This is not the case in most of Europe, where instead a non-specified "eclectic" approach is adopted. We explored the social validity of ABA-based interventions with…

  20. Objective Investigation of the Sleep-Wake Cycle in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, D. J.; Jones, S.; Evershed, K.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Disturbances in circadian rhythm functioning, as manifest in abnormal sleep-wake cycles, have been postulated to be present in people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). To date, research into the sleep-wake cycle in people with ASDs has been primarily dependant on third-party data collection. Method: The utilization of…

  1. Higher Plasma Concentration of Food-Specific Antibodies in Persons with Autistic Disorder in Comparison to Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, Vladimir; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Trajkov, Dejan; Arsov, Todor; Strezova, Ana; Ajdinski, Ljubomir; Spiroski, Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Specific IgA, IgG, and IgE antibodies to food antigens in 35 participants with autistic disorder and 21 of their siblings in the Republic of Macedonia were examined. Statistically significant higher plasma concentration of IgA antibodies against alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, casein, and gliadin were found in the children with autistic…

  2. Dyadic and Triadic Behaviours in Infancy as Precursors to Later Social Responsiveness in Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Sally; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between dyadic (eye contact and affect) and triadic (joint attention) behaviours in infancy, and social responsiveness at pre-school age, was investigated in 36 children with Autistic Disorder. Measures of eye contact and affect, and joint attention, including requesting behaviours, were obtained retrospectively via parental…

  3. Autistic Traits and Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Clinical Validity of Two Measures Presuming a Continuum of Social Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Sven; Westerwald, Eva; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine; Poustka, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that autism is the extreme end of a continuously distributed trait. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC) aim to assess autistic traits. The objective of this study was to compare their clinical validity. The SRS showed sensitivities of 0.74 to 0.80 and specificities of…

  4. Parents' Views and Experiences about Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments for Their Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senel, Hatice Gunayer

    2010-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments have been increasing for children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, 38 Turkish parents of children with ASD were surveyed related with their use of CAM treatments, experiences, and views for each treatment. They mentioned "Vitamins and minerals", "Special Diet",…

  5. Using Aromatherapy Massage to Increase Shared Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Severe Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) characteristically display a lack of shared attention behaviours and the lack of these behaviours impacts on their ability to develop social interactions and relationships with others. Steve Solomons, assistant headteacher at Rectory Paddock School and Research Unit in the London Borough of Bromley,…

  6. Control of psychomotor agitation and aggressive behavior in patients with autistic disorder: a retrospective chart review Controle da agitação psicomotora e agressividade em pacientes com autismo: estudo retrospectivo de revisão de prontuário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Marinho Novaes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of pharmacotherapy on the symptoms of psychomotor agitation and aggressive behavior in a sample of patients with autistic spectrum disorder. METHOD: The charts of all patients with a diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder, receiving care for psychomotor agitation and/or aggressive behavior in two psychiatric outpatient departments between 2001 and 2006, were reviewed. The Clinical Global Impression-Severity and -Improvement scales (CGI-S and CGI-I were applied to the data retrieved from the charts. RESULTS: The majority of the 26 patients included were treated with second-generation antipsychotics. A positive, statistically significant correlation was found between the implementation of pharmacotherapy and a reduction in CGI-S scores (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia do tratamento farmacológico dos sintomas de agitação psicomotora e agressividade em amostra de pacientes com transtorno do espectro autista. MÉTODO: Foram revisados os prontuários de pacientes com diagnóstico de transtorno do espectro autista que procuraram atendimento por apresentarem agitação psicomotora e/ou heteroagressividade, atendidos entre 2001 e 2006, em dois ambulatórios de psiquiatria. Para avaliação da evolução dos pacientes aplicou-se às informações do prontuário a escala de Impressão Clínica Global Sintomas (ICG-S e a Impressão Clínica Global Melhora (ICG-M. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos 26 pacientes estava em tratamento com antipsicóticos de segunda geração. Houve correlação positiva e estatisticamente significativa entre a introdução do tratamento farmacológico e a redução nos escores da ICG-S (p<0,05. A evolução do tratamento farmacológico foi melhor para os pacientes sem retardo mental do que para aqueles com retardo mental (p<0,05. A maioria dos pacientes que obteve melhora clínica com o tratamento participava de ao menos uma intervenção auxiliar ao tratamento principal (p<0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Os

  7. A girl with increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner's syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahouee, Shohreh Mohseni; Shooshtari, Mitra Hakim; Bidaki, Reza

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the findings on the evaluation of a 9-year-old girl with disabling and pronounced increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner's syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder. She spent most of the time doing these activities which affected not only her academic performance, but also social relationships. A comprehensive treatment plan consists of both biological and psychological aspects, is the main point of this case. Low dose of risperidone (0.5 mg/day) was started to decrease the patient's stereotypic behaviors. Sertraline (12.5 mg/day) was prescribed for her phobia. She was also referred to an occupational therapist in order to improve her social skills. PMID:26015917

  8. Self-Disorders in Individuals with Autistic Traits: Contribution of Reduced Autobiographical Reasoning Capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Fabrice; Göritz, Anja S; Schröder, Johanna; Coutelle, Romain; Danion, Jean-Marie; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine V; Moritz, Steffen

    2016-08-01

    The present web-based study (N = 840) aimed to illuminate the cognitive mechanisms underlying self-disorders in autism. Initially, participants selected three self-defining memories. Then, we assessed their capacity to give meaning to these events (i.e., meaning making), their tendency to scrutinize autobiographical memory to better understand themselves (i.e., self-continuity function of autobiographical memory) and their clarity of self-concept. The results showed that individuals with high autistic traits (ATs) had a lower clarity of self-concept than control participants. Meaning making was also reduced in AT individuals and mediated the relation between AT and self-concept clarity. Our results suggest that the reduced clarity of self-concept in AT individuals is related to an impaired capacity to make meaning of important past life events. PMID:27101235

  9. Prenatal alcohol exposure and autistic spectrum disorders--a population-based prospective study of 80,552 children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Tolstrup, Janne S; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake > or =5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism.......To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake > or =5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism....

  10. Distinguishing and Improving Mouse Behavior with Educational Computer Games in Young Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Executive Function-Based Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Baukje; van Geert, Paul L. C.; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.

    2012-01-01

    In this exploratory multiple case study, it is examined how a computer game focused on improving ineffective learning behavior can be used as a tool to assess, improve, and study real-time mouse behavior (MB) in different types of children: 18 children (3.8-6.3 years) with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder…

  11. Autistic disorders and schizophrenia: related or remote? An anatomical likelihood estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlton Cheung

    Full Text Available Shared genetic and environmental risk factors have been identified for autistic spectrum disorders (ASD and schizophrenia. Social interaction, communication, emotion processing, sensorimotor gating and executive function are disrupted in both, stimulating debate about whether these are related conditions. Brain imaging studies constitute an informative and expanding resource to determine whether brain structural phenotype of these disorders is distinct or overlapping. We aimed to synthesize existing datasets characterizing ASD and schizophrenia within a common framework, to quantify their structural similarities. In a novel modification of Anatomical Likelihood Estimation (ALE, 313 foci were extracted from 25 voxel-based studies comprising 660 participants (308 ASD, 352 first-episode schizophrenia and 801 controls. The results revealed that, compared to controls, lower grey matter volumes within limbic-striato-thalamic circuitry were common to ASD and schizophrenia. Unique features of each disorder included lower grey matter volume in amygdala, caudate, frontal and medial gyrus for schizophrenia and putamen for autism. Thus, in terms of brain volumetrics, ASD and schizophrenia have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms. However, the distinctive neuroanatomy also mapped in each condition raises the question about how this is arrived in the context of common etiological pressures.

  12. Disordered recognition of facial identity and emotions in three Asperger type autists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njiokiktjien, C; Verschoor, A; de Sonneville, L; Huyser, C; Op het Veld, V; Toorenaar, N

    2001-03-01

    In this report we aim to explore severe deficits in facial affect recognition in three boys all of whom meet the criteria of Asperger's syndrome (AS), as well as overt prosopagnosia in one (B) and covert prosopagnosia in the remaining two (C and D). Subject B, with a familially-based talent of being highly gifted in physics and mathematics, showed no interest in people, a quasi complete lack of comprehension of emotions, and very poor emotional reactivity. The marked neuropsychological deficits were a moderate prosopagnosia and severely disordered recognition of facial emotions, gender and age. Expressive facial emotion, whole body psychomotor expression and speech prosody were quasi absent as well. In all three boys these facial processing deficits were more or less isolated, and general visuospatial functions, attention, formal language and scholastic performances were normal or even highly developed with the exception of deficient gestalt perception in B. We consider the deficient facial emotion perception as an important pathogenetic symptom for the autistic behaviour in the three boys. Prosopagnosia, the absent facial and bodily expression, and speech prosody were important but varying co-morbid disorders. The total clinical picture of non-verbal disordered communication is a complex of predominantly bilateral and/or right hemisphere cortical deficits. Moreover, in B, insensitivity to pain, smells, noises and internal bodily feelings suggested a more general emotional anaesthesia and/or a deficient means of expression. It is possible that a limbic component might be involved, thus making affective appreciation also deficient. PMID:11315539

  13. Speech Preference Is Associated with Autistic-Like Behavior in 18-Months-Olds at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether infants' preference for speech at 12 months is associated with autistic-like behaviors at 18 months in infants who are at increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have an older sibling diagnosed with ASD and in low-risk infants. Only low-risk infants listened significantly longer to speech than to…

  14. Investigating mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental phenotypes of autistic and intellectual disability disorders: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eKroon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Brain function and behaviour undergo significant plasticity and refinement, particularly during specific critical and sensitive periods. In autistic and intellectual disability neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs and their corresponding genetic mouse models, impairments in many neuronal and behavioural phenotypes are temporally regulated and in some cases, transient. However, the links between neurobiological mechanisms governing typically normal brain and behavioural development (referred to also as ‘neurotypical’ development and timing of NDD impairments are not fully investigated.This perspective highlights temporal patterns of synaptic and neuronal impairment, with a restricted focus on autism and intellectual disability types of NDDs. Given the varying known genetic and environmental causes for NDDs, this perspective proposes two strategies for investigation: (1 a focus on neurobiological mechanisms underlying known critical periods in the (typically normal-developing brain (2 investigation of spatio-temporal expression profiles of genes implicated in monogenic syndromes throughout affected brain regions.This approach may help explain why many NDDs with differing genetic causes can result in overlapping phenotypes at similar developmental stages and better predict vulnerable periods within these disorders, with implications for both therapeutic rescue and ultimately, prevention.

  15. Effects of risperidone on core symptoms of autistic disorder based on childhood autism rating scale: An open label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padideh Ghaeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of risperidone in patients afflicted by autistic disorder especially with regards to its three core symptoms, including "relating to others", "communication skills", and "stereotyped behaviors" based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS. Materials and Methods: An 8-week open-label study of risperidone for treatment of autistic disorder in children 4-17 years old was designed. Risperidone dose titration was as follow: 0.02 mg/kg/day at the first week, 0.04 mg/kg/day at the second week, and 0.06 mg/kg/day at the third week and thereafter. The outcome measures were scores obtained by CARS, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I scale. Results: Fifteen patients completed this study. After 8 weeks, CARS total score decreased significantly, (P=0.001. At the end of the study, social interactions and verbal communication skills of the patients were significantly improved (P<0.001, P=0.03, respectively. However, stereotypic behaviors did not show any significant change in this study. Increase in appetite and somnolence were the most reported side effects. Conclusion: This study suggests that risperidone may be an effective treatment for the management of core symptoms of autistic disorder.

  16. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to…

  17. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Poppy L A; David, Anthony S

    2014-06-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, depression, dissociation, eating disorders, schizophrenia and psychoses] to date and provide a useful reference for consultation by clinicians and researchers planning to administer a biofeedback treatment. A systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and WOK databases and hand searches in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, and Journal of Neurotherapy, identified 227 articles; 63 of which are included within this review. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback constituted the most investigated modality (31.7%). Anxiety disorders were the most commonly treated (68.3%). Multi-modal biofeedback appeared most effective in significantly ameliorating symptoms, suggesting that targeting more than one physiological modality for bio-regulation increases therapeutic efficacy. Overall, 80.9% of articles reported some level of clinical amelioration related to biofeedback exposure, 65.0% to a statistically significant (p biofeedback interventions within mainstream psychiatry. PMID:24806535

  18. Using psychodrama to relieve social barriers in an autistic child: A case study and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: It was possible for autistic children to relieve social barriers by implementing psychodrama training, then to improve the social cognitive ability and enhance the social function of the autistic children. These results provided basic Clinical implications for exploring a new intervention technique to reduce autistic symptom severity.

  19. Hypnosis Without Empathy? Perspectives From Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Stage Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David B

    2016-01-01

    Despite volumes of published studies supporting the efficacy of hypnosis for ego-strengthening, performance, and physical and psychological disorders, the precise nature of hypnosis, and in particular, the neurobiological underpinnings of trance-phenomenon, remains tenuous at best. With his empathic involvement theory of hypnosis, Wickramasekera II (2015) brings us closer to an understanding of the elusive nature of hypnotic processes by proposing a bridging of two long-standing and seemingly incongruent theories of hypnosis (i.e., neodissociative versus socio-cognitive). Borrowing from neuroscientific studies of empathy, the empathic involvement theory maintains that empathy, beyond any other human dynamic (including emotions, behavior, personality, and imagination), facilitates and enhances hypnotic experiences for both recipient and provider alike. By the same token, one can reasonably infer from the empathic involvement theory that non-empathic individuals are less likely to benefit from hypnosis. With this perspective in mind, the empathic involvement theory's identification of empathy as an apparent "Holy Grail" of the neural underpinnings and precise nature of hypnosis may be challenged on a number of grounds. Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder, especially those suffering from alexithymia, have been identified as empathy deficient, and therefore according to the empathic involvement theory would be classified as "low-hypnotizable," yet empirical studies, albeit limited in number, suggest otherwise. Furthermore, hypnotic inductions of audience volunteers by stage hypnotists challenge the empathic involvement theory's supposition that empathy is a required component of hypnosis. It is this author's contention that empathy is a beneficial, though not essential, element of successful hypnosis.

  20. Discourse Cohesion in the Verbal Interactions of Individuals Diagnosed with Autistic Disorder or Schizotypal Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study compared high functioning adolescents and young adults with autism (n=8) or schizotypal personality disorder (n=9) in use of social language referencing. Both groups had similar rates, types, and patterns of cohesive reference errors, though subjects with schizotypal disorder used cohesive ties of reference more often and more correctly…

  1. Are autistic traits measured equivalently in individuals with and without an autism spectrum disorder? An invariance analysis of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Aja L; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen; Kuenssberg, Renate; O'Donnell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It is common to administer measures of autistic traits to those without autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with, for example, the aim of understanding autistic personality characteristics in non-autistic individuals. Little research has examined the extent to which measures of autistic traits actually measure the same traits in the same way across those with and without an ASD. We addressed this question using a multi-group confirmatory factor invariance analysis of the Autism Quotient Short Form (AQ-S: Hoekstra et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 41(5):589-596, 2011) across those with (n = 148) and without (n = 168) ASD. Metric variance (equality of factor loadings), but not scalar invariance (equality of thresholds), held suggesting that the AQ-S measures the same latent traits in both groups, but with a bias in the manner in which trait levels are estimated. We, therefore, argue that the AQ-S can be used to investigate possible causes and consequences of autistic traits in both groups separately, but caution is due when combining or comparing levels of autistic traits across the two groups.

  2. Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2, but Not Type 1, Is Up-Regulated in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Children Affected by Autistic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalco, Dario; Sapone, Anna; Giordano, Catia; Cirillo, Alessandra; de Magistris, Laura; Rossi, Francesco; Fasano, Alessio; Bradstreet, James Jeffrey; Maione, Sabatino; Antonucci, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Autistic disorders (ADs) are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders arised by the interaction of genes and environmental factors. Dysfunctions in social interaction and communication skills, repetitive and stereotypic verbal and non-verbal behaviours are common features of ADs. There are no defined mechanisms of pathogenesis, rendering…

  3. Agreement in Multi-Informant Assessment of Behaviour and Emotional Problems and Social Functioning in Adolescents with Autistic and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Matthew I.; Gray, Kylie M.; Taffe, John R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of evidence concerning the patterns of multi-informant agreement in populations with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study compared ratings of behaviour and emotional problems and social functioning provided by 45 adolescents aged 12-18 years, with Autistic or Asperger's Disorder with ratings by their parents and teachers.…

  4. Is There a Need for a Focused Health Care Service for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? A Keyhole Look at This Problem in Tripoli, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeglam, Adel M.; Maouna, Ameena

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autism is a global disorder, but relatively little is known about its presentation and occurrence in many developing countries, including Libya. Aims: 1.) To estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in children referred to Al-Khadra hospital (KH). 2.) To increase the awareness among pediatrician and primary health care…

  5. Autism and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R

    2012-01-01

    The pervasive developmental disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), and Rett's disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as autism spectrum disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiological characteristics compared to Rett's disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews research and clinical information to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  6. Autistic traits and autism spectrum disorders : the clinical validity of two measures presuming a continuum of social communication skills

    OpenAIRE

    Bölte, Sven; Westerwald, Eva; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine M.; Poustka, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that autism is the extreme end of a continuously distributed trait. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC) aim to assess autistic traits. The objective of this study was to compare their clinical validity. The SRS showed sensitivities of .74 to .80 and specificities of .69 to 1.00 for autism. Sensitivities were .85 to .90 and specificities .28 to.82 for the SCDC. Correlations with the ADI-R, ADOS and SCQ were higher...

  7. The autistic spectrum: subgroups, boundaries, and treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, S.H.N.

    2002-01-01

    There is consensus about the disorders that comprise the autistic spectrum, with autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-NOS as the most typical examples and Rett's disorder and disintegrative disorder as the other components. Important controversies regarding the precise definitions of auti

  8. Secure Attachment in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Maternal Insightfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2008-01-01

    Do children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) form attachments to their caregivers? This article reviews research challenging the conventional view that children with autism are unable to form healthy attachment relationships. The authors describe a study examining the role of maternal insightfulness into the inner world of the child in…

  9. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to communication, behavior and interests of their child, which impact their quality of life. There were also differences between boys and girls.

  10. Imitation and Action Understanding in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: How Valid Is the Hypothesis of a Deficit in the Mirror Neuron System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.; Brindley, Rachel M.; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    The motor mirror neuron system supports imitation and goal understanding in typical adults. Recently, it has been proposed that a deficit in this mirror neuron system might contribute to poor imitation performance in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and might be a cause of poor social abilities in these children. We aimed to test…

  11. A Randomised Group Comparison Controlled Trial of "Preschoolers with Autism": A Parent Education and Skills Training Intervention for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; Mackinnon, Andrew; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder. Method: A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent…

  12. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  13. Vision Therapy for the Autistic Patient: A Literature Review and Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Au, OD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The heightened awareness of autism spectrum disorder (ASD has propelled concern for proper care into a significant public health issue. Vision deficits, including visual processing and integration, may contribute to the anxiety and uneasiness that these individuals frequently experience. Additionally, these deficits often translate into considerable hindrances to classroom success. This paper addresses a sampling of vision-based behaviors in ASD including visual hyper/hyposensitivity, poor facial recognition, lack of eye contact, and visual-motor integration impairments. Case Summary: A 10-year-old autistic male was referred for diagnosis of convergence insufficiency. There were notable developmental delays and concerns primarily regarding reading comprehension, attention deficits, and spatial organization. He previously received speech and language therapies in conjunction with occupational therapy. Diagnostic testing of the patient’s ocular motility yielded tracking inefficiencies and poor accuracy. The Wachs Analysis of Cognitive Structures (WACS evaluation was performed and revealed weaknesses in a number of visualization tasks as well as in gross and fine motor coordination. An individualized program of vision therapy was recommended to improve his visualization, tracking, and visual motor integration abilities. Conclusion: This case report illustrates how the distinctive challenges of structuring a successful vision therapy program for the varying presentations of ASD can be met by adapting techniques to the appropriate developmental stage of the child. Vision therapy provides the framework to build skills that are transferrable and valuable in the classroom.

  14. 孤独症儿童家长生存质量的研究%Effects of life quality on autistic disorder children's parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振寰; 谢巧玲; 张勇

    2013-01-01

    [目的]分析孤独症患儿对其父母生存质量的影响,为有关机构展开工作提供参考依据. [方法]采用普适性生存质量测定量表(SF-36),对90例孤独症患儿父母及120例正常儿童的父母进行评定. [结果]1)孤独症组父母的生存质量总分及各领域评分均低于正常父母组(P<0.01);2)低功能孤独症组的父母生存质量评分明显低于高功能孤独症组(P<0.01);3)患儿家长的生存质量与患儿病情程度呈负相关,与智力水平呈正相关(P<0.01). [结论]孤独症儿童对患儿父母生存质量有影响,低功能孤独症患儿则影响更大.%【Objective】 To investigate the quality of life and related factors in parents of children with autism. 【Methods】 90 parents of autistic children and 120 parents of normal children were participated. SF-36 was employed to e-valuate both groups by questionnaire. Parents of autistic children also completed Clancy Autism Behavior Scale (CABS) Autistic Behavior Checklist (ABC),the Children Autistic Rating Scale (CARS)and Autistic children checked with the Gesell development diagnosis scale. 【Results】 1) Parents of autistic children reported substantially lower scores of SF-36 than that of parents with normal group (P<0. 01). 2) The quality of life of parents in low functioning intelligence group was worse than high functioning intelligence group(P<0. 01). 3) The quality of life of parents was positively correlated with intelligence of autistic children,and negative correlated with symptom of autistic children. 【Conclusion】 Children with autistic disorder took grievous influence on parents quality of life. Compared with high functioning intelligence group, the low functioning intelligence children's parents had even worse quality of life.

  15. A girl with increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner′s syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Mohseni Ahouee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the findings on the evaluation of a 9-year-old girl with disabling and pronounced increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner′s syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder. She spent most of the time doing these activities which affected not only her academic performance, but also social relationships. A comprehensive treatment plan consists of both biological and psychological aspects, is the main point of this case. Low dose of risperidone (0.5 mg/day was started to decrease the patient′s stereotypic behaviors. Sertraline (12.5 mg/day was prescribed for her phobia. She was also referred to an occupational therapist in order to improve her social skills.

  16. EEG correlates of emotions in dream narratives from typical young adults and individuals with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoust, Anne-Marie; Lusignan, Félix-Antoine; Braun, Claude M J; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2008-03-01

    The relationship between emotional dream content and Alpha and Beta REM sleep EEG activity was investigated in typical individuals and in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Dream narratives of persons with ASD contained fewer emotional elements. In both groups, emotions correlated positively with slow Alpha (8.0-10.0 Hz) spectral power over parieto-occipital and left central regions, as well as with a right occipital EEG asymmetry. Slow Alpha activity in ASD individuals was lower over midline and parasagittal areas and higher over lateral areas compared to controls. Both groups displayed a right-biased slow Alpha activity for midparietal and occipital (significantly higher in control) sites. Results indicate that Alpha EEG activity may represent a neurophysiological substrate associated with emotional dream content. Distinctive Alpha EEG patterns and asymmetries suggest that dream generation implies different brain connectivity in ASD.

  17. Fatty acid metabolism in neurodevelopmental disorder: a new perspective on associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, dyspraxia and the autistic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A J; Ross, M A

    2000-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that abnormalities of fatty acid and membrane phospholipid metabolism play a part in a wide range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. This proposal is discussed here in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder (dyspraxia) and the autistic spectrum. These are among the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood, with significant implications for society as well as for those directly affected. However, controversy still surrounds both the identification and management of these conditions, and while their aetiology is recognized as being complex and multifactorial, little progress has yet been made in elucidating predisposing factors at the biological level. An overview is provided here of the contents of this Special Issue, which contains a selection of reports from a unique multidisciplinary workshop involving both researchers and clinicians. Its purpose was to explore the possibility that ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and autism fall within a phospholipid spectrum of disorders. This proposal could explain the high degree of co-morbidity between these conditions, their aggregation within families and relation to other psychiatric disorders, and a range of associated features that are already well known at a clinical level. The existing evidence for fatty acid abnormalities in these disorders is summarized, and new approaches are outlined that have the potential to improve both the identification and the management of these and related neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions. PMID:10970706

  18. Female patient with autistic disorder, intellectual disability, and co-morbid anxiety disorder: Expanding the phenotype associated with the recurrent 3q13.2-q13.31 microdeletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintela, Ines; Gomez-Guerrero, Lorena; Fernandez-Prieto, Montse; Resches, Mariela; Barros, Francisco; Carracedo, Angel

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the advent of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and its use as a first genetic test for the diagnosis of patients with neurodevelopmental phenotypes has allowed the identification of novel submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities (namely, copy number variants or CNVs), imperceptible by conventional cytogenetic techniques. The 3q13.31 microdeletion syndrome (OMIM #615433) has been defined as a genomic disorder mainly characterized by developmental delay, postnatal overgrowth, hypotonia, genital abnormalities in males, and characteristic craniofacial features. Although the 3q13.31 CNVs are variable in size, a 3.4 Mb recurrently altered region at 3q13.2-q13.31 has been recently described and non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) mediated by flanking human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-H) elements has been suggested as the mechanism of deletion formation. We expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with this recurrent deletion performing the clinical description of a 9-year-old female patient with autistic disorder, total absence of language, intellectual disability, anxiety disorder and disruptive, and compulsive eating behaviors. The array-based molecular karyotyping allowed the identification of a de novo recurrent 3q13.2-q13.31 deletion encompassing 25 genes. In addition, we compare her clinical phenotype with previous reports of patients with neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders and proximal 3q microdeletions. Finally, we also review the candidate genes proposed so far for these phenotypes. PMID:26332054

  19. ANXIETY DISORDERS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Arya Ashwani; Kumar Tarun; Malik Ajay; Hooda Anil

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher prepo...

  20. Brief report: the impact of changing from DSM-IV 'Asperger's' to DSM-5 'autistic spectrum disorder' diagnostic labels on stigma and treatment attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan, Jeneva L; Ellefson, Sarah E; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2015-10-01

    In the DSM-5, 'Asperger's Disorder' was incorporated into 'Autistic Spectrum Disorder' (ASD). One key concern in this change has been that the ASD label will increase negative attitudes relative to the Asperger's label. To test this, we asked 465 American adults to read a vignette describing a child with autistic symptoms that included an ASD label, an Asperger's label, or no label, and rate their stigma and treatment attitudes (help-seeking and perceived effectiveness). Contrary to predictions, label did not impact stigma. Label did impact treatment attitudes, with greater help-seeking and perceived treatment effectiveness for both Asperger's and ASD labels. In sum, concern that the ASD label will increase negative perceptions, at least amongst the general public, is not supported. PMID:26043847

  1. A survey of parents' reactions to the diagnosis of an autistic spectrum disorder by a local service: access to information and use of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Warren; Morris, Kathleen

    2004-12-01

    We conducted a postal survey of parents whose child had been diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder by a district diagnostic service. The service was regarded as having improved significantly following recent changes, but there were still shortcomings. Parents had obtained useful information from a range of other sources, including a parents' support group, school teachers, speech and language therapists, educational psychologists, the Internet, books and academic journals. Special units and schools were rated as the most useful source of support and treatment, but many other interventions were rated highly. Parents reported a diverse range of both negative and positive consequences of diagnosis, and many reported a change in their attitudes to diagnosis over time. Many expressed frustration with trying to get an early diagnosis, with the social, educational and health services, and with the way that autistic spectrum disorders are regarded by lay people and other parents.

  2. ANXIETY DISORDERS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Ashwani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher preponderance of 2:1 as compared to males. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by various combinations of key features - Irritability, fear, Insomnia, Nervousness, Tachycardia, Inability to concentrate, poor coping skills, Palpitation, Sweating, Agoraphobia and Social Withdrawal. The anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social anxiety disorder (SAD, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, are among the disabling medical disorders. The neurobiology of anxiety disorders is not fully understood, but several different biologic abnormalities have been implicated in their etiology. The GABA, NE and 5HT systems play crucial roles in mediating the affective circuitry underlying the highly related clinical disorders of anxiety. Anxiety is a common psychiatric condition characterized by unnecessary aggression, poor quality of life, fear, worry, avoidance, and compulsive rituals that are associated with significant distress.

  3. Heritability of autistic traits in the general population.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, R A; Bartels, M.; Verweij, C.J.H.; Boomsma, D I

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent research has indicated that autism is not a discrete disorder and that family members of autistic probands have an increased likelihood of exhibiting autistic symptoms with a wide range of severity, often below the threshold for a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder. Objective To examine the distribution and genetic structure of autistic traits in the general population using a newly established quantitative measure of autistic traits, the Social Responsiveness S...

  4. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna

    2014-03-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD.

  5. Applying the Hexagon-Spindle Model to the design of school environments for children with Autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Andrée; Woolner, Alex; Benedyk, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Schools and other educational environments beyond serving as the primary work places of children provide the backdrop against which formative emotional, psychological, cognitive and physical development takes place. However, ergonomists have paid little attention to the design of these environments, the interactions within them or their organization from a child's perspective. Children with special education needs, such as those with hearing or visual difficulties, cognitive or social disabilities, or even those with different learning styles may be placed in mainstream schools ill-equipped to suit their needs. Rather than retrofitting classrooms as children with different requirements enter the school, a ground-up approach could be taken to create effective educational environments based on an understanding of the learning tasks to be supported, the learner characteristics and the facilities and interactions needed to effect task completion. The application of an holistic ergonomic model, such as the Hexagon-Spindle model provides a means of systematically considering the variables which need to be included in the design and evaluation of such environments. This paper presents a case study of the application of this model to the design of low sensory classrooms and interactive learning experiences for children with an autistic spectrum disorder. PMID:19369717

  6. Cortical Gyrification in Autistic and Asperger Disorders: A Preliminary Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Roger J.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of Asperger disorder as a distinct syndrome from autism is unclear partly due to the paucity of differentiating neurobiological evidence. Frontal lobe cortical folding between these disorders was compared using the gyrification index. Twenty-three boys underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging: six with high-functioning autism, nine with Asperger disorder, and eight controls. Using the first coronal slice anterior to the corpus callosum, total and outer cortical contours we...

  7. White Matter Microstructure Predicts Autistic Traits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Miriam; Thapar, Anita; Jones, Derek K.

    2014-01-01

    Traits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have previously been found to index clinical severity. This study examined the association of ASD traits with diffusion parameters in adolescent males with ADHD (n = 17), and also compared WM microstructure relative to controls (n = 17).…

  8. Application of custom-designed oligonucleotide array CGH in 145 patients with autistic spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wiśniowiecka-Kowalnik, Barbara; Kastory-Bronowska, Monika; Bartnik, Magdalena; Derwińska, Katarzyna; Dymczak-Domini, Wanda; Szumbarska, Dorota; Ziemka, Ewa; Szczałuba, Krzysztof; Sykulski, Maciej; Gambin, Tomasz; Gambin, Anna; Shaw, Chad A.; Mazurczak, Tadeusz; Obersztyn, Ewa; Bocian, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders, including childhood autism, atypical autism, and Asperger syndrome, with an estimated prevalence of 1.0–2.5% in the general population. ASDs have a complex multifactorial etiology, with genetic causes being recognized in only 10–20% of cases. Recently, copy-number variants (CNVs) have been shown to contribute to over 10% of ASD cases. We have applied a custom-designed oligonucleotide array comparative ...

  9. Neurotensin is increased in serum of young children with autistic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Angelidou Asimenia; Francis Konstantinos; Vasiadi Magdalini; Alysandratos Konstantinos-Dionysios; Zhang Bodi; Theoharides Athanasios; Lykouras Lefteris; Sideri Kyriaki; Kalogeromitros Dimitrios; Theoharides Theoharis C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed in early childhood. They are associated with a set of "core symptoms" that include disabilities in social interaction skills, verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. There is no definite pathogenetic mechanism or diagnostic tests. Many children with ASD also have "allergic-like" symptoms, but test negative implying mast cell activation by non-a...

  10. The utility of patient specific induced pluripotent stem cells for the modelling of Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cocks, Graham; Curran, Sarah; Gami, Priya; Uwanogho, Dafe; Jeffries, Aaron R.; Kathuria, Annie; Lucchesi, Walter; Wood, Victoria; Dixon, Rosemary; Ogilvie, Caroline; Steckler, Thomas; Price, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Until now, models of psychiatric diseases have typically been animal models. Whether they were to be used to further understand the pathophysiology of the disorder, or as drug discovery tools, animal models have been the choice of preference in mimicking psychiatric disorders in an experimental setting. While there have been cellular models, they have generally been lacking in validity. This situation is changing with the advent of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In t...

  11. Eye-Movement Patterns Are Associated with Communicative Competence in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Brock, Jon; Cragg, Lucy; Einav, Shiri; Griffiths, Helen; Nation, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Background: Investigations using eye-tracking have reported reduced fixations to salient social cues such as eyes when participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) view social scenes. However, these studies have not distinguished different cognitive phenotypes. Methods: The eye-movements of 28 teenagers with ASD and 18 typically developing…

  12. Can Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Extract Emotions out of Contextual Cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, David; Santos, Andreia; Bastard-Rosset, Delphine; Rondan, Cecilie; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are able to recognize facial expressions of emotion and objects missing on the basis of contextual cues. While most of these studies focused on facial emotion recognition, here we examined the ability to extract emotional information on the basis…

  13. Self-Disorders in Individuals with Autistic Traits: Contribution of Reduced Autobiographical Reasoning Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Fabrice; Göritz, Anja S.; Schröder, Johanna; Coutelle, Romain; Danion, Jean-Marie; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine V.; Moritz, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The present web-based study (N = 840) aimed to illuminate the cognitive mechanisms underlying self-disorders in autism. Initially, participants selected three self-defining memories. Then, we assessed their capacity to give meaning to these events (i.e., meaning making), their tendency to scrutinize autobiographical memory to better understand…

  14. Autistic Tendencies: Are There Different Pathways for Blindness and Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Rebecca; Wyver, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    For many of the children who are blind and who also display features of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) it is possible that their characteristics, while being representative of ASD, actually follow a different pathway to those children who have ASD and are sighted. It is proposed that these children should be viewed as having specific features…

  15. Greater disruption to control of voluntary saccades in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder: evidence for greater cerebellar involvement in autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley-Cary, Chloe; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce; White, Owen; Fielding, Joanne

    2011-03-01

    It remains unclear whether autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) exist on a symptom continuum or are separate disorders with discrete neurobiological underpinnings. In addition to impairments in communication and social cognition, motor deficits constitute a significant clinical feature in both disorders. It has been suggested that motor deficits and in particular the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may differentiate these disorders. We used a simple volitional saccade task to comprehensively profile the integrity of voluntary ocular motor behaviour in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or AD, and included measures sensitive to cerebellar dysfunction. We tested three groups of age-matched young males with normal intelligence (full scale, verbal, and performance IQ estimates >70) aged between 11 and 19 years; nine with AD, eight with HFA, and ten normally developing males as the comparison group. Overall, the metrics and dynamics of the voluntary saccades produced in this task were preserved in the AD group. In contrast, the HFA group demonstrated relatively preserved mean measures of ocular motricity with cerebellar-like deficits demonstrated in increased variability on measures of response time, final eye position, and movement dynamics. These deficits were considered to be consistent with reduced cerebellar online adaptation of movement. The results support the notion that the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may be different in AD and HFA, suggesting potentially differential neurobiological substrates may underpin these complex disorders.

  16. Parent-child gesture use during problem solving in autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Kristen; Winsler, Adam

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between child language skills and parent and child gestures of 58 youths with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Frequencies and rates of total gesture use as well as five categories of gestures (deictic, conventional, beat, iconic, and metaphoric) were reliably coded during the collaborative Tower of Hanoi task. Children with ASD had lower Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores and gestured less and at lower rates compared to typically developing children. Gesture use was unrelated to vocabulary for typically developing children, but positively associated with vocabulary for those with ASD. Demographic correlates of gesturing differed by group. Gesture may be a point of communication intervention for families with children with ASD. PMID:24535577

  17. Sex-Related Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum Disorders Diagnosed Late in Life: Implications for the Female Autistic Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnhardt, Fritz-Georg; Falter, Christine Michaela; Gawronski, Astrid; Pfeiffer, Kathleen; Tepest, Ralf; Franklin, Jeremy; Vogeley, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Females with high-functioning ASD are known to camouflage their autistic symptoms better than their male counterparts, making them prone to being under-ascertained and delayed in diagnostic assessment. Thus far the underlying cognitive processes that enable such successful socio-communicative adaptation are not well understood. The current results…

  18. Effectiveness of Methylcobalamin and Folinic Acid Treatment on Adaptive Behavior in Children with Autistic Disorder Is Related to Glutathione Redox Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Frye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatments targeting metabolic abnormalities in children with autism are limited. Previously we reported that a nutritional treatment significantly improved glutathione metabolism in children with autistic disorder. In this study we evaluated changes in adaptive behaviors in this cohort and determined whether such changes are related to changes in glutathione metabolism. Thirty-seven children diagnosed with autistic disorder and abnormal glutathione and methylation metabolism were treated with twice weekly 75 µg/Kg methylcobalamin and twice daily 400 µg folinic acid for 3 months in an open-label fashion. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS and glutathione redox metabolites were measured at baseline and at the end of the treatment period. Over the treatment period, all VABS subscales significantly improved with an average effect size of 0.59, and an average improvement in skills of 7.7 months. A greater improvement in glutathione redox status was associated with a greater improvement in expressive communication, personal and domestic daily living skills, and interpersonal, play-leisure, and coping social skills. Age, gender, and history of regression did not influence treatment response. The significant behavioral improvements observed and the relationship between these improvements to glutathione redox status suggest that nutritional interventions targeting redox metabolism may benefit some children with autism.

  19. An Examination of Challenging Behaviors in Autistic Disorder versus Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: Significant Differences and Gender Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Alison M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are well-known for engagement in challenging behaviors. Unfortunately, due to its absence as a criterion for diagnosis in the "DSM-IV-TR", little attention has been paid to the endorsement rates of such behaviors. However, a recently developed measure to assist in the diagnosis of infants and toddlers…

  20. Reducing auditory hypersensitivities in autistic spectrum disorders: Preliminary findings evaluating the Listening Project Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W Porges

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hypersensitivities are a common feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. In the present study the effectiveness of a novel intervention, the Listening Project Protocol (LPP was evaluated in two trials conducted with children diagnosed with ASD. LPP was developed to reduce auditory hypersensitivities. LPP is based on a theoretical neural exercise model that uses computer altered acoustic stimulation to recruit the neural regulation of middle ear muscles. Features of the intervention stimuli were informed by basic research in speech and hearing sciences that has identified the specific acoustic frequencies necessary to understand speech, which must pass through middle ear structures before being processed by other components of the auditory system. LPP was hypothesized to reduce auditory hypersensitivities by increasing the neural tone to the middle ear muscles to functionally dampen competing sounds in frequencies lower than human speech. The trials demonstrated that LPP, when contrasted to control conditions, selectively reduced auditory hypersensitivities. These findings are consistent with the Polyvagal Theory, which emphasizes the role of the middle ear muscles in social communication.

  1. Biological and psychological rhythms: an integrative approach to rhythm disturbances in autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botbol, Michel; Cabon, Philippe; Kermarrec, Solenn; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2013-09-01

    Biological rhythms are crucial phenomena that are perfect examples of the adaptation of organisms to their environment. A considerable amount of work has described different types of biological rhythms (from circadian to ultradian), individual differences in their patterns and the complexity of their regulation. In particular, the regulation and maturation of the sleep-wake cycle have been thoroughly studied. Its desynchronization, both endogenous and exogenous, is now well understood, as are its consequences for cognitive impairments and health problems. From a completely different perspective, psychoanalysts have shown a growing interest in the rhythms of psychic life. This interest extends beyond the original focus of psychoanalysis on dreams and the sleep-wake cycle, incorporating central theoretical and practical psychoanalytic issues related to the core functioning of the psychic life: the rhythmic structures of drive dynamics, intersubjective developmental processes and psychic containment functions. Psychopathological and biological approaches to the study of infantile autism reveal the importance of specific biological and psychological rhythmic disturbances in this disorder. Considering data and hypotheses from both perspectives, this paper proposes an integrative approach to the study of these rhythmic disturbances and offers an etiopathogenic hypothesis based on this integrative approach.

  2. Asperger’s syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders? [Miejsce zespołu Aspergera w grupie całościowych zaburzeń rozwoju: kontinuum czy spektrum zaburzeń autystycznych?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD) refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term „autistic spectrum disorders” was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger’s Syndrome (AS) remains the most controversial diagnosis in t...

  3. AUTISTIC CHILDREN PROTECTION SCHEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan LUKIC

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article sets forth the theoretical grounds which make the basis for the organizational scheme of the autistic persons social protection. This protection consists of the below listed forms of work:· Health service with the role of an early detection and participation in the creation of rehabilitation programs;· Social protection with its programs of work from the diagnostics where the defectologist makes a team together with the physician and the psychologists to the systems of rehabilitation institutions where the defectologist’s is the main responsibility.The present article underlines two facts, namely:· that an autistic person requires to be followed and every spare moment used to promote and advance the activities the doer commenced himself instead of having him carry out the programs which are beyond his internal motivations and which he finds emotionally inaccessible;· that and form of work organization with autistic persons must subordinate its administrative part to the basic professional requirements this kind of disorder (handicap sets in front of each professional.

  4. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Correlations with Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Parletta

    Full Text Available There is evidence that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD have lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA levels compared with controls and conflicting evidence regarding omega-6 (n-6 PUFA levels.This study investigated whether erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were lower and n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA higher in children with ADHD, ASD and controls, and whether lower n-3 and higher n-6 PUFAs correlated with poorer scores on the Australian Twin Behaviour Rating Scale (ATBRS; ADHD symptoms and Test of Variable Attention (TOVA in children with ADHD, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS in children with ASD.Assessments and blood samples of 565 children aged 3-17 years with ADHD (n = 401, ASD (n = 85 or controls (n = 79 were analysed. One-way ANOVAs with Tukey's post-hoc analysis investigated differences in PUFA levels between groups and Pearson's correlations investigated correlations between PUFA levels and ATBRS, TOVA and CARS scores.Children with ADHD and ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA, higher AA/EPA ratio and lower n-3/n-6 than controls (P<0.001 except AA between ADHD and controls: P = 0.047. Children with ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA than children with ADHD (P<0.001 for all comparisons. ATBRS scores correlated negatively with EPA (r = -.294, P<0.001, DHA (r = -.424, P<0.001, n-3/n-6 (r = -.477, P<0.001 and positively with AA/EPA (r = .222, P <.01. TOVA scores correlated positively with DHA (r = .610, P<0.001, EPA (r = .418, P<0.001 AA (r = .199, P<0.001, and n-3/n-6 (r = .509, P<0.001 and negatively with AA/EPA (r = -.243, P<0.001. CARS scores correlated significantly with DHA (r = .328, P = 0.002, EPA (r = -.225, P = 0.038 and AA (r = .251, P = 0.021.Children with ADHD and ASD had low levels of EPA, DHA and AA and high ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and these correlated significantly with symptoms. Future research should further

  5. Management of children with autism spectrum disorder in the dental setting : Concerns, behavioural approaches and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, Konstantina; Reichart, Peter A.; Bornstein, Michael M.; Livas, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This article reviews the present literature on the issues encountered while coping with children with autistic spectrum disorder from the dental perspective. The autistic patient profile and external factors affecting the oral health status of this patient population are discussed upon t

  6. A review of eating disorders in males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raevuori, Anu; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Hoek, Hans W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Research in eating disorders in males has been active lately compared to the past. This review aims to provide an overview of the recently published studies of eating disorders in males. Recent findings Publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th e

  7. Transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento não-autísticos: síndrome de Rett, transtorno desintegrativo da infância e transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento sem outra especificação Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos T Mercadante

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A categoria "transtorno invasivos do desenvolvimento" inclui o autismo, a síndrome de Asperger, a síndrome de Rett, o transtorno desintegrativo da infância e uma categoria residual denominada transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento sem outra especificação. Nesta revisão, a síndrome de Rett e o transtorno desintegrativo da infância, que são categorias bem definidas, serão discutidas, assim como as categorias não tão bem definidas que foram incluídas no grupo transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento sem outra especificação. Diferentes propostas de categorização têm sido feitas, algumas baseadas em abordagem fenomenológica descritiva, outras baseadas em outras perspectivas teóricas, tais como a neuropsicologia. As propostas atuais são apresentadas e discutidas, seguidas por avaliações críticas sobre as vantagens e desvantagens desses conceitos.The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder, which are well-defined categories, will be discussed, as well as the not well defined categories that have been included in the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified group. Different proposals of categorization have been created, some of which based on descriptive phenomenological approach, and others based upon other theoretical perspectives, such as neuropsychology. Current proposals are presented and discussed, followed by critical appraisals on the clinical advantages and disadvantages of these concepts.

  8. [Features of nursing of the autistic children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinskiene, Sigita; Pūras, Dainius; Kajokiene, Asta; Senina, Julija

    2002-01-01

    Due to the behavioral and communication difficulties autistic children need individualized approaches providing them medical help. Aspects of nursing of autistic children were not investigated in our country. Thirty seven mothers of autistic children and 74 mothers of children without developmental disorders (control group) were interviewed orally and filled the questionnaire. The age of children was 3-12 years old. The aim of the research was to analyze peculiarities of behavior, communication and social adaptation of children with autism disorder together with troubles they face in medical services (outpatient and inpatient), and prepare practical recommendations to the pediatric and mental health nurses. It appeared that families with autistic children come across the great difficulties in various areas of the daily life. Autistic children tended to have severe behavioral and emotional difficulties while being examined by the medical staff. Adaptation difficulties in medical services were very prominent, especially at the in-patient departments (unpredictable and impulsive behavior, anxiety, decrease of appetite, sleep disturbances). Possibilities of home visit of the nurses are underestimated and could provide more useful and constructive help to the families. The data showed existing difficulties for the pediatric nurses and medical staff to establish good contact with the autistic children and their parents and lack of knowledge about the children with pervasive developmental disorders and their needs. Practical recommendations are provided.

  9. Two Autistic Savant Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, N.; Hermelin, B.

    1994-01-01

    Two young autistic children exhibited normal reading comprehension but reading speeds considerably faster than controls. The effect of randomizing word order was minimal for the older of the two autistic boys. Results indicate that efficient grapheme-phoneme conversion is primarily responsible for the fast reading of the autistic children.…

  10. Sex-Related Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum Disorders Diagnosed Late in Life: Implications for the Female Autistic Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnhardt, Fritz-Georg; Falter, Christine Michaela; Gawronski, Astrid; Pfeiffer, Kathleen; Tepest, Ralf; Franklin, Jeremy; Vogeley, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Females with high-functioning ASD are known to camouflage their autistic symptoms better than their male counterparts, making them prone to being under-ascertained and delayed in diagnostic assessment. Thus far the underlying cognitive processes that enable such successful socio-communicative adaptation are not well understood. The current results show sex-related differences in the cognitive profile of ASD individuals, which were diagnosed late in life exclusively. Higher verbal abilities were found in males (n = 69) as opposed to higher processing speed and better executive functions in females with ASD (n = 38). Since both sexes remained unidentified during childhood and adolescence, these results are suggestive for sex-distinctive cognitive strategies as an alternative to typically-developed reciprocal social behavior and social mimicry in high functioning ASD.

  11. Early diagnosis and identification of children with autistic spectrum disorder%孤独症谱系障碍儿童的早期诊断与识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳娟; 卢云; 吴晓庆; 陈娟; 郑芹

    2012-01-01

    目的:在进行婴幼儿孤独症谱系障碍患病情况流行病学调查的同时早期诊断孤独症患儿,为早期干预做准备,并总结早期识别患儿的方法.方法:采用随机分层整群抽样方法,对连云港市8 532名0~3岁儿童进行横断面调查;应用婴幼儿孤独症筛查表(CHAT)筛查出可疑儿童,以儿童孤独症家长评定量表(ABC)、儿童期孤独症评定量表(CARS)及美国精神障碍诊断和统计手册(DSM-IV)的诊断依据进行确诊.结果:8 532名儿童中9名为孤独症阳性,阳性率为10.55/万,其中1岁内1例,1~2岁3例,2~3岁5例;男孩8例,女孩1例,男孩发病率高于女孩(P<0.05).结论:加强对孤独症谱系障碍患儿的早期识别、早期诊断,对孤独症患儿的日后康复意义重大;总结出的早期识别孤独症谱系障碍儿童方法,为婴幼儿父母及医务工作者提供早期筛查孤独症患儿的依据.%Objective: To diagnose the children with autism at early stage at the same time of conducting epidemiological investigation of prevalence of infantile autistic spectrum disorder, make preparations for early intervention, and summarize the methods to identify the children with autism early. Methods: A random stratified cluster sampling method was used to carry out cross - section survey among 8 532 children aged 0-3 years old; CHAT was used to screen out suspected children, then they were diagnosed definitely according to the diagnostic criteria of ABC, CARS, and DSM - IV. Results: Among 8 532 children, 9 children were found with autism, the positive rate was 10. 55/ten thousand, including one child within one year, three children aged 1-2 years old, and five children aged 2-3 years old; eight boys and one girl were included, the incidence of autism in boys was statistically significantly higher than that in girls ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion ; Enhancing early identification and diagnosis of children with autistic spectrum disorder has important

  12. Melatonin in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Daniel A.; Frye, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate melatonin-related findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorders, not otherwise specified. Method: Comprehensive searches were conducted in the PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and ERIC…

  13. Autism and autistic spectrum disorders in the context of new DSM-V classification, and clinical and epidemiological data

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Miodrag; Lakić Aneta; Ilić Neda

    2012-01-01

    Autism is one of disorders from the autism spectrum, besides Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. They are classified as mental disorders as being manifested by a wide range of cognitive, emotional and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Key categorical characteristics of the disorder are clear impairments of the development of the child’s socialisation, understanding and production of verbal and non-verbal communication and restri...

  14. Brief Report: Autistic Behaviors among Children with Fragile X or Rett Syndrome: Implications for the Classification of Pervasive Developmental Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Pulsifer, Margaret; Fiumara, Agata; Cocuzza, M.; Nigro, F.; Incorpora, G.; Barone, R.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 14 males with fragile X syndrome, 12 females with Rett Syndrome, and 25 individuals with other developmental disorders found that among those with fragile X syndrome, none of the 11 who did not have a diagnosis of autism met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for pervasive developmental disorder.…

  15. Parents' perspectives on care of children with autistic spectrum disorder in South Asia - Views from Pakistan and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Ayesha; Vajaratkar, Vivek; Divan, Gauri; Hamdani, Syed Usman; Leadbitter, Kathy; Taylor, Carol; Aldred, Catherine; Tariq, Ahmareen; Tariq, Mahjabeen; Cardoza, Percy; Green, Jonathan; Patel, Vikram; Rahman, Atif

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects about 1.4% of the population in South Asia but very few have access to any form of health care service. The objective of this study was to explore the beliefs and practices related to the care of children with ASD to inform strategies for intervention. In Pakistan, primary data were collected through in-depth interviews of parents (N = 15), while in India a narrative review of existing studies was conducted. The results show that the burden of care is almost entirely on the mother, leading to high levels of stress. Poor awareness of the condition in both family members and front-line health-providers leads to delay in recognition and appropriate management. There is considerable stigma and discrimination affecting children with autism and their families. Specialist services are rare, concentrated in urban areas, and inaccessible to the majority. Strategies for intervention should include building community and family support networks to provide respite to the main carer. In the absence of specialists, community members such as community health workers, traditional practitioners and even motivated family members could be trained in recognizing and providing evidence-based interventions. Such task-shifting strategies should be accompanied by campaigns to raise awareness so greater inclusivity can be achieved.

  16. A review of gambling disorder and substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rash CJ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carla J Rash,1 Jeremiah Weinstock,2 Ryan Van Patten2 1Calhoun Cardiology Center – Behavioral Health, UConn Health, Farmington, CT, USA; 2Department of Psychology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, gambling disorder was recategorized from the “Impulse Control Disorder” section to the newly expanded “Substance-related and Addictive Disorders” section. With this move, gambling disorder has become the first recognized nonsubstance behavioral addiction, implying many shared features between gambling disorder and substance use disorders. This review examines these similarities, as well as differences, between gambling and substance-related disorders. Diagnostic criteria, comorbidity, genetic and physiological underpinnings, and treatment approaches are discussed. Keywords: pathological gambling, problem gambling, behavioral addiction, transdiagnostic factors, addiction syndrome 

  17. Auditory hypersensitivity in children and teenagers with autistic spectrum disorder Hipersensibilidade auditiva em crianças e adolescentes com transtorno do espectro autista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erissandra Gomes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify if the clinical behavior of auditory hypersensitivity, reported in interviews with parents/caregivers and therapists/teachers of 46 children and teenagers suffering from autistic spectrum disorder, correspond to audiological findings. METHOD: The clinical diagnosis for auditory hypersensitivity was investigated by means of an interview. Subsequently, a test of the acoustic stapedial reflex was conducted, and responses to intense acoustic stimulus in open field were observed. RESULTS: Of the 46 subjects, 11 (23.9% were clinically diagnosed as oversensitive to sound and only 2 showed discomfort when exposed to intense acoustic stimulus in open field. There was no statistically significant difference for the test of the ipsilateral acoustic stapedial reflex between the groups. CONCLUSION: Behavioral manifestations to sounds are not associated to hypersensitivity of the auditory pathways, but instead these are associated to difficulties in the upper processing, involving systems that usually are impaired in autistic spectrum patients, such as the limbic system.OBJETIVO: Verificar se o comportamento clínico de hipersensibilidade auditiva, relatado nas entrevistas com os pais/cuidadores e terapeutas/professores de crianças e adolescentes com transtorno do espectro autista, corresponde aos achados audiológicos. MÉTODO: O diagnóstico clínico para a hipersensibilidade auditiva foi investigado a partir do protocolo de entrevista. Após, foi utilizada a pesquisa do reflexo acústico estapédico e observadas as reações ao estímulo sonoro intenso em campo aberto. RESULTADOS: Dos 46 sujeitos, 11 (23,9% foram diagnosticados clinicamente como hipersensíveis ao som, e somente 2 demonstraram desconforto quando expostos ao estímulo sonoro intenso em campo aberto. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante para a pesquisa do reflexo acústico estapédico ipsilateral entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: As manifesta

  18. Review of Cohort Studies for Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Baek, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Yong-Min; Kim, Se Joo; Ha, Tae Hyun; Cha, Boseok; Moon, Eunsoo; Kang, Hee-Ju; Ryu, Vin; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed to review currently available cohort studies of subjects with mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Using the PubMed and KoreaMed databases, we reviewed eight major cohort studies. Most studies recruited participants with MDD and BD separately, so direct comparison of factors associated with diagnostic changes was difficult. Regular and frequent follow-up evaluations utilizing objective mood ratings and standardized evaluation methods in a naturalistic fashion are necessary to determine detailed clinical courses of mood disorders. Further, biological samples should also be collected to incorporate clinical findings in the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. An innovative cohort study that can serve as a platform for translational research for treatment and prevention of mood disorders is critical in determining clinical, psychosocial, neurobiological and genetic factors associated with long-term courses and consequences of mood disorders in Korean patients. PMID:27247592

  19. A case series of children with apparent mercury toxic encephalopathies manifesting with clinical symptoms of regressive autistic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, David A; Geier, Mark R

    2007-05-15

    Impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, and stereotypic abnormal movement patterns characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). It is clear that while genetic factors are important to the pathogenesis of ASDs, mercury exposure can induce immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions similar to traits defining or associated with ASDs. The Institutional Review Board of the Institute for Chronic Illnesses (Office for Human Research Protections, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, IRB number IRB00005375) approved the present study. A case series of nine patients who presented to the Genetic Centers of America for a genetic/developmental evaluation are discussed. Eight of nine patients (one patient was found to have an ASD due to Rett's syndrome) (a) had regressive ASDs; (b) had elevated levels of androgens; (c) excreted significant amounts of mercury post chelation challenge; (d) had biochemical evidence of decreased function in their glutathione pathways; (e) had no known significant mercury exposure except from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho(D)-immune globulin preparations; and (f) had alternate causes for their regressive ASDs ruled out. There was a significant dose-response relationship between the severity of the regressive ASDs observed and the total mercury dose children received from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho (D)-immune globulin preparations. Based upon differential diagnoses, 8 of 9 patients examined were exposed to significant mercury from Thimerosal-containing biologic/vaccine preparations during their fetal/infant developmental periods, and subsequently, between 12 and 24 mo of age, these previously normally developing children suffered mercury toxic encephalopathies that manifested with clinical symptoms consistent with regressive ASDs. Evidence for mercury intoxication should be considered in the differential diagnosis as contributing to some regressive ASDs.

  20. Towards a New Functional Assessment of Autistic Dysfunction in Children with Developmental Disorders: The Behaviour Function Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrien, Jean-Louis; Roux, Sylvie; Couturier, Guylene; Malvy, Joelle; Guerin, Pascaline; Debuly, Sabine; Lelord, Gilbert; Berthelemy, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Behaviour Function Inventory (BFI), an instrument designed to assess particular disorders of psychological development and functioning in children with developmental disorders including autism. A study of the reliability and validity of the scale indicated that the BFI provides precise information on the…

  1. Longitudinal association between early atopic dermatitis and subsequent attention-deficit or autistic disorder: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Ying; Chen, Mu-Hong; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Bai, Ya-Mei; Hung, Giun-Yi; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the common allergic diseases in children. The presence of allergic diseases was found to have association with the risk of developing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in children, but it is still inconclusive. This study was to investigate the longitudinal relationship between AD developed during toddlerhood and subsequent development of ADHD or ASD in later childhood. Toddlers born between 1998 and 2008 and diagnosed with AD at the age younger than 3 years and older than 1 month were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Age- and gender-matched toddlers with no lifetime AD were enrolled as the control group. All enrolled toddlers were followed until 2011 to identify the development of ADHD or ASD. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to analyze the hazard ratios (HRs). The risks associated with allergic comorbidities were analyzed. A total of 18,473 toddlers were enrolled into the AD group. The presence of AD significantly increased the risk of developing ADHD (HR = 2.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.48-3.45) or ASD (HR = 8.90, 95% CI = 4.98-15.92) when aged 3 years or older. Children from the AD group with 3 comorbidities together, namely, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and asthma, had the greatest risk of developing ADHD and ASD (ADHD: HR = 4.67, 95% CI = 3.81-5.43; ASD: HR = 16.65, 95% CI = 8.63-30.60). In conclusion, toddlers who suffer from AD at the age younger than 3 years are at a higher risk of developing ADHD and ASD during later childhood. Pediatricians taking care of toddlers with AD should have knowledge of this increased risk of developing ADHD and ASD later in life, especially when children have certain comorbidities such as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and asthma. PMID:27684861

  2. Media image eating disorders – Literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This review aims to critically analyse the literature which considers the relationship between the media’s portrayal of the ‘ideal body image’ and adolescent eating disorders. Currently within Western society, the media endorses a thin-ideal for females and a lean, muscular-ideal for males. A critical review was chosen to deconstruct the evident debate within the literature as to whether the media is solely to blame for eating disorder development or whether other risk fact...

  3. Assessing the influence of researcher-partner involvement on the process and outcomes of participatory research in autism spectrum disorder and neurodevelopmental disorders: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2014-10-01

    Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify and characterize published participatory research partnerships between researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders and examine the influence of participatory research partnerships on the research process and reported study outcomes. A search of databases and review of gray literature identified seven studies that described participatory research partnerships between academic researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders. A comparative analysis of the studies revealed two key themes: (1) variations in the participatory research design and (2) limitations during the reporting of the depth of the partner's involvement. Both themes potentially limit the application and generalizability of the findings. The results of the review are discussed in relation to the use of evaluative frameworks for such participatory research studies to determine the potential benefits of participatory research partnerships within the neurodevelopmental and autism spectrum disorder populations.

  4. Cognitive characteristics of parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, C; Callias, M; Rutter, M

    1977-09-01

    The parents of 15 autistic boys with a nonverbal IQ of at least 80 were compared with a matched group of parents of normal boys on the Goldstein-Scheerer Object Sorting Test and the Bannister-Fransella Grid Test of Thought Disorder. It was necessary to control for social class effects as abnormal scores on the thought disorder tests were more frequent in parents of manual social class. It was found that (a) there was a lack of agreement between the two tests of thought disorder, (b) the parents of autistic children showed thought disorder scores closely comparable to those of the parents of normals, and (c) there was no consistent association between thought disorder and anxiety. The methodological and substantive implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the results of previous investigations.

  5. Sleep Disorders, Epilepsy, and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe the clinical data linking autism with sleep and epilepsy and to discuss the impact of treating sleep disorders in children with autism either with or without coexisting epileptic seizures. Studies are presented to support the view that sleep is abnormal in individuals with autistic spectrum…

  6. Autistic functioning and therapeutical dimension of mediations (Tome 1 and 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Chocron, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Care for subjects with autistic or related disorders in medical institutes is mainly based on activities using mediation. This research deals with the caring of youngsters with Pervasive Developmental Disorder in a medical institute. Using both autobiographical work from author with autism and case study of psychotherapeutic follow-up in a medical institute, the idea of autistic functioning will be exposed. This idea is a way to comprehend psychic process mostly seen in autistic persons. In a...

  7. Obsessive-compulsive phenomena and symptoms in Asperger’s disorder and High-functioning Autism: An evaluative literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer-Terworth, Christian; Probst, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Although obsessional, ritualistic and stereotyped behaviors are a core feature of autistic disorders, substantial data related to those phenomena are lacking. Ritualistic and stereotyped behaviours can be found in almost all autistic patients. Additionally, cognitive able individuals with Asperger’s disorder (AD) and High-Functioning Autism (HFA: defined by the presence of IQ- levels > 70, Howlin, 2004, p. 6) mostly develop circumscribed, often called obsessional interests and preoccupations....

  8. CONCEPTOS GENERALES SOBRE ABA EN NIÑOS CON TRASTORNO DEL ESPECTRO AUTISTA General concepts concerning applied behaviour analysis (ABA in children suffering autistic spectrum disorders (ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Elizabeth Piñeros-Ortiz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos del espectro autista (TEA son entidades que generan discapacidad. Diversas intervenciones psicofarmacológicas y psicosociales modulan algunas de las alteraciones comportamentales asociadas y mejoran la calidad de vida de las personas afectadas y de sus cuidadores. La terapia ABA es una de las intervenciones psicosociales más conocidas y utilizada en población con TEA. Mediante de la formulación de preguntas clave y sus respuestas, este artículo realiza una breve descripción de los aspectos históricos, las principales características y los fundamentos teóricos del ABA. Se discuten los resultados de diversos estudios que señalan las limitaciones metodológicas de las investigaciones sobre la efectividad de esta terapia y sus implicaciones para la práctica clínica.Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD cause disability. Psychopharmacological and psychosocial interventions modulate some of the associated behavioural alterations and improve the quality of life for those affected and the people caring for them. Applied behaviour analysis (ABA therapy is one of the most well-known psychosocial interventions and is used with populations suffering ASD. This article gives a brief description of the historical aspects, the main characteristics and theoretical foundations regarding applied behaviour analysis (ABA by formulating key questions and their (expected responses. The results of some pertinent studies are discussed, pointing out the methodological limitations of research into the effectiveness of this therapy and its implications for clinical practice.

  9. The autistic brain in the context of normal neurodevelopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Nicholas Ziats

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD is complex and largely unclear. Among various lines of inquiry, many have suggested convergence onto disruptions in both neural circuitry and immune regulation/glial cell function pathways. However, the interpretation of the relationship between these two putative mechanisms has largely focused on the role of exogenous factors and insults, such as maternal infection, in generating activating immune pathways that in turn result in neural network abnormalities. Yet, given recent insights in our understanding of human neurodevelopment, and in particular the critical role of glia and the immune system in normal brain development, it is important to consider these putative pathological processes in their appropriate normal neurodevelopmental context. In this review, we explore the hypothesis that the autistic brain cellular phenotype likely represents intrinsic abnormalities of glial/immune processes constitutively operant in normal brain development that result in the observed neural network dysfunction. We review recent studies demonstrating the intercalated role of neural circuit development, the immune system, and glial cells in the normal developing brain, an integrate them with studies demonstrating pathological alterations in these processes in autism. By discussing known abnormalities in the autistic brain in the context of normal brain development, we explore the hypothesis that the glial/immune component of ASD may instead be related to intrinsic exaggerated/abnormal constitutive neurodevelopmental processes such as network pruning. Moreover, this hypothesis may be relevant to other neurodevelopmental disorders that share genetic, pathologic, and clinical features with autism.

  10. A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of "Ginkgo Biloba" Added to Risperidone in Patients with Autistic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Elmira; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rezazadeh, Shams-Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Rezaei, Farzin; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    "Ginkgo biloba" has been reported to affect the neurotransmitter system and to have antioxidant properties that could impact the pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Based on these studies, we decided to assess the effectiveness of "Ginkgo biloba" extract (Ginko T.D., Tolidaru, Iran) as an adjunctive agent to risperidone in the treatment of…

  11. Brief Report: Pilot Single-Blind Placebo Lead-in Study of Acamprosate in Youth with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Craig A.; Wink, Logan K.; Early, Maureen C.; Stiegelmeyer, Elizabeth; Mathieu-Frasier, Lauren; Patrick, Vanessa; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: An excitatory/inhibitory (E:I) imbalance marked by enhanced glutamate and deficient gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission may contribute to the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Objectives: We report on the first single-blind placebo lead-in trial of acamprosate, a drug with putative mechanisms restoring E:I…

  12. Atypical eating disorders: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Frederico

    2011-01-01

    Frederico Duarte Garcia1, Héloïse Délavenne2, Pierre Déchelotte11Nutrition and Digestive System Research Group (EA 4311) and Nutrition Unit, Rouen Institute of Medical Research and Innovation, Federative Institute for Peptide Research (IFRMP 23), Rouen University and University Hospital, Rouen, France; 2Department of Addictology of the Rouen University Hospital, Rouen University, Rouen, FranceIntroduction: Atypical eating disorders (AEDs), also known ...

  13. Neurosurgery for mental disorders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeramun-Aubeeluck, A; Lu, Z

    2013-05-01

    Neurosurgical interventions date back to ancient civilization, 5100 BC through a practice known as trephination. Due to past abuse and ethical considerations, neurosurgical interventions in psychiatry remain a controversial issue. This article aims to review the different surgical techniques and their current application in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) gave its approval for vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) for the management of treatment-resistant depression in 2005 and deep brain stimulation (DBS) for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) in 2009. These invasive but non destructive techniques represent the future of neurosurgery for mental disorder. PMID:23739819

  14. Asperger’s syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders? [Miejsce zespołu Aspergera w grupie całościowych zaburzeń rozwoju: kontinuum czy spektrum zaburzeń autystycznych?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term „autistic spectrum disorders” was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger’s Syndrome (AS remains the most controversial diagnosis in terms of its place within autism spectrum disorders. AS if often described as an equivalent of High Functioning Autism (HFA or as a separate spectrum-related disorder with unique diagnostic criteria. Another important issue is the relationship between AS and speech disorders. Although it is relatively easy to draw a line between children with classical autism and speech disorders, the clear cut frontiers between them still remain to be found. The main distinguishing feature is the lack of stereotypic interests and unimpaired social interaction observed in children with speech disorders, such as semantic-pragmatic disorder.

  15. Ophthalmic manifestations of vitamin A and D deficiency in two autistic teenagers: case reports and a review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duignan, Emma

    2015-01-01

    We describe the cases of 2 autistic children with ophthalmic and systemic manifestations of vitamin A deficiency due to food faddism. Although vitamin A deficiency is common in the developing world, reports in developed societies are rare. Our patients presented over a 1-year period. The patients were 14 and 13 years old at the time of presentation and were both found to have marked features of vitamin A deficiency related to unusual dietary habits. Anterior segment signs of xerophthalmia were present in both patients. In addition, patient 1 showed evidence of a rod-predominant retinopathy, which resolved with vitamin A supplementation. Due to its rare occurrence, hypovitaminosis A must be highlighted and anticipated in this cohort.

  16. Asperger's Disorder Will Be Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Luke Y.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on identifying up-to-date number of publications that compared DSM-IV/ICD-10 Asperger's disorder (AspD) to Autistic Disorder/High-functioning Autism (AD/HFA). One hundred and twenty-eight publications were identified through an extensive search of major electronic databases and journals. Based on more than 90 clinical…

  17. Autism and Related Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), and Rett’s Disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, and PDD-NOS) a...

  18. A Review of Co-Morbid Disorders of Asperger's Disorder and the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stephanie; Curwen, Tracey; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    This review includes empirical peer-reviewed articles which support the examination of Asperger's Disorder and co-morbid disorders, as well as an analysis of how adolescents with Asperger's Disorder transition to adulthood. Although the focus was on Asperger's Disorder, some studies include Autism Spectrum Disorder samples. It was found that…

  19. Withdrawal Study of Memantine in Pediatric Patients With Autism, Asperger's Disorder, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Previously Treated With Memantine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Autism; Autistic Disorder; Asperger's Disorder; Asperger's; Pediatric Autism; Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS); Pervasive Child Development Disorder

  20. Structural and functional deficits in a neuronal calcium sensor-1 mutant identified in a case of autistic spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T W Handley

    Full Text Available Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1 is a Ca(2+ sensor protein that has been implicated in the regulation of various aspects of neuronal development and neurotransmission. It exerts its effects through interactions with a range of target proteins one of which is interleukin receptor accessory protein like-1 (IL1RAPL1 protein. Mutations in IL1RAPL1 have recently been associated with autism spectrum disorders and a missense mutation (R102Q on NCS-1 has been found in one individual with autism. We have examined the effect of this mutation on the structure and function of NCS-1. From use of NMR spectroscopy, it appeared that the R102Q affected the structure of the protein particularly with an increase in the extent of conformational exchange in the C-terminus of the protein. Despite this change NCS-1(R102Q did not show changes in its affinity for Ca(2+ or binding to IL1RAPL1 and its intracellular localisation was unaffected. Assessment of NCS-1 dynamics indicated that it could rapidly cycle between cytosolic and membrane pools and that the cycling onto the plasma membrane was specifically changed in NCS-1(R102Q with the loss of a Ca(2+ -dependent component. From these data we speculate that impairment of the normal cycling of NCS-1 by the R102Q mutation could have subtle effects on neuronal signalling and physiology in the developing and adult brain.

  1. The Ratio of Second to Fourth Digit Length (2D:4D in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Baharara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Emerging hypotheses suggest a causal role for prenatal androgen exposure in some cases of Autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The ratios of the lengths of the bones of the 2nd to the 4th digits (2D:4D are purported to be markers for prenatal androgen exposure and to be established early in gestation. Ratio of second and fourth digits (2D:4D  is usually used as a proxy for prenatal testosterone. Methods and Materials In this study, 2D:4D in 48 children with ASD and in 41  control child was measured. Two groups were matched with the gender and age. Both groups were selected by convenience sampling method. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 19.0 software, considering as significant less than .05 (p < .05. Results: Results showed that the average ratio of 2D:4D in ASD children were lower than the ratio in control children (P

  2. Assessing the Influence of Researcher-Partner Involvement on the Process and Outcomes of Participatory Research in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2014-01-01

    Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify…

  3. An investigation of the relationship between functional impairment and autistic traits in a clinical population

    OpenAIRE

    Varrall, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Based on theories of dimensionality and fractionation of the autistic triad, this study investigates the role of autistic traits in adaptive functioning. The suitability of current diagnostic thresholds and classification criteria are explored with particular interest in partial and mild sub-threshold autistic presentations. Method: Seventy-two young people (mean age = 11.03 years), referred for assessment at a specialist autism spectrum disorder (ASD) clinic were administered the Vinel...

  4. Association of autistic traits in adulthood with childhood abuse, interpersonal victimization, and posttraumatic stress

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Lyall, Kristen; Robinson, Elise; Marc G Weisskopf

    2015-01-01

    Persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk for interpersonal victimization across the life course. Children with high levels of autistic traits may be targeted for abuse, and deficits in social awareness may increase risk of interpersonal victimization. Additionally, persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms subsequent to trauma. We examined retrospectively reported prevalence of childhood abuse, trauma victimization and PT...

  5. The Embodied Nature of Autistic Learning: Implications for Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jespersen Ejgil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD and learning difficulties are difficult to separate in clinic manifestations and diagnoses. By taking learning as being-in-the-world, this article considers the embodied nature of autistic learning and urges its importance for understanding the phenomenological core of ASD. We begin by arguing that three mainstream contemporary ASD theories are inherently limited in offering an adequate account of autistic learning due to the disembodied ontology inscribed within them. Then, we provide an understanding of learning guided by the subjective dynamics of experience. Instead of having a disembodied and individualistic point of view, we suggest that autistic learning has an embodied nature. The “inappropriate” or “abnormal” affections and behaviors in the autistic experience of learning may actually be inherently meaningful for individuals with ASD. They strive to make sense of some basic disturbances and re-establish some form of coherence with the world, though this may only be possible in the form of delusions or autistic withdrawals. Finally, we explore the relationship between autistic learning and physical education and suggest in particular how spontaneous imitation can boost the development of children with ASD. We conclude that the application of implicit learning strategies in playful settings and the reduction of explicit strategies based upon intellectual reasoning rather than bodily reciprocity should be encouraged in the process of autistic learning.

  6. Attachment Behaviors in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Marian; Ungerer, Judy A.

    1984-01-01

    Observation of 14 autistic and 14 nonautistic children of equivalent mental age revealed that autistic Ss showed evidence of attachment to their mothers. Among autistic Ss, those showing increased attachment behaviors in response to separation and reunion demonstrated more advanced symbolic play skills than those showing no attachment change.…

  7. Treatment of Inattention, Overactivity, and Impulsiveness in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Aman, Michael G; Farmer, Cristan A.; Hollway, Jill; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2008-01-01

    We reviewed the recent literature on medicines used to manage inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity in children with pervasive developmental disorders (autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, Asperger’s disorder) using computer searches of pharmacological studies. A substantial number of reports were identified and summarized. The literature tends to be dominated by uncontrolled studies, although the number of controlled trials is growing. The findi...

  8. Chronic pain: Model of psychosomatic disorder (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernus N.P.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a detailed review on epidemiology, pathogenesis and interrelation of serotonin neuromedia-tor metabolism in the central nervous system in state of chronic pain and depression. It has been demonstrated that neurophysiological conditions serve as psychological defense of an individual. That mechanism has been proved to «transform» serious emotions onto the inner level (body and it assists in the development of psychosomatic disorders — chronic pain syndrome

  9. Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A Current Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rosell, Daniel R.; Futterman, Shira E.; McMaster, Antonia; Siever, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The study of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is important clinically, as it is understudied, challenging to treat, often under-recognized or misdiagnosed, and associated with significant functional impairment. SPD also represents an intermediate schizophrenia-spectrum phenotype, and therefore, can provide a better understanding of the genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment of related psychotic illnesses. In this review we discuss recent findings of SPD related to epidemiology and functi...

  10. Rumination in bipolar disorder: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Érico de M. Silveira Jr.; Marcia Kauer-Sant'Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To conduct a systematic review of the literature about the symptom of rumination in bipolar disorder (BD).Methods:We searched the MEDLINE (PubMed), ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, and SciELO databases using the descriptors “rumination” and “bipolar disorder” and no time limits. This strategy yielded 105 references, of which 74 were selected. Inclusion criteria were studies involving patients with BD and the use of at least one validated scale for the assessment of rumination. Review...

  11. Reduced GABAergic Action in the Autistic Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Caroline E; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2016-01-11

    An imbalance between excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmission has been posited as a central characteristic of the neurobiology of autism [1], inspired in part by the striking prevalence of seizures among individuals with the disorder [2]. Evidence supporting this hypothesis has specifically implicated the signaling pathway of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), in this putative imbalance: GABA receptor genes have been associated with autism in linkage and copy number variation studies [3-7], fewer GABA receptor subunits have been observed in the post-mortem tissue of autistic individuals [8, 9], and GABAergic signaling is disrupted across heterogeneous mouse models of autism [10]. Yet, empirical evidence supporting this hypothesis in humans is lacking, leaving a gulf between animal and human studies of the condition. Here, we present a direct link between GABA signaling and autistic perceptual symptomatology. We first demonstrate a robust, replicated autistic deficit in binocular rivalry [11], a basic visual function that is thought to rely on the balance of excitation/inhibition in visual cortex [12-15]. Then, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we demonstrate a tight linkage between binocular rivalry dynamics in typical participants and both GABA and glutamate levels in the visual cortex. Finally, we show that the link between GABA and binocular rivalry dynamics is completely and specifically absent in autism. These results suggest a disruption in inhibitory signaling in the autistic brain and forge a translational path between animal and human models of the condition. PMID:26711497

  12. Traits Contributing to the Autistic Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Steer, Colin D; Jean Golding; Bolton, Patrick F

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is increasingly recognised that traits associated with autism reflect a spectrum with no clear boundary between typical and atypical behaviour. Dimensional traits are needed to investigate the broader autism phenotype. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety-three individual measures reflecting components of social, communication and repetitive behaviours characterising autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) were identified between the ages of 6 months and 9 years from the ALSPAC data...

  13. The lived experience of US parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Berry, Amber; Hill, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    Current US statistics indicate that 1 in 68 children is diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder (Centers for Disease Control (2014) Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years-autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 Sites, United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)). The lived experience of parents with children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is important to know since quantitative studies have indicated that higher rates of mental disorders exist in this population as compared to parents of typically developing children (Yirmiya and Shaked (2005) Psychiatric disorders in parents of children with autism: a meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46: 69-83). This study was a meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature in this area embedded within a systematic review. A comprehensive search and review yielded 14 studies. A total of six major themes were identified: (a) emotional stress and strain; (b) adaptation; (c) impact on the family; (d) services; (e) stigmatization; and (f) appreciating the little things. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25819433

  14. Power and Autistic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others - which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness - and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question - and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members' needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper's thesis - and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone's effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more common - which can

  15. Autistic traits in couple dyads as a predictor of anxiety spectrum symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2014-11-01

    The link between parental autistic tendency and anxiety symptoms was studied in 491 Taiwanese couples raising biological children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Parental autistic tendency as measured by Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was associated with anxiety symptoms across all domains. Large effect sizes were found in social phobia and post traumatic stress disorders for both parents, and in general anxiety disorder and agoraphobia for mothers. These associations were irrespective of child's autistic tendency, spouse's AQ scores and the couples' compatibility in their autistic tendency. Perceived family support and parental education moderated the link but not child's autistic severity. Research and clinical implications regarding psychiatric vulnerability of parents of children with ASD were drawn and discussed.

  16. Overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits is not accounted for by anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane

    2014-10-30

    Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders.

  17. Does WISC-IV Underestimate the Intelligence of Autistic Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Courchesne, Valérie; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is widely used to estimate autistic intelligence (Joseph in The neuropsychology of autism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Goldstein et al. in "Assessment of autism spectrum disorders." Guilford Press, New York, 2008; Mottron in "J Autism Dev Disord" 34(1):19-27, 2004).…

  18. [Neural mechanism underlying autistic savant and acquired savant syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Keisuke; Kato, Motoichiro

    2008-07-01

    It is well known that the cases with savant syndrome, demonstrate outstanding mental capability despite coexisting severe mental disabilities. In many cases, savant skills are characterized by its domain-specificity, enhanced memory capability, and excessive focus on low-level perceptual processing. In addition, impaired integrative cognitive processing such as social cognition or executive function, restricted interest, and compulsive repetition of the same act are observed in savant individuals. All these are significantly relevant to the behavioral characteristics observed in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). A neurocognitive model of savant syndrome should explain these cognitive features and the juxtaposition of outstanding talents with cognitive disabilities. In recent neuropsychological studies, Miller (1998) reported clinical cases of "acquired savant," i.e., patients who improved or newly acquired an artistic savant-like skill in the early stage of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Although the relationship between an autistic savant and acquired savant remains to be elucidated, the advent of neuroimaging study of ASD and the clarification of FTD patients with savant-like skills may clarify the shared neural mechanisms of both types of talent. In this review, we classified current cognitive models of savant syndrome into the following 3 categories. (1) A hypermnesic model that suggests that savant skills develop from existing or dormant cognitive functions such as memory. However, recent findings obtained through neuropsychological examinations imply that savant individuals solve problems using a strategy that is fairly different from a non-autistic one. (2) A paradoxical functional facilitation model (Kapur, 1996) that offers possible explanations about how pathological states in the brain lead to development of prodigious skills. This model emphasizes the role of reciprocal inhibitory interaction among adjacent or distant cortical regions

  19. Autistic Traits in Couple Dyads as a Predictor of Anxiety Spectrum Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The link between parental autistic tendency and anxiety symptoms was studied in 491 Taiwanese couples raising biological children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Parental autistic tendency as measured by Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was associated with anxiety symptoms across all domains. Large effect sizes were found in social phobia and…

  20. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Do Not Help Support DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Janssen, Joost; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aims to determine whether or not structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data support the DSM-5 proposal of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic category, and whether or not classical DSM-IV autistic disorder (AD) and Asperger syndrome (AS) categories should be subsumed into it. The most replicated sMRI findings…

  1. Delusional disorders in dermatology: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, David T; Romm, Sharon; Combs, Heidi; Olson, Jonathan; Kirby, Phil

    2008-01-01

    There are several unique psychiatric disorders that are likely to present to a dermatologist because of their accompanying skin complaints. Delusions of parasitosis (DP) is a fixed, false belief of parasitic infestation that may lead patients to compulsively self-mutilate while attempting to remove the non-existent parasites. Morgellons disease is a controversial condition characterized by a fixed belief that fibers that are imbedded or extruding from the skin; this condition is likely in the spectrum of DP. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a preoccupation with an imagined defect in appearance that causes significant distress and is associated with time consuming rituals, isolation, depression, and increased risk of suicide. Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is a preoccupation with body odor leading to the stigmata of shame, embarrassment, and social isolation. This brief review examines each of these conditions and their management because any one of them may present to a dermatologist. PMID:18713583

  2. Schizotypal personality disorder: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Daniel R; Futterman, Shira E; McMaster, Antonia; Siever, Larry J

    2014-07-01

    The study of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is important clinically, as it is understudied, challenging to treat, often under-recognized or misdiagnosed, and associated with significant functional impairment. SPD also represents an intermediate schizophrenia-spectrum phenotype, and therefore, can provide a better understanding of the genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment of related psychotic illnesses. In this review we discuss recent findings of SPD related to epidemiology and functional impairment, heritability and genetics, working memory and cognitive impairments, social-affective disturbances, and neurobiology. Additionally, we examine the challenges associated with treating patients with SPD, as well as clinical recommendations. Finally, we address future directions and areas in need of further exploration.

  3. A Review of Habit Reversal with Childhood Habit Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Douglas W.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper first reviews four classes of habit disorders in children: motor and vocal tics, nervous habits, stuttering, and Tourette's disorder. It then describes the habit reversal procedure and reviews the literature on its use and variations to treat each of the four classes of habit disorders. Emphasis is on simplified versions of the original…

  4. Brief Report: Autism Spectrum Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: A Review and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengit, Ashy C.; McKowen, James W.; O'Brien, Julie; Howe, Yamini J.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    There is limited literature available on the comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and substance use disorder (SUD). This paper reviews existing literature and exemplifies the challenges of treating this population with a case report of an adult male with ASD and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. This review and case study seeks to…

  5. Power and Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  6. Nonspecific eating disorders - a subjective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Michalska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this paper was to characterise nonspecific eating disorders (other than anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Method. The Medline database was searched for articles on nonspecific eating disorders. The following disorders were described: binge eating disorder (BED, pica, rumination disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, night eating syndrome (NES, sleep-related eating disorder (SRED, bigorexia, orthorexia, focusing on diagnosis, symptoms, assessment, comorbidities, clinical implications and treatment. Results. All of the included disorders may have dangerous consequences, both somatic and psychological. They are often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Approximately a few percent of general population can be diagnosed with each disorder, from 0.5–4.7% (SRED to about 7% (orthorexia. With the growing literature on the subject and changes in DSM-5, clinicians recognise and treat those disorders more often. Conclusions. More studies have to be conducted in order to differentiate disorders and treat or prevent them appropriately.

  7. Rumination in bipolar disorder: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico de M. Silveira Jr.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To conduct a systematic review of the literature about the symptom of rumination in bipolar disorder (BD.Methods:We searched the MEDLINE (PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, and SciELO databases using the descriptors “rumination” and “bipolar disorder” and no time limits. This strategy yielded 105 references, of which 74 were selected. Inclusion criteria were studies involving patients with BD and the use of at least one validated scale for the assessment of rumination. Review articles were excluded. Seventeen articles were ultimately analyzed and included in the review.Results:Rumination is present in all BD phases, is a stable interepisodic symptom, is associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hypomania, and may occur in response to both positive and negative affect. There is no research on rumination and neurobiological findings in patients with BD.Conclusions:Rumination seems to be independent of mood state, but shows close relationship with it. It is possible that rumination has a negative impact on cognitive and executive functions, particularly inhibitory control. Finally, rumination is an important symptom in both phases of BD, and, therefore, may be a useful target for further exploration as a dimensional domain and a transdiagnostic phenomenon in Research Domain Criteria (RDoC projects.

  8. Low serum myeloperoxidase in autistic children with gastrointestinal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Russo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthony J Russo1, Arthur Krigsman2, Bryan Jepson2, Andy Wakefield21Research Director, Health Research Institute/Pfeiffer Treatment Center, Warrenville, IL, USA; 2Thoughtful House Center for Children, Austin, TX, USAAim: To assess serum myeloperoxidase (MPO levels in autistic children with severe gastrointestinal (GI disease and to test the hypothesis that there is an association between serum MPO concentration and inflammatory GI disease, including antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA, previously seen in a subgroup of autistic children.Subjects and methods: Serum from 40 autistic children with chronic digestive disease (most with ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH and inflammation of the colorectum, small bowel and/or stomach, and 48 controls (12 age-matched autistic children with no GI disease, 20 age-matched children without autism or GI disease, and 16 nonautistic individuals with no family history of autism were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays designed to quantitate serum MPO levels. MPO serum concentration of autistic children with GI disease was compared to GI disease severity (including LNH and erythema and presence of ANCA.Results: We found that a significant number of autistic children with chronic digestive disease had low serum levels of MPO. However, there was no significant relationship between these levels and severity of GI disease, including the presence of ANCA.Discussion: These results suggest a relationship between low MPO levels and GI disease seen in a subpopulation of autism spectrum disorders individuals. MPO concentration may therefore be a useful biomarker for GI disease in this group of autistic children.Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, autism, myeloperoxidase, GI disease, oxidative stress

  9. A review of gambling disorder and substance use disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rash CJ; Weinstock J; Van Patten R

    2016-01-01

    Carla J Rash,1 Jeremiah Weinstock,2 Ryan Van Patten2 1Calhoun Cardiology Center – Behavioral Health, UConn Health, Farmington, CT, USA; 2Department of Psychology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder was recategorized from the “Impulse Control Disorder” section to the newly expanded “Substance-related and Addictive Disorders&r...

  10. 自闭症儿童社会交往障碍的家庭康复护理%Family Autistic Children Social Interaction Disorders Rehabilitation Nursing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙娟娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the barriers to social interaction of autistic children home rehabilitation nursing method and application. Methods The control group of children with autism are providing clinical routine rehabilitation care, re-search group based on the use of conventional nursing home rehabilitation nursing. Record two autistic quality of life, changes in the extent of disease in children and their families for this job satisfaction before and after nursing care of chil-dren. Results The care of children with autism before the extent of disease and quality of life contrast there was no signifi-cant difference (P>0.05);by different methods prior to the above two groups after treatment compared ATEC scale score was significantly decreased, while the amount of SF-36 table is significantly improved compared to the previous study group to improve the condition and quality of life than children in the control group level (P0.05);经上述不同方法护理后两组ATEC量表评分均较之前显著降低,而SF-36量表则较之前显著提高,研究组病情及生活质量改善程度优于对照组患儿(P<0.05);研究组患儿家属对护理效果满意率高达86.67%,对照组仅获得33.33%护理效果满意率(P<0.05). 结论 对自闭症患儿给予常规护理基础上加用家庭康复护理可显著提高其疗效及生活质量,有利于保障患儿预后效果及维持良好的护患关系.

  11. Investigating the autistic traits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder%注意缺陷多动障碍儿童的孤独症特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑超群; 陈凯云; 梁亚勇; 李巧毅; 邓红珠; 唐春

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the autistic symptoms or autistic trait in the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) for facilitating the development of appropriate interventions.Methods Sixty-two 6-12-year-old high-functioned autism spectrum disorder (ASD),ADHD and typically developing (TD) children were assessed respectively using Chinese-version social responsiveness scale (SRS),and ADHD core symptoms were assessed in the ADHD children at the same time.Results ASD group>ADHD group> TD group on the SRS total raw score and the five dimensions scores as well(P<0.01).ASD,ADHD and TD group scored respectively 92.43±19.17,65.66±19.86 and 38.40±10.68 on the SRS total scale.The SRS total raw score of ADHD group exceeded the TD group for 2.55 standard deviant (SD) and with "social communication" (2.00 SD) and "autistic mannerism" (2.71 SD) deviating the most.22.58% (14 out of 62) children with ADHD scored above the threshold on the SRS total raw score which was significantly higher than that in the TD group(P<0.01).There were nonsignificant differences in the ADHD core symptoms between ADHD± children (with the SRS total raw score ≥85)and ADHD-children(with the SRS total raw score<85) (P>0.01).Conclusion Children with ADHD appear more ASD symptoms than the TD children and a considerable proportion of them reach the SRS diagnostic cut-off point.%目的 探讨注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)学龄儿童的孤独症症状和特征,以促进针对性的干预.方法 应用社交反应量表(social responsiveness scale,SRS)中文版分别对62名6~12岁高功能孤独症谱系障碍(autism spectrum disorder,ASD)、ADHD和正常儿童进行孤独症症状评估,ADHD组儿童同时进行ADHD核心症状评估.结果 SRS五个维度及总分均为ASD组>ADHD组>正常组(R0.01).ASD组、ADHD组和正常组SRS总分分别为[(92.43±19.17)分、(65.66±19.86)分和(38.40± 10.68)分],

  12. A Review of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) from A Perspective of Classical Chinese Medicine (CCM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first two years of man's life and is the result of a neurological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain, and the development in social interaction and communication skills. Both children and adults along the autistic spectrum typically show difficulties in verbal and non-verbal communication, social interactions, and leisure or play activities.

  13. Dysautonomia in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Case Reports of a Family with Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Derrick Lonsdale; Shamberger, Raymond J.; Obrenovich, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Case histories of a mother and her two children are reported. The mother was a recovered alcoholic. She and her two children, both of whom had symptoms that are typical of autistic spectrum disorder, had dysautonomia. All had intermittently abnormal erythrocyte transketolase studies indicating abnormal thiamine pyrophosphate homeostasis. Both children had unusual concentrations of urinary arsenic. All had symptomatic improvement with diet restriction and supplementary vitamin therapy but quic...

  14. 自闭症儿童教育康复研究述要∗%A Review of Research on Educational Rehabilitation for Autistic Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵斌; 马小卫

    2015-01-01

    Educational rehabilitation for children with autism plays an important role.By analyzing rel-evant literature,educational rehabilitation for children with autism mainly involve social barriers,ver-bal and non-verbal communication barriers,and multiple barriers.Autistic children’s social barriers can be improved mainly by visual music therapy and face processing stage model.The method of using echo language and sign language to implement educational rehabilitation of verbal and non-verbal com-munication disorders is being considered.No breakthrough in educational rehabilitation of the restrict-ed repetitive behavior patterns is gained.This study suggests that comprehensive intervention is better than single intervention in the educational rehabilitation for children with autism.Therefore,evidence-based practice act is recommended to assess the effect of the current interventions.We need also make full use of modern concepts and technique of rehabilitation medicine,as well as education training to explore a new direction for the rehabilitation of children with autism.%教育康复对自闭症儿童的发展起着重要作用。通过分析相关文献发现,自闭症儿童主要集中在社交障碍、言语和非言语交流障碍、限制性重复行为模式、多重障碍几个方面。其中,主要通过可视音乐疗法和面孔加工阶段模型来改善自闭症儿童社交障碍;运用回声性语言及手势语言开展言语和非言语交流障碍的教育康复。在限制性重复行为模式的教育康复方面无突破性进展。针对自闭症儿童的教育康复,单一干预方法的效果不如综合干预,建议采用循证实践法来评估当前干预方法的效果,充分利用现代康复医学理念及技术,结合自闭症儿童的教育训练,走教育与康复结合路径将是自闭症儿童教育康复的新方向。

  15. The epidemiology of anxiety disorders: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and an important cause of functional impairment; they constitute the most frequent menial disorders in the community. Phobias are the most common with the highest rates for simple phobia and agoraphobia. Panic disorder (PD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are less frequent (2% lifetime prevalence), and there are discordant results for social phobia (SP) (2%-16%) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) (3%-30%). Th...

  16. Estimation of autistic children by metallomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Yasuda, Yuichi; Tsutsui, Toyoharu

    2013-01-01

    Clarification of the pathogenesis and treatment of autism spectrum disorders is one of the challenges today. In this study, we examine scalp hair concentrations of 26 trace elements for 1,967 children with autistic disorders (1,553 males and 414 females). Five-hundred and eighty-four (29.7%), 347 (17.6%) and 114 (5.8%) subjects was found deficient in zinc, magnesium and calcium, respectively, and 2.0% or less in the other essential metals. The incidence rate of mineral deficiency was highly observed in infants aged 0-3 year-old. In contrast, 339 (17.2%), 168 (8.5%) and 94 (4.8%) individuals was found suffering from high burden of aluminium, cadmium and lead, and 2.8% or less from mercury and arsenic burden. These findings suggest that infantile zinc- and magnesium-deficiency and/or toxic metal burdens may epigenetically play principal roles as environmental factors in autistic disorders and that metallomics approach may lead to early screening and prevention of the neurodevelopment disorders.

  17. The Psychic Organ Point of Autistic Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with autistic syntax and its expressions both in the fully fledged autistic structure and in the autistic zones of other personality structures. The musical notion of the organ point serves as a point of departure in an attempt to describe how autistic syntax transforms what was meant to constitute the substrate for linguistic…

  18. The Association of Cardiovascular Disorders and Falls : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Sofie; Bhangu, Jaspreet; de Rooij, Sophia; Daams, Joost; Kenny, Rose Anne; van der Velde, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cardiovascular disorders are recognized as risk factors for falls in older adults. The aim of this systematic review was to identify cardiovascular disorders that are associated with falls, thus providing angles for optimization of fall-preventive care. Design: Systematic review. Data Sou

  19. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  20. Bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Czepielewski; Ledo Daruy Filho; Elisa Brietzke; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Summarize data on metabolic syndrome (MS) in bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the Medline, Embase and PsycInfo databases, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome", "insulin resistance" and "metabolic X syndrome" and cross-referencing them with "bipolar disorder" or "mania". The following types of publications were candidates for review: (i) clinical trials, (ii) studies involving patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or (ii...

  1. Quetiapine: A Pharmacoeconomic Review of its Use in Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Greg L. Plosker

    2012-01-01

    This article briefly summarizes the burden of bipolar disorder and the clinical profile of quetiapine (Seroquel) in the management of bipolar disorder, followed by a detailed review of pharmacoeconomic analyses. Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic that is available in numerous countries as immediate-release and extended-release tablets for the treatment of major psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with quetiapine have demo...

  2. Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A.

    2013-01-01

    A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n = 26, 55%) and pervasive…

  3. 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism: Analysis in South African Autistic Individuals

    KAUST Repository

    Arieff, Zainunisha

    2010-06-01

    The serotonin transporter promoter length polymorphism (5-hydroxytryptamine transporter length polymorphism; 5-HTTLPR) has long been implicated in autism and other psychiatric disorders. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has a positive effect on treating some symptoms of autism. The effects of these drugs vary in individuals because of the presence of the S or L allele of 5-HTTLPR. Studies performed on various autistic populations have found different allele frequencies for the L and S alleles. Allele frequencies and genotypes of the South African autistic populations (African, mixed, and Caucasian) were compared with matching South African ethnic control populations. The *S/*S genotype was found to be highly significantly associated with all the South African autistic ethnic populations. In the South African African population the *S/*S genotype was present in 7 (33%) of the autistic individuals but in none of the control subjects, yielding infinitely large odds of developing autism. The odds of developing autism with the *S/*S genotype compared to the *L/*L genotype increased 10.15-fold in the South African mixed group and 2.74-fold in the South African Caucasian population. The allele frequency of the South African autistic population was also compared with studies of other autistic populations around the world, and highly significant differences were found with the Japanese, Korean, and Indian population groups. The difference was not significant for the French, German, Israeli, Portuguese, and American groups. This is the first South African study of autistic individuals of different ethnic backgrounds that shows significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of 5-HTTLPR. The results of this study open new avenues for investigating the role of transmission of the L and S alleles in families with autism in South Africa.

  4. Systemic multimodal approach to speech therapy treatment in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaš Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Conditions in which speech therapy treatment is applied in autistic children are often not in accordance with characteristics of opinions and learning of people with autism. A systemic multimodal approach means motivating autistic people to develop their language speech skill through the procedure which allows reliving of their personal experience according to the contents that are presented in the their natural social environment. This research was aimed at evaluating the efficiency of speech treatment based on the systemic multimodal approach to the work with autistic children. Material and Methods. The study sample consisted of 34 children, aged from 8 to 16 years, diagnosed to have different autistic disorders, whose results showed a moderate and severe clinical picture of autism on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. The applied instruments for the evaluation of ability were the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and Ganzberg II test. The study subjects were divided into two groups according to the type of treatment: children who were covered by the continuing treatment and systemic multimodal approach in the treatment, and children who were covered by classical speech treatment. Results. It is shown that the systemic multimodal approach in teaching autistic children affects the stimulation of communication, socialization, self-service and work as well as that the progress achieved in these areas of functioning was retainable after long time, too. Conclusion. By applying the systemic multimodal approach when dealing with autistic children and by comparing their achievements on tests applied before, during and after the application of this mode, it has been concluded that certain improvement has been achieved in the functionality within the diagnosed category. The results point to a possible direction in the creation of new methods, plans and programs in dealing with autistic children based on empirical and interactive learning.

  5. Antipsychotic Management of Schizoaffective Disorder: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Kaur, Amandeep

    2016-04-01

    Schizoaffective disorder (SAD) is an incapacitating illness that presents clinicians with challenges in terms of both its diagnosis and its psychopharmacological management. Most studies conducted on the psychopharmacological treatment of SAD also include patients with schizophrenia or other psychotic illnesses, thereby providing an unspecific view to the clinician as to the best way of treating patients with SAD. The objective of this article is to review studies on evidence-based treatment of patients with SAD. We conducted a systematic literature search in MEDLINE/PubMed for full-text studies in the English language using the terms 'Schizoaffective and treatment' or 'antipsychotic schizoaffective'. Our review found relatively few studies with either an active comparator or placebo that examined the efficacy of antipsychotics for patients with SAD without an admixture of patients with schizophrenia. Only oral paliperidone extended release (ER), paliperidone long-acting injection (LAI), and risperidone have been shown to be effective and safe in reducing psychotic as well as affective components in acutely ill SAD patients in controlled studies. Paliperidone ER and LAI have also been shown to be efficacious in the maintenance treatment phase of SAD patients. While no supportive data exist, it is possible that other atypical antipsychotics may have similar efficacy to the two mentioned above. We conclude with a number of research recommendations for the study of treatment options for patients with SAD. First, there is a need for studies with patients specifically diagnosed with SAD for both the acute and the maintenance phase. The sample size needs to be adequate to allow a primary analysis of efficacy and to allow for analysis of the SAD subtypes: depressed and bipolar. Another recommendation is the need for studies of patients with SAD stratified into patients with and without mood stabilizers or antidepressants to allow the examination of the adjunctive role of

  6. Association of autistic traits in adulthood with childhood abuse, interpersonal victimization, and posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L; Koenen, Karestan C; Lyall, Kristen; Robinson, Elise B; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2015-07-01

    Persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk for interpersonal victimization across the life course. Children with high levels of autistic traits may be targeted for abuse, and deficits in social awareness may increase risk of interpersonal victimization. Additionally, persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms subsequent to trauma. We examined retrospectively reported prevalence of childhood abuse, trauma victimization and PTSD symptoms by autistic traits among adult women in a population-based longitudinal cohort, the Nurses' Health Study II (N=1,077). Autistic traits were measured by the 65-item Social Responsiveness Scale. We estimated odds ratios (OR) for childhood sexual and physical/emotional abuse and PTSD symptoms by quintiles of autistic traits. We examined possible mediation of PTSD risk by abuse and trauma type. Women in the highest versus lowest quintile of autistic traits were more likely to have been sexually abused (40.1% versus 26.7%), physically/emotionally abused (23.9% versus 14.3%), mugged (17.1% versus 10.1%), pressured into sexual contact (25.4% versus 15.6%) and have high PTSD symptoms (10.7% versus 4.5%). Odds of PTSD were elevated in women in the top three quintiles of autistic traits compared with the reference group (OR range=1.4 to 1.9). Childhood abuse exposure partly accounted for elevated risk of PTSD in women with autistic traits. We identify for the first time an association between autistic traits, childhood abuse, trauma victimization, and PTSD. Levels of autistic traits that are highly prevalent in the general population are associated with abuse, trauma and PTSD. PMID:25957197

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...

  8. Alunos com distúrbios do espectro autístico em interação com professores na educação inclusiva: descrição de habilidades pragmáticas Students with autistic spectrum disorders in the interaction with teachers in inclusive education: description of pragmatic skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar as habilidades pragmáticas de alunos com distúrbios do espectro autístico durante a interação com suas professoras em salas comuns de escolas públicas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 14 alunos com distúrbios do espectro autístico, de ambos os gêneros, com idade entre três e oito anos (média=5,9; DP=1,8. Como parte do procedimento, foram realizadas filmagens em situações de sala de aula e para análise dos aspectos pragmáticos da comunicação dos participantes, foi utilizado o Protocolo de Pragmática. Os resultados foram tratados estatisticamente (pPURPOSE: To investigate the pragmatic skills of students with autistic spectrum disorders during interaction with their teachers, in regular classrooms of public schools. METHODS: Fourteen students with autistic spectrum disorders, both male and female, with ages between three and eight years (mean=5.9; SD=1.8, participated in the study. As part of the procedure, classroom situations were filmed for the analysis of the children's pragmatic aspects of communication, using the Pragmatic Protocol. Data were statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon, Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Spearman tests, with a significance level of p<0.05 and, in some cases, p<0.01. RESULTS: In average, the number of communicative acts expressed per minute by the teachers (3.4 acts/minute was superior (p<0.05 to the number presented by the students with autistic spectrum disorders (2.7 acts/minute. The students demonstrated prevalence in the use of the gestural communication mean, with an average of 36.2 occurrences, and of less interactive communicative functions, with an average of 24.1 occurrences. Moreover, there was positive correlation between students' and teachers' acts/minute (p=0.01. It was also observed that age and level of education did not present correlations with communication establishment in the dyads. CONCLUSION: It was possible to identify deficits and abilities of students with

  9. "I'm thrilled that you see that": guiding parents to see success in interactions with children with deafness and autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilnick, Alison; James, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Children with deafness who are also on the autistic spectrum are a group with complex support needs. Carers worry about their ability to communicate with them, and are often uncertain about what constitutes 'good' communication in this context. This paper analyses the use of a therapeutic intervention, Video Interaction Guidance (VIG), which originates in developmental psychology and focuses on the relational foundations of communication. We draw on a single case using an ethnomethodological/conversation analytic framework, and in particular Goodwin's (1994) work on 'professional vision', to show how the ability to see 'success' is a socially situated activity. Since what counts as success in this setting is often far removed from everyday ideas of good communication, how guiders facilitate particular 'ways of seeing' are critical for both the support of carers and the impact of the intervention. We argue that this work has implications in three areas: for the practice of VIG itself; for the role of qualitative, interactional research addressing the way in which interaction-based interventions are protocolised, enacted and assessed; and for the way in which expertise is conceptualised in professional/client interactions in health and social care. PMID:24355475

  10. “I'm thrilled that you see that”: Guiding parents to see success in interactions with children with deafness and autistic spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilnick, Alison; James, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Children with deafness who are also on the autistic spectrum are a group with complex support needs. Carers worry about their ability to communicate with them, and are often uncertain about what constitutes ‘good’ communication in this context. This paper analyses the use of a therapeutic intervention, Video Interaction Guidance (VIG), which originates in developmental psychology and focuses on the relational foundations of communication. We draw on a single case using an ethnomethodological/conversation analytic framework, and in particular Goodwin's (1994) work on ‘professional vision’, to show how the ability to see ‘success’ is a socially situated activity. Since what counts as success in this setting is often far removed from everyday ideas of good communication, how guiders facilitate particular ‘ways of seeing’ are critical for both the support of carers and the impact of the intervention. We argue that this work has implications in three areas: for the practice of VIG itself; for the role of qualitative, interactional research addressing the way in which interaction-based interventions are protocolised, enacted and assessed; and for the way in which expertise is conceptualised in professional/client interactions in health and social care. PMID:24355475

  11. Confirmatory Factor Analytic Structure and Measurement Invariance of Quantitative Autistic Traits Measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Ratliff, Kristin R.; Gruber, Chris; Zhang, Yi; Law, Paul A.; Constantino, John N.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factor structure of autistic symptomatology is critical to the discovery and interpretation of causal mechanisms in autism spectrum disorder. We applied confirmatory factor analysis and assessment of measurement invariance to a large ("N" = 9635) accumulated collection of reports on quantitative autistic traits using…

  12. Brief report: Examining the link between autistic traits and compulsive internet use in a non-clinical sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Finkenauer; M.M.H. Pollmann; S. Begeer; P. Kerkhof

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders or autistic traits may profit from Internet and computer-mediated interactions, but there is concern about their Internet use becoming compulsive. This study investigated the link between autistic traits and Internet use in a 2-wave longitudinal study with

  13. Famílias com crianças autistas na literatura internacional Families with autistic children: international literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Dreux Miranda Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo revisou os 39 artigos publicados nos últimos cinco anos em três periódicos (Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disorders e Autism a respeito de famílias com crianças autistas. Ele aponta para cinco grandes temas abordados: estresse e dificuldades emocionais, grupos de suporte e qualidade de vida, características das famílias, perspectivas das famílias a respeito da criança autista, e resultados de intervenção.This article reviewed the 39 papers published in the last five years in three journals (Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disorders and Autism about families with autistic children. It points out to five main issues that were studied: stress and emotional disorders, support groups and quality of life, characteristics of the families, family's perspectives about the autistic child, and intervention results.

  14. Comorbidity psychiatric disorders in epilepsy: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlic, M; Basic, S; Hajnsek, S; Lusic, I

    2009-01-01

    While reviewing the available literature, we noticed comorbidity of epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorders were observed more frequently in patients with high seizure frequency. There is significant prevalence of epilepsy comorbidity with depression, anxiety disorders, and to a lesser extent with bipolar disorders and other forms of psychosis. Suicidal risk factors, ideation and attempts in these patients as correlates of depression or as psychopathological features were associated to epileptic disease. This is confirmed by additional burden of epilepsy patients with psychic disorders (Ref. 70). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:19408842

  15. The Relationship between Autistic Traits and Social Anxiety, Worry, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Depressive Symptoms: Specific and Non-Specific Mediators in a Student Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Shi Min; Thevaraja, Nishta; Hong, Ryan Y.; Magiati, Iliana

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of anxiety symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorders has now been well documented. There is also a positive relationship between autistic traits and anxiety symptoms in unselected samples and individuals with anxiety disorders have more autistic traits compared to those without. Less is known, however, regarding…

  16. Temporomandibular disorders and eating disorders: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. C. N. L. Aroucha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Temporomandibular disorders (TMD and eating disorders (ED affect function and parafunction of the oral cavity and have high rates of medical and psychological comorbidity. However, little is known about the possible associations between them, and few studies have investigated the existence of such associations. METHODS: A search was conducted on the SciELO, LILACS, and PubMed/MEDLINE databases to find relevant articles written in English and Portuguese. Only studies involving human beings were included, and there was no limit for year of publication. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence of the correlation between TMD and ED, but their comorbidity must be better understood. The presence of depressive symptoms is an aggravating factor that must also be taken into account during the diagnosis and treatment of those patients.

  17. Alternative/Complementary Approaches to Treatment of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Susan E.; Hyman, Susan L.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews common complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) treatments used to address symptoms of autistic spectrum disorders, including vitamin supplements, medications, antibiotics, antifungals, diet strategies, chelation/mercury detoxification, and nonbiologic treatments. Strategies that professionals may use in assessing the…

  18. Mindfulness Meditation for Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Zgierska, Aleksandra; Rabago, David; Chawla, Neharika; Kushner, Kenneth; Koehler, Robert; Marlatt, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Relapse is common in substance use disorders (SUDs), even among treated individuals. The goal of this article was to systematically review the existing evidence on mindfulness meditation-based interventions (MM) for SUDs.

  19. Review of the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, HW; van Hoeken, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders. Methods: We searched Medline using several key terms relating to epidemiology and eating disorders and we checked the reference lists of the articles that we found. Special attention has been paid to methodologi

  20. Neurological complications of gastrointestinal disorders. A review of the literature.

    OpenAIRE

    GKAMPETA, Anastasia; Pavlou, Evangelos

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a short review of the literature concerning neurological complications of gastrointestinal disorders. These disorders include the following: inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease), celiac disease, H. Pylori infection, hepatitis C, Wilson's disease, hepatic failure-liver transplantation, gastroenteritis. The most frequent neurological complications are peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar dysfunction, thromboembolism. The exact pathophysiologic mec...

  1. Clinical trials of fatty acid treatment in ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and the autistic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A J

    2004-04-01

    Considerable clinical and experimental evidence now supports the idea that deficiencies or imbalances in certain highly unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to a range of common developmental disorders including ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Definitive evidence of a causal contribution, however, can only come from intervention studies in the form of randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Published studies of this kind are still fairly few in number, and mainly involve the diagnostic categories of ADHD and dyslexia, although other trials involving individuals with dyspraxia or ASD are in progress. The main findings to date from such studies are reviewed and evaluated here with the primary aim of guiding future research, although given that fatty acid supplementation for these conditions is already being adopted in many quarters, it is hoped that some of the information provided may also help to inform clinical practice. PMID:15041031

  2. Quantitative autistic traits ascertained in a national survey of 22 529 Japanese schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Kamio, Y; Inada, N.; Moriwaki, A; Kuroda, M; Koyama, T; Tsujii, H.; Kawakubo, Y; Kuwabara, H.; Tsuchiya, K J; Uno, Y; Constantino, J N

    2012-01-01

    Objective Recent epidemiologic studies worldwide have documented a rise in prevalence rates for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Broadening of diagnostic criteria for ASD may be a major contributor to the rise in prevalence, particularly if superimposed on an underlying continuous distribution of autistic traits. This study sought to determine the nature of the population distribution of autistic traits using a quantitative trait measure in a large national population sample of children. Meth...

  3. Changes in autistic trait indicators in parents and their children with ASD: A preliminary longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Chiaki; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Yuko; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Munesue, Toshio; Takesaki, Natsumi; Higashida, Haruhiro; Oi, Manabu; Minabe, Yoshio; Asada, Minoru

    2015-08-30

    This study investigated whether the longitudinal changes in symptom severity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with changes in the parents׳ autistic traits. The results demonstrated two significant correlations between the changes in children׳s Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) score changes in either the father or both parents. Autistic symptom mitigation in ASD children was associated with increased empathy levels in their parents. PMID:26099658

  4. Synchrony between sensory and cognitive networks is associated with subclinical variation in autistic traits

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Young; Smith, David V.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autistic spectrum disorders exhibit distinct personality traits linked to attentional, social, and affective functions, and those traits are expressed with varying levels of severity in the neurotypical and subclinical population. Variation in autistic traits has been linked to reduced functional and structural connectivity (i.e., underconnectivity, or reduced synchrony) with neural networks modulated by attentional, social, and affective functions. Yet, it remains unclear wh...

  5. Autistic Behavior, Behavior Analysis, and the Gene—Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Malott, Richard W.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the negative behavior-analytic commentary on Drash and Tudor's behavior-analytic analysis of the etiology of autistic repertoires and values. This article also asks that, in our effort to scrub it clean, we not drown Drash and Tudor's beautiful, but fragile, new-born, behavior-analytic baby in hyper-methodological, hyper-scholarly bathwater.

  6. Review of the Literature Regarding Female Collegiate Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasey, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…

  7. A review of Indian research on co-occurring psychiatric disorders and alcohol use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive use of alcohol has been identified as a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Excessive use of alcohol is a component cause of more than 200 disease and injury conditions. Alcohol use has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality across all regions of the world including South-East Asia. Epidemiological as well as clinic-based studies from Western countries have reported a high prevalence of co-occurrence of alcohol use disorder and psychiatric disorders. The research has established the clinical relevance of this comorbidity as it is often associated with poor treatment outcome, severe illness course, and high service utilization. Understandably, dual disorders in from of alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders present diagnostic and management challenge. The current article is aimed to review systematically the published Indian literature on comorbid alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders.

  8. Therapeutic and Ethical Dilemma of Puberty and Menstruation Problems in an Intellectually Disabled (Autistic Female: a Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Memarian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and skills. Autism is a group of developmental brain disorders, collectively called autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Teenagers with learning and physical disabilities are more likely to have menstrual problems compared to the general populations. The parents of a 12-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability referred to the coroner due to her numerous problems of puberty (menstruation including: poor hygiene and polluting herself and the environment, not allowing to put or change the pads and changes in mood and physical health prior period, requested for the surgery (hysterectomy. In legal medicine organization after reviewing the medical records, physical exams and medical consultations with a gynecologist and psychiatric, surgery was not accepted. Hysterectomy (surgery due to the age of the child, either physically or morally is not recommended. The use of hormone replacement therapy has side effects such as osteoporosis. In these cases, it seems noninvasive methods (behavioral therapy and learning care skills under the welfare experts is also more effective and morally.

  9. A Chart Review of Schizotypal Personality Disorders in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Joan; Szatmari, Peter

    1986-01-01

    The literature on the diagnostic validity of schizotypal personality disorders (SPD) in childhood is reviewed, and the results of a chart review of 20 SPD children meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual III criteria are presented suggesting that SPD in childhood exists and warrants study. (Author/CB)

  10. Proprioceptive versus Visual Control in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterton, B. A.; Biederman, G. B.

    1983-01-01

    The autistic children's presumed preference for proximal over distal sensory input was studied by requiring that "autistic," retarded, and "normal" children (7-15 years old) adapt to lateral displacement of the visual field. Only autistic Ss demonstrated transfer of adaptation to the nonadapted hand, indicating reliance on proprioception rather…

  11. Does Gender Matter? A One Year Follow-Up of Autistic, Attention and Anxiety Symptoms in High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Tamara; Cornish, Kim; Rinehart, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Gender differences in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms and associated problem behaviours over development may provide clues regarding why more males than females are diagnosed with ASD. Fifty-six high-functioning children with ASD, and 44 typically developing controls, half of the participants female, were assessed at baseline (aged…

  12. Association between sleep disorders, obesity, and exercise: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hargens TA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Trent A Hargens,1 Anthony S Kaleth,2 Elizabeth S Edwards,1 Katrina L Butner31Department of Kinesiology, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA, USA; 2Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Laboratory for Health and Exercise Science, Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Exercise, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USAAbstract: Decreased sleep duration and quality is associated with an increase in body weight and adiposity. Insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and restless legs syndrome are three of the most prevalent types of sleep disorder that lead to an increased risk for numerous chronic health conditions. Various studies have examined the impact of these sleep disorders on obesity, and are an important link in understanding the relationship between sleep disorders and chronic disease. Physical activity and exercise are important prognostic tools in obesity and chronic disease, and numerous studies have explored the relationship between obesity, sleep disorders, and exercise. As such, this review will examine the relationship between sleep disorders and obesity. In addition, how sleep disorders may impact the exercise response and how exercise may impact patient outcomes with regard to sleep disorders will also be reviewed.Keywords: obesity, sleep disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, insomnia

  13. Skin disorders in diabetes mellitus: an epidemiology and physiopathology review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo, Geisa Maria Campos; Nunes, Samanta; Barreto, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Skin disorders, usually neglected and frequently underdiagnosed among diabetic patients, are common complications and encounter a broad spectrum of disorders in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM)-e.g. cutaneous infection, dry skin, pruritus. Skin disorders are highly associated with increased risk of important outcomes, such as skin lesions, ulcerations and diabetic foot, which can lead to major complications and revolve around multifactorial factors besides hyperglycemia and advanced glycation end products. Although diabetic's skin disorders are consistent in the literature, there is limited data regarding early-stage skin disorders in DM patients. Disease control, early-stage treatment (e.g. skin hydration, orthotic devices) and awareness can reduce morbidity of DM patients. Thus, better understanding of the burden of skin disorders in DM patients may raise awareness on prevention and management. Therefore, the aim of this study is to perform a literature review to evaluate the main clinical characteristics and complications of skin disorders in diabetic's patients. Additionally, physiopathology early-stage skin disorders and dermocosmetic management were also reviewed. PMID:27583022

  14. Eating disorders. A review and update.

    OpenAIRE

    Haller, E.

    1992-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are prevalent illnesses affecting between 1% and 10% of adolescent and college age women. Developmental, family dynamic, and biologic factors are all important in the cause of this disorder. Anorexia nervosa is diagnosed when a person refuses to maintain his or her body weight over a minimal normal weight for age and height, such as 15% below that expected, has an intense fear of gaining weight, has a disturbed body image, and, in women, has primary or sec...

  15. Mood and anxiety disorders in widowhood: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Onrust, S.A.; Cuijpers, P.

    2006-01-01

    The association between widowhood and mental health problems, such as depressive symptomatology and anxiety, has been examined extensively. Few studies, however, have explored the prevalence and incidence of mood and anxiety disorders based on diagnostic criteria after the loss of the partner. We conducted a systematic review, and searched major bibliographical databases for studies examining mood and anxiety disorders in widowhood. We included all studies examining the prevalence or incidenc...

  16. Sleep and perinatal mood disorders: a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Lori E.; Murray, Brian J.; Steiner, Meir

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period are recognized as times of vulnerability to mood disorders, including postpartum depression and psychosis. Recently, changes in sleep physiology and sleep deprivation have been proposed as having roles in perinatal psychiatric disorders. In this article we review what is known about changes in sleep physiology and behaviour during the perinatal period, with a focus on the relations between sleep and postpartum “blues,” depression and psychosis and on sleep-...

  17. Sleep and perinatal mood disorders: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lori E.; Murray, Brian J.; Steiner, Meir

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period are recognized as times of vulnerability to mood disorders, including postpartum depression and psychosis. Recently, changes in sleep physiology and sleep deprivation have been proposed as having roles in perinatal psychiatric disorders. In this article we review what is known about changes in sleep physiology and behaviour during the perinatal period, with a focus on the relations between sleep and postpartum “blues,” depression and psychosis and on sleep-based interventions for the treatment and prevention of perinatal mood disorders. The interaction between sleep and perinatal mood disorders is significant, but evidence-based research in this field is limited. Studies that measure both sleep and mood during the perinatal period, particularly those that employ objective measurement tools such as polysomnography and actigraphy, will provide important information about the causes, prevention and treatment of perinatal mood disorders. PMID:16049568

  18. Assessment of metallothionein and antibodies to metallothionein in normal and autistic children having exposure to vaccine-derived thimerosal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra K; Hanson, Jeff

    2006-06-01

    Allergic autoimmune reaction after exposure to heavy metals such as mercury may play a causal role in autism, a developmental disorder of the central nervous system. As metallothionein (MT) is the primary metal-detoxifying protein in the body, we conducted a study of the MT protein and antibodies to metallothionein (anti-MT) in normal and autistic children whose exposure to mercury was only from thimerosal-containing vaccines. Laboratory analysis by immunoassays revealed that the serum level of MT did not significantly differ between normal and autistic children. Furthermore, autistic children harboured normal levels of anti-MT, including antibodies to isoform MT-I (anti-MT-I) and MT-II (anti-MT-II), without any significant difference between normal and autistic children. Our findings indicate that because autistic children have a normal profile of MT and anti-MT, the mercury-induced autoimmunity to MT may not be implicated in the pathogenesis of autism.

  19. 自闭症谱系儿童驭物动作模仿能力的试验研究%The research on imitation of action involved objects in children with autistic spectrum disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光华; 方俊明

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨自闭症谱系儿童的驭物动作模仿缺陷特点.方法 采用不同呈现时间、不同动作数量和不同动作意义的条件下进行的驭物动作模仿任务,对12名自闭症谱系儿童、与年龄和非语言智商匹配的聋童(n=12),年龄和语言智商匹配的弱智儿童(n=12)的2个对照组进行测试,使用SPSS 10.0分析测试结果 .结果 3组被试的驭物模仿成绩呈现出显著统计意义差异(F(2.33)=10.138,P<0.01);自闭症谱系儿童的模仿成绩最差[(0.766±0.029)分],显著落后于弱智儿童[(0.861±0.029)分],更落后于聋童[(0.949±0.029)分].这一驭物动作模仿缺陷主要体现在延迟模仿和无意义动作模仿成绩方面.结论 自闭症谱系儿童具有明显的驭物动作模仿缺陷.%Objective To explore the characteristics of deficit in action imitation upon objects for the children with autistic spectrum disorder(ASD). Methods Imitative tasks involved objects under the condition of different time after the modelling action ,different action number, different action meaning were used to examine the variations between 12 young children with ASD,and with deaf children(D) matched with the non-verbal IQ and CA( n= 12) ,and children with mental retardation (MR) matched with verbal IQ and CA( n= 12). Results Analyses of repeated ANOVA revealed that: there were significant main effect on the imitation of action involved objects within three subjects(F(2.33) = 10. 138, P<0.01 ) ;the individuals with ASD achieved lower scores(0.766 ±0.029 ) than the children with MR (0.861 ± 0. 029 ), and the children with deaf significantly ( 0. 949 ± 0. 029). Especially,the autistic imitation deficit was shown on tasks of deferred and meaningless action imitation. Conclusion Children with ASD show deficit on imitation involved objects significantly.

  20. Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…

  1. Comorbid drug use disorders and eating disorders: a review of prevalence studies

    OpenAIRE

    Nøkleby, Heid

    2012-01-01

    AIMS – This study reviews literature on comorbidity of drug use disorders (DUD) and eating disorders (ED). The article updates knowledge on the occurrence of comorbidity of these diagnoses. METHODS – The databases Embase, Medline and PsycInfo were searched for studies published between 1990 and May 2011, with combinations of the terms ’eating disorder’, ’substance-related disorder’, ’drug dependence’, ’drug abuse’, ’drug addiction’ and ’substance abuse’. This generated altogether ...

  2. Mothers of autistic children: lower plasma levels of oxytocin and Arg-vasopressin and a higher level of testosterone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Jie Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder,thought to be caused by a combination of genetic heritability and environmental risk factors. Some autistic-like traits have been reported in mothers of autistic children. We hypothesized that dysregulation of oxytocin (OXT, Arg-vasopressin (AVP and sex hormones, found in autistic children, may also exist in their mothers. METHODS: We determined plasma levels of OXT (40 in autism vs. 26 in control group, AVP (40 vs. 17 and sex hormones (61 vs. 47 in mothers of autistic and normal children by enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay, respectively and investigated their relationships with the children's autistic behavior scores (Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC. RESULTS: Significantly lower plasma concentrations of OXT (p<0.001 and AVP (p<0.001, as well as a higher level of plasma testosterone (p<0.05, were found in mothers of autistic children vs. those of control. The children's autistic behavior scores were negatively associated with maternal plasma levels of OXT and AVP. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that dysregulation of OXT, AVP and/or testosterone systems exist in mothers of autistic children, which may impact children's susceptibility to autism.

  3. Informing Educational Decisions in the Early Years: Can Evidence for Improving Pedagogy for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder Be Found from Neuroscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brenda; Forlin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    It is possible that many benefits may be found for all concerned in education and child development in understanding how knowledge of the brain and its development can inform early years practice. This article, written by Brenda Peters and Chris Forlin, both from the Hong Kong Institute of Education, reviews literature based on neuroscience to…

  4. A systematic review of neuropsychological performance in social anxiety disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Pedersen, Anders Degn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the neuropsychological performance of patients with anxiety disorders, yet the literature does not provide a systematic review of the results concerning adult patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Aims: The primary...... aim of this paper is to review the literature on neuropsychological performance in adult patients with SAD. Methods: This paper is a systematic review of empirical studies investigating neuropsychological performance as assessed by cognitive tests. Results: 30 papers were located comprising a total...... number of 698 adult patients with SAD. The review revealed indication for decreased performance regarding visual scanning and visuoconstructional ability as well as some indication for verbal memory difficulties. Conclusion: The impact of possible confounding variables on the neuropsychological...

  5. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data do not help support DSM-5 autism spectrum disorder category

    OpenAIRE

    Pina Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Janssen, Joost; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aims to determine whether or not structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data support the DSM-5 proposal of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic category, and whether or not classical DSM-IV autistic disorder (AD) and Asperger syndrome (AS) categories should be subsumed into it. The most replicated sMRI findings in patients with ASD compared with healthy controls are increased total brain volume in early childhood and decreased corpus callosum volume. Regar...

  6. Cognitive functions in patients with panic disorder: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodrigues Poubel Alves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a review of the literature on the possible neuropsychological deficits present in patients with panic disorder. Methods: We performed a systematic review and search of the PubMed, ISI and PsycInfo scientific databases, with no time limits, using the following key words: cognitive, function, panic, and disorder. Of the 971 articles found, 25 were selected and 17 were included in this review. The inclusion criterion was at least one neuropsychological assessment task in patients with panic disorder. Results: The number of publications has grown gradually, especially those assessing executive functions, corresponding to the neurobiological model most widely accepted. Of all the functions evaluated, these patients had lower performance in memory tasks and higher performance in affective processing tasks related to the disorder. However, these data require further investigation due to the high rate of comorbidities, the small sample sizes of the included studies and little standardization of instruments used. Conclusion: The results showed a greater occurrence of deficits in memory and enhanced affective processing related to panic disorder.

  7. Study on CT changes in autistic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1979 we have performed CT examinations on 132 autistic children. Neurological diagnosis of the lesion was established by Dr. Segawa's group. On the CT of many autistic children, we found a small low density change located in the anterior wall of the temporal horn, or localized dilatation of the inferior horn near the damaged brain. We reviewed 96 of these patients who all had the obvious low density changes, or localized irregular dilatations in the anterior wall of the temporal horn. By measuring the distance of damage from the midline, we divided the 96 cases into two groups. Group 1 consisted of those with damage located laterally more than 30 mm line from the midline. Group 2 consisted of those with damage medially to the 30 mm line from the midline. Those cases with a large lesion both laterally and medially of the 30 mm line were categorized into group 1. In the adult brain the lateral border of the amygdaloid nucleus was never located laterally more than 30 mm from the midline. Laterally over the 30 mm line there were two marked fiber systems running near the anterior wall of the temporal horn: the fiber of the anterior commissure and the uncinate fascicle. Group 1 consisted of 62 patients and group 2 of 34 patients. The majority of the two group patients were pure autism children. This suggested that the main lesion in autism was in the amygdala. (author)

  8. A Review of Eating Disorders and Suicide Risk in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida F. Dancyger

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the literature during the past 10 years about suicide risk and suicide during adolescence and young adulthood of individuals with eating disorders. Epidemiological surveys are summarized, including suicide rates, parasuicidal behaviors, associated risk factors, and comorbid psychopathology. Critical implications for the comprehensive assessment and treatment planning, including safety considerations, are discussed. Two clinical cases of women with long-standing eating disorders are described to highlight both the pragmatic considerations and the complex clinical challenges of working with patients with eating disorders who become suicidal. The potentially life-threatening issues of safety have not received sufficient attention, neither in the medical literature nor by the treating clinicians. All health care professionals who are treating patients with an eating disorder must be keenly aware of the serious risks of suicidal behavior and of suicide in this population.

  9. Caffeine challenge test and panic disorder: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarim, Marina Machado; Rocha Araujo, Daniele Marano; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2011-08-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine the results of studies that have investigated the induction of panic attacks and/or the anxiogenic effect of the caffeine challenge test in patients with panic disorder. The literature search was performed in PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The words used for the search were caffeine, caffeine challenge test, panic disorder, panic attacks and anxiety disorder. In total, we selected eight randomized, double-blind studies where caffeine was administered orally, and none of them controlled for confounding factors in the analysis. The percentage of loss during follow-up ranged between 14.3% and 73.1%. The eight studies all showed a positive association between caffeine and anxiogenic effects and/or panic disorder.

  10. Daily symptom ratings for studying premenstrual dysphoric disorder : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, Renske C.; Jung, Sophie E.; Miloserdov, Kristina; Schoevers, Robert A.; aan het Rot, Marije

    2016-01-01

    Background: To review how daily symptom ratings have been used in research into premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), and to discuss opportunities for the future. Methods: PsycINFO and Medline were systematically searched, resulting in the inclusion of 75 studies in which (1) participants met the

  11. Factitious Disorder by Proxy in Educational Settings: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Ellen M.; Feldman, Marc D.

    2012-01-01

    Factitious disorder by proxy (FDP), historically known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy, is a diagnosis applied to parents and other caregivers who intentionally feign, exaggerate, and/or induce illness or injury in a child to get attention from health professionals and others. A review of the recent literature and our experience as consultants…

  12. Chelation Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N.; O'Reilly, Mark; Kang, Soyeon; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Copeland, Daelynn; Attai, Shanna; Mulloy, Austin

    2013-01-01

    Chelation treatment is used to eliminate specific metals from the body, such as mercury. It has been hypothesized that mercury poisoning may be a factor in autism and data suggest that perhaps 7% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have received chelation treatment. It would therefore seem timely to review studies investigating the…

  13. Language Acquisition in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Developmental Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; de Marchena, Ashley B.; Schuh, Jillian M.; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the complex literature on language acquisition in the autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because of the high degree of interest in ASD in the past decade, the field has been changing rapidly, with progress in both basic science and applied clinical areas. In addition, psycholinguistically-trained researchers have increasingly…

  14. Perceptual inference and autistic traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skewes, Joshua; Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Gebauer, Line

    2015-01-01

    Autistic people are better at perceiving details. Major theories explain this in terms of bottom-up sensory mechanisms, or in terms of top-down cognitive biases. Recently, it has become possible to link these theories within a common framework. This framework assumes that perception is implicit n...

  15. Eating Disorders, Physical Fitness and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of

  16. Identification of Four Novel Synonymous Substitutions in the X-Linked Genes Neuroligin 3 and Neuroligin 4X in Japanese Patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Yanagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the X-linked genes neuroligin 3 (NLGN3 and neuroligin 4X (NLGN4X were first implicated in the pathogenesis of X-linked autism in Swedish families. However, reports of mutations in these genes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients from various ethnic backgrounds present conflicting results regarding the etiology of ASD, possibly because of genetic heterogeneity and/or differences in their ethnic background. Additional mutation screening study on another ethnic background could help to clarify the relevance of the genes to ASD. We scanned the entire coding regions of NLGN3 and NLGN4X in 62 Japanese patients with ASD by polymerase chain reaction-high-resolution melting curve and direct sequencing analyses. Four synonymous substitutions, one in NLGN3 and three in NLGN4X, were identified in four of the 62 patients. These substitutions were not present in 278 control X-chromosomes from unrelated Japanese individuals and were not registered in the database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms build 132 or in the Japanese Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms database, indicating that they were novel and specific to ASD. Though further analysis is necessary to determine the physiological and clinical importance of such substitutions, the possibility of the relevance of both synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions with the etiology of ASD should be considered.

  17. Basal and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulated Plasma Cortisol Levels Among Egyptian Autistic Children: Relation to Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewedi Doaa H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a disorder of early childhood characterized by social impairment, communication abnormalities and stereotyped behaviors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis deserves special attention, since it is the basis for emotions and social interactions that are affected in autism. Aim To assess basal and stimulated plasma cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels in autistic children and their relationship to disease characteristics. Methods Fifty autistic children were studied in comparison to 50 healthy age-, sex- and pubertal stage- matched children. All subjects were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of plasma cortisol (basal and stimulated and ACTH. In addition, electroencephalography (EEG and intelligence quotient (IQ assessment were done for all autistic children. Results Sixteen% of autistic patients had high ACTH, 10% had low basal cortisol and 10% did not show adequate cortisol response to ACTH stimulation. Autistic patients had lower basal (p = 0.032 and stimulated cortisol (p = 0.04 and higher ACTH (p = 0.01 than controls. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS score correlated positively with ACTH (r = 0.71, p = 0.02 and negatively with each of basal (r = -0.64, p = 0.04 and stimulated cortisol (r = -0.88, p Conclusions The observed hormonal changes may be due to a dysfunction in the HPA axis in autistic individuals. Further studies are warranted regarding the role of HPA axis dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autism.

  18. A review of executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Francesco; Margari, Francesco; Legrottaglie, Anna R; Palumbi, Roberto; de Giambattista, Concetta; Margari, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Executive dysfunction has been shown to be a promising endophenotype in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article reviewed 26 studies that examined executive function comparing ASD and/or ADHD children. In light of findings from this review, the ASD + ADHD group appears to share impairment in both flexibility and planning with the ASD group, while it shares the response inhibition deficit with the ADHD group. Conversely, deficit in attention, working memory, preparatory processes, fluency, and concept formation does not appear to be distinctive in discriminating from ASD, ADHD, or ASD + ADHD group. On the basis of neurocognitive endophenotype, the common co-occurrence of executive function deficits seems to reflect an additive comorbidity, rather than a separate condition with distinct impairments. PMID:27274255

  19. Dysautonomia in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Case Reports of a Family with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Lonsdale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Case histories of a mother and her two children are reported. The mother was a recovered alcoholic. She and her two children, both of whom had symptoms that are typical of autistic spectrum disorder, had dysautonomia. All had intermittently abnormal erythrocyte transketolase studies indicating abnormal thiamine pyrophosphate homeostasis. Both children had unusual concentrations of urinary arsenic. All had symptomatic improvement with diet restriction and supplementary vitamin therapy but quickly relapsed after ingestion of sugar, milk, or wheat. The stress of a heavy metal burden, superimposed on existing genetic or epigenetic risk factors, may be important in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder when in combination. Dysautonomia has been associated with several diseases, including autism, without a common etiology. It is hypothesized that oxidative stress results in loss of cellular energy and causes retardation of hard wiring of the brain in infancy, affecting limbic system control of the autonomic nervous system.

  20. Reduced incidence of Prevotella and other fermenters in intestinal microflora of autistic children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Wook Kang

    Full Text Available High proportions of autistic children suffer from gastrointestinal (GI disorders, implying a link between autism and abnormalities in gut microbial functions. Increasing evidence from recent high-throughput sequencing analyses indicates that disturbances in composition and diversity of gut microbiome are associated with various disease conditions. However, microbiome-level studies on autism are limited and mostly focused on pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, here we aimed to define systemic changes in gut microbiome associated with autism and autism-related GI problems. We recruited 20 neurotypical and 20 autistic children accompanied by a survey of both autistic severity and GI symptoms. By pyrosequencing the V2/V3 regions in bacterial 16S rDNA from fecal DNA samples, we compared gut microbiomes of GI symptom-free neurotypical children with those of autistic children mostly presenting GI symptoms. Unexpectedly, the presence of autistic symptoms, rather than the severity of GI symptoms, was associated with less diverse gut microbiomes. Further, rigorous statistical tests with multiple testing corrections showed significantly lower abundances of the genera Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae in autistic samples. These are intriguingly versatile carbohydrate-degrading and/or fermenting bacteria, suggesting a potential influence of unusual diet patterns observed in autistic children. However, multivariate analyses showed that autism-related changes in both overall diversity and individual genus abundances were correlated with the presence of autistic symptoms but not with their diet patterns. Taken together, autism and accompanying GI symptoms were characterized by distinct and less diverse gut microbial compositions with lower levels of Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae.

  1. Spindle Oscillations in Sleep Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren M. Weiner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of sleep microarchitecture and neural oscillations is an increasingly popular technique for quantifying EEG sleep activity. Many studies have examined sleep spindle oscillations in sleep-disordered adults; however reviews of this literature are scarce. As such, our overarching aim was to critically review experimental studies examining sleep spindle activity between adults with and without different sleep disorders. Articles were obtained using a systematic methodology with a priori criteria. Thirty-seven studies meeting final inclusion criteria were reviewed, with studies grouped across three categories: insomnia, hypersomnias, and sleep-related movement disorders (including parasomnias. Studies of patients with insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing were more abundant relative to other diagnoses. All studies were cross-sectional. Studies were largely inconsistent regarding spindle activity differences between clinical and nonclinical groups, with some reporting greater or less activity, while many others reported no group differences. Stark inconsistencies in sample characteristics (e.g., age range and diagnostic criteria and methods of analysis (e.g., spindle bandwidth selection, visual detection versus digital filtering, absolute versus relative spectral power, and NREM2 versus NREM3 suggest a need for greater use of event-based detection methods and increased research standardization. Hypotheses regarding the clinical and empirical implications of these findings, and suggestions for potential future studies, are also discussed.

  2. Management of Sleep Disorders in Children With Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmer, Allison Beck; Feinstein, James A

    2016-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are defined as a group of disorders caused by changes in early brain development, resulting in behavioral and cognitive alterations in sensory and motor systems, speech, and language. NDDs affect approximately 1-2% of the general population. Up to 80% of children with NDDs are reported to have disrupted sleep; subsequent deleterious effects on daytime behaviors, cognition, growth, and overall development of the child are commonly reported. Examples of NDDs discussed in this review include autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, Rett syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Williams syndrome, and Smith-Magenis syndrome. The etiology of sleep disorders in children with NDDs is largely heterogeneous and disease specific. The diagnosis and management of sleep disorders in this population are complex, and little high-quality data exist to guide a consistent approach to therapy. Managing sleep disorders in children with NDDs is critical both for the child and for the family but is often frustrating due to the refractory nature of the problem. Sleep hygiene must be implemented as first-line therapy; if sleep hygiene alone fails, it should be combined with pharmacologic management. The available evidence for the use of common pharmacologic interventions, such as iron supplementation and melatonin, as well as less common interventions, such as melatonin receptor agonists, clonidine, gabapentin, hypnotics, trazodone, and atypical antipsychotics is reviewed. Further, parents and caregivers should be provided with appropriate education on the nature of the sleep disorders and the expectation for modest pharmacologic benefit, at best. Additional data from well-designed trials in children with NDDs are desperately needed to gain a better understanding of sleep pharmacotherapy including efficacy and safety implications. Until then, clinicians must rely on the limited available data, as well as clinical expertise, when managing sleep disorders in the

  3. Premedication in an autistic, combative child: Challenges and nuances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autistic spectrum disorders are often encountered in anesthesia practice mainly for outdoor procedural sedation or anesthesia in endoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging suites. We describe a case of a 7-year-old autistic boy who required management of dental caries. He had a phobia to intravenous cannulation, displayed increasing anxiety and became combative on the day of surgery. With parental involvement and distraction, we succeeded in giving oral midazolam by concealing it, with the intent of avoiding intramuscular injection or unnecessary restraint. Lack of knowledge about the medical condition of such a patient can lead to inadequate preoperative preparation and use of restraint on the patient, which might cause anxiety or panic attacks in the operative room. To effectively manage children with special needs one needs to have clear guidelines on the management of uncooperative children, involve parents perioperatively, plan ahead with an emphasis on perioperative analgesia and sometimes incorporate the ethical use of restraint.

  4. Food selectivity in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Zazpe, Itziar; Mari-Sanchis, Amelia; Llopis-González, Agustín; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2014-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by difficulties with reciprocal social interactions and restricted patterns of behavior and interest; one of these characteristic behaviors is food selectivity. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature published between 1970 and 2013 concerning this eating behavior. The articles identified were analyzed in terms of sample size, study design, and criteria for assessment and intervention, as well as the results, level of evidence and grade of recommendation. The main search was conducted in Medline, Cochrane Library, Scielo, ScienceDirect, and Embase). There is empirical evidence and an overall scientific consensus supporting an association between food selectivity and autism spectrum disorders.

  5. Gender Differences in the Social Motivation and Friendship Experiences of Autistic and Non-Autistic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgewick, Felicity; Hill, Vivian; Yates, Rhiannon; Pickering, Leanne; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined gender differences in the social motivation and friendship experiences of adolescent boys and girls with autism relative to those without autism, all educated within special education settings. Autistic girls showed similar social motivation and friendship quality to non-autistic girls, while autistic boys…

  6. Systematic review of sleep disorders in cancer patients: can the prevalence of sleep disorders be ascertained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Julie L; Carpenter, Janet S; Manchanda, Shalini; Rand, Kevin L; Skaar, Todd C; Weaver, Michael; Chernyak, Yelena; Zhong, Xin; Igega, Christele; Landis, Carol

    2015-02-01

    Although sleep is vital to all human functioning and poor sleep is a known problem in cancer, it is unclear whether the overall prevalence of the various types of sleep disorders in cancer is known. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to evaluate if the prevalence of sleep disorders could be ascertained from the current body of literature regarding sleep in cancer. This was a critical and systematic review of peer-reviewed, English-language, original articles published from 1980 through 15 October 2013, identified using electronic search engines, a set of key words, and prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information from 254 full-text, English-language articles was abstracted onto a paper checklist by one reviewer, with a second reviewer randomly verifying 50% (k = 99%). All abstracted data were entered into an electronic database, verified for accuracy, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequencies in SPSS (v.20) (North Castle, NY). Studies of sleep and cancer focus on specific types of symptoms of poor sleep, and there are no published prevalence studies that focus on underlying sleep disorders. Challenging the current paradigm of the way sleep is studied in cancer could produce better clinical screening tools for use in oncology clinics leading to better triaging of patients with sleep complaints to sleep specialists, and overall improvement in sleep quality.

  7. Systematic review of sleep disorders in cancer patients: can the prevalence of sleep disorders be ascertained?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although sleep is vital to all human functioning and poor sleep is a known problem in cancer, it is unclear whether the overall prevalence of the various types of sleep disorders in cancer is known. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to evaluate if the prevalence of sleep disorders could be ascertained from the current body of literature regarding sleep in cancer. This was a critical and systematic review of peer-reviewed, English-language, original articles published from 1980 through 15 October 2013, identified using electronic search engines, a set of key words, and prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information from 254 full-text, English-language articles was abstracted onto a paper checklist by one reviewer, with a second reviewer randomly verifying 50% (k = 99%). All abstracted data were entered into an electronic database, verified for accuracy, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequencies in SPSS (v.20) (North Castle, NY). Studies of sleep and cancer focus on specific types of symptoms of poor sleep, and there are no published prevalence studies that focus on underlying sleep disorders. Challenging the current paradigm of the way sleep is studied in cancer could produce better clinical screening tools for use in oncology clinics leading to better triaging of patients with sleep complaints to sleep specialists, and overall improvement in sleep quality

  8. A review of executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Craig,1 Francesco Margari,2 Anna R Legrottaglie,1 Roberto Palumbi,1 Concetta de Giambattista,1 Lucia Margari1 1Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, 2Psychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy Abstract: Executive dysfunction has been shown to be a promising endophenotype in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. This article reviewed 26 studies that examined executive function comparing ASD and/or ADHD children. In light of findings from this review, the ASD + ADHD group appears to share impairment in both flexibility and planning with the ASD group, while it shares the response inhibition deficit with the ADHD group. Conversely, deficit in attention, working memory, preparatory processes, fluency, and concept formation does not appear to be distinctive in discriminating from ASD, ADHD, or ASD + ADHD group. On the basis of neurocognitive endophenotype, the common co-occurrence of executive function deficits seems to reflect an additive comorbidity, rather than a separate condition with distinct impairments. Keywords: executive function, autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ASD + ADHD, neurocognitive endophenotype

  9. Autistic Traits in Neurotypical Adults: correlates of Graph Theoretical Functional Network Topology and White Matter Anisotropy Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Andras Jakab; Miklos Emri; Tamas Spisak; Anita Szeman-Nagy; Monika Beres; Sandor Attila Kis; Peter Molnar; Ervin Berenyi

    2013-01-01

    Attempts to explicate the neural abnormalities behind autism spectrum disorders frequently revealed impaired brain connectivity, yet our knowledge is limited about the alterations linked with autistic traits in the non-clinical population. In our study, we aimed at exploring the neural correlates of dimensional autistic traits using a dual approach of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and graph theoretical analysis of resting state functional MRI data. Subjects were sampled from a public neuroim...

  10. Acupuncture for neurological disorders in the Cochrane reviews:Characteristics of included reviews and studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deren Wang; Weimin Yang; Ming Liu

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize Cochrane reviews of acupuncture for neurological disorders, and characteristics of included reviews and studies.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online search of the Cochrane Library (Issue 7 of 12, July 2010) was performed with the key word "acupuncture" and systematic evaluations for acupuncture for neurological disorders were screened.STUDY SELECTION: Systematic reviews on acupuncture in the treatment of neurological disorders were included, and the characteristics of these reviews were analyzed based on methods recommended by the Cochrane collaboration.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Basic characteristics, methodological quality, main reasons for excluding trials, results and conclusions of Cochrane reviews were assessed.RESULTS: A total of 18 Cochrane systematic reviews were included, including 13 completed reviews and five research protocols. The 13 completed reviews involved 111 randomized controlled trials, including 43 trials (38.7%) conducted in China, 47 trials (42.3%) using sham-acupuncture or placebo as control, 15 trials (13.5%) with relatively high quality, 91 trials (81.9%) reporting data on follow-up. Primary outcomes used in the Cochrane reviews were reported by 65 trials (58.6%), and adverse events were reported in 11 trials (9.9%). Two hundred and eighty three trials were excluded. Two reviews on headache suggested that acupuncture is a valuable non-drug treatment for patients with chronic or recurrent headache, and has better curative effects on migraine compared with preventative drug treatment. CONCLUSION: Of the Cochrane reviews on acupuncture in the treatment of neurological disorders, two reviews evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture in treating headaches drew positive conculsions, while other reviews did not obtain positive conclusions due to a small sample size or low methodological quality. The methodological quality of acupuncture trials needs further improvement.

  11. A Review of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating amongst Nutrition Students and Dietetic Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Heather Mciver; Lordly, Daphne

    2015-03-01

    The diet industry and media have a powerful influence over women, leading many to believe that they must modify their appearance for societal acceptance. Dietetics, as one of many predominantly female professions, may be particularly vulnerable to these pressures. An integrative review process was used to examine eating disorders and disordered eating within the dietetics profession with the aim to both synthesize existing data and develop questions for future research. Seventeen articles were reviewed using broad search terms and dates because of the dearth of available literature. Given nutrition programs and dietetic practice often involve significant exposure to food, ideas and opinions about food, weight, and its place in health and dietetic practice researchers were compelled to ask "why". Findings were organized under 3 categories including thinness ideology, implications of food and body associated with nutrition or dietetic education, and establishment of a continuum. This review serves as a platform to inspire future research in an understudied but important topic related to dietetic education and practice. Minimally as a profession, baseline data need to be collected to understand the prevalence of disordered eating and eating disorders along the continuum of practice in Canada. PMID:26067246

  12. Social communication deficits and conduct disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Donno, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that a proportion of children with Conduct Disorder may have unidentified Autistic Spectrum Disorder (Gilchrist et al., 2001 Gilmour, Hill, Place & Skuse, 2004). This paper considers the argument that a subgroup of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder are undetected and subsumed under Conduct Disorder or similar descriptors. Diagnostic criteria are described and issues relevant to Conduct Disorder discussed. This is followed by an examination of the similariti...

  13. Alteration of astrocytes and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the frontal cortex of autistic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Fujiang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, verbal communication and repetitive behaviors. To date the etiology of this disorder is poorly understood. Studies suggest that astrocytes play critical roles in neural plasticity by detecting neuronal activity and modulating neuronal networks. Recently, a number of studies suggested that an abnormal function of glia/astrocytes may be involved in the development of autism. However, there is yet no direct evidence showing how astrocytes develop in the brain of autistic individuals. Methods Study subjects include brain tissue from autistic subjects, BTBR T + tfJ (BTBR and Neuroligin (NL-3 knock-down mice. Western blot analysis, Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy studies have be used to examine the density and morphology of astrocytes, as well as Wnt and β-catenin protein expression. Results In this study, we demonstrate that the astrocytes in autisitcsubjects exhibit significantly reduced branching processes, total branching length and cell body sizes. We also detected an astrocytosis in the frontal cortex of autistic subjects. In addition, we found that the astrocytes in the brain of an NL3 knockdown mouse exhibited similar alterations to what we found in the autistic brain. Furthermore, we detected that both Wnt and β-catenin proteins are decreased in the frontal cortex of autistic subjects. Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of astrocyte development. Conclusions Our findings imply that defects in astrocytes could impair neuronal plasticity and partially contribute to the development of autistic-like behaviors in both humans and mice. The alteration of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the brain of autistic subjects may contribute to the changes of astrocytes.

  14. Influence of orthodontic treatment on temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Felipe J.; Cañigral Ortiz, María Aránzazu; López Caballo, José L.; Brizuela Velasco, Aritza; Moreno Hay, Isabel; del Río Highsmith, Jaime; Vega Álvarez, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this literature systematic review was to evaluate the possible association between malocclusions, orthodontic treatment and development of temporomandibular disorders. Material and Methods: A search was carried out on PubMed-Medline database from January 2000 to August 2013 using the keywords “orthodontics and temporomandibular disorders”, “orthodontics and facial pain” and “malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders”. Human studies included in the study were those ass...

  15. Aging, circadian rhythms and depressive disorders: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Costa, Inês; Nogueira Carvalho, Hugo; Fernandes, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Aging is typically associated with impairing behavioral patterns that are frequently and inappropriately seen as normal. Circadian rhythm changes and depressive disorders have been increasingly proposed as the two main overlapping and interpenetrating changes that take place in older age. This study aims to review the state of the art on the subject concerning epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanism, clinical findings and relevance, as well as available treatment options. Mat...

  16. A Review of Eating Disorders and Suicide Risk in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Dancyger, Ida F.; Victor M. Fornari

    2005-01-01

    This review examines the literature during the past 10 years about suicide risk and suicide during adolescence and young adulthood of individuals with eating disorders. Epidemiological surveys are summarized, including suicide rates, parasuicidal behaviors, associated risk factors, and comorbid psychopathology. Critical implications for the comprehensive assessment and treatment planning, including safety considerations, are discussed. Two clinical cases of women with long-standing eating dis...

  17. Botulinum toxin for treating muscular temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Machado; Lívia Zuchetto dos Santos; Lilian Gonçalves Custódio; Paulo Afonso Cunali

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study, through a systematic literature review, aims to analyze the effectiveness of Botulinum Toxin as a treatment for masticatory myofascial pain and muscles temporomandibular disorders (TMD). METHODS: Survey in research bases: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, Pubmed, Lilacs and BBO, between the years of 1966 and April 2011, with focus in randomized or quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials, blind or double-blind. RESULTS: After applying the inclusion criteria, 4 articles comp...

  18. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Devnani; Racheal Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, ...

  19. Exposure to Perinatal Infections and Bipolar Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichello, T; Badawy, M; Pitcher, M R; Saigal, P; Generoso, J S; Goularte, J A; Simões, L R; Quevedo, J; Carvalho, A F

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder and a growing global public health issue. Notwithstanding BD has been conceptualized as a neuroprogressive illness, there are some evidences to suggest a role for neurodevelopmental pathways in the patho-etiology of this disorder. Evidences on the associations between perinatal infections and risk for bipolar disorder have been inconsistent across studies. Here, we performed a systematic review of observational studies on the relationship between exposure to perinatal pathogens and bipolar disorder. A computerized literature search of the PubMed, Embase, and PsyINFO databases till January 31(st), 2015 was performed. Twenty-three studies ultimately met inclusion criteria. Studies investigated exposure to several pathogens namely Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), Toxoplasma gondii, Influenza, and Varicella zoster virus (VZV). Overall, studies provided mixed evidences. Thus, contrary to schizophrenia, the role of perinatal infections as risk factors for BD remain inconclusive. Larger studies with a prospective design would be necessary to elucidate the role of previous exposure to infectious agents as a potential risk factor for BD. PMID:26812921

  20. Transverse Anderson Localization in Disordered Glass Optical Fibers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mafi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Disordered optical fibers show novel waveguiding properties that can be used for various device applications, such as beam-multiplexed optical communications and endoscopic image transport. The strong transverse scattering from the transversely disordered optical fibers results in transversely confined beams that can freely propagate in the longitudinal direction, similar to conventional optical fibers, with the advantage that any point in the cross section of the fiber can be used for beam transport. For beam multiplexing and imaging applications, it is highly desirable to make the localized beam radius as small as possible. This requires large refractive index differences between the materials that define the random features in the disordered fiber. Here, disordered glass-air fibers are briefly reviewed, where randomly placed airholes in a glass matrix provide the sufficiently large refractive index difference of 0.5 for strong random transverse scattering. The main future challenge for the fabrication of an optimally disordered glass-air fibers is to increase the fill-fraction of airholes to nearly 50% for maximum beam confinement.

  1. The mental health in mothers with autistic children: a case-control study in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, B C; Lung, F W; Chang, Y Y

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of autistic children on the mental health of their mothers. Autism is a complicated neuropsychiatric disorder. Evidence shows that mothers with autistic children experience greater stress than those having children with other chronic diseases. In this study we have 1) assessed the mental health of mothers with autistic children; 2) determined their prevalence of minor psychiatric morbidity (MPM); 3) classified their MPM; and 4) determined factors related to their mental health. A case-controlled design was used to compare the mental status among mothers having children with either autistic (n = 30), or Down syndrome (n = 11) and with normal children (n = 56). The mean score of the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ) showed no differences between those mothers of case and control groups. Using a 9-point criterion to screen for MPM in the CHQ, more mothers (37%) in the case group had scores > or = 9 compared with the control group (18%). Mothers of the case group had significantly higher for MPM using logistic regression analysis. The educational level was inversely related to the CHQ scores. Mothers with a CHQ score > or = 9, were later diagnosed with either depression (36%) and anxiety (46%); or anxiety and depression (9%). A primary care model for mothers with autistic children should therefore be developed to prevent them from developing mental disorders.

  2. Autistic People at Work

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Habahbeh, Maria; Damary, Tamia; Erbenova, Lucie; Håkan, Mette Brenneke; Lazdaja, Andina; Mirza, Daniel Ali

    2006-01-01

    In our project we will investigate the challenges when integrating people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) into a workplace. We will use the theory of ‘Mindblindness’ and ‘central coherence theory’ in order to investigate in which way people with ASD are inhibited. We will investigate three areas from the field of organizational psychology; communication groups and conflict in order to illuminate the challenges ‘normal’ people face when entering a workplace. Furthermore, we have cond...

  3. Brief Report: Catatonia in Autistic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhossche, Dirk

    1998-01-01

    A case study of an adolescent with catatonia superimposed on autism is presented. The symptoms of the patient are highlighted and include abnormal social interactions, deficits in symbolic play and in communicative language, and occurrence of hallucinations and delusions. Treatment of the patient with clozapine and lorasepam is described. (CR)

  4. Virtual Worlds Turn Therapeutic for Autistic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Asperger's patients have been treated by role-playing with real-life therapists. The virtual-reality town at the medical center is a new twist. The University of Texas at Dallas uses a platform from Second Life, the popular virtual world, in which patients go to an "island" customized for therapeutic purposes. The island was built by…

  5. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may improve symptoms in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Daniel A; Rossignol, Lanier W

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that currently affects as many as 1 out of 166 children in the United States. Recent research has discovered that some autistic individuals have decreased cerebral perfusion, evidence of neuroinflammation, and increased markers of oxidative stress. Multiple independent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) research studies have revealed hypoperfusion to several areas of the autistic brain, most notably the temporal regions and areas specifically related to language comprehension and auditory processing. Several studies show that diminished blood flow to these areas correlates with many of the clinical features associated with autism including repetitive, self-stimulatory and stereotypical behaviors, and impairments in communication, sensory perception, and social interaction. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been used with clinical success in several cerebral hypoperfusion syndromes including cerebral palsy, fetal alcohol syndrome, closed head injury, and stroke. HBOT can compensate for decreased blood flow by increasing the oxygen content of plasma and body tissues and can even normalize oxygen levels in ischemic tissue. In addition, animal studies have shown that HBOT has potent anti-inflammatory effects and reduces oxidative stress. Furthermore, recent evidence demonstrates that HBOT mobilizes stem cells from human bone marrow, which may aid recovery in neurodegenerative diseases. Based upon these findings, it is hypothesized that HBOT will improve symptoms in autistic individuals. A retrospective case series is presented that supports this hypothesis. PMID:16554123

  6. Anthropometric assessment of a Middle Eastern group of autistic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nagwa A Meguid; Wafaa A Kandeel; Khaled E Wakeel; Aly A El-Nofely

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth abnormalities are uniquely associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however, the extent to which growth abnormalities are present has hardly been investigated. The current study aims to compare the differences in anthropometric parameters in a group of autistic Egyptian children and the healthy normal population. Methods: We recruited 100 children with ASD from the Outpatient Clinic for "Autistic Children" at the Medical Research Hospital of Excellence, National Research Centre in Cairo, Egypt. They were diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria of the American Psychiatric Association, Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Of these children at age of 3-10 years, 71 were males and 29 females. Eight anthropometric parameters were assessed in view of data of the healthy Egyptians of pertinent sex and age. Results: Weight and body mass index increased because of a signifi cant increase in subcutaneous fat thickness. This tendency with a probable decrease in muscle mass was more evident in male or in older children, likely resulting from sedentary life style and food selectivity. Conclusions: The Z head circumference score and its variance signifi cantly increased especially in males or older children, suggesting the relative overgrowth of the brain in a substantial percentage of Egyptian children with autism. We concluded that increased fat composition in Egyptian autistic children with decreased muscle mass necessitates tailoring a specially designed food supplementation program to ameliorate the severity of autism symptoms.

  7. Epidemiology of eating disorders, eating disordered behaviour, and body image disturbance in males: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchison, Deborah; Mond, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to epidemiological studies of eating and related body image disturbance disorders in males include, in addition to low base rates and the predominance of residual diagnostic categories, the female-centric nature of current classification schemes and the consequent lack of appropriate assessment instruments. In this narrative review, we summarise epidemiological data regarding the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders, related body image disturbance disorders, and eating disorder features in males. Attention is focused on disorders most likely to be observed among males, such as muscle dysmorphia and muscularity-oriented excessive exercise. It is argued that, given the multiple challenges involved in research of this kind, a focus on features is more likely to advance the field than a focus on diagnoses. In terms of correlates, we focus on impairment and help-seeking, since these issues are most relevant in informing public health burden, service provision, and related issues. We end with some thoughts about current gaps in the knowledge base and directions for future research that we consider to be most promising. PMID:27408719

  8. Epidemiology of eating disorders, eating disordered behaviour, and body image disturbance in males: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchison, Deborah; Mond, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to epidemiological studies of eating and related body image disturbance disorders in males include, in addition to low base rates and the predominance of residual diagnostic categories, the female-centric nature of current classification schemes and the consequent lack of appropriate assessment instruments. In this narrative review, we summarise epidemiological data regarding the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders, related body image disturbance disorders, and eating disorder features in males. Attention is focused on disorders most likely to be observed among males, such as muscle dysmorphia and muscularity-oriented excessive exercise. It is argued that, given the multiple challenges involved in research of this kind, a focus on features is more likely to advance the field than a focus on diagnoses. In terms of correlates, we focus on impairment and help-seeking, since these issues are most relevant in informing public health burden, service provision, and related issues. We end with some thoughts about current gaps in the knowledge base and directions for future research that we consider to be most promising.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of buspirone in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David J; Chugani, Diane C; Chugani, Harry T; Chehab, Jamal; Malian, Monica; Aranda, Jacob V

    2006-05-01

    Buspirone is used to treat generalized anxiety disorder in children and may be useful in developmental disorders in which brain serotonin synthesis is altered. Autistic children (13 boys, 7 girls) were given a single oral dose of 2.5 mg (2-3 years) or 5.0 mg (4-6 years). Blood was collected for 8 hours, and plasma was assayed for buspirone and its metabolite 1-pyrimidinylpiperazine (1-PP). The peak concentration of buspirone averaged 1141 +/- 748 pg/mL with a time to maximum concentration of 0.8 hours. Half-life was 1.6 +/- 0.3 hours. Peak concentrations of 1-PP were 4.5-fold higher than for buspirone. Girls had higher peak concentrations (1876 vs 746 pg/mL) for buspirone and a lower peak 1-PP/buspirone concentration ratio. These results suggest that buspirone is rapidly absorbed and eliminated in young children with extensive metabolism to 1-PP. Plasma concentrations with 2.5- to 5.0-mg doses were similar to those observed in older children receiving 7.5- to 15-mg doses.

  10. Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi NA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah21General Administration for Research and Studies, Sulaimania Medical Complex, 2National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%–40% of patients with major depression have only a partial response to available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM has been used either alone or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with mood disorders. This review of the literature examines evidence-based data on the use of CAM in mood disorders. A search of the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Quertile databases using keywords was conducted, and relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals over the past two decades were retrieved. Evidence-based data suggest that light therapy, St John's wort, Rhodiola rosea, omega-3 fatty acids, yoga, acupuncture, mindfulness therapies, exercise, sleep deprivation, and S-adenosylmethionine are effective in the treatment of mood disorders. Clinical trials of vitamin B complex, vitamin D, and methylfolate found that, while these were useful in physical illness, results were equivocal in patients with mood disorders. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in unipolar and bipolar depression, although manic symptoms are not affected and higher doses are required in patients with resistant bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Omega-3 fatty acids are useful in pregnant women with major depression, and have no adverse effects on the fetus. Choline, inositol, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, and N-acetylcysteine are effective adjuncts in bipolar

  11. Bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Czepielewski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Summarize data on metabolic syndrome (MS in bipolar disorder (BD. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the Medline, Embase and PsycInfo databases, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome", "insulin resistance" and "metabolic X syndrome" and cross-referencing them with "bipolar disorder" or "mania". The following types of publications were candidates for review: (i clinical trials, (ii studies involving patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or (iii data about metabolic syndrome. A 5-point quality scale was used to assess the methodological weight of the studies. RESULTS: Thirty-nine articles were selected. None of studies reached the maximum quality score of 5 points. The prevalence of MS was significantly higher in BD individuals when compared to a control group. The analysis of MS subcomponents showed that abdominal obesity was heterogeneous. Individuals with BD had significantly higher rates of hypertriglyceridemia than healthy controls. When compared to the general population, there were no significant differences in the prevalence of low HDL-c in individuals with BD. Data on hypertension were also inconclusive. Rates of hyperglycemia were significantly greater in patients with BD compared to the general population. CONCLUSIONS: The overall results point to the presence of an association between BD and MS, as well as between their subcomponents.

  12. Single Photon Emission Tomography Imaging in Parkinsonian Disorders: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Acton

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinsonian symptoms are associated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy. Pathological evidence has shown clearly that these disorders are associated with a loss of neurons, particularly in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Positron emission tomography (PET and single photon emission tomography (SPECT now are able to visualise and quantify changes in cerebral blood flow, glucose metabolism, and dopaminergic function produced by parkinsonian disorders. Both PET and SPECT have become important tools in the differential diagnosis of these diseases, and may have sufficient sensitivity to detect neuronal changes before the onset of clinical symptoms. Imaging is now being utilised to elucidate the genetic contribution to Parkinson’s disease, and in longitudinal studies to assess the efficacy and mode of action of neuroprotective drug and surgical treatments. This review summarises recent applications of SPECT imaging in the study of parkinsonian disorders, with particular reference to the increasing role it is playing in the understanding, diagnosis and management of these diseases.

  13. Apotemnophilia or body integrity identity disorder: a case report review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Khalil, Rami; Richa, Sami

    2012-12-01

    Apotemnophilia or body integrity identity disorder (BIID) denotes a syndrome in which a person is preoccupied with the desire to amputate a healthy limb. In this report, we review the available case reports in the literature in order to enhance psychiatrists' and physicians' comprehension of this disorder. A search for the case reports available via MEDLINE was done since the first case report published by Money et al in 1977 till May 2011, using the following terms: apotemnophilia, self-demand amputation, body integrity identity disorder, and BIID. In all, 14 case reports were found relevant to our search. The desire to amputate one's healthy limb seems to be related to a major disturbance in the person's perception of one's own identity, where limb amputation can relieve temporarily the patient's feeling of distress without necessarily and uniformly adjusting the patient's own identity misperception. More investigations are needed in this domain in order to develop noninvasive treatment strategies that approach this aspect of the patient's distress within a globalist perspective. In addition, the health professionals' awareness regarding this disorder is required to ensure professional management of patients' suffering. PMID:23089967

  14. Gender dysphoria and autism spectrum disorder: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Miesen, Anna I R; Hurley, Hannah; De Vries, Annelou L C

    2016-01-01

    The current literature shows growing evidence of a link between gender dysphoria (GD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study reviews the available clinical and empirical data. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Scopus; utilizing different combinations of the following search terms: autism, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Asperger's disorder (AD), co-morbidity, gender dysphoria (GD), gender identity disorder (GID), transgenderism and transsexualism. In total, 25 articles and reports were selected and discussed. Information was grouped by found co-occurrence rates, underlying hypotheses and implications for diagnosis and treatment. GD and ASD were found to co-occur frequently - sometimes characterized by atypical presentation of GD, which makes a correct diagnosis and determination of treatment options for GD difficult. Despite these challenges there are several case reports describing gender affirming treatment of co-occurring GD in adolescents and adults with ASD. Various underlying hypotheses for the link between GD and ASD were suggested, but almost all of them lack evidence. PMID:26753812

  15. Gastrointestinal disorders associated with migraine: A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara-Lemarroy, Carlos R; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Monreal-Robles, Roberto; Marfil-Rivera, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a recurrent and commonly disabling primary headache disorder that affects over 17% of women and 5%-8% of men. Migraine susceptibility is multifactorial with genetic, hormonal and environmental factors all playing an important role. The physiopathology of migraine is complex and still not fully understood. Many different neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and brain pathways have been implicated. In connection with the myriad mechanisms and pathways implicated in migraine, a variety of multisystemic comorbidities (e.g., cardiovascular, psychiatric and other neurological conditions) have been found to be closely associated with migraine. Recent reports demonstrate an increased frequency of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in patients with migraine compared with the general population. Helicobacter pylori infection, irritable bowel syndrome, gastroparesis, hepatobiliary disorders, celiac disease and alterations in the microbiota have been linked to the occurrence of migraine. Several mechanisms involving the gut-brain axis, such as a chronic inflammatory response with inflammatory and vasoactive mediators passing to the circulatory system, intestinal microbiota modulation of the enteric immunological milieu and dysfunction of the autonomic and enteric nervous system, have been postulated to explain these associations. However, the precise mechanisms and pathways related to the gut-brain axis in migraine need to be fully elucidated. In this review, we survey the available literature linking migraine with GI disorders. We discuss the possible physiopathological mechanisms, and clinical implications as well as several future areas of interest for research. PMID:27688656

  16. Autistic Traits and Cognitive Performance in Young People with Mild Intellectual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jonathan M.; Best, Catherine S.; Moffat, Vivien J.; Spencer, Michael D.; Philip, Ruth C. M.; Power, Michael J.; Johnstone, Eve C.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive performance and the relationship between theory of mind (TOM), weak central coherence and executive function were investigated in a cohort of young people with additional learning needs. Participants were categorized by social communication questionnaire score into groups of 10 individuals within the autistic spectrum disorder (ASD)…

  17. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient and Visual Search: Shallow and Deep Autistic Endophenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, B. L.; Plaisted-Grant, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    A high Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score (Baron-Cohen et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord" 31(1):5-17, 2001) is increasingly used as a proxy in empirical studies of perceptual mechanisms in autism. Several investigations have assessed perception in non-autistic people measured for AQ, claiming the same relationship exists between…

  18. Study the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in Egyptian autistic children: A clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-baz

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: HBOT is a treatment that has recently become quite popular in the autism spectrum disorder (ASD community. Its benefits cross a wide range of autistic traits as: improved language, increased awareness, behavior and socialization by affecting the pathophysiological findings in autism.

  19. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Autistic Traits in the UK, India and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeth, Megan; Sheppard, Elizabeth; Ramachandran, Rajani; Milne, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The disorder of autism is widely recognised throughout the world. However, the diagnostic criteria and theories of autism are based on research predominantly conducted in Western cultures. Here we compare the expression of autistic traits in a sample of neurotypical individuals from one Western culture (UK) and two Eastern cultures (India and…

  20. Perfusion impairments on brain SPECT in patients with infantile autism and nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders: comparison with MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroimaging findings of autism has been the subjects of continuing investigation. Because previous study had not demonstrated consistent and specific neuroimaging findings of autism and most studies comprised adults and school-aged children, we performed a retrospective review in search of common functional and structural abnormalities in pre-school aged autistic children using Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI and compared them with age-matched children with nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). 58 children between 3 and 8 years of age infantile autism (n=37) and non-autistic PDD (n=21) were performed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI. Diagnosis of autism and non-autistic PDD was based on the criteria of DSM-IV and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Of the 37 autistic patients, 32 revealed decreased perfusion of cerebellar hemisphere, followed by hypoperfusion of thalami (n=30), parietal cortex (n=16), temporal cortex (n=12). Of those 21 PDD patients, 14 patients showed hypoperfusion of the thalami and 10 patients showed temporal hypoperfusion. However, cerebellar hemispheric (n=8) and parietal (n=1) hypoperfusion was infrequently seen. All autistic and nonautistic PDD patients had normal MRI scan. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion on brain SPECT showed statistically significant correlation with CARS. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion is significantly frequently noted in autistic patients although they had normal MRI and SPECT may be useful and more sensitive modality in reflecting pathophysiology of autism as evidenced by previous MRI and postmortem studies. Thalamic and temporal hypoperfusion can be seen in both autistic and nonautistic patients and further studies are necessary to determine the significance of the thalamic hypoperfusion

  1. Perfusion impairments on brain SPECT in patients with infantile autism and nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders: comparison with MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Young Hoon; Lee, Jong Doo; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Jeon, Tae Joo; Shin, Yee Jin; Lee, Byung Hee; Shin, Hyung Cheol [College of Medecine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    Neuroimaging findings of autism has been the subjects of continuing investigation. Because previous study had not demonstrated consistent and specific neuroimaging findings of autism and most studies comprised adults and school-aged children, we performed a retrospective review in search of common functional and structural abnormalities in pre-school aged autistic children using Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI and compared them with age-matched children with nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). 58 children between 3 and 8 years of age infantile autism (n=37) and non-autistic PDD (n=21) were performed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI. Diagnosis of autism and non-autistic PDD was based on the criteria of DSM-IV and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Of the 37 autistic patients, 32 revealed decreased perfusion of cerebellar hemisphere, followed by hypoperfusion of thalami (n=30), parietal cortex (n=16), temporal cortex (n=12). Of those 21 PDD patients, 14 patients showed hypoperfusion of the thalami and 10 patients showed temporal hypoperfusion. However, cerebellar hemispheric (n=8) and parietal (n=1) hypoperfusion was infrequently seen. All autistic and nonautistic PDD patients had normal MRI scan. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion on brain SPECT showed statistically significant correlation with CARS. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion is significantly frequently noted in autistic patients although they had normal MRI and SPECT may be useful and more sensitive modality in reflecting pathophysiology of autism as evidenced by previous MRI and postmortem studies. Thalamic and temporal hypoperfusion can be seen in both autistic and nonautistic patients and further studies are necessary to determine the significance of the thalamic hypoperfusion.

  2. [Can orthodontic treatment generate temporomandibular disorders and pain? A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebeile-Chauty, Sarah; Robin, Olivier; Messaoudi, Yassine; Aknin, Jean-Jacques

    2010-03-01

    While considered for years to play the primary role in the etiology of temporo-mandibular joint disturbances (TMD), occlusal discrepancies are now considered to be just one causative factor among many. Recent studies, literature reviews or meta-analyses, and longitudinal studies with follow-up of children treated for many years all conclude that there is no risk of orthodontic treatment giving rise to episodes of temporo-mandibular disorders. The signs of TMD appearing during the course of orthodontic treatment should be considered in the context of the epidemiology of the disorder, which is characterized by a strong increase in its occurrence during adolescence. In conclusion, it should be stated that if orthodontic treatment can no longer be considered as one of the etiopathogenic factors in the TMD complex, there are no scientific arguments to justify the converse, that there are indications for orthodontic treatment whose sole goal would be the treatment of TMD. PMID:20359451

  3. A Multidimensional Review of Bilingual Aphasia as a Language Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Akbari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aphasia as a multifaceted language disorder associated with the complicated links between language and brain has been and is of interest and significance to the stream of research in different disciplines including neurolinguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive studies and language acquisition. Along with explorations into the manifestations of aphasia in monolingual speakers, bilingual aphasia has similarly become the most current form of this language disorder due to the rising number of bilingual speakers in recent decades all over the world and the probability of facing bilinguals suffering from this language deficit. To paint a picture of this multidimensional linguistic impairment and to get out of the labyrinth of aphasia and in particular bilingual aphasia, the present review study aims to provide a summary of aphasia-related studies in different contexts worldwide and run through the variables affecting the manifestations and language recovery patterns in bilingual aphasic speakers.

  4. [Body dysmorphic disorder and aesthetic surgery: A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfant, N; Henry, A-S; Ta, P; Trimaille, A; Philandrianos, C; Hu, W

    2015-12-01

    Patients suffering from body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are preoccupied with an imagined or minor defect in appearance that causes significant distress and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Despite a rate of up to 15% of BDD patients reported in cosmetic surgery settings, there is no consensus on the best management for these patients. The main purpose of this article was to conduct a literature review on BDD and cosmetic surgery. Properly trained healthcare professionals in recognizing and diagnosing this pathology is essential for the delivery of quality psychiatric care while taking into account the high prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder patients in cosmetic surgery and the poor outcome of these patients following cosmetic procedures. PMID:26184610

  5. A review of potassium channels in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Toolan Judy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Although bipolar disorder (BP is one of the most heritable psychiatric conditions, susceptibility genes for the disorder have yet to be conclusively identified. It is likely that variants in multiple genes across multiple pathways contribute to the genotype-phenotype relationship. Recent evidence from genome-wide association studies (GWAS implicates an entire class of genes related to the structure and regulation of ion channels, suggesting that the etiology of BP may arise from a channelopathy. In this review, we examine the evidence for this hypothesis, with a focus on the potential role of voltage gated potassium channels. We consider evidence from genetic and expression studies, and discuss the potential underlying biology. We consider animal models and treatment implications of the involvement of potassium ion channelopathy in BP. Finally, we explore intriguing parallels between BP and epilepsy, the signature channelopathy of the CNS.

  6. [Schema therapy for personality disorders. A critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, E; Zarbock, G

    2015-01-01

    In the 10 years since schema therapy was first recognized in Germany it has become widespread among practitioners and has taken a place among the so-called third wave therapies. The overall goal of schema therapy is conceptualizing and treating personality disorders or traits reinforcing axis I disorders. Early maladaptive schemas result from a child's unmet emotional core needs. In a limited reparenting therapy relationship these interpersonal situations are re-experienced and rescripted under the therapist's control. Schema therapy integrates elements of existing models and techniques into a consistent case conceptualization as the bedrock for understanding and changing maladaptive coping behavior. This review article gives a comprehensive overview about the model, the therapy relationship and the application of the experiential techniques in relation to already developed approaches (including the current evidence). The strengths and weaknesses are briefly discussed.

  7. Detection of antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic children who received thimerosal-containing vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra K; Rivas, Wyatt H

    2004-01-01

    Autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder, may involve autoimmune pathogenesis. Since mercury is potentially a risk factor for autoimmunity, we conducted a study of mercury-induced antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic and normal children who had been pre-administered with thimerosal-containing vaccines. Laboratory analysis by different immunoassays showed that the serum level of these two autoimmune markers did not significantly differ between autistic and normal children. This finding suggests that the mercury as in thimerosal-containing vaccines is likely not related to autoimmune phenomenon in autism.

  8. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders observed currently. It is a normal adaptive response to stress that allows coping with adverse situations. Nevertheless, when anxiety becomes excessive or disproportional in relation to the situation that evokes it or when there is not any special object directed at it, such as an irrational dread of routine stimuli, it becomes a disabling disorder and is considered to be pathological. The traditional treatment used is medication and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, however, last years the practice of physical exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, has been investigated as a new non-pharmacological therapy for anxiety disorders. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat anxiety, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. The sample analyzed, 66.8% was composed of women and 80% with severity of symptoms anxiety as moderate to severe. The data analyzed in this review allows us to claim that alternative therapies like exercise are effective in controlling and reducing symptoms, as 91% of anxiety disorders surveys have shown effective results in treating. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressant symptoms and cognitive function in anxiety, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild. PMID:26556089

  9. Virtual reality exposure therapy in anxiety disorders: a systematic review of process-and-outcome studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Meyerbröker; P.M.G. Emmelkamp

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has become an interesting alternative for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Research has focused on the efficacy of VRET in treating anxiety disorders: phobias, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. In this systematic review, st

  10. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient and Visual Search: Shallow and Deep Autistic Endophenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, B L; Plaisted-Grant, K C

    2016-05-01

    A high Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score (Baron-Cohen et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 31(1):5-17, 2001) is increasingly used as a proxy in empirical studies of perceptual mechanisms in autism. Several investigations have assessed perception in non-autistic people measured for AQ, claiming the same relationship exists between performance on perceptual tasks in high-AQ individuals as observed in autism. We question whether the similarity in performance by high-AQ individuals and autistics reflects the same underlying perceptual cause in the context of two visual search tasks administered to a large sample of typical individuals assessed for AQ. Our results indicate otherwise and that deploying the AQ as a proxy for autism introduces unsubstantiated assumptions about high-AQ individuals, the endophenotypes they express, and their relationship to Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) individuals. PMID:24077740

  11. PANDAS: an autoimmune model of mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura del Pilar Cadena Afanador

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, the National Institute of Mental Health defined the criteria of diagnosis for the pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS. Since then there has been investigating the genesis of the autoimmunity caused by this microorganism and its clinical implications, since it has been associated with the obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette’s disorder and Sydenham’s chorea and with minor evidence it has been related to of hyperactivity disorder with lack of attention, autistic disorder and anorexia nervosa. The present article is a review on the most important aspects that have been defined up to now in regards to the physiopatlogy, clinical presentation and management of the patients with PANDAS spectrum, since they are a group of diseases in which it will be possible to change the paradigm of treatment in Psychiatry, from being a symptomatic disease to an etiological one.

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4:1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and 4 Iranian databases (IranPsych,IranMedex, Irandoc and Scientific Information Database (SID to find Iranian studies on  ASDs. The results of 39 investigations, comprising original, review and editorial articles; proceedings; and available dissertations were categorized by prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.ConclusionSeveral preliminary investigations have been done to evaluate the prevalence of ASDs, and risk factors and effective variables have been studied with regard to etiology. The diagnostic evaluation of ASDs, especially based on EEG, and several pharmacological and behavioral interventions for ASD have been implemented in Iran. Mental health, stress levels, and personality characteristics were examined in the parents of children with ASDs, which were focused on mothers.ReferencesFirst MB, Frances A, Pincus HA. DSM-IV-TR: Handbook of differential diagnosis. United States of America:American Psychiatric Publishing; 2002.Parker S, Zuckerman B, Augustyn M. Developmental and behavioral pediatrics, 2 th ed. United States of America:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.Howlin P. Autism and Asperger syndrome, 2 th ed. United States of America: Routledge; 2005.Mohammadi MR, Akhondzadeh S. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Etiology and Pharmacotherapy. Curr Drug ther2007; 2: 97-103.Newschaffer CJ, Croen LA, Daniels J, Giarelli E, GretherJK, Levy SE, et al. The epidemiology of autism spectrumdisorders. Annu Rev Public Health

  13. Autistic barriers in the psychoanalysis of borderline adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D; Jay, S M

    1996-10-01

    The authors discuss Frances Tustin's work on childhood autism in order to clarify the nature and protective function of autistic barriers in adult patients who present challenging resistances in treatment. Tustin's thesis is that childhood autism constitutes a massive formation of avoidance reactions that develop in infancy to ward off traumatic awareness of bodily separateness. She describes two forms of childhood pathology that may develop: the encapsulated child who defends against all 'not me' experience by means of self-generated bodily sensations that augment the illusion of complete bodily continuity with the mother; and the entangled child who generates a protective illusion of being enfolded inside the body of the mother to minimise the experience of separateness. The transference resistances of borderline adults can be categorised according to Tustin's typology of encapsulation and entanglement. Clinical material is presented from the analyses of two borderline patients, one encapsulated and the other entangled. Despite seemingly different transference manifestations, both belong to the category of autistic barriers inasmuch as they ward off awareness of separation-induced injury to the primal self. The countertransference difficulties that the analyst encounters with patients who employ autistic barriers are discussed and treatment issues are reviewed.

  14. Somatic treatments excluding psychopharmacology in obsessive- compulsive disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Murad

    2013-06-01

    Somatic treatments other than psychotropic drugs are increasingly used in the patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), however there has been little systematic review of them. Therefore, the present review deals with a variety of somatic treatment methods excluding psychotropic drugs. A literature search was performed on the PubMed database from the beginning of 1980, to September 2012, for published English, Turkish and French-language articles of somatic treatment approaches (excluding psychopharmacological agents) in the treatment of OCD. The search was carried out by using some terms in detail. Afterwards, the obtained investigations on electroconvusive therapy (ECT), deep brain stimulation (DBS), neurosurgical methods and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were presented. Although psychopharmacological treatment and psychotherapeutic approaches are primary treatment modalities in the management of OCD, other somatic treatment options seem to be used as alternatives, especially for patients with treatmentresistant OCD. PMID:24032546

  15. Posttraumatic stress disorder: a state-of-the-science review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeroff, Charles B; Bremner, J Douglas; Foa, Edna B; Mayberg, Helen S; North, Carol S; Stein, Murray B

    2006-02-01

    This article reviews the state-of-the-art research in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from several perspectives: (1) Sex differences: PTSD is more frequent among women, who tend to have different types of precipitating traumas and higher rates of comorbid panic disorder and agoraphobia than do men. (2) Risk and resilience: The presence of Group C symptoms after exposure to a disaster or act of terrorism may predict the development of PTSD as well as comorbid diagnoses. (3) Impact of trauma in early life: Persistent increases in CRF concentration are associated with early life trauma and PTSD, and may be reversed with paroxetine treatment. (4) Imaging studies: Intriguing findings in treated and untreated depressed patients may serve as a paradigm of failed brain adaptation to chronic emotional stress and anxiety disorders. (5) Neural circuits and memory: Hippocampal volume appears to be selectively decreased and hippocampal function impaired among PTSD patients. (6) Cognitive behavioral approaches: Prolonged exposure therapy, a readily disseminated treatment modality, is effective in modifying the negative cognitions that are frequent among PTSD patients. In the future, it would be useful to assess the validity of the PTSD construct, elucidate genetic and experiential contributing factors (and their complex interrelationships), clarify the mechanisms of action for different treatments used in PTSD, discover ways to predict which treatments (or treatment combinations) will be successful for a given individual, develop an operational definition of remission in PTSD, and explore ways to disseminate effective evidence-based treatments for this condition. PMID:16242154

  16. The differential diagnosis of impaired reciprocal social interaction in children: a review of disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeringa, M S

    2001-01-01

    Impairment in reciprocal social interaction in children that is less severe than autism can be difficult to diagnose due to the variety of developmental pathways that may lead to this problem. Seven childhood disorders are reviewed that include impaired reciprocal interaction: multisystem developmental disorder, nonverbal learning disability syndrome, semantic-pragmatic disorder, attachment disorders (including a developmental theory of limbic system damage), multiplex developmental disorder, schizoid personality disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. Clarification is needed for most of the disorders in the areas of operationalized criteria, assessment tools, and documenting causal relationships. PMID:11579660

  17. Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Amy S; Blaxill, Mark F; Haley, Boyd E

    2003-01-01

    Reported rates of autism have increased sharply in the United States and the United Kingdom. One possible factor underlying these increases is increased exposure to mercury through thimerosal-containing vaccines, but vaccine exposures need to be evaluated in the context of cumulative exposures during gestation and early infancy. Differential rates of postnatal mercury elimination may explain why similar gestational and infant exposures produce variable neurological effects. First baby haircut samples were obtained from 94 children diagnosed with autism using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM IV) criteria and 45 age- and gender-matched controls. Information on diet, dental amalgam fillings, vaccine history, Rho D immunoglobulin administration, and autism symptom severity was collected through a maternal survey questionnaire and clinical observation. Hair mercury levels in the autistic group were 0.47 ppm versus 3.63 ppm in controls, a significant difference. The mothers in the autistic group had significantly higher levels of mercury exposure through Rho D immunoglobulin injections and amalgam fillings than control mothers. Within the autistic group, hair mercury levels varied significantly across mildly, moderately, and severely autistic children, with mean group levels of 0.79, 0.46, and 0.21 ppm, respectively. Hair mercury levels among controls were significantly correlated with the number of the mothers' amalgam fillings and their fish consumption as well as exposure to mercury through childhood vaccines, correlations that were absent in the autistic group. Hair excretion patterns among autistic infants were significantly reduced relative to control. These data cast doubt on the efficacy of traditional hair analysis as a measure of total mercury exposure in a subset of the population. In light of the biological plausibility of mercury's role in neurodevelopmental disorders, the present study provides further insight into one

  18. MECHANICAL GAIT TRAINING IN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS: A REVIEW OF EVIDENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyyappan Manickavasagam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Robotic technologies are becoming more prevalent for treating neurological conditions in clinical settings. We conducted a literature search of original articles to identify all studies that examined the use of robotic devices for restoring walking function in adults with neurological disorders. A search was conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Google Scholar, CINAHL and EBSCO host from 2005 to 2014. Keywords used were gait, locomotor training, multiple sclerosis, neurological disorders, rehabilitation, robotics, spinal cord injury, stroke, traumatic brain injury and walking. This review analyzed 27 articles that examined the effects of locomotor training with robotic assistance in patients following stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI, multiple sclerosis (MS, traumatic brain injury (TBI, and Parkinson disease (PD. This review supports that locomotor training with robotic assistance is beneficial for improving walking function in individuals following a stroke and SCI. Gait speed and endurance were not found to be significantly different among patients with motor incomplete SCI after a variety of locomotor training approaches. Limited evidence demonstrates that locomotor training with robotic assistance is beneficial in populations of patients with MS, TBI, or PD. We discuss clini¬cal implications and decision making in the area of gait reha¬bilitation for neurological dysfunction.

  19. Personality disorders in euthymic bipolar patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Bezerra-Filho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To identify, by means of a systematic review, the frequency with which comorbid personality disorders (PDs have been assessed in studies of euthymic bipolar patients.Methods:PubMed, ciELO and PsychINFO databases were searched for eligible articles published between 1997 and 2013. After screening 1,249 empirical papers, two independent reviewers identified three articles evaluating the frequency of PDs in patients with bipolar disorders assessed in a state of euthymia.Results:The total sample comprised 376 euthymic bipolar patients, of whom 155 (41.2% had at least one comorbid PD. Among them, we found 87 (23.1% in cluster B, 55 (14.6% in cluster C, and 25 (6.6% in cluster A. The frequencies of PD subtypes were: borderline, 38 (10.1%; histrionic, 29 (7.7%; obsessive-compulsive, 28 (7.4%; dependent, 19 (5%; narcissistic, 17 (4.5%; schizoid, schizotypal, and avoidant, 11 patients each (2.95%; paranoid, five (1.3%; and antisocial, three (0.79%.Conclusion:The frequency of comorbid PD was high across the spectrum of euthymic bipolar patients. In this population, the most common PDs were those in cluster B, and the most frequent PD subtype was borderline, followed by histrionic and obsessive-compulsive.

  20. A Review of Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Its Presentation in Different Clinical Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Mufaddel, Amir; Osman, Ossama T.; Almugaddam, Fadwa; Jafferany, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common psychiatric disorder characterized by preoccupations with perceived defects in physical appearance. This review aimed to explore epidemiology, clinical features, comorbidities, and treatment options for BDD in different clinical settings.

  1. Supporting and treating families with children on the autistic spectrum: The unique role of the generalist psychologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Research findings indicate that intensive behavior therapy (e.g., applied behavioral analysis, or ABA) represents an effective treatment for autistic spectrum disorders. Unfortunately, children with autism represent an underserved patient population. Parents often make treatment decisions with insufficient information and report problems in establishing and maintaining treatment programs. This practice review asserts that psychologists, including those without professional certification or coursework in ABA, are in a unique position to assist affected children and their families. Psychologists can provide critical information about evidence-based treatment; offer assistance in overcoming barriers to intensive treatment, including personnel selection; and provide ongoing support to family members. Case examples also illustrate how psychologists can help families address specific barriers to intensive treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122105

  2. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Caetano Dell'Aglio Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.

  3. Asperger's disorder will be back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Luke Y

    2013-12-01

    This review focuses on identifying up-to-date number of publications that compared DSM-IV/ICD-10 Asperger's disorder (AspD) to Autistic Disorder/High-functioning Autism (AD/HFA). One hundred and twenty-eight publications were identified through an extensive search of major electronic databases and journals. Based on more than 90 clinical variables been investigated, 94 publications concluded that there were statistically significant or near significant level of quantitative and/or qualitative differences between AspD and AD/HFA groups; 4 publications found both similarities and differences between the two groups; 30 publications concluded with no differences between the two groups. Although DSM-5 ASD will eliminate Asperger's disorder. However, it is plausible to predict that the field of ASD would run full circle during the next decade or two and that AspD will be back in the next edition of DSM. PMID:23644916

  4. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iran: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Yousefi-Nooraie

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective:Taking the diversity of the methodologies applied in prevalence studies of psychiatric disorders in Iran and their heterogeneous results into consideration, there seems to be need for a systematic review in order to compile the findings and seek appropriate recommendations for future studies. This study aims at systematically identifying studies conducted in Iran describing the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in general population, and to summarize the findings of these studies. "n "n Method:To identify the relevant studies, several databases including Pubmed Medline, ISI Web of Science, PsychINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, Irandoc, IranPsych, IranMedex, Scientific Information Database as well as reference lists of the accessed documents, unpublished reports, conference proceedings and dissertations were searched. In the next step, the original studies which contained an estimation of prevalence of "any psychiatric disorder" (overall prevalence among a sample of general population in the country were selected. This was followed by data extraction, presentation of the results, quality assessment and quantitative pooling of estimated rates of prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Results:A total number of 35 studies were included. Estimations provided for prevalence rates in different groups illustrate diversity and heterogeneity; the rates varied in the range of 1.9-58.8%. Most of the studies had assessed the point prevalence of the disorders conducted using screening instruments. The median point prevalence has been reported to be 28.70% in screening studies, and 18.60% in studies using diagnostic interviews. Pooled estimates obtained through meta-analysis for screening and diagnostic studies were 29.1% and 21.9%,respectively. The results of the studies which have used diagnostic interviews as their data collection tool showed less heterogeneity than the ones using screening instruments. In quality assessment of the studies, only one

  5. Occupation-Based Intervention for Addictive Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmuth, Sally; Pritchard, Kevin; Kaneshiro, Kellie

    2016-03-01

    Addictive disorders disrupt individuals' occupational lives, suggesting that occupational therapists can play a crucial role in addiction rehabilitation. Occupation-based interventions are those in which an occupation is performed, and occupations are defined as those activities a person engages in to structure time and create meaning in one's life. This review asked: In persons with addictive disorders, are occupation-based interventions more effective than treatment as usual in improving short and long-term recovery outcomes? A systematic literature search was performed by a medical librarian in Ovid MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Social Work Abstracts, OTSeeker, HealthSTAR, CINAHL, and ACPJournalClub. Authors screened 1095 articles for inclusion criteria (prospective outcome studies examining the effectiveness of an occupation-based intervention with a sample primarily consisting of a diagnosis of a substance-related or addictive disorder and with at least five participants), and two authors appraised the resulting 66 articles using a standard appraisal tool, yielding 26 articles for qualitative synthesis and 8 with shared outcome measures for quantitative analysis. Occupation-based interventions in the areas of work, leisure, and social participation were found to have been used to treat addictive disorders. Occupation-based interventions in the area of social participation all elicited better outcomes than their respective control/comparison groups. Not all occupation-based interventions in the area of leisure elicited better outcomes than their comparison group, but in the eight articles with shared outcome measures, quantitative analysis demonstrated leisure interventions produced larger effect sizes than social participation interventions. PMID:26738639

  6. The rise of eating disorders in Asia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Kathleen M; Dunne, Patricia E

    2015-01-01

    Once concentrated among adolescent Caucasian females in high-income Western countries, today, eating disorders (EDs) are truly global. Building upon previous work describing the rise of EDs among cultures in transition, we contextualize the emergence of EDs in Asia by locating this development within the broader discourse about the processes of change that have radically transformed Asian societies over the last three decades. By identifying where EDs are emerging in the region, and by examining their particular expression, our aim is to explicate a fuller story of the relationship between culture and eating disorders. Much of the discussion of EDs in non-Western societies is predicated upon the assumption that an increase in EDs is the by-product of "Westernization", the term used to describe the process by which increased cultural contact with the West results in the transmission of so-called 'Western' ideas and cultural norms to a non-Western culture. While the Westernization literature represents a historical anchor in our understanding of EDs in Asia, we propose that this analysis is incomplete in that societal change in the form of industrialization and urbanization occurring independently from, or in tandem with, "Western" influence are critical factors contributing to the rise of EDs in Asia. Further, our review of eating disorders in Asia suggests that an understanding of the diversity and distinctiveness of the individual countries and cultures that comprise 'Asia' is crucial to understanding the emergence and rise of EDs across this vast region, suggesting that eating disorders are not culture-bound or culture-specific, but rather culture-reactive. Taking into account both the historical influence of Western culture and the more contemporary effects of Asian industrialization and urbanization, key distinctions among respective Asian cultures expands our understanding of the development and expression of EDs globally. PMID:26388993

  7. InterRett, a model for international data collection in a rare genetic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Louise, Sandra; Fyfe, Sue; Bebbington, Ami; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Anderson, Alison; Pineda, Mercé; Percy, Alan; Ben Zeev, Bruria; Wu, Xi Ru; Bao, Xinhua; Mac Leod, Patrick; Armstrong, Judith; Leonard, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare genetic disorder within the autistic spectrum. This study compared socio-demographic, clinical and genetic characteristics of the international database, InterRett, and the population based Australian Rett syndrome database (ARSD). It also explored the strengths and limitations of InterRett in comparison with other studies. A literature review compared InterRett with RTT population-based and case-based studies of thirty or more cases that investigated genotype an...

  8. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Trevarthen, Colwyn; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements, and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cogniti...

  9. Autism as a developmental disorder in intentional movement and affective engagement

    OpenAIRE

    COLWYN eTREVARTHEN; Delafield-Butt, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    We review evidence that autistic spectrum disorders have their origin in early, prenatal failure of development in systems that program timing, serial coordination and prospective control of movements and that regulate affective evaluations of experiences. There are effects in early infancy, before medical diagnosis, especially in motor sequencing, selective or exploratory attention, affective expression and intersubjective engagement with parents. These are followed by retardation of cogniti...

  10. Panic disorder: a review of DSM-IV panic disorder and proposals for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, Michelle G; Kircanski, Katharina; Epstein, Alyssa; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Pine, Danny S; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Hinton, Devon

    2010-02-01

    This review covers the literature since the publication of DSM-IV on the diagnostic criteria for panic attacks (PAs) and panic disorder (PD). Specific recommendations are made based on the evidence available. In particular, slight changes are proposed for the wording of the diagnostic criteria for PAs to ease the differentiation between panic and surrounding anxiety; simplification and clarification of the operationalization of types of PAs (expected vs. unexpected) is proposed; and consideration is given to the value of PAs as a specifier for all DSM diagnoses and to the cultural validity of certain symptom profiles. In addition, slight changes are proposed for the wording of the diagnostic criteria to increase clarity and parsimony of the criteria. Finally, based on the available evidence, no changes are proposed with regard to the developmental expression of PAs or PD. This review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V.

  11. Cytokines profile and peripheral blood mononuclear cells morphology in Rett and autistic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorelli, Alessandra; Cervellati, Franco; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Montagner, Giulia; Waldon, PhiAnh; Hayek, Joussef; Gambari, Roberto; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    A potential role for immune dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been well established. However, immunological features of Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder closely related to autism, have not been well addressed yet. By using multiplex Luminex technology, a panel of 27 cytokines and chemokines was evaluated in serum from 10 RTT patients with confirmed diagnosis of MECP2 mutation (typical RTT), 12 children affected by classic autistic disorder and 8 control subjects. The cytokine/chemokine gene expression was assessed by real time PCR on mRNA of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Moreover, ultrastructural analysis of PBMCs was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Significantly higher serum levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-9, IL-13 were detected in RTT compared to control subjects, and IL-15 shows a trend toward the upregulation in RTT. In addition, IL-1β and VEGF were the only down-regulated cytokines in autistic patients with respect to RTT. No difference in cytokine/chemokine profile between autistic and control groups was detected. These data were also confirmed by ELISA real time PCR. At the ultrastructural level, the most severe morphological abnormalities were observed in mitochondria of both RTT and autistic PBMCs. In conclusion, our study shows a deregulated cytokine/chemokine profile together with morphologically altered immune cells in RTT. Such abnormalities were not quite as evident in autistic subjects. These findings indicate a possible role of immune dysfunction in RTT making the clinical features of this pathology related also to the immunology aspects, suggesting, therefore, novel possible therapeutic interventions for this disorder.

  12. Impact of Casein and Gluten Free Dietary Intervention on Selected Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerappan Nishadevi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autism is a life long developmental disorder that emerges in early childhood and results in significant lifelong disability. The goal of treatment is to promote the childs social and language development and minimize behaviors that interfere with the childs functioning and learning. This study evaluated the impact of casein and gluten free diet among selected autistic children. Methods: Three private special schools in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 50 autistic children 10 from SIMEC, 10 from MMIC and 30 from CSI comprised the study sample. Background information, clinical history and nutritional status, dietary pattern were collected from the 50 selected autistic children. Out of 50 autistic children 30 autistic children were selected for the dietary intervention. Diet counseling regarding casein free diet was imparted to Group I (n=10, gluten free diet to Group II (n=10 and both casein and gluten free diet for Group III (n=10. The diet was followed for a period of 2 months. The efficacy of the dietary exclusion of casein and gluten was evaluated using a food and behavior diary on a day to day basis, using observation method. Findings: Results about Group I autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of casein free diet showed that the mean scores before and after casein free dietary intervention depiticted these improvements as, 1 to 1.2 for attention, 2.8 to 2.9 for sleep, 1.1 to 1.3 for hyperactivity, 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety/compulsion. For Group II autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of gluten free diet showed the improvements as 1.1 to 1.4 for attention 2.5 to 3 for sleep, 1.7 to 1.9 for hyperactivity, 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety/compulsion. About Group III autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of both casein and gluten free diet showed the improvements as 1.1 to 1.3 for attention, 2.5 to 2.7 for sleep, 1.3 to 1.7 for hyperactivity, and 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety

  13. Reprint of "Treatment of cannabis use disorders in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders--a systematic review"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan; Nordentoft, Merete

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are prevalent among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), with a range of detrimental effects, e.g. reduced compliance to medication and psychosocial interventions, and increased level of psychotic-dimension symptoms. The aim of this study was to review...

  14. Reprint of "Treatment of cannabis use disorders in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders--a systematic review"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan; Nordentoft, Merete

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are prevalent among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), with a range of detrimental effects, e.g. reduced compliance to medication and psychosocial interventions, and increased level of psychotic-dimension symptoms. The aim of this study was to review...... literature on treatments of CUD in SSD-patients....

  15. Utility of proteomics in obstetric disorders: a review

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    Hernández-Núñez J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jónathan Hernández-Núñez,1 Magel Valdés-Yong21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Alberto Fernández-Valdés, Santa Cruz del Norte, Mayabeque, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Luis Díaz Soto, Habana del Este, La Habana, CubaAbstract: The study of proteomics could explain many aspects of obstetric disorders. We undertook this review with the aim of assessing the utility of proteomics in the specialty of obstetrics. We searched the electronic databases of MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, BVS Bireme, and SciELO, using various search terms with the assistance of a librarian. We considered cohort studies, case-control studies, case series, and systematic review articles published until October 2014 in the English or Spanish language, and evaluated their quality and the internal validity of the evidence provided. Two reviewers extracted the data independently, then both researchers simultaneously revised the data later, to arrive at a consensus. The search retrieved 1,158 papers, of which 965 were excluded for being duplicates, not relevant, or unrelated studies. A further 86 papers were excluded for being guidelines, protocols, or case reports, along with another 64 that did not contain relevant information, leaving 43 studies for inclusion. Many of these studies showed the utility of proteomic techniques for prediction, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, monitoring, and prognosis of pre-eclampsia, perinatal infection, premature rupture of membranes, preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and ectopic pregnancy. Proteomic techniques have enormous clinical significance and constitute an invaluable weapon in the management of obstetric disorders that increase maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.Keywords: proteomic techniques, obstetrics, diagnosis, prediction

  16. Psychosis, Mood and Behavioral Disorders in Usher Syndrome: Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Domanico, Daniela; Fragiotta, Serena; Cutini, Alessandro; Grenga, Pier Luigi; Vingolo, Enzo Maria

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to focus the current knowledge about mental and behavioral disorders in Usher syndrome. Previous studies described the presence of various mental disorders associated with Usher syndrome, suggesting possible mechanisms of association between these disorders. The most common manifestations are schizophrenia-like disorder and psychotic symptoms. Mood and behavioral disorders are rarely described, and often are associated with more complex cases in co-occurrence with ot...

  17. Mirror system based therapy for autism spectrum disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei CHEN; Jing ZHANG; Jun DING

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the present theories and empirical research of autisms' cognitive research and mir-ror systems and introduces a new hypothesis about the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD): autistic mir-ror neuron dysfunction hypothesis. ASD subjects show obvious lack of the activation of the mirror system during the task of observation or emotional cognition. It is sig-nificant to investigate the mirror system for revealing the causes of autism and it is also helpful for developing new ways to diagnose or treat this disorder.

  18. Comorbid Bipolar Affective Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Childhood: A Case Study and Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, Amlan K.; Samir Kumar Praharaj; Vinod Kumar Sinha

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder and bipolar affective disorder in the pediatric population show a bidirectional overlap. Few studies that have addressed this issue show that the prevalence of obsessive compulsive disorder in bipolar affective disorder patients ranges from 0 to 54%, and 1.85 to 36% of the obsessive compulsive disorder patients have a comorbid bipolar affective disorder. We report a case of a patient with an onset of obsessive compulsive disorder at two-and-a-half years of age, w...

  19. Management of REM sleep behavior disorder: An evidence based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Devnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is characterized by dream enactment behavior resulting from a loss of REM skeletal muscle atonia. The neurobiology of REM sleep and the characteristic features of REM atonia have an important basis for understanding the aggravating etiologies the proposed pharmacological interventions in its management. This review outlines the evidence for behavioral and therapeutic measures along with evidence-based guidelines for their implementation, impact on falls, and effect on polysomnography (PSG while highlighting the non-motor, autonomic, and cognitive impact of this entity. PubMed databases were reviewed upto May 2013 in peer-reviewed scientific literature regarding the pathophysiology and management of RBD in adults. The literature was graded according to the Oxford centre of evidence-based Medicine Levels. An early intervention that helps prevent consequences such as falls and provides a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms and allocates a unique platform that RBD portrays with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency. RBD provides a unique platform with its high risk of disease conversion with a sufficiently long latency, providing an opportunity for early intervention both to prevent consequences such as falls and provide a base for intervention with neuroprotective mechanisms.

  20. Autistic traits in neurotypical adults: correlates of graph theoretical functional network topology and white matter anisotropy patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Andras; Emri, Miklos; Spisak, Tamas; Szeman-Nagy, Anita; Beres, Monika; Kis, Sandor Attila; Molnar, Peter; Berenyi, Ervin

    2013-01-01

    Attempts to explicate the neural abnormalities behind autism spectrum disorders frequently revealed impaired brain connectivity, yet our knowledge is limited about the alterations linked with autistic traits in the non-clinical population. In our study, we aimed at exploring the neural correlates of dimensional autistic traits using a dual approach of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and graph theoretical analysis of resting state functional MRI data. Subjects were sampled from a public neuroimaging dataset of healthy volunteers. Inclusion criteria were adult age (age: 18-65), availability of DTI and resting state functional acquisitions and psychological evaluation including the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and Autistic Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ). The final subject cohort consisted of 127 neurotypicals. Global brain network structure was described by graph theoretical parameters: global and average local efficiency. Regional topology was characterized by degree and efficiency. We provided measurements for diffusion anisotropy. The association between autistic traits and the neuroimaging findings was studied using a general linear model analysis, controlling for the effects of age, gender and IQ profile. Significant negative correlation was found between the degree and efficiency of the right posterior cingulate cortex and autistic traits, measured by the combination of ASSQ and SRS scores. Autistic phenotype was associated with the decrease of whole-brain local efficiency. Reduction of diffusion anisotropy was found bilaterally in the temporal fusiform and parahippocampal gyri. Numerous models describe the autistic brain connectome to be dominated by reduced long-range connections and excessive short-range fibers. Our finding of decreased efficiency supports this hypothesis although the only prominent effect was seen in the posterior limbic lobe, which is known to act as a connector hub. The neural correlates of the autistic trait in neurotypicals

  1. Autistic traits in neurotypical adults: correlates of graph theoretical functional network topology and white matter anisotropy patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Jakab

    Full Text Available Attempts to explicate the neural abnormalities behind autism spectrum disorders frequently revealed impaired brain connectivity, yet our knowledge is limited about the alterations linked with autistic traits in the non-clinical population. In our study, we aimed at exploring the neural correlates of dimensional autistic traits using a dual approach of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and graph theoretical analysis of resting state functional MRI data. Subjects were sampled from a public neuroimaging dataset of healthy volunteers. Inclusion criteria were adult age (age: 18-65, availability of DTI and resting state functional acquisitions and psychological evaluation including the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS and Autistic Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ. The final subject cohort consisted of 127 neurotypicals. Global brain network structure was described by graph theoretical parameters: global and average local efficiency. Regional topology was characterized by degree and efficiency. We provided measurements for diffusion anisotropy. The association between autistic traits and the neuroimaging findings was studied using a general linear model analysis, controlling for the effects of age, gender and IQ profile. Significant negative correlation was found between the degree and efficiency of the right posterior cingulate cortex and autistic traits, measured by the combination of ASSQ and SRS scores. Autistic phenotype was associated with the decrease of whole-brain local efficiency. Reduction of diffusion anisotropy was found bilaterally in the temporal fusiform and parahippocampal gyri. Numerous models describe the autistic brain connectome to be dominated by reduced long-range connections and excessive short-range fibers. Our finding of decreased efficiency supports this hypothesis although the only prominent effect was seen in the posterior limbic lobe, which is known to act as a connector hub. The neural correlates of the autistic trait

  2. Atribuição de estados mentais no discurso de crianças do espectro autístico The attribution of mental states in the speech of children with autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyvia Christina Camarotto Battiston Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a atribuição de estados mentais no discurso de crianças pertencentes aos Distúrbios do Espectro Autístico e verificar a modificação no vocabulário e extensão frasal desses, após período de terapia fonoaudiológica. MÉTODOS: Foram colhidas amostras de fala da avaliação fonoaudiológica inicial, após seis meses e um ano de terapia fonoaudiológica, registradas nos prontuários de cinco crianças com autismo infantil e cinco com síndrome de Asperger para caracterização do desempenho verbal e da habilidade de atribuição de estados mentais de cada criança. Considerando-se apenas as emissões espontâneas, foram verificadas as palavras pertencentes às classes substantivo e verbo e classificadas como termos que referem estados físicos e mentais. A comparação entre os três momentos foi realizada por meio da avaliação da significância entre as medianas das amostras obtidas (teste da mediana, com diferença significativa ao nível de 10%. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se aumento no número de palavras emitidas e também no número de palavras por frase emitida entre os períodos de avaliação e após um ano de terapia fonoaudiológica para crianças com autismo infantil. Não foram encontradas diferenças para a atribuição de verbos de estados físicos e mentais e substantivos de estados mentais para ambos os grupos, sendo observada diminuição na emissão de substantivos de estados físicos no grupo autismo infantil. CONCLUSÃO: A atribuição de estados mentais aumentou após período de intervenção terapêutica fonoaudiológica, porém, sem diferença significativa, verificando-se aumento no comportamento verbal de crianças com autismo infantil.PURPOSE: To analyze the attribution of mental states in the speech of children within the Autistic Spectrum Disorders, and verify the modification in their vocabulary and phrasal extension, after a period of speech-language therapy. METHODS: Speech samples from the

  3. Parenting stress and affective symptoms in parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yun; Du, YaSong; Li, HuiLin; Zhang, XiYan; An, Yu; Wu, Bai-Lin

    2015-10-01

    We examined parenting stress and mental health status in parents of autistic children and assessed factors associated with such stress. Participants were parents of 188 autistic children diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria and parents of 144 normally developing children. Parents of autistic children reported higher levels of stress, depression, and anxiety than parents of normally developing children. Mothers of autistic children had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than that did parents of normally developing children. Mothers compared to fathers of autistic children were more vulnerable to depression. Age, behavior problems of autistic children, and mothers' anxiety were significantly associated with parenting stress.

  4. Traits contributing to the autistic spectrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Steer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is increasingly recognised that traits associated with autism reflect a spectrum with no clear boundary between typical and atypical behaviour. Dimensional traits are needed to investigate the broader autism phenotype. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety-three individual measures reflecting components of social, communication and repetitive behaviours characterising autistic spectrum disorder (ASD were identified between the ages of 6 months and 9 years from the ALSPAC database. Using missing value imputation, data for 13,138 children were analysed. Factor analysis suggested the existence of 7 factors explaining 85% of the variance. The factors were labelled: verbal ability, language acquisition, social understanding, semantic-pragmatic skills, repetitive-stereotyped behaviour, articulation and social inhibition. Four factors (1, 3, 5 and 7 were specific to ASD being more strongly associated with this phenotype than other co-morbid conditions while other factors were more associated with learning difficulties and specific language impairment. Nevertheless, all 7 factors contributed independently to the explanation of ASD (p<0.001. Exploration of putative genetic causal factors such as variants in the CNTNAP2 gene showed a varying pattern of associations with these traits. An alternative predictive model of ASD was derived using four individual measures: the coherence subscale of the Children's Communication Checklist (9y, the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (91 m, repetitive behaviour (69 m and the sociability subscale of the Emotionality Activity and Sociability measure (38 m. Although univarably these traits performed better than some factors, their combined explanations of ASD were similar (R(2 =  0.48. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results support the fractional nature of ASD with different aetiological origins for these components despite pleiotropic genetic effects being observed. These traits are

  5. Review of clinical trials for mitochondrial disorders: 1997-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Douglas S

    2013-04-01

    Over the last 15 years, some 16 open and controlled clinical trials for potential treatments of mitochondrial diseases have been reported or are in progress, and are summarized and reviewed herein. These include trials of administering dichloroacetate (an activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex), arginine or citrulline (precursors of nitric oxide), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10; part of the electron transport chain and an antioxidant), idebenone (a synthetic analogue of CoQ10), EPI-743 (a novel oral potent 2-electron redox cycling agent), creatine (a precursor of phosphocreatine), combined administration (of creatine, α-lipoate, and CoQ10), and exercise training (to increase muscle mitochondria). These trials have included patients with various mitochondrial disorders, a selected subcategory of mitochondrial disorders, or specific mitochondrial disorders (Leber hereditary optic neuropathy or mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes). The trial designs have varied from open-label/uncontrolled, open-label/controlled, or double-blind/placebo-controlled/crossover. Primary outcomes have ranged from single, clinically-relevant scores to multiple measures. Eight of these trials have been well-controlled, completed trials. Of these only 1 (treatment with creatine) showed a significant change in primary outcomes, but this was not reproduced in 2 subsequent trials with creatine with different patients. One trial (idebenone treatment of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy) did not show significant improvement in the primary outcome, but there was significant improvement in a subgroup of patients. Despite the paucity of benefits found so far, well-controlled clinical trials are essential building blocks in the continuing search for more effective treatment of mitochondrial disease, and current trials based on information gained from these prior experiences are in progress. Because of difficulties in recruiting sufficient mitochondrial disease patients

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Co-occurring Substance Use Disorder – A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnevik, Espen Ajo; Helverschou, Sissel Berge

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Patients with co-occurring autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and substance use disorder (SUD) require special attention from clinical services. Screening for this co-occurrence is not generally an integral part of routine clinical assessments, and failure to identify and understand this group of patients may contribute to a worsening of their symptoms and/or an increase in drug abuse. Thus, there is a need to review the evidence base on patients with co-occurring ASD and SUD in order to enhance clinical practice and future research. METHODS We reviewed all identified papers on patients with co-occurring ASD and SUD. The focus of the review was on epidemiology, patient characteristics, function of drug use, and the effect of current interventions. RESULTS A total of 18 papers were included in the analysis. Eleven papers were based on epidemiological studies, although only one study reported the prevalence of ASD in an SUD population. Two papers explored the role of personality, three papers studied subgroups of individuals serving prison for violent or sexual crimes, and one paper explored the function of drugs in the ASD patient group. There were no studies testing specific treatment interventions. CONCLUSIONS In most of the treatment settings studied, there were relatively few patients with co-occurring ASD and SUD, but due to differences in study samples it was difficult to establish a general prevalence rate. The one consistent finding was the lack of focused treatment studies. There is clearly a need for research on interventions that take account of the special needs of this patient group. PMID:27559296

  7. Social anxiety disorder: A review of environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A Brook

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christina A Brook, Louis A SchmidtDepartment of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Social anxiety disorder (SAD is a debilitating and chronic illness characterized by persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations, with a relatively high lifetime prevalence of 7% to 13% in the general population. Although the last two decades have witnessed enormous growth in the study of biological and dispositional factors underlying SAD, comparatively little attention has been directed towards environmental factors in SAD, even though there has been much ongoing work in the area. In this paper, we provide a recent review and critique of proposed environmental risk factors for SAD, focusing on traditional as well as some understudied and overlooked environmental risk factors: parenting and family environment, adverse life events, cultural and societal factors, and gender roles. We also discuss the need for research design improvements and considerations for future directions.

  8. Medication Adherence in Patients with Bipolar Disorder: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jennifer B; Krivenko, Anna; Howland, Molly; Schlachet, Rebecca; Sajatovic, Martha

    2016-09-01

    Poor medication adherence is a pervasive problem that causes disability and suffering as well as extensive financial costs among individuals with bipolar disorder (BD). Barriers to adherence are numerous and cross multiple levels, including factors related to bipolar pathology and those unique to an individual's circumstances. External factors, including treatment setting, healthcare system, and broader health policies, can also affect medication adherence in people with BD. Fortunately, advances in research have suggested avenues for improving adherence. A comprehensive review of adherence-enhancement interventions for the years 2005-2015 is included. Specific bipolar adherence-enhancement approaches that target knowledge gaps, cognitive patterns, specific barriers, and motivation may be helpful, as may approaches that capitalize on technology or novel drug-delivery systems. However, much work remains to optimally facilitate long-term medication adherence in people with BD. For adherence-enhancement approaches to be widely adapted, they need to be easily accessible, affordable, and practical. PMID:27435356

  9. Trauma narratives in posttraumatic stress disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kearney, Richard; Perrott, Kelly

    2006-02-01

    Nineteen empirical studies providing evidence about the nature of trauma narratives in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were reviewed. Selected studies had participants with a diagnosis of PTSD or with PTSD symptoms. The studies used either linguistic indices or participants' rating of narrative quality. There was evidence of a relationship between PTSD specific pathology and the occurrence of sensory/perceptual references and disturbed temporal aspects. Evidence for PTSD-related narrative fragmentation was inconclusive, and there were little data about specific self-referential content. Poor validity and confusion of content and syntactic aspects of narrative organization limited the data on the organization of PTSD narratives. Approaches that address some of these limitations and allow narrative-based evaluation of memory for trauma in PTSD are outlined. PMID:16568467

  10. Comprehensive Review on Kisspeptin and Its Role in Reproductive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Holly; Dhillo, Waljit S; Jayasena, Channa N

    2015-06-01

    Kisspeptin has recently emerged as a key regulator of the mammalian reproductive axis. It is known that kisspeptin, acting centrally via the kisspeptin receptor, stimulates secretion of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH). Loss of kisspeptin signaling causes hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in humans and other mammals. Kisspeptin interacts with other neuropeptides such as neurokinin B and dynorphin, to regulate GnRH pulse generation. In addition, a growing body of evidence suggests that kisspeptin signaling be regulated by nutritional status and stress. Kisspeptin may also represent a novel potential therapeutic target in the treatment of fertility disorders. Early human studies suggest that peripheral exogenous kisspeptin administration stimulates gonadotrophin release in healthy adults and in patients with certain forms of infertility. This review aims to concisely summarize what is known about kisspeptin as a regulator of reproductive function, and provide an update on recent advances within this field. PMID:26194072

  11. Sleep loss as risk factor for neurologic disorders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Urrestarazu, Elena; Iriarte, Jorge

    2013-03-01

    Sleep loss refers to sleep of shorter duration than the average baseline need of seven to eight hours per night. Sleep loss and sleep deprivation have severe effects on human health. In this article, we review the main aspects of sleep loss, taking into account its effects on the central nervous system. The neurocognitive and behavioral effects of sleep loss are well known. However, there is an increasing amount of research pointing to sleep deprivation as a risk factor for neurologic diseases, namely stroke, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, headache, epilepsy, pain, and somnambulism. Conversely, sleep loss has been reported to be a potential protective factor against Parkinson's disease. The pathophysiology involved in this relationship is multiple, comprising immune, neuroendocrine, autonomic, and vascular mechanisms. It is extremely important to identify the individuals at risk, since recognition and adequate treatment of their sleep problems may reduce the risk of certain neurologic disorders. PMID:23352029

  12. Review: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Studies of Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Kondo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper focuses on the application of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS to the study of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD in children and adolescents. Method. A literature search using the National Institutes of Health's PubMed database was conducted to identify indexed peer-reviewed MRS studies in pediatric patients with MDD. Results. The literature search yielded 18 articles reporting original MRS data in pediatric MDD. Neurochemical alterations in Choline, Glutamate, and N-Acetyl Aspartate are associated with pediatric MDD, suggesting pathophysiologic continuity with adult MDD. Conclusions. The MRS literature in pediatric MDD is modest but growing. In studies that are methodologically comparable, the results have been consistent. Because it offers a noninvasive and repeatable measurement of relevant in vivo brain chemistry, MRS has the potential to provide insights into the pathophysiology of MDD as well as the mediators and moderators of treatment response.

  13. Biomarkers and staging of bipolar disorder: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Roda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A growing body of evidence suggests that bipolar disorder (BD is a progressive disease according to clinical, biochemical and neuroimaging findings. This study reviewed the literature on the relationship between specific biomarkers and BD stages.METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE and PubMed was conducted to identify studies in English and Portuguese using the keywords biomarker, neurotrophic factors, inflammation, oxidative stress, neuroprogression and staging models cross-referenced with bipolar disorder.RESULTS: Morphometric studies of patients with BD found neuroanatomic abnormalities, such as ventricular enlargement, grey matter loss in the hippocampus and cerebellum, volume decreases in the prefrontal cortex and variations in the size of the amygdala. Other studies demonstrated that serum concentrations of neurotrophic factors, inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress may be used as BD biomarkers.CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of neurobiological changes associated with BD progression and activity may confirm the existence of BD biomarkers, which may be then included in staging models that will lead to improvements in treatment algorithms and more effective, individually tailored treatment regimens. Biomarkers may also be used to define early interventions to control disease progression.

  14. Disorder and function: a review of the dehydrin protein family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graether, Steffen P; Boddington, Kelly F

    2014-01-01

    Dehydration proteins (dehydrins) are group 2 members of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein family. The protein architecture of dehydrins can be described by the presence of three types of conserved sequence motifs that have been named the K-, Y-, and S-segments. By definition, a dehydrin must contain at least one copy of the lysine-rich K-segment. Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, and salinity cause the upregulation of dehydrin mRNA and protein levels. Despite the large body of genetic and protein evidence of the importance of these proteins in stress response, the in vivo protective mechanism is not fully known. In vitro experimental evidence from biochemical assays and localization experiments suggests multiple roles for dehydrins, including membrane protection, cryoprotection of enzymes, and protection from reactive oxygen species. Membrane binding by dehydrins is likely to be as a peripheral membrane protein, since the protein sequences are highly hydrophilic and contain many charged amino acids. Because of this, dehydrins in solution are intrinsically disordered proteins, that is, they have no well-defined secondary or tertiary structure. Despite their disorder, dehydrins have been shown to gain structure when bound to ligands such as membranes, and to possibly change their oligomeric state when bound to ions. We review what is currently known about dehydrin sequences and their structures, and examine the various ligands that have been shown to bind to this family of proteins. PMID:25400646

  15. Disorder and function: a review of the dehydrin protein family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen P Graether

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dehydration proteins (dehydrins are group 2 members of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA protein family. The protein architecture of dehydrins can be described by the presence of three types of conserved sequence motifs that have been named the K-, Y- and S-segments. By definition, a dehydrin must contain at least one copy of the lysine-rich K-segment. Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, and salinity cause the upregulation of dehydrin mRNA and protein levels. Despite the large body of genetic and protein evidence of the importance of these proteins in stress response, the in vivo protective mechanism is not fully known. In vitro experimental evidence from biochemical assays and localization experiments suggest multiple roles for dehydrins, including membrane protection, cryoprotection of enzymes, and protection from reactive oxygen species. Membrane binding by dehydrins is likely to be as a peripheral membrane protein, since the protein sequences are highly hydrophilic and contain many charged amino acids. Because of this, dehydrins in solution are intrinsically disordered proteins, that is, they have no well-defined secondary or tertiary structure. Despite their disorder, dehydrins have been shown to gain structure when bound to ligands such as membranes, and to possibly change their oligomeric state when bound to ions. We review what is currently known about dehydrin sequences and their structures, and examine the various ligands that have been shown to bind to this family of proteins.

  16. Withdrawal symptoms in internet gaming disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptsis, Dean; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Gradisar, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is currently positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The aim of this review was to examine the state of current knowledge of gaming withdrawal symptomatology, given the importance of withdrawal in positioning the disorder as a behavioral addiction. A total of 34 studies, including 10 qualitative studies, 17 research reports on psychometric instruments, and 7 treatment studies, were evaluated. The results indicated that the available evidence on Internet gaming withdrawal is very underdeveloped. Internet gaming withdrawal is most consistently referred to as 'irritability' and 'restlessness' following cessation of the activity. There exists a concerning paucity of qualitative studies that provide detailed clinical descriptions of symptoms arising from cessation of internet gaming. This has arguably compromised efforts to quantify withdrawal symptoms in empirical studies of gaming populations. Treatment studies have not reported on the natural course of withdrawal and/or withdrawal symptom trajectory following intervention. It is concluded that many more qualitative clinical studies are needed, and should be prioritised, to develop our understanding of gaming withdrawal. This should improve clinical descriptions of problematic internet gaming and in turn improve the quantification of IGD withdrawal and thus treatments for harmful internet gaming.

  17. Obesity and Pelvic Floor Disorders: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomian, Andrzej; Lisik, Wojciech; Kosieradzki, Maciej; Barcz, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are becoming a worldwide health problem associated with numerous co-morbidities. National costs of obesity and pelvic flor disorders have been rising since the 1950s across the world. Obesity is thought to have a very strong effect on pelvic floor disorders, and, considering the high prevalence of both problems worldwide, it is of utmost importance to evaluate the association between these pathologies as well as the impact of obesity on treatment efficacy. This review is based on a selection of reports in the literature (PubMed search), including guidelines and Cochrane reviews. Obesity seems to be a well-documented risk factor for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and is a predictor of exacerbation of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and overactive bladder (OAB). Weight loss is also associated with improvement or resolution of SUI and OAB. In the case of pelvic organ prolapse (POP), weight loss is associated with improvement in quality of life. Although obesity is associated with POP in general, the exact role of obesity in symptomatic POP remains uncertain. While outcomes of anti-incontinence surgery among obese women are similar to those in non-obese women, postoperative urge incontinence is more likely to occur. It seems that obesity is not a risk factor for postoperative complications or short-term efficacy of POP surgical treatment. Long-term effects are still uncertain. Obesity is a strong risk factor for LUTS, but in most cases it does not affect efficacy of operative treatment. It may be associated with some post-operative complications. Weight loss in many cases allows avoiding surgical intervention. PMID:27255341

  18. Obesity and Pelvic Floor Disorders: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomian, Andrzej; Lisik, Wojciech; Kosieradzki, Maciej; Barcz, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are becoming a worldwide health problem associated with numerous co-morbidities. National costs of obesity and pelvic flor disorders have been rising since the 1950s across the world. Obesity is thought to have a very strong effect on pelvic floor disorders, and, considering the high prevalence of both problems worldwide, it is of utmost importance to evaluate the association between these pathologies as well as the impact of obesity on treatment efficacy. This review is based on a selection of reports in the literature (PubMed search), including guidelines and Cochrane reviews. Obesity seems to be a well-documented risk factor for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and is a predictor of exacerbation of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and overactive bladder (OAB). Weight loss is also associated with improvement or resolution of SUI and OAB. In the case of pelvic organ prolapse (POP), weight loss is associated with improvement in quality of life. Although obesity is associated with POP in general, the exact role of obesity in symptomatic POP remains uncertain. While outcomes of anti-incontinence surgery among obese women are similar to those in non-obese women, postoperative urge incontinence is more likely to occur. It seems that obesity is not a risk factor for postoperative complications or short-term efficacy of POP surgical treatment. Long-term effects are still uncertain. Obesity is a strong risk factor for LUTS, but in most cases it does not affect efficacy of operative treatment. It may be associated with some post-operative complications. Weight loss in many cases allows avoiding surgical intervention. PMID:27255341

  19. Fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers - a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Claudia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hairdressers often come into contact with various chemical substances which can be found in hair care products for washing, dyeing, bleaching, styling, spraying and perming. This exposure can impair health and may be present as skin and respiratory diseases. Effects on reproduction have long been discussed in the literature. Method A systematic review has been prepared in which publications from 1990 to 2010 were considered in order to specifically investigate the effects on fertility and pregnancy. The results of the studies were summarised separately in accordance with the type of study and the examined events. Results A total of 2 reviews and 26 original studies on fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers were found in the relevant databases, as well as through hand searches of reference lists. Nineteen different outcomes concerning fertility and pregnancy are analysed in the 26 original studies. Most studies looked into malformation (n = 7, particularly orofacial cleft. Two of them found statistically significant increased risks compared to five that did not. Small for gestational age (SGA, low birth weight (LBW and spontaneous abortions were frequently investigated but found different results. Taken together the studies are inconsistent, so that no clear statements on an association between the exposure as a hairdresser and the effect on reproduction are possible. The different authors describe increased risks of infertility, congenital malformations, SGA, LBW, cancer in childhood, as well as effects from single substances. Conclusion On the basis of the identified epidemiological studies, fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers cannot be excluded. Although the evidence for these risks is low, further studies on reproductive risks in hairdressers should be performed as there is a high public health interest.

  20. Age-related decreased inhibitory versus excitatory gene expression in the adult autistic brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louie Nathan van de Lagemaat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by impaired social interaction and communication, and restricted behaviour and interests. A disruption in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission has been hypothesised to underlie these disorders. Here we demonstrate that genes of both pathways are affected by ASD, and that gene expression of inhibitory and excitatory genes is altered in the cerebral cortex of adult but not younger autistic individuals. We have developed a measure for the difference in the level of excitation and inhibition based on gene expression and observe that in this measure inhibition is decreased relative to excitation in adult ASD compared to control. This difference was undetectable in young autistic brains. Given that many psychiatric features of autism are already present at an early age, this suggests that the observed imbalance in gene expression is an ageing phenomenon in ASD rather than its underlying cause.

  1. Autistic phenomena in neurotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klien, S

    1980-01-01

    I have described a group of patients who are seemingly successful in their professional and social lives, and who seek analysis ostensibly for professional reasons or for minor difficulties in their relationship. However, sooner or later they reveal phenomena which are strikingly similar to those observed in so-called autistic children. These autistic phenomena are characterized by an almost impenetrable encapsulation of part of the personality, mute and implacable resistance to change, and a lack of real emotional contact either with themselves or the analyst. Progress of the analysis reveals an underlying intense fear of pain, and of death, disintegration or breakdown. These anxieties occur as a reaction to real or feared separation, especially when commitment to analysis deepens. In the case I have described in detail the patient used various projective processes to deflect painful emotions either into other people, including the analyst, or into their own bodies. As a consequence the various objects or organs of the body swell up and became suffused with rage as a result of having to contain the unwanted feelings. This process leads in turn to intense persecutory fears and a heightened sensitivity to the analyst's tone of voice and facial expression. It would seem that the initial hypersensitivity of part of the personality is such as to lead it to anticipate danger to such an extent that it expels feelings even before they reach awareness. The sooner the analyst realizes the existence of this hidden part of the patient the less the danger of the analysis becoming an endless and meaningless intellectual dialogue and the greater the possibilities of the patient achieving a relatively stable equilibrium. Although the analyst has to live through a great deal of anxiety with the patient I feel that ultimately the results make it worth while.

  2. Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and…

  3. Personality disorders: review and clinical application in daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstman, Kurt B; Rasmussen, Norman H

    2011-12-01

    Personality disorders have been documented in approximately 9 percent of the general U.S. population. Psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and brief interventions designed for use by family physicians can improve the health of patients with these disorders. Personality disorders are classified into clusters A, B, and C. Cluster A includes schizoid, schizotypal, and paranoid personality disorders. Cluster B includes borderline, histrionic, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders. Cluster C disorders are more prevalent and include avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. Many patients with personality disorders can be treated by family physicians. Patients with borderline personality disorder may benefit from the use of omega-3 fatty acids, second-generation antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers. Patients with antisocial personality disorder may benefit from the use of mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antidepressants. Other therapeutic interventions include motivational interviewing and solution-based problem solving.

  4. The Effects of Physical Activity on Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Matthew Jonathan; Bailey, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder among children. Despite the noted positive aspects of the disorder, it is often associated with a range of negative outcomes for that are detrimental to children's education and wider well-being. This comprehensive scoping review examined…

  5. Eating Disorders in Adult Women: The Sexual Abuse Connection. A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Catherine; Butler, Scott

    1992-01-01

    Literature review examines several areas repeatedly addressed concerning prevalence of eating disorders and child sexual abuse (CSA): psychological profiles of eating-disordered adult women who may have experienced CSA; psychosocial aftereffects of CSA; familial dynamics of survivors of CSA; studies connecting eating disorders and CSA; and studies…

  6. A systematic review of cognitive rehabilitation for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been shown that bipolar disorder (BD has a direct impact on neurocognitive functioning and behavior. This finding has prompted studies to investigate cognitive enhancement programs as potential treatments for BD, primarily focusing on cognitive reinforcement and daily functioning and not restricted to psychoeducation and coping strategies, unlike traditional psychosocial treatments. Objective: This study presents a systematic review of controlled trials of cognitive rehabilitation (CR for BD. Our main objective is to describe the results of studies of rehabilitation programs for BD and related methodological issues. Method: Electronic database searches (MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Embase were conducted to identify articles using terms related to BD and CR. The methodological quality of each article was measured using the 5-item Jadad scale. Results: A total of 239 articles were initially identified, but after application of exclusion criteria, only four were retained for this review. An average of 17 hours of intervention sessions were conducted, distributed as 0.95 hours per week and three of the four studies reported better executive function performance after CR interventions. Conclusions: We did not find robust evidence to support cognitive rehabilitation as an effective treatment for BD, because of: 1 the variety of intervention designs; 2 the methodological limitations of the studies; and 3 the lack of studies in the field.

  7. Treatment of cannabis use disorders in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan Hedegaard; Nordentoft, Merete

    2009-01-01

    was to review literature on treatments of CUD in SSD-patients. METHODS: PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. RESULTS: 41 articles were selected, 11 treating cannabis as a separate outcome. Contingency management was only effective while active....... Pharmacological interventions appeared effective, but lacked randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Psychosocial interventions, e.g. motivational interviewing and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), were ineffective in most studies with cannabis as a separate outcome, but effective in studies that grouped cannabis...... together with other substance use disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient evidence exists on treating this form of dual-diagnosis patients. Studies grouping several types of substances as a single outcome may overlook differential effects. Future RCTs should investigate combinations of psychosocial...

  8. A Review on Parenting Stress on Parents of Autistic Children%孤独症儿童父母亲职压力研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 兰继军

    2014-01-01

    孤独症儿童父母的亲职压力水平常高于其他残疾儿童父母,照顾者的年龄,教育水平和儿童的情绪行为及病情均是亲职压力的影响因素,长式、简式亲职压力量表、压力与资源问卷和简式问卷均是常用的亲职压力测量工具。父母亲职压力的相互影响和文化背景是亲职压力的研究趋势,当前的研究存在缺乏实质性研究、纵向的长期跟踪研究不够、推广度受限等不足,需要进一步深入开展。%This paper reviewed the related research on autism children parenting stress, and pointed out its influence factors such as parents’ ages, education level and children’s mood, action and condition. The formal and simple scale of parenting stress, stress and resource questionnaire and simple questionnaire are the measuring tools of parenting stress. It also forecasted future research directions as mutual influence and cultural backgrounds of parenting stress.

  9. 孤独症儿童父母亲职压力研究综述%A Review on Parenting Stress on Parents of Autistic Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 兰继军

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviewed the related research on autism children parenting stress, and pointed out its influence factors such as parents’ ages, education level and children’s mood, action and condition. The formal and simple scale of parenting stress, stress and resource questionnaire and simple questionnaire are the measuring tools of parenting stress. It also forecasted future research directions as mutual influence and cultural backgrounds of parenting stress.%孤独症儿童父母的亲职压力水平常高于其他残疾儿童父母,照顾者的年龄,教育水平和儿童的情绪行为及病情均是亲职压力的影响因素,长式、简式亲职压力量表、压力与资源问卷和简式问卷均是常用的亲职压力测量工具。父母亲职压力的相互影响和文化背景是亲职压力的研究趋势,当前的研究存在缺乏实质性研究、纵向的长期跟踪研究不够、推广度受限等不足,需要进一步深入开展。

  10. 早期孤独谱系障碍社区筛查量表的编制与信度、效度分析%Compiling of early autistic spectrum disorders screening scale for community and its reliability and validity analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓勉; 赵玮

    2012-01-01

    目的 编制适用于社区的简单、便利、灵敏度高的早期孤独谱系障碍筛查量表,并对该量表进行信度和效度分析.方法 以美国精神障碍诊断统计手册第四版(DSM-Ⅳ)的孤独症临床表现和诊断标准为基础,参考婴幼儿孤独症筛查量表(CHAT)、孤独症行为量表(ABC)、儿童孤独症评定量表(CARS)、孤独症诊断访谈量表(中文修订本)(ADI-R)等编制成早期孤独谱系障碍社区筛查量表(EASSC).在深圳市随机选取6~24月龄儿童9 860人作为筛查对象,对该量表进行信度、效度检验.结果 该量表各因子和总分的评定者信度分别为0.945、0.973、0.874、0.952、0.962;重测信度分别为0.936、0.910、0.925、0.853、0.949.该量表的分半信度为0.917.该量表和ABC量表间的校标关联效度为0.835.当分界值为9分时,该量表的灵敏度为0.912,特异度为0.898.结论 该量表具有较好的信度和效度,费时少,容易填写,适用于早期孤独谱系障碍的社区筛查,具有一定的推广使用价值.%Objective To work out an easy and convenient screening scale of early autistic spectrum disorders with high sensitivity used in community, and to explore its reliability and validity. Methods Based on clinical manifestations and diagnostic standards of autism in DSM-Ⅳ , and referring CHAT, ABC, CARS and ADI-R, early autistic spectrum disorders screening scale for community ( EASSC ) was worked out. In Shenzhen 9 860 infants aged 6-24 months were randomly selected as screening objects, and the reliability and validity of the scale were tested. Results The rater reliability of each factor and total score was 0. 945, 0. 973 , 0. 874, 0. 952 and 0. 962, respectively, and the re-test reliability was 0.936, 0. 910, 0. 925, 0. 853 and 0. 949, respectively. The split reliability was 0. 917. Criterion-related validity between the scale and ABC was 0. 835. The sensitivity and specificity were 0. 912 and 0. 898, respectively when the

  11. Annual Research Review: Hoarding Disorder-- Potential Benefits and Pitfalls of a New Mental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix-Cols, David; Pertusa, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inclusion of a new mental disorder in the nomenclature is not a trivial matter. Many have highlighted the risks of an ever-increasing number of mental disorders and of overpathologizing human behaviour. Given the proposed inclusion of a new hoarding disorder (HD) in DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,…

  12. Heredity and Environment in Etiology of Eating Disorders. I. Review of Twin Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkova T.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twin studies of eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating are reviewed. Historically, eating disorders (ED was viewed as a disorders primarily influenced by sociocultural factors, however, over the past decade, this perception has been challenged. Twin studies demonstrate that genetic factors significantly influence the risk for ED and substantially contribute to the observed association between ED and other disorders and personal traits (major depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, perfectionism. Among environmental factors nonshared (unique environment plays the main role, except of early puberty.

  13. Heredity and Environment in Etiology of Eating Disorders. I. Review of Twin Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Meshkova T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Twin studies of eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating) are reviewed. Historically, eating disorders (ED) was viewed as a disorders primarily influenced by sociocultural factors, however, over the past decade, this perception has been challenged. Twin studies demonstrate that genetic factors significantly influence the risk for ED and substantially contribute to the observed association between ED and other disorders and personal traits (major depression, anxiety...

  14. Preventing the incidence of new cases of mental disorders: a meta-analytic review

    OpenAIRE

    Cuijpers, P.; Straten, van, FE; Smit, H.F.E.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the results of studies examining the effects of preventive interventions on the incidence of mental disorders, we conducted a systematic review. A literature search resulted in 13 high-quality randomized trials, six on depressive disorder (including postpartum depression), one on anxiety, one examining both anxiety and depression, three on posttraumatic stress disorders, one on psychosis, and one on any mental disorder. The overall relative risk (RR) was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.56-0.95), in...

  15. A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluations of Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Brettschneider, Christian; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; König, Hans-Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The borderline personality disorder is a common mental disorder. It is frequently associated with various mental co-morbidities and a fundamental loss of functioning. The borderline personality disorder causes high costs to society. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic literature review of existing economic evaluations of treatments for borderline personality disorder. Materials and Methods We performed a systematic literature search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and NHSEE...

  16. Review of the possible relationship and hypothetical links between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the simple sleep related movement disorders, parasomnias, hypersomnias, and circadian rhythm disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Arthur S; Silvestri, Rosalia; Zucconi, Marco; Chandrashekariah, Ranju; Konofal, Eric

    2008-12-15

    Recent evidence has been accumulating that the sleep of individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not only disrupted in a nonspecific way but that ADHD has an increased association with simple sleep related movement disorders such as restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movements in sleep (RLS/PLMS), rhythmic movement disorder (body rocking and head banging), and parasomnias, such as disorders of partial arousal (sleep walking, sleep terrors, and confusional arousals). In addition increased associations have been reported between ADHD and hypersomnias such as narcolepsy and sleep apnea as well as circadian rhythm disorders, such as delayed sleep phase syndrome. These relationships are reviewed and the implications for such associations are explored. Patients with sleep disorders should be queried about the symptoms of ADHD and vice versa. PMID:19110891

  17. Ear Infections in Autistic and Normal Children. Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantareas, M. Mary; Homatidis, Soula

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the frequency of ear infections, ear tube drainage, and deafness for 51 autistic children (ages 2-18) indicated that autistic children had a greater incidence of ear infections than matched normal peers and lower functioning children had an earlier onset of ear infections than higher functioning autistic peers. (Author)

  18. Fmr1 KO Mice as a Possible Model of Autistic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maude Bernardet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder appearing before the age of 3, where communication and social interactions are impaired. It also entails stereotypic behavior or restricted interests. Although this disorder was first described in 1943, little is still known about its etiology and that of related developmental disorders. Work with human patients has provided many data on neuropathological and cognitive symptoms, but our understanding of the functional defects at the cellular level and how they come about remains sketchy. To improve this situation, autism research is in need of valid animal models. However, despite a strong hereditary component, attempts to identify genes have generally failed, suggesting that many different genes are involved. As a high proportion of patients suffering from the Fragile X Syndrome show many autistic symptoms, a mouse model of this disorder could potentially also serve as a model for autism. The Fmr1 KO mouse is a valid model of the Fragile X Syndrome and many data on behavioral and sensory-motor characteristics of this model have been gathered. We present here an assessment of autistic features in this candidate model. We conclude that Fmr1 KO mice display several autistic-like features, but more work is needed to validate this model.

  19. A Review of MR Spectroscopy Studies of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, D.G.; Hellem, T.L.; Shi, X.-F.; Sung, Y.H.; Prescot, A.P.; Kim, T.S.; Huber, R.S.; Forrest, L.N.; Renshaw, P.F.

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder is a severe mental illness whose pathophysiology is poorly understood and for which there is an urgent need for improved diagnosis and treatment. MR spectroscopy is a neuroimaging method capable of in vivo measurement of neurochemicals relevant to bipolar disorder neurobiology. MR spectroscopy studies of adult bipolar disorder provide consistent evidence for alterations in the glutamate system and mitochondrial function. In bipolar disorder, these 2 phenomena may be...

  20. [Autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Early infantile autism' as defined by Kanner has grown into a spectrum of autistic disorders. The recognition of Asperger's disorder and of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), has led to increased demand for appropriate diagnostic assessment of autism in adults. The e

  1. A systematic review of musculoskeletal disorders among school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Patience N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD represent one of the most common and most expensive occupational health problems in both developed and developing countries. School teachers represent an occupational group among which there appears to be a high prevalence of MSD. Given that causes of MSD have been described as multi-factorial and prevalence rates vary between body sites and location of study, the objective of this systematic review was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for MSD among teaching staff. Methods The study involved an extensive search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases in 2011. All studies which reported on the prevalence and/or risk factors for MSD in the teaching profession were initially selected for inclusion. Reference lists of articles identified in the original search were then examined for additional publications. Of the 80 articles initially located, a final group of 33 met the inclusion criteria and were examined in detail. Results This review suggests that the prevalence of self-reported MSD among school teachers ranges between 39% and 95%. The most prevalent body sites appear to be the back, neck and upper limbs. Nursery school teachers appear to be more likely to report suffering from low back pain. Factors such as gender, age, length of employment and awkward posture have been associated with higher MSD prevalence rates. Conclusion Overall, this study suggests that school teachers are at a high risk of MSD. Further research, preferably longitudinal, is required to more thoroughly investigate the issue of MSD among teachers, with a greater emphasis on the possible wider use of ergonomic principles. This would represent a major step forward in the prevention of MSD among teachers, especially if easy to implement control measures could be recommended.

  2. Acquired Autistic Behaviors in Children with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Robin K.; Rudser, Kyle; Delaney, Kathleen; Potegal, Michael; Whitley, Chester B.; Shapiro, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess autism spectrum disorder (ASD) behaviors in children with mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIA (MPS IIIA), using a standard measure, understand the behavioral evolution of the disease, and provide specific guidelines for diagnosis. Study design Children (n=21) with documented enzyme deficiency and SGSH gene mutations, cognitive age-equivalent over 12 months, and early onset were administered the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) (Module 1) and Bayley Scales of Infant Development–III (BSID-III). ADOS Social Affect and Restricted Repetitive Behavior total scores are reported as well as BSID-III cognitive age-equivalent using descriptive statistics and graphic presentations. Results Thirteen of 21 children met ADOS criteria for ASD/autism. ADOS score was strongly associated with age; all 11 children over 46 months met criteria, and 8 of 10 under 46 months did not. Social and affective abnormalities were most frequent; restricted interests and repetitive behaviors were largely absent. Lack of cognitive growth paralleled ADOS score. Conclusions An increased incidence of autistic-like social behaviors occurred between ages 3 and 4 in children with early onset MPS IIIA. Although more frequent in the severely impaired, ASD behaviors were observed across the entire range of cognitive impairment. Clinicians must be aware that when a child acquires autistic-like behaviors, MPS IIIA should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:24582005

  3. Does bilateral damage to the human amygdala produce autistic symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lynn K; Corsello, Christina; Tranel, Daniel; Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-09-01

    A leading neurological hypothesis for autism postulates amygdala dysfunction. This hypothesis has considerable support from anatomical and neuroimaging studies. Individuals with bilateral amygdala lesions show impairments in some aspects of social cognition. These impairments bear intriguing similarity to those reported in people with autism, such as impaired recognition of emotion in faces, impaired theory of mind abilities, failure to fixate eyes in faces, and difficulties in regulating personal space distance to others. Yet such neurological cases have never before been assessed directly to see if they meet criteria for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Here we undertook such an investigation in two rare participants with developmental-onset bilateral amygdala lesions. We administered a comprehensive clinical examination, as well as the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), together with several other standardized questionnaires. Results from the two individuals with amygdala lesions were compared with published norms from both healthy populations as well as from people with ASD. Neither participant with amygdala lesions showed any evidence of autism across the array of different measures. The findings demonstrate that amygdala lesions in isolation are not sufficient for producing autistic symptoms. We suggest instead that it may be abnormal connectivity between the amygdala and other structures that contributes to autistic symptoms at a network level. PMID:20700516

  4. Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Kindregan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning.

  5. Chemicals, Nutrition, and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Morisaki, Naho; Honda, Yukiko; Sampei, Makiko; Tani, Yukako

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests that exposure to chemicals may impact the development of ASD. Therefore, we reviewed literature on the following chemicals, nutrient to investigate their association with ASD: (1) smoke/tobacco, (2) alcohol, (3) air pollution, (4) pesticides, (5) endocrine-disrupting chemicals, (6) heavy metals, (7) micronutrients, (8) fatty acid, and (9) parental obesity as a proxy of accumulation of specific chemicals or nutritional status. Several chemical exposures such as air pollution (e.g., particular matter 2.5), pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, mercury, and nutrition deficiency such as folic acid, vitamin D, or fatty acid may possibly be associated with an increased risk of ASD, whereas other traditional risk factors such as smoking/tobacco, alcohol, or polychlorinated biphenyls are less likely to be associated with ASD. Further research is needed to accumulate evidence on the association between chemical exposure and nutrient deficiencies and ASD in various doses and populations. PMID:27147957

  6. Chemicals, nutrition, and autism spectrum disorder: a mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo eFujiwara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD suggests that exposure to chemicals may impact the development of ASD. Therefore, we reviewed literature on the following chemicals, nutrient to investigate their association with ASD: 1 smoke/tobacco, 2 alcohol, 3 air pollution, 4 pesticides, 5 endocrine-disrupting chemicals, 6 heavy metals, 7 micronutrients, 8 fatty acid, and 9 parental obesity as a proxy of accumulation of specific chemicals or nutritional status. Several chemical exposures such as air pollution (e.g., particular matter 2.5, pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, mercury, and nutrition deficiency such as folic acid, vitamin D, or fatty acid may possibly be associated with an increased risk of ASD, whereas other traditional risk factors such as smoking/tobacco, alcohol, or polychlorinated biphenyls are less likely to be associated with ASD. Further research is needed to accumulate evidence on the association between chemical exposure and nutrient deficiencies and ASD in various doses and populations.

  7. Mouse models of cognitive disorders in trisomy 21: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sérégaza, Zohra; Roubertoux, Pierre L; Jamon, Marc; Soumireu-Mourat, Bernard

    2006-05-01

    Trisomy 21 (TRS21) is the most frequent genetic cause of mental retardation. Although the presence of an extra copy of HSA21 is known to be at the origin of the syndrome, we do not know which 225 HSA21 genes have an effect on cognitive processes. Mouse models of TRS21 have been developed using syntenies between HSA21 and MMU16, MMU10 and MMU17. Available mouse models carry extra fragments of MMU16 or of HSA21 that cover all of HSA21 (chimeric HSA21) or MMU16 (Ts16); some carry large parts of MMU16 (Ts65Dn, Ts1Cje, Ms1Cje), while others have reduced contiguous fragments covering the D21S17-ETS2 region or single transfected genes. This offers a nest design strategy for deciphering cognitive (learning, memory and exploration) and associated brain abnormalities involving each of these chromosomal regions. This review confirms the crucial but not exclusive contribution of the D21S17-ETS2 region encompassing 16 genes to cognitive disorders. PMID:16523244

  8. Emotional language processing in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina eLartseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In his first description of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, Kanner emphasized emotional impairments by characterizing children with ASD as indifferent to other people, self-absorbed, emotionally cold, distanced, and retracted. Thereafter, emotional impairments became regarded as part of the social impairments of ASD, and research mostly focused on understanding how individuals with ASD recognize visual expressions of emotions from faces and body postures. However, it still remains unclear how emotions are processed outside of the visual domain. This systematic review aims to fill this gap by focusing on impairments of emotional language processing in ASD.We systematically searched PubMed for papers published between 1990 and 2013 using standardized search terms. Studies show that people with ASD are able to correctly classify emotional language stimuli as emotionally positive or negative. However, processing of emotional language stimuli in ASD is associated with atypical patterns of attention and memory performance, as well as abnormal physiological and neural activity. Particularly, younger children with ASD have difficulties in acquiring and developing emotional concepts, and avoid using these in discourse. These emotional language impairments were not consistently associated with age, IQ, or level of development of language skills.We discuss how emotional language impairments fit with existing cognitive theories of ASD, such as central coherence, executive dysfunction, and weak Theory of Mind. We conclude that emotional impairments in ASD may be broader than just a mere consequence of social impairments, and should receive more attention in future research.

  9. A Reciprocal Model of Face Recognition and Autistic Traits: Evidence from an Individual Differences Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Drew W. R.; MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Sherf, Suzanne K.; Tanaka, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Although not a core symptom of the disorder, individuals with autism often exhibit selective impairments in their face processing abilities. Importantly, the reciprocal connection between autistic traits and face perception has rarely been examined within the typically developing population. In this study, university participants from the social sciences, physical sciences, and humanities completed a battery of measures that assessed face, object and emotion recognition abilities, general perceptual-cognitive style, and sub-clinical autistic traits (the Autism Quotient (AQ)). We employed separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses to evaluate which factors could predict face recognition scores and AQ scores. Gender, object recognition performance, and AQ scores predicted face recognition behaviour. Specifically, males, individuals with more autistic traits, and those with lower object recognition scores performed more poorly on the face recognition test. Conversely, university major, gender and face recognition performance reliably predicted AQ scores. Science majors, males, and individuals with poor face recognition skills showed more autistic-like traits. These results suggest that the broader autism phenotype is associated with lower face recognition abilities, even among typically developing individuals. PMID:24853862

  10. A reciprocal model of face recognition and autistic traits: evidence from an individual differences perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Drew W R; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Scherf, K Suzanne; Sherf, Suzanne K; Tanaka, James W

    2014-01-01

    Although not a core symptom of the disorder, individuals with autism often exhibit selective impairments in their face processing abilities. Importantly, the reciprocal connection between autistic traits and face perception has rarely been examined within the typically developing population. In this study, university participants from the social sciences, physical sciences, and humanities completed a battery of measures that assessed face, object and emotion recognition abilities, general perceptual-cognitive style, and sub-clinical autistic traits (the Autism Quotient (AQ)). We employed separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses to evaluate which factors could predict face recognition scores and AQ scores. Gender, object recognition performance, and AQ scores predicted face recognition behaviour. Specifically, males, individuals with more autistic traits, and those with lower object recognition scores performed more poorly on the face recognition test. Conversely, university major, gender and face recognition performance reliably predicted AQ scores. Science majors, males, and individuals with poor face recognition skills showed more autistic-like traits. These results suggest that the broader autism phenotype is associated with lower face recognition abilities, even among typically developing individuals. PMID:24853862

  11. A reciprocal model of face recognition and autistic traits: evidence from an individual differences perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew W R Halliday

    Full Text Available Although not a core symptom of the disorder, individuals with autism often exhibit selective impairments in their face processing abilities. Importantly, the reciprocal connection between autistic traits and face perception has rarely been examined within the typically developing population. In this study, university participants from the social sciences, physical sciences, and humanities completed a battery of measures that assessed face, object and emotion recognition abilities, general perceptual-cognitive style, and sub-clinical autistic traits (the Autism Quotient (AQ. We employed separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses to evaluate which factors could predict face recognition scores and AQ scores. Gender, object recognition performance, and AQ scores predicted face recognition behaviour. Specifically, males, individuals with more autistic traits, and those with lower object recognition scores performed more poorly on the face recognition test. Conversely, university major, gender and face recognition performance reliably predicted AQ scores. Science majors, males, and individuals with poor face recognition skills showed more autistic-like traits. These results suggest that the broader autism phenotype is associated with lower face recognition abilities, even among typically developing individuals.

  12. Synchrony Between Sensory and Cognitive Networks is Associated with Subclinical Variation in Autistic Traits

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    Jacob eYoung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with autistic spectrum disorders exhibit distinct personality traits linked to attentional, social, and affective functions, and those traits are expressed with varying levels of severity in the neurotypical and subclinical population. Variation in autistic traits has been linked to reduced functional and structural connectivity (i.e., underconnectivity, or reduced synchrony with neural networks modulated by attentional, social, and affective functions. Yet, it remains unclear whether reduced synchrony between these neural networks contributes to autistic traits. To investigate this issue, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to record brain activation while neurotypical participants who varied in their subclinical scores on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ viewed alternating blocks of social and nonsocial stimuli (i.e., images of faces and of landscape scenes. We used independent component analysis combined with a spatiotemporal regression to quantify synchrony between neural networks. Our results indicated that decreased synchrony between the executive control network and a face-scene network predicted higher scores on the AQ. This relationship was not explained by individual differences in head motion, preferences for faces, or personality variables related to social cognition. Our findings build on clinical reports by demonstrating that reduced synchrony between distinct neural networks contributes to a range of subclinical autistic traits.

  13. Keys to Success with Autistic Children: Structure, Predictability, and Consistency Are Essential for Students on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseminger, Scott H.

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood and elementary music teachers face particular challenges when including children with special needs in the music classroom. Children with autism act out and misbehave not because they are autistic, but because their fears and anxieties are so great. Knowing that children with autism and other neurological disorders have distinct…

  14. Brief Report: No Association between Parental Age and Extreme Social-Communicative Autistic Traits in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elise B.; Munir, Kerim; McCormick, Marie C.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Santangelo, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first investigation of the relationship between parental age and extreme social-communicative autistic traits in the general population. The parents of 5,246 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) completed the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC). The association between parental age…

  15. Otitis and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Zambrano-Enriquez, Diana; de Anta, Laura; Zelmanova, Julie; De Dios Vega, Jose Luis; Lopez-Ibor, Juan Jose

    2010-01-01

    The case of a 5-year-old child diagnosed as having pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), autistic type, from age 1 is reported. After surgery of vegetation in middle ear for repetitive otitis, the child presented an improvement in autistic behaviours, previously expressed as impaired social interactions, qualitative abnormalities in communication, a marked delay in language development, echolalia, stereotypies and self-aggressive behaviours. The aim of this paper is to bring attention to oc...

  16. Levels of autistic traits in anorexia nervosa: a comparative psychometric study.

    OpenAIRE

    Courty, Annaig; Maria, Anne,; Lalanne, Christophe; Ringuenet, Damien; Vindreau, Christine; Chevallier, Coralie; Pouga, Lydia; Pinabel, François; Philippe, Anne; Adrien, Jean-Louis; Barry, Caroline; Berthoz, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND: A number of characteristics associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are over-represented among patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) as well as among relatives of these patients. Yet the co-occurrence of autistic traits in AN has not been fully explored and no previous study has directly compared self-reported evaluations of cognitive and socio-affective skills in AN and ASD. METHODS: We aimed to determine the degree of overlap between AN and ASD fr...

  17. Psychogenetics of post-traumatic stress disorder: a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rady

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Rady, Adel Elsheshai, Osama Elkholy, Heba Abou el WafaDepartment of Psychiatry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptAbstract: Post-traumatic stress disorder is a commonly overlooked psychiatric disorder due to the heterogeneity of symptoms that may simulate many other psychiatric disorders. Such heterogeneity of manifestations may be explained by the multifaceted nature of the different neurotransmitters, endocrinologic axis, and their genetic basis, that are implicated in the etiology. Although this disorder has been studied from many different perspectives, its etiology is still enigmatic. This minireview demonstrates, in brief, that different susceptibility genes are associated with post traumatic stress disorder.Keywords: trauma, post traumatic stress disorder, psychogenetic, stress response, neurobiology

  18. Psychogenetics of post-traumatic stress disorder: a short review

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Rady; Adel Elsheshai; Osama Elkholy; et al

    2010-01-01

    Ahmed Rady, Adel Elsheshai, Osama Elkholy, Heba Abou el WafaDepartment of Psychiatry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptAbstract: Post-traumatic stress disorder is a commonly overlooked psychiatric disorder due to the heterogeneity of symptoms that may simulate many other psychiatric disorders. Such heterogeneity of manifestations may be explained by the multifaceted nature of the different neurotransmitters, endocrinologic axis, and their genetic basis, that are implicated in the etiol...

  19. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders observed currently. It is a normal adaptive response to stress that allows coping with adverse situations. Nevertheless, when anxiety becomes excessive or disproportional in relation to the situation that evokes it or when there is not any special object directed at it, such as an irrational dread of routine stimuli, it becomes a disabling disorder and is considered to be pathological. The traditional treatment used is medication and...

  20. A review of neuroimaging studies of anxiety disorders in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen J; Shi S

    2011-01-01

    Jing Chen, Shenxun ShiDepartment of Psychiatry, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, ChinaBackground: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent internationally, and constitute a substantial social and economic burden for patients, their families, and society. A number of neuroimaging studies have investigated the etiology of anxiety disorders in China in the last decade. We discuss the findings of these studies, and compare them with the results of neuroimaging studies of anxiety disord...

  1. Role and clinical implications of atypical antipsychotics in anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, trauma-related, and somatic symptom disorders: a systematized review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Umberto; Carmassi, Claudia; Cosci, Fiammetta; De Cori, David; Di Nicola, Marco; Ferrari, Silvia; Poloni, Nicola; Tarricone, Ilaria; Fiorillo, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Atypical antipsychotics (AAs) may play a role in the treatment of anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and trauma-related disorders. No reviews on their differential use in these different disorders have been performed recently. The aim of this systematized review was to obtain data on efficacy and comparative effectiveness of AAs as a treatment of anxiety disorders, OCD, and trauma-related disorders to provide guidance for clinicians on when and which AA to use. We searched on PubMed, Psychnet, and Cochrane Libraries from inception to July 2015. Search results were limited to randomized, placebo-controlled trials of adult patients. Evidence of efficacy was considered the presence of positive results in two or more double-blind placebo-controlled studies. Our systematized search identified 1298 papers, of which 191 were subjected to a full-text review and 56 were included. Quetiapine extended-release showed a role in both acute and maintenance treatment of uncomplicated generalized anxiety disorder, whereas more studies are needed before drawing practical recommendations on the use of olanzapine and risperidone; aripiprazole and risperidone are effective in resistant OCD as augmentation treatments. Risperidone and olanzapine add-on may have a role in resistant or chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients, although only risperidone addition can be recommended on the basis of the criterion of two or more positive placebo-controlled trials. This systematized review supports the evidence that only a few AAs are effective in only a minority of the off-label conditions in which they are currently used and confirms that AAs are not all the same. Their use should be on the basis of a balance between efficacy and side effects, and the characteristics as well as the preference of the patient. PMID:26974213

  2. I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine Myocardial Scintigraphy in Lewy Body-Related Disorders: A Literature Review

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    Eun Joo Chung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lewy body-related disorders are characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, which have abnormal aggregations of α-synuclein in the nigral and extranigral areas, including in the heart. 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG scintigraphy is a well-known tool to evaluate cardiac sympathetic denervation in the Lewy body-related disorders. MIBG scintigraphy showed low uptake of MIBG in the Lewy body-related disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, pure autonomic failure and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review summarizes previous results on the diagnostic applications of MIBG scintigraphy in Lewy body-related disorders.

  3. Modeling the autistic cell: iPSCs recapitulate developmental principles of syndromic and nonsyndromic ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Reuven, Lihi; Reiner, Orly

    2016-06-01

    The opportunity to model autism spectrum disorders (ASD) through generation of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is currently an emerging topic. Wide-scale research of altered brain circuits in syndromic ASD, including Rett Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, Angelman's Syndrome and sporadic Schizophrenia, was made possible through animal models. However, possibly due to species differences, and to the possible contribution of epigenetics in the pathophysiology of these diseases, animal models fail to recapitulate many aspects of ASD. With the advent of iPSCs technology, 3D cultures of patient-derived cells are being used to study complex neuronal phenotypes, including both syndromic and nonsyndromic ASD. Here, we review recent advances in using iPSCs to study various aspects of the ASD neuropathology, with emphasis on the efforts to create in vitro model systems for syndromic and nonsyndromic ASD. We summarize the main cellular activity phenotypes and aberrant genetic interaction networks that were found in iPSC-derived neurons of syndromic and nonsyndromic autistic patients. PMID:27111774

  4. Acupuncture for Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

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    Xue Ming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There has been lack of reviews of evidence on efficacy, methodology, and/or safety of acupuncture in autism spectrum disorders. This paper examines the emerging evidence of the effects of acupuncture in the treatment of autistic children. Method. A literature review was completed via Medline and three Chinese search engines. A total of 31 studies were evaluated for acupuncture methodology, study design, treatment effects, and tolerability. Results. The acupoints used, the duration of needling, the frequency of treatment, the choice of stimulation, and the course of the treatment were highly variable amongst the studies. Behavioral and/or developmental improvements were reported in all acupuncture treatment studies. All studies reported general tolerability. Weakness of experimental designs was discussed. Conclusions. Vigorously controlled double-blinded clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in children with autism spectrum disorders.

  5. Comorbidity of Personality Disorders and Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)--Review of Recent Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthies, Swantje; Philipsen, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may remit until adulthood. But, more than 60-80% have persisting ADHD symptoms. ADHD as an early manifesting neurodevelopmental disorder is considered a major risk factor for the development of comorbid psychiatric disorders in later life. Particularly, personality disorders are oftentimes observed in adult patients suffering from ADHD. If ADHD and personality disorders share common etiological mechanisms and/or if ADHD as a severely impairing condition influences psychological functioning and learning and leads to unfavorable learning histories is unclear. The development of inflexible and dysfunctional beliefs on the basis of real and perceived impairments or otherness due to the core symptoms of ADHD is intuitively plausible. Such beliefs are a known cause for the development of personality disorders. But, why some personality disorders are more frequently found in ADHD patients as for example antisocial and borderline personality disorder remains subject of debate. Because of the high prevalence of ADHD and the high impact of personality disorders on daily functioning, it is important to take them into account when treating patients with ADHD. Research on the developmental trajectories leading to personality disorders in adult ADHD patients might open the door for targeted interventions to prevent impairing comorbid clinical pictures.

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A review for family physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande Sunil

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a chronic behavioral disorder characterized by persistent hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention that impairs educational achievement and/or social functioning. Its diagnosis is made by ascertaining whether the child′s specific behaviors meet the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-IV-revised criteria. Its etiology is still unclear but recent studies suggest that genetics plays a major role in conferring susceptibility. Comorbidity with psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorder, depression, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder; and with specific learning disability is not uncommon. Although medication works well in most cases of ADHD, optimal treatment requires integrated medical and behavioral treatment. Methylphenidate (MPH and atomoxetine are the two drugs being currently prescribed and their efficacy in decreasing the symptoms of ADHD is well documented. Pyschoeducational interventions in school can help increase the successful functioning of affected children and improve their academic performance. Almost half of affected children continue to show significant symptoms of the disorder into adolescence and young adulthood. The family physician can play an important role in detecting this condition early, coordinating its assessment and treatment, counseling the parents and classroom teacher, and monitoring the child′s academic and psychosocial progress on a long-term basis.

  7. Prevalence of genetic disorders in dog breeds: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirth, J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic disorders are common in dogs and in the media it is reported that genetic disorders are more frequent in pedigree dogs than in look-a-likes or in mixed-breed dogs. Here, we consider pedigree dogs as purebred dogs (i.e. matching a breed-specific morphology) with a registered and certified ped

  8. The Biological Treatment of Paraphilic Disorders: an Updated Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoyda, Brian J; Kellaher, Denise C

    2016-02-01

    Paraphilic disorders are characterized by atypical sexual interests, fantasies, and behaviors that are subjectively distressing to patients or pose a risk of harm to others. By their very nature, some paraphilic disorders may predispose an individual to commit sexual offenses. The biological treatment of paraphilic disorders, then, is of paramount importance for psychiatry and society at large. Three categories of pharmacologic agents commonly used to treat paraphilic disorders are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, synthetic steroidal analogs, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Each medication uses a different mechanism of action and has different effects on the physiological and psychological features of paraphilic disorders. In general, these medications have limited high-quality research to support their use. Despite this, some authors have proposed treatment algorithms for individuals with paraphilic disorders of varying severity. These guidelines offer clinicians potentially useful, rational approaches to assessing treatment need in individuals with paraphilic disorders. Recent neuroimaging research suggests that functional magnetic resonance imaging may offer further promise in effectively assessing paraphilic disorders to help direct treatment options. PMID:26800994

  9. Alexithymia and eating disorders: a critical review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Nowakowski, Matilda E; McFarlane, Traci; Cassin, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties identifying feelings and differentiating between feelings and bodily sensations, difficulties communicating feelings, and a concrete cognitive style focused on the external environment. Individuals with eating disorders have elevated levels of alexithymia, particularly difficulties identifying and describing their feelings. A number of theoretical models have suggested that individuals with eating disorders may find emotions unacceptable and/or fri...

  10. Headache and sleep disorders: review and clinical implications for headache management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Jeanetta C; Poceta, J Steven

    2006-10-01

    Review of epidemiological and clinical studies suggests that sleep disorders are disproportionately observed in specific headache diagnoses (eg, migraine, tension-type, cluster) and other nonspecific headache patterns (ie, chronic daily headache, "awakening" or morning headache). Interestingly, the sleep disorders associated with headache are of varied types, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), periodic limb movement disorder, circadian rhythm disorder, insomnia, and hypersomnia. Headache, particularly morning headache and chronic headache, may be consequent to, or aggravated by, a sleep disorder, and management of the sleep disorder may improve or resolve the headache. Sleep-disordered breathing is the best example of this relationship. Insomnia is the sleep disorder most often cited by clinical headache populations. Depression and anxiety are comorbid with both headache and sleep disorders (especially insomnia) and consideration of the full headache-sleep-affective symptom constellation may yield opportunities to maximize treatment. This paper reviews the comorbidity of headache and sleep disorders (including coexisting psychiatric symptoms where available). Clinical implications for headache evaluation are presented. Sleep screening strategies conducive to headache practice are described. Consideration of the spectrum of sleep-disordered breathing is encouraged in the headache population, including awareness of potential upper airway resistance syndrome in headache patients lacking traditional risk factors for OSA. Pharmacologic and behavioral sleep regulation strategies are offered that are also compatible with treatment of primary headache. PMID:17040332

  11. A Research Review of the Effectiveness of the Intervention of Picture Exchange Communication System in Autistic Children%图片交换沟通系统对自闭症儿童干预有效性研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹丹

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders are confronted with many difficulties in communication, among which the lack of functional language is the prominent problem and seriously impedes autistic children’s development and social inclusion. Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)improve children’s communication ability through six gradually progressive stages. With its wide use, many researchers have begun to verify the effectiveness of the system. The research findings show that PECS is effective to improve the functional communication of autistic children. Though the relationship between PECS and speech production has yet to achieve consistent conclusions, it is clear that PECS cannot impede speech production.%众多自闭谱系障碍个体在沟通方面面临不同程度的困难,功能性语言的缺失是其中的突出问题,这严重阻碍了自闭症儿童的发展和社会融入。图片交换沟通系统通过逐步递进的六个阶段,改善儿童的沟通能力。随着图片交换沟通系统的广泛使用,众多研究者开始关注该方法的有效性。研究表明,图片交换沟通系统可以作为改善自闭症儿童功能性沟通能力的有效方法,虽然其同言语产生关系的研究尚未取得一致性结论,但它并不会阻碍言语的产生。

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

  13. Panic disorder and incident coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Tully, Phillip J; Wittert, Gary A.; Turnbull, Deborah A.; Beltrame, John F.; Horowitz, John D; Cosh, Suzanne; Baumeister, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Background The clinical presentation of panic disorder and panic attack overlaps many symptoms typically experienced in coronary heart disease (CHD). Etiological links between panic disorder and CHD are controversial and remain largely tenuous. This systematic review aims to pool together data regarding panic disorder with respect to incident CHD or myocardial infarction. Methods/Design Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and SCOPUS) will be searched using a search strategy explod...

  14. Social (pragmatic) communication disorder: a research review of this new DSM-5 diagnostic category

    OpenAIRE

    Swineford, Lauren B.; Thurm, Audrey; Baird, Gillian; Wetherby, Amy M.; Swedo, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Social (pragmatic) communication disorder (SCD) is a new diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). The purpose of this review is to describe and synthesize the relevant literature from language and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research relating to pragmatic language impairment and other previously used terms that relate to SCD. The long-standing debate regarding how social communication/pragmatic impairments overlap and/or diffe...

  15. Cardiovascular Impact of Eating Disorders in Adults: A Single Center Experience and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Rizwan Sardar; Andrea Greway; Michael DeAngelis; Erin O'Malley Tysko; Shawn Lehmann; Melinda Wohlstetter; Riti Patel

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders have multiple medical sequelae, including potentially life-threatening cardiovascular complications. This article describes our cardiology practice experience of treating adults with eating disorders in the outpatient setting and documents baseline cardiac findings in this complex patient population. We describe our findings in patients across the spectrum of eating disorders; past studies have generally focused on anorexia only. This article also includes a review of the cur...

  16. Effect of pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelson Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is complex neuro-developmental disorder which has a symptomatic diagnosis in patients characterized by disorders in language/communication, behavior, and social interactions. The exact causes for autism are largely unknown, but is has been speculated that immune and inflammatory responses, particularly those of Th2 type, may be involved. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a nuclear hormone receptor which modulates insulin sensitivity, and have been shown to induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes and exert anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells. The TZD pioglitazone (Actos is an FDA-approved PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, with a good safety profile, currently being tested in clinical trials of other neurological diseases including AD and MS. We therefore tested the safety and therapeutic potential of oral pioglitazone in a small cohort of children with diagnosed autism. Case description The rationale and risks of taking pioglitazone were explained to the parents, consent was obtained, and treatment was initiated at either 30 or 60 mg per day p.o. A total of 25 children (average age 7.9 ± 0.7 year old were enrolled. Safety was assessed by measurements of metabolic profiles and blood pressure; effects on behavioral symptoms were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, which measures hyperactivity, inappropriate speech, irritability, lethargy, and stereotypy, done at baseline and after 3–4 months of treatment. Discussion and evaluation In a small cohort of autistic children, daily treatment with 30 or 60 mg p.o. pioglitazone for 3–4 months induced apparent clinical improvement without adverse events. There were no adverse effects noted and behavioral measurements revealed a significant decrease in 4 out of 5 subcategories (irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, and hyperactivity. Improved behaviors were inversely

  17. Is voice a marker for autism spectrum disorder? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Lambrechts, Anna; Bang, Dan;

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) tend to show distinctive, atypical acoustic patterns of speech. These behaviours affect social interactions and social development and could represent a non-invasive marker for ASD. We systematically reviewed the literature quantifying acoustic...

  18. Review: Abdul Raufu Mustapha (ed., Sects & Social Disorder: Muslim Identities & Conflict in Northern Nigeria (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Bergstresser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume:Abdul Raufu Mustapha (ed., Sects & Social Disorder: Muslim Identities & Conflict in Northern Nigeria, Martlesham: James Currey, 2014, ISBN 9781847011077, 256 pages

  19. Hippocampal structure and function in individuals with bipolar disorder : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Mara; Meeter, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a psychiatric disorder accompanied by deficits in declarative memory. Given the importance of the hippocampus in declarative memory, it is not surprising that BD patients have been reported to show hippocampal abnormalities. Objectives: Review evidence about st

  20. Voice disorders in teachers and their associations with work-related factors : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutiva, Lady Catherine Cantor; Vogel, Ineke; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a quantitative assessment of the occurrence of voice disorders among teachers and to identify associated work-related and individual factors in the teaching profession. Method: A systematic review was conducted using three computerized databases on the occurrence of voice disorde

  1. Exposure to Metal Pollutants and Behavioral Disorders in Children: A Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Mike

    The paper reviews research on effects of metal pollutants on behavioral disorders in children. Methodological programs of studies conducted in the 1970's are described. Research since 1980 is then addressed in terms of general population studies and studies of behaviorally disordered populations. Findings of research on the latter subject group…

  2. Eating Disorders as Sequelae of Sexual Abuse: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jama Leigh

    The literature regarding the relationship between sexual abuse and eating disorders was reviewed. Overall, women with anorexia and bulimia seem to have similar to slightly higher incidences of childhood sexual abuse than has the general population. At the same times, rates of abuse among eating disordered women, including those who experienced…

  3. Practitioner Review: Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorders--Assessment and Treatment Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepletchikova, Francheska; Krystal, John H.; Kaufman, Joan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use disorders in adolescents are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning of research on adolescent alcohol use disorders. Methods: A summary of the alcohol assessment tools is provided, and randomized studies reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of state…

  4. Pragmatic Aesthetics and the Autistic Artist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kyle; Barnbaum, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    There are many prominent examples of artists with autism. However, even when confronted with evidence of these accomplished "autistic savants", pragmatic aesthetic theories cannot adequately account for the work of these accomplished artists as "artists". This article first examines the nature of autism and explores a prominent psychological…

  5. Conceptualising Well-being for Autistic Persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robeyns, I.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    In the philosophy of well-being, there is hardly anything written on the lives of people with autism, or on the question whether existing philosophical theories of well-being are suited for understanding how well the lives of autistic persons are going. This paper tries to make some progress towards

  6. Parenting Stress in Raising Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, Norman A.; Atzil, Mira

    1988-01-01

    The study of coping in 46 parents of 23 autistic children had findings consistent with a cognitive appraisal orientation to the stressor-stress reaction relationship. The best predictor of life satisfaction for fathers was the absolute parenting burden they were assuming and for mothers it was the relative burden. (Author/DB)

  7. Empirically Derived Subclassification of the Autistic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Bryna; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A method for empirical classification of autistic and autisticlike children, based on behavior observations of 35 males and 11 females (ages 4-28 years) was examined. Factor and cluster analysis indicated four subtypes, characterized by perseverative thinking and play, motor disturbances, schizotypal/schizoid features, and anxiety and negativism.…

  8. Botulinum toxin for treating muscular temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study, through a systematic literature review, aims to analyze the effectiveness of Botulinum Toxin as a treatment for masticatory myofascial pain and muscles temporomandibular disorders (TMD. METHODS: Survey in research bases: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, Pubmed, Lilacs and BBO, between the years of 1966 and April 2011, with focus in randomized or quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials, blind or double-blind. RESULTS: After applying the inclusion criteria, 4 articles comprised the final sample: 3 were double-blind randomized controlled clinical trials and 1 was single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial. CONCLUSIONS: According to the literature, there is lack of evidence about the real effectiveness of botulinum toxin in the treatment of masticatory myofascial pain and muscular TMD. Thus, further randomized controlled clinical trials, with representative samples and longer follow-up time, to assess the real effectiveness of the technique are needed.OBJETIVO: este trabalho, por meio de uma revisão sistemática da literatura, teve como objetivo analisar a efetividade da toxina botulínica como tratamento para dor miofascial mastigatória e disfunções temporomandibulares (DTM musculares. MÉTODOS: pesquisa nas bases de dados Medline, Cochrane, Embase, Pubmed, Lilacs e BBO, no período entre 1966 e abril de 2011, com enfoque em estudos clínicos controlados randomizados ou quase-randomizados, cegos ou duplo-cegos. RESULTADOS: após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão, chegou-se a 4 artigos, sendo que 3 eram estudos clínicos controlados randomizados duplo-cego e 1 era estudo clínico controlado randomizado simples-cego. CONCLUSÕES: pela análise da literatura, verificou-se um número reduzido de evidências significativas sobre a real efetividade da toxina botulínica no tratamento da dor miofascial e de DTM musculares. Assim, são necessários novos estudos clínicos controlados randomizados, com amostras

  9. Levomilnacipran for the treatment of major depressive disorder: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asnis GA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gregory M Asnis,1,2 Margaret A Henderson21Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 2Anxiety and Depression Clinic, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Levomilnacipran (LVM, Fetzima® was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of major depressive disorder. It is a unique dual neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitor. In contrast with other selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, including duloxetine, venlafaxine, and desvenlafaxine, it has greater selectivity for inhibiting norepinephrine reuptake than serotonin reuptake. Our review focuses on the efficacy, safety, and tolerability data for five double-blind, placebo-controlled, short-term studies and two long-term studies. In the short-term studies, LVM was found to be more effective than placebo in reducing depression (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale scores as well as improving functional impairment (Sheehan Disability Scale scores. Long-term studies found LVM to be similarly effective but in the only placebo-controlled long-term study, LVM was not significantly superior to placebo. LVM is fairly well tolerated, with the most common adverse events being nausea, headache, dry mouth, hyperhidrosis, and constipation. Discontinuation rates were mildly increased in those being treated with LVM (9% versus placebo (3%. Adverse events were not dose-related except for urinary hesitancy and erectile dysfunction. LVM was weight neutral, was not toxic to the liver, and did not cause clinically significant QTc prolongation. Consistent with being a predominant potentiator of norepinephrine, pulse and blood pressure were significantly elevated by LVM but rarely induced tachycardia or hypertension. LVM is a relatively safe alternative antidepressant treatment with minimal drug–drug interactions. It is the only antidepressant that has in its labeling that it is not only effective in

  10. Levomilnacipran for the treatment of major depressive disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnis, Gregory M; Henderson, Margaret A

    2015-01-01

    Levomilnacipran (LVM, Fetzima(®)) was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of major depressive disorder. It is a unique dual neurotransmitter reuptake inhibitor. In contrast with other selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, including duloxetine, venlafaxine, and desvenlafaxine, it has greater selectivity for inhibiting norepinephrine reuptake than serotonin reuptake. Our review focuses on the efficacy, safety, and tolerability data for five double-blind, placebo-controlled, short-term studies and two long-term studies. In the short-term studies, LVM was found to be more effective than placebo in reducing depression (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale) scores as well as improving functional impairment (Sheehan Disability Scale) scores. Long-term studies found LVM to be similarly effective but in the only placebo-controlled long-term study, LVM was not significantly superior to placebo. LVM is fairly well tolerated, with the most common adverse events being nausea, headache, dry mouth, hyperhidrosis, and constipation. Discontinuation rates were mildly increased in those being treated with LVM (9%) versus placebo (3%). Adverse events were not dose-related except for urinary hesitancy and erectile dysfunction. LVM was weight neutral, was not toxic to the liver, and did not cause clinically significant QTc prolongation. Consistent with being a predominant potentiator of norepinephrine, pulse and blood pressure were significantly elevated by LVM but rarely induced tachycardia or hypertension. LVM is a relatively safe alternative antidepressant treatment with minimal drug-drug interactions. It is the only antidepressant that has in its labeling that it is not only effective in improving depression but also effective in improving impaired functioning. Whether this important effect on functioning is unique to LVM must be researched. In addition, whether LVM might be effective in norepinephrine

  11. Transverse Anderson Localization in Disordered Glass Optical Fibers: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Mafi; Salman Karbasi; Koch, Karl W.; Thomas Hawkins; John Ballato

    2014-01-01

    Disordered optical fibers show novel waveguiding properties that can be used for various device applications, such as beam-multiplexed optical communications and endoscopic image transport. The strong transverse scattering from the transversely disordered optical fibers results in transversely confined beams that can freely propagate in the longitudinal direction, similar to conventional optical fibers, with the advantage that any point in the cross section of the fiber can be used for beam t...

  12. A review of potassium channels in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Judy, Jennifer T.; Zandi, Peter P.

    2013-01-01

    Although bipolar disorder (BP) is one of the most heritable psychiatric conditions, susceptibility genes for the disorder have yet to be conclusively identified. It is likely that variants in multiple genes across multiple pathways contribute to the genotype–phenotype relationship in the affected population. Recent evidence from genome-wide association studies implicates an entire class of genes related to the structure and regulation of ion channels, suggesting that the etiology of BP may ar...

  13. A review of potassium channels in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Toolan Judy; Peter eZandi

    2013-01-01

    Although bipolar disorder (BP) is one of the most heritable psychiatric conditions, susceptibility genes for the disorder have yet to be conclusively identified. It is likely that variants in multiple genes across multiple pathways contribute to the genotype-phenotype relationship. Recent evidence from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) implicates an entire class of genes related to the structure and regulation of ion channels, suggesting that the etiology of BP may arise from a channelop...

  14. Assessing motivation to change in eating disorders: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Hoetzel, Katrin; von Brachel, Ruth; Schlossmacher, Lena; Vocks, Silja

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa are often ambivalent about their eating disorder symptoms. Therefore, a lack of motivation to change is a frequent problem in the treatment of eating disorders. This is of high relevance, as a low motivation to change is a predictor of an unfavourable treatment outcome and high treatment dropout rates. In order to quantify the degree of motivation to change, valid and reliable instruments are required in research and practice. The transthe...

  15. Musculoskeletal disorders in professional violinists and violists. Systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, Geraldo Fabiano de Souza; Antunes, Adriana Papini

    2012-01-01

    Due to the high physical and psychological demands of their work, musicians have a high risk of developing a range of health problems. The main causes of musculoskeletal disorders seen in instrumentalists are overuse, nerve compression and focal dystonia. The aim of this paper is to identify the musculoskeletal disorders that most frequently affect professional violinists and violists. 50 articles were read, of which 24 were used. The PEDro scale was used to determine the quality of the artic...

  16. Duloxetine for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Ahsan Y.; Matthew Macaluso

    2008-01-01

    Ahsan Y Khan, Matthew MacalusoDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita, Wichita, KS, USAAbstract: Approximately 16 million people in the United States suffer from anxiety disorders alone, while another 12 million experience both anxiety and at least one other psychiatric condition. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has lifetime prevalence rates between 5% and 6%. Treatment of GAD is aimed primarily at symptom reduction. Duloxetine, a s...

  17. Bipolar disorder and antithyroid antibodies: review and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchetta, Alberto; Traccis, Francesco; Mosca, Enrica; Serra, Alessandra; Tamburini, Giorgio; Loviselli, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Mood disorders and circulating thyroid antibodies are very prevalent in the population and their concomitant occurrence may be due to chance. However, thyroid antibodies have been repeatedly hypothesized to play a role in specific forms of mood disorders. Potentially related forms include treatment-refractory cases, severe or atypical depression, and depression at specific phases of a woman's life (early gestation, postpartum depression, perimenopausal). With regard to bipolar disorder, studies of specific subgroups (rapid cycling, mixed, or depressive bipolar) have reported associations with thyroid antibodies. Offspring of bipolar subjects were found more vulnerable to develop thyroid antibodies independently from the vulnerability to develop psychiatric disorders. A twin study suggested thyroid antibodies among possible endophenotypes for bipolar disorder. Severe encephalopathies have been reported in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Cases with pure psychiatric presentation are being reported, the antithyroid antibodies being probably markers of some other autoimmune disorders affecting the brain. Vasculitis resulting in abnormalities in cortical perfusion is one of the possible mechanisms. PMID:26869176

  18. Do Some Cases of Anorexia Nervosa Reflect Underlying Autistic-Like Conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gillberg

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In a sample of 51 teenagers with anorexia nervosa (AN—which included 24 cases constituting the total population of AN cases born in 1970—several had shown social, communicative and behaviour patterns suggestive of autistic-like conditions as children, long before the onset of AN. One of the three boys in the AN group had Asperger syndrome. Three of the 48 girls had histories suggesting high functioning autism and continued to show many features typical of autism. Two further girls had Tourette syndrome and obsessive–compulsive traits in combination with social interaction problems. Eighteen other girls met criteria for obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD and most of these also had had moderate–severe childhood social interaction problems. In a sex- and age-matched comparison group from the same schools, two girls had OCPD, but none had autistic-like conditions or Tourette syndrome. The results are discussed in the context of a recently suggested link between Asperger syndrome, Tourette syndrome and obsessive–compulsive problems, and it is suggested that AN in a subgroup of cases might represent a disorder belonging in the same class as autism and autistic-like conditions.

  19. Tooth erosion and eating disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Hermont

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are associated with the highest rates of morbidity and mortality of any mental disorders among adolescents. The failure to recognize their early signs can compromise a patient's recovery and long-term prognosis. Tooth erosion has been reported as an oral manifestation that might help in the early detection of eating disorders. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to search for scientific evidence regarding the following clinical question: Do eating disorders increase the risk of tooth erosion? METHODS: An electronic search addressing eating disorders and tooth erosion was conducted in eight databases. Two independent reviewers selected studies, abstracted information and assessed its quality. Data were abstracted for meta-analysis comparing tooth erosion in control patients (without eating disorders vs. patients with eating disorders; and patients with eating disorder risk behavior vs. patients without such risk behavior. Combined odds ratios (ORs and a 95% confidence interval (CI were obtained. RESULTS: Twenty-three papers were included in the qualitative synthesis and assessed by a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Fourteen papers were included in the meta-analysis. Patients with eating disorders had more risk of tooth erosion (OR = 12.4, 95%CI = 4.1-37.5. Patients with eating disorders who self-induced vomiting had more risk of tooth erosion than those patients who did not self-induce vomiting (OR = 19.6, 95%CI = 5.6-68.8. Patients with risk behavior of eating disorder had more risk of tooth erosion than patients without such risk behavior (Summary OR = 11.6, 95%CI = 3.2-41.7. CONCLUSION: The scientific evidence suggests a causal relationship between tooth erosion and eating disorders and purging practices. Nevertheless, there is a lack of scientific evidence to fulfill the basic criteria of causation between the risk behavior for eating disorders and tooth erosion.

  20. The design principles of edutainment system for autistic children with communication difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azham; Abdullah, Adil; Husni, Husniza

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 50% of all individuals with Autism have difficulties in developing functional language owing to communication deterioration. Mobile devices with installed educational games help these individuals feel more comfortable and relaxed doing such activities. Although numerous mobile applications are available for individuals with Autism, they are difficult to use; particularly in terms of user-interface design. From the analysis of existing apps for autistic children, an app design principles are proposed based on interaction design (IxD), that would fulfil the users' requirements in a better manner. Five applications were involved in this analysis. The analysis identified fifteen suggestions for the design principles. These recommendations are offered by this paper towards designing and developing a prototype app for autistic children. This paper introduces an edutainment-system design principle formulated to help develop the communication skills of children with Autism-spectrum disorders.

  1. A brief review of exercise, bipolar disorder, and mechanistic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Daniel; Turner, Alyna; Lauder, Sue; Gigler, Margaret E.; Berk, Lesley; Singh, Ajeet B.; Pasco, Julie A.; Berk, Michael; Sylvia, Louisa

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence that exercise has been found to be effective in the treatment of depression, it is unclear whether these data can be extrapolated to bipolar disorder. Available evidence for bipolar disorder is scant, with no existing randomized controlled trials having tested the impact of exercise on depressive, manic or hypomanic symptomatology. Although exercise is often recommended in bipolar disorder, this is based on extrapolation from the unipolar literature, theory and clinical expertise and not empirical evidence. In addition, there are currently no available empirical data on program variables, with practical implications on frequency, intensity and type of exercise derived from unipolar depression studies. The aim of the current paper is to explore the relationship between exercise and bipolar disorder and potential mechanistic pathways. Given the high rate of medical co-morbidities experienced by people with bipolar disorder, it is possible that exercise is a potentially useful and important intervention with regard to general health benefits; however, further research is required to elucidate the impact of exercise on mood symptomology. PMID:25788889

  2. The role of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of eating disorders: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Sarah; Smith, Caroline A; Hay, Phillipa

    2016-04-01

    This systematic review critically appraises the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of those with an eating disorder. Sixteen studies were included in the review. The results of this review show that the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of those with an eating disorder is unclear and further studies should be conducted. A potential role was found for massage and bright light therapy for depression in those with Bulimia Nervosa and a potential role for acupuncture and relaxation therapy, in the treatment of State Anxiety, for those with an eating disorder. The role of these complementary therapies in treating eating disorders should only be provided as an adjunctive treatment only. PMID:26970732

  3. The role of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of eating disorders: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Sarah; Smith, Caroline A; Hay, Phillipa

    2016-04-01

    This systematic review critically appraises the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of those with an eating disorder. Sixteen studies were included in the review. The results of this review show that the role of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of those with an eating disorder is unclear and further studies should be conducted. A potential role was found for massage and bright light therapy for depression in those with Bulimia Nervosa and a potential role for acupuncture and relaxation therapy, in the treatment of State Anxiety, for those with an eating disorder. The role of these complementary therapies in treating eating disorders should only be provided as an adjunctive treatment only.

  4. Psychological aspects of temporomandibular disorders – literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular disorders (TMD constitute a group of clinical problems involving the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joint and associated structures. An etiological connection of TMD with psychological factors was proposed as early as the 1980’s. Indeed, the interdependence of psychological and health aspects in the patient’s treatment, place light upon the more important variables contributing to the various mental disorders that may accompany TMD. Current literature suggests a close relationship between TMD and selected psychological factors, such as personality traits, stress, depression, anxiety, and catastrophizing. Of note, anxiety-depressive disorders, somatisation and catastrophizing contribute to chronic TMD, mainly in the form of myofascial pain. Hence, knowledge of the influence of psychological factors affecting TMD, enables the identification of patients with an increased risk of chronic painful TMD.

  5. A Scale to Assist the Diagnosis of Autism and Asperger's Disorder in Adults (RAADS): A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward R.; Guthrie, Donald; Yuwiler, Arthur; Ritvo, Max Joseph; Weisbender, Leo

    2008-01-01

    An empirically based 78 question self-rating scale based on DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria was developed to assist clinicians' diagnosis of adults with autism and Asperger's Disorder-the Ritvo Autism and Asperger's Diagnostic Scale (RAADS). It was standardized on 17 autistic and 20 Asperger's Disorder and 57 comparison subjects. Both autistic and…

  6. The effectiveness of melodic intonation therapy on fundamental frequency and intensity in Persian autistic children’s speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Ferdosi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder with several speech disorders such as prosodic and pragmatic impairments. Melodic intonation therapy (MIT based on Albert et al. model (1973 is a rehabilitation method, developed on prosodic features. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MIT on Persian autistic children’s prosody.Methods: An easy version of MIT, adopted for Persian language was designed by researchers. Then, after a successful pilot study on a 10-years-old boy for one month, 13 subjects were selected for the main study. All the subjects were autistic, male, right-handed, 7-10-years-old Persian children studied for 48 sessions (16 weeks. Background information gathered from the parents by a questionnaire. As pre- and post-test, some assessments about children’s fundamental frequency (Fº and intensity of the Persian vowel sounds and declarative and interrogative sentences were accomplished. The data analysis was done using Praat and SPSS softwares.Results: There was a statistically significant increase in acoustic features, such as intensity, and fundamental frequency of declarative and interrogative sentences; also all six vowels of Persian, excluding /â/ and /æ/ (p<0.05 for all.Conclusion: The widely reported unusual prosody in autistic children was quantified by this study, too. In addition, there was convincing evidence of the positive effects of melodic intonation therapy on acoustic features in Persian autistic children.

  7. Personality traits, personality disorders, and migraine: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel E; Smitherman, Todd A; Baskin, Steven M

    2013-05-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism has been associated with migraine, although research is needed to clarify potential moderators of this relationship and the extent to which neuroticism reflects a stable disposition or instead is a function of general somatic distress or situational influences. With the possible exception of harm avoidance, research has not consistently identified any other personality trait unique among migraineurs. Personality disorders have been researched less extensively, but existing data suggests that borderline personality disorder, in particular, is associated with increased negative impact of migraine, risk for medication overuse, and poor response to treatment that is likely of greater clinical importance than any personality trait per se.

  8. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Tokgunaydin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to review empirical studies that were used to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral group therapy programs for the treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder. Articles in English and Turkish that were published between the years of 2000 and 2015 (February have been searched in national and international databases. The articles that were gathered by the search have been read and the ones that were not therapy effectiveness studies, cognitive behavioral group therapies and that included posttraumatic stress disorder comorbid with alcohol/substance abuse, personality disorders and psychotic disorders were eliminated. The remaining 13 studies that fulfiilrf research criteria were introduced in the context of method and therapy characteristics. It can be seen that the cognitive behavioral group therapies are effective in decreasing the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and/or comorbid disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(Supplement 1: 95-107

  9. Animal-Assisted Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Haire, Marguerite E.

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of animals in therapeutic activities, known as animal-assisted intervention (AAI), has been suggested as a treatment practice for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This paper presents a systematic review of the empirical research on AAI for ASD. Fourteen studies published in peer-reviewed journals qualified for inclusion. The…

  10. A systematic review of the methodology of telemedicine evaluation in patients with postural and movement disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.; Dijk, van H.; Hermens, H.J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M.M.R.

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed the methodology used in telemedicine research concerning patients with postural and movement disorders. Literature searches were performed using various computerized databases through to October 2005. Twenty-two studies met the criteria for review. Two broad models of telemedicine delive

  11. The Relationship between Attachment and Eating Disorders: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robin Marie

    A review was conducted of literature published over the past 15 years pertaining to attachment factors associated with the formation of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. This review first aims to shed light on the connections between disruption in attachment and psychological disturbances underlying eating disorders. The second purpose is to encourage…

  12. A Systematic Review of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Claire; Murphy, Glynis H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a systemic review of the available literature on people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the criminal justice system (CJS). The review considers two main types of study: those that examined the prevalence of people with ASD in the CJS and those that examined the prevalence of offending in populations with ASD. In…

  13. Peer-Mediated Pivotal Response Treatment for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Ainsley M.; Corkum, Penny; Meko, Katelyn; Smith, Isabel M.

    2015-01-01

    This review examined the effectiveness of peer-mediated pivotal response treatment (PM-PRT) to increase social-communication skills for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A systematic review was conducted of all published studies examining PM-PRT in school-aged children with ASD, based on an established rubric. Five PM-PRT studies…

  14. Review of Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy for Spastic and Rigidity Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obringer, S. John; Coffey, Kenneth M.

    2002-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen therapy, a treatment for cerebral palsy and other spastic and rigidity disorders, is showing promise as an effective intervention. This article synthesizes both the medical and rehabilitation conceptual literature to update educators and related service providers as to the efficacy of this intervention. Implications for…

  15. The role of estrogen in bipolar disorder, a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinhard, Ninja; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj

    2014-01-01

    tamoxifen studies found that tamoxifen was effective in producing antimanic effects. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that estrogen fluctuations may be an important factor in the etiology of bipolar disorder and it is obvious that more research on this topic is needed to clarify the role of estrogen...

  16. Review article: gastric emptying in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M M

    2012-02-03

    Although delayed gastric emptying has been described in several functional gastrointestinal disorders, and appears to be especially common in functional dyspepsia, the relationship of this finding to symptoms and basic pathophysiology is difficult to define. The delineation of the interactions between delayed gastric emptying, on the one hand, and symptom pathogenesis, on the other, has been hampered by several factors. These include the limitations of the methodology itself, the extent of overlap between the various functional disorders and the sensitivity of gastric emptying to factors external to the stomach, be they elsewhere within the gastrointestinal tract, in the central nervous system or in the environment. In many instances, delayed gastric emptying is an epiphenomenon, reflecting the overlap between inadequately defined functional syndromes, shared pathophysiology or the activation of physiological interactions between the various organs of the gut. In others, it may imply a truly diffuse motor disorder. The disappointments attendant on attempts to alleviate symptoms through approaches designed to accelerate gastric emptying should therefore not come as a surprise. Pending the definition of the true significance of delayed gastric emptying in all functional gastrointestinal disorders, caution should be exerted in the interpretation of this finding in a patient with functional symptoms.

  17. Musculoskeletal disorders in professional violinists and violists. Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Geraldo Fabiano de Souza; Antunes, Adriana Papini

    2012-01-01

    Due to the high physical and psychological demands of their work, musicians have a high risk of developing a range of health problems. The main causes of musculoskeletal disorders seen in instrumentalists are overuse, nerve compression and focal dystonia. The aim of this paper is to identify the musculoskeletal disorders that most frequently affect professional violinists and violists. 50 articles were read, of which 24 were used. The PEDro scale was used to determine the quality of the articles. The definition of risk factors can help in the development of prevention programs. Playing a musical instrument involves a combination of actions, including rapid, repetitive and complicated movements of the hands and fingers. The chairs used offer no other option than to adapt to the demands of body posture. To achieve the necessary skills to become a musician of a high standard, many hours of training and perfection are required. The neck, shoulder and temporomandibular joints are the most commonly affected areas, due to prolonged flexion of the head and shoulder required to hold the violin. The elbow and fingers are also common sites of disorders. It is necessary to warn musicians of the initial symptoms, and how they can prevent the disorder from worsening. Level I Evidence (Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford, UK). PMID:24453580

  18. Mood and anxiety disorders in widowhood: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onrust, S.A.; Cuijpers, P.

    2006-01-01

    The association between widowhood and mental health problems, such as depressive symptomatology and anxiety, has been examined extensively. Few studies, however, have explored the prevalence and incidence of mood and anxiety disorders based on diagnostic criteria after the loss of the partner. We co

  19. 5-HT2C receptors in psychiatric disorders: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagraoui, A; Thibaut, F; Skiba, M; Thuillez, C; Bourin, M

    2016-04-01

    5-HT2Rs have a different genomic organization from other 5-HT2Rs. 5HT2CR undergoes post-transcriptional pre-mRNA editing generating diversity among RNA transcripts. Selective post-transcriptional editing could be involved in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders through impairment in G-protein interactions. Moreover, it may influence the therapeutic response to agents such as atypical antipsychotic drugs. Additionally, 5-HT2CR exhibits alternative splicing. Central serotonergic and dopaminergic systems interact to modulate normal and abnormal behaviors. Thus, 5HT2CR plays a crucial role in psychiatric disorders. 5HT2CR could be a relevant pharmacological target in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. The development of drugs that specifically target 5-HT2C receptors will allow for better understanding of their involvement in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, anxiety, and depression. Among therapeutic means currently available, most drugs used to treat highly morbid psychiatric diseases interact at least partly with 5-HT2CRs. Pharmacologically, 5HT2CRs, have the ability to generate differentially distinct response signal transduction pathways depending on the type of 5HT2CR agonist. Although this receptor property has been clearly demonstrated, in vitro, the eventual beneficial impact of this property opens new perspectives in the development of agonists that could activate signal transduction pathways leading to better therapeutic efficiency with fewer adverse effects.

  20. Inflammatory Cytokines: Potential Biomarkers of Immunologic Dysfunction in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningan Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a disorder of neurobiological origin characterized by problems in communication and social skills and repetitive behavior. After more than six decades of research, the etiology of autism remains unknown, and no biomarkers have been proven to be characteristic of autism. A number of studies have shown that the cytokine levels in the blood, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of autistic subjects differ from that of healthy individuals; for example, a series of studies suggests that interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ are significantly elevated in different tissues in autistic subjects. However, the expression of some cytokines, such as IL-1, IL-2, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, is controversial, and different studies have found various results in different tissues. In this review, we focused on several types of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines that might affect different cell signal pathways and play a role in the pathophysiological mechanism of autistic spectrum disorders.