WorldWideScience

Sample records for autistic disorders review

  1. Autistic disorder: a review for the pediatric dentist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, U; Nowak, A J

    1998-01-01

    Dental publications on autism have been sparse since the first comprehensive article geared for the dental profession. New findings on the etiology of autistic disorder (AD) have been discovered, suggesting that it is an organic disorder characterized by abnormalities in the brain, especially the cerebellum and limbic system. This article summarizes the latest medical findings on the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment approaches of AD, and reviews the dental literature since 1969. The main dental topics reviewed are: oral health status and dental needs of patients with AD, characteristics of patients with AD, and self-injurious behavior (SIB) in the context of AD. Clinical behavior-management issues such as pharmacological and communicative techniques and physical restraint and desensitization are described. The affect of the dental office's environment and appointment structure on a patient with AD are presented.

  2. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all…

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all inclusion criteria. One small randomized controlled trial (n = 13) noted non-significant improvements in hyperactivity and stereotypy. The remaining five st...

  4. GENETICS OF AUTISTIC DISORDER (REVIEW OF FOREIGN LITERATURE)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yu. Bobylova; H. L. Petchatnikova

    2013-01-01

    Autism can occur in combination with chromosomal and genetic syndromes, malformations of the brain, metabolic diseases, etc. In this regard, currently adopted the term «atypical» or «syndromic» autism – autism, which is a symptom of another disease. Genetic and chromosomal causes account for 25-50% of cases of autism. The authors presented a detailed review of the literature devoted to the genetic aspects of autism. The article discusses known hereditary diseases, manifested as autistic disor...

  5. A review of neuropsychological and neuroimaging research in autistic spectrum disorders: Attention, inhibition and cognitive flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    PUBLISHED Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are devastating neurodevelopmental disorders of unknown aetiology with characteristic deficits in social interaction, communication and behaviour. Individuals with ASD show deficits in executive function (EF), which are hypothesised to underlie core repetitive, stereotyped behaviours of autism. Neuroimaging research has identified structural brain abnormalities in ASD, which coincide with brain regions involved in EF. Therefore, we reviewed the l...

  6. Autistic disorder: a neuropsychological enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, R A

    1992-06-01

    Autism is increasingly viewed as an expression of an unidentified neurological disorder. Because understanding of neurological dysfunction is basic to evaluation and treatment in occupational therapy, this article provides a comprehensive and critical review of the literature since 1985 concerning the neuropsychology of autistic disorder. The research is categorized into four basic types: (a) neuropsychological testing of functional abilities, (b) treatment studies based on neuropsychological hypotheses, (c) autistic-related diseases and genetic disorders, and (d) neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies. The research shows a spectrum of neurological impairments within the brain stem, cerebellum, midbrain, and frontal lobe. These impairments are associated with deficits in socioemotional skills, sensory processing, motor planning, and cognitive flexibility. This research suggests that persons with autistic disorder need evaluation and treatment of a wide spectrum of functional deficits.

  7. [Empirically based early intervention programs for children with autistic disorders - a selective literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M

    2010-07-01

    Autistic Disorders (AD) are characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, as well as by stereotyped behaviors and interests. Early intervention programs in AD aim to improve several aspects of the child's abilities: joint attention, play abilities, language development, and especially social interaction and communication. In this review article based on a selective literature search, the relatively best empirically based early intervention programs will be discussed with a focus on the proven efficacy of these interventions.

  8. Aripiprazole: a review of its use in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder patients aged 6-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Hall, Petrina; Curran, Sarah; Bird, Victoria; Taylor, David

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed examining the efficacy of aripiprazole for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents. Aripiprazole was found to be more effective in reducing irritability compared with placebo at 8 weeks, SMD -0.64 [-0.90 to -0.39, P autism. Long-term studies are required to determine the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in autistic disorder in children.

  9. Catatonia and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Malone, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of catatonic-like states in people with autistic spectrum disorders is discussed in the context of current knowledge about catatonia as it occurs in severe mental illness and, less frequently documented, in conjunction with developmental disorders. The existing literature on catatonic-like states in people with autistic spectrum…

  10. Autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, Rajeshree

    2005-04-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders is a complex developmental disorder with social and communication dysfunction at its core. It has a wide clinical spectrum with a common triad of impairments -- social communication, social interaction and social imagination. Even mild or subtle difficulties can have a profound and devastating impact on the child. To be able to provide suitable treatments and interventions the distinctive way of thinking and learning of autistic children has to be understood. The core areas of social, emotional, communication and language deficits have to be addressed at all levels of functioning. The important goals of assessment include a categorical diagnosis of autism that looks at differential diagnosis, a refined precise documentation of the child's functioning in various developmental domains and ascertaining presence of co-morbid conditions. The interventions have to be adapted to the individual's chronological age, developmental phase and level of functioning. The strategies of curriculum delivery and teaching the child with autism is distinctive and includes presence of structure to increase predictability and strategies to reduce arousal of anxiety.

  11. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effectiveness of Behavioural Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of behavioural intervention programs for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders was addressed by a meta-analysis, which reviewed 14 studies. The findings suggest that the behavioural programs are effective in improving several developmental aspects in the children, in terms of their treatment gains, and also relative to…

  12. A Review of Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Research in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Attention, Inhibition and Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jane; Johnson, Katherine A.; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Gallagher, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are devastating neurodevelopmental disorders of unknown aetiology with characteristic deficits in social interaction, communication and behaviour. Individuals with ASD show deficits in executive function (EF), which are hypothesised to underlie core repetitive, stereotyped behaviours of autism. Neuroimaging…

  13. A Systematic Review of Interventions Used to Treat Catatonic Symptoms in People with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Hannah; Bunton, Penny; Hare, Dougal J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the efficacy of a range of treatments for autistic catatonia. The review identified 22 relevant papers, reporting a total of 28 cases including both adult and paediatric patients. Treatment methods included electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), medication, behavioural and sensory interventions. Quality…

  14. The intestinal lesion of autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jass, Jeremy R

    2005-08-01

    This editorial briefly reviews the significance of lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in the intestinal tract of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The distinction between physiological and pathological lymphoid hyperplasia of the intestinal tract is of importance in the context of a possible causative link with autism. A primary intestinal lesion may occur as part of the broad spectrum of immunological disorders to which autistic children are prone. This could result in increased intestinal permeability to peptides of dietary origin which may then lead to disruption of neuroregulatory mechanisms required for normal brain development. Alternatively, there could be a primary defect in the translocation and processing of factors derived from the intestinal lumen. These possibilities deserve further investigation and should not be lost in the fog of the controversy regarding the role of measles/mumps/rubella vaccination in the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder.

  15. Intersubjectivity, affective neuroscience, and the neurobiology of autistic spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Kenneth J

    2008-03-01

    Intersubjectivity is an approach to the study of social interaction viewed from a perspective which rejects the view that reducing any such analysis to study at the level of the individual is adequate to address the issues of social functioning. It also stresses the view that social processes cannot be reduced to cognitive ones - most of the important questions in the study of developmental psychopathology deal with issues which have commonality with many other species and are patent well before the ontological emergence of 'cognitive' abilities. In this paper we review the evidence in this area, and discuss a range of issues relevant to autistic spectrum disorders. We focus in particular on social interaction; the role of the Intrinsic Motive Formation and recent work on mirror neurons in autism; genetic and teratogenic factors in the genesis of autism; and the role of a number of biological factors in pathogenesis - tryptophan; vitamin B12; sterol metabolism; glutamate and GABA; and the Fragile-X expansion.

  16. [Review of psychopharmacological treatments in adolescents and adults with autistic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadli, A; Gonnier, V; Aussilloux, C

    2002-01-01

    Autism is an early developmental disorder. It leads to severe and durable disturbances. Given this problem, no treatment can be excluded a priori. Thus, many approaches are used to deal with autistic disorders. In France, pharmacological treatments are, for instance, largely and mostly used in adults. In the USA, these treatments concern 50% of persons with autism of any age. Nevertheless, they are rarely based on controlled studies. At the present, however, prescriptions and expected effects appear to be hard to localize. Furthermore, only few controlled studies validate their use. Aim - We offer a review of studies about medical treatments used in adolescents and adults with autism. They are classified in 3 categories: the first (category I) includes drugs used for their neurochemical effects focusing on autistic signs. The second (category II) covers drugs used for treatment of behavioural disorders frequently associated with autism. The third (category III) corresponds to a wide range of drugs or vitamins for wich only few case studies exist reporting irregular positive effects. The main hypothesis of this review is that autism involves a dysfunction of the neuromediation systems. This hypothesis opens new perspectives in the research of medical treatments in autism by focusing on molecules, which are supposed to have an effect on neuromediation systems. Method - Our review is based on studies, which have been published during the past twenty years. For many studies, data are limited to adolescents and adults. So we expanded our review to data available in children. The data bases that we have used are medline and psyclit. Keywords have been chosen according to: pharmacological considerations (psychotropic, psychoactive drugs, psychopharmacology) and clinical symptoms (autism, automutilations, aggressive behavior, and hyperactivity). Hypothesis of a dysfunction in the neuromediation systems in autism - Many studies exist about biochemical abnormalities in

  17. [Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercadante, M.T.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Schwartzman, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative

  18. Technologies as Support Tools for Persons with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresti-Bartolome, Nuria; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the technologies most widely used to work on areas affected by the Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Technologies can focus on the strengths and weaknesses of this disorder as they make it possible to create controlled environments, reducing the anxiety produced by real social situations. Extensive research has proven the efficiency of technologies as support tools for therapy and their acceptation by ASD sufferers and the people who are with them on a daily basis. This article is organized by the types of systems developed: virtual reality applications, telehealth systems, social robots and dedicated applications, all of which are classified by the areas they center on: communication, social learning and imitation skills and other ASD-associated conditions. 40.5% of the research conducted is found to be focused on communication as opposed to 37.8% focused on learning and social imitation skills and 21.6% which underlines problems associated with this disorder. Although most of the studies reveal how useful these tools are in therapy, they are generic tools for ASD sufferers in general, which means there is a lack of personalised tools to meet each person’s needs. PMID:25093654

  19. Technologies as Support Tools for Persons with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Aresti-Bartolome

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the technologies most widely used to work on areas affected by the Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Technologies can focus on the strengths and weaknesses of this disorder as they make it possible to create controlled environments, reducing the anxiety produced by real social situations. Extensive research has proven the efficiency of technologies as support tools for therapy and their acceptation by ASD sufferers and the people who are with them on a daily basis. This article is organized by the types of systems developed: virtual reality applications, telehealth systems, social robots and dedicated applications, all of which are classified by the areas they center on: communication, social learning and imitation skills and other ASD-associated conditions. 40.5% of the research conducted is found to be focused on communication as opposed to 37.8% focused on learning and social imitation skills and 21.6% which underlines problems associated with this disorder. Although most of the studies reveal how useful these tools are in therapy, they are generic tools for ASD sufferers in general, which means there is a lack of personalised tools to meet each person’s needs.

  20. Technologies as support tools for persons with autistic spectrum disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresti-Bartolome, Nuria; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya

    2014-08-04

    This study analyzes the technologies most widely used to work on areas affected by the Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Technologies can focus on the strengths and weaknesses of this disorder as they make it possible to create controlled environments, reducing the anxiety produced by real social situations. Extensive research has proven the efficiency of technologies as support tools for therapy and their acceptation by ASD sufferers and the people who are with them on a daily basis. This article is organized by the types of systems developed: virtual reality applications, telehealth systems, social robots and dedicated applications, all of which are classified by the areas they center on: communication, social learning and imitation skills and other ASD-associated conditions. 40.5% of the research conducted is found to be focused on communication as opposed to 37.8% focused on learning and social imitation skills and 21.6% which underlines problems associated with this disorder. Although most of the studies reveal how useful these tools are in therapy, they are generic tools for ASD sufferers in general, which means there is a lack of personalised tools to meet each person's needs.

  1. Autistic Disorder Symptoms in Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulffaert, Josette; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; Scholte, Evert M.

    2009-01-01

    According to the major classification systems it is not possible to diagnose a comorbid autistic disorder in persons with Rett syndrome. However, this is a controversial issue, and given the level of functioning of persons with Rett syndrome, the autistic disorder is expected to be present in a comparable proportion as in people with the same…

  2. Do Social Stories Help to Decrease Disruptive Behaviour in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? A Review of the Published Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A structured search and identification of themes within the literature regarding the use of Social Stories to decrease disruptive behaviour in children with autistic spectrum disorders is presented. The examination of seven studies showed that the Social Story intervention was successful for the majority of the participants, although the level of…

  3. Autistic disorder and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbey, Jane E; Sweeten, Thayne L; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions, which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very early in development. The mechanism, by which viral infection may lead to autism, be it through direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS), through infection elsewhere in the body acting as a trigger for disease in the CNS, through alteration of the immune response of the mother or offspring, or through a combination of these, is not yet known. Animal models in which early viral infection results in behavioral changes later in life include the influenza virus model in pregnant mice and the Borna disease virus model in newborn Lewis rats. Many studies over the years have presented evidence both for and against the association of autism with various viral infections. The best association to date has been made between congenital rubella and autism; however, members of the herpes virus family may also have a role in autism. Recently, controversy has arisen as to the involvement of measles virus and/or the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in the development of autism. Biological assays lend support to the association between measles virus or MMR and autism whereas epidemiologic studies show no association between MMR and autism. Further research is needed to clarify both the mechanisms whereby viral infection early in development may lead to autism and the possible involvement of the MMR vaccine in the development of autism.

  4. Reports on dietary intervention in autistic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knivsber, A M; Reichelt, K L; Nødland, M

    2001-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder for which no cure currently exists. Gluten and/or casein free diet has been implemented to reduce autistic behaviour, in addition to special education, since early in the eighties. Over the last twelve years various studies on this dietary intervention have been published in addition to anecdotal, parental reports. The scientific studies include both groups of participants as well as single cases, and beneficial results are reported in all, but one study. While some studies are based on urinary peptide abnormalities, others are not. The reported results are, however, more or less identical; reduction of autistic behaviour, increased social and communicative skills, and reappearance of autistic traits after the diet has been broken.

  5. Epidemiology of autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fombonne, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Is the incidence of autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) increasing? Recent epidemiological surveys of autistic disorder and other PDDs have heightened awareness of and concern about the prevalence of these disorders; however, differences in survey methodology, particularly changes in case definition and case identification over time, have made comparisons between surveys difficult to perform and interpret. Recent surveys suggest that the rate of all PDDs is about 60 per 10,000. The prevalence of autism today is estimated at 13 per 10,000, Asperger's disorder is approximately 3 per 10,000, and childhood disintegrative disorder is very rare at about 0.2 per 10,000. The assessment process, sample size, publication year, and geographic location of studies all have an effect on prevalence estimates. In addition, data from many of these surveys indicate correlates of autistic disorder and other PDDs with IQ, gender, and other medical disorders.

  6. Review of foreign approaches to development of communication in children with autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soldatenkova E.N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a generalized overview of international approaches to the evaluation and formation of communication in children with autism spectrum disor ders (ASD. Described radicals communication disorders in children with ASD. Analyzed foreign approaches (Communication system for the exchange of images (PECS Lori Frost and Andrew Bondy; options piktogramme6ideogrammic communication (bliss6symbolism, Loeb system, a system of sign language; Program in Applied verbal behavior; a Method of facilitating communication (FC and others used for the development of communication in children with ASD and donditions underlying these approaches. Examined differences in focus for the development of communication in children with ASD in domestic and foreign schools. The main conditions for the development of communication in children with ASD described in the framework of cultural historical psychology and activity approach, ensuring the inclusion of children with ASD in education.

  7. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy with people who have autistic spectrum disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Lisa; Hodgekins, Joanne; Langdon, Peter E

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were to undertake a meta-analytic and systematic appraisal of the literature investigating the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) when used with individuals who have autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) for either a) affective disorders, or b) the symptoms of ASDs. Following a systematic search, 48 studies were included. CBT, used for affective disorders, was associated with a non-significant small to medium effect size, g=0.24, for self-report measures, a significant medium effect size, g=0.66, for informant-report measures, and a significant medium effect size, g=0.73, for clinician-report measures. CBT, used as a treatment for symptoms of ASDs, was associated with a small to medium non-significant effect size, g=0.25, for self-report measures, a significant small to medium effect size, g=0.48, for informant-report measures, a significant medium effect size, g=0.65, for clinician-report measures, and a significant small to medium effect size, g=0.35, for task-based measures. Sensitivity analyses reduced effect size magnitude, with the exception of that based on informant-report measures for the symptoms of ASDs, which increased, g=0.52. Definitive trials are needed to demonstrate that CBT is an empirically validated treatment for use with people who have ASDs.

  8. The savant syndrome and autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffert, D A

    1999-12-01

    Savant syndrome, characterized by remarkable islands of mental ability in otherwise mentally handicapped persons, may occur in autistic as well as nonautistic individuals. Overall, approximately 10% of autistic persons exhibit savant abilities; roughly 50% of those with savant syndrome have autism, and the remaining 50% have other forms of developmental disability. Most commonly, savant syndrome takes the form of extraordinary musical abilities, but may also include calendar-calculation, artistic, mathematical, spatial, mechanical, and memory skills. While savant syndrome was first described more than a century ago, only recently have researchers begun to employ a more uniform nomenclature and more standardized testing in an effort to compare the abilities of savants with those of normal persons. Males show signs of savant syndrome approximately four times more often than females. Along with imaging study findings, this fact suggests the presence of a developmental disorder involving left-brain damage with right-brain compensation.

  9. Autistic spectrum disorders 2: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alice; Cork, Christine; Chowdhury, Uttom

    2006-04-01

    As many as six in every 1000 children may be affected by an autistic spectrum disorder. The previous article of this two-part series discussed the distinction between autism, Asperger's syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder, and examined the assessment process. This article looks at potential differential diagnoses that must be considered, as well as conditions associated with autism. Many theories about the causes of autism have been suggested, including the MMR vaccine. Recent research has suggested that there is no link between the vaccine and autism. There is no cure for autism, but intervention and management techniques should be aimed at educating parents and carers about the disorder and behavioural interventions to aid the child's skills development.

  10. Memory in autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-05-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory impairments are more extensive in M-LFA than in HFA. Specifically, both groups have diminished memory for emotion- or person-related stimuli. Regarding memory for nonsocial stimuli, both groups probably have mental-age-appropriate nondeclarative memory, and within declarative memory, both groups have mental-age-appropriate immediate free recall of within-span or supraspan lists of unrelated items, as well as cued recall and paired associate learning. By contrast, recognition is largely unimpaired in HFA but moderately impaired in M-LFA, and free recall of meaningful or structured stimuli is moderately impaired in HFA but more severely impaired in M-LFA. Theoretical explanations of data on declarative memory in HFA identify problems in the integrative processing, or the consolidation and storage, of complex stimuli or a specific problem of recollection. Proposed neural substrates include the following: disconnectivity of primary sensory and association areas; dysfunctions of medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, or posterior parietal lobe; or combinations of these associated with neural disconnectivity. Hypothetically, perirhinal dysfunction might explain the more extensive declarative memory impairments in M-LFA. Foreseeable consequences of uneven memory abilities in HFA and M-LFA are outlined, including possible effects on language and learning in M-LFA. Finally, priorities for future research are identified, highlighting the urgent need for research on memory in lower functioning individuals.

  11. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenberg, P.L.; David, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, dep

  12. Hyperserotonemia in Adults with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hranilovic, Dubravka; Bujas-Petkovic, Zorana; Vragovic, Renata; Vuk, Tomislav; Hock, Karlo; Jernej, Branimir

    2007-01-01

    Hyperserotonemia is the most consistent serotonin-related finding in autism. The basis of this phenomenon, and its relationship to the central serotonergic dysfunction remains unclear. Platelet serotonin level (PSL) in 53 autistic adults and 45 healthy controls was measured. Mean PSL in autistic group (75.7 [plus or minus] 37.4 ng/[microliters])…

  13. The Screening and Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipek, Pauline A.; Accardo, Pasquale J.; Baranek, Grace T.; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Dawson, Geraldine; Gordon, Barry; Gravel, Judith S.; Johnson, Chris P.; Kallen, Ronald J.; Levy, Susan E.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Prizant, Barry M.; Rapin, Isabelle; Rogers, Sally J.; Stone, Wendy L.; Teplin, Stuart; Tuchman, Roberto F.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents detailed recommendations for diagnosis of autism established by a multidisciplinary panel of the Child Neurology Society and the American Academy of Neurology. The paper offers dual-level (general development and specific symptoms) guidelines for diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative…

  14. Multi-Touch Collaborative Gesture Recognition Based User Interfaces as Behavioral Interventions for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMED HASSAN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses UI (User Interface designing based on multi-touch collaborative gesture recognition meant for ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder - affected children. The present user interfaces (in the context of behavioral interventions for Autism Spectrum disorder are investigated in detail. Thorough comparison has been made among various groups of these UIs. Advantages and limitations of these interfaces are discussed and future directions for the design of such interfaces are suggested.

  15. Caracterization of the motor profile of students with autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Matiko Okuda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Thematic focus: The motor abnormalities may be part of so-called comorbidities that can coexist with autistic disorder. Objective: To characterize the motor profile of students with autistic disorder. Method: the study included six children with autistic disorder in elementary school, male, aged 5 years and 5 months and 10 years and 9 months. After signing the consent form by parents or guardians, the students were submitted to the Motor Development Scale for assessment of fine motor, gross motor performance, balance, body scheme, spatial organization, temporal organization and laterality. Results: The results revealed a significant difference between the motor age and chronological age. According to the classification of the Scale of Motor Development, students in this study showed motor development lower than expected for age. Conclusion: The students with autistic disorder in this study presented a profile of Developmental Coordination Disorder in comorbidity, showing that participants of this research presented difficulties in activities that required skills such as handwriting. Thus, motor and psychomotor needs of these students were focused on educational and clinical environment to reduce the impact of behavioral and social manifestations.

  16. Impairment in Movement Skills of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dido; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Chandler, Susie; Loucas, Tom; Simonoff, Emily; Baird, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Aim: We undertook this study to explore the degree of impairment in movement skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and a wide IQ range. Method: Movement skills were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) in a large, well defined, population-derived group of children (n=101: 89 males,12 females; mean…

  17. Iron Deficiency in Preschool Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Gurkan, Kagan; Turkoglu, Serhat; Akca, Omer Faruk; Kilic, Birim Gunay; Uslu, Runa

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) causes negative outcomes on psychomotor and behavioral development of infants and young children. Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are under risk for ID and this condition may increase the severity of psychomotor and behavioral problems, some of which already inherently exist in these children. In the present…

  18. The potential importance of steroids in the treatment of autistic spectrum disorders and other disorders involving mercury toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Mark R; Geier, David A

    2005-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) affects 1 in 150 children in the United States. Autism is characterized by impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, abnormal movements, and sensory dysfunction. Recently emerging evidence suggests that mercury, especially from childhood vaccines, appears to be a factor in the development of the autistic disorders, and that autistic children have higher than normal body-burdens of mercury. In considering mercury toxicity, it has previously been shown that testosterone significantly potentates mercury toxicity, whereas estrogen is protective. Examination of autistic children has shown that the severity of autistic disorders correlates with the amount of testosterone present in the amniotic fluid, and an examination of a case-series of autistic children has shown that some have plasma testosterone levels that were significantly elevated in comparison neurotypical control children. A review of some of the current biomedical therapies for autistics, such as glutathione and cysteine, chelation, secretin, and growth hormone, suggests that they may in fact lower testosterone levels. We put forward the medical hypothesis that autistic disorders, in fact, represents a form of testosterone mercury toxicity, and based upon this observation, one can design novel treatments for autistics directed towards higher testosterone levels in autistic children. We suggest a series of experiments that need to be conducted in order to evaluate the exact mechanisms for mercury-testosterone toxicity, and various types of clinical manipulations that may be employed to control testosterone levels. It is hoped by devising therapies that address the steroid hormone pathways, in addition to the current treatments that successful lower heavy metal body-burdens of mercury, will work synergistically to improve clinical outcomes. In light of the fact that

  19. [Asperger's syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD) refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term,,autistic spectrum disorders" was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger's Syndrome (AS) remains the most controversial diagnosis in terms of its place within autism spectrum disorders. AS if often described as an equivalent of High Functioning Autism (HFA) or as a separate spectrum-related disorder with unique diagnostic criteria. Another important issue is the relationship between AS and speech disorders. Although it is relatively easy to draw a line between children with classical autism and speech disorders, the clear cut frontiers between them still remain to be found. The main distinguishing feature is the lack of stereotypic interests and unimpaired social interaction observed in children with speech disorders, such as semantic-pragmatic disorder.

  20. Catatonia in Autistic Disorder: A Sign of Comorbidity or Variable Expression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, George M.; August, Gerald J.

    1991-01-01

    Case studies are presented of three autistic adolescents who exhibited catatonia, and it is concluded that catatonia may be a sign of a comorbid condition (such as bipolar disorder) in autistic individuals. Autistic individuals with various other psychiatric, neurological, medical, and drug-related conditions may be at greater risk for catatonic…

  1. Auditory hypersensitivity in children and teenagers with autistic spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify if the clinical behavior of auditory hypersensitivity, reported in interviews with parents/caregivers and therapists/teachers of 46 children and teenagers suffering from autistic spectrum disorder, correspond to audiological findings. METHOD: The clinical diagnosis for auditory hypersensitivity was investigated by means of an interview. Subsequently, a test of the acoustic stapedial reflex was conducted, and responses to intense acoustic stimulus in open field were observ...

  2. Mindfulness Experiences of Children who have Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Anxiety- An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study explored the experiences of four children with\\ud Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and anxiety (aged 10-13 years) who took part in a\\ud mindfulness-based intervention. The research was conducted within a local authority in\\ud times of reform in both education and mental health. A systematic literature review\\ud indicated that the majority of children with ASD experience difficulties with attention,\\ud anxiety, empathy, comprehension and communication wi...

  3. Gluten- and casein-free diets for autistic spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Claire; Ferriter, Michael; Calver, Sarah J; Connell-Jones, Graham G

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that peptides from gluten and casein may have a role in the origins of autism and that the physiology and psychology of autism might be explained by excessive opioid activity linked to these peptides. Research has reported abnormal levels of peptides in the urine and cerebrospinal fluid of people with autism. Objectives To determine the efficacy of gluten and/or casein free diets as an intervention to improve behaviour, cognitive and social functioning in individuals with autism. Search methods The following electronic databases were searched: CENTRAL(The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2007), PsycINFO (1971 to April 2007), EMBASE (1974 to April 2007), CINAHL (1982 to April 2007), ERIC (1965 to 2007), LILACS (1982 to April 2007), and the National Research register 2007 (Issue1). Review bibliographies were also examined to identify potential trials. Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials (RCT) involving programmes which eliminated gluten, casein or both gluten and casein from the diets of individuals diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder. Data collection and analysis Abstracts of studies identified in searches of electronic databases were assessed to determine inclusion by two independent authors The included trials did not share common outcome measures and therefore no meta-analysis was possible. Data are presented in narrative form. Main results Two small RCTs were identified (n = 35). No meta-analysis was possible. There were only three significant treatment effects in favour of the diet intervention: overall autistic traits, mean difference (MD) = −5.60 (95% CI −9.02 to −2.18), z = 3.21, p=0.001 (Knivsberg 2002) ; social isolation, MD = −3.20 (95% CI −5.20 to 1.20), z = 3.14, p = 0.002) and overall ability to communicate and interact, MD = 1.70 (95% CI 0.50 to 2.90), z = 2.77, p = 0.006) (Knivsberg 2003). In addition three outcomes showed no significant difference between the

  4. Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.; Perrin, S.

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic tec

  5. The epidemiology of autistic spectrum disorders: is the prevalence rising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Lorna; Potter, David

    2002-01-01

    For decades after Kanner's original paper on the subject was published in 1943, autism was generally considered to be a rare condition with a prevalence of around 2-4 per 10,000 children. Then, studies carried out in the late 1990s and the present century reported annual rises in incidence of autism in pre-school children, based on age of diagnosis, and increases in the age-specific prevalence rates in children. Prevalence rates of up to 60 per 10,000 for autism and even more for the whole autistic spectrum were reported. Reasons for these increases are discussed. They include changes in diagnostic criteria, development of the concept of the wide autistic spectrum, different methods used in studies, growing awareness and knowledge among parents and professional workers and the development of specialist services, as well as the possibility of a true increase in numbers. Various environmental causes for a genuine rise in incidence have been suggested, including the triple vaccine for measles, mumps and rubella (MMR]. Not one of the possible environmental causes, including MMR, has been confirmed by independent scientific investigation, whereas there is strong evidence that complex genetic factors play a major role in etiology. The evidence suggests that the majority, if not all, of the reported rise in incidence and prevalence is due to changes in diagnostic criteria and increasing awareness and recognition of autistic spectrum disorders. Whether there is also a genuine rise in incidence remains an open question.

  6. Psychophysiological aspects of autistic disorders: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J B

    1996-03-01

    The neurological, neurochemical, and neurotransmitter level differences as well as genetic influences associated with autism have been studied extensively in the last two decades. The varied findings from research offer hope for better understanding, effective treatment, and, perhaps, cure of this pervasive developmental disorder.

  7. Neurofeedback application in the treatment of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivoder, Ivana; Martic-Biocina, Sanja; Kosic, Ana Vodanovic; Bosak, Josipa

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe neurofeedback (NFB) treatment in Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) children. There is no specific cure for autism and therapeutic guidelines are directed to improve the quality of life of people with autism by reducing the symptoms and by increasing their functioning. Neurofeedback is a computerized method based on tracking electrical activity of the brain (EEG) and giving a feedback about it. The method has been developed in neurophysiological labs of scientific institutes in USA and has been used very successfully for over last 20 years. It has proven its efficacy in practise, but also in scientific and clinical research. During 2010 and 2011 neurofeedback treatment was administered to 10 children (N=10, 7 males and 3 females) age range 4 to 7 years which have been diagnosed as autistic spectrum disorder (highly functional) with an unspecific impairment of speech development and trouble communicating. An evaluation of treatment was done according to estimation of changes in functioning (parents, teachers and therapists' ratings and all other experts that were monitoring the child before, during and after the treatment) and tracking of changes in electrophysiology. The results have shown most changes in behaviour (less aggressive, more cooperation, better communication), attention span and sensory motor skills. According to the assessment of parents, teachers, therapists and other experts all children have accomplished a certain degree of improvement in the level of daily functioning. Our experiences in usage of neurofeedback in Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) children confirmed previous data that this method can be applied to this category of patients.

  8. Autistic-Like Traits in Adult Patients with Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Junko Matsuo; Yoko Kamio; Hidetoshi Takahashi; Miho Ota; Toshiya Teraishi; Hiroaki Hori; Anna Nagashima; Reiko Takei; Teruhiko Higuchi; Nobutaka Motohashi; Hiroshi Kunugi

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and...

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Individuals with Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtar, Mohamad; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli

    2011-01-01

    Although children and adolescents with developmental disabilities are said to have higher risks of abuse than those without, trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are little examined in those diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Our study aims to assess trauma types, prevalence, risk factors and symptoms; and PTSD in…

  10. Parental satisfaction of an assessment unit for autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Amor, Arwa; Halayem, Soumeyya; Touati, Maissa; Belhadj, Ahlem; Gouider, Riadh; Mrad, Ridha; Bouden, Asma

    2016-06-01

    Background - Based on the recognized principles of assessment of autistic disorders, the child and adolescent psychiatry department in Razi Hospital developed an assessment unit with diagnostic as well as therapeutic roles. The aim of this work was to examine its functioning and to analyze the parents' perceptions about the unit services. Methods - We gathered the parental satisfaction about the unit by the means of a hetero-questionnaire. Results - Fifty-two parents of children evaluated within the unit were included.  Patients had received the diagnosis of Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorders Not Otherwise Specified and Asperger Syndrome in accordance with DSM IV criteria, and than that of Autism Spectrum Disorder after DSM 5 publication. The overall satisfaction rate was 63%. Most parents (84.6%) rated the Psycho Educative Profile examination positively, 75% appreciated the neurological examination and the final report steps, 55.8% appreciated step of the Autism Diagnostic Interview revised and 42.3% the genetic exploration. 67% of the parents reported an improvement of their child following the evaluation. This improvement was attributed to the unit in 57.7% of cases. Parents whose children did not have associated disorders such as intellectual disability (p = 0.02), aggressive behavior (p = 0.04), affective disorder (p = 0.01) and sleep-related disorders (p = 0.03) were the most satisfied. Parents of children with epilepsy comorbidity were the least satisfied (p <10-3). 96% of parents suggested repeating the assessment once a year. Conclusion - Assessment units are based on international recommendations. However, it would be interesting to adapt assessments and orientation to the parents' expectations.

  11. The Melatonin Receptor Agonist Ramelteon Effectively Treats Insomnia and Behavioral Symptoms in Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kawabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder.

  12. The melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon effectively treats insomnia and behavioral symptoms in autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Fumie; Oka, Yasunori; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder.

  13. Partial trisomy 16p in an adolescent with autistic disorder and Tourette`s syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebebrand, J.; Martin, M.; Remschmidt, H. [Philipps-Univ., Marburg (Germany)] [and others

    1994-09-15

    A partial trisomy 16p was identified in a 14-year-old male adolescent with autistic disorder. He additionally showed complex motor and vocal phenomena, including some simple tics which had first appeared in childhood. Whereas these simple tics were of subclinical significance, an additional diagnosis of Tourette`s syndrome (TS) appears justified. The case report illustrates the diagnostic difficulties in assessing psychiatric symptomatology associated with both disorders, especially complex motor and vocal phenomena. The cytogenetic finding is discussed critically in the light of other chromosome abnormalities reported in both TS and autistic disorder. Chromosome 16p should be considered as a candidate region especially for autistic disorder. 21 refs.

  14. Molecular genetics and animal models in autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Autistic disorder is a behavioural syndrome beginning before the age of 3 years and lasting over the whole lifetime. It is characterised by impaired communication, impaired social interactions, and repetitive interests and behaviour. The prevalence is about 7/10,000 taking a restrictive definition and more than 1/500 with a broader definition, including all the pervasive developmental disorders. The importance of genetic factors has been highlighted by epidemiological studies showing that autistic disorder is one of the most genetic neuropsychiatric diseases. The relative risk of first relatives is about 100-fold higher than the risk in the normal population and the concordance in monozygotic twin is about 60%. Different strategies have been applied on the track of susceptibility genes. The systematic search of linked loci led to contradictory results, in part due to the heterogeneity of the clinical definitions, to the differences in the DNA markers, and to the different methods of analysis used. An oversimplification of the inferred model is probably also cause of our disappointment. More work is necessary to give a clearer picture. One region emerges more frequently: the long arm of chromosome 7. Several candidate genes have been studied and some gave indications of association: the Reelin gene and the Wnt2 gene. Cytogenetical abnormalities are frequent at 15q11-13, the region of the Angelman and Prader-Willi syndrome. Imprinting plays an important role in this region, no candidate gene has been identified in autism. Biochemical abnormalities have been found in the serotonin system. Association and linkage studies gave no consistent results with some serotonin receptors and in the transporter, although it seems interesting to go further in the biochemical characterisation of the serotonin transporter activity, particularly in platelets, easily accessible. Two monogenic diseases have been associated with autistic disorder: tuberous sclerosis and fragile X. A

  15. The importance of catatonia and stereotypies in autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Kakooza, Angelina

    2006-01-01

    Motor disturbances are often observed in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) and recognized as diagnostic features of these disorders. The movement disorders characteristically associated with autism include stereotypies and self-injurious behavior. Yet, individuals with ASD may also be at the risk for catatonia. Although not as frequent as stereotypies, up to 17% of older adolescents and adults with autistic disorder may have severe catatonic-like symptoms. Catatonia may be a comorbid risk factor of autism that warrants further empirical and clinical evaluations. Clinicians may need to be attentive to more subtle signs of catatonic-like symptoms in individuals diagnosed with ASDs, especially as they enter adolescence and young adulthood. Stress has been implicated as a possible precursor for symptoms; however, its role has not been empirically proven as a potential risk factor. Clinicians might also need to assess for signs of significant declines in motor movements, as this appears to be a useful diagnostic indicator of catatonic-like symptoms. The literature on stereotypies and autism is more extensive than for catatonia and ASDs, probably because of the higher rate of stereotypies with autism. Explanations for the occurrence of stereotypies range from genetic to behavioral contingencies, with evidence for a multifactor explanation. Assessment measures often include items that assess for stereotypies to aid with diagnosing these symptoms in individuals with autism. Treatment for stereotypies is largely behavioral at the present time and requires consistent reinforcement of treatment gains to manage the symptoms successfully. An important area of future research in autism is the relation among different types of motor abnormalities, including stereotypies and catatonia.

  16. Counseling parents regarding prognosis in autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, J

    2000-05-01

    A triaxial model for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is presented, incorporating age, degree of intelligence, and severity of autistic features. As the name implies, ASD can vary in degree of expression from minimal to profound. Furthermore, the symptoms of ASD change in predictable ways with the passage of time. For example, echolalia during early childhood may be replaced by verbal literalism and difficulty with verbal humor during later childhood or adolescence. The prognosis for children with ASD is governed by the joint impact of the degree of expression of ASD and the degree of developmental delay, if any. All combinations of ASD and intellect are possible (ie, severe ASD plus severe mental retardation, severe ASD plus normal general intelligence, and so forth). The relationship among these 3 parameters-severity of ASD, level of general intelligence, and change in symptom expression over time, is represented schematically as a 3-dimensional graph. The utility of this graph as a counseling tool, and as the basis for future research on the prognosis of ASD are discussed.

  17. Comparative analysis of autistic traits and behavioral disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome and Asperger disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dae Kwang; Sawada, Masayuki; Yokota, Shingo; Kuroda, Kenji; Uenishi, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Hiroshi; Nagai, Toshiro; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neuro-genetic disorder caused by the absence/loss of expression of one or more paternally expressed genes on chromosome 15 (q11-13). In this study, a comparative analysis of intelligence level and autistic traits was conducted between children with PWS (n = 30; 18 males, 12 females; age = 10.6 ± 2.8 years) and those with Asperger disorder (AD; n = 31; 24 males, 7 females; age = 10.5 ± 3.1 years). The children were compared by age group: lower elementary school age (6-8 years), upper elementary school age (9-12 years), and middle school age (13-15 years). As results, the intelligence levels of children with PWS were significantly lower than those with AD across all age groups. Autistic traits, assessed using the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), revealed that among elementary school age children, those with PWS had less prominent autistic traits than those with AD, however, among middle school age children, those with PWS and AD showed similar prominence. An analysis of the PARS subscale scores by age group showed that while the profiles of autistic traits for children with PWS differed from those of children with AD at elementary school age, the profiles showed no significant differences between the groups at middle school age. The findings suggest that autistic traits in PWS become gradually more prominent with increasing of age and that these autistic traits differ in their fundamental nature from those observed in AD.

  18. The Melatonin Receptor Agonist Ramelteon Effectively Treats Insomnia and Behavioral Symptoms in Autistic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kentaro Kawabe; Fumie Horiuchi; Yasunori Oka; Shu-ichi Ueno

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteo...

  19. Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebel, Antony; Brams, Matthew; Goldman, Robert S; Silva, Robert; Hernandez, David; Deng, Ling; Mankoski, Raymond; Findling, Robert L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of lurasidone in treating irritability associated with autistic disorder. In this multicenter trial, outpatients age 6-17 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, and who demonstrated irritability, agitation, and/or self-injurious behaviors were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with lurasidone 20 mg/day (N = 50), 60 mg/day (N = 49), or placebo (N = 51). Efficacy measures included the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale (ABC-I, the primary endpoint) and the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement (CGI-I) scale, and were analyzed using a likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures. Least squares (LS) mean (standard error [SE]) improvement from baseline to Week 6 in the ABC-I was not significantly different for lurasidone 20 mg/day (-8.8 [1.5]) and lurasidone 60 mg/day (-9.4 [1.4]) versus placebo (-7.5 [1.5]; p = 0.55 and 0.36, respectively). CGI-I scores showed significantly greater LS mean [SE] improvement at Week 6 for lurasidone 20 mg/day versus placebo (2.8 [0.2] vs. 3.4 [0.2]; p = 0.035) but not for lurasidone 60 mg/day (3.1 [0.2]; p = 0.27). Discontinuation rates due to adverse events were: lurasidone 20 mg/day, 4.1%; 60 mg/day, 3.9%; and placebo, 8.2%. Adverse events with an incidence ≥10% (lurasidone combined, placebo) included vomiting (18.0, 4.1%) and somnolence (12.0, 4.1%). Modest changes were observed in weight and selected metabolic parameters. In this study, once-daily, fixed doses of 20 and 60 mg/day of lurasidone were not demonstrated to be efficacious compared to placebo for the short-term treatment of children and adolescents with moderate-to-severe irritability associated with autistic disorder.

  20. Parental Perceptions of a Manchester Service for Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mischa Mockett

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. User feedback is now an integral part of both clinical governance and service development, and it also provides a key route to engaging parents and children. Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs can impact on all members of a family, and close working between parents and professionals is essential. Aim. To explore parental satisfaction rates and identify areas in need of improvement. Method. A postal survey was completed by parents whose children had been diagnosed with an ASD in the past 18 months in a Manchester Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service. The National Autism Plan for Children was used as a gold standard. Results. Parents were particularly satisfied with the way team members dealt with them and their children during appointments. However, the standard of written information provided about the condition, diagnosis, and support available could be improved. The findings show the benefits of receiving a diagnosis in the recommended timeframe. Discussion. We discuss ways of effectively using scarce resources.

  1. Demographic correlates of children and adolescents with Autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyoub Malek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Comparison of the demographic characteristics of patients provides useful information to their identification. This study aimed to determine the demographic characteristics of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: In this cross-sectional case-control study, 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected from Autism Society Rehabilitation Center in Tabriz, Iran, and 112 normal children and adolescents from the public schools, in 2014. The participants in both groups were matched regarding age and gender. Diagnosis of AD was performed using diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-4th edition (DSM-IV criteria and clinical diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The demographic information of children and adolescents and their parents were collected from the medical records of children and interviews with their mothers. Results: Most of the children with autism had second or higher birth order and had families with more than three members. Mothers of children with autism had significantly lower levels of education and were mostly housewives. Fathers of autistic children mostly had high school diploma and fewer had university education, and most of them were employed. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the AD group and the control group regarding the average height and weight of children and the residence (urban or rural and age of parents at childbirth.Conclusion: The demographic characteristics of the two groups of children and adolescents with AD and normal controls were different from each other regarding family size, birth order, parent occupation, and parent education variables.

  2. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic…

  3. Prevalence of Parasomnia in Autistic Children with Sleep Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur S. Walters

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of sleep related complaints is reported by questionnaire studies to be as high as 83.3% in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Questionnaire studies report the presence of various parasomnia in ASD. However, no polysomnographic study reports non-REM parasomnias and only a single study reports REM related parasomnias in ASD. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of sleep disorders by polysomnographic study and questionnaires in a cohort of 23 children with ASD and 23 age-matched children of a non-autistic comparison group. The results showed significantly more non-REM parasomnias in 14 children with ASD on polysomnograms (PSG and 16 ASD children by questionnaire, a finding that was not associated with medication use, other comorbid medical or psychiatric disorders, or sleep disordered breathing. Of the 14 children with ASD who had PSG evidence of parasomnia, 11 of them had a history suggestive of parasomnia by questionnaire. There was a high sensitivity but a low specificity of parasomnia in ASD by questionnaire in predicting the presence of parasomnia in the PSG. Of the parasomnias recorded in the laboratory, 13 ASD children had Disorders of Partial Arousal, consistent with sleep terrors or confusional arousals. Furthermore, multiple episodes of partial arousal occurred in 11 of the 13 ASD children who had PSG evidence of Disorders of Partial Arousal. Of the 11 ASD children with multiple episodes of partial arousal, 6 ASD children had multiple partial arousals during both nights’ PSG study. Sleep architecture was abnormal in children with ASD, characterized by increased spontaneous arousals, prolonged REM latency and reduced REM percentage. These results suggest a high prevalence of parasomnia in this cohort of children with ASD and a careful history intake of symptoms compatible with parasomnia could be prudent to diagnose parasomnia in ASD children when performing a PSG is not possible.

  4. Prevalence of parasomnia in autistic children with sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Xue; Sun, Ye-Ming; Nachajon, Roberto V; Brimacombe, Michael; Walters, Arthur S

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep related complaints is reported by questionnaire studies to be as high as 83.3% in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Questionnaire studies report the presence of various parasomnia in ASD. However, no polysomnographic study reports non-REM parasomnias and only a single study reports REM related parasomnias in ASD. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of sleep disorders by polysomnographic study and questionnaires in a cohort of 23 children with ASD and 23 age-matched children of a non-autistic comparison group. The results showed significantly more non-REM parasomnias in 14 children with ASD on polysomnograms (PSG) and 16 ASD children by questionnaire, a finding that was not associated with medication use, other comorbid medical or psychiatric disorders, or sleep disordered breathing. Of the 14 children with ASD who had PSG evidence of parasomnia, 11 of them had a history suggestive of parasomnia by questionnaire. There was a high sensitivity but a low specificity of parasomnia in ASD by questionnaire in predicting the presence of parasomnia in the PSG. Of the parasomnias recorded in the laboratory, 13 ASD children had Disorders of Partial Arousal, consistent with sleep terrors or confusional arousals. Furthermore, multiple episodes of partial arousal occurred in 11 of the 13 ASD children who had PSG evidence of Disorders of Partial Arousal. Of the 11 ASD children with multiple episodes of partial arousal, 6 ASD children had multiple partial arousals during both nights' PSG study. Sleep architecture was abnormal in children with ASD, characterized by increased spontaneous arousals, prolonged REM latency and reduced REM percentage. These results suggest a high prevalence of parasomnia in this cohort of children with ASD and a careful history intake of symptoms compatible with parasomnia could be prudent to diagnose parasomnia in ASD children when performing a PSG is not possible.

  5. Autistic disorder : Current psychopharmacological treatments and areas of interest for future developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolov, R; Jonker, Jacob Jan; Scahill, L

    2006-01-01

    Autistic disorder and the group of related conditions defined as pervasive developmental disorders are chronic neurodevelopmental disorders starting in early childhood and affecting a significant number of children and families. Although the causes and much of the pathophysiology of the disorder rem

  6. Temporal Cognitive Disorders of Autistic Patients%孤独症患者的时间认知障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹; 黄希庭

    2003-01-01

    Besides cognitive disorders, such as disorders of learning, language, etc, the autistic patients generally have tempo-ral cognitive disorders as well, including disorders of sense of time, disorders of memory of time, disorders of temporal behaviour,and disorders of self - consistency. Researchers discussed the possible causes of the temporal cognitive disorders of autistic patients from various ways such as of physiology, heredity, and environment;whereas, there axe no generally accepted conclusions till now. Further researches axe still needed.

  7. [Follow up of patients with developmental delay and autistic spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Riesgo, Rudimar; Becker, Michele M; Ranzan, Josiane; Bragatti Winckler, María I; Ohlweiler, Lygia

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of autism symptoms during life were revised, from childhood to adulthood. Little information is available. After a search in PubMed, no more than 40 publications address this issue. The review was divided into two parts: a) how change the three main symptoms of autism change; b) how change the other autism-associated symptoms. The three main symptoms, called "Triad of Wing" (communication problems, social skills deficits, and a restricted repertoire of interests) do not change significantly during lifetime. The diagnosis of autism remains stable during lifetime, and 80% of children continue with this diagnosis in adulthood. Furthermore, it is difficult to establish first diagnostic of autism in adults. In relation to the associated symptoms, one of the earliest are sleep disturbances and one of the most prevalent is both bipolar and anxiety disorders. Sleep disturbances are age-limited and disappear easily. Bipolar disorders are usually more severe in children with autism when compared to children without autism. The mood transitions are faster in autistic children. Anxiety is usually more intense in cognitive preserved autistic patients and tends to increase with age. The two main prognostic factors for autism in adults are: a) total IQ above 70. b) functional language before 6 years of age.

  8. Autistic-like traits in adult patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Matsuo

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and whether such an association is independent of symptom severity. The subjects were 290 adults of normal intelligence between 25 and 59 years of age (MDD, n=125; bipolar disorder, n=56; schizophrenia, n=44; healthy controls, n=65. Autistic-like traits/symptoms were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults. Symptom severity was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and/or the Young Mania Rating Scale. Almost half of the clinical subjects, except those with remitted MDD, exhibited autistic-like traits/symptoms at levels typical for sub-threshold or threshold autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the proportion of psychiatric patients that demonstrated high autistic-like traits/symptoms was significantly greater than that of healthy controls, and not different between that of remitted or unremitted subjects with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. On the other hand, remitted subjects with MDD did not differ from healthy controls with regard to the prevalence or degree of high autistic-like traits/symptoms. A substantial proportion of adults with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed high autistic-like traits/symptoms independent of symptom severity, suggesting a shared pathophysiology among autism spectrum disorder and these psychiatric disorders. Conversely, autistic-like traits among subjects with MDD were associated with the depressive symptom severity. These findings suggest the

  9. Autistic-like traits in adult patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Junko; Kamio, Yoko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ota, Miho; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Nagashima, Anna; Takei, Reiko; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Motohashi, Nobutaka; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and whether such an association is independent of symptom severity. The subjects were 290 adults of normal intelligence between 25 and 59 years of age (MDD, n=125; bipolar disorder, n=56; schizophrenia, n=44; healthy controls, n=65). Autistic-like traits/symptoms were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults. Symptom severity was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and/or the Young Mania Rating Scale. Almost half of the clinical subjects, except those with remitted MDD, exhibited autistic-like traits/symptoms at levels typical for sub-threshold or threshold autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the proportion of psychiatric patients that demonstrated high autistic-like traits/symptoms was significantly greater than that of healthy controls, and not different between that of remitted or unremitted subjects with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. On the other hand, remitted subjects with MDD did not differ from healthy controls with regard to the prevalence or degree of high autistic-like traits/symptoms. A substantial proportion of adults with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed high autistic-like traits/symptoms independent of symptom severity, suggesting a shared pathophysiology among autism spectrum disorder and these psychiatric disorders. Conversely, autistic-like traits among subjects with MDD were associated with the depressive symptom severity. These findings suggest the importance of

  10. Breastfeeding, infant formula supplementation, and Autistic Disorder: the results of a parent survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Stephen T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Autistic Disorder is associated with several congenital conditions, the cause for most cases is unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine whether breastfeeding or the use of infant formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid is associated with Autistic Disorder. The hypothesis is that breastfeeding and use of infant formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid are protective for Autistic Disorder. Methods This is a case-control study using data from the Autism Internet Research Survey, an online parental survey conducted from February to April 2005 with results for 861 children with Autistic Disorder and 123 control children. The analyses were performed using logistic regression. Results Absence of breastfeeding when compared to breastfeeding for more than six months was significantly associated with an increase in the odds of having autistic disorder when all cases were considered (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.42, 4.35 and after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.01, 3.78. Use of infant formula without docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid supplementation versus exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a significant increase in the odds of autistic disorder when all cases were considered (OR 4.41, 95% CI 1.24, 15.7 and after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 12.96, 95% CI 1.27, 132. Conclusion The results of this preliminary study indicate that children who were not breastfed or were fed infant formula without docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid supplementation were significantly more likely to have autistic disorder.

  11. Sound before meaning: word learning in autistic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Griffiths, Helen; Nation, Kate

    2010-12-01

    Successful word learning depends on the integration of phonological and semantic information with social cues provided by interlocutors. How then, do children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) learn new words when social impairments pervade? We recorded the eye-movements of verbally-able children with ASD and their typical peers while completing a word learning task in a social context. We assessed learning of semantic and phonological features immediately after learning and again four weeks later. Eye-movement data revealed that both groups could follow social cues, but that typically developing children were more sensitive to the social informativeness of gaze cues. In contrast, children with ASD were more successful than peers at mapping phonological forms to novel referents; however, this advantage was not maintained over time. Typical children showed clear consolidation of learning both semantic and phonological information, children with ASD did not. These results provide unique evidence of qualitative differences in word learning and consolidation and elucidate the different mechanisms underlying the unusual nature of autistic language.

  12. 自闭症谱系障碍发展沿革的回溯与探索%A Review and Exploration of the Development of Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 朱体壮

    2011-01-01

    It is a stride progress that autism has been seen a spectrum disorder. In this paper, we analyzed the origin of the word, trace back to the early definition and the raising of the concept of multi-dimension in order to show the establishment of autistic spectrum disorder. We also introduced the definition and the characteristic of the subtypes. And at last we discussed the confusion of autistic spectrum disorder and pervasive developmental disorder.%自闭症被视为一种谱系障碍是自闭症研究的一项跨越性进步.通过词源分析、早期定义追溯、多维度谱系概念的提出等一系列内容呈现了自闭症谱系障碍概念的形成过程.对自闭症谱系障碍所包含的亚类型及其特征作以介绍.并针对目前存在的"自闭症谱系障碍"与"广泛性发育障碍"之间的混用问题提出了思考.

  13. Serotonergic disturbances in autistic disorder: L-5-hydroxytryptophan administration to autistic youngsters increases the blood concentrations of serotonin in patients but not in controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croonenberghs, Jan; Verkerk, Robert; Scharpe, Simon; Deboutte, Dirk; Maes, Michael

    2005-03-25

    Some studies have suggested that disorders in the peripheral and central metabolism of serotonin (5-HT) may play a role in the pathophysiology of autistic disorder. This study examines the whole blood concentrations of 5-HT and 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in baseline conditions and during a challenge with L-5-OH-tryptophane (5-HTP; 4 mg/kg in non enteric-coated tablets), the precursor of 5-HT, in a study group of 18 male, post-pubertal, Caucasian autistic patients (age 13-19 y.; I.Q.>55) and 20 matched healthy volunteers. In baseline conditions, no significant differences in 5-HT or 5-HIAA levels could be found between autistic youngsters and normal controls. 5-HTP administration significantly increased the levels of 5-HT in autistic youngsters but not in normal controls. Following 5-HTP challenge the 5-HT levels were significantly higher in autistic patients than in healthy volunteers. After challenge with 5-HTP, no significant differences were found in the concentrations of 5-HIAA or the test substance between autistic youngsters and normal controls. Differences in the peripheral metabolism of 5-HT which may not be observed in baseline conditions but which became clear after loading with 5-HTP, suggest that an increased synthesis of 5-HT from its precursor 5-HTP might be a one factor responsible for differences in the serotonergic system between autistic post-pubertal youngsters and normal controls.

  14. Executive Functioning Differences between Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Initiation, Planning and Strategy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramham, Jessica; Ambery, Fiona; Young, Susan; Morris, Robin; Russell, Ailsa; Xenitidis, Kiriakos; Asherson, Philip; Murphy, Declan

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning deficits characterize the neuropsychological profiles of the childhood neurodevelopmental disorders of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). This study sought to determine whether similar impairments exist in adults with ADHD (N = 53) and ASD (N = 45) in comparison with a…

  15. Prodromal and autistic symptoms in schizotypal personality disorder and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterberg, Michelle L; Ousley, Opal Y; Cubells, Joseph F; Walker, Elaine F

    2013-02-01

    Despite clear diagnostic distinctions, schizophrenia and autism share symptoms on several dimensions. Recent research has suggested the two disorders overlap in etiology, particularly with respect to inherited and noninherited genetic factors. Studying the relationship between psychotic-like and autistic-like symptoms in risk groups such as 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) has the potential to shed light on such etiologic factors; thus, the current study examined prodromal symptoms and autistic features in samples of 22q11DS and SPD subjects using standardized diagnostic measures, including the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS) and the Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised (ADI-R). Results showed that SPD subjects manifested significantly more severe childhood and current social as well as stereotypic autistic features, as well as more severe positive prodromal symptoms. The two groups did not differ on negative, disorganized, or general prodromal symptoms, but were distinguishable based on correlations between prodromal and autistic features; the relationships between childhood autistic features and current prodromal symptoms were stronger for the SPD group. The results suggest that childhood autistic features are less continuous with subsequent prodromal signs in 22q11DS patients relative to those with SPD, and the findings highlight the importance of studying the overlap in diagnostic phenomenology in groups at risk for developing psychosis and/or autism.

  16. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use, Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, and Autistic Disorder: The Results of a Parent Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T.; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Akshoomoff, Natacha A.; Macera, Caroline A.; Ji, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80…

  17. A Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose Study of Aripiprazole in Children and Adolescents with Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Ronald N.; Owen, Randall; Kamen, Lisa; Manos, George; McQuade, Robert D.; Carson, William H.; Aman, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Method: Two hundred eighteen children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) with a diagnosis of autistic disorder, and with behaviors such as tantrums, aggression, self-injurious behavior, or a…

  18. Aggression in low functioning children and adolescents with autistic disorder.

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    Guillaume Bronsard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parents, caregivers and mental health professionals have often reported violence and aggression in children or adolescents with autistic disorder. However, most of these observations derived from anecdotal reports, and studies on frequency and characterization of aggression in autism remain limited. Our objective was to better characterize and understand the different types of aggressive behaviors displayed by a large group of individuals with autism in different observational situations. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The study was conducted on 74 children and adolescents with autism and 115 typically developing control individuals matched for sex, age and pubertal stage. Other-Injurious Behaviors (OIB were assessed in three observational situations (parents at home, two caregivers at day-care, a nurse and a child psychiatrist during blood drawing using validated scales. The frequency of OIB was significantly higher in individuals with autism compared to typically developing control individuals during the blood drawing (23% vs. 0%, P<0 .01. The parents observed significantly less OIB in their children than caregivers (34% vs. 58%, P<0.05. In addition, the most frequent concurrent behaviors occurring just before the appearance of OIB in individuals with autism were anxiety-related behaviors and excitation according to the parental as well as the caregiver observation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that in a stressful situation, such as the blood drawing, individuals with autism release their stress through behaviors such as OIB, whereas typically developing individuals regulate and express their stress through cognitive skills such as mental coping strategies, symbolization skills with representation and anticipation of the stressful situation, social interaction and verbal or non-verbal communication. The findings underline also the key role of the environment in assessing OIB and developing therapeutic perspectives, with an

  19. Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Two Brothers with Congenital Visual Impairment: A Case Report

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    Hatice Altun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Autistic spectrum disorder is characterized by severe qualitative impairments in socialization, communication, and restricted repetitive behavior, interests and activities. It is a behaviorally defined disorder of unknown etiology that is thought to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Congenital visual impairment children are generally reported to be at risk for serious behavioral and psychological problems, such as withdrawal, isolation, and autism. Several studies have described the coexistence of autism or autistic behaviors in visually impaired individuals. To our knowledge, there is no case report about congenital visual impairment and comorbid autistic spectrum disorder in two brothers. In this case report, we aim to emphasise the comorbidity of congenital visual impairment and genetic predisposition which are risk factors for autism separately.

  20. Fluoxetine response in children with autistic spectrum disorders: correlation with familial major affective disorder and intellectual achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, G Robert; Ritch, Chad R; Burch, Sherri

    2002-10-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine children, 2 to 8 years old, with idiopathic autistic spectrum disorder diagnosed by standard instruments (Childhood Austim Ratings Scale and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were treated with fluoxetine (0.15 to 0.5mg/kg) for 5 to 76 months (mean 32 to 36 months), with discontinuation trials. Response criteria are described. Family histories were obtained using the family history method in repeated interviews. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder, and unusual intellectual achievement, pretreatment language, and hyperlexia were used to define a coherent subgroup of autistic spectrum disorder. Statistical analyses were post hoc. Of the children, 22 (17%) had an excellent response, 67 (52%) good, and 40 (31%) fair/poor. Treatment age did not correlate with response. Fluoxetine response correlated robustly with familial major affective disorder and unusual intellectual achievement, and with hyperlexia in the child. Family history of bipolar disorder and of unusual intellectual achievement correlated strongly. Five children developed bipolar disorder during follow-up. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder (especially bipolar), unusual achievement, and hyperlexia in the children appear to define a homogeneous autistic subgroup. Bipolar disorder, unusual intellectual achievement, and autistic spectrum disorders cluster strongly in families and may share genetic determinants.

  1. Evaluation of Planning Dysfunction in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorders Using the Zoo Map Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Marin, M. D.; Moreno-Granados, J. M.; Ruiz-Veguilla, M.; Ferrin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorders (ADHD) and Autistic-Spectrum-Disorders (ASD) share overlapping clinical and cognitive features that may confuse the diagnosis. Evaluation of executive problems and planning dysfunction may aid the clinical diagnostic process and help disentangle the neurobiological process underlying these conditions. This…

  2. Brief Report: Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed S.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Waly, Mostafa I.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in Oman is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of ASD among 0-14 year old children. Diagnoses were made as per DSM-IV-TR criteria and supplemented with information collected with the standard Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) questionnaire. A total 113 cases of…

  3. Brief Report: Pilot Investigation of Service Receipt by Young Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, John D.; Huculak, Susan; Sheehan, Debbie

    2008-01-01

    Whether children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families are receiving recommended assessments and services is poorly known. This pilot study examined service receipt as reported by parents of young children with ASD (n = 64) from four specialty centers in Canada. While almost all children had a speech and language assessment…

  4. Clinical and anatomical heterogeneity in autistic spectrum disorder: a structural MRI study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toal, F

    2010-07-01

    Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by stereotyped\\/obsessional behaviours and social and communicative deficits. However, there is significant variability in the clinical phenotype; for example, people with autism exhibit language delay whereas those with Asperger syndrome do not. It remains unclear whether localized differences in brain anatomy are associated with variation in the clinical phenotype.

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Parenting Stress Index with Parents of Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, L. A.; Ahmad, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and the theoretical structure of the Parenting Stress Index-short form (PSI-SF) with Jordanian parents of children with autistic disorder. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design for data collection, the convenience sample of the study was composed of 184 Jordanian…

  6. Why Youngsters with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Remain Underrepresented in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    Although numerous investigations have examined the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in the general population, have special education identification rates of autism kept pace? From the 1992-1993 to 2001-2002 school years, U.S. Department of Education data indicate an increase from 15,580 to 97,904 students with autism, an expansion…

  7. Brief Report: On the Concordance Percentages for Autistic Spectrum Disorder of Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Henry V.; Stewart, Melbourne G.

    2009-01-01

    In the development of genetic theories of Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) various characteristics of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins are often considered. This paper sets forth a possible refinement in the interpretation of the MZ twin concordance percentages for ASD underlying such genetic theories, and, drawing the consequences from…

  8. Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Speech-Generating Devices: Communication in Different Activities at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunberg, Gunilla; Ahlsen, Elisabeth; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2007-01-01

    The communication of four children with autistic spectrum disorder was investigated when they were supplied with a speech-generating device (SGD) in three different activities in their home environment: mealtime, story reading and "sharing experiences of the preschool day". An activity based communication analysis, in which collective and…

  9. Using Virtual Environments for Teaching Social Understanding to 6 Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Peter; Parsons, Sarah; Leonard, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Six teenagers with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) experienced a Virtual Environment (VE) of a cafe. They also watched three sets of videos of real cafe and buses and judged where they would sit and explained why. Half of the participants received their VE experience between the first and second sets of videos, and half experienced it between…

  10. Diagnostic Trends in Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the South Wales Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, A. H. A.; Williams, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of the diagnostic trends in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) for children aged under 17 years in the Rhondda and Taff Ely districts of South Wales. In the period 1988-2004, 336 children received a diagnosis of ASD and represent the case registry data of one community pediatric team. For the period 1994-2003, the…

  11. Comparing the Intelligence Profiles of Savant and Nonsavant Individuals with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    It is yet unknown whether individuals with and without savant abilities being affected by the same mental disorder display differences with regard to their intelligence profile. To examine this issue, we compared the test performance of 33 savant and 26 nonsavant autistic subjects using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales-Revised for children or…

  12. Social Information Processing in Boys with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embregts, P.; van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) have less adaptive behaviour and more behaviour problems than children with mild to borderline ID. Social information processing appears to be an important mechanism in the explanation of the socially inadequate behaviour of children…

  13. The relationship between carers' report of autistic traits and clinical diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Sabyasachi; Tyrer, Freya; Barrett, Mary; Tin, Nyunt; McGrother, Catherine W; Kiani, Reza

    2010-01-01

    It is often difficult to determine the triad of impairments and whether autistic features are the consequence of intellectual impairment or autism spectrum disorders in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between carer-reported autistic traits and independent diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were collected on carers' subjective report of autistic traits and clinical diagnoses of ASD. Of 1145 adults with ID identified, 220 (19%) individuals had a diagnosis of ASD, and 778 (68%) individuals had at least one autistic trait. Optimal sensitivity and specificity were achieved with two or more autistic traits (sensitivity 63%; specificity 79%) and the positive predictive value increased substantially as the number of autistic traits increased. However, a significant proportion of individuals with ID who did not have a diagnosis of ASD also displayed autistic traits. Our findings suggest that in the absence of other measures, the presence of autistic traits can serve as a useful proxy measure for ASD in research (and/or clinical settings). However, although information on autistic traits may help healthcare practitioners to identify people with possible ASD, it cannot be used alone to make a formal diagnosis.

  14. Long-term oxytocin administration improves social behaviors in a girl with autistic disorder

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    Kosaka Hirotaka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs exhibit core autistic symptoms including social impairments from early childhood and mostly show secondary disabilities such as irritability and aggressive behavior based on core symptoms. However, there are still no radical treatments of social impairments in these patients. Oxytocin has been reported to play important roles in multiple social behaviors dependent on social recognition, and has been expected as one of the effective treatments of social impairments of patients with ASDs. Case presentation We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with autistic disorder who treated by long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray. Her autistic symptoms were successfully treated by two month administration; the girl’s social interactions and social communication began to improve without adverse effects. Her irritability and aggressive behavior also improved dramatically with marked decreases in aberrant behavior checklist scores from 69 to 7. Conclusion This case is the first to illustrate long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray in the targeted treatment of social impairments in a female with autistic disorder. This case suggests that long-term nasal oxytocin spray is promising and well-tolerated for treatment of social impairments of patients with ASDs.

  15. ON DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS BETWEEN AUTISTIC DISORDER AND ASPERGER’S SYNDROME

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    Stefan Todorov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis between Autistic disorder (AD and Asperger’s syndrome (AS in most cases is quite difficult since most of the symptoms are clinically undistinguished. Several factors complicate the diagnosis of AS- an autism spectrum disorder (ASD. It is considered by some authors to be simply a milder version of autistic disorder. Problems in diagnosis include disagreement among diagnostic criteria, controversy over the distinction between AS and other ASD forms or even whether AS exists as a separate syndrome, and over- and under-diagnosis. Our paper is based on the diagnostic and differential diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV, ICD-10 and our clinical experience.In the process of diagnosis and differential diagnosis we, naturally, illustrate and discuss the similarities and differences between the two disorders.

  16. Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Two Brothers with Congenital Visual Impairment: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice Altun

    2013-01-01

    Autistic spectrum disorder is characterized by severe qualitative impairments in socialization, communication, and restricted repetitive behavior, interests and activities. It is a behaviorally defined disorder of unknown etiology that is thought to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Congenital visual impairment children are generally reported to be at risk for serious behavioral and psychological problems, such as withdrawal, isolation, and autism. Several studies have descr...

  17. Genetic studies in children with intellectual disability and autistic spectrum of disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Bhanumathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is one of the five disorders that falls under the umbrella of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, a category of neurological disorders characterized by "severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development." ASD is characterized by varying degrees of impairment in communication skills, social interaction and restricted, repetitive stereotyped patterns of behavior. The five disorders under PDD are autistic disorder, Asperger′s disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, Rett′s disorder and PDD-not otherwise specified. ASD can often be reliably detected by the age of 3 years and, in some cases, as early as 18 months. The appearance of any warning signs of ASD is reason to have the child evaluated by a professional specializing in these disorders.

  18. Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

  19. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-03-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic traits. Seven studies were identified and subsequent meta-analysis indicated that those with AN appear to have significant difficulties of a manner characteristic of ASD, relative to controls. Whilst this analysis supports previous indications of higher prevalence of ASD in AN, the aetiology of these traits remains unclear. Studies using more robust clinical measures of ASD within AN are needed to confirm what self-report measures appear to show.

  20. Autism and autistic spectrum disorders in the context of new DSM-V classification, and clinical and epidemiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, Miodrag; Lakić, Aneta; Ilić, Neda

    2012-01-01

    Autism is one of disorders from the autism spectrum, besides Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. They are classified as mental disorders as being manifested by a wide range of cognitive, emotional and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Key categorical characteristics of the disorder are clear impairments of the development of the child's socialisation, understanding and production of verbal and non-verbal communication and restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Demarcation boundaries are not clear, neither within the very group of the disorders from the autistic spectrum, nor with respect to the autistic behavioural features in the general population. For this reason, the term spectrum points out the significance of the dimensional assessment of autistic disorders, which will most likely be the basis of the new diagnostic classification of the disorders belonging to the current group of pervasive developmental disorders in the new DSM-V classification. The understanding, as well as the prevalence of the autistic spectrum disorders has changed drastically in the last four decades. From the previous 4 per 10,000 people, today's prevalence estimates range from 0.6 to around 1%, and the increase of prevalence cannot be explained solely by better recognition on the part of experts and parents or by wider diagnostic criteria. The general conclusion is that the autistic spectrum disorders are no longer rare conditions and that the approach aimed at acknowledging the warning that this is an urgent public health problem is completely justified.

  1. Autism and autistic spectrum disorders in the context of new DSM-V classification, and clinical and epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is one of disorders from the autism spectrum, besides Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. They are classified as mental disorders as being manifested by a wide range of cognitive, emotional and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Key categorical characteristics of the disorder are clear impairments of the development of the child’s socialisation, understanding and production of verbal and non-verbal communication and restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Demarcation boundaries are not clear, neither within the very group of the disorders from the autistic spectrum, nor with respect to the autistic behavioural features in the general population. For this reason, the term spectrum points out the significance of the dimensional assessment of autistic disorders, which will most likely be the basis of the new diagnostic classification of the disorders belonging to the current group of pervasive developmental disorders in the new DSM-V classification. The understanding, as well as the prevalence of the autistic spectrum disorders has changed drastically in the last four decades. From the previous 4 per 10,000 people, today’s prevalence estimates range from 0.6 to around 1%, and the increase of prevalence cannot be explained solely by better recognition on the part of experts and parents or by wider diagnostic criteria. The general conclusion is that the autistic spectrum disorders are no longer rare conditions and that the approach aimed at acknowledging the warning that this is an urgent public health problem is completely justified.

  2. Catatonia in autistic spectrum disorders: a medical treatment algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Max; Taylor, Michael A; Ghaziuddin, Neera

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a developmental syndrome with an unknown biology and inadequate therapeutics. Assessing the elements of the syndrome for the presence of depression, psychosis, mania, or catatonia, offers opportunities for systematic intervention. Since almost all descriptions of autism highlight the presence of motor symptoms that characterize catatonia, an assessment for this eminently treatable syndrome is recommended for all patients considered to be autistic. A minimum examination includes a catatonia rating scale and for those patients with defined catatonia, a lorazepam test. For those whose catatonia responds to lorazepam, high dose lorazepam therapy is recommended. If this fails, electroconvulsive therapy is recommended. The assessment and treatment of catatonia offers positive medical therapy for the victims of autism and their families.

  3. Antibodies against Food Antigens in Patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

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    Laura de Magistris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Immune system of some autistic patients could be abnormally triggered by gluten/casein assumption. The prevalence of antibodies to gliadin and milk proteins in autistic children with paired/impaired intestinal permeability and under dietary regimen either regular or restricted is reported. Methods. 162 ASDs and 44 healthy children were investigated for intestinal permeability, tissue-transglutaminase (tTG, anti-endomysium antibodies (EMA-IgA, and total mucosal IgA to exclude celiac disease; HLA-DQ2/-DQ8 haplotypes; total systemic antibodies (IgA, IgG, and IgE; specific systemic antibodies: α-gliadin (AGA-IgA and IgG, deamidated–gliadin-peptide (DGP-IgA and IgG, total specific gliadin IgG (all fractions: α, β, γ, and ω, β-lactoglobulin IgG, α-lactalbumin IgG, casein IgG; and milk IgE, casein IgE, gluten IgE, -lactoglobulin IgE, and α-lactalbumin IgE. Results. AGA-IgG and DPG-IgG titers resulted to be higher in ASDs compared to controls and are only partially influenced by diet regimen. Casein IgG titers resulted to be more frequently and significantly higher in ASDs than in controls. Intestinal permeability was increased in 25.6% of ASDs compared to 2.3% of healthy children. Systemic antibodies production was not influenced by paired/impaired intestinal permeability. Conclusions. Immune system of a subgroup of ASDs is triggered by gluten and casein; this could be related either to AGA, DPG, and Casein IgG elevated production or to impaired intestinal barrier function.

  4. Early Interpersonal Neurobiological Assessment of Attachment and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Nelson Schore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally-laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the emotional brain. Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile-gestural nonverbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant’s developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily-based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant’s emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant-mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant-mother dyads. Throughout I offer implication of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early

  5. Early interpersonal neurobiological assessment of attachment and autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, Allan N

    2014-01-01

    There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the "emotional brain." Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile-gestural non-verbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant's developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant's emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant-mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant-mother dyads. Throughout I offer implications of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early intervention.

  6. Intervention,treatmentand care in autistic disorder. Challenging case reports from northern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Kielinen, Marko; Hjelmquist, Erland; Moilanen, Irma; Syrjälä, Leena

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. Autism produces characteristic patterns of behaviour, and individuals with autistic disorder (AD) have a lot in common in terms of behaviour and mannerisms. Individuals with autism, however, also have their own overall personalities, which both underlie and interact with their autism. This article focuses on challenges of identifying AD and delivering appropriate services in face of long distances and limited resources. Study Design. This study is a retrospective descriptive chart...

  7. Migration abnormality in the left cingulate gyrus presenting with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Bariş; Benbir, Gülçin; Demirbilek, Veysi

    2006-07-01

    Autism, characterized by an impairment in communication, including language, narrowly focused interests, and poor sociability, is a neurodevelopmental disorder of still largely unknown pathogenesis. In children with autistic symptomatology, the most consistent functional or anatomic abnormalities are found in the cingulate gyrus, particularly in the anterior regions. Neuronal migration malformations caused by incomplete neuronal migration and characterized by loss of the normal gyral patterns in the cerebral hemispheres and prominent disorganization of the cerebral cortical cytoarchitecture are generally associated with profound neurologic deficits, epilepsy, and autism. In this report, we present a case with an isolated migration abnormality located in the anterior part of the left cingulate gyrus who was admitted with the complaints of epileptic seizures and autism. In addition, the role of the localization of the migration abnormality in the appearance of autistic symptomatology is discussed.

  8. Investigation of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Autistic Traits in an Adolescent Sample with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postorino, Valentina; Scahill, Lawrence; De Peppo, Lavinia; Fatta, Laura Maria; Zanna, Valeria; Castiglioni, Maria Chiara; Gillespie, Scott; Vicari, Stefano; Mazzone, Luigi

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the presence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a sample of female adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) during the acute phase of illness. We also compare the level of autistic traits, social perception skills and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in four groups: AN, ASD, and two gender- and age-matched control groups. Of the 30 AN participants, only three scored above the conventional ADOS-2 threshold for ASD. The AN participants were similar to their controls on autistic trait measures, and to the ASD group on obsessive-compulsive measures, and on theory of mind ability and affect recognition measures. Further longitudinal studies are needed in order to determine the association between these conditions.

  9. Tetrasomy 15q11-q13 Diagnosed by FISH in a Patient with Autistic Disorder

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    Karim Ouldim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a Moroccan boy with mental retardation, hyperactivity, epilepsy, developmental problems and behavioural disorders. Cytogenetic analysis showed the presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome. Molecular cytogenetics allowed us to determine the marker as an inverted duplication of chromosome 15. It is the first case of a Moroccan patient with tetrasomy 15q in which fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH enabled us to specify the diagnosis. Interestingly, this patient has an infantile autism with cytogenetic abnormalities on chromosomal region 15q11-q13 as reported in patients with Autistic Disorder.

  10. Alzheimer's Disease and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Is there any Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarah A; Khan, Shahida A; Narendra, A R; Mushtaq, Gohar; Zahran, Solafa A; Khan, Shahzad; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders respectively, with devastating effects not only on the individual but also the society. Collectively, a number of factors contribute to the expression of ASD and AD. It is of utmost curiosity that these disorders express at different stages of life and there is an involvement of certain susceptible genes. This genetic basis makes the background of common associations like memory deficits, cognition changes, demyelination, oxidative stress and inflammation, an integral part of both disorders. Modern technology resulting in genetically modified crops and increase in gadgets emitting electromagnetic frequencies have resulted in enhanced risks for neurological dysfunctions and disorders like ASD and AD. Subsequent advances in the psychological, pharmacological, biochemical and nutritional aspects of the disorders have resulted in the development of newer therapeutic approaches. The common clinical features like language impairment, executive functions, and motor problems have been discussed along with the patho-physiological changes, role of DNA methylation, myelin development, and heavy metals in the expression of these disorders. Psychopharmacological and nutritional approaches towards the reduction and management of risk factors have gained attention from the researchers in recent years. Current major therapies either target the inflammatory pathways or reduce cellular oxidative stress. This contribution focuses on the commonalities of the two disorders.

  11. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder: the results of a parent survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S; Wingard, Deborah L; Akshoomoff, Natacha A; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming

    2008-05-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80 control children. Acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was significantly associated with autistic disorder when considering children 5 years of age or less (OR 6.11, 95% CI 1.42-26.3), after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.11-14.3), and when considering only children who had post-vaccination sequelae (OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.56-43.3), adjusting for age, gender, mother's ethnicity, and the presence of illness concurrent with measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Ibuprofen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was not associated with autistic disorder. This preliminary study found that acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was associated with autistic disorder.

  12. Prevalence of Parasomnia in Autistic Children with Sleep Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, Arthur S.; Michael Brimacombe; Roberto V. Nachajon; Xue Ming; Ye-Ming Sun

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep related complaints is reported by questionnaire studies to be as high as 83.3% in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Questionnaire studies report the presence of various parasomnia in ASD. However, no polysomnographic study reports non-REM parasomnias and only a single study reports REM related parasomnias in ASD. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of sleep disorders by polysomnographic study and questionnaires in a cohort of 23 children wit...

  13. Overlap of autistic and schizotypal traits in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barneveld, Petra S; Pieterse, Jolijn; de Sonneville, Leo; van Rijn, Sophie; Lahuis, Bertine; van Engeland, Herman; Swaab, Hanna

    2011-03-01

    This study addresses the unraveling of the relationship between autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum traits in a population of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Recent studies comparing isolated symptoms of both spectrum disorders as well as diagnostic criteria for each (DSM-IV-TR) suggest resemblances in the clinical phenotype. A group of 27 adolescents with ASD (11 to 18 years) and 30 typically developing adolescents, matched for age and gender, participated in this study. Within the ASD group 11 adolescents satisfied DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizotypal personality disorders. Autistic and schizotypal traits were identified by means of well validated questionnaires (Autism Questionnaire, AQ and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Revised, SPQ). Significantly more schizotypal traits in adolescents with ASD were found than in typically developing controls. Besides high levels of negative symptoms, adolescents with ASD also displayed high levels of positive and disorganized symptoms. There appeared to be a relationship between the mean level of autistic symptoms and schizotypal traits, as well as specific associations between autistic symptoms and negative, disorganized and positive schizotypal symptoms within individuals. Schizotypal symptomatology in all sub dimensions that are reflected by the SPQ scores, was most prominently associated with attention switching problems of the autism symptoms from the AQ. These findings indicate that patients diagnosed with an ASD show schizophrenia spectrum traits in adolescence. Although other studies have provided empirical support for this overlap in diagnostic criteria between both spectrum disorders, the present findings add to the literature that behavioral overlap is not limited to negative schizotypal symptoms, but extends to disorganized and positive symptoms as well.

  14. Evidence of a reduction over time in the behavioral severity of autistic disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Cooper, Matthew N; Bebbington, Keely; Alvares, Gail; Lin, Ashleigh; Wray, John; Glasson, Emma J

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may in part be due to a shift in the diagnostic threshold that has led to individuals with a less severe behavioral phenotype receiving a clinical diagnosis. This study examined whether there were changes over time in the qualitative and quantitative phenotype of individuals who received the diagnosis of Autistic Disorder. Data were from a prospective register of new diagnoses in Western Australia (n = 1252). From 2000 to 2006, we examined differences in both the percentage of newly diagnosed cases that met each criterion as well as severity ratings of the behaviors observed (not met, partially met, mild/moderate and extreme). Linear regression determined there was a statistically significant reduction from 2000 to 2006 in the percentage of new diagnoses meeting two of 12 criteria. There was also a reduction across the study period in the proportion of new cases rated as having extreme severity on six criteria. There was a reduction in the proportion of individuals with three or more criteria rated as extreme from 2000 (16.0%) to 2006 (1.6%), while percentage of new cases with no "extreme" rating on any criteria increased from 58.5% to 86.6% across the same period. This study provides the first clear evidence of a reduction over time in the behavioral severity of individuals diagnosed with Autistic Disorder during a period of stability in diagnostic criteria. A shift toward diagnosing individuals with less severe behavioral symptoms may have contributed to the increasing prevalence of Autistic Disorder diagnoses. Autism Res 2017, 10: 179-187. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Parental and grandparental ages in the autistic spectrum disorders: a birth cohort study.

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    Jean Golding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A number of studies have assessed ages of parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD, and reported both maternal and paternal age effects. Here we assess relationships with grandparental ages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the parental and grandparental ages of children in the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, according to their scores in regard to 4 autistic trait measures and whether they had been given a diagnosis of ASD. Mean maternal and paternal ages of ASD cases were raised, but this appears to be secondary to a maternal grandmother age effect (P = 0.006: OR = 1.66[95%CI 1.16, 2.37] for each 10-year increase in the grandmother's age at the birth of the mother. Trait measures also revealed an association between the maternal grandmother's age and the major autistic trait-the Coherence Scale (regression coefficient b = 0.142, [95%CI = 0.057, 0.228]P = 0.001. After allowing for confounders the effect size increased to b = 0.217[95%CI 0.125, 0.308](P<0.001 for each 10 year increase in age. CONCLUSIONS: Although the relationship between maternal grandmother's age and ASD and a major autistic trait was unexpected, there is some biological plausibility, for the maternal side at least, given that the timing of female meiosis I permits direct effects on the grandchild's genome during the grandmother's pregnancy. An alternative explanation is the meiotic mismatch methylation (3 M hypothesis, presented here for the first time. Nevertheless the findings should be treated as hypothesis generating pending corroborative results from other studies.

  16. Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy in autistic catatonia: a case series review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, Lee E; Hermida, Adriana; Dhossche, Dirk M

    2010-05-30

    The usage of electroconvulsive therapy for the acute resolution of catatonia in autistic children and adults is a novel area that has received increased attention over the past few years. Reported length of the acute ECT course varies among these patients, and there is no current literature on maintenance ECT in autism. The maintenance ECT courses of three patients with autism who developed catatonia are presented. Clinical, research, legal, and administrative implications for ECT treatment in this special population are discussed.

  17. A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of Piracetam Added to Risperidone in Patients with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Tajdar, Hamid; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Nouroozinejad, Gholam-Hossein; Shabstari, Omid L.; Ghelichnia, Hossein-Ali

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that autism is a hypoglutamatergic disorder. Therefore, it was of interest to assess the efficacy of piracetam, a positive modulator of AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptors in autistic disorder. About 40 children between the ages three and 11 years (inclusive) with a DSM IV clinical diagnosis of autism and who were outpatients…

  18. Brief Report: The Impact of Changing from DSM-IV "Asperger's" to DSM-5 "Autistic Spectrum Disorder" Diagnostic Labels on Stigma and Treatment Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan, Jeneva L.; Ellefson, Sarah E.; Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    In the DSM-5, "Asperger's Disorder" was incorporated into "Autistic Spectrum Disorder" (ASD). One key concern in this change has been that the ASD label will increase negative attitudes relative to the Asperger's label. To test this, we asked 465 American adults to read a vignette describing a child with autistic symptoms that…

  19. Memantine-induced Speech Problems in two Patients with Autistic Disorder

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    Mehdi Tehrani-Doost

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Stuttering is a complex speech disorder. There are two forms of stuttering: developmental stuttering and acquired stuttering. Developmental stuttering is a disorder of early childhood but acquired stuttering can develop at any age. Some medications can induce or deteriorate stuttering as an adverse effect. There are several reports of stuttering due to psychotropic drugs. Memantine, a glutamate antagonist used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, has also been studied for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders. This report presents deterioration of stuttering and speech problem in two children with autistic disorder who were receiving memantine. Based on our knowledge, this is the first time these adverse drug reactions have been attributed to memantine. In conclusion clinicians should consider that speech problems including stuttering may be due to the consumption of memantine, especially, in children may be a side effect of memantine especially in children.

  20. Memantine-induced speech problems in two patients with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Nikvarz, Naemeh; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2013-07-02

    Stuttering is a complex speech disorder. There are two forms of stuttering: developmental stuttering and acquired stuttering. Developmental stuttering is a disorder of early childhood but acquired stuttering can develop at any age. Some medications can induce or deteriorate stuttering as an adverse effect. There are several reports of stuttering due to psychotropic drugs. Memantine, a glutamate antagonist used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, has also been studied for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders. This report presents deterioration of stuttering and speech problem in two children with autistic disorder who were receiving memantine. Based on our knowledge, this is the first time these adverse drug reactions have been attributed to memantine. In conclusion clinicians should consider that speech problems including stuttering may be due to the consumption of memantine, especially, in children may be a side effect of memantine especially in children.

  1. Blood and Brain Glutamate Levels in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Tamer H.; Abdelrahman, Hadeel M.; Fattah, Nelly R. Abdel; El-Masry, Nagda M.; Hashim, Haitham M.; El-Gerby, Khaled M.; Fattah, Nermin R. Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Despite of the great efforts that move forward to clarify the pathophysiologic mechanisms in autism, the cause of this disorder, however, remains largely unknown. There is an increasing body of literature concerning neurochemical contributions to the pathophysiology of autism. We aimed to determine blood and brain levels of glutamate in children…

  2. Language in low-functioning children with autistic disorder: differences between receptive and expressive skills and concurrent predictors of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-10-01

    Language profiles of children with autistic disorder and intellectual disability (n = 36) were significantly different from the comparison groups of children with intellectual disability (n = 26) and typically developing children (n = 34). The group low-functioning children with autistic disorder obtained a higher mean score on expressive than on receptive language, whereas both comparison groups showed the reverse pattern. Nonverbal mental age, joint attention, and symbolic understanding of pictures were analyzed in relation to concurrent receptive and expressive language abilities. In the group with autistic disorder and intellectual disability, symbol understanding and joint attention were most strongly related to language abilities. Nonverbal mental age was the most important predictor of language abilities in the comparison groups.

  3. Autistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    Autistic regression is one of the many mysteries in the developmental course of autism and pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Various definitions of this phenomenon have been used, further clouding the study of the topic. Despite this problem, some efforts at establishing prevalence have been made. The purpose of…

  4. Error and feedback processing in children with ADHD and children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder : An EEG event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Yvonne; Wijers, Albertus A.; Mulder, Lambertus J. M.; Waggeveld, Brenda; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Althaus, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Performance monitoring was investigated in typically developing (TD) children, children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and Methylphenidate (Mph)-treated and medication-free children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods: Subjects performed a feedback-based

  5. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the pervasive developmental disorders rating scale for young children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Ronald C; Williams, Thomas O

    2006-03-01

    In this study, the authors examined the construct validity of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Rating Scale (PDDRS; R. C. Eaves, 1993), which is a screening instrument used to identify individuals with autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. The PDDRS is purported to measure 3 factors--arousal, affect, and cognition-that collectively make up the construct of autism. Using scores from 199 children (aged 1-6 years) diagnosed with autistic disorder, the authors submitted data to exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. In the 1st series of analyses, the authors analyzed a user-specified 3-factor solution using principal axis factor analysis with a promax rotation to evaluate the assertion of a correlated 3-factor structure. Next, the authors analyzed 1-factor and 2-factor solutions to determine if they provided a better factor structure for the data. In the 2nd series, the authors conducted confirmatory factor analyses, which compared the theorized hierarchical 2nd-order factor model with 5 plausible competing models. The results of the exploratory analyses supported the 3-factor solution. With the confirmatory analyses, the 2nd-order factor model provided the best fit for the data. The exploratory and confirmatory analyses supported the theoretical assumptions undergirding the development of the PDDRS. The authors discuss theoretical implications, practical implications, and areas for further research.

  6. Self-reported social skills impairment explains elevated autistic traits in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Natasha A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Fernandez, Katya C; Lim, Michelle H

    2016-03-01

    Screening for autism in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) is complicated by symptom overlap between GSAD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of self-reported autistic traits within a sample of participants with a diagnosis of GSAD (n=37) compared to individuals without a GSAD diagnosis (NOSAD; n=26). Of the GSAD sample participants, 70.84% self-reported autistic traits above a cut-off of 65 on the Autism Quotient-Short (AQ-S) and reported significantly more autistic traits on 3 of 5 AQ-S subscales compared to the NOSAD group. Diagnosis uniquely predicted variation in the social skills subscale above and beyond the other subscales and other predictors. Furthermore, variation in the social skills subscale largely explained group differences on the other subscales. Our results suggest caution in utilizing measures like the AQ-S with clinical populations characterized by social difficulties such as individuals with a GSAD diagnosis.

  7. Epidemiology and management of insomnia in children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Silvia; Ferri, Raffaele

    2010-04-01

    Insomnia is the predominant sleep concern in children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and its nature is most likely multifactorial, with neurochemical (abnormalities in serotonergic transmission or melatonin levels), psychiatric (anxiety), and behavioral (poor sleep habits) etiological factors involved. Children with ASD experience sleep problems similar to those of typically developing children, although the prevalence is markedly higher, occurring in 44-83% of school-aged children with ASD. Caregivers usually report that insomnia is the most frequent sleep disorder, described as disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, restless sleep, bedtime resistance, co-sleeping, alterations of sleep hygiene, and early awakenings in the morning. Many actigraphic studies have added information on sleep disorders, confirming the questionnaire findings in the majority of cases. There are relatively few polysomnographic data for ASD, compared with questionnaire studies, and most of these studies reported a reduction in total sleep time and more undifferentiated sleep in the youngest patients. These findings were associated with several sleep microstructure alterations during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and with non-REM (NREM) sleep microstructure changes that appeared to be related to cognitive impairment rather than to the autistic core. Moreover, few data about other less frequent sleep disorders, such as periodic limb movements disorder and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, bruxism, and the influence of epilepsy and EEG abnormalities, are available. Both pharmacologic and behavioral interventions have been suggested for the treatment of sleep problems in autistic children. The most common types of behavioral interventions are complete extinction (removing reinforcement to reduce a behavior) and various forms of graduated extinction. Melatonin has shown promising results in the treatment of insomnia in children with ASD. Although controlled studies are limited

  8. On the application of Quantitative EEG for characterizing autistic brain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia eBilleci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are thought to be associated with abnormalities in neural connectivity at both the global and local levels. Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG is a non-invasive technique that allows a highly precise measurement of brain function and connectivity. This review encompasses the key findings of QEEG application in subjects with ASD, in order to assess the relevance of this approach in characterizing brain function and clustering phenotypes. QEEG studies evaluating both the spontaneous brain activity and brain signals under controlled experimental stimuli were examined. Despite conflicting results, literature analysis suggests that QEEG features are sensitive to modification in neuronal regulation dysfunction which characterize autistic brain. QEEG may therefore help in detecting regions of altered brain function and connectivity abnormalities, in linking behavior with brain activity, and subgrouping affected individuals within the wide heterogeneity of ASD. The use of advanced techniques for the increase of the specificity and of spatial localization could allow finding distinctive patterns of QEEG abnormalities in ASD subjects, paving the way for the development of tailored intervention strategies.

  9. Pharmacotherapy of target symptoms in autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosh, P J; Baird, G

    2001-05-01

    There are no aetiologically-based treatments available to cure autism. Though psychotropics have a role in the management of some symptoms of autism, clinical trial evidence for the use of psychotropics is in its infancy and needs close monitoring. About half of the subjects with high functioning pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) are currently reported to be on psychotropics (anti-depressants, stimulants and antipsychotics), with many of them being on anti-epileptic medication simultaneously. Despite this high level of psychotropic use, few studies exist investigating the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics or side-effect profiles in this population. Multiprofessional and parent partnership is essential in managing autism and psychopharmacology should be used in conjunction with environmental manipulation, educational modification and/or behavioral management strategies. A symptomatic approach to managing the difficult behaviours associated with autism is recommended. Some symptoms of autism may be medication responsive (hyperactivity, obsessions, rituals, inattention, tics, etc), while other symptoms may be responsive to behavioural interventions, but may require medication (aggression, anxiety, depression, impulsivity, sleep difficulties, etc), and symptoms which need specific skill remediation are usually non-responsive to medication (deficits in academic, social or sport domains). The new atypical antipsychotics (such as risperidone, olanzapine, amisulpiride, quetiapine) and SSRIs are increasingly being used in autism, with encouraging results, but a risk-benefit ratio of pharmacotherapy is essential with due weight being given to the side-effects of medication. Despite symptomatic improvement with medication, one should remain cautious about long-term use of psychotropics. It is also important to recognize that psychotropics can sometimes worsen behaviour, and can produce iatrogenic symptoms. Certain anti-epileptic medication and psychotropic drugs are

  10. Progress in researches on autistic disorder%孤独症研究新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞锡; 江开达; 彭裕文

    2010-01-01

    @@ 认识孤独症 孤独症(autism),又称自闭症或孤独性障碍(autistic disorder)等,是广泛性发育障碍(pervasive developmental disorders,PDD)的代表性疾病.将PDD分为5种:孤独性障碍、Retts综合征、童年瓦解性障碍、Asperger综合征和未特定的PDD.其中,孤独性障碍与Asperger综合征较为常见.孤独症的患病率报道不一,一般认为约为儿童人口的2~5/万人,男女比例约为3:1~4:1,女孩症状一般较男孩严重[1].

  11. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinah

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviours in children with autistic spectrum disorder. The study was designed to look at these behaviours in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and free play, and use both standardized...... tools and DVD analysis of sessions to evaluate changes in joint attention behaviours. A repeated measures, within subject comparison design was used and children were randomly assigned in to two groups; group 1 had music therapy first, and then free play later. Group 2 vice versa. Sessions were divided...... into unstructured and structured parts. There were four different types of dependent measurements; the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory (PDDBI), the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS), the Mother Play Intervention Profile (MPIP) and DVD analyses of selected session data. 10 children, all...

  12. Intellectual Ability, Self-Perceived Social Competence, and Depressive Symptomatology in Children with High-Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerstaff, Sandy; Heriot, Sandra; Wong, Michelle; Lopes, Ana; Dossetor, David

    2007-01-01

    Although social competence deficits in children with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorders (HFASD) are well documented, there is little research investigating self-perceptions of social limitations. This study replicated research showing a negative association between self-perceived social competence and intellectual ability and…

  13. Higher Plasma Concentration of Food-Specific Antibodies in Persons with Autistic Disorder in Comparison to Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, Vladimir; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Trajkov, Dejan; Arsov, Todor; Strezova, Ana; Ajdinski, Ljubomir; Spiroski, Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Specific IgA, IgG, and IgE antibodies to food antigens in 35 participants with autistic disorder and 21 of their siblings in the Republic of Macedonia were examined. Statistically significant higher plasma concentration of IgA antibodies against alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, casein, and gliadin were found in the children with autistic…

  14. Development of Symbolic Play through the Use of Virtual Reality Tools in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Gerardo; Alcantud, Francisco; Jordan, Rita; Blanquer, Amparo; Labajo, Gabriel; De Pablo, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Difficulties in understanding symbolism have been documented as characteristic of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). In general, virtual reality (VR) environments offer a set of potential advantages for educational intervention in ASD. In particular, VR offers the advantage, for teaching pretend play and for understanding imagination, of it being…

  15. Parents' Views and Experiences about Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments for Their Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senel, Hatice Gunayer

    2010-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments have been increasing for children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, 38 Turkish parents of children with ASD were surveyed related with their use of CAM treatments, experiences, and views for each treatment. They mentioned "Vitamins and minerals",…

  16. Validation of the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire with Parents of Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa A.; Ahmad, Muayyad M.

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) has been used in many studies that target parents of children with Autistic Disorder. However, the measure has yet to be validated and adapted to this sample group whose daily experiences are considered substantially different from those of parents of children…

  17. Using Aromatherapy Massage to Increase Shared Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Severe Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) characteristically display a lack of shared attention behaviours and the lack of these behaviours impacts on their ability to develop social interactions and relationships with others. Steve Solomons, assistant headteacher at Rectory Paddock School and Research Unit in the London Borough of Bromley,…

  18. Parents' Experiences of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)-Based Interventions for Children Diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhilemy, Catherine; Dillenburger, Karola

    2013-01-01

    Applied behaviour analysis (ABA)-based programmes are endorsed as the gold standard for treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in most of North America. This is not the case in most of Europe, where instead a non-specified "eclectic" approach is adopted. We explored the social validity of ABA-based interventions with…

  19. Control of psychomotor agitation and aggressive behavior in patients with autistic disorder: a retrospective chart review Controle da agitação psicomotora e agressividade em pacientes com autismo: estudo retrospectivo de revisão de prontuário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Marinho Novaes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of pharmacotherapy on the symptoms of psychomotor agitation and aggressive behavior in a sample of patients with autistic spectrum disorder. METHOD: The charts of all patients with a diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder, receiving care for psychomotor agitation and/or aggressive behavior in two psychiatric outpatient departments between 2001 and 2006, were reviewed. The Clinical Global Impression-Severity and -Improvement scales (CGI-S and CGI-I were applied to the data retrieved from the charts. RESULTS: The majority of the 26 patients included were treated with second-generation antipsychotics. A positive, statistically significant correlation was found between the implementation of pharmacotherapy and a reduction in CGI-S scores (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia do tratamento farmacológico dos sintomas de agitação psicomotora e agressividade em amostra de pacientes com transtorno do espectro autista. MÉTODO: Foram revisados os prontuários de pacientes com diagnóstico de transtorno do espectro autista que procuraram atendimento por apresentarem agitação psicomotora e/ou heteroagressividade, atendidos entre 2001 e 2006, em dois ambulatórios de psiquiatria. Para avaliação da evolução dos pacientes aplicou-se às informações do prontuário a escala de Impressão Clínica Global Sintomas (ICG-S e a Impressão Clínica Global Melhora (ICG-M. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos 26 pacientes estava em tratamento com antipsicóticos de segunda geração. Houve correlação positiva e estatisticamente significativa entre a introdução do tratamento farmacológico e a redução nos escores da ICG-S (p<0,05. A evolução do tratamento farmacológico foi melhor para os pacientes sem retardo mental do que para aqueles com retardo mental (p<0,05. A maioria dos pacientes que obteve melhora clínica com o tratamento participava de ao menos uma intervenção auxiliar ao tratamento principal (p<0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Os

  20. Using psychodrama to relieve social barriers in an autistic child: A case study and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Li; Dangyang Wang; Ziqiu Guo; Kun Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To review and update the evidence for the effect of psychodrama for children with autism, and evaluate the effect of psychodrama on an autistic child with severe social barriers, using the theory of mind and psychodrama methodology as the analytical frameworks. Methods: A 5 year-old boy, the research object, was diagnosed as severe autism using behavior observation and autism screening tools, with an DSM-Ⅵcriteria. Autism symptom severity was usually measured by Childhood Autism...

  1. Alterations of prolyl endopeptidase activity in the plasma of children with autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avarseji Hassan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolyl Endopeptidase (PEP, EC 3.4.21.26, a cytosolic endopeptidase, hydrolyses peptide bonds on the carboxyl side of proline residue in proteins with a relatively small molecular weight. It has been shown that altered PEP activity is associated with various psychological diseases such as schizophrenia, mania and depression. Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD are neuropsychiatric and behavioural syndromes affecting social behaviours and communication development. They are classified as developmental disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that PEP activity is also associated with ASDs. Methods Fluorometric assay was used to measure PEP activity in EDTA plasma in children with ASD (n = 18 aged 4–12 years (mean ± SD: 7.9 ± 2.5. These results were then compared to PEP activity in a control group of non-ASD children (n = 15 aged 2–10 years (mean ± SD: 6.4 ± 2.2. Results An alteration in PEP activity was found in the children with ASD compared to the control group. There was much greater variation of PEP activity in the group of ASD children when compared to the controls (SD= 39.9 and SD 9.6, respectively. This variation was significant (p Conclusion Our preliminary finding suggests a role for PEP enzyme in the pathophysiology of autism but further research should be conducted to establish its role in the aetiology of psychiatric and neurological disorders, including autism and related spectrum disorders.

  2. Prenatal alcohol exposure and autistic spectrum disorders--a population-based prospective study of 80,552 children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Tolstrup, Janne S; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake > or =5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism.......To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake > or =5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism....

  3. Autistic disorders and schizophrenia: related or remote? An anatomical likelihood estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlton Cheung

    Full Text Available Shared genetic and environmental risk factors have been identified for autistic spectrum disorders (ASD and schizophrenia. Social interaction, communication, emotion processing, sensorimotor gating and executive function are disrupted in both, stimulating debate about whether these are related conditions. Brain imaging studies constitute an informative and expanding resource to determine whether brain structural phenotype of these disorders is distinct or overlapping. We aimed to synthesize existing datasets characterizing ASD and schizophrenia within a common framework, to quantify their structural similarities. In a novel modification of Anatomical Likelihood Estimation (ALE, 313 foci were extracted from 25 voxel-based studies comprising 660 participants (308 ASD, 352 first-episode schizophrenia and 801 controls. The results revealed that, compared to controls, lower grey matter volumes within limbic-striato-thalamic circuitry were common to ASD and schizophrenia. Unique features of each disorder included lower grey matter volume in amygdala, caudate, frontal and medial gyrus for schizophrenia and putamen for autism. Thus, in terms of brain volumetrics, ASD and schizophrenia have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms. However, the distinctive neuroanatomy also mapped in each condition raises the question about how this is arrived in the context of common etiological pressures.

  4. Treatment of autistic spectrum disorder with insulin-like growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riikonen, Raili

    2016-11-01

    There are no treatments for the core symptoms of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), but there is now more knowledge on emerging mechanisms and on mechanism-based therapies. In autism there are altered synapses: genes affected are commonly related to synaptic and immune function. Dysregulation of activity-dependent signaling networks may have a key role the etiology of autism. There is an over-activation of IGF-AKT-mTor in autism spectrum disorders. Morphological and electro-physiological defects of the cerebellum are linked to system-wide ASD-like behavior defects. The molecular basis for a cerebellar contribution has been demonstrated in a mouse model. These have led to a potential mechanism-based use of drug targets and mouse models. Neurotrophic factors are potential candidates for the treatment. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is altered in autism. It reduces neuro-inflammation: by causing changes of cytokines such as IL-6 and microglial function. IGF-1 reduces the defects in the synapse. It alleviates NMDA-induced neurotoxicity via the IGF-AKT-mTor pathway in microglia. IGF-1 may rescue function in Rett syndrome and ASD caused by changes of the SCHANK3 gene. There are recently pilot studies of the treatment of Rett syndrome and of SCHANK3 gene deficiency syndromes. The FDA has granted Orphan drug designations for Fragile X syndrome, SCHANK3 gene deficiency syndrome and Rett syndrome.

  5. Effects of risperidone on core symptoms of autistic disorder based on childhood autism rating scale: An open label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padideh Ghaeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of risperidone in patients afflicted by autistic disorder especially with regards to its three core symptoms, including "relating to others", "communication skills", and "stereotyped behaviors" based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS. Materials and Methods: An 8-week open-label study of risperidone for treatment of autistic disorder in children 4-17 years old was designed. Risperidone dose titration was as follow: 0.02 mg/kg/day at the first week, 0.04 mg/kg/day at the second week, and 0.06 mg/kg/day at the third week and thereafter. The outcome measures were scores obtained by CARS, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I scale. Results: Fifteen patients completed this study. After 8 weeks, CARS total score decreased significantly, (P=0.001. At the end of the study, social interactions and verbal communication skills of the patients were significantly improved (P<0.001, P=0.03, respectively. However, stereotypic behaviors did not show any significant change in this study. Increase in appetite and somnolence were the most reported side effects. Conclusion: This study suggests that risperidone may be an effective treatment for the management of core symptoms of autistic disorder.

  6. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to…

  7. Kleine-Levin Syndrome in an 8-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder: Does Autism Account a Primary or Secondary Cause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim Shoushtari, Mitra; Ghalebandi, Mirfarhad; Tavasoli, Azita; Pourshams, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder with an unknown etiology. Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by various degrees of impairment in social communication, repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Only four patients of KLS with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported so far. This report presents an 8-year-old girl with history of autistic disorder and epilepsy that superimposed KLS. Because of the rarity of KLS and related studies did not address whether autism accounts for a primary or secondary cause, the area required attention further studies.

  8. Stressful life events during pregnancy as risk factors for developing autistic disorder in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Abdi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to examine the role of prenatal stressful events in mothers of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in 2014. A total number of 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected by convenience method from the autism rehabilitation centers in Tabriz, Iran. Moreover, 112 typically developing (TD children and adolescents were selected from public schools using a random clustering method. Two groups were matched in terms of mother's and child's age and mother's educational level. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS semi-structured diagnostic interview was used to evaluate the presence of psychiatric disorders. The diagnosis of AD was made based on the DSM-IV criteria during separate diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The life stressful events’ inventory was used to assess the presence of stressful events during pregnancy. Results: According to Fisher's exact test, the frequency of stressful life events including failure to achieve life goals, high debt, frequent marital conflict, conflict with spouse's family, changes in sleeping habits, and sexual difficulties in the mothers of AD children during pregnancy was significantly higher than the mothers of TD children. Also, mothers of AD children reported significantly higher frequency for the positive stressful life events including the major job progress, starting or finishing education, change of education, location, and summer vacation during pregnancy. Conclusion: Some stressful life events in mothers during pregnancy may be considered as risk factors for developing AD in their children. Further researches are needed to establish the results of this study.

  9. Down Syndrome Disintegrative Disorder: New-Onset Autistic Regression, Dementia, and Insomnia in Older Children and Adolescents With Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Gordon; Crissman, Blythe G; Cadogan, Emily; Milleson, Christie; Adkins, Deanna W; Kishnani, Priya S

    2015-08-01

    Over a 10-year period in a Down syndrome Clinic, 11 children and adolescents were encountered with a history of new-onset (8) or worsening (3) autistic characteristics. Ten of the 11 (91%) had cognitive decline to a dementia-like state and 9 of the 11 (82%) new-onset insomnia. The mean age at which symptoms developed was 11.4 years (standard deviation = 3.6 years; range 5-14 years), an older age than usual for autistic regression in Down syndrome. Ten of 11 cases (91%) had elevated ("positive") thyroperoxidase antibody titers compared to only 5 of 21 (23%) age-matched control subjects with Down syndrome (P Down syndrome disintegrative disorder seems an appropriate name for this newly recognized clinical association, which may be due to autoimmunity.

  10. Using psychodrama to relieve social barriers in an autistic child: A case study and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: It was possible for autistic children to relieve social barriers by implementing psychodrama training, then to improve the social cognitive ability and enhance the social function of the autistic children. These results provided basic Clinical implications for exploring a new intervention technique to reduce autistic symptom severity.

  11. Measuring the quality of teacher-child interaction in autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Longobardi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The teacher-child relationship fulfils critical functions for the well being of the child, affecting emotive development, academic achievements, behavioral conducts and relationships with peers. The goal of the presented study is to compare the perceptions of the class teacher and of the support teacher concerning their relationship with subjects with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD; N=14; Mean age =90.07 months; SD=19.36 and with children of the control group (4 classmates per every subject of the experimental group, for a total of 56 pupils, Mean age = 80.36 months; SD=18.33. The perception by the teacher of the class, concerning the relationship with children with ASD, is characterized by higher levels of Conflict, and lower levels of Closeness, if compared with perceptions about the relationship with children of the control group (Conflict: t=-3.317; df= 14.931; p<0.01; Closeness: t= 5.638; df = 65; p < 0.001. The perception of the two teachers only correlates with regards to the Conflict dimension (r=0.769; p < 0.01. In reference to the child's adaptive skills only the social skills scale correlates with the Closeness. This is true in the perception of the support teacher (r=0.598; p<0.05. Finally, we take into account how the perception of the relationship relates with the socio-personal and professional data of the teachers and with the social features of the children.

  12. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Poppy L A; David, Anthony S

    2014-06-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, depression, dissociation, eating disorders, schizophrenia and psychoses] to date and provide a useful reference for consultation by clinicians and researchers planning to administer a biofeedback treatment. A systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and WOK databases and hand searches in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, and Journal of Neurotherapy, identified 227 articles; 63 of which are included within this review. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback constituted the most investigated modality (31.7%). Anxiety disorders were the most commonly treated (68.3%). Multi-modal biofeedback appeared most effective in significantly ameliorating symptoms, suggesting that targeting more than one physiological modality for bio-regulation increases therapeutic efficacy. Overall, 80.9% of articles reported some level of clinical amelioration related to biofeedback exposure, 65.0% to a statistically significant (p biofeedback interventions within mainstream psychiatry.

  13. Hypnosis Without Empathy? Perspectives From Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Stage Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David B

    2016-01-01

    Despite volumes of published studies supporting the efficacy of hypnosis for ego-strengthening, performance, and physical and psychological disorders, the precise nature of hypnosis, and in particular, the neurobiological underpinnings of trance-phenomenon, remains tenuous at best. With his empathic involvement theory of hypnosis, Wickramasekera II (2015) brings us closer to an understanding of the elusive nature of hypnotic processes by proposing a bridging of two long-standing and seemingly incongruent theories of hypnosis (i.e., neodissociative versus socio-cognitive). Borrowing from neuroscientific studies of empathy, the empathic involvement theory maintains that empathy, beyond any other human dynamic (including emotions, behavior, personality, and imagination), facilitates and enhances hypnotic experiences for both recipient and provider alike. By the same token, one can reasonably infer from the empathic involvement theory that non-empathic individuals are less likely to benefit from hypnosis. With this perspective in mind, the empathic involvement theory's identification of empathy as an apparent "Holy Grail" of the neural underpinnings and precise nature of hypnosis may be challenged on a number of grounds. Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder, especially those suffering from alexithymia, have been identified as empathy deficient, and therefore according to the empathic involvement theory would be classified as "low-hypnotizable," yet empirical studies, albeit limited in number, suggest otherwise. Furthermore, hypnotic inductions of audience volunteers by stage hypnotists challenge the empathic involvement theory's supposition that empathy is a required component of hypnosis. It is this author's contention that empathy is a beneficial, though not essential, element of successful hypnosis.

  14. Investigation of the Association Between Motor Stereotypy Behavior With Fundamental Movement Skills, Adaptive Functioning, and Autistic Spectrum Disorder Symptomology in Children With Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Joanne L; Pringle, Lydia; Greig, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Motor stereotypy behaviors are patterned, coordinated, repetitive behaviors that are particularly evident in those with an autistic spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities. The extent to which motor stereotypy behavior severity is associated with motor skills and maladaptive behavior, measures of adaptive functioning, along with fundamental movement skills and degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology is assessed in this preliminary report. Twelve participants, aged 7 to 16 years, with a reported motor stereotypy behavior and either mild or severe intellectual disability comprising developmental or global delay took part in the study. Spearman rho correlational analysis showed that severity of motor stereotypy behavior was significantly positively correlated with autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .008) and maladaptive behavior ( P = .008) but not fundamental movement skills ( P > .05). An increase in fundamental movement skills score was associated with a decrease in autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .01) and an increase in motor skills ( P = .002). This study provides evidence showing a significant relationship between motor stereotypy behavior severity with degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology and maladaptive behavior.

  15. Discourse Cohesion in the Verbal Interactions of Individuals Diagnosed with Autistic Disorder or Schizotypal Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study compared high functioning adolescents and young adults with autism (n=8) or schizotypal personality disorder (n=9) in use of social language referencing. Both groups had similar rates, types, and patterns of cohesive reference errors, though subjects with schizotypal disorder used cohesive ties of reference more often and more correctly…

  16. Are autistic traits measured equivalently in individuals with and without an autism spectrum disorder? An invariance analysis of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Aja L; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen; Kuenssberg, Renate; O'Donnell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It is common to administer measures of autistic traits to those without autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with, for example, the aim of understanding autistic personality characteristics in non-autistic individuals. Little research has examined the extent to which measures of autistic traits actually measure the same traits in the same way across those with and without an ASD. We addressed this question using a multi-group confirmatory factor invariance analysis of the Autism Quotient Short Form (AQ-S: Hoekstra et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 41(5):589-596, 2011) across those with (n = 148) and without (n = 168) ASD. Metric variance (equality of factor loadings), but not scalar invariance (equality of thresholds), held suggesting that the AQ-S measures the same latent traits in both groups, but with a bias in the manner in which trait levels are estimated. We, therefore, argue that the AQ-S can be used to investigate possible causes and consequences of autistic traits in both groups separately, but caution is due when combining or comparing levels of autistic traits across the two groups.

  17. Bruxism in Movement Disorders: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ella, Bruno; Ghorayeb, Imad; Burbaud, Pierre; Guehl, Dominique

    2016-04-14

    Bruxism is an abnormal repetitive movement disorder characterized by jaw clenching and tooth gnashing or grinding. It is classified into two overlapping types: awake bruxism (AB) and sleep bruxism (SB). Theories on factors causing bruxism are a matter of controversy, but a line of evidence suggests that it may to some extent be linked to basal ganglia dysfunction although so far, this topic has received little attention. The purpose of this article was to review cases of bruxism reported in various movement disorders. The biomedical literature was searched for publications reporting the association of bruxism with various types of movement disorders. As a whole, very few series were found, and most papers corresponded to clinical reports. In Parkinsonian syndromes, AB was rarely reported, but seems to be exacerbated by medical treatment, whereas SB is mainly observed during non-REM sleep, as in restless leg syndrome. AB is occasionally reported in Huntington's disease, primary dystonia, and secondary dystonia; however, its highest incidence and severity is reported in syndromes combining stereotypies and cognitive impairment, such as Rett's syndrome (97%), Down syndrome (42%), and autistic spectrum disorders (32%). Taken as a whole, AB seems to be more frequent in hyperkinetic movement disorders, notably those with stereotypies, and is influenced by anxiety, suggesting an involvement of the limbic part of the basal ganglia in its pathophysiology.

  18. Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2, but Not Type 1, Is Up-Regulated in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Children Affected by Autistic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalco, Dario; Sapone, Anna; Giordano, Catia; Cirillo, Alessandra; de Magistris, Laura; Rossi, Francesco; Fasano, Alessio; Bradstreet, James Jeffrey; Maione, Sabatino; Antonucci, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Autistic disorders (ADs) are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders arised by the interaction of genes and environmental factors. Dysfunctions in social interaction and communication skills, repetitive and stereotypic verbal and non-verbal behaviours are common features of ADs. There are no defined mechanisms of pathogenesis, rendering…

  19. Is There a Need for a Focused Health Care Service for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? A Keyhole Look at This Problem in Tripoli, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeglam, Adel M.; Maouna, Ameena

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autism is a global disorder, but relatively little is known about its presentation and occurrence in many developing countries, including Libya. Aims: 1.) To estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in children referred to Al-Khadra hospital (KH). 2.) To increase the awareness among pediatrician and primary health care…

  20. Autistic epileptiform regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Roberto; Zappella, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Autistic regression is a well known condition that occurs in one third of children with pervasive developmental disorders, who, after normal development in the first year of life, undergo a global regression during the second year that encompasses language, social skills and play. In a portion of these subjects, epileptiform abnormalities are present with or without seizures, resembling, in some respects, other epileptiform regressions of language and behaviour such as Landau-Kleffner syndrome. In these cases, for a more accurate definition of the clinical entity, the term autistic epileptifom regression has been suggested. As in other epileptic syndromes with regression, the relationships between EEG abnormalities, language and behaviour, in autism, are still unclear. We describe two cases of autistic epileptiform regression selected from a larger group of children with autistic spectrum disorders, with the aim of discussing the clinical features of the condition, the therapeutic approach and the outcome.

  1. Play behaviours and play object preferences of young children with autistic disorder in a clinical play environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Anna; Ziviani, Jenny; Rodger, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Play is the primary occupation of childhood and provides a potentially powerful means of assessing and treating children with autistic disorder. This study utilized a cross-sectional comparison design to investigate the nature of play engagement in children with AD (n = 24), relative to typically developing children (n = 34) matched for chronological age. Play behaviours were recorded in a clinical play environment. Videotapes comprising 15 minutes of the children's spontaneous play behaviour were analysed using time-interval analysis. The particular play behaviours observed and play objects used were coded. Differences in play behaviours (p motivation.

  2. Heterogeneity of subclinical autistic traits among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder: Identifying the broader autism phenotype with a data-driven method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre; Aydın, Aydan; Saraç, Tuğba; Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Köse, Sezen

    2017-02-01

    Clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be conceptualized as the extreme end of the distribution of subclinical autistic traits related to genetic susceptibility factors (broad autism phenotype (BAP)) in the general population. Subclinical autistic traits are significantly more common among unaffected first-degree relatives of probands with autism. However, there is a significant heterogeneity of autistic traits in family members of individuals with ASD and severity of autistic traits are not significantly different from controls in the majority of these relatives. The current study investigated the heterogeneity of autistic traits using latent class analysis (LCA) of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) ratings of 673 parents of children with ASD and 147 parents of typically developing children. Two distinct subgroups, including a "low-scoring" and a "high-scorer (BAP)" groups, were found. In comparison to control parents, a significantly larger proportion (21.1% vs. 7.5%) of parents of ASD were members of BAP group. Communication subscale made a distinctive contribution to the separation of high and low-scoring groups (d = 2.77). Further studies investigating neurobiological and genetic biomarkers and stability of these two subgroups over time are important for understanding the nature of autistic traits in the general population. Autism Res 2017, 10: 321-326. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Secure Attachment in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Maternal Insightfulness

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    Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2008-01-01

    Do children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) form attachments to their caregivers? This article reviews research challenging the conventional view that children with autism are unable to form healthy attachment relationships. The authors describe a study examining the role of maternal insightfulness into the inner world of the child in…

  4. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life.

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    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to communication, behavior and interests of their child, which impact their quality of life. There were also differences between boys and girls.

  5. Imitation and Action Understanding in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: How Valid Is the Hypothesis of a Deficit in the Mirror Neuron System?

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    Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.; Brindley, Rachel M.; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    The motor mirror neuron system supports imitation and goal understanding in typical adults. Recently, it has been proposed that a deficit in this mirror neuron system might contribute to poor imitation performance in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and might be a cause of poor social abilities in these children. We aimed to test…

  6. A Randomised Group Comparison Controlled Trial of "Preschoolers with Autism": A Parent Education and Skills Training Intervention for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

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    Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; Mackinnon, Andrew; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder. Method: A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent…

  7. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

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    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  8. Evaluation of the validity of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in differentiating high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder from schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Kenichi; Matsui, Yusuke; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2010-09-30

    The aim of this study is to examine the validity of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) to differentiate high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) from schizophrenia (SCH). The AQ was developed by Baron-Cohen et al. to measure autistic traits. In addition to the original AQ items, we created self-administered questions about psychotic symptoms (S-scale). We administered the modified AQ to 51 ASD patients and 46 SCH patients, and we compared these two groups in terms of total AQ score, AQ subscale scores and S-scale score. We applied receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to examine the discriminating power of the AQ. The mean total AQ score of the ASD group (32.6; SD=6.8; range: 8-48) was significantly higher than that of the SCH group (21.8; SD=7.4; range: 10-39) (p<0.001). All AQ subscale scores of the ASD group were significantly higher than those of the SCH group. By using a cut-off score of 29 for the AQ total score, we were able to correctly classify 80% of the subjects. At this cut-off, the positive and negative predictive values were 0.83 and 0.78, respectively. Inclusion of additional questions of the S-scale did not increase the power of differentiation. These results indicate that the usefulness of the AQ in differentiating high-functioning ASD from SCH is limited.

  9. Vision Therapy for the Autistic Patient: A Literature Review and Case Report

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    Michael Au, OD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The heightened awareness of autism spectrum disorder (ASD has propelled concern for proper care into a significant public health issue. Vision deficits, including visual processing and integration, may contribute to the anxiety and uneasiness that these individuals frequently experience. Additionally, these deficits often translate into considerable hindrances to classroom success. This paper addresses a sampling of vision-based behaviors in ASD including visual hyper/hyposensitivity, poor facial recognition, lack of eye contact, and visual-motor integration impairments. Case Summary: A 10-year-old autistic male was referred for diagnosis of convergence insufficiency. There were notable developmental delays and concerns primarily regarding reading comprehension, attention deficits, and spatial organization. He previously received speech and language therapies in conjunction with occupational therapy. Diagnostic testing of the patient’s ocular motility yielded tracking inefficiencies and poor accuracy. The Wachs Analysis of Cognitive Structures (WACS evaluation was performed and revealed weaknesses in a number of visualization tasks as well as in gross and fine motor coordination. An individualized program of vision therapy was recommended to improve his visualization, tracking, and visual motor integration abilities. Conclusion: This case report illustrates how the distinctive challenges of structuring a successful vision therapy program for the varying presentations of ASD can be met by adapting techniques to the appropriate developmental stage of the child. Vision therapy provides the framework to build skills that are transferrable and valuable in the classroom.

  10. Projection of Need for Pathogenetic Testing for Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD Children of India

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    Rashmi Chowdhary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background  Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder. There is a large quantity of evidence which point towards a positive correlation between Autism and Mitochondrial disorders (MD. In addition to that, several published reports, indicate that people with neurological disorders exhibit pathological signs of mitochondrial disorders and vice versa. Screening for underlying MD is essential in ASD as the children (clinically appear and behave the same way in the both instances; however, their management is very different. Materials and Methods The current study examined biochemical, neuroimaging and genotyping technique in ASD patients to see which technique would be easier to interpret and indicate underlying MD. The analysis of the screening was based on several objectives like clinical, histological, biochemical, molecular, neuroimaging and enzymatic findings. Results We found out that pathogenetic analysis based on clinical and genotyping gives spontaneous results to analyse the possibility of MD in ASD patients. Conclusion  It does not necessarily require blood samples from ASD patients to accomplish this type of analysis.

  11. 孤独症儿童家长生存质量的研究%Effects of life quality on autistic disorder children's parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振寰; 谢巧玲; 张勇

    2013-01-01

    [目的]分析孤独症患儿对其父母生存质量的影响,为有关机构展开工作提供参考依据. [方法]采用普适性生存质量测定量表(SF-36),对90例孤独症患儿父母及120例正常儿童的父母进行评定. [结果]1)孤独症组父母的生存质量总分及各领域评分均低于正常父母组(P<0.01);2)低功能孤独症组的父母生存质量评分明显低于高功能孤独症组(P<0.01);3)患儿家长的生存质量与患儿病情程度呈负相关,与智力水平呈正相关(P<0.01). [结论]孤独症儿童对患儿父母生存质量有影响,低功能孤独症患儿则影响更大.%【Objective】 To investigate the quality of life and related factors in parents of children with autism. 【Methods】 90 parents of autistic children and 120 parents of normal children were participated. SF-36 was employed to e-valuate both groups by questionnaire. Parents of autistic children also completed Clancy Autism Behavior Scale (CABS) Autistic Behavior Checklist (ABC),the Children Autistic Rating Scale (CARS)and Autistic children checked with the Gesell development diagnosis scale. 【Results】 1) Parents of autistic children reported substantially lower scores of SF-36 than that of parents with normal group (P<0. 01). 2) The quality of life of parents in low functioning intelligence group was worse than high functioning intelligence group(P<0. 01). 3) The quality of life of parents was positively correlated with intelligence of autistic children,and negative correlated with symptom of autistic children. 【Conclusion】 Children with autistic disorder took grievous influence on parents quality of life. Compared with high functioning intelligence group, the low functioning intelligence children's parents had even worse quality of life.

  12. Environmental risk factors associated with the persistence of conduct difficulties in children with intellectual disabilities and autistic spectrum disorders.

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    Emerson, Eric; Blacher, Jan; Einfeld, Stewart; Hatton, Chris; Robertson, Janet; Stancliffe, Roger J

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the association between exposure to environmental risks in early childhood and the prevalence and persistence of conduct difficulties (CD) in children with intellectual disability (ID) who did not have autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children. Results indicated that: (1) exposure to risk was associated with elevated prevalence of CD at age three and, for TD children and children with ID, increased risk of CD persisting to ages five and seven; (2) at all levels of risk, children with ASD were more likely to show persistent CD than other children; (3) children with ID were no more likely to show persistent CD than TD children at low levels of exposure to environmental risk.

  13. A girl with increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner′s syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder

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    Shohreh Mohseni Ahouee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the findings on the evaluation of a 9-year-old girl with disabling and pronounced increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner′s syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder. She spent most of the time doing these activities which affected not only her academic performance, but also social relationships. A comprehensive treatment plan consists of both biological and psychological aspects, is the main point of this case. Low dose of risperidone (0.5 mg/day was started to decrease the patient′s stereotypic behaviors. Sertraline (12.5 mg/day was prescribed for her phobia. She was also referred to an occupational therapist in order to improve her social skills.

  14. EEG correlates of emotions in dream narratives from typical young adults and individuals with autistic spectrum disorders.

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    Daoust, Anne-Marie; Lusignan, Félix-Antoine; Braun, Claude M J; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2008-03-01

    The relationship between emotional dream content and Alpha and Beta REM sleep EEG activity was investigated in typical individuals and in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Dream narratives of persons with ASD contained fewer emotional elements. In both groups, emotions correlated positively with slow Alpha (8.0-10.0 Hz) spectral power over parieto-occipital and left central regions, as well as with a right occipital EEG asymmetry. Slow Alpha activity in ASD individuals was lower over midline and parasagittal areas and higher over lateral areas compared to controls. Both groups displayed a right-biased slow Alpha activity for midparietal and occipital (significantly higher in control) sites. Results indicate that Alpha EEG activity may represent a neurophysiological substrate associated with emotional dream content. Distinctive Alpha EEG patterns and asymmetries suggest that dream generation implies different brain connectivity in ASD.

  15. Adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) variants may increase autistic symptoms and anxiety in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M; Agelopoulos, Konstantin; Huy, Ellen; Rothermundt, Matthias; Krakowitzky, Petra; Meyer, Jobst; Deckert, Jürgen; von Gontard, Alexander; Hohoff, Christa

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are heterogeneous disorders presenting with increased rates of anxiety. The adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) is associated with panic disorder and is located on chromosome 22q11.23. Its gene product, the adenosine A(2A) receptor, is strongly expressed in the caudate nucleus, which also is involved in ASD. As autistic symptoms are increased in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and large 22q11.2 deletions and duplications have been observed in ASD individuals, in this study, 98 individuals with ASD and 234 control individuals were genotyped for eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ADORA2A. Nominal association with the disorder was observed for rs2236624-CC, and phenotypic variability in ASD symptoms was influenced by rs3761422, rs5751876 and rs35320474. In addition, association of ADORA2A variants with anxiety was replicated for individuals with ASD. Findings point toward a possible mediating role of ADORA2A variants on phenotypic expression in ASD that need to be replicated in a larger sample.

  16. Fatty acid metabolism in neurodevelopmental disorder: a new perspective on associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, dyspraxia and the autistic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A J; Ross, M A

    2000-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that abnormalities of fatty acid and membrane phospholipid metabolism play a part in a wide range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. This proposal is discussed here in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder (dyspraxia) and the autistic spectrum. These are among the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood, with significant implications for society as well as for those directly affected. However, controversy still surrounds both the identification and management of these conditions, and while their aetiology is recognized as being complex and multifactorial, little progress has yet been made in elucidating predisposing factors at the biological level. An overview is provided here of the contents of this Special Issue, which contains a selection of reports from a unique multidisciplinary workshop involving both researchers and clinicians. Its purpose was to explore the possibility that ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and autism fall within a phospholipid spectrum of disorders. This proposal could explain the high degree of co-morbidity between these conditions, their aggregation within families and relation to other psychiatric disorders, and a range of associated features that are already well known at a clinical level. The existing evidence for fatty acid abnormalities in these disorders is summarized, and new approaches are outlined that have the potential to improve both the identification and the management of these and related neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions.

  17. ANXIETY DISORDERS: A REVIEW

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    Arya Ashwani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher preponderance of 2:1 as compared to males. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by various combinations of key features - Irritability, fear, Insomnia, Nervousness, Tachycardia, Inability to concentrate, poor coping skills, Palpitation, Sweating, Agoraphobia and Social Withdrawal. The anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social anxiety disorder (SAD, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, are among the disabling medical disorders. The neurobiology of anxiety disorders is not fully understood, but several different biologic abnormalities have been implicated in their etiology. The GABA, NE and 5HT systems play crucial roles in mediating the affective circuitry underlying the highly related clinical disorders of anxiety. Anxiety is a common psychiatric condition characterized by unnecessary aggression, poor quality of life, fear, worry, avoidance, and compulsive rituals that are associated with significant distress.

  18. [Autistic psychopathy or pervasive developmental disorder: how has Asperger's syndrome changed in the past sixty years?].

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    Ishikawa, Gen; Ichihashi, Kayo

    2007-03-01

    Bosch (1970) was the first author who used "Asperger's syndrome" in English literature. In those days, "Kanner's syndrome" i.e. autism, which had been under schizophrenic-versus-undeveloped arguments from the 1960's, was always contrasted with Asperger's "autistic psychopathy in children". From then on there have been vicissitudes over the notion of "Asperger's syndrome" and its clinical presentation. Nowadays, the restricted notion of "Asperger's syndrome" is dominant and used in both DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. However, debates concerning the aspect of Asperger s "psychopathy" in clinical study and practice have long disappeared. In daily life, when we describe someone as "like Asperger's", it means a personality deviation that is to the degree of Asperger's "psychopathy". The history of Asperger's "psychopathy" is still developing in our culture.

  19. Pharmacotherapy for the core symptoms in autistic disorder: current status of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey; Grant, Paul

    2013-03-01

    The current review covers extant literature on pharmacotherapy for core symptoms of autism. The core symptoms of autism include impairments in social interaction and communication, as well as the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors. There are no known efficacious treatments for the core social symptoms, although effects on repetitive behaviors are indicated with some data. While studies of fenfluramine, secretin, opiates, and mood stabilizers generally find no effect, mixed results suggest more research is needed on antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics. Newer lines of research, including cholinergic and glutamatergic agents and oxytocin, will be of considerable interest in the future. However, research on the treatment of core symptoms is plagued by limitations in study design, statistical power, and other issues inherent to the study of treatments for autism (e.g., heterogeneity of the disorder) that continue to prevent the elucidation of efficacious treatments.

  20. Narrative responses as an aid to understanding the presentation of maltreated children who meet criteria for autistic spectrum disorder and reactive attachment disorder: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Elaine; Stedmon, Jacqui; Dallos, Rudi

    2014-07-01

    This paper offers research case studies of four severely maltreated children who had received a diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder. A range of measures were employed to explore the children's psychological and emotional functioning, including Theory of Mind assessment (Sally-Anne Test), attachment measures (Story Stems Assessment Profile and Relationship Problems Questionnaire), along with measures to assess general psychological and emotional well-being. Contrary to the diagnosis, the children did not reveal a theory of mind deficit. However, they did indicate a profile of difficulties in mentalisation on the Story Stems. The findings are discussed in terms of the extent to which mentalisation and theory of mind are influenced by situational factors, especially the anxiety evoked by the Story Stem attachment scenarios. Clinical implications regarding mentalisation as a state vs. trait phenomenon are discussed.

  1. Comparing Efficacy and Side Effects of Memantine vs. Risperidone in the Treatment of Autistic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikvarz, Nikvarz; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Alimadadi, Abbas; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the efficacy and side effects of memantine, an antagonist of the NMDA receptor of glutamate, with risperidone given the fact that glutamate has been noted for its possible effects in the pathogenesis of autism. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, has been approved by FDA for the management of irritability associated with autism. Methods: 30 children, aged 4-17 years, entered an 8-week, randomized trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either risperidone or memantine. Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scales were used to assess behavioral symptoms of the patients. Results: Both risperidone and memantine reduced the scores of 4 subscales of ABC as well as the 10-item and the total score of CARS significantly. However, differences between the 2 drugs in the scores of each evaluating scale were not found to be significant. Relatively, larger number of patients on risperidone showed "very much improvement" when assessed by CGI-I scale when compared with those on memantine. Discussion and conclusion: The present study suggests that memantine may have beneficial effects in the treatment of many core symptoms of autism. Therefore, memantine may be considered as a potential medication in the treatment of those autistic children who do not respond or cannot tolerate side effects of risperidone.

  2. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder.

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    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna

    2014-03-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD.

  3. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Correlations with Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyonsenga, Theophile; Duff, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Background There is evidence that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) levels compared with controls and conflicting evidence regarding omega-6 (n-6) PUFA levels. Objectives This study investigated whether erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were lower and n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) higher in children with ADHD, ASD and controls, and whether lower n-3 and higher n-6 PUFAs correlated with poorer scores on the Australian Twin Behaviour Rating Scale (ATBRS; ADHD symptoms) and Test of Variable Attention (TOVA) in children with ADHD, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) in children with ASD. Methods Assessments and blood samples of 565 children aged 3–17 years with ADHD (n = 401), ASD (n = 85) or controls (n = 79) were analysed. One-way ANOVAs with Tukey’s post-hoc analysis investigated differences in PUFA levels between groups and Pearson’s correlations investigated correlations between PUFA levels and ATBRS, TOVA and CARS scores. Results Children with ADHD and ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA, higher AA/EPA ratio and lower n-3/n-6 than controls (Pfatty acid metabolism in these disorders. PMID:27232999

  4. Head circumference and brain size in autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Roberto; Gabriele, Stefano; Persico, Antonio M

    2015-11-30

    Macrocephaly and brain overgrowth have been associated with autism spectrum disorder. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide an overall estimate of effect size and statistical significance for both head circumference and total brain volume in autism. Our literature search strategy identified 261 and 391 records, respectively; 27 studies defining percentages of macrocephalic patients and 44 structural brain imaging studies providing total brain volumes for patients and controls were included in our meta-analyses. Head circumference was significantly larger in autistic compared to control individuals, with 822/5225 (15.7%) autistic individuals displaying macrocephaly. Structural brain imaging studies measuring brain volume estimated effect size. The effect size is higher in low functioning autistics compared to high functioning and ASD individuals. Brain overgrowth was recorded in 142/1558 (9.1%) autistic patients. Finally, we found a significant interaction between age and total brain volume, resulting in larger head circumference and brain size during early childhood. Our results provide conclusive effect sizes and prevalence rates for macrocephaly and brain overgrowth in autism, confirm the variation of abnormal brain growth with age, and support the inclusion of this endophenotype in multi-biomarker diagnostic panels for clinical use.

  5. Functional Evaluation of Hidden Figures Object Analysis in Children with Autistic Disorder

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    Malisza, Krisztina L.; Clancy, Christine; Shiloff, Deborah; Foreman, Derek; Holden, Jeanette; Jones, Cheryl; Paulson, K.; Summers, Randy; Yu, C. T.; Chudley, Albert E.

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of a hidden figures task (HFT) was used to compare differences in brain function in children diagnosed with autism disorder (AD) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typical controls (TC). Overall greater functional MRI activity was observed in…

  6. White Matter Microstructure Predicts Autistic Traits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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    Cooper, Miriam; Thapar, Anita; Jones, Derek K.

    2014-01-01

    Traits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have previously been found to index clinical severity. This study examined the association of ASD traits with diffusion parameters in adolescent males with ADHD (n = 17), and also compared WM microstructure relative to controls (n = 17).…

  7. Assessment in multisite randomized clinical trials of patients with autistic disorder: the Autism RUPP Network. Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L E; Aman, M G; Martin, A; Collier-Crespin, A; Vitiello, B; Tierney, E; Asarnow, R; Bell-Bradshaw, F; Freeman, B J; Gates-Ulanet, P; Klin, A; McCracken, J T; McDougle, C J; McGough, J J; Posey, D J; Scahill, L; Swiezy, N B; Ritz, L; Volkmar, F

    2000-04-01

    Assessment of autistic disorder (autism) symptoms, primary and secondary, poses more challenging problems than ordinarily found in multisite randomized clinical trial (RCT) assessments. For example, subjects may be uncommunicative and extremely heterogeneous in problem presentation, and current pharmacological treatments are not likely to alter most core features of autism. The Autism Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP Autism Network) resolved some of these problems during the design of a risperidone RCT in children/adolescents. The inappropriateness of the usual anchors for a Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) was resolved by defining uncomplicated autism without secondary symptoms as a CGI-S of 3, mildly ill. The communication problems, compromising use of the patient as an informant, were addressed by several strategies, including careful questioning of care providers, rating scales, laboratory tests, and physical exams. The broad subject heterogeneity requires outcome measures sensitive to individual change over a wide spectrum of treatment response and side effects. The problems of neuropsychologically testing nonverbal, lower functioning, sometimes noncompliant subjects requires careful instrument selection/adaptation and flexible administration techniques. The problems of assessing low-end IQs, neglected by most standardized test developers, was resolved by an algorithm of test hierarchy. Scarcity of other autism-adapted cognitive and neuropsychological tests and lack of standardization required development of a new, specially adapted battery. Reliability on the Autism Diagnostic Interview (currently the most valid diagnostic instrument) and other clinician instruments required extensive cross-site training (in-person, videotape, and teleconference sessions). Definition of a treatment responder required focus on individually relevant target symptoms, synthesis of possible modest improvements in many domains, and acceptance of

  8. Cortical gyrification in autistic and Asperger disorders: a preliminary magnetic resonance imaging study.

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    Jou, Roger J; Minshew, Nancy J; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2010-12-01

    The validity of Asperger disorder as a distinct syndrome from autism is unclear partly because of the paucity of differentiating neurobiological evidence. Frontal lobe cortical folding between these disorders was compared using the gyrification index. Twenty-three boys underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging: 6 with high-functioning autism, 9 with Asperger disorder, and 8 controls. Using the first coronal slice anterior to the corpus callosum, total and outer cortical contours were traced to calculate the gyrification index. This index was also calculated for superior and inferior regions to examine dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, respectively. Analysis of variance revealed differences in the left inferior gyrification index, which was higher in the autism group compared with Asperger and control groups. There were no differences in age, intelligence quotient, and brain volume. These preliminary findings suggest that cortical folding may be abnormally high in the frontal lobe in autism but not Asperger disorder, suggesting distinct frontal lobe neuropathology.

  9. Autistic traits in male and female students and individuals with high functioning autism spectrum disorders measured by the Polish version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    Full Text Available So far no standardized screening instrument for autism spectrum disorders for adults has been developed in Poland. The main aim of the study was to explore the properties of the Polish version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ, especially its reliability and discriminating power. The second purpose was to establish whether the pattern of sex and area of study differences in the amount of autistic traits found in other countries also exist in Poland. The groups in the study included students (n = 2819, adults with ASD (n = 60 and a non-clinical sample (n = 60 matched with the ASD group for age, sex, education and place of residence. The Polish version of AQ proved to be reliable, although--as in studies conducted in other countries--the internal consistency coefficients for subscales (with exception for social skill were low. ASD diagnosis was the most powerful determinant of AQ scores. Sex differences in autistic traits and a relationship between autistic traits and area of study were found.

  10. The Role of Early Childhood Professionals in the Early Identification of Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Franklyn-Banton, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder defined by impaired social skills, impaired language development and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. The increasing prevalence of autism worldwide has made this an important condition among professionals working with young children, including those in Jamaica. Early identification and intervention…

  11. Self-Disorders in Individuals with Autistic Traits: Contribution of Reduced Autobiographical Reasoning Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Fabrice; Göritz, Anja S.; Schröder, Johanna; Coutelle, Romain; Danion, Jean-Marie; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine V.; Moritz, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The present web-based study (N = 840) aimed to illuminate the cognitive mechanisms underlying self-disorders in autism. Initially, participants selected three self-defining memories. Then, we assessed their capacity to give meaning to these events (i.e., meaning making), their tendency to scrutinize autobiographical memory to better understand…

  12. Eye-Movement Patterns Are Associated with Communicative Competence in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Brock, Jon; Cragg, Lucy; Einav, Shiri; Griffiths, Helen; Nation, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Background: Investigations using eye-tracking have reported reduced fixations to salient social cues such as eyes when participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) view social scenes. However, these studies have not distinguished different cognitive phenotypes. Methods: The eye-movements of 28 teenagers with ASD and 18 typically developing…

  13. Autistic Tendencies: Are There Different Pathways for Blindness and Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Rebecca; Wyver, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    For many of the children who are blind and who also display features of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) it is possible that their characteristics, while being representative of ASD, actually follow a different pathway to those children who have ASD and are sighted. It is proposed that these children should be viewed as having specific features…

  14. Atypical benign partial epilepsy of childhood with acquired neurocognitive, lexical semantic, and autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nicholas M; Conroy, Judith; Deonna, Thierry; McCreary, Dara; McGettigan, Paul; Madigan, Cathy; Carter, Imogen; Ennis, Sean; Lynch, Sally A; Shahwan, Amre; King, Mary D

    2016-01-01

    Atypical benign partial epilepsy (ABPE) of childhood or pseudo-Lennox syndrome is a form of idiopathic focal epilepsy characterized by multiple seizure types, focal and/or generalized epileptiform discharges, continuous spike-wave during sleep (CSWS), and sometimes reversible neurocognitive deficits. There are few reported cases of ABPE describing detailed correlative longitudinal follow-up of the various associated neurocognitive, language, social communicative, or motor deficits, in parallel with the epilepsy. Furthermore, the molecular inheritance pattern for ABPE and the wider spectrum of epilepsy aphasia disorders have yet to be fully elucidated. We describe the phenotype-genotype study of a boy with ABPE with follow-up from ages 5 to 13 years showing acquired oromotor and, later, a specific lexical semantic and pervasive developmental disorder. Exome sequencing identified variants in SCN9A, CPA6, and SCNM1. A direct role of the epilepsy in the pathogenesis of the oromotor and neurocognitive deficits is apparent.

  15. Potential therapeutic use of the ketogenic diet in autistic spectrum disorders

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    Eleonora eNapoli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet (KGD has been recognized as an effective treatment for individuals with glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH deficiencies as well as with epilepsy. More recently, its use has been advocated in a number of neurological disorders prompting a newfound interest in its possible therapeutic use in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. One study and one case report indicated that children with ASD treated with a KGD showed decreased seizure frequencies and exhibited behavioral improvements (i.e., improved learning abilities and social skills. The KGD could benefit individuals with ASD affected with epileptic episodes as well those with either PDH or mild RC (respiratory chain Complex deficiencies. Given that the mechanism of action of the KGD is not fully understood, caution should be exercised in ASD cases lacking a careful biochemical and metabolic characterization to avoid deleterious side effects or refractory outcomes.

  16. The first thousand days of the autistic brain: a systematic review of diffusion imaging studies.

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    Eugenia eConti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There is overwhelming evidence that autism spectrum disorder (ASD is related to altered brain connectivity. While these alterations are starting to be well characterized in subjects where the clinical picture is fully expressed, less is known on their earlier developmental course. In the present study we systematically reviewed current knowledge on structural connectivity in ASD infants and toddlers. We searched PubMed and Medline databases for all English language papers, published from year 2000, exploring structural connectivity in populations of infants and toddlers whose mean age was below 30 months. Of the 264 papers extracted, four were found to be eligible and were reviewed. Three of the four selected studies reported higher fractional anisotropy values in subjects with ASD compared to controls within commissural fibers, projections fibers and association fibers, suggesting brain hyper-connectivity in the earliest phases of the disorder. Similar conclusions emerged from the other diffusion parameters assessed. These findings are reversed to what is generally found in studies exploring older patient groups and suggest a developmental course characterized by a shift towards hypo-connectivity starting at a time between two and four years of age.

  17. [Clinical features, biology and neuropsychology of the autistic disorder: towards an integrative perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukier, Sebastián H

    2005-01-01

    Autism constitutes one of the most investigated disorders in child psychiatry. The heterogeneous clinical phenomena that characterize it have been exhaustibly described along the last 62 years. Multiple aetiological hypothesis, neuropsychological theories and physiopathological mechanisms, sometimes complementary and other times mutually exclusive, and different descriptions of neurobiological alterations that resulted, in general, of low replicability, have attempted to account for the marked variability of its manifestations. An integration of these different levels of analysis results even harder than the comprehension of each of them separately. In this article the author revises the three aspects considered the most characteristic of the syndrome (social interaction, communication and flexibility) and tries to integrate its clinical manifestations with some neuropsychological variables and the neurobiological substrates.

  18. Greater disruption to control of voluntary saccades in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder: evidence for greater cerebellar involvement in autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley-Cary, Chloe; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce; White, Owen; Fielding, Joanne

    2011-03-01

    It remains unclear whether autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) exist on a symptom continuum or are separate disorders with discrete neurobiological underpinnings. In addition to impairments in communication and social cognition, motor deficits constitute a significant clinical feature in both disorders. It has been suggested that motor deficits and in particular the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may differentiate these disorders. We used a simple volitional saccade task to comprehensively profile the integrity of voluntary ocular motor behaviour in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or AD, and included measures sensitive to cerebellar dysfunction. We tested three groups of age-matched young males with normal intelligence (full scale, verbal, and performance IQ estimates >70) aged between 11 and 19 years; nine with AD, eight with HFA, and ten normally developing males as the comparison group. Overall, the metrics and dynamics of the voluntary saccades produced in this task were preserved in the AD group. In contrast, the HFA group demonstrated relatively preserved mean measures of ocular motricity with cerebellar-like deficits demonstrated in increased variability on measures of response time, final eye position, and movement dynamics. These deficits were considered to be consistent with reduced cerebellar online adaptation of movement. The results support the notion that the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may be different in AD and HFA, suggesting potentially differential neurobiological substrates may underpin these complex disorders.

  19. Abnormal patterns of cerebral lateralisation as revealed by the Universal Chimeric Faces Task in individuals with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sandie; Workman, Lance; Yeomans, Heather

    2012-01-01

    A previous study by Workman, Chilvers, Yeomans, and Taylor (2006), using the "Universal" Chimeric Faces Task (UCFT) for six emotional expressions, demonstrated that an overall left hemispatial/right hemisphere (RH) advantage has begun to develop by the age of 7-8. Moreover, the development of this left hemispatial advantage was observed to correlate positively with the ability to read emotions in the faces of others. Adopting the UCFT, the current study compared autistic children (11-15) with unimpaired children of two age groups (5-6 and 7-8) from this previous study. The autistic children showed a left hemispatial/RH advantage only for the two emotional expressions of "happiness" and "anger". Results for the autistic children revealed a similar overall pattern of lateralisation to the 5-6-year-olds and one that is less lateralised than the pattern for the 7-8-year-olds. Autistic children appear to show a developmental deficit for left hemispatial/RH advantage for emotional expression with the exception of "happiness" and "anger." The findings are discussed in terms of role hemisphericity and an approach-avoidance model.

  20. Effectiveness of Methylcobalamin and Folinic Acid Treatment on Adaptive Behavior in Children with Autistic Disorder Is Related to Glutathione Redox Status

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    Richard E. Frye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatments targeting metabolic abnormalities in children with autism are limited. Previously we reported that a nutritional treatment significantly improved glutathione metabolism in children with autistic disorder. In this study we evaluated changes in adaptive behaviors in this cohort and determined whether such changes are related to changes in glutathione metabolism. Thirty-seven children diagnosed with autistic disorder and abnormal glutathione and methylation metabolism were treated with twice weekly 75 µg/Kg methylcobalamin and twice daily 400 µg folinic acid for 3 months in an open-label fashion. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS and glutathione redox metabolites were measured at baseline and at the end of the treatment period. Over the treatment period, all VABS subscales significantly improved with an average effect size of 0.59, and an average improvement in skills of 7.7 months. A greater improvement in glutathione redox status was associated with a greater improvement in expressive communication, personal and domestic daily living skills, and interpersonal, play-leisure, and coping social skills. Age, gender, and history of regression did not influence treatment response. The significant behavioral improvements observed and the relationship between these improvements to glutathione redox status suggest that nutritional interventions targeting redox metabolism may benefit some children with autism.

  1. Effectiveness of methylcobalamin and folinic Acid treatment on adaptive behavior in children with autistic disorder is related to glutathione redox status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Richard E; Melnyk, Stepan; Fuchs, George; Reid, Tyra; Jernigan, Stefanie; Pavliv, Oleksandra; Hubanks, Amanda; Gaylor, David W; Walters, Laura; James, S Jill

    2013-01-01

    Treatments targeting metabolic abnormalities in children with autism are limited. Previously we reported that a nutritional treatment significantly improved glutathione metabolism in children with autistic disorder. In this study we evaluated changes in adaptive behaviors in this cohort and determined whether such changes are related to changes in glutathione metabolism. Thirty-seven children diagnosed with autistic disorder and abnormal glutathione and methylation metabolism were treated with twice weekly 75 µg/Kg methylcobalamin and twice daily 400 µg folinic acid for 3 months in an open-label fashion. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) and glutathione redox metabolites were measured at baseline and at the end of the treatment period. Over the treatment period, all VABS subscales significantly improved with an average effect size of 0.59, and an average improvement in skills of 7.7 months. A greater improvement in glutathione redox status was associated with a greater improvement in expressive communication, personal and domestic daily living skills, and interpersonal, play-leisure, and coping social skills. Age, gender, and history of regression did not influence treatment response. The significant behavioral improvements observed and the relationship between these improvements to glutathione redox status suggest that nutritional interventions targeting redox metabolism may benefit some children with autism.

  2. An Examination of Challenging Behaviors in Autistic Disorder versus Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: Significant Differences and Gender Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Alison M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are well-known for engagement in challenging behaviors. Unfortunately, due to its absence as a criterion for diagnosis in the "DSM-IV-TR", little attention has been paid to the endorsement rates of such behaviors. However, a recently developed measure to assist in the diagnosis of infants and toddlers…

  3. Biological and psychological rhythms: an integrative approach to rhythm disturbances in autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botbol, Michel; Cabon, Philippe; Kermarrec, Solenn; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2013-09-01

    Biological rhythms are crucial phenomena that are perfect examples of the adaptation of organisms to their environment. A considerable amount of work has described different types of biological rhythms (from circadian to ultradian), individual differences in their patterns and the complexity of their regulation. In particular, the regulation and maturation of the sleep-wake cycle have been thoroughly studied. Its desynchronization, both endogenous and exogenous, is now well understood, as are its consequences for cognitive impairments and health problems. From a completely different perspective, psychoanalysts have shown a growing interest in the rhythms of psychic life. This interest extends beyond the original focus of psychoanalysis on dreams and the sleep-wake cycle, incorporating central theoretical and practical psychoanalytic issues related to the core functioning of the psychic life: the rhythmic structures of drive dynamics, intersubjective developmental processes and psychic containment functions. Psychopathological and biological approaches to the study of infantile autism reveal the importance of specific biological and psychological rhythmic disturbances in this disorder. Considering data and hypotheses from both perspectives, this paper proposes an integrative approach to the study of these rhythmic disturbances and offers an etiopathogenic hypothesis based on this integrative approach.

  4. Clinical polymorphism and variability in education of autistic children

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    Morozov S.A.Morozova T.I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders are considered a highly heterogeneous group by clinical signs, which makes it impossible to develop a common method of correctional and educational development for them. In this article, results of an analysis of clinical, psychological and pedagogic polymorphism in autism spectrum disorders are shown, emphasized are its main components and basic consequences necessary for organizing education. Results are viewed in the context of the principle of variability in education. A dual structure of variability in education of autistic children has been discovered. Shortly reviewed are some topical problems of correctional education process for autism spectrum disorders

  5. Perception and Lexicon Labeling Ability on a Child with Language Delay Diagnosed As Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Psycholinguistic Study

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    Rohmani Nur Indah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the semantics acquisition of a child with language delay diagnosed as autistic spectrum disorder (ASD. The research problem is on how the child acquired the ability to comprehend meaning. It aims at answering the questions on how the child identified lexical meanings and how he labeled targeted lexicons of his first language. The approach employed in this research is descriptive qualitative to get adequate explanation on a specific language phenomenon, namely semantics acquisition. Its design is case study with the type neo-ethnographic. As the data collection method, it uses participant observation of longitudinal study considering that the research subject has familial relation with the researcher. The data analysis shows that the semantic acquisition of the research subject has complexity in vocabulary enrichment. The research subject often performs echolalic speech when he is asked to identify or label certain object given. The typical idiosyncratic speech is shown by the unique feature of limited syllable and prosody. In general, his ability to identify lexical meanings is far exceeding his ability to label objects. He also has sensitivity to perceive the non-verbal symbol performed by the people he knows well. The use of verbal language supported by non-verbal language facilitates his perception. He finds it difficult to comprehend the lexicons having similar sound as he assumes that one lexicon represents one object which typically belongs to concrete object. In addition, the ability of the research subject in labeling objects cannot be developed easily because of his difficulty in expressing ideas through words. To pronounce the words correctly, he shows high anxiety by lowering down his speech. In selecting the lexicon he also finds it hard to use pronoun, to label homonyms and to apply both polysemy and hyponym. Accordingly, he tends to communicate only to fulfill his needs by asking things, asking the

  6. Recognition of face and non-face stimuli in autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkush, Leo; Smith-Collins, Adam P R; Fiorentini, Chiara; Skuse, David H

    2013-12-01

    The ability to remember faces is critical for the development of social competence. From childhood to adulthood, we acquire a high level of expertise in the recognition of facial images, and neural processes become dedicated to sustaining competence. Many people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poor face recognition memory; changes in hairstyle or other non-facial features in an otherwise familiar person affect their recollection skills. The observation implies that they may not use the configuration of the inner face to achieve memory competence, but bolster performance in other ways. We aimed to test this hypothesis by comparing the performance of a group of high-functioning unmedicated adolescents with ASD and a matched control group on a "surprise" face recognition memory task. We compared their memory for unfamiliar faces with their memory for images of houses. To evaluate the role that is played by peripheral cues in assisting recognition memory, we cropped both sets of pictures, retaining only the most salient central features. ASD adolescents had poorer recognition memory for faces than typical controls, but their recognition memory for houses was unimpaired. Cropping images of faces did not disproportionately influence their recall accuracy, relative to controls. House recognition skills (cropped and uncropped) were similar in both groups. In the ASD group only, performance on both sets of task was closely correlated, implying that memory for faces and other complex pictorial stimuli is achieved by domain-general (non-dedicated) cognitive mechanisms. Adolescents with ASD apparently do not use domain-specialized processing of inner facial cues to support face recognition memory.

  7. AUTISTIC CHILDREN PROTECTION SCHEME

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    Dragan LUKIC

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article sets forth the theoretical grounds which make the basis for the organizational scheme of the autistic persons social protection. This protection consists of the below listed forms of work:· Health service with the role of an early detection and participation in the creation of rehabilitation programs;· Social protection with its programs of work from the diagnostics where the defectologist makes a team together with the physician and the psychologists to the systems of rehabilitation institutions where the defectologist’s is the main responsibility.The present article underlines two facts, namely:· that an autistic person requires to be followed and every spare moment used to promote and advance the activities the doer commenced himself instead of having him carry out the programs which are beyond his internal motivations and which he finds emotionally inaccessible;· that and form of work organization with autistic persons must subordinate its administrative part to the basic professional requirements this kind of disorder (handicap sets in front of each professional.

  8. Management of children with autism spectrum disorder in the dental setting: concerns, behavioural approaches and recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This article reviews the present literature on the issues encountered while coping with children with autistic spectrum disorder from the dental perspective. The autistic patient profile and external factors affecting the oral health status of this patient population are discussed upon the existing body of evidence. Material and Methods: The MEDLINE database was searched using the terms ‘Autistic Disorder’, ‘Behaviour Control/methods’, ‘Child’, ‘Dental care for disabled’, ‘Educati...

  9. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Correlations with Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Controls.

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    Natalie Parletta

    Full Text Available There is evidence that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD have lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA levels compared with controls and conflicting evidence regarding omega-6 (n-6 PUFA levels.This study investigated whether erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were lower and n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA higher in children with ADHD, ASD and controls, and whether lower n-3 and higher n-6 PUFAs correlated with poorer scores on the Australian Twin Behaviour Rating Scale (ATBRS; ADHD symptoms and Test of Variable Attention (TOVA in children with ADHD, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS in children with ASD.Assessments and blood samples of 565 children aged 3-17 years with ADHD (n = 401, ASD (n = 85 or controls (n = 79 were analysed. One-way ANOVAs with Tukey's post-hoc analysis investigated differences in PUFA levels between groups and Pearson's correlations investigated correlations between PUFA levels and ATBRS, TOVA and CARS scores.Children with ADHD and ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA, higher AA/EPA ratio and lower n-3/n-6 than controls (P<0.001 except AA between ADHD and controls: P = 0.047. Children with ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA than children with ADHD (P<0.001 for all comparisons. ATBRS scores correlated negatively with EPA (r = -.294, P<0.001, DHA (r = -.424, P<0.001, n-3/n-6 (r = -.477, P<0.001 and positively with AA/EPA (r = .222, P <.01. TOVA scores correlated positively with DHA (r = .610, P<0.001, EPA (r = .418, P<0.001 AA (r = .199, P<0.001, and n-3/n-6 (r = .509, P<0.001 and negatively with AA/EPA (r = -.243, P<0.001. CARS scores correlated significantly with DHA (r = .328, P = 0.002, EPA (r = -.225, P = 0.038 and AA (r = .251, P = 0.021.Children with ADHD and ASD had low levels of EPA, DHA and AA and high ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and these correlated significantly with symptoms. Future research should further

  10. The effectiveness of semantic aspect of language on reading comprehension in a 4-year-old child with autistic spectrum disorder and hyperlexia

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    Atusa Rabiee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperlexia is a super ability demonstrated by a very specific group of individuals with developmental disorders. This term is used to describe the children with high ability in word recognition, but low reading comprehension skills, despite the problems in language, cognitive and social skills. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of improving the semantic aspect of language (increase in understanding and expression vocabulary on reading comprehension in an autistic child with hyperlexia.Case: The child studied in this research was an autistic child with hyperlexia. At the beginning of this study he was 3 years and 11 months old. He could read, but his reading comprehension was low. In a period of 12 therapy session, understanding and expression of 160 words was taught to child. During this period, the written form of words was eliminated. After these sessions, the reading comprehension was re-assessed for the words that child could understand and express.Conclusion: Improving semantic aspect of language (understanding and expression of vocabulary increase reading comprehension of written words.

  11. Management of children with autism spectrum disorder in the dental setting : Concerns, behavioural approaches and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, Konstantina; Reichart, Peter A.; Bornstein, Michael M.; Livas, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This article reviews the present literature on the issues encountered while coping with children with autistic spectrum disorder from the dental perspective. The autistic patient profile and external factors affecting the oral health status of this patient population are discussed upon t

  12. Movement disorders emergencies: a review

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    Renato P. Munhoz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Movement disorders (MD encompass acute and chronic diseases characterized by involuntary movements and/or loss of control or efficiency in voluntary movements. In this review, we covered situations in which the main manifestations are MDs that pose significant risks for acute morbidity and mortality. The authors examine literature data on the most relevant MD emergencies, including those related to Parkinson's disease, acute drug reactions (acute dystonia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, serotonergic syndrome and malignant hyperthermia, acute exacerbation of chronic MD (status dystonicus, hemiballism and stiff-person syndrome, highlighting clinical presentation, demographics, diagnosis and management.

  13. A review of eating disorders in males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raevuori, Anu; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Hoek, Hans W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Research in eating disorders in males has been active lately compared to the past. This review aims to provide an overview of the recently published studies of eating disorders in males. Recent findings Publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th e

  14. Life quality of children with autistic disorder and its influencing factors%自闭症儿童的生存质量及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振寰; 谢巧玲; 林青梅; 张清华; 孟秀会; 曾艳冰; 张玉琼

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the life quality status in autistic disorder children and its influencing factors.Methods Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL4.0) was used to measure the life quality of 200 children with autistic disorder and 120 healthy children.Application of Gesell Development Diagnosis Scale (1981) test was used for intelligence development.Clancy Autism Behavior Scale,Autism Behavior Checklist,and Childhood Autism Rating Scale were used to evaluate the illness degree.Results The life quality of autistic disorder group was lower than that of control group in the scores of physical functioning,emotional functioning,social functioning,mental domain and the totals cores of PedsQL,the differences were significant (all P <0.01).High-functioning autism in all aspects and the overall life quality were higher than those of low function group,the differences were statistically significant (all P <0.01).By using variance analysis,intelligence factors had an impact on the patient's life quality,the difference was statistically significant(P < 0.01).Correlation analysis results suggested that the autism condition degree was heavier,the intelligence level was lower,the life quality was worse,and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusion Children with autistic disorder suffer grievous influence in life quality.%目的 探讨自闭症患儿的生存质量状况及其影响因素,为临床干预提供理论依据.方法 采用儿童生存质量自评式测定量表(PedsQL4.0),分别对200例自闭症患儿(自闭症组)及120例健康儿童(健康对照组)进行生存质量评定,应用Gesell发展诊断量表(1981年)进行智能发育测验,应用克氏自闭症行为量表、自闭症儿童行为检查量表、儿童自闭症评定量表评定自闭症病情程度.结果 自闭症组儿童的生存质量明显低于健康对照组儿童,自闭症组儿童的生理功能、情感功能、社会功能、心理领域及PedsQL

  15. What is the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder and ASD traits in psychosis? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Debbie L; Doris, Michael; Shannon, Ciaran; Mulholland, Ciaran

    2017-01-07

    There is increasing evidence to suggest both a symptomatic overlap and a clinically significant degree of co-occurrence between Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia but the nature of such relationships remain unclear. We reviewed the literature reporting prevalence rates of Autistic-like Traits (ALTs) and ASD in populations with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder. A search of three large databases was conducted and from this seven studies met the criteria for inclusion. The point prevalence rates for ALTs ranged from 9.6% to 61%, whilst the prevalence rates for diagnosed ASD ranged from <1% to 52% across outpatient and inpatient populations. This suggests that prevalence rates of ALTs and ASD in psychosis populations are much higher than in the general population. This has important implications regarding future research, and clinical implications in terms of ensuring that patients receive the most appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento não-autísticos: síndrome de Rett, transtorno desintegrativo da infância e transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento sem outra especificação Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos T Mercadante

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A categoria "transtorno invasivos do desenvolvimento" inclui o autismo, a síndrome de Asperger, a síndrome de Rett, o transtorno desintegrativo da infância e uma categoria residual denominada transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento sem outra especificação. Nesta revisão, a síndrome de Rett e o transtorno desintegrativo da infância, que são categorias bem definidas, serão discutidas, assim como as categorias não tão bem definidas que foram incluídas no grupo transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento sem outra especificação. Diferentes propostas de categorização têm sido feitas, algumas baseadas em abordagem fenomenológica descritiva, outras baseadas em outras perspectivas teóricas, tais como a neuropsicologia. As propostas atuais são apresentadas e discutidas, seguidas por avaliações críticas sobre as vantagens e desvantagens desses conceitos.The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder, which are well-defined categories, will be discussed, as well as the not well defined categories that have been included in the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified group. Different proposals of categorization have been created, some of which based on descriptive phenomenological approach, and others based upon other theoretical perspectives, such as neuropsychology. Current proposals are presented and discussed, followed by critical appraisals on the clinical advantages and disadvantages of these concepts.

  17. [Features of nursing of the autistic children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinskiene, Sigita; Pūras, Dainius; Kajokiene, Asta; Senina, Julija

    2002-01-01

    Due to the behavioral and communication difficulties autistic children need individualized approaches providing them medical help. Aspects of nursing of autistic children were not investigated in our country. Thirty seven mothers of autistic children and 74 mothers of children without developmental disorders (control group) were interviewed orally and filled the questionnaire. The age of children was 3-12 years old. The aim of the research was to analyze peculiarities of behavior, communication and social adaptation of children with autism disorder together with troubles they face in medical services (outpatient and inpatient), and prepare practical recommendations to the pediatric and mental health nurses. It appeared that families with autistic children come across the great difficulties in various areas of the daily life. Autistic children tended to have severe behavioral and emotional difficulties while being examined by the medical staff. Adaptation difficulties in medical services were very prominent, especially at the in-patient departments (unpredictable and impulsive behavior, anxiety, decrease of appetite, sleep disturbances). Possibilities of home visit of the nurses are underestimated and could provide more useful and constructive help to the families. The data showed existing difficulties for the pediatric nurses and medical staff to establish good contact with the autistic children and their parents and lack of knowledge about the children with pervasive developmental disorders and their needs. Practical recommendations are provided.

  18. Two Autistic Savant Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, N.; Hermelin, B.

    1994-01-01

    Two young autistic children exhibited normal reading comprehension but reading speeds considerably faster than controls. The effect of randomizing word order was minimal for the older of the two autistic boys. Results indicate that efficient grapheme-phoneme conversion is primarily responsible for the fast reading of the autistic children.…

  19. Sex-Related Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum Disorders Diagnosed Late in Life: Implications for the Female Autistic Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnhardt, Fritz-Georg; Falter, Christine Michaela; Gawronski, Astrid; Pfeiffer, Kathleen; Tepest, Ralf; Franklin, Jeremy; Vogeley, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Females with high-functioning ASD are known to camouflage their autistic symptoms better than their male counterparts, making them prone to being under-ascertained and delayed in diagnostic assessment. Thus far the underlying cognitive processes that enable such successful socio-communicative adaptation are not well understood. The current results show sex-related differences in the cognitive profile of ASD individuals, which were diagnosed late in life exclusively. Higher verbal abilities were found in males (n = 69) as opposed to higher processing speed and better executive functions in females with ASD (n = 38). Since both sexes remained unidentified during childhood and adolescence, these results are suggestive for sex-distinctive cognitive strategies as an alternative to typically-developed reciprocal social behavior and social mimicry in high functioning ASD.

  20. A Comparison of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 Diagnostic Classifications in the Clinical Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaylaci, Ferhat; Miral, Suha

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare children diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) according to DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic systems. One hundred fifty children aged between 3 and 15 years diagnosed with PDD by DSM-IV-TR were included. PDD symptoms were reviewed through psychiatric assessment based on DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria. Clinical severity was determined using Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). A statistically significant decrease (19.3 %) was detected in the diagnostic ratio with DSM-5. Age and symptom severity differed significantly between those who were and were not diagnosed with PDD using DSM-5. B4 criteria in DSM-5 was most common criterion. Results indicate that individuals diagnosed with PDD by DSM-IV-TR criteria may not be diagnosed using DSM-5 criteria.

  1. Evidence for the involvement of genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in the etiology of autistic disorders on high-functioning level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermter, Anne-Kathrin; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Hesse, Philipp; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Strauch, Konstantin; Remschmidt, Helmut

    2010-03-05

    An increasing number of animal studies advert to a substantial role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in the regulation of social attachment and affiliation. Furthermore, animal studies showed anxiety and stress-reduced effects of oxytocin. First human studies confirm these findings in animal studies and implicate a crucial role of oxytocin in human social attachment behavior and in social interactions. Thus, the oxytocin system might be involved in the impairment of social interaction and attachment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The human oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) represents a plausible candidate gene for the etiology of ASD. To analyze whether genetic variants in the OXTR gene are associated with ASD we performed family-based single-marker and haplotype association analyses with 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OXTR and its 5' region in 100 families with autistic disorders on high-functioning level (Asperger syndrome (AS), high-functioning autism (HFA), and atypical autism (AA)). Single-marker and haplotype association analyses revealed nominally significant associations of one single SNP and one haplotype with autism, respectively. Furthermore, employing a "reverse phenotyping" approach, patients carrying the haplotype associated with autism showed nominally significant impairments in comparison to noncarriers of the haplotype in items of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised algorithm describing aspects of social interaction and communication. In conclusion, our results implicate that genetic variation in the OXTR gene might be relevant in the etiology of autism on high-functioning level.

  2. Early diagnosis and identification of children with autistic spectrum disorder%孤独症谱系障碍儿童的早期诊断与识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳娟; 卢云; 吴晓庆; 陈娟; 郑芹

    2012-01-01

    目的:在进行婴幼儿孤独症谱系障碍患病情况流行病学调查的同时早期诊断孤独症患儿,为早期干预做准备,并总结早期识别患儿的方法.方法:采用随机分层整群抽样方法,对连云港市8 532名0~3岁儿童进行横断面调查;应用婴幼儿孤独症筛查表(CHAT)筛查出可疑儿童,以儿童孤独症家长评定量表(ABC)、儿童期孤独症评定量表(CARS)及美国精神障碍诊断和统计手册(DSM-IV)的诊断依据进行确诊.结果:8 532名儿童中9名为孤独症阳性,阳性率为10.55/万,其中1岁内1例,1~2岁3例,2~3岁5例;男孩8例,女孩1例,男孩发病率高于女孩(P<0.05).结论:加强对孤独症谱系障碍患儿的早期识别、早期诊断,对孤独症患儿的日后康复意义重大;总结出的早期识别孤独症谱系障碍儿童方法,为婴幼儿父母及医务工作者提供早期筛查孤独症患儿的依据.%Objective: To diagnose the children with autism at early stage at the same time of conducting epidemiological investigation of prevalence of infantile autistic spectrum disorder, make preparations for early intervention, and summarize the methods to identify the children with autism early. Methods: A random stratified cluster sampling method was used to carry out cross - section survey among 8 532 children aged 0-3 years old; CHAT was used to screen out suspected children, then they were diagnosed definitely according to the diagnostic criteria of ABC, CARS, and DSM - IV. Results: Among 8 532 children, 9 children were found with autism, the positive rate was 10. 55/ten thousand, including one child within one year, three children aged 1-2 years old, and five children aged 2-3 years old; eight boys and one girl were included, the incidence of autism in boys was statistically significantly higher than that in girls ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion ; Enhancing early identification and diagnosis of children with autistic spectrum disorder has important

  3. Melatonin in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Daniel A.; Frye, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate melatonin-related findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorders, not otherwise specified. Method: Comprehensive searches were conducted in the PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and ERIC…

  4. Dissociative identity disorder: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, M M

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature into dissociative identity disorder. This disorder, previously known as multiple personality disorder, is increasingly diagnosed, in part because of more focused diagnostic tools, but also because people are accessing services to assist with the longterm problems of early child abuse and neglect. Dissociative identity disorder is examined in the literature according to a variety of discourses, each of which suggest different ways of conceptualizing problems and therapeutic approaches. These discourses reviewed include: psychiatry, psychology, corporeality, feminism, social constructivism, anthropology, and postmodernism. The paper concludes with an examination of the nursing literature and suggests opportunities for nursing research into this complex mental health problem.

  5. Involvement of the PRKCB1 gene in autistic disorder: significant genetic association and reduced neocortical gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintas, C; Sacco, R; Garbett, K; Mirnics, K; Militerni, R; Bravaccio, C; Curatolo, P; Manzi, B; Schneider, C; Melmed, R; Elia, M; Pascucci, T; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Reichelt, K-L; Persico, A M

    2009-07-01

    Protein kinase C enzymes play an important role in signal transduction, regulation of gene expression and control of cell division and differentiation. The fsI and betaII isoenzymes result from the alternative splicing of the PKCbeta gene (PRKCB1), previously found to be associated with autism. We performed a family-based association study in 229 simplex and 5 multiplex families, and a postmortem study of PRKCB1 gene expression in temporocortical gray matter (BA41/42) of 11 autistic patients and controls. PRKCB1 gene haplotypes are significantly associated with autism (Pautism-associated alleles displayed mRNA levels comparable to those of controls. Whole genome expression analysis unveiled a partial disruption in the coordinated expression of PKCbeta-driven genes, including several cytokines. These results confirm the association between autism and PRKCB1 gene variants, point toward PKCbeta roles in altered epithelial permeability, demonstrate a significant downregulation of brain PRKCB1 gene expression in autism and suggest that it could represent a compensatory adjustment aimed at limiting an ongoing dysreactive immune process. Altogether, these data underscore potential PKCbeta roles in autism pathogenesis and spur interest in the identification and functional characterization of PRKCB1 gene variants conferring autism vulnerability.

  6. A review of gambling disorder and substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rash CJ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carla J Rash,1 Jeremiah Weinstock,2 Ryan Van Patten2 1Calhoun Cardiology Center – Behavioral Health, UConn Health, Farmington, CT, USA; 2Department of Psychology, Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, gambling disorder was recategorized from the “Impulse Control Disorder” section to the newly expanded “Substance-related and Addictive Disorders” section. With this move, gambling disorder has become the first recognized nonsubstance behavioral addiction, implying many shared features between gambling disorder and substance use disorders. This review examines these similarities, as well as differences, between gambling and substance-related disorders. Diagnostic criteria, comorbidity, genetic and physiological underpinnings, and treatment approaches are discussed. Keywords: pathological gambling, problem gambling, behavioral addiction, transdiagnostic factors, addiction syndrome 

  7. Parents' perspectives on care of children with autistic spectrum disorder in South Asia - Views from Pakistan and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Ayesha; Vajaratkar, Vivek; Divan, Gauri; Hamdani, Syed Usman; Leadbitter, Kathy; Taylor, Carol; Aldred, Catherine; Tariq, Ahmareen; Tariq, Mahjabeen; Cardoza, Percy; Green, Jonathan; Patel, Vikram; Rahman, Atif

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects about 1.4% of the population in South Asia but very few have access to any form of health care service. The objective of this study was to explore the beliefs and practices related to the care of children with ASD to inform strategies for intervention. In Pakistan, primary data were collected through in-depth interviews of parents (N = 15), while in India a narrative review of existing studies was conducted. The results show that the burden of care is almost entirely on the mother, leading to high levels of stress. Poor awareness of the condition in both family members and front-line health-providers leads to delay in recognition and appropriate management. There is considerable stigma and discrimination affecting children with autism and their families. Specialist services are rare, concentrated in urban areas, and inaccessible to the majority. Strategies for intervention should include building community and family support networks to provide respite to the main carer. In the absence of specialists, community members such as community health workers, traditional practitioners and even motivated family members could be trained in recognizing and providing evidence-based interventions. Such task-shifting strategies should be accompanied by campaigns to raise awareness so greater inclusivity can be achieved.

  8. Separating 'emotion' from 'the science': Exploring the perceived value of information for parents and families of children with autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michelle; Karim, Khalid; Lester, Jessica Nina

    2015-07-01

    Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a life-long condition. In recent years, there has been a rise in the number of children diagnosed with ASD and a greater recognition that parents need clear, accessible information communicated through different modalities. The objective of this research was to explore the views of stakeholders regarding their information needs, current information modalities and the perceived barriers and complexities of information. Three focus groups with the same stakeholders were conducted with a range of individuals from a variety of backgrounds, all of whom had a personal and/or professional interest in ASD. The same stakeholders were included in all three groups to promote depth of analysis and to facilitate rapport. All focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Three main issues were identified, including (1) the value of particular information sources; (2) the vulnerability of families and (3) the need for validated evidence. It was concluded, therefore, that information should be available through a multitude of modalities, accounting for the educational ability and economic status of families. The information should also be communicated in an accessible style, should be presented as trustworthy and clinical professionals may play a key role in translating information. Such information also needs to account for practical problems inherent to having a child with ASD, including time constraints and fatigue.

  9. Auditory hypersensitivity in children and teenagers with autistic spectrum disorder Hipersensibilidade auditiva em crianças e adolescentes com transtorno do espectro autista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erissandra Gomes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify if the clinical behavior of auditory hypersensitivity, reported in interviews with parents/caregivers and therapists/teachers of 46 children and teenagers suffering from autistic spectrum disorder, correspond to audiological findings. METHOD: The clinical diagnosis for auditory hypersensitivity was investigated by means of an interview. Subsequently, a test of the acoustic stapedial reflex was conducted, and responses to intense acoustic stimulus in open field were observed. RESULTS: Of the 46 subjects, 11 (23.9% were clinically diagnosed as oversensitive to sound and only 2 showed discomfort when exposed to intense acoustic stimulus in open field. There was no statistically significant difference for the test of the ipsilateral acoustic stapedial reflex between the groups. CONCLUSION: Behavioral manifestations to sounds are not associated to hypersensitivity of the auditory pathways, but instead these are associated to difficulties in the upper processing, involving systems that usually are impaired in autistic spectrum patients, such as the limbic system.OBJETIVO: Verificar se o comportamento clínico de hipersensibilidade auditiva, relatado nas entrevistas com os pais/cuidadores e terapeutas/professores de crianças e adolescentes com transtorno do espectro autista, corresponde aos achados audiológicos. MÉTODO: O diagnóstico clínico para a hipersensibilidade auditiva foi investigado a partir do protocolo de entrevista. Após, foi utilizada a pesquisa do reflexo acústico estapédico e observadas as reações ao estímulo sonoro intenso em campo aberto. RESULTADOS: Dos 46 sujeitos, 11 (23,9% foram diagnosticados clinicamente como hipersensíveis ao som, e somente 2 demonstraram desconforto quando expostos ao estímulo sonoro intenso em campo aberto. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante para a pesquisa do reflexo acústico estapédico ipsilateral entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: As manifesta

  10. Practitioner Review: Early Adversity and Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric; Rogers, Jody Warner

    2005-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of genetic influences, on developmental disorders such as autism spectrum, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities, has increased the opportunities for understanding the influences of the early environment. Methods: This paper provides a selective, narrative review for clinicians of the effects of…

  11. A case series of children with apparent mercury toxic encephalopathies manifesting with clinical symptoms of regressive autistic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, David A; Geier, Mark R

    2007-05-15

    Impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, and stereotypic abnormal movement patterns characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). It is clear that while genetic factors are important to the pathogenesis of ASDs, mercury exposure can induce immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions similar to traits defining or associated with ASDs. The Institutional Review Board of the Institute for Chronic Illnesses (Office for Human Research Protections, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, IRB number IRB00005375) approved the present study. A case series of nine patients who presented to the Genetic Centers of America for a genetic/developmental evaluation are discussed. Eight of nine patients (one patient was found to have an ASD due to Rett's syndrome) (a) had regressive ASDs; (b) had elevated levels of androgens; (c) excreted significant amounts of mercury post chelation challenge; (d) had biochemical evidence of decreased function in their glutathione pathways; (e) had no known significant mercury exposure except from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho(D)-immune globulin preparations; and (f) had alternate causes for their regressive ASDs ruled out. There was a significant dose-response relationship between the severity of the regressive ASDs observed and the total mercury dose children received from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho (D)-immune globulin preparations. Based upon differential diagnoses, 8 of 9 patients examined were exposed to significant mercury from Thimerosal-containing biologic/vaccine preparations during their fetal/infant developmental periods, and subsequently, between 12 and 24 mo of age, these previously normally developing children suffered mercury toxic encephalopathies that manifested with clinical symptoms consistent with regressive ASDs. Evidence for mercury intoxication should be considered in the differential diagnosis as contributing to some regressive ASDs.

  12. Media image eating disorders – Literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This review aims to critically analyse the literature which considers the relationship between the media’s portrayal of the ‘ideal body image’ and adolescent eating disorders. Currently within Western society, the media endorses a thin-ideal for females and a lean, muscular-ideal for males. A critical review was chosen to deconstruct the evident debate within the literature as to whether the media is solely to blame for eating disorder development or whether other risk fact...

  13. Does WISC-IV Underestimate the Intelligence of Autistic Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Courchesne, Valérie; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is widely used to estimate autistic intelligence (Joseph in The neuropsychology of autism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Goldstein et al. in Assessment of autism spectrum disorders. Guilford Press, New York, 2008; Mottron in J Autism Dev Disord 34(1):19-27, 2004). However, previous studies suggest that while WISC-III and Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) provide similar estimates of non-autistic intelligence, autistic children perform significantly better on RPM (Dawson et al. in Psychol Sci 18(8):657-662, doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01954.x , 2007). The latest WISC version introduces substantial changes in subtests and index scores; thus, we asked whether WISC-IV still underestimates autistic intelligence. Twenty-five autistic and 22 typical children completed WISC-IV and RPM. Autistic children's RPM scores were significantly higher than their WISC-IV FSIQ, but there was no significant difference in typical children. Further, autistic children showed a distinctively uneven WISC-IV index profile, with a "peak" in the new Perceptual Reasoning Index. In spite of major changes, WISC-IV FSIQ continues to underestimate autistic intelligence.

  14. Assessing the influence of researcher-partner involvement on the process and outcomes of participatory research in autism spectrum disorder and neurodevelopmental disorders: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2014-10-01

    Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify and characterize published participatory research partnerships between researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders and examine the influence of participatory research partnerships on the research process and reported study outcomes. A search of databases and review of gray literature identified seven studies that described participatory research partnerships between academic researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders. A comparative analysis of the studies revealed two key themes: (1) variations in the participatory research design and (2) limitations during the reporting of the depth of the partner's involvement. Both themes potentially limit the application and generalizability of the findings. The results of the review are discussed in relation to the use of evaluative frameworks for such participatory research studies to determine the potential benefits of participatory research partnerships within the neurodevelopmental and autism spectrum disorder populations.

  15. Cognitive characteristics of parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, C; Callias, M; Rutter, M

    1977-09-01

    The parents of 15 autistic boys with a nonverbal IQ of at least 80 were compared with a matched group of parents of normal boys on the Goldstein-Scheerer Object Sorting Test and the Bannister-Fransella Grid Test of Thought Disorder. It was necessary to control for social class effects as abnormal scores on the thought disorder tests were more frequent in parents of manual social class. It was found that (a) there was a lack of agreement between the two tests of thought disorder, (b) the parents of autistic children showed thought disorder scores closely comparable to those of the parents of normals, and (c) there was no consistent association between thought disorder and anxiety. The methodological and substantive implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the results of previous investigations.

  16. Physiological responses to social and nonsocial stimuli in neurotypical adults with high and low levels of autistic traits: implications for understanding nonsocial drive in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Clarence J; Ashwin, Chris; Brosnan, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have suggested that the two primary cognitive features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a drive toward nonsocial processing and a reduced drive toward social processing, may be unrelated to each other in the neurotypical (NT) population and may therefore require separate explanations. Drive toward types of processing may be related to physiological arousal to categories of stimuli, such as social (e.g., faces) or nonsocial (e.g., trains). This study investigated how autistic traits in an NT population might relate to differences in physiological responses to nonsocial compared with social stimuli. NT participants were recruited to examine these differences in those with high vs. low degrees of ASD traits. Forty-six participants (21 male, 25 female) completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) to measure ASD traits before viewing a series of 24 images while skin conductance response (SCR) was recorded. Images included six nonsocial, six social, six face-like cartoons, and six nonsocial (relating to participants' personal interests). Analysis revealed that those with a higher AQ had significantly greater SCR arousal to nonsocial stimuli than those with a low AQ, and the higher the AQ, the greater the difference between SCR arousal to nonsocial and social stimuli. This is the first study to identify the relationship between AQ and physiological response to nonsocial stimuli, and a relationship between physiological response to both social and nonsocial stimuli, suggesting that physiological response may underlie the atypical drive toward nonsocial processing seen in ASD, and that at the physiological level at least the social and nonsocial in ASD may be related to one another.

  17. CONCEPTOS GENERALES SOBRE ABA EN NIÑOS CON TRASTORNO DEL ESPECTRO AUTISTA General concepts concerning applied behaviour analysis (ABA in children suffering autistic spectrum disorders (ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Elizabeth Piñeros-Ortiz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos del espectro autista (TEA son entidades que generan discapacidad. Diversas intervenciones psicofarmacológicas y psicosociales modulan algunas de las alteraciones comportamentales asociadas y mejoran la calidad de vida de las personas afectadas y de sus cuidadores. La terapia ABA es una de las intervenciones psicosociales más conocidas y utilizada en población con TEA. Mediante de la formulación de preguntas clave y sus respuestas, este artículo realiza una breve descripción de los aspectos históricos, las principales características y los fundamentos teóricos del ABA. Se discuten los resultados de diversos estudios que señalan las limitaciones metodológicas de las investigaciones sobre la efectividad de esta terapia y sus implicaciones para la práctica clínica.Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD cause disability. Psychopharmacological and psychosocial interventions modulate some of the associated behavioural alterations and improve the quality of life for those affected and the people caring for them. Applied behaviour analysis (ABA therapy is one of the most well-known psychosocial interventions and is used with populations suffering ASD. This article gives a brief description of the historical aspects, the main characteristics and theoretical foundations regarding applied behaviour analysis (ABA by formulating key questions and their (expected responses. The results of some pertinent studies are discussed, pointing out the methodological limitations of research into the effectiveness of this therapy and its implications for clinical practice.

  18. A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of "Ginkgo Biloba" Added to Risperidone in Patients with Autistic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Elmira; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rezazadeh, Shams-Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Rezaei, Farzin; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    "Ginkgo biloba" has been reported to affect the neurotransmitter system and to have antioxidant properties that could impact the pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Based on these studies, we decided to assess the effectiveness of "Ginkgo biloba" extract (Ginko T.D., Tolidaru, Iran) as an adjunctive agent to risperidone in the treatment of…

  19. Autistic Traits, ADHD Symptoms, Neurological Soft Signs and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouilenko, Irina; Pagani, Marco; Stone-Elander, Sharon; Odh, Richard; Brolin, Fredrik; Hatherly, Robert; Jacobsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig A.; Bejerot, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to co-occurring symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity, neurological soft signs and motor problems have not yet been disclosed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study thirteen adults with ASD and ten matched neurotypical controls underwent PET. The scores of rating…

  20. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  1. Brief Report: Pilot Single-Blind Placebo Lead-in Study of Acamprosate in Youth with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Craig A.; Wink, Logan K.; Early, Maureen C.; Stiegelmeyer, Elizabeth; Mathieu-Frasier, Lauren; Patrick, Vanessa; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: An excitatory/inhibitory (E:I) imbalance marked by enhanced glutamate and deficient gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission may contribute to the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Objectives: We report on the first single-blind placebo lead-in trial of acamprosate, a drug with putative mechanisms restoring E:I…

  2. Sleep Disorders, Epilepsy, and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe the clinical data linking autism with sleep and epilepsy and to discuss the impact of treating sleep disorders in children with autism either with or without coexisting epileptic seizures. Studies are presented to support the view that sleep is abnormal in individuals with autistic spectrum…

  3. A review on eating disorders and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Kandel, I; Merrick, J

    2007-06-01

    Eating disorders in adolescence are a public health concern with both personal costs and a financial burden for the community health services. This paper is a review of incidence and gender differences of eating disorders; comorbid psychopathology, including substance abuse, mood disorders, anxiety disorders and personality disorders; developmental and intellectual factors; family, socio-cultural functioning and birth order; self-injury and suicidal behaviour with health outcome and therapy success rate. We have also asked several questions from our clinical experience and tried to answer them with our clinical knowledge and based on literature review. Overall, there is an indication that therapy success is significantly correlated with (low) manifestation, specifically for social problems and aggressivity. Due to the complexity of factors involved in the manifestation of eating disorders, the inclusion of cognitive-behavioural therapy as well as family-oriented therapeutic concepts coupled with medical treatment would appear to offer an intervention inventory, which would be most effective in offering adolescents optimal treatment programmes. The implications of our review is discussed in terms of psychotherapeutic treatment plans for adolescents in clinical care.

  4. Screening of 50 cypriot patients with autism spectrum disorders or autistic features using 400K custom array-CGH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousoulidou, Ludmila; Moutafi, Maria; Nicolaides, Paola; Hadjiloizou, Stavros; Christofi, Christos; Paradesiotou, Anna; Anastasiadou, Violetta; Sismani, Carolina; Patsalis, Philippos C

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a distinct entity of neurodevelopmental disorders with a strong genetic component. Despite the identification of several candidate genes and causative genomic copy number variations (CNVs), the majority of ASD cases still remain unresolved. We have applied microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) using Agilent 400K custom array in the first Cyprus population screening for identification of ASD-associated CNVs. A cohort of 50 ASD patients (G1), their parents (G2), 50 ethnically matched normal controls (G3), and 80 normal individuals having children with various developmental and neurological conditions (G4) were tested. As a result, 14 patients were found to carry 20 potentially causative aberrations, two of which were de novo. Comparison of the four population groups revealed an increased rate of rare disease-associated variants in normal parents of children with autism. The above data provided additional evidence, supporting the complexity of ASD aetiology in comparison to other developmental disorders involving cognitive impairment. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the rationale of a more targeted approach combining accurate clinical description with high-resolution population-oriented genomic screening for defining the role of CNVs in autism and identifying meaningful associations on the molecular level.

  5. Screening of 50 Cypriot Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Autistic Features Using 400K Custom Array-CGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Kousoulidou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs comprise a distinct entity of neurodevelopmental disorders with a strong genetic component. Despite the identification of several candidate genes and causative genomic copy number variations (CNVs, the majority of ASD cases still remain unresolved. We have applied microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH using Agilent 400K custom array in the first Cyprus population screening for identification of ASD-associated CNVs. A cohort of 50 ASD patients (G1, their parents (G2, 50 ethnically matched normal controls (G3, and 80 normal individuals having children with various developmental and neurological conditions (G4 were tested. As a result, 14 patients were found to carry 20 potentially causative aberrations, two of which were de novo. Comparison of the four population groups revealed an increased rate of rare disease-associated variants in normal parents of children with autism. The above data provided additional evidence, supporting the complexity of ASD aetiology in comparison to other developmental disorders involving cognitive impairment. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the rationale of a more targeted approach combining accurate clinical description with high-resolution population-oriented genomic screening for defining the role of CNVs in autism and identifying meaningful associations on the molecular level.

  6. Ophthalmic Manifestations of Vitamin A and D Deficiency in Two Autistic Teenagers: Case Reports and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Duignan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the cases of 2 autistic children with ophthalmic and systemic manifestations of vitamin A deficiency due to food faddism. Although vitamin A deficiency is common in the developing world, reports in developed societies are rare. Our patients presented over a 1-year period. The patients were 14 and 13 years old at the time of presentation and were both found to have marked features of vitamin A deficiency related to unusual dietary habits. Anterior segment signs of xerophthalmia were present in both patients. In addition, patient 1 showed evidence of a rod-predominant retinopathy, which resolved with vitamin A supplementation. Due to its rare occurrence, hypovitaminosis A must be highlighted and anticipated in this cohort.

  7. Ophthalmic manifestations of vitamin A and D deficiency in two autistic teenagers: case reports and a review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duignan, Emma

    2015-01-01

    We describe the cases of 2 autistic children with ophthalmic and systemic manifestations of vitamin A deficiency due to food faddism. Although vitamin A deficiency is common in the developing world, reports in developed societies are rare. Our patients presented over a 1-year period. The patients were 14 and 13 years old at the time of presentation and were both found to have marked features of vitamin A deficiency related to unusual dietary habits. Anterior segment signs of xerophthalmia were present in both patients. In addition, patient 1 showed evidence of a rod-predominant retinopathy, which resolved with vitamin A supplementation. Due to its rare occurrence, hypovitaminosis A must be highlighted and anticipated in this cohort.

  8. OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathan Dilnawaz N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD is a type of anxiety disorder which can vary from being very mild to being very severe. From feeling compelled to wash your hands, to keep fixating your thoughts on one particular thing, OCD can take a variety of forms. While OCD patients may know that logically there is no need for their behavior, they still feel a compulsion keep repeating their obsessive actions. As the OCD condition worsens, a person’s anxiety and distress levels keep rising. If treatment is not sought by victims, soon the problem begins to take up more and more time of their regular day until it seems as if the problem has completely taken over their life and there is no time to do anything other than washing, thinking, or continuing with any other obsessive behavior. OCD’s effects are far and wide as the person’s ability to work, their relationships with friends and family, and their overall living standards all take a nosedive. Among the treatment options available, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT has been found to be most effective.CBT focuses in on the problem itself and is the most goal-oriented of all therapy options. Further, it is an interactive approach in the sense that after giving a full understanding of what the problem is, the patient is taught the necessary skills to comprehend and overcome his problem. If, nonetheless, medications are prescribed, they usually comprise of antidepressants, however, these medications have been found to be temporary solutions in the sense that when they are stopped OCD tends to resurface quite quickly.

  9. Asperger’s syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders? [Miejsce zespołu Aspergera w grupie całościowych zaburzeń rozwoju: kontinuum czy spektrum zaburzeń autystycznych?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term „autistic spectrum disorders” was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger’s Syndrome (AS remains the most controversial diagnosis in terms of its place within autism spectrum disorders. AS if often described as an equivalent of High Functioning Autism (HFA or as a separate spectrum-related disorder with unique diagnostic criteria. Another important issue is the relationship between AS and speech disorders. Although it is relatively easy to draw a line between children with classical autism and speech disorders, the clear cut frontiers between them still remain to be found. The main distinguishing feature is the lack of stereotypic interests and unimpaired social interaction observed in children with speech disorders, such as semantic-pragmatic disorder.

  10. Sleep and borderline personality disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizi, Sina

    2013-12-01

    Sleep problems are very common among psychiatric patients. Borderline personality disorder, as a common and severe mental disorder, is associated with different types of sleep disturbances, such as disturbances of sleep continuity, altered REM sleep regulation and nightmares. These disturbances are the result of interaction of the personality traits, concomitant and comorbid diseases and environmental factors. Despite the high prevalence of sleep related disorders in BPD patients, this aspect of BPD is still neglected in clinical and research settings. To date there has been little agreement on sleep characteristics of BPD among different studies, and presence of some uncontrolled confounding factors, make interpretation of the results difficult. However, it seems that appropriate diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders in BPD patients might lead to better outcome. This article aimed to review the current literature of sleep studies in BPD. Some recommendations and suggestions were made for future researches in this field.

  11. REVIEW ON TUBERCULOSIS AND MENTAL DISORDERS COMMON

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    Gleide Santos de Araújo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite having vaccine and treatment , TB remains a public health problem . Publications have described high proportion of TB among people with anxiety , depression and mental disorders . This study aimed to identify publications on the association between common mental disorders and tuberculosis and describe the state of the art . This is a literature review with keywords tuberculosis,common mental disorders , anxiety and depression , we excluded studies of extra- pulmonary tuberculosis and animals. 09 articles, only on a specific common mental disorders , comparing the proportion of these in tuberculosis cases ( 46.7 % and tuberculosis infected by the human immunodeficiency virus ( 63.7 % , there are few studies concerning the topic were elected , the most specific problems of anxiety and depression , are from countries where the incidence of tuberculosis is high, ethodological strategies have low analytical power and do not investigate the causal mechanisms underlying the relationship between mental health and tuberculosis.

  12. A Review of Co-Morbid Disorders of Asperger's Disorder and the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stephanie; Curwen, Tracey; Ryan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    This review includes empirical peer-reviewed articles which support the examination of Asperger's Disorder and co-morbid disorders, as well as an analysis of how adolescents with Asperger's Disorder transition to adulthood. Although the focus was on Asperger's Disorder, some studies include Autism Spectrum Disorder samples. It was found that…

  13. A Comparison of PECS and iPad to Teach Requesting to Pre-schoolers with Autistic Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, May M; Vance, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have compared the efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and iPads used as speech generating devices (SGDs), and none have targeted preschoolers. This study compares the relative efficacy of PECS and an iPad/SGD with three preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder and limited functional speech who lived in Malta. The study utilized an adapted alternating treatment design embedded in a multiple baseline design, with requesting of reinforcers as the dependent variable. Visual analysis of the results indicated that all participants required more prompted trials and sessions for the iPad/SGD condition. All participants learned a three step navigational sequence on the iPad. Participant preference probes were inconclusive and were not linked to speed of acquisition of requesting skills. Results suggest that both PECS and an iPad could be appropriate for teaching requesting skills to beginning communicators.

  14. Asperger's Disorder Will Be Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Luke Y.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on identifying up-to-date number of publications that compared DSM-IV/ICD-10 Asperger's disorder (AspD) to Autistic Disorder/High-functioning Autism (AD/HFA). One hundred and twenty-eight publications were identified through an extensive search of major electronic databases and journals. Based on more than 90 clinical…

  15. High-Dose Pyridoxine and Magnesium Administration in Children with Autistic Disorder: An Absence of Salutary Effects in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, Robert L.; Maxwell, Kathleen; Scotese-Wojtila, Lynette; Huang, Jie; Yamashita, Toyoko; Wiznitzer, Max

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of high doses of pyridoxine and magnesium in a 10-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial with 10 patients (mean age 6 years) having autism concluded that the high doses used were ineffective in ameliorating autistic behaviors. (DB)

  16. Associations between indoor environmental factors and parental-reported autistic spectrum disorders in children 6-8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Malin; Weiss, Bernard; Janson, Staffan; Sundell, Jan; Bornehag, Carl-Gustav

    2009-09-01

    Potential contributions of environmental chemicals and conditions to the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders are the subject of considerable current research and speculation. The present paper describes the results of a study undertaken as part of a larger project devoted to the connection between properties of the indoor environment and asthma and allergy in young Swedish children. The larger project, The Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) Study, began in the year 2000 with a questionnaire distributed to parents of all children 1-6 years of age in one Swedish county (DBH-I). A second, follow-up questionnaire (DBH-III) was distributed in 2005. The original survey collected information about the child, the family situation, practices such as smoking, allergic symptoms, type of residence, moisture-related problems, and type of flooring material, which included polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The 2005 survey, based on the same children, now 6-8 years of age, also asked if, during the intervening period, the child had been diagnosed with Autism, Asperger's syndrome, or Tourette's syndrome. From a total of 4779 eligible children, 72 (60 boys, 12 girls) were identified with parentally reported autism spectrum disorder. A random sample of 10 such families confirmed that the diagnoses had been made by medical professionals, in accordance with the Swedish system for monitoring children's health. An analysis of the associations between indoor environmental variables in 2000 as well as other background factors and the ASD diagnosis indicated five statistically significant variables: (1) maternal smoking; (2) male sex; (3) economic problems in the family; (4) condensation on windows, a proxy for low ventilation rate in the home; (5) PVC flooring, especially in the parents' bedroom. In addition, airway symptoms of wheezing and physician-diagnosed asthma in the baseline investigation (2000) were associated with ASD 5 years later. Results from the second phase of the DBH

  17. Global methylation profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines reveals epigenetic contributions to autism spectrum disorders and a novel autism candidate gene, RORA, whose protein product is reduced in autistic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, AnhThu; Rauch, Tibor A; Pfeifer, Gerd P; Hu, Valerie W

    2010-08-01

    Autism is currently considered a multigene disorder with epigenetic influences. To investigate the contribution of DNA methylation to autism spectrum disorders, we have recently completed large-scale methylation profiling by CpG island microarray analysis of lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from monozygotic twins discordant for diagnosis of autism and their nonautistic siblings. Methylation profiling revealed many candidate genes differentially methylated between discordant MZ twins as well as between both twins and nonautistic siblings. Bioinformatics analysis of the differentially methylated genes demonstrated enrichment for high-level functions including gene transcription, nervous system development, cell death/survival, and other biological processes implicated in autism. The methylation status of 2 of these candidate genes, BCL-2 and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA), was further confirmed by bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific PCR, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses of tissue arrays containing slices of the cerebellum and frontal cortex of autistic and age- and sex-matched control subjects revealed decreased expression of RORA and BCL-2 proteins in the autistic brain. Our data thus confirm the role of epigenetic regulation of gene expression via differential DNA methylation in idiopathic autism, and furthermore link molecular changes in a peripheral cell model with brain pathobiology in autism.

  18. sA Comparison of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 Diagnostic Classifications in the Clinical Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaylaci, Ferhat; Miral, Suha

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare children diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) according to DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic systems. One hundred fifty children aged between 3 and 15 years diagnosed with PDD by DSM-IV-TR were included. PDD symptoms were reviewed through psychiatric assessment based on DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria.…

  19. Neurotoxic syndrome induced by clomipramine plus risperidone in a patient with autistic spectrum disorder: serotonin or neuroleptic malignant syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Kalliopi N; Gournellis, Rossetos; Michopoulos, Ioannis; Dervenoulas, Georgios; Christodoulou, Christos; Douzenis, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, there are no case studies of serotonin syndrome (SS) in patients with autism spectrum disorder. We report the case of a 33-year-old male who presented SS under the combined use of clomipramine and risperidone. More specifically, within 2 days after clomipramine (10 mg/BID-two times a day) was added to risperidone (4 mg/OD-once a day), mirtazapine 45 mg/OD and alprazolam (0,5 mg/TID-three times a day) he began to present mental, neurological and autonomic symptoms. All his psychopathological manifestations and laboratory findings normalized after the above-mentioned drugs' discontinuation, and the administration of supportive medical care and lorazepam 2,5 mg/TID. The diagnosis of serotonin syndrome was challenging due to the relatively low dose of clomipramine, an increase of risperidone which had taken place before clomipramine administration and clinical symptoms which could be attributed to both serotonin and neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

  20. The Ratio of Second to Fourth Digit Length (2D:4D in Children with Autistic Disorder

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    Javad Baharara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Emerging hypotheses suggest a causal role for prenatal androgen exposure in some cases of Autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The ratios of the lengths of the bones of the 2nd to the 4th digits (2D:4D are purported to be markers for prenatal androgen exposure and to be established early in gestation. Ratio of second and fourth digits (2D:4D  is usually used as a proxy for prenatal testosterone. Methods and Materials In this study, 2D:4D in 48 children with ASD and in 41  control child was measured. Two groups were matched with the gender and age. Both groups were selected by convenience sampling method. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 19.0 software, considering as significant less than .05 (p < .05. Results: Results showed that the average ratio of 2D:4D in ASD children were lower than the ratio in control children (P

  1. In Vivo Detection of Reduced Purkinje Cell Fibers with Diffusion MRI Tractography in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Won eJeong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Postmortem neuropathology studies report reduced number and size of Purkinje cells (PC in a majority of cerebellum specimens from persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. In this study using diffusion weighted MRI, we investigated whether structural changes related to decreased number and size of PC could be detected in vivo by measuring streamlines connecting the posterior-lateral region of the cerebellar cortex to the dentate nucleus using an independent component analysis with a ball and stick model (ICA+BSM. The tractography was performed in 14 typically developing children (TD and 15 children with ASD, using a cerebellar cortex seed region (crus I and II and two sorting regions, the dorsal dentate nucleus (DDN and the ventral dentate nucleus (VDN. Decreased numbers of streamlines were found in the children with ASD in the pathway connecting cerebellar cortex to right VDN (p-value = 0.015. Reduced fractional anisotropy values were observed in pathways connecting the cerebellar cortex to the right DDN (p-value=0.008, the right VDN (p-value=0.010 and left VDN (p-value=0.020 in children with ASD compared to the TD group. In an analysis of single subjects, reduced FA in the pathway connecting cerebellar cortex to the right VDN was found in 73% of the children in the ASD group using a threshold of 3 standards errors of the TD group. The detection of diffusion changes in cerebellum may provide an in vivo biomarker of Purkinje cell pathology in children with ASD.

  2. Withdrawal Study of Memantine in Pediatric Patients With Autism, Asperger's Disorder, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Previously Treated With Memantine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Autism; Autistic Disorder; Asperger's Disorder; Asperger's; Pediatric Autism; Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS); Pervasive Child Development Disorder

  3. Movement disorders in women: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Marcie L; Stevens-Haas, Claire; Havrilla, Emilyrose; Devi, Tanvi; Kurlan, Roger

    2014-02-01

    The field of women's health developed based on the recognition that there are important sex-based differences regarding several aspects of medical illnesses. We performed a literature review to obtain information about differences between women and men for neurological movement disorders. We identified important differences in prevalence, genetics, clinical expression, course, and treatment responses. In addition, we found that female life events, including menstruation, pregnancy, breast feeding, menopause, and medications prescribed to women (such as oral contraceptives and hormone-replacement therapy), have significant implications for women with movement disorders. Understanding this biological sex-specific information can help improve the quality and individualization of care for women with movement disorders and may provide insights into neurobiological mechanisms.

  4. Narcissistic personality disorder: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa

    2010-02-01

    The diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder in the DSM-IV has been criticized foremost for its limitations in capturing the range and complexity of narcissistic pathology. The attention to the narcissistic individual's external, symptomatic, or social interpersonal patterns--at the expense of his or her internal complexity and individual suffering--has also added to the diagnosis' low clinical utility and limited guidance for treatment. Recent studies and reviews have pointed to the need for change in the diagnostic approach to and formulation of narcissism. This review focuses specifically on studies of features that add to the identification, understanding, and treatment of patients with pathological narcissistic functioning and narcissistic personality disorder. They have been integrated into a regulatory model that includes the functions and fluctuations of internal control, self-esteem, perfectionism with accompanying self-criticism, shame, and empathic ability and functioning.

  5. The Embodied Nature of Autistic Learning: Implications for Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jespersen Ejgil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD and learning difficulties are difficult to separate in clinic manifestations and diagnoses. By taking learning as being-in-the-world, this article considers the embodied nature of autistic learning and urges its importance for understanding the phenomenological core of ASD. We begin by arguing that three mainstream contemporary ASD theories are inherently limited in offering an adequate account of autistic learning due to the disembodied ontology inscribed within them. Then, we provide an understanding of learning guided by the subjective dynamics of experience. Instead of having a disembodied and individualistic point of view, we suggest that autistic learning has an embodied nature. The “inappropriate” or “abnormal” affections and behaviors in the autistic experience of learning may actually be inherently meaningful for individuals with ASD. They strive to make sense of some basic disturbances and re-establish some form of coherence with the world, though this may only be possible in the form of delusions or autistic withdrawals. Finally, we explore the relationship between autistic learning and physical education and suggest in particular how spontaneous imitation can boost the development of children with ASD. We conclude that the application of implicit learning strategies in playful settings and the reduction of explicit strategies based upon intellectual reasoning rather than bodily reciprocity should be encouraged in the process of autistic learning.

  6. A biopsychological review of gambling disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Gabriel C

    2017-01-01

    The present review is an overview of previous experimental work on biopsychological aspects of gambling disorder. It includes the topics 1) gambling disorder from the neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG) perspective, 2) cognitive, executive functioning, and neuropsychological aspects of gambling disorder, and 3) rodent models of gambling disorder. Penalties and losses in gambling can differ in terms of brain activity. Also, specific patterns of brain activity, brain anatomical traits, EEG responses, and cognitive and executive performance can discriminate pathological gamblers from nonpathological gamblers. Also, pathological gamblers can display dysfunction in such brain areas as the insula, frontal lobe, and orbitofrontal cortex. Pathological gambling is a heterogeneous disorder that can vary depending on the severity of cognition, the style of gambling (strategic or not), the prospect of recovery, proneness to relapse, and proneness to treatment withdrawal. Finally, based on rodent models of gambling, the appropriateness of gambling decision is influenced by the presence of cues, the activity of dopamine receptors, and the activity of some brain areas (infralimbic, prelimbic, or rostral agranular insular cortex). Pathological gamblers differed in terms of frontoparietal brain activation compared to nonpathological gamblers (if winning or losing a game). Pathological gamblers had dysfunctional EEG activity. The severity of gambling was linked to the magnification and content of cognitive distortions. The insula was fundamental in the distortion of cognitions linked to result analysis during gambling activity. PMID:28096672

  7. A biopsychological review of gambling disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintero GC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel C Quintero Florida State University – Republic of Panama, Panama City, Panama Abstract: The present review is an overview of previous experimental work on biopsychological aspects of gambling disorder. It includes the topics 1 gambling disorder from the neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG perspective, 2 cognitive, executive functioning, and neuropsychological aspects of gambling disorder, and 3 rodent models of gambling disorder. Penalties and losses in gambling can differ in terms of brain activity. Also, specific patterns of brain activity, brain anatomical traits, EEG responses, and cognitive and executive performance can discriminate pathological gamblers from nonpathological gamblers. Also, pathological gamblers can display dysfunction in such brain areas as the insula, frontal lobe, and orbitofrontal cortex. Pathological gambling is a heterogeneous disorder that can vary depending on the severity of cognition, the style of gambling (strategic or not, the prospect of recovery, proneness to relapse, and proneness to treatment withdrawal. Finally, based on rodent models of gambling, the appropriateness of gambling decision is influenced by the presence of cues, the activity of dopamine receptors, and the activity of some brain areas (infralimbic, prelimbic, or rostral agranular insular cortex. Pathological gamblers differed in terms of frontoparietal brain activation compared to nonpathological gamblers (if winning or losing a game. Pathological gamblers had dysfunctional EEG activity. The severity of gambling was linked to the magnification and content of cognitive distortions. The insula was fundamental in the distortion of cognitions linked to result analysis during gambling activity. Keywords: pathological gambling, biopsychology, human, rodent

  8. The lived experience of US parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Berry, Amber; Hill, Stephanie

    2015-12-01

    Current US statistics indicate that 1 in 68 children is diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder (Centers for Disease Control (2014) Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years-autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 Sites, United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)). The lived experience of parents with children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is important to know since quantitative studies have indicated that higher rates of mental disorders exist in this population as compared to parents of typically developing children (Yirmiya and Shaked (2005) Psychiatric disorders in parents of children with autism: a meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 46: 69-83). This study was a meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature in this area embedded within a systematic review. A comprehensive search and review yielded 14 studies. A total of six major themes were identified: (a) emotional stress and strain; (b) adaptation; (c) impact on the family; (d) services; (e) stigmatization; and (f) appreciating the little things. Implications of these results are discussed.

  9. Social support and grand parenting in autistic children families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elona Mano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available About 1 in 68 children has been identified with autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years according to estimates from Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM (Baio, 2014. Not only undiscovered cause of autism is a source of stress for parents of autistic children, but the stress of raising a child with autism can lead to depression (Morgan, 1988, 263-280. In order to cope with this stressful situation, it is very important for parents of autistic children to find some explanation for their child‘s developmental disorder, and even to be supported by their family, institutions and society. Even though the pace of research has increased dramatically in recent years, a majority of studies on families with a child with autism collect information from the parents, but not from the other members of the family. This study examined the involvement of grandparents of autistic children. The study is based on a sample of 40 mothers of autistic children from Albania who completed a structured questionnaire. It was hypothesized that mothers of autistic children who live with other members of the family such as grandparents, perceive more social support compared to families of autistic children that consist only by the natural parents.

  10. [Neural mechanism underlying autistic savant and acquired savant syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Keisuke; Kato, Motoichiro

    2008-07-01

    It is well known that the cases with savant syndrome, demonstrate outstanding mental capability despite coexisting severe mental disabilities. In many cases, savant skills are characterized by its domain-specificity, enhanced memory capability, and excessive focus on low-level perceptual processing. In addition, impaired integrative cognitive processing such as social cognition or executive function, restricted interest, and compulsive repetition of the same act are observed in savant individuals. All these are significantly relevant to the behavioral characteristics observed in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). A neurocognitive model of savant syndrome should explain these cognitive features and the juxtaposition of outstanding talents with cognitive disabilities. In recent neuropsychological studies, Miller (1998) reported clinical cases of "acquired savant," i.e., patients who improved or newly acquired an artistic savant-like skill in the early stage of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Although the relationship between an autistic savant and acquired savant remains to be elucidated, the advent of neuroimaging study of ASD and the clarification of FTD patients with savant-like skills may clarify the shared neural mechanisms of both types of talent. In this review, we classified current cognitive models of savant syndrome into the following 3 categories. (1) A hypermnesic model that suggests that savant skills develop from existing or dormant cognitive functions such as memory. However, recent findings obtained through neuropsychological examinations imply that savant individuals solve problems using a strategy that is fairly different from a non-autistic one. (2) A paradoxical functional facilitation model (Kapur, 1996) that offers possible explanations about how pathological states in the brain lead to development of prodigious skills. This model emphasizes the role of reciprocal inhibitory interaction among adjacent or distant cortical regions

  11. Autistic traits in couple dyads as a predictor of anxiety spectrum symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2014-11-01

    The link between parental autistic tendency and anxiety symptoms was studied in 491 Taiwanese couples raising biological children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Parental autistic tendency as measured by Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was associated with anxiety symptoms across all domains. Large effect sizes were found in social phobia and post traumatic stress disorders for both parents, and in general anxiety disorder and agoraphobia for mothers. These associations were irrespective of child's autistic tendency, spouse's AQ scores and the couples' compatibility in their autistic tendency. Perceived family support and parental education moderated the link but not child's autistic severity. Research and clinical implications regarding psychiatric vulnerability of parents of children with ASD were drawn and discussed.

  12. Overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits is not accounted for by anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane

    2014-10-30

    Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders.

  13. Does WISC-IV Underestimate the Intelligence of Autistic Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Courchesne, Valérie; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is widely used to estimate autistic intelligence (Joseph in The neuropsychology of autism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Goldstein et al. in "Assessment of autism spectrum disorders." Guilford Press, New York, 2008; Mottron in "J Autism Dev Disord" 34(1):19-27, 2004).…

  14. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Related to Global and Regional Brain Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…

  15. Schizotypal personality disorder: a current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Daniel R; Futterman, Shira E; McMaster, Antonia; Siever, Larry J

    2014-07-01

    The study of schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) is important clinically, as it is understudied, challenging to treat, often under-recognized or misdiagnosed, and associated with significant functional impairment. SPD also represents an intermediate schizophrenia-spectrum phenotype, and therefore, can provide a better understanding of the genetics, pathogenesis, and treatment of related psychotic illnesses. In this review we discuss recent findings of SPD related to epidemiology and functional impairment, heritability and genetics, working memory and cognitive impairments, social-affective disturbances, and neurobiology. Additionally, we examine the challenges associated with treating patients with SPD, as well as clinical recommendations. Finally, we address future directions and areas in need of further exploration.

  16. Elevated Urinary Glyphosate and Clostridia Metabolites With Altered Dopamine Metabolism in Triplets With Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Suspected Seizure Disorder: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William

    2017-01-01

    Context Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder for which a number of genetic, environmental, and nutritional causes have been proposed. Glyphosate is used widely as a crop desiccant and as an herbicide in fields of genetically modified foods that are glyphosate resistant. Several researchers have proposed that it may be a cause of autism, based on epidemiological data that correlates increased usage of glyphosate with an increased autism rate. Objective The current study was intended to determine if excessive glyphosate was present in the triplets and their parents and to evaluate biochemical findings for the family to determine the potential effects of its presence. Design The author performed a case study with the cooperation of the parents and the attending physician. Setting The study took place at The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc (Lenexa, KS, USA). Participants Participants were triplets, 2 male children and 1 female, and their parents. The 2 male children had autism, whereas the female had a possible seizure disorder. All 3 had elevated urinary glyphosate, and all of the triplets and their mother had elevated values of succinic acid or tiglylglycine, which are indicators of mitochondrial dysfunction. Intervention The participants received a diet of organic food only. Outcome Measures The study performed organic acids, glyphosate, toxic chemicals and tiglylglycine, and creatinine testing of the participants’ urine. Results The 2 male triplets with autism had abnormalities on at least 1 organic acids test, including elevated phenolic compounds such as 4-cresol, 3-[3-hydroxyphenyl]-3-hydroxypropionic acid and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, which have been previously associated with Clostridia bacteria and autism. The female, who was suspected of having a seizure disorder but not autism, did not have elevated phenolic compounds but did have a significantly elevated value of the metabolite tiglylglycine, a marker for mitochondrial dysfunction and/or mutations. One

  17. Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Jocelyn V.; Jacokes, Zachary J.; Torgerson, Carinna M.; Irimia, Andrei; Van Horn, John Darrell

    2017-01-01

    Ongoing debate exists within the resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) literature over how intrinsic connectivity is altered in the autistic brain, with reports of general over-connectivity, under-connectivity, and/or a combination of both. Classifying autism using brain connectivity is complicated by the heterogeneous nature of the condition, allowing for the possibility of widely variable connectivity patterns among individuals with the disorder. Further differences in reported results may be attributable to the age and sex of participants included, designs of the resting-state scan, and to the analysis technique used to evaluate the data. This review systematically examines the resting-state fMRI autism literature to date and compares studies in an attempt to draw overall conclusions that are presently challenging. We also propose future direction for rs-fMRI use to categorize individuals with autism spectrum disorder, serve as a possible diagnostic tool, and best utilize data-sharing initiatives. PMID:28101064

  18. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Do Not Help Support DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Janssen, Joost; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aims to determine whether or not structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data support the DSM-5 proposal of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic category, and whether or not classical DSM-IV autistic disorder (AD) and Asperger syndrome (AS) categories should be subsumed into it. The most replicated sMRI findings…

  19. Drug-Refractory Aggression, Self-Injurious Behavior, and Severe Tantrums in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Chart Review Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Benjamin A.; Wink, Logan K.; Early, Maureen; Shaffer, Rebecca; Minshawi, Noha; McDougle, Christopher J.; Erickson, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums are impairing symptoms frequently experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Despite US Food and Drug Administration approval of two atypical antipsychotics targeting these symptoms in youth with autistic disorder, they remain frequently drug refractory. We define…

  20. A review of nighttime eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Michael J; Schenck, Carlos H; Crow, Scott J

    2009-02-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either night eating syndrome (NES) or sleep-related eating disorder (SRED). These conditions represent an interruption in the overnight fast that characterizes human sleep. A critical review of the literature on NES and SRED will suggest that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. NES could be considered an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Conversely, the feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with or without amnesia. Both conditions are often relentless and chronic. Multiple definitions of night eating have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of NES. Studies have suggested that central nervous system (CNS) serotonin modulation may lead to an effective treatment of NES. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias. Early studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED.

  1. A review of eating disorders in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, L E

    1995-01-01

    Many review articles address the diverse and rapidly developing field of eating disorders, but there are far fewer articles addressing the specific population of adolescents. The social contributors (desire for thinness amplified by the media) to these illnesses are considerable and affect all adolescent and latency-age girls to some degree. Understanding the full range of behavior and those at high risk to develop pathology is important. Developing prevention programs that target adolescent girls and their families, schools, and the relevant media is also important. Prevention has been a much-neglected area within the field of eating disorders. The chronic nature of eating disorders characterized by remission and relapse bears further study. Attention to the factors that provoke a symptomatic period is crucial. Along with relapse and remission are shifts between diagnostic categories within the field of eating disorders and comorbid illnesses. A better understanding of the factors that cause these shifts to occur would be quite valuable. Outcome and prospective studies would provide valuable information about the course of the illnesses and further identify the individuals at high risk. Certain groups are known to be at high risk, such as girls involved in specific athletics (e.g., gymnastics) or career activities, but recent investigations have indicated that girls involved in what was previously believed to be a low risk activity, such as swimming, may also be at risk (Benson et al., 1990). Further investigation of these factors is crucial. Cultural factors play a role in these illnesses, and cross-cultural studies provide crucial information. We must also continue to explore the biological and psychological correlates of these illnesses and further define the complex and heterogeneous etiology of these illnesses. Their study still promises to yield exciting challenges. Increased public awareness regarding the need for treatment of these illnesses is a high

  2. Brief Report: Autism Spectrum Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: A Review and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengit, Ashy C.; McKowen, James W.; O'Brien, Julie; Howe, Yamini J.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    There is limited literature available on the comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and substance use disorder (SUD). This paper reviews existing literature and exemplifies the challenges of treating this population with a case report of an adult male with ASD and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. This review and case study seeks to…

  3. Power and Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  4. Power and Autistic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Overskeid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness -- and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits

  5. Nonspecific eating disorders - a subjective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Michalska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this paper was to characterise nonspecific eating disorders (other than anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Method. The Medline database was searched for articles on nonspecific eating disorders. The following disorders were described: binge eating disorder (BED, pica, rumination disorder, avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder, night eating syndrome (NES, sleep-related eating disorder (SRED, bigorexia, orthorexia, focusing on diagnosis, symptoms, assessment, comorbidities, clinical implications and treatment. Results. All of the included disorders may have dangerous consequences, both somatic and psychological. They are often comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Approximately a few percent of general population can be diagnosed with each disorder, from 0.5–4.7% (SRED to about 7% (orthorexia. With the growing literature on the subject and changes in DSM-5, clinicians recognise and treat those disorders more often. Conclusions. More studies have to be conducted in order to differentiate disorders and treat or prevent them appropriately.

  6. Reflections on 'autistic integrity'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Barbara

    2012-03-01

    Autism, particularly its moderate to severe forms, has prompted considerable scientific study and clinical involvement because the associated behaviours imply disconnections with valued features of a 'good' life, such as close relationships, enjoyment, and adaptability. Proposed causes of autism involve potent philosophical concepts including consciousness, identity, mind, and relationality. The concept of autistic integrity is used by Barnbaum in The Ethics of Autism: Among Them, But Not of Them to help provide moral justification to stop efforts to cure adults with autism, especially if the cause is presumed to be a lack of a theory of mind.(1) This article has two goals: (1) to apply four familiar definitions or characterizations of integrity to the case of moderate to severe autism, and (2) to examine whether autistic integrity does provide the moral justification Barnbaum seeks.

  7. Low serum myeloperoxidase in autistic children with gastrointestinal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Russo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthony J Russo1, Arthur Krigsman2, Bryan Jepson2, Andy Wakefield21Research Director, Health Research Institute/Pfeiffer Treatment Center, Warrenville, IL, USA; 2Thoughtful House Center for Children, Austin, TX, USAAim: To assess serum myeloperoxidase (MPO levels in autistic children with severe gastrointestinal (GI disease and to test the hypothesis that there is an association between serum MPO concentration and inflammatory GI disease, including antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA, previously seen in a subgroup of autistic children.Subjects and methods: Serum from 40 autistic children with chronic digestive disease (most with ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH and inflammation of the colorectum, small bowel and/or stomach, and 48 controls (12 age-matched autistic children with no GI disease, 20 age-matched children without autism or GI disease, and 16 nonautistic individuals with no family history of autism were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays designed to quantitate serum MPO levels. MPO serum concentration of autistic children with GI disease was compared to GI disease severity (including LNH and erythema and presence of ANCA.Results: We found that a significant number of autistic children with chronic digestive disease had low serum levels of MPO. However, there was no significant relationship between these levels and severity of GI disease, including the presence of ANCA.Discussion: These results suggest a relationship between low MPO levels and GI disease seen in a subpopulation of autism spectrum disorders individuals. MPO concentration may therefore be a useful biomarker for GI disease in this group of autistic children.Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, autism, myeloperoxidase, GI disease, oxidative stress

  8. 自闭症儿童教育康复研究述要∗%A Review of Research on Educational Rehabilitation for Autistic Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵斌; 马小卫

    2015-01-01

    Educational rehabilitation for children with autism plays an important role.By analyzing rel-evant literature,educational rehabilitation for children with autism mainly involve social barriers,ver-bal and non-verbal communication barriers,and multiple barriers.Autistic children’s social barriers can be improved mainly by visual music therapy and face processing stage model.The method of using echo language and sign language to implement educational rehabilitation of verbal and non-verbal com-munication disorders is being considered.No breakthrough in educational rehabilitation of the restrict-ed repetitive behavior patterns is gained.This study suggests that comprehensive intervention is better than single intervention in the educational rehabilitation for children with autism.Therefore,evidence-based practice act is recommended to assess the effect of the current interventions.We need also make full use of modern concepts and technique of rehabilitation medicine,as well as education training to explore a new direction for the rehabilitation of children with autism.%教育康复对自闭症儿童的发展起着重要作用。通过分析相关文献发现,自闭症儿童主要集中在社交障碍、言语和非言语交流障碍、限制性重复行为模式、多重障碍几个方面。其中,主要通过可视音乐疗法和面孔加工阶段模型来改善自闭症儿童社交障碍;运用回声性语言及手势语言开展言语和非言语交流障碍的教育康复。在限制性重复行为模式的教育康复方面无突破性进展。针对自闭症儿童的教育康复,单一干预方法的效果不如综合干预,建议采用循证实践法来评估当前干预方法的效果,充分利用现代康复医学理念及技术,结合自闭症儿童的教育训练,走教育与康复结合路径将是自闭症儿童教育康复的新方向。

  9. A Review of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) from A Perspective of Classical Chinese Medicine (CCM)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first two years of man's life and is the result of a neurological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain, and the development in social interaction and communication skills. Both children and adults along the autistic spectrum typically show difficulties in verbal and non-verbal communication, social interactions, and leisure or play activities.

  10. 自闭症儿童社会交往障碍的家庭康复护理%Family Autistic Children Social Interaction Disorders Rehabilitation Nursing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙娟娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the barriers to social interaction of autistic children home rehabilitation nursing method and application. Methods The control group of children with autism are providing clinical routine rehabilitation care, re-search group based on the use of conventional nursing home rehabilitation nursing. Record two autistic quality of life, changes in the extent of disease in children and their families for this job satisfaction before and after nursing care of chil-dren. Results The care of children with autism before the extent of disease and quality of life contrast there was no signifi-cant difference (P>0.05);by different methods prior to the above two groups after treatment compared ATEC scale score was significantly decreased, while the amount of SF-36 table is significantly improved compared to the previous study group to improve the condition and quality of life than children in the control group level (P0.05);经上述不同方法护理后两组ATEC量表评分均较之前显著降低,而SF-36量表则较之前显著提高,研究组病情及生活质量改善程度优于对照组患儿(P<0.05);研究组患儿家属对护理效果满意率高达86.67%,对照组仅获得33.33%护理效果满意率(P<0.05). 结论 对自闭症患儿给予常规护理基础上加用家庭康复护理可显著提高其疗效及生活质量,有利于保障患儿预后效果及维持良好的护患关系.

  11. Investigating the autistic traits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder%注意缺陷多动障碍儿童的孤独症特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑超群; 陈凯云; 梁亚勇; 李巧毅; 邓红珠; 唐春

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the autistic symptoms or autistic trait in the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) for facilitating the development of appropriate interventions.Methods Sixty-two 6-12-year-old high-functioned autism spectrum disorder (ASD),ADHD and typically developing (TD) children were assessed respectively using Chinese-version social responsiveness scale (SRS),and ADHD core symptoms were assessed in the ADHD children at the same time.Results ASD group>ADHD group> TD group on the SRS total raw score and the five dimensions scores as well(P<0.01).ASD,ADHD and TD group scored respectively 92.43±19.17,65.66±19.86 and 38.40±10.68 on the SRS total scale.The SRS total raw score of ADHD group exceeded the TD group for 2.55 standard deviant (SD) and with "social communication" (2.00 SD) and "autistic mannerism" (2.71 SD) deviating the most.22.58% (14 out of 62) children with ADHD scored above the threshold on the SRS total raw score which was significantly higher than that in the TD group(P<0.01).There were nonsignificant differences in the ADHD core symptoms between ADHD± children (with the SRS total raw score ≥85)and ADHD-children(with the SRS total raw score<85) (P>0.01).Conclusion Children with ADHD appear more ASD symptoms than the TD children and a considerable proportion of them reach the SRS diagnostic cut-off point.%目的 探讨注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)学龄儿童的孤独症症状和特征,以促进针对性的干预.方法 应用社交反应量表(social responsiveness scale,SRS)中文版分别对62名6~12岁高功能孤独症谱系障碍(autism spectrum disorder,ASD)、ADHD和正常儿童进行孤独症症状评估,ADHD组儿童同时进行ADHD核心症状评估.结果 SRS五个维度及总分均为ASD组>ADHD组>正常组(R0.01).ASD组、ADHD组和正常组SRS总分分别为[(92.43±19.17)分、(65.66±19.86)分和(38.40± 10.68)分],

  12. Investigation of parenting stress in primary care-givers with children undergoing autistic disorder%孤独症儿童主要照顾者亲职压力现状的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵国琼; 田征文

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of parenting stress in the primary care-givers of children diagnosed with autistic disorder and sum up the nursing strategies. Methods Seventy-eight primary care-givers of children diagnosed with autistic disorder were interviewed using the parenting stress index-short form (PSI-SF). Results The mean score of parenting stress was 104.08 ± 18.32, which was at a high level. The 3 subscales score from high to low:parenting anxiety(36.22 ± 8.46);disabled children (35.64 ± 6.41);parent-child interation disorder(32.01 ± 7.15). Conclusion Medical staff should pay more attertion to these care-givers in order to enhance their ability to cope with various problems in the parenting process and hence reduce the level of parenting pressure.%目的:了解孤独症儿童主要照顾者亲职压力现状,并提出相应的对策。方法采用亲职压力指标简表(parenting stress index-short form, PSI-SF)对78名孤独症儿童主要照顾者进行调查。结果孤独症儿童主要照顾者PSI-SF总分为(104.08±18.32)分,处于较高的水平,其3个子量表得分由高到低依次为亲职愁苦(36.22±8.46)分、困难儿童(35.64±6.41)分、亲子互动失调(32.01±7.15)分。结论医护工作者应加强对孤独症儿童主要照顾者亲职压力的评估,提供孤独症相关知识和情感支持和提高其创伤后成长水平,进而降低其亲职压力水平。

  13. The Association of Cardiovascular Disorders and Falls : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Sofie; Bhangu, Jaspreet; de Rooij, Sophia; Daams, Joost; Kenny, Rose Anne; van der Velde, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cardiovascular disorders are recognized as risk factors for falls in older adults. The aim of this systematic review was to identify cardiovascular disorders that are associated with falls, thus providing angles for optimization of fall-preventive care. Design: Systematic review. Data Sou

  14. Bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Czepielewski; Ledo Daruy Filho; Elisa Brietzke; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Summarize data on metabolic syndrome (MS) in bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the Medline, Embase and PsycInfo databases, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome", "insulin resistance" and "metabolic X syndrome" and cross-referencing them with "bipolar disorder" or "mania". The following types of publications were candidates for review: (i) clinical trials, (ii) studies involving patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or (ii...

  15. The Psychic Organ Point of Autistic Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with autistic syntax and its expressions both in the fully fledged autistic structure and in the autistic zones of other personality structures. The musical notion of the organ point serves as a point of departure in an attempt to describe how autistic syntax transforms what was meant to constitute the substrate for linguistic…

  16. Estimation of autistic children by metallomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Yasuda, Yuichi; Tsutsui, Toyoharu

    2013-01-01

    Clarification of the pathogenesis and treatment of autism spectrum disorders is one of the challenges today. In this study, we examine scalp hair concentrations of 26 trace elements for 1,967 children with autistic disorders (1,553 males and 414 females). Five-hundred and eighty-four (29.7%), 347 (17.6%) and 114 (5.8%) subjects was found deficient in zinc, magnesium and calcium, respectively, and 2.0% or less in the other essential metals. The incidence rate of mineral deficiency was highly observed in infants aged 0-3 year-old. In contrast, 339 (17.2%), 168 (8.5%) and 94 (4.8%) individuals was found suffering from high burden of aluminium, cadmium and lead, and 2.8% or less from mercury and arsenic burden. These findings suggest that infantile zinc- and magnesium-deficiency and/or toxic metal burdens may epigenetically play principal roles as environmental factors in autistic disorders and that metallomics approach may lead to early screening and prevention of the neurodevelopment disorders.

  17. Asperger disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manu; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sarkhel, Sujit; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Asperger disorder was first described in 1944 by the Austrian pediatrician, Hans Asperger. It was introduced as a separate diagnostic category from autistic disorder in DSM-IV and ICD-10. The pattern of comorbidity in Asperger disorder is different from autistic disorder, with a higher level of psychosis, violent behavior, anxiety, and mood disorders. We present three cases of Asperger disorder diagnosed for the first time in adulthood, with psychosis being the predominant reason for the referral. In each case, the psychosis improved with antipsychotic treatment, although core autistic symptoms remained the same.

  18. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  19. A review of the dissociative disorders: from multiple personality disorder to the posttraumatic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto J. Romero-López

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the idea of dissociation, dissociative disorders and their relationship with the processes of consciousness. We will deal specifically with multiple personality disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Both polarize the discussion of diagnostic categories with dissociative symptoms. This review compares the initial ideas (one century old with the current scenario and emerging trends in research, which are relating cognitive processes and dissociative phenomena and disorders from a neuroscientific approach. We discuss the ideas on dissociation, hypnosis and suicide associated with these disorders. There seems to be a lack of consensus as to the nature of dissociation with theoretical, empirical and clinical implications.

  20. 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism: Analysis in South African Autistic Individuals

    KAUST Repository

    Arieff, Zainunisha

    2010-06-01

    The serotonin transporter promoter length polymorphism (5-hydroxytryptamine transporter length polymorphism; 5-HTTLPR) has long been implicated in autism and other psychiatric disorders. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has a positive effect on treating some symptoms of autism. The effects of these drugs vary in individuals because of the presence of the S or L allele of 5-HTTLPR. Studies performed on various autistic populations have found different allele frequencies for the L and S alleles. Allele frequencies and genotypes of the South African autistic populations (African, mixed, and Caucasian) were compared with matching South African ethnic control populations. The *S/*S genotype was found to be highly significantly associated with all the South African autistic ethnic populations. In the South African African population the *S/*S genotype was present in 7 (33%) of the autistic individuals but in none of the control subjects, yielding infinitely large odds of developing autism. The odds of developing autism with the *S/*S genotype compared to the *L/*L genotype increased 10.15-fold in the South African mixed group and 2.74-fold in the South African Caucasian population. The allele frequency of the South African autistic population was also compared with studies of other autistic populations around the world, and highly significant differences were found with the Japanese, Korean, and Indian population groups. The difference was not significant for the French, German, Israeli, Portuguese, and American groups. This is the first South African study of autistic individuals of different ethnic backgrounds that shows significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of 5-HTTLPR. The results of this study open new avenues for investigating the role of transmission of the L and S alleles in families with autism in South Africa.

  1. Review: Psychological intervention in temporomandibular disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Araneda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD frecuently present psychological and psychiatric problems. These patients often show increased somatization, depression, anxiety, stress reaction and catastrophism, wich plays a role in the predisposition, initiation and perpetuation of TMD and treatment response. This review presents thaerapeutic options that compromise the psychological axis of patients with TMD, wich primarily seek to reduce the anxiety and the emotional stress present, modify different perceptions of pain and coping. There are different posibilities, within wich are: patient education, identifying situations that increase the tension to avoid them, teaching relaxation techniques such as biofeedback, hipnosis and yoga. As for psychological treatment, the most common for chronic orofacial pain is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT. The appropriate and effective psychological intervention can reduce TMD pain, decreasing the probability that the symptoms become more complex. Within psychological treatment options for TMD, conservative standard treatment (education, self-instruction, avoidance of painful movements, soft diet, even the shortest, may be sufficient in the short term for most patients with TMD, especially in cases of acute conditions. The addition of CBT, by a specialist, gives coping skills that will add to the effectiveness, especially in chronic cases, obtaining better results in the long term.

  2. Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A.

    2013-01-01

    A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n = 26, 55%) and pervasive…

  3. Association between sleep disorders, obesity, and exercise: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Trent A; Kaleth, Anthony S; Edwards, Elizabeth S; Butner, Katrina L

    2013-01-01

    Decreased sleep duration and quality is associated with an increase in body weight and adiposity. Insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and restless legs syndrome are three of the most prevalent types of sleep disorder that lead to an increased risk for numerous chronic health conditions. Various studies have examined the impact of these sleep disorders on obesity, and are an important link in understanding the relationship between sleep disorders and chronic disease. Physical activity and exercise are important prognostic tools in obesity and chronic disease, and numerous studies have explored the relationship between obesity, sleep disorders, and exercise. As such, this review will examine the relationship between sleep disorders and obesity. In addition, how sleep disorders may impact the exercise response and how exercise may impact patient outcomes with regard to sleep disorders will also be reviewed. PMID:23620691

  4. Post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid use disorder: A narrative review of conceptual models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovitch, Itai

    2016-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder is highly prevalent among individuals who suffer from opioid use disorder. Compared to individuals with opioid use disorder alone, those with post-traumatic stress disorder have a worse course of illness, occupational functioning, and physical health. The neurobiological pathways underlying each disorder overlap substantially, and there are multiple pathways through which these disorders may interact. This narrative review explores evidence underpinning 3 explanatory perspectives on comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder and opioid use disorder: The opioid susceptibility model (a.k.a.: the Self-Medication Hypothesis), the post-traumatic stress disorder susceptibility model, and the common factors model. Diagnostic implications, treatment implications, and directions for future research are discussed.

  5. Voxel-based morphometric analysis on the density of brain in children with autistic disorder%基于体素的形态测量法分析高功能孤独性障碍患儿的脑组织密度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯晓燕; 洪珊珊; 邹冰; 汤天宇; 李惠国; 周振宇; 杭跃跃; 阮宗才; 陆祖宏

    2008-01-01

    目的 分析学龄孤独性障碍患儿脑组织密度.方法 对17例智能正常的孤独性障碍患儿(病例组)以及15名年龄、性别、智商与之相匹配的健康儿童(对照组)进行T1加权三维磁共振成像扫描,应用基于体素的形态测量法(VBM)比较两组脑灰质及脑白质密度的差异.结果 与对照组相比,孤独性障碍患儿右侧小脑前叶的脑灰质密度低.右前扣带回、右额中回区域的脑白质密度低,双侧顶下小叶、右缘上回、右中央后回、右颞上回、右小脑后叶、左楔前叶、左楔叶的脑灰质密度高(P<0.001).结论 智力正常的学龄孤独性障碍患儿脑组织密度异常明显,且部位广泛.%Objective To assess the density difference in the cerebral grey and white matter in children with autistic disorder. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM) in conjunction with statistical parametric mapping was applied to the structural magnetic resonance images of 17 autistic disorder children and 15 normal controls. Results Compared with the controls, the grey matter density in autistic disorder children had significant decrease in the fight anterior lobe of cerebellum and increase in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right supramarginsl gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, right posterior lobe of cerebellum, right superior temporal gyms, left precunens and left cuneus (P<0.001). Significant dusters of reduced white matter density were found in the region of right anterior cingulated and right medial frontal gyms (P< 0.001) in autistic disorder children in comparison with controls. Conclusion The findings indicate structural grey and whim matter are significantly abnormal in children with autistic disorder and the deficits are widespread in brain regions.

  6. Alunos com distúrbios do espectro autístico em interação com professores na educação inclusiva: descrição de habilidades pragmáticas Students with autistic spectrum disorders in the interaction with teachers in inclusive education: description of pragmatic skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar as habilidades pragmáticas de alunos com distúrbios do espectro autístico durante a interação com suas professoras em salas comuns de escolas públicas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 14 alunos com distúrbios do espectro autístico, de ambos os gêneros, com idade entre três e oito anos (média=5,9; DP=1,8. Como parte do procedimento, foram realizadas filmagens em situações de sala de aula e para análise dos aspectos pragmáticos da comunicação dos participantes, foi utilizado o Protocolo de Pragmática. Os resultados foram tratados estatisticamente (pPURPOSE: To investigate the pragmatic skills of students with autistic spectrum disorders during interaction with their teachers, in regular classrooms of public schools. METHODS: Fourteen students with autistic spectrum disorders, both male and female, with ages between three and eight years (mean=5.9; SD=1.8, participated in the study. As part of the procedure, classroom situations were filmed for the analysis of the children's pragmatic aspects of communication, using the Pragmatic Protocol. Data were statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon, Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Spearman tests, with a significance level of p<0.05 and, in some cases, p<0.01. RESULTS: In average, the number of communicative acts expressed per minute by the teachers (3.4 acts/minute was superior (p<0.05 to the number presented by the students with autistic spectrum disorders (2.7 acts/minute. The students demonstrated prevalence in the use of the gestural communication mean, with an average of 36.2 occurrences, and of less interactive communicative functions, with an average of 24.1 occurrences. Moreover, there was positive correlation between students' and teachers' acts/minute (p=0.01. It was also observed that age and level of education did not present correlations with communication establishment in the dyads. CONCLUSION: It was possible to identify deficits and abilities of students with

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...

  8. Brief report: Examining the link between autistic traits and compulsive internet use in a non-clinical sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkenauer, C.; Pollmann, M.M.H.; Begeer, S.; Kerkhof, P.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders or autistic traits may profit from Internet and computer-mediated interactions, but there is concern about their Internet use becoming compulsive. This study investigated the link between autistic traits and Internet use in a 2-wave longitudinal study with

  9. Brief Report: Examining the Link between Autistic Traits and Compulsive Internet Use in a Non-Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenauer, Catrin; Pollmann, Monique M. H.; Begeer, Sander; Kerkhof, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders or autistic traits may profit from Internet and computer-mediated interactions, but there is concern about their Internet use becoming compulsive. This study investigated the link between autistic traits and Internet use in a 2-wave longitudinal study with a non-clinical community sample (n = 390). As…

  10. Autistic Features in Girls from a Psychiatric Sample Are Strongly Associated with a Low 2D:4D Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruin, Esther I.; De Nijs, Pieter F. A.; Verheij, Fop; Verhagen, Debora H.; Ferdinand, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Autistic features such as deficits in social interactions and communication have been associated with a low 2D:4D ratio in normal children.This study assessed this association in a large sample of children with a variety of psychiatric disorders (n = 35 girls and n = 147 boys). Autistic features were assessed with a highly valid and reliable…

  11. In vitro fermentation of B-GOS: impact on faecal bacterial populations and metabolic activity in autistic and non-autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Roberta; Cela, Drinalda; Swann, Jonathan R; Vulevic, Jelena; Gibson, Glenn R; Tzortzis, George; Costabile, Adele

    2017-02-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often suffer gastrointestinal problems consistent with imbalances in the gut microbial population. Treatment with antibiotics or pro/prebiotics has been postulated to regulate microbiota and improve gut symptoms, but there is a lack of evidence for such approaches, especially for prebiotics. This study assessed the influence of a prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS) on gut microbial ecology and metabolic function using faecal samples from autistic and non-autistic children in an in vitro gut model system. Bacteriology was analysed using flow cytometry combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization and metabolic activity by HPLC and (1)H-NMR. Consistent with previous studies, the microbiota of children with ASD contained a higher number of Clostridium spp. and a lower number of bifidobacteria compared with non-autistic children. B-GOS administration significantly increased bifidobacterial populations in each compartment of the models, both with autistic and non-autistic-derived samples, and lactobacilli in the final vessel of non-autistic models. In addition, changes in other bacterial population have been seen in particular for Clostridium, Rosburia, Bacteroides, Atopobium, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Sutterella spp. and Veillonellaceae. Furthermore, the addition of B-GOS to the models significantly altered short-chain fatty acid production in both groups, and increased ethanol and lactate in autistic children.

  12. Measuring autistic traits in the general population: a systematic review of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in a nonclinical population sample of 6,900 typical adult males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzich, Emily; Allison, Carrie; Smith, Paula; Watson, Peter; Auyeung, Bonnie; Ring, Howard; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is a self-report measure of autistic traits. It is frequently cited in diverse fields and has been administered to adults of at least average intelligence with autism and to nonclinical controls, as well as to clinical control groups such as those with schizophrenia, prosopagnosia, anorexia, and depression. However, there has been no empirical systematic review of the AQ since its inception in 2001. The present study reports a comprehensive systematic review of the literature to estimate a reliable mean AQ score in individuals without a diagnosis of an autism spectrum condition (ASC), in order to establish a reference norm for future studies. A systematic search of computerized databases was performed to identify studies that administered the AQ to nonclinical participant samples representing the adult male and female general population. Inclusion was based on a set of formalized criteria that evaluated the quality of the study, the usage of the AQ, and the population being assessed. After selection, 73 articles, detailing 6,934 nonclinical participants, as well as 1,963 matched clinical cases of ASC (from available cohorts within each individual study), were analyzed. Mean AQ score for the nonclinical population was 16.94 (95% CI 11.6, 20.0), while mean AQ score for the clinical population with ASC was found to be 35.19 (95% CI 27.6, 41.1). In addition, in the nonclinical population, a sex difference in autistic traits was found, although no sex difference in AQ score was seen in the clinical ASC population. These findings have implications for the study of autistic traits in the general population. Here, we confirm previous norms with more rigorous data and for the first time establish average AQ scores based on a systematic review, for populations of adult males and females with and without ASC. Finally, we advise future researchers to avoid risk of bias by carefully considering the recruitment strategy for both clinical and

  13. Brief report: postural reactivity to fast visual motion differentiates autistic from children with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepner, Bruno; Mestre, Daniel R

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to search for a sensorimotor marker (i.e., visuopostural tuning) that could be correlated with the severity of motor impairments in children with autistic spectrum disorders. Given that autistic children were previously reported to be posturally hyporeactive to visually perceived environmental motion in comparison with normal control children (Gepner et al., 1995), we sought to determine whether children with Asperger syndrome (AS) would share the same postural hyporeactivity to visual motion. Three autistic children with mild to severe motor impairments, three AS children with soft motor signs, and nine normal control children were tested for overall postural instability and postural reactivity to environmental motion. Results indicate, first, that overall postural instability is significantly reduced in autistic children compared with both AS and normal children. Second, although postural oscillations in the fore-aft axis become more attuned to the oscillation frequency of an immersive dynamic visual display as visual speed is increased, in both control and AS subjects, this is not the case in autistic children. Despite the small number of subjects tested in this study, our data confirm the existence of a visuopostural detuning in autistic children. Third, they argue for a correlation between visuopostural tuning and severity of motor signs in children with autistic spectrum disorders. Finally, they suggest a differentiation between children with autism and children with AS with regard to postural reactivity to fast visual motion. Neurophysiological implications of these results are discussed. In particular, a visuocerebellar pathway deficit hypothesis in autism is proposed.

  14. Review of the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, HW; van Hoeken, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders. Methods: We searched Medline using several key terms relating to epidemiology and eating disorders and we checked the reference lists of the articles that we found. Special attention has been paid to methodologi

  15. Neurological complications of gastrointestinal disorders. A review of the literature.

    OpenAIRE

    GKAMPETA, Anastasia; Pavlou, Evangelos

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a short review of the literature concerning neurological complications of gastrointestinal disorders. These disorders include the following: inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease), celiac disease, H. Pylori infection, hepatitis C, Wilson's disease, hepatic failure-liver transplantation, gastroenteritis. The most frequent neurological complications are peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar dysfunction, thromboembolism. The exact pathophysiologic mec...

  16. The potential role of the antioxidant and detoxification properties of glutathione in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Glutathione has a wide range of functions; it is an endogenous anti-oxidant and plays a key role in the maintenance of intracellular redox balance and detoxification of xenobiotics. Several studies have indicated that children with autism spectrum disorders may have altered glutathione metabolism which could play a key role in the condition. Methods A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted of studies examining metabolites, interventions and/or genes of the glutathione metabolism pathways i.e. the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autism spectrum disorders. Results Thirty nine studies were included in the review comprising an in vitro study, thirty two metabolite and/or co-factor studies, six intervention studies and six studies with genetic data as well as eight studies examining enzyme activity. Conclusions The review found evidence for the involvement of the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autistic disorder is sufficiently consistent, particularly with respect to the glutathione redox ratio, to warrant further investigation to determine the significance in relation to clinical outcomes. Large, well designed intervention studies that link metabolites, cofactors and genes of the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway with objective behavioural outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders are required. Future risk factor analysis should include consideration of multiple nutritional status and metabolite biomarkers of pathways linked with the γ-glutamyl cycle and the interaction of genotype in relation to these factors. PMID:22524510

  17. The potential role of the antioxidant and detoxification properties of glutathione in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Main Penelope AE

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione has a wide range of functions; it is an endogenous anti-oxidant and plays a key role in the maintenance of intracellular redox balance and detoxification of xenobiotics. Several studies have indicated that children with autism spectrum disorders may have altered glutathione metabolism which could play a key role in the condition. Methods A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted of studies examining metabolites, interventions and/or genes of the glutathione metabolism pathways i.e. the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autism spectrum disorders. Results Thirty nine studies were included in the review comprising an in vitro study, thirty two metabolite and/or co-factor studies, six intervention studies and six studies with genetic data as well as eight studies examining enzyme activity. Conclusions The review found evidence for the involvement of the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autistic disorder is sufficiently consistent, particularly with respect to the glutathione redox ratio, to warrant further investigation to determine the significance in relation to clinical outcomes. Large, well designed intervention studies that link metabolites, cofactors and genes of the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway with objective behavioural outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders are required. Future risk factor analysis should include consideration of multiple nutritional status and metabolite biomarkers of pathways linked with the γ-glutamyl cycle and the interaction of genotype in relation to these factors.

  18. Clinical trials of fatty acid treatment in ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and the autistic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A J

    2004-04-01

    Considerable clinical and experimental evidence now supports the idea that deficiencies or imbalances in certain highly unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to a range of common developmental disorders including ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Definitive evidence of a causal contribution, however, can only come from intervention studies in the form of randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Published studies of this kind are still fairly few in number, and mainly involve the diagnostic categories of ADHD and dyslexia, although other trials involving individuals with dyspraxia or ASD are in progress. The main findings to date from such studies are reviewed and evaluated here with the primary aim of guiding future research, although given that fatty acid supplementation for these conditions is already being adopted in many quarters, it is hoped that some of the information provided may also help to inform clinical practice.

  19. Genome-wide association study of autistic-like traits in a general population study of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel Maree; Cadby, Gemma; Melton, Phillip E; Abraham, Lawrence J; Whitehouse, Andrew J; Moses, Eric K

    2013-01-01

    Lay abstract: It has been proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), representing the extreme end of this distribution. The current study undertook a genome-wide association (GWA) scan of 965 young Western Australian adults to identify novel risk variants associated with autistic-like traits. No associations reached genome-wide significance; however, a review of nominally associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) indicated two positional candidate loci that have been previously implicated in autistic-like trait etiology. Scientific abstract: Research has proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical ASD representing the extreme end of this distribution. Inherent in this proposal is that biological mechanisms associated with clinical ASD may also underpin variation in autistic-like traits within the general population. A GWA study using 2,462,046 SNPs was undertaken for ASD in 965 individuals from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. No SNP associations reached genome-wide significance (p CBLN1. The rs198198 SNP (p = 9.587 × 10(-6)), is located within an intron of the protein kinase C, beta 1 (PRKCB1) gene on chromosome 16p11. The PRKCB1 gene has been previously reported in linkage and association studies for ASD, and its mRNA expression has been shown to be significantly down regulated in ASD cases compared with controls. The rs16946931 SNP (p = 1.78 × 10(-6)) is located in a region flanking the Cerebellin 1 (CBLN1) gene on chromosome 16q12.1. The CBLN1 gene is involved with synaptogenesis and is part of a gene family previously implicated in ASD. This GWA study is only the second to examine SNPs associated with autistic-like traits in the general population, and provides evidence to support roles for the PRKCB1 and CBLN1 genes in risk of clinical ASD.

  20. Therapeutic and Ethical Dilemma of Puberty and Menstruation Problems in an Intellectually Disabled (Autistic Female: a Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Memarian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and skills. Autism is a group of developmental brain disorders, collectively called autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Teenagers with learning and physical disabilities are more likely to have menstrual problems compared to the general populations. The parents of a 12-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability referred to the coroner due to her numerous problems of puberty (menstruation including: poor hygiene and polluting herself and the environment, not allowing to put or change the pads and changes in mood and physical health prior period, requested for the surgery (hysterectomy. In legal medicine organization after reviewing the medical records, physical exams and medical consultations with a gynecologist and psychiatric, surgery was not accepted. Hysterectomy (surgery due to the age of the child, either physically or morally is not recommended. The use of hormone replacement therapy has side effects such as osteoporosis. In these cases, it seems noninvasive methods (behavioral therapy and learning care skills under the welfare experts is also more effective and morally.

  1. Review of the Literature Regarding Female Collegiate Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasey, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…

  2. A review of Indian research on co-occurring psychiatric disorders and alcohol use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive use of alcohol has been identified as a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Excessive use of alcohol is a component cause of more than 200 disease and injury conditions. Alcohol use has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality across all regions of the world including South-East Asia. Epidemiological as well as clinic-based studies from Western countries have reported a high prevalence of co-occurrence of alcohol use disorder and psychiatric disorders. The research has established the clinical relevance of this comorbidity as it is often associated with poor treatment outcome, severe illness course, and high service utilization. Understandably, dual disorders in from of alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders present diagnostic and management challenge. The current article is aimed to review systematically the published Indian literature on comorbid alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders.

  3. A Chart Review of Schizotypal Personality Disorders in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Joan; Szatmari, Peter

    1986-01-01

    The literature on the diagnostic validity of schizotypal personality disorders (SPD) in childhood is reviewed, and the results of a chart review of 20 SPD children meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual III criteria are presented suggesting that SPD in childhood exists and warrants study. (Author/CB)

  4. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and eating disorders across the lifespan: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Rivka L; Rawana, Jennine S

    2016-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders are common and concerning mental health disorders. There is both empirical and theoretical support for an association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. This systematic review aims to summarize the extant literature on the comorbidity of ADHD and eating disorders across the lifespan, including the influences of sex, age, eating disorder diagnosis, and potential mediators. A total of 37 peer-reviewed studies on diagnosed ADHD and eating disturbances were identified through key research databases. Twenty-six studies supported a strong empirical association between ADHD and eating disorders or disordered eating. The systematic review findings suggest that children with ADHD are at risk for disordered eating, while adolescents, emerging adults, and adults are at risk for both eating disorders and disordered eating. Methodological considerations, future research, and clinical implications are discussed.

  5. [Links between personality disorders, attachment disorders and violent behavior: a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genest, Andrée-Anne; Mathieu, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Past research has established that personality disorders and attachment disorders are important risk factors for the perpetration of violent acts in a context of an intimate relationship. Very few studies have been conducted linking personality and attachment disorders to violent behaviors outside of the domestic violence context. This paper proposes to address this gap by reviewing the literature and linking these important concepts to general violence. This will allow a better understanding of the dynamics of violence and possibly open the door to new research and interventions taking into account both attachment and personality disorders as prodromic factors.

  6. Restricted, Repetitive Behaviors in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Comparative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiujias, Marina; Kelley, Elizabeth; Hall, Layla

    2017-03-09

    This review paper critically examines literature regarding restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The similar behavioral profiles of these disorders presents the potential for confusion regarding diagnoses and intervention efforts. As such, this review highlights the similarities and differences between RRBs in ASD and OCD. The developmental trajectories of RRBs are presented, followed by an exploration of three constructs implicated in RRB manifestation: anxiety, executive functioning, and sensory phenomena. While RRBs tend to develop with some similarity in both disorders, the differing role of anxiety highlights important distinctions between ASD and OCD. We urge researchers and clinicians to think critically about the dimensions that affect RRB presentation. Future research should use this review as a starting point to further elucidate the differences between RRBs in these two populations.

  7. Association between sleep disorders, obesity, and exercise: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hargens TA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Trent A Hargens,1 Anthony S Kaleth,2 Elizabeth S Edwards,1 Katrina L Butner31Department of Kinesiology, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA, USA; 2Department of Kinesiology, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Laboratory for Health and Exercise Science, Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Exercise, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USAAbstract: Decreased sleep duration and quality is associated with an increase in body weight and adiposity. Insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and restless legs syndrome are three of the most prevalent types of sleep disorder that lead to an increased risk for numerous chronic health conditions. Various studies have examined the impact of these sleep disorders on obesity, and are an important link in understanding the relationship between sleep disorders and chronic disease. Physical activity and exercise are important prognostic tools in obesity and chronic disease, and numerous studies have explored the relationship between obesity, sleep disorders, and exercise. As such, this review will examine the relationship between sleep disorders and obesity. In addition, how sleep disorders may impact the exercise response and how exercise may impact patient outcomes with regard to sleep disorders will also be reviewed.Keywords: obesity, sleep disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, insomnia

  8. Common and distinct impacts of autistic traits and alexithymia on social reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Foulkes

    Full Text Available According to the social motivation hypothesis of autism, individuals with high levels of autistic traits experience reduced levels of reward from social interactions. However, empirical evidence to date has been mixed, with some studies reporting lower levels of social reward in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, and others finding no difference when compared to typically developing controls. Alexithymia, a subclinical condition associated with the reduced ability to identify and describe one's own emotions, has been found to account for other affective difficulties observed inconsistently in individuals with ASD. The current study used a nonclinical sample (N = 472 to explore the associations between autistic traits and the value of six types of social reward, as measured by the Social Reward Questionnaire. In addition, we measured alexithymia to assess if this accounted for associations between autistic traits and social reward. There were three main findings. Firstly, higher levels of autistic traits were associated with significantly less enjoyment of admiration and sociability, and adding alexithymia to these models did not account for any additional variance. Secondly, both autistic traits and alexithymia were uniquely associated with reduced levels of enjoyment of prosocial interactions and sexual relationships. Thirdly, autistic traits were associated with higher levels of enjoyment of passivity and negative social potency, but these associations were no longer significant once alexithymia was taken into account, suggesting that co-occurring alexithymia accounted for these apparent associations. Overall, the current findings provide a novel and more nuanced picture of the relationship between autistic traits and social reward.

  9. Common and distinct impacts of autistic traits and alexithymia on social reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, Lucy; Bird, Geoffrey; Gökçen, Elif; McCrory, Eamon; Viding, Essi

    2015-01-01

    According to the social motivation hypothesis of autism, individuals with high levels of autistic traits experience reduced levels of reward from social interactions. However, empirical evidence to date has been mixed, with some studies reporting lower levels of social reward in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and others finding no difference when compared to typically developing controls. Alexithymia, a subclinical condition associated with the reduced ability to identify and describe one's own emotions, has been found to account for other affective difficulties observed inconsistently in individuals with ASD. The current study used a nonclinical sample (N = 472) to explore the associations between autistic traits and the value of six types of social reward, as measured by the Social Reward Questionnaire. In addition, we measured alexithymia to assess if this accounted for associations between autistic traits and social reward. There were three main findings. Firstly, higher levels of autistic traits were associated with significantly less enjoyment of admiration and sociability, and adding alexithymia to these models did not account for any additional variance. Secondly, both autistic traits and alexithymia were uniquely associated with reduced levels of enjoyment of prosocial interactions and sexual relationships. Thirdly, autistic traits were associated with higher levels of enjoyment of passivity and negative social potency, but these associations were no longer significant once alexithymia was taken into account, suggesting that co-occurring alexithymia accounted for these apparent associations. Overall, the current findings provide a novel and more nuanced picture of the relationship between autistic traits and social reward.

  10. Neuroinflammation in Neurodegenerative Disorders-a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schain, Martin; Kreisl, William Charles

    2017-03-01

    The potential for positron emission tomography (PET) to detect neuroinflammation in vivo has sparked a remarkable interest in various disciplines of neuroscience. Early PET radioligands, such as [(11)C]PK(R)-11195 for the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) and [(11)C]L-deprenyl for monoamine oxidase B, have been used in studies designed to clarify the role of neuroinflammation in a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Recent years have witnessed the development of several second-generation PET radioligands for TSPO and radioligands to measure endogenous targets that are active in various stages of the inflammatory cascade, such as cyclooxygenase and arachidonic acid. Here, we discuss some of the biomarkers for neuroinflammation that are available for quantification with PET, as well as recent findings from studies where neuroinflammation has been assessed in neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, we highlight the challenges to accurate interpretation of PET studies of neuroinflammation.

  11. Proprioceptive versus Visual Control in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterton, B. A.; Biederman, G. B.

    1983-01-01

    The autistic children's presumed preference for proximal over distal sensory input was studied by requiring that "autistic," retarded, and "normal" children (7-15 years old) adapt to lateral displacement of the visual field. Only autistic Ss demonstrated transfer of adaptation to the nonadapted hand, indicating reliance on proprioception rather…

  12. Attachment research and eating disorders: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Ruth; Dallos, Rudi

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this article is to review the clinical literature which examines the association between attachment patterns and eating disorders with a focus on anorexia nervosa, and to examine the varieties of methods and measures employed in attachment research. A literature review was carried out and the relevant articles are examined in terms of their contribution to this area. The literature indicates a number of important considerations when working with this group, including extreme separation anxiety and unresolved loss and trauma, and discusses the implications of these findings for treatment. The results also indicate conflicting evidence regarding associations between attachment style and eating disorder subgroup suggesting that severity of disorder matters more than eating disorder subtype. The different ways of investigating attachment patterns and experiences are explored in this paper. It is suggested that the attachment classification system runs the risk of reducing complex human experience to typologies and that qualitative research might help to address this problem.

  13. OBESITY AND PELVIC FLOOR DISORDERS: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Pomian, Andrzej; Lisik, Wojciech; Kosieradzki, Maciej; Barcz, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are becoming a worldwide health problem associated with numerous co-morbidities. National costs of obesity and pelvic flor disorders have been rising since the 1950s across the world. Obesity is thought to have a very strong effect on pelvic floor disorders, and, considering the high prevalence of both problems worldwide, it is of utmost importance to evaluate the association between these pathologies as well as the impact of obesity on treatment efficacy. This review i...

  14. Yoga and substance use disorders: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Siddharth; Varshney, Mohit

    2017-02-01

    Yoga has been utilized for promotion of health and alleviating distress. It has also been used as a therapeutic measure in the field of mental health, including substance use disorders. This narrative review discusses the literature pertaining to use of yoga in the treatment of substance use disorders. The evidence base especially with regards to randomized trials is presented. The possible mechanisms how yoga might be helpful in the treatment of substance use disorders are explored. Subsequently, implications of yoga in clinical practice are elaborated, followed by examination of the issues in interpretation of the literature of published yoga related studies.

  15. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and suicide: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Judit; Kereszteny, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate suicidality and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this paper aims to systematically review the literature as an extension of previous reviews. METHODS We searched five databases (Ovid MEDLINE, Psychinfo, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) with two categories of search terms: (1) suicide; suicidal; suicide behavior; suicide attempt; suicidal thought; and (2) ADHD. RESULTS The search resulted 26 articles. There is a positive association between ADHD and suicidality in both sexes and in all age groups. Comorbid disorders mediate between suicidality and ADHD. CONCLUSION Recognizing ADHD, comorbid conditions and suicidality is important in prevention.

  16. Assessment of metallothionein and antibodies to metallothionein in normal and autistic children having exposure to vaccine-derived thimerosal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra K; Hanson, Jeff

    2006-06-01

    Allergic autoimmune reaction after exposure to heavy metals such as mercury may play a causal role in autism, a developmental disorder of the central nervous system. As metallothionein (MT) is the primary metal-detoxifying protein in the body, we conducted a study of the MT protein and antibodies to metallothionein (anti-MT) in normal and autistic children whose exposure to mercury was only from thimerosal-containing vaccines. Laboratory analysis by immunoassays revealed that the serum level of MT did not significantly differ between normal and autistic children. Furthermore, autistic children harboured normal levels of anti-MT, including antibodies to isoform MT-I (anti-MT-I) and MT-II (anti-MT-II), without any significant difference between normal and autistic children. Our findings indicate that because autistic children have a normal profile of MT and anti-MT, the mercury-induced autoimmunity to MT may not be implicated in the pathogenesis of autism.

  17. Abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jennifer L; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven's Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level--concrete vs. abstract--and test domain--spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength.

  18. Abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Stevenson

    Full Text Available Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven's Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level--concrete vs. abstract--and test domain--spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72 and non-autistic participants (N = 72 completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal. Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract, suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength.

  19. Elevated serum neurotensin and CRH levels in children with autistic spectrum disorders and tail-chasing Bull Terriers with a phenotype similar to autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilioni, I; Dodman, N; Petra, A I; Taliou, A; Francis, K; Moon-Fanelli, A; Shuster, L; Theoharides, T C

    2014-10-14

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by defects in communication and social interactions, as well as stereotypic behaviors. Symptoms typically worsen with anxiety and stress. ASD occur in early childhood, often present with regression and have a prevalence of 1 out of 68 children. The lack of distinct pathogenesis or any objective biomarkers or reliable animal models hampers our understanding and treatment of ASD. Neurotensin (NT) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) are secreted under stress in various tissues, and have proinflammatory actions. We had previously shown that NT augments the ability of CRH to increase mast cell (MC)-dependent skin vascular permeability in rodents. CRH also induced NT receptor gene and protein expression in MCs, which have been implicated in ASD. Here we report that serum of ASD children (4-10 years old) has significantly higher NT and CRH levels as compared with normotypic controls. Moreover, there is a statistically significant correlation between the number of children with gastrointestinal symptoms and high serum NT levels. In Bull Terriers that exhibit a behavioral phenotype similar to the clinical presentation of ASD, NT and CRH levels are also significantly elevated, as compared with unaffected dogs of the same breed. Further investigation of serum NT and CRH, as well as characterization of this putative canine breed could provide useful insights into the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of ASD.

  20. Specificity, contexts, and reference groups matter when assessing autistic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Dern, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Many of the personality and behavioral traits (e.g., social imperviousness, directness in conversation, lack of imagination, affinity for solitude, difficulty displaying emotions) that are known to be sensitive to context (with whom?) and reference group (according to whom?) also appear in questionnaire-based assessments of autistic traits. Therefore, two experiments investigated the effects of specifying contexts and reference groups when assessing autistic traits in autistic and non-autistic participants. Experiment 1 (124 autistic and 124 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that context matters when assessing autistic traits (F(1,244) = 267.5, p < .001, η2p = .523). When the context of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire was specified as the participants’ out-group (e.g., “I like being around non-autistic people” or “I like being around autistic people”), both autistic and non-autistic participants self-reported having more autistic traits; when the context was specified as the participants’ in-group, participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Experiment 2 (82 autistic and 82 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that reference group matters when assessing autistic traits (F(2,160) = 94.38, p < .001, η2p = .541). When the reference group on the Social Responsiveness Scale was specified as the participants’ out-group (e.g., “According to non-autistic people, I have unusual eye contact”), autistic participants reported having more autistic traits; when the reference group was their in-group, autistic participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Non-autistic participants appeared insensitive to reference group on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Exploratory analyses suggested that when neither the context nor the reference group is specified (for assessing autistic traits on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient), both autistic and non-autistic participants use the majority (“non-autistic people”) as the implied context and

  1. Informing Educational Decisions in the Early Years: Can Evidence for Improving Pedagogy for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder Be Found from Neuroscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brenda; Forlin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    It is possible that many benefits may be found for all concerned in education and child development in understanding how knowledge of the brain and its development can inform early years practice. This article, written by Brenda Peters and Chris Forlin, both from the Hong Kong Institute of Education, reviews literature based on neuroscience to…

  2. Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…

  3. Psychoneuroimmunological disorders and temporomandibular joint pain: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjani Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychoneuroimmunology characterizes a disease entity that combines psychological components, central nervous system regulation, and immunology, to explain the etiological complexity of a disease. Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs include a heterogeneous group of painful conditions that involve the temporomandibular joint (TMJ, muscles of mastication, and the adjacent anatomic structures. This review focuses on the psychoneuroimmunological diseases and disorders that mimic the symptoms of TMDs. The differentiation of these disorders is of great significance to the oral physician - differentiating and diagnosing the cause of TMJ pain and treating it effectively to benefit the patient.The literature for this review was taken from Medline/PubMed, other indexed journals, standard text books, and online material.

  4. St. John's Wort for Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Alicia Ruelaz; Hempel, Susanne; Apaydin, Eric; Shanman, Roberta M.; Booth, Marika; Miles, Jeremy N V; Sorbero, Melony E.

    2016-01-01

    RAND researchers conducted a systematic review that synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials of St. John's wort (SJW)—used adjunctively or as monotherapy—to provide estimates of its efficacy and safety in treating adults with major depressive disorder.

  5. Characteristics of Auditory Processing Disorders : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Ellen; Visser-Bochane, Margot I; Steenbergen, Bert; van Dijk, Pim; van der Schans, Cees P; Luinge, Margreet R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review article is to describe characteristics of auditory processing disorders (APD) by evaluating the literature in which children with suspected or diagnosed APD were compared with typically developing children and to determine whether APD must be regarded as a deficit

  6. Characteristics of auditory processing disorders: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, E. de; Visser-Bochane, M.I.; Steenbergen, B.; Dijk, P. van; Schans, C.P. van der; Luinge, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review article is to describe characteristics of auditory processing disorders (APD) by evaluating the literature in which children with suspected or diagnosed APD were compared with typically developing children and to determine whether APD must be regarded as a deficit

  7. Language Acquisition in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Developmental Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; de Marchena, Ashley B.; Schuh, Jillian M.; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the complex literature on language acquisition in the autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because of the high degree of interest in ASD in the past decade, the field has been changing rapidly, with progress in both basic science and applied clinical areas. In addition, psycholinguistically-trained researchers have increasingly…

  8. Chelation Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N.; O'Reilly, Mark; Kang, Soyeon; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Copeland, Daelynn; Attai, Shanna; Mulloy, Austin

    2013-01-01

    Chelation treatment is used to eliminate specific metals from the body, such as mercury. It has been hypothesized that mercury poisoning may be a factor in autism and data suggest that perhaps 7% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have received chelation treatment. It would therefore seem timely to review studies investigating the…

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in imprisoned individuals--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein

    2011-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders with lifelong impact of the affected individuals. It is usually co-morbid with other psychiatric disorders. This paper aims to review current knowledge about ADHD in imprisoned individuals. The rate of ADHD in prisoners ranges from 10% to 70% and it has been suggested that ADHD, even without co-morbidity with conduct disorder, is a risk factor for imprisonment. Based on these findings, it may be wise to include the assessment of ADHD symptoms in all adult and adolescent prisoners. This is while available psychiatric resources for the adequate management of ADHD in prisoners are limited. Most of current knowledge on the topic comes from western countries. There is an urgent need for studies that will explore the effect of other cultures on the interactions between ADHD and imprisonment, especially in developing countries worldwide. At this point, ADHD seems to be an ignored research area in developing countries.

  10. Caffeine challenge test and panic disorder: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarim, Marina Machado; Rocha Araujo, Daniele Marano; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2011-08-01

    This systematic review aimed to examine the results of studies that have investigated the induction of panic attacks and/or the anxiogenic effect of the caffeine challenge test in patients with panic disorder. The literature search was performed in PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde and the ISI Web of Knowledge. The words used for the search were caffeine, caffeine challenge test, panic disorder, panic attacks and anxiety disorder. In total, we selected eight randomized, double-blind studies where caffeine was administered orally, and none of them controlled for confounding factors in the analysis. The percentage of loss during follow-up ranged between 14.3% and 73.1%. The eight studies all showed a positive association between caffeine and anxiogenic effects and/or panic disorder.

  11. The role of estrogen in bipolar disorder, a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinhard, Ninja; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It appears that the female reproductive events and hormonal treatments may impact the course of bipolar disorder in women. In particular, childbirth is known to be associated with onset of affective episodes in women with bipolar disorder. During the female reproductive events the sex...... hormones, e.g. estrogen, are fluctuating and particularly postpartum there is a steep fall in the levels of serum estrogen. The role of estrogen in women with bipolar disorder is, however, not fully understood. AIM: The main objective of this review is to evaluate the possible relation between serum...... estrogen levels and women with bipolar disorder including studies of the anti manic effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen. METHOD: A systematically literature search on PubMed was conducted: two studies regarding the connection between serum estrogen levels and women with bipolar...

  12. Eating Disorders, Physical Fitness and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of

  13. The relationship between perfectionism, eating disorders and athletes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, S; Lock, J

    2006-12-01

    Perfectionism is a potentially maladaptive personality trait implicated in a number of psychopathologies. As our understanding of the construct perfectionism has shifted from more unidimensionally focused conceptualizations to multidimensional ones, our ability to assess its bearing on various disorders has grown. One particular area in which perfectionism appears to play an important role is among eating disorder patients. The personalities of both those with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are thought to be intrinsically perfectionistic, which suggests a need to understand the role perfectionism plays in the development, course and outcome of these disorders. There is also an increased focus on perfectionism among athletes and its relationship to the higher prevalence of eating disorders in this group. With the institution of Title IX in the United States (which prohibited sex discrimination in higher educational settings) the participation of women in various sports has increased exponentially and with it concerns about their well-being in a milieu where a risk for menstrual irregularities, osteoporosis and eating disorders (the female athlete triad) are common. However, conflicting data suggests that athletics may be a protective factor in the development of eating disorders on the one hand, or it may be a risk factor on the other. Thus, it has become important to examine other variables, such as perfectionism, that may influence the outcome, one way or another. This review examines the current evidence about the relations between perfectionism, athletics and eating disorders.

  14. Pharmacological treatment options for autism spectrum disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskovec, Thomas J; Rowles, Brieana M; Findling, Robert L

    2008-01-01

    Autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) are frequently associated with dysfunctional behaviors and are characterized by deficits in socialization, communication, and behavioral rigidity. Despite the absence of a pharmacological cure for PDDs, many of the dysfunctional, coinciding behaviors may be treated pharmacologically. This article reviews what is known about the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacological interventions for the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from autistic spectrum disorders.

  15. On Normal and Autistic Pronouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Warren H.

    1971-01-01

    An alternative to the ego-based explanations for the autistic child's characteristic patterns of pronominal reversals and avoidances is an approach based on studies of echolalia which considers grammatical aspects of acquisition, reversal, and nonreversal. Focus is consequently shifted from primacy of expressive I to comprehension of you/me…

  16. Eating Behavior of Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulina Handayani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Association between autism and eating problem has been discussed in US and European countries recently, but there are only a few studies about that matter in Asian countries. Objective: This study provides information about eating behavior in autistic children in comparison with Typically Developing (TD children in two different countries, which are Japan and Indonesia. Method: Participants of this study were 39 Japanese and 13 Indonesian parents with autistic children and 197 Japanese and 144 Indonesian parents of TD. Ages of subjects were between 3 to 6 years old. Eating behavior was evaluated by using Brief Autism Mealtime Inventory (BAMBI completed by parents. Result showed that commonly children in both countries had eating behavior problems and children with autistic showed more problems than TD children. It is estimated that autistic children have a delay in eating development that may influence their eating behaviors. It is also reported that cultural background can be considered as another influencing factor in the difference of eating behavior in each country. Conclusion: Our study provided information that Autism children have problem in eating behavior. It needs to be noticed continually by clinicians and parents, although problem in eating behavior is not a core feature of autism; it can be an associate feature in autism. Key words: Autism, Eating behavior, Children

  17. Cerebellar Development and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Maria; Sahin, Mustafa

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 50% of patients with the genetic disease tuberous sclerosis complex present with autism spectrum disorder. Although a number of studies have investigated the link between autism and tuberous sclerosis complex, the etiology of autism spectrum disorder in these patients remains unclear. Abnormal cerebellar function during critical phases of development could disrupt functional processes in the brain, leading to development of autistic features. Accordingly, the authors review the potential role of cerebellar dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder in tuberous sclerosis complex. The authors also introduce conditional knockout mouse models of Tsc1 and Tsc2 that link cerebellar circuitry to the development of autistic-like features. Taken together, these preclinical and clinical investigations indicate the cerebellum has a profound regulatory role during development of social communication and repetitive behaviors.

  18. Identification of Four Novel Synonymous Substitutions in the X-Linked Genes Neuroligin 3 and Neuroligin 4X in Japanese Patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Yanagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the X-linked genes neuroligin 3 (NLGN3 and neuroligin 4X (NLGN4X were first implicated in the pathogenesis of X-linked autism in Swedish families. However, reports of mutations in these genes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients from various ethnic backgrounds present conflicting results regarding the etiology of ASD, possibly because of genetic heterogeneity and/or differences in their ethnic background. Additional mutation screening study on another ethnic background could help to clarify the relevance of the genes to ASD. We scanned the entire coding regions of NLGN3 and NLGN4X in 62 Japanese patients with ASD by polymerase chain reaction-high-resolution melting curve and direct sequencing analyses. Four synonymous substitutions, one in NLGN3 and three in NLGN4X, were identified in four of the 62 patients. These substitutions were not present in 278 control X-chromosomes from unrelated Japanese individuals and were not registered in the database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms build 132 or in the Japanese Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms database, indicating that they were novel and specific to ASD. Though further analysis is necessary to determine the physiological and clinical importance of such substitutions, the possibility of the relevance of both synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions with the etiology of ASD should be considered.

  19. Sleep disorders in children with cerebral palsy: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lélis, Ana Luíza P A; Cardoso, Maria Vera L M; Hall, Wendy A

    2016-12-01

    Sleep disorders are more prevalent in children with cerebral palsy. The review aimed to identify and synthesize information about the nature of sleep disorders and their related factors in children with cerebral palsy. We performed an electronic search by using the search terms sleep/child*, and sleep/cerebral palsy in the following databases: Latin American literature on health sciences, SCOPUS, medical publications, cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature, psycinfo, worldcat, web of science, and the Cochrane library. The selection criteria were studies: available in Portuguese, English or Spanish and published between 2004 and 2014, with results addressing sleep disorders in children (ages 0-18 y) with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy. 36,361 abstracts were identified. Of those, 37 papers were selected, and 25 excluded. Twelve papers were incorporated in the study sample: eight quantitative studies, three reviews, and one case study. Eleven types of sleep disorders were identified, such as difficult morning awakening, insomnia, nightmares, difficulties in initiating and maintaining nighttime sleep (night waking), and sleep anxiety. Twenty-one factors were linked to sleep disorders, which we classified as intrinsic factors associated with common comorbidities accompanying cerebral palsy, and extrinsic aspects, specifically environmental and socio-familial variables, and clinical-surgical and pharmacological interventions.

  20. New microdeletion and microduplication syndromes: A comprehensive review

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Several new microdeletion and microduplication syndromes are emerging as disorders that have been proven to cause multisystem pathologies frequently associated with intellectual disability (ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and other phenotypic findings. In this paper, we review the “new” and emergent microdeletion and microduplication syndromes that have been described and recognized in recent years with the aim of summarizing their main characterist...

  1. Dysautonomia in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Case Reports of a Family with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Lonsdale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Case histories of a mother and her two children are reported. The mother was a recovered alcoholic. She and her two children, both of whom had symptoms that are typical of autistic spectrum disorder, had dysautonomia. All had intermittently abnormal erythrocyte transketolase studies indicating abnormal thiamine pyrophosphate homeostasis. Both children had unusual concentrations of urinary arsenic. All had symptomatic improvement with diet restriction and supplementary vitamin therapy but quickly relapsed after ingestion of sugar, milk, or wheat. The stress of a heavy metal burden, superimposed on existing genetic or epigenetic risk factors, may be important in the etiology of autism spectrum disorder when in combination. Dysautonomia has been associated with several diseases, including autism, without a common etiology. It is hypothesized that oxidative stress results in loss of cellular energy and causes retardation of hard wiring of the brain in infancy, affecting limbic system control of the autonomic nervous system.

  2. Food selectivity in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Zazpe, Itziar; Mari-Sanchis, Amelia; Llopis-González, Agustín; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2014-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by difficulties with reciprocal social interactions and restricted patterns of behavior and interest; one of these characteristic behaviors is food selectivity. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature published between 1970 and 2013 concerning this eating behavior. The articles identified were analyzed in terms of sample size, study design, and criteria for assessment and intervention, as well as the results, level of evidence and grade of recommendation. The main search was conducted in Medline, Cochrane Library, Scielo, ScienceDirect, and Embase). There is empirical evidence and an overall scientific consensus supporting an association between food selectivity and autism spectrum disorders.

  3. Management of Sleep Disorders in Children With Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmer, Allison Beck; Feinstein, James A

    2016-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are defined as a group of disorders caused by changes in early brain development, resulting in behavioral and cognitive alterations in sensory and motor systems, speech, and language. NDDs affect approximately 1-2% of the general population. Up to 80% of children with NDDs are reported to have disrupted sleep; subsequent deleterious effects on daytime behaviors, cognition, growth, and overall development of the child are commonly reported. Examples of NDDs discussed in this review include autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, Rett syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Williams syndrome, and Smith-Magenis syndrome. The etiology of sleep disorders in children with NDDs is largely heterogeneous and disease specific. The diagnosis and management of sleep disorders in this population are complex, and little high-quality data exist to guide a consistent approach to therapy. Managing sleep disorders in children with NDDs is critical both for the child and for the family but is often frustrating due to the refractory nature of the problem. Sleep hygiene must be implemented as first-line therapy; if sleep hygiene alone fails, it should be combined with pharmacologic management. The available evidence for the use of common pharmacologic interventions, such as iron supplementation and melatonin, as well as less common interventions, such as melatonin receptor agonists, clonidine, gabapentin, hypnotics, trazodone, and atypical antipsychotics is reviewed. Further, parents and caregivers should be provided with appropriate education on the nature of the sleep disorders and the expectation for modest pharmacologic benefit, at best. Additional data from well-designed trials in children with NDDs are desperately needed to gain a better understanding of sleep pharmacotherapy including efficacy and safety implications. Until then, clinicians must rely on the limited available data, as well as clinical expertise, when managing sleep disorders in the

  4. Therapeutic and Ethical Dilemma of Puberty and Menstruation Problems in an Intellectually Disabled (Autistic) Female: a Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual disability is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and skills. Autism is a group of developmental brain disorders, collectively called autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Teenagers with learning and physical disabilities are more likely to have menstrual problems compared to the general populations. The parents of a 12-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability referred to the coroner due to her numerous problems of pube...

  5. Basal and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulated Plasma Cortisol Levels Among Egyptian Autistic Children: Relation to Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewedi Doaa H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a disorder of early childhood characterized by social impairment, communication abnormalities and stereotyped behaviors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis deserves special attention, since it is the basis for emotions and social interactions that are affected in autism. Aim To assess basal and stimulated plasma cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels in autistic children and their relationship to disease characteristics. Methods Fifty autistic children were studied in comparison to 50 healthy age-, sex- and pubertal stage- matched children. All subjects were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of plasma cortisol (basal and stimulated and ACTH. In addition, electroencephalography (EEG and intelligence quotient (IQ assessment were done for all autistic children. Results Sixteen% of autistic patients had high ACTH, 10% had low basal cortisol and 10% did not show adequate cortisol response to ACTH stimulation. Autistic patients had lower basal (p = 0.032 and stimulated cortisol (p = 0.04 and higher ACTH (p = 0.01 than controls. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS score correlated positively with ACTH (r = 0.71, p = 0.02 and negatively with each of basal (r = -0.64, p = 0.04 and stimulated cortisol (r = -0.88, p Conclusions The observed hormonal changes may be due to a dysfunction in the HPA axis in autistic individuals. Further studies are warranted regarding the role of HPA axis dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autism.

  6. Acupuncture for neurological disorders in the Cochrane reviews:Characteristics of included reviews and studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deren Wang; Weimin Yang; Ming Liu

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize Cochrane reviews of acupuncture for neurological disorders, and characteristics of included reviews and studies.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online search of the Cochrane Library (Issue 7 of 12, July 2010) was performed with the key word "acupuncture" and systematic evaluations for acupuncture for neurological disorders were screened.STUDY SELECTION: Systematic reviews on acupuncture in the treatment of neurological disorders were included, and the characteristics of these reviews were analyzed based on methods recommended by the Cochrane collaboration.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Basic characteristics, methodological quality, main reasons for excluding trials, results and conclusions of Cochrane reviews were assessed.RESULTS: A total of 18 Cochrane systematic reviews were included, including 13 completed reviews and five research protocols. The 13 completed reviews involved 111 randomized controlled trials, including 43 trials (38.7%) conducted in China, 47 trials (42.3%) using sham-acupuncture or placebo as control, 15 trials (13.5%) with relatively high quality, 91 trials (81.9%) reporting data on follow-up. Primary outcomes used in the Cochrane reviews were reported by 65 trials (58.6%), and adverse events were reported in 11 trials (9.9%). Two hundred and eighty three trials were excluded. Two reviews on headache suggested that acupuncture is a valuable non-drug treatment for patients with chronic or recurrent headache, and has better curative effects on migraine compared with preventative drug treatment. CONCLUSION: Of the Cochrane reviews on acupuncture in the treatment of neurological disorders, two reviews evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture in treating headaches drew positive conculsions, while other reviews did not obtain positive conclusions due to a small sample size or low methodological quality. The methodological quality of acupuncture trials needs further improvement.

  7. Premedication in an autistic, combative child: Challenges and nuances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autistic spectrum disorders are often encountered in anesthesia practice mainly for outdoor procedural sedation or anesthesia in endoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging suites. We describe a case of a 7-year-old autistic boy who required management of dental caries. He had a phobia to intravenous cannulation, displayed increasing anxiety and became combative on the day of surgery. With parental involvement and distraction, we succeeded in giving oral midazolam by concealing it, with the intent of avoiding intramuscular injection or unnecessary restraint. Lack of knowledge about the medical condition of such a patient can lead to inadequate preoperative preparation and use of restraint on the patient, which might cause anxiety or panic attacks in the operative room. To effectively manage children with special needs one needs to have clear guidelines on the management of uncooperative children, involve parents perioperatively, plan ahead with an emphasis on perioperative analgesia and sometimes incorporate the ethical use of restraint.

  8. Reduced incidence of Prevotella and other fermenters in intestinal microflora of autistic children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Wook Kang

    Full Text Available High proportions of autistic children suffer from gastrointestinal (GI disorders, implying a link between autism and abnormalities in gut microbial functions. Increasing evidence from recent high-throughput sequencing analyses indicates that disturbances in composition and diversity of gut microbiome are associated with various disease conditions. However, microbiome-level studies on autism are limited and mostly focused on pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, here we aimed to define systemic changes in gut microbiome associated with autism and autism-related GI problems. We recruited 20 neurotypical and 20 autistic children accompanied by a survey of both autistic severity and GI symptoms. By pyrosequencing the V2/V3 regions in bacterial 16S rDNA from fecal DNA samples, we compared gut microbiomes of GI symptom-free neurotypical children with those of autistic children mostly presenting GI symptoms. Unexpectedly, the presence of autistic symptoms, rather than the severity of GI symptoms, was associated with less diverse gut microbiomes. Further, rigorous statistical tests with multiple testing corrections showed significantly lower abundances of the genera Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae in autistic samples. These are intriguingly versatile carbohydrate-degrading and/or fermenting bacteria, suggesting a potential influence of unusual diet patterns observed in autistic children. However, multivariate analyses showed that autism-related changes in both overall diversity and individual genus abundances were correlated with the presence of autistic symptoms but not with their diet patterns. Taken together, autism and accompanying GI symptoms were characterized by distinct and less diverse gut microbial compositions with lower levels of Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae.

  9. Systematic review of sleep disorders in cancer patients: can the prevalence of sleep disorders be ascertained?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Julie L; Carpenter, Janet S; Manchanda, Shalini; Rand, Kevin L; Skaar, Todd C; Weaver, Michael; Chernyak, Yelena; Zhong, Xin; Igega, Christele; Landis, Carol

    2015-02-01

    Although sleep is vital to all human functioning and poor sleep is a known problem in cancer, it is unclear whether the overall prevalence of the various types of sleep disorders in cancer is known. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to evaluate if the prevalence of sleep disorders could be ascertained from the current body of literature regarding sleep in cancer. This was a critical and systematic review of peer-reviewed, English-language, original articles published from 1980 through 15 October 2013, identified using electronic search engines, a set of key words, and prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information from 254 full-text, English-language articles was abstracted onto a paper checklist by one reviewer, with a second reviewer randomly verifying 50% (k = 99%). All abstracted data were entered into an electronic database, verified for accuracy, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and frequencies in SPSS (v.20) (North Castle, NY). Studies of sleep and cancer focus on specific types of symptoms of poor sleep, and there are no published prevalence studies that focus on underlying sleep disorders. Challenging the current paradigm of the way sleep is studied in cancer could produce better clinical screening tools for use in oncology clinics leading to better triaging of patients with sleep complaints to sleep specialists, and overall improvement in sleep quality.

  10. Gender Differences in the Social Motivation and Friendship Experiences of Autistic and Non-Autistic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgewick, Felicity; Hill, Vivian; Yates, Rhiannon; Pickering, Leanne; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined gender differences in the social motivation and friendship experiences of adolescent boys and girls with autism relative to those without autism, all educated within special education settings. Autistic girls showed similar social motivation and friendship quality to non-autistic girls, while autistic boys…

  11. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis: an unusual cause of autistic regression in a toddler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ori; Richer, Lawrence; Forbes, Karen; Sonnenberg, Lyn; Currie, Angela; Eliyashevska, Myroslava; Goez, Helly R

    2014-05-01

    Anti N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis in children is associated with psychiatric changes, seizures, and dyskinesias. We present the first report of autistic regression in a toddler caused by this entity. A 33-month-old boy presented with decreased appetite, irritability, and insomnia following an upper respiratory tract infection. Over the next few weeks he lost language and social skills, and abnormal movements of his hand developed. Within a month, this patient came to fit the diagnostic criteria for autistic spectrum disorder. Upon investigation, anti-NMDA receptor antibodies were found in the boy's cerebrospinal fluid. He was treated with intravenous immunoglobulins and steroids, resulting in reacquisition of language and social skills and resolution of movements. Our case emphasizes the significance of suspecting anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis as the cause of autistic regression, even in an age group where the diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder is typically made, and especially when presentation follows a febrile illness.

  12. A Review of Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating amongst Nutrition Students and Dietetic Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Heather Mciver; Lordly, Daphne

    2015-03-01

    The diet industry and media have a powerful influence over women, leading many to believe that they must modify their appearance for societal acceptance. Dietetics, as one of many predominantly female professions, may be particularly vulnerable to these pressures. An integrative review process was used to examine eating disorders and disordered eating within the dietetics profession with the aim to both synthesize existing data and develop questions for future research. Seventeen articles were reviewed using broad search terms and dates because of the dearth of available literature. Given nutrition programs and dietetic practice often involve significant exposure to food, ideas and opinions about food, weight, and its place in health and dietetic practice researchers were compelled to ask "why". Findings were organized under 3 categories including thinness ideology, implications of food and body associated with nutrition or dietetic education, and establishment of a continuum. This review serves as a platform to inspire future research in an understudied but important topic related to dietetic education and practice. Minimally as a profession, baseline data need to be collected to understand the prevalence of disordered eating and eating disorders along the continuum of practice in Canada.

  13. Aging, circadian rhythms and depressive disorders: a review

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Aging is typically associated with impairing behavioral patterns that are frequently and inappropriately seen as normal. Circadian rhythm changes and depressive disorders have been increasingly proposed as the two main overlapping and interpenetrating changes that take place in older age. This study aims to review the state of the art on the subject concerning epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanism, clinical findings and relevance, as well as available treatment options. Mat...

  14. A systematic review of cognitive rehabilitation for bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kluwe-Schiavon,Bruno; Viola,Thiago Wendt; Levandowski, Mateus Luz; Bortolotto,Vanessa Rezende; Leo Schuch Azevedo e Souza; Tractenberg,Saulo Gantes; Soares, Tárcio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: It has been shown that bipolar disorder (BD) has a direct impact on neurocognitive functioning and behavior. This finding has prompted studies to investigate cognitive enhancement programs as potential treatments for BD, primarily focusing on cognitive reinforcement and daily functioning and not restricted to psychoeducation and coping strategies, unlike traditional psychosocial treatments. Objective: This study presents a systematic review of controlled trials of cognitive r...

  15. Chemicals, nutrition, and autism spectrum disorder: a mini-review

    OpenAIRE

    Takeo eFujiwara; Naho eMorisaki; Yukiko eHonda; Makiko eSampei; Yukako eTani

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests that exposure to chemicals may impact the development of ASD. Therefore, we reviewed literature on the following chemicals, nutrient to investigate their association with ASD: (1) smoke/tobacco, (2) alcohol, (3) air pollution, (4) pesticides, (5) endocrine-disrupting chemicals, (6) heavy metals, (7) micronutrients, (8) fatty acid, and (9) parental obesity as a proxy of accumulation of specific chemicals or nutriti...

  16. A Review of Eating Disorders and Suicide Risk in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Dancyger, Ida F.; Fornari, Victor M.

    2005-01-01

    This review examines the literature during the past 10 years about suicide risk and suicide during adolescence and young adulthood of individuals with eating disorders. Epidemiological surveys are summarized, including suicide rates, parasuicidal behaviors, associated risk factors, and comorbid psychopathology. Critical implications for the comprehensive assessment and treatment planning, including safety considerations, are discussed. Two clinical cases of women with long-standing eating dis...

  17. Language differences between monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish young children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valicenti-McDermott, Maria; Tarshis, Nancy; Schouls, Melissa; Galdston, Molly; Hottinger, Kathryn; Seijo, Rosa; Shulman, Lisa; Shinnar, Shlomo

    2013-07-01

    Bilingualism is common worldwide and increasingly prevalent, but there is little information about bilingual children with autism spectrum disorder. The goal of the study was to compare expressive and receptive language skills in monolingual English and bilingual English-Spanish children with autism spectrum disorder. A review of the multidisciplinary evaluations done in toddlers who were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder at a university-affiliated center between 2003 and 2010 was performed. Data included demographics, developmental testing, autistic characteristics, and expressive and receptive language skills, obtained from formal speech and language evaluation. A total of 80 toddlers were identified, 40 classified as bilingual English-Spanish. Compared with monolinguals, bilingual children were more likely to vocalize and utilize gestures, with no other differences in language skills. There were no differences in cognitive functioning and autistic features between the groups. In this study, bilingualism did not negatively affect language development in young children with autism spectrum disorder.

  18. Psychotherapy for compulsive buying disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço Leite, Priscilla; Pereira, Valeska Martinho; Nardi, Antônio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2014-11-30

    Based on a literature review, the purpose is to identify the main therapeutic approaches for the compulsive buying disorder, a present time disorder characterized by excessive and uncontrollable concerns or behaviors related to buying or expenses, which may lead to adverse consequences. The systematic review was carried out by searching the electronic scientific bases Medline/Pubmed, ISI, PsycInfo. The search was comprised of full-text articles, written in Portuguese and English, with no time limit or restrictions on the type of study and sample. A total of 1659 references were found and, by the end, 23 articles were selected for this review. From the articles found, it was determined that, although there are case studies and clinical trials underlining the effectiveness of the treatment for compulsive buying, only those studies with a focus on the cognitive-behavioral therapy approach make evident the successful response to the treatment. The publication of new studies on the etiology and epidemiology of the disorder is necessary, in order to establish new forms of treatment and to verify the effectiveness and response of the Brazilian population to the existing protocols.

  19. Endosomal system genetics and autism spectrum disorders: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patak, Jameson; Zhang-James, Yanli; Faraone, Stephen V

    2016-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of debilitating neurodevelopmental disorders thought to have genetic etiology, due to their high heritability. The endosomal system has become increasingly implicated in ASD pathophysiology. In an attempt to summarize the association between endosomal system genes and ASDs we performed a systematic review of the literature. We searched PubMed for relevant articles. Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative (SFARI) gene database was used to exclude articles regarding genes with less than minimal evidence for association with ASDs. Our search retained 55 articles reviewed in two categories: genes that regulate and genes that are regulated by the endosomal system. Our review shows that the endosomal system is a novel pathway implicated in ASDs as well as other neuropsychiatric disorders. It plays a central role in aspects of cellular physiology on which neurons and glial cells are particularly reliant, due to their unique metabolic and functional demands. The system shows potential for biomarkers and pharmacological intervention and thus more research into this pathway is warranted.

  20. Microtransplantation of neurotransmitter receptors from postmortem autistic brains to Xenopus oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Agenor; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge Mauricio; Miledi, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a complex disorder that arises from the pervasive action of genetic and epigenetic factors that alter synaptic connectivity of the brain. Although GABA and glutamate receptors seem to be two of those factors, very little is known about the functional properties of the autistic receptors. Autistic tissue samples stored in brain banks usually have relatively long postmortem times, and it is highly desirable to know whether neurotransmitter receptors in such tissues are still functional. Here we demonstrate that native receptors microtransplanted from autistic brains, as well as de novo mRNA-expressed receptors, are still functional and susceptible to detailed electrophysiological characterization even after long postmortem intervals. The opportunity to study the properties of human receptors present in diseased brains not only opens new avenues toward understanding autism and other neurological disorders, but it also makes the microtransplantation method a useful translational system to evaluate and develop novel medicinal drugs. PMID:18645182

  1. Autistic Enterocolitis: Fact or Fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polymnia Galiatsatos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder refers to syndromes of varying severity, typified by impaired social interactions, communicative delays and restricted, repetitive behaviours and interests. The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders has been on the rise, while the etiology remains unclear and most likely multifactorial. There have been several reports of a link between autism and chronic gastrointestinal symptoms. Endoscopy trials have demonstrated a higher prevalence of nonspecific colitis, lymphoid hyperplasia and focally enhanced gastritis compared with controls. Postulated mechanisms include aberrant immune responses to some dietary proteins, abnormal intestinal permeability and unfavourable gut microflora. Two autism spectrum disorder patients with chronic intestinal symptoms and abnormal endoscopic findings are described, followed by a review of this controversial topic.

  2. Alteration of astrocytes and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the frontal cortex of autistic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Fujiang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, verbal communication and repetitive behaviors. To date the etiology of this disorder is poorly understood. Studies suggest that astrocytes play critical roles in neural plasticity by detecting neuronal activity and modulating neuronal networks. Recently, a number of studies suggested that an abnormal function of glia/astrocytes may be involved in the development of autism. However, there is yet no direct evidence showing how astrocytes develop in the brain of autistic individuals. Methods Study subjects include brain tissue from autistic subjects, BTBR T + tfJ (BTBR and Neuroligin (NL-3 knock-down mice. Western blot analysis, Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy studies have be used to examine the density and morphology of astrocytes, as well as Wnt and β-catenin protein expression. Results In this study, we demonstrate that the astrocytes in autisitcsubjects exhibit significantly reduced branching processes, total branching length and cell body sizes. We also detected an astrocytosis in the frontal cortex of autistic subjects. In addition, we found that the astrocytes in the brain of an NL3 knockdown mouse exhibited similar alterations to what we found in the autistic brain. Furthermore, we detected that both Wnt and β-catenin proteins are decreased in the frontal cortex of autistic subjects. Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of astrocyte development. Conclusions Our findings imply that defects in astrocytes could impair neuronal plasticity and partially contribute to the development of autistic-like behaviors in both humans and mice. The alteration of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the brain of autistic subjects may contribute to the changes of astrocytes.

  3. Blood serotonin levels in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Stefano; Sacco, Roberto; Persico, Antonio M

    2014-06-01

    Elevated blood serotonin (5-HT) levels were the first biomarker identified in autism research. Many studies have contrasted blood 5-HT levels in autistic patients and controls, but different measurement protocols, technologies, and biomaterials have been used through the years. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide an overall estimate of effect size and between-study heterogeneity, while verifying whether and to what extent different methodological approaches influence the strength of this association. Our literature search strategy identified 551 papers, from which 22 studies providing patient and control blood 5-HT values were selected for meta-analysis. Significantly higher 5-HT levels in autistic patients compared to controls were recorded both in whole blood (WB) [O.R.=4.6; (3.1-5.2); P=1.0×10(-12]), and in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) [O.R.=2.6 (1.8-3.9); P=2.7×10(-7)]. Predictably, studies measuring 5-HT levels in platelet-poor plasma (PPP) yielded no significant group difference [O.R.=0.54 (0.2-2-0); P=0.36]. Altogether, elevated 5-HT blood levels were recorded in 28.3% in WB and 22.5% in PRP samples of autistic individuals, as reported in 15 and 4 studies, respectively. Studies employing HPLC vs fluorometric assays yield similar cumulative effect sizes, but the former display much lower variability. In summary, despite some limitations mainly due to small study sample sizes, our results significantly reinforce the reliability of elevated 5-HT blood levels as a biomarker in ASD, providing practical indications potentially useful for its inclusion in multi-marker diagnostic panels for clinical use.

  4. The mental health in mothers with autistic children: a case-control study in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, B C; Lung, F W; Chang, Y Y

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of autistic children on the mental health of their mothers. Autism is a complicated neuropsychiatric disorder. Evidence shows that mothers with autistic children experience greater stress than those having children with other chronic diseases. In this study we have 1) assessed the mental health of mothers with autistic children; 2) determined their prevalence of minor psychiatric morbidity (MPM); 3) classified their MPM; and 4) determined factors related to their mental health. A case-controlled design was used to compare the mental status among mothers having children with either autistic (n = 30), or Down syndrome (n = 11) and with normal children (n = 56). The mean score of the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ) showed no differences between those mothers of case and control groups. Using a 9-point criterion to screen for MPM in the CHQ, more mothers (37%) in the case group had scores > or = 9 compared with the control group (18%). Mothers of the case group had significantly higher for MPM using logistic regression analysis. The educational level was inversely related to the CHQ scores. Mothers with a CHQ score > or = 9, were later diagnosed with either depression (36%) and anxiety (46%); or anxiety and depression (9%). A primary care model for mothers with autistic children should therefore be developed to prevent them from developing mental disorders.

  5. NF-κB Signaling in the Brain of Autistic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Malik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by problems in communication, social skills, and repetitive behavior. Recent studies suggest that apoptotic and inflammatory mechanisms may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disorder. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB is an important gene transcriptional factor involved in the mediation of inflammation and apoptosis. This study examined the activities of the NF-κB signaling pathway in the brain of autistic subjects and their age-matched controls. The NF-κB activation is also determined in the brain of BTBR mice, which is a promising animal model for study of pathogenic mechanisms responsible for autism. Our results showed that the level of IKKα kinase, which phosphorylates the inhibitory subunit IκBα, is significantly increased in the cerebellum of autistic subjects. However, the expression and phosphorylation of IκBα are not altered. In addition, our results demonstrated that the expression of NF-κB (p65, and the phosphorylation/activation of NF-κB (p65 at Ser536 are not significantly changed in the cerebellum and cortex of both autistic subjects and BTBR mice. Our findings suggest that the NF-κB signaling pathway is not disregulated in the brain of autistic subjects and thus may not be significantly involved in the processes of abnormal inflammatory responses suggested in autistic brain.

  6. Epidemiology of eating disorders, eating disordered behaviour, and body image disturbance in males: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchison, Deborah; Mond, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to epidemiological studies of eating and related body image disturbance disorders in males include, in addition to low base rates and the predominance of residual diagnostic categories, the female-centric nature of current classification schemes and the consequent lack of appropriate assessment instruments. In this narrative review, we summarise epidemiological data regarding the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders, related body image disturbance disorders, and eating disorder features in males. Attention is focused on disorders most likely to be observed among males, such as muscle dysmorphia and muscularity-oriented excessive exercise. It is argued that, given the multiple challenges involved in research of this kind, a focus on features is more likely to advance the field than a focus on diagnoses. In terms of correlates, we focus on impairment and help-seeking, since these issues are most relevant in informing public health burden, service provision, and related issues. We end with some thoughts about current gaps in the knowledge base and directions for future research that we consider to be most promising.

  7. Brief Report: Catatonia in Autistic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhossche, Dirk

    1998-01-01

    A case study of an adolescent with catatonia superimposed on autism is presented. The symptoms of the patient are highlighted and include abnormal social interactions, deficits in symbolic play and in communicative language, and occurrence of hallucinations and delusions. Treatment of the patient with clozapine and lorasepam is described. (CR)

  8. Anthropometric assessment of a Middle Eastern group of autistic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nagwa A Meguid; Wafaa A Kandeel; Khaled E Wakeel; Aly A El-Nofely

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth abnormalities are uniquely associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however, the extent to which growth abnormalities are present has hardly been investigated. The current study aims to compare the differences in anthropometric parameters in a group of autistic Egyptian children and the healthy normal population. Methods: We recruited 100 children with ASD from the Outpatient Clinic for "Autistic Children" at the Medical Research Hospital of Excellence, National Research Centre in Cairo, Egypt. They were diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria of the American Psychiatric Association, Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Of these children at age of 3-10 years, 71 were males and 29 females. Eight anthropometric parameters were assessed in view of data of the healthy Egyptians of pertinent sex and age. Results: Weight and body mass index increased because of a signifi cant increase in subcutaneous fat thickness. This tendency with a probable decrease in muscle mass was more evident in male or in older children, likely resulting from sedentary life style and food selectivity. Conclusions: The Z head circumference score and its variance signifi cantly increased especially in males or older children, suggesting the relative overgrowth of the brain in a substantial percentage of Egyptian children with autism. We concluded that increased fat composition in Egyptian autistic children with decreased muscle mass necessitates tailoring a specially designed food supplementation program to ameliorate the severity of autism symptoms.

  9. Mood disorders and complementary and alternative medicine: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi NA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdullah Mohammed Al-Bedah21General Administration for Research and Studies, Sulaimania Medical Complex, 2National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Mood disorders are a major public health problem and are associated with considerable burden of disease, suicides, physical comorbidities, high economic costs, and poor quality of life. Approximately 30%–40% of patients with major depression have only a partial response to available pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM has been used either alone or in combination with conventional therapies in patients with mood disorders. This review of the literature examines evidence-based data on the use of CAM in mood disorders. A search of the PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Quertile databases using keywords was conducted, and relevant articles published in the English language in the peer-reviewed journals over the past two decades were retrieved. Evidence-based data suggest that light therapy, St John's wort, Rhodiola rosea, omega-3 fatty acids, yoga, acupuncture, mindfulness therapies, exercise, sleep deprivation, and S-adenosylmethionine are effective in the treatment of mood disorders. Clinical trials of vitamin B complex, vitamin D, and methylfolate found that, while these were useful in physical illness, results were equivocal in patients with mood disorders. Studies support the adjunctive role of omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid in unipolar and bipolar depression, although manic symptoms are not affected and higher doses are required in patients with resistant bipolar depression and rapid cycling. Omega-3 fatty acids are useful in pregnant women with major depression, and have no adverse effects on the fetus. Choline, inositol, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, and N-acetylcysteine are effective adjuncts in bipolar

  10. Bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Czepielewski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Summarize data on metabolic syndrome (MS in bipolar disorder (BD. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the Medline, Embase and PsycInfo databases, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome", "insulin resistance" and "metabolic X syndrome" and cross-referencing them with "bipolar disorder" or "mania". The following types of publications were candidates for review: (i clinical trials, (ii studies involving patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or (iii data about metabolic syndrome. A 5-point quality scale was used to assess the methodological weight of the studies. RESULTS: Thirty-nine articles were selected. None of studies reached the maximum quality score of 5 points. The prevalence of MS was significantly higher in BD individuals when compared to a control group. The analysis of MS subcomponents showed that abdominal obesity was heterogeneous. Individuals with BD had significantly higher rates of hypertriglyceridemia than healthy controls. When compared to the general population, there were no significant differences in the prevalence of low HDL-c in individuals with BD. Data on hypertension were also inconclusive. Rates of hyperglycemia were significantly greater in patients with BD compared to the general population. CONCLUSIONS: The overall results point to the presence of an association between BD and MS, as well as between their subcomponents.

  11. Disorders Induced by Direct Occupational Exposure to Noise: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Pueyo, Andrea; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2016-01-01

    Background: To review the available scientific literature about the effects on health by occupational exposure to noise. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the retrieved scientific literature from the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), ISI-Web of Knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information), Cochrane Library Plus, SCOPUS, and SciELO (collection of scientific journals) was conducted. The following terms were used as descriptors and were searched in free text: “Noise, Occupational,” “Occupational Exposure,” and “Occupational Disease.” The following limits were considered: “Humans,” “Adult (more than 18 years),” and “Comparative Studies.” Results: A total of 281 references were retrieved, and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 25 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 19 studies provided information about hearing disturbance, four on cardiovascular disorders, one regarding respiratory alteration, and one on other disorders. Conclusions: It can be interpreted that the exposure to noise causes alterations in humans with different relevant outcomes, and therefore appropriate security measures in the work environment must be employed to minimize such an exposure and thereby to reduce the number of associated disorders. PMID:27762251

  12. Disorders induced by direct occupational exposure to noise: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Domingo-Pueyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To review the available scientific literature about the effects on health by occupational exposure to noise. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the retrieved scientific literature from the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed, ISI-Web of Knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information, Cochrane Library Plus, SCOPUS, and SciELO (collection of scientific journals was conducted. The following terms were used as descriptors and were searched in free text: “Noise, Occupational,” “Occupational Exposure,” and “Occupational Disease.” The following limits were considered: “Humans,” “Adult (more than 18 years,” and “Comparative Studies.” Results: A total of 281 references were retrieved, and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 25 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 19 studies provided information about hearing disturbance, four on cardiovascular disorders, one regarding respiratory alteration, and one on other disorders. Conclusions: It can be interpreted that the exposure to noise causes alterations in humans with different relevant outcomes, and therefore appropriate security measures in the work environment must be employed to minimize such an exposure and thereby to reduce the number of associated disorders.

  13. Lithium safety and tolerability in mood disorders: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aprahamian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lithium is a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder in all phases, also indicated as add-on drug for unipolar depression and suicide prevention. This study encompasses a broad critical review on the safety and tolerability of lithium for mood disorders. Methods : A computerized search for English written human studies was made in MEDLINE, using the keywords “lithium” and “mood disorders”, starting from July 1993 through July 2013 (n = 416. This initial search aimed to select clinical trials, prospective data, and controlled design studies of lithium treatment for mood disorders reporting adverse effects (n = 36. The final selection yielded 91 studies. Results : The most common general side effects in patients on lithium treatment were thirst, frequent urination, dry mouth, weight gain, fatigue and cognitive complaints. Lithium users showed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and decrease in urinary concentration ability. Reduction of glomerular filtration rate in patients using lithium was also observed, but in a lesser extent. The evidence of teratogenicity associated with lithium use is not well established. Anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drugs, thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and alprazolam may increase serum lithium and the consequent risk for intoxication. Discussion : Short-term lithium treatment is associated with mild side effects. Medium and long-term lithium treatment, however, might have effects on target organs which may be prevented by periodical monitoring. Overall, lithium is still a safe option for the treatment of mood disorders.

  14. [Organic personality disorder: conceptual review and research strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quemada, J I; Sánchez-Cubillo, I; Muñoz-Céspedes, J M

    2007-01-01

    The historical review of "psychiatric personality disorders" reveals the lack of convergence of those disorders with the organic personality disorder (OPD). Only the psychopathy concept has been used as a psychopathological phenotype for one of the groups of OPD, the so-called "pseudopsychopaths". These patients have been described from the beginning of the XXth century under the heading of "frontal lobe syndrome". It was only with the development of the psychiatric nosologies, towards the middle of the XXth century, that the term "organic personality disorder" started to be used. The accumulation of knowledge about the different prefrontal areas and the development of neuropsychological models that try to explain social behavior have opened new ways of understanding this syndrome. The orbitofrontal cortex has been identified as one of the key structures in behavioral and emotional regulation. Recognition of emotions in voices and faces, empathy, appreciation of humor, tasks that show "theory of mind" are some of the dimensions included in the examination of the non-cognitive functions of the prefrontal cortex

  15. Gastrointestinal disorders associated with migraine: A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara-Lemarroy, Carlos R; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Monreal-Robles, Roberto; Marfil-Rivera, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is a recurrent and commonly disabling primary headache disorder that affects over 17% of women and 5%-8% of men. Migraine susceptibility is multifactorial with genetic, hormonal and environmental factors all playing an important role. The physiopathology of migraine is complex and still not fully understood. Many different neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and brain pathways have been implicated. In connection with the myriad mechanisms and pathways implicated in migraine, a variety of multisystemic comorbidities (e.g., cardiovascular, psychiatric and other neurological conditions) have been found to be closely associated with migraine. Recent reports demonstrate an increased frequency of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders in patients with migraine compared with the general population. Helicobacter pylori infection, irritable bowel syndrome, gastroparesis, hepatobiliary disorders, celiac disease and alterations in the microbiota have been linked to the occurrence of migraine. Several mechanisms involving the gut-brain axis, such as a chronic inflammatory response with inflammatory and vasoactive mediators passing to the circulatory system, intestinal microbiota modulation of the enteric immunological milieu and dysfunction of the autonomic and enteric nervous system, have been postulated to explain these associations. However, the precise mechanisms and pathways related to the gut-brain axis in migraine need to be fully elucidated. In this review, we survey the available literature linking migraine with GI disorders. We discuss the possible physiopathological mechanisms, and clinical implications as well as several future areas of interest for research. PMID:27688656

  16. Pharmacokinetics of buspirone in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David J; Chugani, Diane C; Chugani, Harry T; Chehab, Jamal; Malian, Monica; Aranda, Jacob V

    2006-05-01

    Buspirone is used to treat generalized anxiety disorder in children and may be useful in developmental disorders in which brain serotonin synthesis is altered. Autistic children (13 boys, 7 girls) were given a single oral dose of 2.5 mg (2-3 years) or 5.0 mg (4-6 years). Blood was collected for 8 hours, and plasma was assayed for buspirone and its metabolite 1-pyrimidinylpiperazine (1-PP). The peak concentration of buspirone averaged 1141 +/- 748 pg/mL with a time to maximum concentration of 0.8 hours. Half-life was 1.6 +/- 0.3 hours. Peak concentrations of 1-PP were 4.5-fold higher than for buspirone. Girls had higher peak concentrations (1876 vs 746 pg/mL) for buspirone and a lower peak 1-PP/buspirone concentration ratio. These results suggest that buspirone is rapidly absorbed and eliminated in young children with extensive metabolism to 1-PP. Plasma concentrations with 2.5- to 5.0-mg doses were similar to those observed in older children receiving 7.5- to 15-mg doses.

  17. [Schema therapy for personality disorders. A critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, E; Zarbock, G

    2015-01-01

    In the 10 years since schema therapy was first recognized in Germany it has become widespread among practitioners and has taken a place among the so-called third wave therapies. The overall goal of schema therapy is conceptualizing and treating personality disorders or traits reinforcing axis I disorders. Early maladaptive schemas result from a child's unmet emotional core needs. In a limited reparenting therapy relationship these interpersonal situations are re-experienced and rescripted under the therapist's control. Schema therapy integrates elements of existing models and techniques into a consistent case conceptualization as the bedrock for understanding and changing maladaptive coping behavior. This review article gives a comprehensive overview about the model, the therapy relationship and the application of the experiential techniques in relation to already developed approaches (including the current evidence). The strengths and weaknesses are briefly discussed.

  18. A Multidimensional Review of Bilingual Aphasia as a Language Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Akbari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aphasia as a multifaceted language disorder associated with the complicated links between language and brain has been and is of interest and significance to the stream of research in different disciplines including neurolinguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive studies and language acquisition. Along with explorations into the manifestations of aphasia in monolingual speakers, bilingual aphasia has similarly become the most current form of this language disorder due to the rising number of bilingual speakers in recent decades all over the world and the probability of facing bilinguals suffering from this language deficit. To paint a picture of this multidimensional linguistic impairment and to get out of the labyrinth of aphasia and in particular bilingual aphasia, the present review study aims to provide a summary of aphasia-related studies in different contexts worldwide and run through the variables affecting the manifestations and language recovery patterns in bilingual aphasic speakers.

  19. Review and management of 46,XY disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massanyi, Eric Z; Dicarlo, Heather N; Migeon, Claude J; Gearhart, John P

    2013-06-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) among 46,XY individuals are rare and challenging conditions. Abnormalities of karyotype, gonadal formation, androgen synthesis, and androgen action are responsible for the multiple disorders that result in undervirilization during development. Phenotypic appearance and timing of presentation are quite variable. The focus of treatment has shifted from early gender assignment and corrective surgery to careful diagnosis, proper education of patients and their families, and individualized treatment by a multi-disciplinary team. The modern management of these patients is difficult and controversial. Conflicting data on long-term outcomes of these individuals have been reported in the literature. The various etiologies of 46,XY DSD, current approaches to diagnosis and treatment, and reported long-term results are reviewed.

  20. [Can orthodontic treatment generate temporomandibular disorders and pain? A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebeile-Chauty, Sarah; Robin, Olivier; Messaoudi, Yassine; Aknin, Jean-Jacques

    2010-03-01

    While considered for years to play the primary role in the etiology of temporo-mandibular joint disturbances (TMD), occlusal discrepancies are now considered to be just one causative factor among many. Recent studies, literature reviews or meta-analyses, and longitudinal studies with follow-up of children treated for many years all conclude that there is no risk of orthodontic treatment giving rise to episodes of temporo-mandibular disorders. The signs of TMD appearing during the course of orthodontic treatment should be considered in the context of the epidemiology of the disorder, which is characterized by a strong increase in its occurrence during adolescence. In conclusion, it should be stated that if orthodontic treatment can no longer be considered as one of the etiopathogenic factors in the TMD complex, there are no scientific arguments to justify the converse, that there are indications for orthodontic treatment whose sole goal would be the treatment of TMD.

  1. Trauma-related obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykshoorn, Kristy L

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly researched and conceptualized disorder, and yet it remains one of the most debilitating, widespread, and expensive disorders one can be afflicted with [Real, E., Labad, J., Alonso, P., Segalas, C., Jimenez-Murcia, S., Bueno, B., … Menchon, J. M. (2011). Stressful life events at onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder are associated with a distinct clinical pattern. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 367-376. doi:10.1002/da.20792]. Exposure treatments and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) have been largely accepted as best practice for those with OCD, and yet there are still many who are left with "treatment-resistant OCD" [Rowa, K., Antony, M., & Swinson, R. (2007). Exposure and response prevention. In C. Purdon, M. Antony, & L. J. Summerfeldt (Eds.), Psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Fundamentals and beyond (pp. 79-109). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association; Foa, E. B. (2010). Cognitive behavioural therapy of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Dialogues of Clinical Neuroscience, 12, 199-207]. Similarly, exposure treatments and CBT have been accepted as best practice for trauma-related distress (i.e. post-traumatic stress disorder; Foa, E. B., Keane, T. M., Friedman, M. J., & Cohen, J. A. (2009). Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the international society for traumatic studies (2nd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press). From a literature review, evidence has been provided that demonstrates a high prevalence rate (30-82%) of OCD among individuals with a traumatic history in comparison to the prevalence rate of the general population (1.1-1.8%; [Cromer, K. R., Schmidt, N. B., & Murphy, D. L. (2006). An investigation of traumatic life events and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 1683-1691. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2006.08.018; Fontenelle, L. F., Cocchi, L., Harrison, B. J., Shavitt, R. G., do Rosario, M. C., Ferrao, Y. A

  2. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient and Visual Search: Shallow and Deep Autistic Endophenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, B. L.; Plaisted-Grant, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    A high Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score (Baron-Cohen et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord" 31(1):5-17, 2001) is increasingly used as a proxy in empirical studies of perceptual mechanisms in autism. Several investigations have assessed perception in non-autistic people measured for AQ, claiming the same relationship exists between…

  3. Study the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in Egyptian autistic children: A clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-baz

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: HBOT is a treatment that has recently become quite popular in the autism spectrum disorder (ASD community. Its benefits cross a wide range of autistic traits as: improved language, increased awareness, behavior and socialization by affecting the pathophysiological findings in autism.

  4. Going "Above and Beyond": Are Those High in Autistic Traits Less Pro-Social?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Leila; Vyas, Karishma; Bellesi, Giulia; Roberts, Victoria; Channon, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have explored how the cognitive differences associated with autistic spectrum disorder translate into everyday social behaviour. This study investigated pro-social behaviour in students scoring high and low on the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ), using a novel scenario task: "Above and Beyond." Each scenario involved an…

  5. Tutoring an American Autistic College Student in Japanese and Its Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Tomoko

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between autism and teaching a foreign language (TFL) and explores how specific teaching styles may strengthen learners' motivation. Autism is simply considered to be a social disorder of development. Autistic people are often seen as having difficulty in learning a language other than their first language.…

  6. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Ferreira Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana Almeida; de Sá Filho, Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders observed currently. It is a normal adaptive response to stress that allows coping with adverse situations. Nevertheless, when anxiety becomes excessive or disproportional in relation to the situation that evokes it or when there is not any special object directed at it, such as an irrational dread of routine stimuli, it becomes a disabling disorder and is considered to be pathological. The traditional treatment used is medication and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy, however, last years the practice of physical exercise, specifically aerobic exercise, has been investigated as a new non-pharmacological therapy for anxiety disorders. Thus, the aim of this article was to provide information on research results and key chains related to the therapeutic effects of aerobic exercise compared with other types of interventions to treat anxiety, which may become a useful clinical application in a near future. Researches have shown the effectiveness of alternative treatments, such as physical exercise, minimizing high financial costs and minimizing side effects. The sample analyzed, 66.8% was composed of women and 80% with severity of symptoms anxiety as moderate to severe. The data analyzed in this review allows us to claim that alternative therapies like exercise are effective in controlling and reducing symptoms, as 91% of anxiety disorders surveys have shown effective results in treating. However, there is still disagreement regarding the effect of exercise compared to the use of antidepressant symptoms and cognitive function in anxiety, this suggests that there is no consensus on the correct intensity of aerobic exercise as to achieve the best dose-response, with intensities high to moderate or moderate to mild.

  7. Melatonin for disordered sleep in individuals with autism spectrum disorders: systematic review and discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guénolé, Fabian; Godbout, Roger; Nicolas, Alain; Franco, Patricia; Claustrat, Bruno; Baleyte, Jean-Marc

    2011-12-01

    Sleep disturbance is common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and melatonin is widely prescribed in such cases despite a lack of guidelines. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin for treating disordered sleep in individuals with ASD. We performed a Pubmed(®) documentary search enlarged by a manual review of references, which finally supplied 12 citations (4 case reports, 3 retrospective studies, 2 open-label clinical trials, and 3 placebo-controlled trials). As a whole, we found that the literature supports the existence of a beneficial effect of melatonin on sleep in individuals with ASD, with only few and minor side effects. However, considering the small number of studies and their methodological limits, these conclusions cannot yet be regarded as evidence-based. Randomized controlled trials and long-term follow-up data are still lacking to better assess efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin for disordered sleep in individuals with ASD.

  8. Vocational Support Approaches in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Synthesis Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, David B.; Attridge, Mark; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Clarke, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This synthesis-based analysis identifies and reviews studies evaluating vocational resources for adults with autism spectrum disorder. It is based on a larger systematic review of intervention studies in autism spectrum disorder, from which a critical interpretive synthesis was conducted on studies related to vocation and autism spectrum disorder.…

  9. Perfusion impairments on brain SPECT in patients with infantile autism and nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders: comparison with MR findings

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    Ryu, Young Hoon; Lee, Jong Doo; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Jeon, Tae Joo; Shin, Yee Jin; Lee, Byung Hee; Shin, Hyung Cheol [College of Medecine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    Neuroimaging findings of autism has been the subjects of continuing investigation. Because previous study had not demonstrated consistent and specific neuroimaging findings of autism and most studies comprised adults and school-aged children, we performed a retrospective review in search of common functional and structural abnormalities in pre-school aged autistic children using Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI and compared them with age-matched children with nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). 58 children between 3 and 8 years of age infantile autism (n=37) and non-autistic PDD (n=21) were performed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI. Diagnosis of autism and non-autistic PDD was based on the criteria of DSM-IV and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Of the 37 autistic patients, 32 revealed decreased perfusion of cerebellar hemisphere, followed by hypoperfusion of thalami (n=30), parietal cortex (n=16), temporal cortex (n=12). Of those 21 PDD patients, 14 patients showed hypoperfusion of the thalami and 10 patients showed temporal hypoperfusion. However, cerebellar hemispheric (n=8) and parietal (n=1) hypoperfusion was infrequently seen. All autistic and nonautistic PDD patients had normal MRI scan. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion on brain SPECT showed statistically significant correlation with CARS. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion is significantly frequently noted in autistic patients although they had normal MRI and SPECT may be useful and more sensitive modality in reflecting pathophysiology of autism as evidenced by previous MRI and postmortem studies. Thalamic and temporal hypoperfusion can be seen in both autistic and nonautistic patients and further studies are necessary to determine the significance of the thalamic hypoperfusion.

  10. Detection of antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic children who received thimerosal-containing vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra K; Rivas, Wyatt H

    2004-01-01

    Autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder, may involve autoimmune pathogenesis. Since mercury is potentially a risk factor for autoimmunity, we conducted a study of mercury-induced antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic and normal children who had been pre-administered with thimerosal-containing vaccines. Laboratory analysis by different immunoassays showed that the serum level of these two autoimmune markers did not significantly differ between autistic and normal children. This finding suggests that the mercury as in thimerosal-containing vaccines is likely not related to autoimmune phenomenon in autism.

  11. Seeking the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder. Part 2: functional neuroimaging [W poszukiwaniu przyczyn zaburzeń ze spektrum autyzmu – neuroobrazowanie funkcjonalne (część II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple functional imaging techniques help to a better understanding of the neurobiological basis of autism-spectrum disorders (ASD. The early functional imaging studies on ASD focused on task-specific methods related to core symptom domains and explored patterns of activation in response to face processing, theory of mind tasks, language processing and executive function tasks. On the other hand, fMRI research in ASD focused on the development of functional connectivity methods and has provided evidence of alterations in cortical connectivity in ASD and establish autism as a disorder of under-connectivity among the brain regions participating in cortical networks. This atypical functional connectivity in ASD results in inefficiency and poor integration of processing in network connections to achieve task performance. The goal of this review is to summarise the actual neuroimaging functional data and examine their implication for understanding of the neurobiology of ASD.

  12. Virtual reality exposure therapy in anxiety disorders: a systematic review of process-and-outcome studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has become an interesting alternative for the treatment of anxiety disorders. Research has focused on the efficacy of VRET in treating anxiety disorders: phobias, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. In this systematic review, st

  13. Perceptual inference and autistic traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skewes, Joshua; Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Gebauer, Line

    2015-01-01

    Autistic people are better at perceiving details. Major theories explain this in terms of bottom-up sensory mechanisms, or in terms of top-down cognitive biases. Recently, it has become possible to link these theories within a common framework. This framework assumes that perception is implicit...... neural inference, combining sensory evidence with prior perceptual knowledge. Within this framework, perceptual differences may occur because of enhanced precision in how sensory evidence is represented, or because sensory evidence is weighted much higher than prior perceptual knowledge...

  14. Connected Speech in Neurodegenerative Language Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Veronica; Catricalà, Eleonora; Consonni, Monica; Chesi, Cristiano; Moro, Andrea; Cappa, Stefano F.

    2017-01-01

    Language assessment has a crucial role in the clinical diagnosis of several neurodegenerative diseases. The analysis of extended speech production is a precious source of information encompassing the phonetic, phonological, lexico-semantic, morpho-syntactic, and pragmatic levels of language organization. The knowledge about the distinctive linguistic variables identifying language deficits associated to different neurodegenerative diseases has progressively improved in the last years. However, the heterogeneity of such variables and of the way they are measured and classified limits any generalization and makes the comparison among studies difficult. Here we present an exhaustive review of the studies focusing on the linguistic variables derived from the analysis of connected speech samples, with the aim of characterizing the language disorders of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases, including primary progressive aphasia, Alzheimer's disease, movement disorders, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A total of 61 studies have been included, considering only those reporting group analysis and comparisons with a group of healthy persons. This review first analyzes the differences in the tasks used to elicit connected speech, namely picture description, story narration, and interview, considering the possible different contributions to the assessment of different linguistic domains. This is followed by an analysis of the terminologies and of the methods of measurements of the variables, indicating the need for harmonization and standardization. The final section reviews the linguistic domains affected by each different neurodegenerative disease, indicating the variables most consistently impaired at each level and suggesting the key variables helping in the differential diagnosis among diseases. While a large amount of valuable information is already available, the review highlights the need of further work, including the development of automated methods, to

  15. A review of heterogeneous data mining for brain disorder identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bokai; Kong, Xiangnan; Yu, Philip S

    2015-12-01

    With rapid advances in neuroimaging techniques, the research on brain disorder identification has become an emerging area in the data mining community. Brain disorder data poses many unique challenges for data mining research. For example, the raw data generated by neuroimaging experiments is in tensor representations, with typical characteristics of high dimensionality, structural complexity, and nonlinear separability. Furthermore, brain connectivity networks can be constructed from the tensor data, embedding subtle interactions between brain regions. Other clinical measures are usually available reflecting the disease status from different perspectives. It is expected that integrating complementary information in the tensor data and the brain network data, and incorporating other clinical parameters will be potentially transformative for investigating disease mechanisms and for informing therapeutic interventions. Many research efforts have been devoted to this area. They have achieved great success in various applications, such as tensor-based modeling, subgraph pattern mining, and multi-view feature analysis. In this paper, we review some recent data mining methods that are used for analyzing brain disorders.

  16. Acupressure for treating neurological disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Sook; Lee, Myeong Soo; Min, Kyungyoon; Lew, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Beom-Joon

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this review is to assess the clinical evidence for or against acupressure as a treatment for neurological disorders. We searched the literature from 12 databases from their inception to July 2010. We included any type of controlled clinical trial (CCT) in which patients with neurological disorders were treated with acupressure. The methodological quality of all clinical trials was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias analysis. In total, two randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and four CCTs were included. Four studies (one RCT and three CCTs) compared the effects of acupressure with routine care or no treatment in patients with stroke and showed significant effects of acupressure on improving patient function and symptoms. One RCT, which compared acupressure with sham acupressure and no treatment in patients with headache, also showed that acupressure significantly reduced headache severity and pain. However, all trials were open to methodological limitations and a high risk of bias. In conclusion, current evidence showing that acupressure is an effective treatment for improving function and symptoms in patients with stroke is limited. However, the evidence is insufficient to draw conclusions concerning the effects of acupressure on other neurological disorders. More rigorous studies are warranted.

  17. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient and Visual Search: Shallow and Deep Autistic Endophenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, B L; Plaisted-Grant, K C

    2016-05-01

    A high Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score (Baron-Cohen et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 31(1):5-17, 2001) is increasingly used as a proxy in empirical studies of perceptual mechanisms in autism. Several investigations have assessed perception in non-autistic people measured for AQ, claiming the same relationship exists between performance on perceptual tasks in high-AQ individuals as observed in autism. We question whether the similarity in performance by high-AQ individuals and autistics reflects the same underlying perceptual cause in the context of two visual search tasks administered to a large sample of typical individuals assessed for AQ. Our results indicate otherwise and that deploying the AQ as a proxy for autism introduces unsubstantiated assumptions about high-AQ individuals, the endophenotypes they express, and their relationship to Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) individuals.

  18. Autistic barriers in the psychoanalysis of borderline adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D; Jay, S M

    1996-10-01

    The authors discuss Frances Tustin's work on childhood autism in order to clarify the nature and protective function of autistic barriers in adult patients who present challenging resistances in treatment. Tustin's thesis is that childhood autism constitutes a massive formation of avoidance reactions that develop in infancy to ward off traumatic awareness of bodily separateness. She describes two forms of childhood pathology that may develop: the encapsulated child who defends against all 'not me' experience by means of self-generated bodily sensations that augment the illusion of complete bodily continuity with the mother; and the entangled child who generates a protective illusion of being enfolded inside the body of the mother to minimise the experience of separateness. The transference resistances of borderline adults can be categorised according to Tustin's typology of encapsulation and entanglement. Clinical material is presented from the analyses of two borderline patients, one encapsulated and the other entangled. Despite seemingly different transference manifestations, both belong to the category of autistic barriers inasmuch as they ward off awareness of separation-induced injury to the primal self. The countertransference difficulties that the analyst encounters with patients who employ autistic barriers are discussed and treatment issues are reviewed.

  19. Th17 cells in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Li, Xiang; Xia, Junhui

    2016-12-01

    Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) has been identified as a central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune inflammatory disorder, which has been recognized as a B cell-mediated humoral immune disease. However, cases have been reported indicating that some of the neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients have been resistant to B cell-related treatments. Recently, more and more evidence has shown that T cell-mediated immunity may take part in the pathogenesis of NMOSD, especially in the Th17 phenotype. In our PUBMED search, we used the following keywords: Th17 cell, Th17 cell-related cytokines, T cells, B cells, B cell-related productions, NMO, NMOSD, recurrent/bilateral optic neuritis, recurrent transverse myelitis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. We systemically reviewed the role of Th17 cells and Th17 cell-related cytokines in NMOSD. We found that Th17 cells and Th17-related cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β, IL-17, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23 and TGF-β, are not only directly involved in the pathogenesis but also collaborated with B cells and B cell-related antibody production to induce CNS lesions. Th17 cell-related therapy has also been reviewed in this article, and the data suggested that Th17 may be a new therapeutic target of NMOSD.

  20. Personality disorders in euthymic bipolar patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severino Bezerra-Filho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To identify, by means of a systematic review, the frequency with which comorbid personality disorders (PDs have been assessed in studies of euthymic bipolar patients.Methods:PubMed, ciELO and PsychINFO databases were searched for eligible articles published between 1997 and 2013. After screening 1,249 empirical papers, two independent reviewers identified three articles evaluating the frequency of PDs in patients with bipolar disorders assessed in a state of euthymia.Results:The total sample comprised 376 euthymic bipolar patients, of whom 155 (41.2% had at least one comorbid PD. Among them, we found 87 (23.1% in cluster B, 55 (14.6% in cluster C, and 25 (6.6% in cluster A. The frequencies of PD subtypes were: borderline, 38 (10.1%; histrionic, 29 (7.7%; obsessive-compulsive, 28 (7.4%; dependent, 19 (5%; narcissistic, 17 (4.5%; schizoid, schizotypal, and avoidant, 11 patients each (2.95%; paranoid, five (1.3%; and antisocial, three (0.79%.Conclusion:The frequency of comorbid PD was high across the spectrum of euthymic bipolar patients. In this population, the most common PDs were those in cluster B, and the most frequent PD subtype was borderline, followed by histrionic and obsessive-compulsive.

  1. MECHANICAL GAIT TRAINING IN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS: A REVIEW OF EVIDENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyyappan Manickavasagam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Robotic technologies are becoming more prevalent for treating neurological conditions in clinical settings. We conducted a literature search of original articles to identify all studies that examined the use of robotic devices for restoring walking function in adults with neurological disorders. A search was conducted in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Google Scholar, CINAHL and EBSCO host from 2005 to 2014. Keywords used were gait, locomotor training, multiple sclerosis, neurological disorders, rehabilitation, robotics, spinal cord injury, stroke, traumatic brain injury and walking. This review analyzed 27 articles that examined the effects of locomotor training with robotic assistance in patients following stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI, multiple sclerosis (MS, traumatic brain injury (TBI, and Parkinson disease (PD. This review supports that locomotor training with robotic assistance is beneficial for improving walking function in individuals following a stroke and SCI. Gait speed and endurance were not found to be significantly different among patients with motor incomplete SCI after a variety of locomotor training approaches. Limited evidence demonstrates that locomotor training with robotic assistance is beneficial in populations of patients with MS, TBI, or PD. We discuss clini¬cal implications and decision making in the area of gait reha¬bilitation for neurological dysfunction.

  2. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iran: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Yousefi-Nooraie

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective:Taking the diversity of the methodologies applied in prevalence studies of psychiatric disorders in Iran and their heterogeneous results into consideration, there seems to be need for a systematic review in order to compile the findings and seek appropriate recommendations for future studies. This study aims at systematically identifying studies conducted in Iran describing the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in general population, and to summarize the findings of these studies. "n "n Method:To identify the relevant studies, several databases including Pubmed Medline, ISI Web of Science, PsychINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, Irandoc, IranPsych, IranMedex, Scientific Information Database as well as reference lists of the accessed documents, unpublished reports, conference proceedings and dissertations were searched. In the next step, the original studies which contained an estimation of prevalence of "any psychiatric disorder" (overall prevalence among a sample of general population in the country were selected. This was followed by data extraction, presentation of the results, quality assessment and quantitative pooling of estimated rates of prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Results:A total number of 35 studies were included. Estimations provided for prevalence rates in different groups illustrate diversity and heterogeneity; the rates varied in the range of 1.9-58.8%. Most of the studies had assessed the point prevalence of the disorders conducted using screening instruments. The median point prevalence has been reported to be 28.70% in screening studies, and 18.60% in studies using diagnostic interviews. Pooled estimates obtained through meta-analysis for screening and diagnostic studies were 29.1% and 21.9%,respectively. The results of the studies which have used diagnostic interviews as their data collection tool showed less heterogeneity than the ones using screening instruments. In quality assessment of the studies, only one

  3. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies

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    José Caetano Dell'Aglio Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.

  4. Gender Differences in the Social Motivation and Friendship Experiences of Autistic and Non-autistic Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sedgewick, F.; Hill, V; Yates, R; Pickering, L.; Pellicano, E.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined gender differences in the social motivation and friendship experiences of adolescent boys and girls with autism relative to those without autism, all educated within special education settings. Autistic girls showed similar social motivation and friendship quality to non-autistic girls, while autistic boys reported having both qualitatively different friendships and less motivation for social contact relative to boys without autism and to girls with and witho...

  5. Gender Differences in the Social Motivation and Friendship Experiences of Autistic and Non-autistic Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sedgewick, Felicity; Hill, Vivian; Yates, Rhiannon; Pickering, Leanne; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined gender differences in the social motivation and friendship experiences of adolescent boys and girls with autism relative to those without autism, all educated within special education settings. Autistic girls showed similar social motivation and friendship quality to non-autistic girls, while autistic boys reported having both qualitatively different friendships and less motivation for social contact relative to boys without autism and to girls with and witho...

  6. Epidemiology of eating disorders in Latin America : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolar, David R.; Mejia Rodriguez, Dania L.; Mebarak Chams, Moises; Hoek, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of reviewEating disorders are currently not considered to be limited to Western culture. We systematically reviewed the existing literature on the prevalence of eating disorders in Latin America.Recent findingsOf 1583 records screened, 17 studies from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexi

  7. Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Amy S; Blaxill, Mark F; Haley, Boyd E

    2003-01-01

    Reported rates of autism have increased sharply in the United States and the United Kingdom. One possible factor underlying these increases is increased exposure to mercury through thimerosal-containing vaccines, but vaccine exposures need to be evaluated in the context of cumulative exposures during gestation and early infancy. Differential rates of postnatal mercury elimination may explain why similar gestational and infant exposures produce variable neurological effects. First baby haircut samples were obtained from 94 children diagnosed with autism using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM IV) criteria and 45 age- and gender-matched controls. Information on diet, dental amalgam fillings, vaccine history, Rho D immunoglobulin administration, and autism symptom severity was collected through a maternal survey questionnaire and clinical observation. Hair mercury levels in the autistic group were 0.47 ppm versus 3.63 ppm in controls, a significant difference. The mothers in the autistic group had significantly higher levels of mercury exposure through Rho D immunoglobulin injections and amalgam fillings than control mothers. Within the autistic group, hair mercury levels varied significantly across mildly, moderately, and severely autistic children, with mean group levels of 0.79, 0.46, and 0.21 ppm, respectively. Hair mercury levels among controls were significantly correlated with the number of the mothers' amalgam fillings and their fish consumption as well as exposure to mercury through childhood vaccines, correlations that were absent in the autistic group. Hair excretion patterns among autistic infants were significantly reduced relative to control. These data cast doubt on the efficacy of traditional hair analysis as a measure of total mercury exposure in a subset of the population. In light of the biological plausibility of mercury's role in neurodevelopmental disorders, the present study provides further insight into one

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

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    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4:1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and 4 Iranian databases (IranPsych,IranMedex, Irandoc and Scientific Information Database (SID to find Iranian studies on  ASDs. The results of 39 investigations, comprising original, review and editorial articles; proceedings; and available dissertations were categorized by prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.ConclusionSeveral preliminary investigations have been done to evaluate the prevalence of ASDs, and risk factors and effective variables have been studied with regard to etiology. The diagnostic evaluation of ASDs, especially based on EEG, and several pharmacological and behavioral interventions for ASD have been implemented in Iran. Mental health, stress levels, and personality characteristics were examined in the parents of children with ASDs, which were focused on mothers.ReferencesFirst MB, Frances A, Pincus HA. DSM-IV-TR: Handbook of differential diagnosis. United States of America:American Psychiatric Publishing; 2002.Parker S, Zuckerman B, Augustyn M. Developmental and behavioral pediatrics, 2 th ed. United States of America:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.Howlin P. Autism and Asperger syndrome, 2 th ed. United States of America: Routledge; 2005.Mohammadi MR, Akhondzadeh S. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Etiology and Pharmacotherapy. Curr Drug ther2007; 2: 97-103.Newschaffer CJ, Croen LA, Daniels J, Giarelli E, GretherJK, Levy SE, et al. The epidemiology of autism spectrumdisorders. Annu Rev Public Health

  9. Panic disorder: a review of DSM-IV panic disorder and proposals for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, Michelle G; Kircanski, Katharina; Epstein, Alyssa; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Pine, Danny S; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Hinton, Devon

    2010-02-01

    This review covers the literature since the publication of DSM-IV on the diagnostic criteria for panic attacks (PAs) and panic disorder (PD). Specific recommendations are made based on the evidence available. In particular, slight changes are proposed for the wording of the diagnostic criteria for PAs to ease the differentiation between panic and surrounding anxiety; simplification and clarification of the operationalization of types of PAs (expected vs. unexpected) is proposed; and consideration is given to the value of PAs as a specifier for all DSM diagnoses and to the cultural validity of certain symptom profiles. In addition, slight changes are proposed for the wording of the diagnostic criteria to increase clarity and parsimony of the criteria. Finally, based on the available evidence, no changes are proposed with regard to the developmental expression of PAs or PD. This review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V.

  10. Utility of proteomics in obstetric disorders: a review

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    Hernández-Núñez J

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jónathan Hernández-Núñez,1 Magel Valdés-Yong21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Alberto Fernández-Valdés, Santa Cruz del Norte, Mayabeque, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Luis Díaz Soto, Habana del Este, La Habana, CubaAbstract: The study of proteomics could explain many aspects of obstetric disorders. We undertook this review with the aim of assessing the utility of proteomics in the specialty of obstetrics. We searched the electronic databases of MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, BVS Bireme, and SciELO, using various search terms with the assistance of a librarian. We considered cohort studies, case-control studies, case series, and systematic review articles published until October 2014 in the English or Spanish language, and evaluated their quality and the internal validity of the evidence provided. Two reviewers extracted the data independently, then both researchers simultaneously revised the data later, to arrive at a consensus. The search retrieved 1,158 papers, of which 965 were excluded for being duplicates, not relevant, or unrelated studies. A further 86 papers were excluded for being guidelines, protocols, or case reports, along with another 64 that did not contain relevant information, leaving 43 studies for inclusion. Many of these studies showed the utility of proteomic techniques for prediction, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, monitoring, and prognosis of pre-eclampsia, perinatal infection, premature rupture of membranes, preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and ectopic pregnancy. Proteomic techniques have enormous clinical significance and constitute an invaluable weapon in the management of obstetric disorders that increase maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.Keywords: proteomic techniques, obstetrics, diagnosis, prediction

  11. Local Oestrogen for Pelvic Floor Disorders: A Systematic Review.

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    M A Weber

    Full Text Available The decline in available oestrogen after menopause is a possible etiological factor in pelvic floor disorders like vaginal atrophy (VA, urinary incontinence (UI, overactive bladder (OAB and pelvic organ prolapse (POP. This systematic review will examine the evidence for local oestrogen therapy in the treatment of these pelvic floor disorders.We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the non-MEDLINE subset of PubMed from inception to May 2014. We searched for local oestrogens and VA (I, UI/OAB (II and POP (III. Part I was combined with broad methodological filters for randomized controlled trials (RCTs and secondary evidence. For part I and II two reviewers independently selected RCTs evaluating the effect of topical oestrogens on symptoms and signs of VA and UI/OAB. In part III all studies of topical oestrogen therapy in the treatment of POP were selected. Data extraction and the assessment of risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was undertaken independently by two reviewers.The included studies varied in ways of topical application, types of oestrogen, dosage and treatment durations. Objective and subjective outcomes were assessed by a variety of measures. Overall, subjective and urodynamic outcomes, vaginal maturation and vaginal pH changed in favor of vaginal oestrogens compared to placebo. No obvious differences between different application methods were revealed. Low doses already seemed to have a beneficial effect. Studies evaluating the effect of topical oestrogen in women with POP are scarce and mainly assessed symptoms and signs associated with VA instead of POP symptoms.Topical oestrogen administration is effective for the treatment of VA and seems to decrease complaints of OAB and UI. The potential for local oestrogens in the prevention as well as treatment of POP needs further research.

  12. Reprint of "Treatment of cannabis use disorders in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders--a systematic review"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan; Nordentoft, Merete

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are prevalent among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), with a range of detrimental effects, e.g. reduced compliance to medication and psychosocial interventions, and increased level of psychotic-dimension symptoms. The aim of this study was to review ...... literature on treatments of CUD in SSD-patients....

  13. Reprint of "Treatment of cannabis use disorders in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders--a systematic review"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan; Nordentoft, Merete

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are prevalent among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), with a range of detrimental effects, e.g. reduced compliance to medication and psychosocial interventions, and increased level of psychotic-dimension symptoms. The aim of this study was to review...

  14. Impact of Casein and Gluten Free Dietary Intervention on Selected Autistic Children

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    Veerappan Nishadevi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autism is a life long developmental disorder that emerges in early childhood and results in significant lifelong disability. The goal of treatment is to promote the childs social and language development and minimize behaviors that interfere with the childs functioning and learning. This study evaluated the impact of casein and gluten free diet among selected autistic children. Methods: Three private special schools in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 50 autistic children 10 from SIMEC, 10 from MMIC and 30 from CSI comprised the study sample. Background information, clinical history and nutritional status, dietary pattern were collected from the 50 selected autistic children. Out of 50 autistic children 30 autistic children were selected for the dietary intervention. Diet counseling regarding casein free diet was imparted to Group I (n=10, gluten free diet to Group II (n=10 and both casein and gluten free diet for Group III (n=10. The diet was followed for a period of 2 months. The efficacy of the dietary exclusion of casein and gluten was evaluated using a food and behavior diary on a day to day basis, using observation method. Findings: Results about Group I autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of casein free diet showed that the mean scores before and after casein free dietary intervention depiticted these improvements as, 1 to 1.2 for attention, 2.8 to 2.9 for sleep, 1.1 to 1.3 for hyperactivity, 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety/compulsion. For Group II autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of gluten free diet showed the improvements as 1.1 to 1.4 for attention 2.5 to 3 for sleep, 1.7 to 1.9 for hyperactivity, 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety/compulsion. About Group III autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of both casein and gluten free diet showed the improvements as 1.1 to 1.3 for attention, 2.5 to 2.7 for sleep, 1.3 to 1.7 for hyperactivity, and 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety

  15. Cytokines profile and peripheral blood mononuclear cells morphology in Rett and autistic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorelli, Alessandra; Cervellati, Franco; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Montagner, Giulia; Waldon, PhiAnh; Hayek, Joussef; Gambari, Roberto; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    A potential role for immune dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been well established. However, immunological features of Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder closely related to autism, have not been well addressed yet. By using multiplex Luminex technology, a panel of 27 cytokines and chemokines was evaluated in serum from 10 RTT patients with confirmed diagnosis of MECP2 mutation (typical RTT), 12 children affected by classic autistic disorder and 8 control subjects. The cytokine/chemokine gene expression was assessed by real time PCR on mRNA of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Moreover, ultrastructural analysis of PBMCs was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Significantly higher serum levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-9, IL-13 were detected in RTT compared to control subjects, and IL-15 shows a trend toward the upregulation in RTT. In addition, IL-1β and VEGF were the only down-regulated cytokines in autistic patients with respect to RTT. No difference in cytokine/chemokine profile between autistic and control groups was detected. These data were also confirmed by ELISA real time PCR. At the ultrastructural level, the most severe morphological abnormalities were observed in mitochondria of both RTT and autistic PBMCs. In conclusion, our study shows a deregulated cytokine/chemokine profile together with morphologically altered immune cells in RTT. Such abnormalities were not quite as evident in autistic subjects. These findings indicate a possible role of immune dysfunction in RTT making the clinical features of this pathology related also to the immunology aspects, suggesting, therefore, novel possible therapeutic interventions for this disorder.

  16. Necrosis is increased in lymphoblastoid cell lines from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Penelope A E; Thomas, Philip; Esterman, Adrian; Fenech, Michael F

    2013-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterised by impairments in reciprocal social interaction, communication and stereotyped behaviours. As increased DNA damage events have been observed in a range of other neurological disorders, it was hypothesised that they would be elevated in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) obtained from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings. Six case-sibling pairs of LCLs from children with autistic disorder and their non-autistic siblings were obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) and cultured in standard RPMI-1640 tissue culture medium. Cells were exposed to medium containing either 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM hydrogen peroxide (an oxidative stressor) or 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 µM s-nitroprusside (a nitric oxide producer) for 1h. Following exposure, the cells were microscopically scored for DNA damage, cytostasis and cytotoxicity biomarkers as measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Necrosis was significantly increased in cases relative to controls when exposed to oxidative and nitrosative stress (P = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Nuclear division index was significantly lower in LCLs from children with autistic disorder than their non-autistic siblings when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (P = 0.016), but there was no difference in apoptosis, micronucleus frequency, nucleoplasmic bridges or nuclear buds. Exposure to s-nitroprusside significantly increased the number of micronuclei in non-autistic siblings compared with cases (P = 0.003); however, other DNA damage biomarkers, apoptosis and nuclear division did not differ significantly between groups. The findings of this study show (i) that LCLs from children with autism are more sensitive to necrosis under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress than their non-autistic siblings and (ii) refutes the hypothesis that children with autistic disorder are abnormally

  17. Necrosis is increased in lymphoblastoid cell lines from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterised by impairments in reciprocal social interaction, communication and stereotyped behaviours. As increased DNA damage events have been observed in a range of other neurological disorders, it was hypothesised that they would be elevated in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) obtained from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings. Six case–sibling pairs of LCLs from children with autistic disorder and their non-autistic siblings were obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) and cultured in standard RPMI-1640 tissue culture medium. Cells were exposed to medium containing either 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM hydrogen peroxide (an oxidative stressor) or 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 µM s-nitroprusside (a nitric oxide producer) for 1h. Following exposure, the cells were microscopically scored for DNA damage, cytostasis and cytotoxicity biomarkers as measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Necrosis was significantly increased in cases relative to controls when exposed to oxidative and nitrosative stress (P = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Nuclear division index was significantly lower in LCLs from children with autistic disorder than their non-autistic siblings when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (P = 0.016), but there was no difference in apoptosis, micronucleus frequency, nucleoplasmic bridges or nuclear buds. Exposure to s-nitroprusside significantly increased the number of micronuclei in non-autistic siblings compared with cases (P = 0.003); however, other DNA damage biomarkers, apoptosis and nuclear division did not differ significantly between groups. The findings of this study show (i) that LCLs from children with autism are more sensitive to necrosis under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress than their non-autistic siblings and (ii) refutes the hypothesis that children with autistic disorder are abnormally

  18. The level and nature of autistic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Mottron, Laurent

    2007-08-01

    Autistics are presumed to be characterized by cognitive impairment, and their cognitive strengths (e.g., in Block Design performance) are frequently interpreted as low-level by-products of high-level deficits, not as direct manifestations of intelligence. Recent attempts to identify the neuroanatomical and neurofunctional signature of autism have been positioned on this universal, but untested, assumption. We therefore assessed a broad sample of 38 autistic children on the preeminent test of fluid intelligence, Raven's Progressive Matrices. Their scores were, on average, 30 percentile points, and in some cases more than 70 percentile points, higher than their scores on the Wechsler scales of intelligence. Typically developing control children showed no such discrepancy, and a similar contrast was observed when a sample of autistic adults was compared with a sample of nonautistic adults. We conclude that intelligence has been underestimated in autistics.

  19. Toward Reducing Behavior Problems in Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopler, Eric

    1976-01-01

    An historical perspective of social sources that undermine general parental abilities to manage their autistic child is presented and some possible solutions to general management obstacles are suggested. (Author/SB)

  20. Echolalia and Comprehension in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jacqueline M. A.

    1989-01-01

    The study with 10 autistic children (ages 4-17) found that those children with poor receptive language skills produced significantly more echolalic utterances than those children whose receptive skills were more age-appropriate. (Author/DB)

  1. Eating disorder prevention initiatives for athletes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Rachel J; Cassin, Stephanie E; Dionne, Michelle M

    2016-01-01

    A substantial amount of evidence suggests that collegiate and elite athletes involved in weight-sensitive sports are at greater risk of developing eating disorders (EDs) than the general population. With the limited effectiveness of treatment for EDs, prevention of EDs has been broadly considered in the literature. The present paper reviewed the existing literature on ED prevention programmes for athletes in order to determine the current status of prevention programmes and recommend future directions. The available literature suggests that selective, primary interventions with multiple targets and an interactive multimodal approach appear most effective. Current challenges in the field, including lack of longitudinal research, hesitation by the sport community to be involved in ED research and poor cross-field communication and collaboration, are also explored. The lack of dissemination of evidence-based prevention programmes and the simultaneous promotion of prevention programmes that have not yet been empirically examined are also discussed. Based on these observations future directions are recommended.

  2. Occlusion, prosthodontic treatment, and temporomandibular disorders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagag, G; Yoshida, K; Miura, H

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the relationship between occlusal discrepancies and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and to summarize the guidelines of treating TMD by prosthetic rehabilitation. To date, the relationship between occlusal condition and TMD has not been confirmed, although there is a current trend toward making a weak correlation between occlusal interference and TMD. Furthermore, several types of occlusal discrepancies have been considered as variable features of the norm. But unstable occlusion in the intercuspal position may cause TMD. In cases of restored dentition, the problem is probably different and iatrogenic TMD are not rare. Namely, malformed occlusal surfaces, defects in anterior guidance, occlusal curvature, and vertical dimension may lead to some TMD trouble. According to these recent concepts the treatment modalities of TMD have been changed. Conservative treatments such as counseling, behavioral modification, physical therapy, pharmacotherapy, and interocclusal appliances should be the first choice, and treatments that lead to drastic changes of occlusion are not recommended.

  3. Chemicals, Nutrition, and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Morisaki, Naho; Honda, Yukiko; Sampei, Makiko; Tani, Yukako

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests that exposure to chemicals may impact the development of ASD. Therefore, we reviewed literature on the following chemicals, nutrient to investigate their association with ASD: (1) smoke/tobacco, (2) alcohol, (3) air pollution, (4) pesticides, (5) endocrine-disrupting chemicals, (6) heavy metals, (7) micronutrients, (8) fatty acid, and (9) parental obesity as a proxy of accumulation of specific chemicals or nutritional status. Several chemical exposures such as air pollution (e.g., particular matter 2.5), pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, mercury, and nutrition deficiency such as folic acid, vitamin D, or fatty acid may possibly be associated with an increased risk of ASD, whereas other traditional risk factors such as smoking/tobacco, alcohol, or polychlorinated biphenyls are less likely to be associated with ASD. Further research is needed to accumulate evidence on the association between chemical exposure and nutrient deficiencies and ASD in various doses and populations.

  4. Review: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Studies of Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Kondo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper focuses on the application of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS to the study of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD in children and adolescents. Method. A literature search using the National Institutes of Health's PubMed database was conducted to identify indexed peer-reviewed MRS studies in pediatric patients with MDD. Results. The literature search yielded 18 articles reporting original MRS data in pediatric MDD. Neurochemical alterations in Choline, Glutamate, and N-Acetyl Aspartate are associated with pediatric MDD, suggesting pathophysiologic continuity with adult MDD. Conclusions. The MRS literature in pediatric MDD is modest but growing. In studies that are methodologically comparable, the results have been consistent. Because it offers a noninvasive and repeatable measurement of relevant in vivo brain chemistry, MRS has the potential to provide insights into the pathophysiology of MDD as well as the mediators and moderators of treatment response.

  5. Withdrawal symptoms in internet gaming disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptsis, Dean; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Gradisar, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is currently positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The aim of this review was to examine the state of current knowledge of gaming withdrawal symptomatology, given the importance of withdrawal in positioning the disorder as a behavioral addiction. A total of 34 studies, including 10 qualitative studies, 17 research reports on psychometric instruments, and 7 treatment studies, were evaluated. The results indicated that the available evidence on Internet gaming withdrawal is very underdeveloped. Internet gaming withdrawal is most consistently referred to as 'irritability' and 'restlessness' following cessation of the activity. There exists a concerning paucity of qualitative studies that provide detailed clinical descriptions of symptoms arising from cessation of internet gaming. This has arguably compromised efforts to quantify withdrawal symptoms in empirical studies of gaming populations. Treatment studies have not reported on the natural course of withdrawal and/or withdrawal symptom trajectory following intervention. It is concluded that many more qualitative clinical studies are needed, and should be prioritised, to develop our understanding of gaming withdrawal. This should improve clinical descriptions of problematic internet gaming and in turn improve the quantification of IGD withdrawal and thus treatments for harmful internet gaming.

  6. Disorder and function: a review of the dehydrin protein family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen P Graether

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dehydration proteins (dehydrins are group 2 members of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA protein family. The protein architecture of dehydrins can be described by the presence of three types of conserved sequence motifs that have been named the K-, Y- and S-segments. By definition, a dehydrin must contain at least one copy of the lysine-rich K-segment. Abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, and salinity cause the upregulation of dehydrin mRNA and protein levels. Despite the large body of genetic and protein evidence of the importance of these proteins in stress response, the in vivo protective mechanism is not fully known. In vitro experimental evidence from biochemical assays and localization experiments suggest multiple roles for dehydrins, including membrane protection, cryoprotection of enzymes, and protection from reactive oxygen species. Membrane binding by dehydrins is likely to be as a peripheral membrane protein, since the protein sequences are highly hydrophilic and contain many charged amino acids. Because of this, dehydrins in solution are intrinsically disordered proteins, that is, they have no well-defined secondary or tertiary structure. Despite their disorder, dehydrins have been shown to gain structure when bound to ligands such as membranes, and to possibly change their oligomeric state when bound to ions. We review what is currently known about dehydrin sequences and their structures, and examine the various ligands that have been shown to bind to this family of proteins.

  7. New insights into HCV-related rheumatologic disorders: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Cacoub

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infected patients are known to be exposed to major liver complications i.e. cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, many extrahepatic manifestations including rheumatologic disorders have been reported in up to two-third of HCV infected patients. These manifestations include frank auto-immune and rheumatic diseases (such as arthralgia, myalgia, arthritis, sicca syndrome and vasculitis which may dominate the course of infection. Until recently, the standard of care of HCV has been the use of interferon-alpha based regimens, which not only had limited effectiveness in HCV cure but were poorly tolerated. In patients with rheumatic diseases interferon-based regimens may be problematic given their association with a wide variety of autoimmune toxicities. Recent therapeutic advances with new direct anti-HCV therapies (interferon-free which are more effective and better tolerated, make screening for this comorbidity in patients with rheumatic disorders more important than ever. This review aimed to outline main HCV extrahepatic with a special focus on rheumatologic manifestations.

  8. Obesity and Pelvic Floor Disorders: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomian, Andrzej; Lisik, Wojciech; Kosieradzki, Maciej; Barcz, Ewa

    2016-06-03

    Overweight and obesity are becoming a worldwide health problem associated with numerous co-morbidities. National costs of obesity and pelvic flor disorders have been rising since the 1950s across the world. Obesity is thought to have a very strong effect on pelvic floor disorders, and, considering the high prevalence of both problems worldwide, it is of utmost importance to evaluate the association between these pathologies as well as the impact of obesity on treatment efficacy. This review is based on a selection of reports in the literature (PubMed search), including guidelines and Cochrane reviews. Obesity seems to be a well-documented risk factor for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and is a predictor of exacerbation of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and overactive bladder (OAB). Weight loss is also associated with improvement or resolution of SUI and OAB. In the case of pelvic organ prolapse (POP), weight loss is associated with improvement in quality of life. Although obesity is associated with POP in general, the exact role of obesity in symptomatic POP remains uncertain. While outcomes of anti-incontinence surgery among obese women are similar to those in non-obese women, postoperative urge incontinence is more likely to occur. It seems that obesity is not a risk factor for postoperative complications or short-term efficacy of POP surgical treatment. Long-term effects are still uncertain. Obesity is a strong risk factor for LUTS, but in most cases it does not affect efficacy of operative treatment. It may be associated with some post-operative complications. Weight loss in many cases allows avoiding surgical intervention.

  9. Fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers - a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Claudia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hairdressers often come into contact with various chemical substances which can be found in hair care products for washing, dyeing, bleaching, styling, spraying and perming. This exposure can impair health and may be present as skin and respiratory diseases. Effects on reproduction have long been discussed in the literature. Method A systematic review has been prepared in which publications from 1990 to 2010 were considered in order to specifically investigate the effects on fertility and pregnancy. The results of the studies were summarised separately in accordance with the type of study and the examined events. Results A total of 2 reviews and 26 original studies on fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers were found in the relevant databases, as well as through hand searches of reference lists. Nineteen different outcomes concerning fertility and pregnancy are analysed in the 26 original studies. Most studies looked into malformation (n = 7, particularly orofacial cleft. Two of them found statistically significant increased risks compared to five that did not. Small for gestational age (SGA, low birth weight (LBW and spontaneous abortions were frequently investigated but found different results. Taken together the studies are inconsistent, so that no clear statements on an association between the exposure as a hairdresser and the effect on reproduction are possible. The different authors describe increased risks of infertility, congenital malformations, SGA, LBW, cancer in childhood, as well as effects from single substances. Conclusion On the basis of the identified epidemiological studies, fertility disorders and pregnancy complications in hairdressers cannot be excluded. Although the evidence for these risks is low, further studies on reproductive risks in hairdressers should be performed as there is a high public health interest.

  10. A literature review of quetiapine for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreys, Tiffany-Jade M; Phan, Stephanie V

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), a literature search of the Medline database was conducted from inception to May 2014. The search was not restricted by language. Keywords used in the search were quetiapine and generalized anxiety disorder or anxiety. All studies assessing the use of quetiapine as monotherapy or adjunct therapy for the primary management of GAD in adults 18-65 years of age were included in this review. The nine studies included in this review were three studies evaluating the use of quetiapine extended release (XR) as monotherapy for acute GAD treatment, one study evaluating quetiapine XR monotherapy for maintenance treatment of GAD, and five studies evaluating quetiapine (2 XR, 3 immediate release) as adjunct therapy for acute GAD treatment. Quetiapine displayed both efficacy and tolerability in all monotherapy trials evaluating its use for acute and long-term treatment of GAD. Despite some limitations to and heterogeneity among the five adjunct therapy studies, three studies showed that quetiapine resulted in statistically significant changes in the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale or Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness Scale scores. Although future studies of longer duration with broader inclusion criteria are needed to further evaluate the benefits and risks of quetiapine for GAD, in patients failing to respond to conventional antidepressant therapy, quetiapine may be a potential treatment option. With appropriate monitoring and management of adverse effects, the potential benefits of quetiapine in patients with treatment-refractory GAD may outweigh the risks associated with its use.

  11. Atribuição de estados mentais no discurso de crianças do espectro autístico The attribution of mental states in the speech of children with autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyvia Christina Camarotto Battiston Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a atribuição de estados mentais no discurso de crianças pertencentes aos Distúrbios do Espectro Autístico e verificar a modificação no vocabulário e extensão frasal desses, após período de terapia fonoaudiológica. MÉTODOS: Foram colhidas amostras de fala da avaliação fonoaudiológica inicial, após seis meses e um ano de terapia fonoaudiológica, registradas nos prontuários de cinco crianças com autismo infantil e cinco com síndrome de Asperger para caracterização do desempenho verbal e da habilidade de atribuição de estados mentais de cada criança. Considerando-se apenas as emissões espontâneas, foram verificadas as palavras pertencentes às classes substantivo e verbo e classificadas como termos que referem estados físicos e mentais. A comparação entre os três momentos foi realizada por meio da avaliação da significância entre as medianas das amostras obtidas (teste da mediana, com diferença significativa ao nível de 10%. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se aumento no número de palavras emitidas e também no número de palavras por frase emitida entre os períodos de avaliação e após um ano de terapia fonoaudiológica para crianças com autismo infantil. Não foram encontradas diferenças para a atribuição de verbos de estados físicos e mentais e substantivos de estados mentais para ambos os grupos, sendo observada diminuição na emissão de substantivos de estados físicos no grupo autismo infantil. CONCLUSÃO: A atribuição de estados mentais aumentou após período de intervenção terapêutica fonoaudiológica, porém, sem diferença significativa, verificando-se aumento no comportamento verbal de crianças com autismo infantil.PURPOSE: To analyze the attribution of mental states in the speech of children within the Autistic Spectrum Disorders, and verify the modification in their vocabulary and phrasal extension, after a period of speech-language therapy. METHODS: Speech samples from the

  12. Parenting stress and affective symptoms in parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yun; Du, YaSong; Li, HuiLin; Zhang, XiYan; An, Yu; Wu, Bai-Lin

    2015-10-01

    We examined parenting stress and mental health status in parents of autistic children and assessed factors associated with such stress. Participants were parents of 188 autistic children diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria and parents of 144 normally developing children. Parents of autistic children reported higher levels of stress, depression, and anxiety than parents of normally developing children. Mothers of autistic children had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than that did parents of normally developing children. Mothers compared to fathers of autistic children were more vulnerable to depression. Age, behavior problems of autistic children, and mothers' anxiety were significantly associated with parenting stress.

  13. Ketamine Induced Seizures in an Autistic Child

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    Geetanjali S Verma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An autistic child of eight years age, with attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome presented for tooth extraction under general anaesthesia. Ketamine was used for induction and the child developed seizures following its administration. Seizures were controlled, extraction done and post-operative period was uneventful. Ketamine was suspected to have caused seizures though safe use of Ketamine has been reported in autistic patient.

  14. Autistic traits in neurotypical adults: correlates of graph theoretical functional network topology and white matter anisotropy patterns.

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    Andras Jakab

    Full Text Available Attempts to explicate the neural abnormalities behind autism spectrum disorders frequently revealed impaired brain connectivity, yet our knowledge is limited about the alterations linked with autistic traits in the non-clinical population. In our study, we aimed at exploring the neural correlates of dimensional autistic traits using a dual approach of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and graph theoretical analysis of resting state functional MRI data. Subjects were sampled from a public neuroimaging dataset of healthy volunteers. Inclusion criteria were adult age (age: 18-65, availability of DTI and resting state functional acquisitions and psychological evaluation including the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS and Autistic Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ. The final subject cohort consisted of 127 neurotypicals. Global brain network structure was described by graph theoretical parameters: global and average local efficiency. Regional topology was characterized by degree and efficiency. We provided measurements for diffusion anisotropy. The association between autistic traits and the neuroimaging findings was studied using a general linear model analysis, controlling for the effects of age, gender and IQ profile. Significant negative correlation was found between the degree and efficiency of the right posterior cingulate cortex and autistic traits, measured by the combination of ASSQ and SRS scores. Autistic phenotype was associated with the decrease of whole-brain local efficiency. Reduction of diffusion anisotropy was found bilaterally in the temporal fusiform and parahippocampal gyri. Numerous models describe the autistic brain connectome to be dominated by reduced long-range connections and excessive short-range fibers. Our finding of decreased efficiency supports this hypothesis although the only prominent effect was seen in the posterior limbic lobe, which is known to act as a connector hub. The neural correlates of the autistic trait

  15. Mirror system based therapy for autism spectrum disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei CHEN; Jing ZHANG; Jun DING

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the present theories and empirical research of autisms' cognitive research and mir-ror systems and introduces a new hypothesis about the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD): autistic mir-ror neuron dysfunction hypothesis. ASD subjects show obvious lack of the activation of the mirror system during the task of observation or emotional cognition. It is sig-nificant to investigate the mirror system for revealing the causes of autism and it is also helpful for developing new ways to diagnose or treat this disorder.

  16. Role of quetiapine beyond its clinical efficacy in bipolar disorder: From neuroprotection to the treatment of psychiatric disorders (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro-DE-Souza, Márcio G; Dias, Vasco Videira; Missio, Giovanni; Balanzá-Martinez, Vicent; Valiengo, Leandro; Carvalho, André F; Moreno, Ricardo Alberto

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present review was to discuss the following aspects of treatment with quetiapine in psychiatric disorders: i) Neurocognition and functional recovery in bipolar disorder (BD); ii) neuroprotective profile in different models; and iii) potential off-label indications. A PubMed search was conducted of articles published in English between 2000 and 2012 on quetiapine, cross-referenced with the terms 'anxiety', 'attention deficit disorder', 'borderline personality disorder', 'dementia', 'insomnia', 'major depressive disorder' (MDD), 'obsessive-compulsive disorder', 'post-traumatic stress disorder', 'remission', 'cognition', 'neurobiology', 'neuroprotection', 'efficacy' and 'effectiveness'. Articles were selected from meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials and open trials, and the results were summarized. Quetiapine, when studied in off-label conditions, has shown efficacy as a monotherapy in MDD and general anxiety disorder. Quetiapine also appears to exhibit a small beneficial effect in dementia. The review of other conditions was affected by methodological limitations that precluded any definitive conclusions on the efficacy or safety of quetiapine. Overall, the present review shows evidence supporting a potential role for quetiapine in improving cognition, functional recovery and negative symptoms in a cost-effective manner in BD. These benefits of quetiapine are potentially associated with its well-described neuroprotective effects; however, further studies are clearly warranted.

  17. Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and…

  18. Binge Eating Disorder: A Review of a New "DSM" Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Laura L.; Wiman, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    In 1994, binge eating disorder (BED) was introduced as a disorder requiring further study in the "American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", fourth edition ("DSM-IV"). It is now listed as a distinct eating disorder in the "DSM-5", along with bulimia nervosa and anorexia…

  19. Autistic phenomena in neurotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klien, S

    1980-01-01

    I have described a group of patients who are seemingly successful in their professional and social lives, and who seek analysis ostensibly for professional reasons or for minor difficulties in their relationship. However, sooner or later they reveal phenomena which are strikingly similar to those observed in so-called autistic children. These autistic phenomena are characterized by an almost impenetrable encapsulation of part of the personality, mute and implacable resistance to change, and a lack of real emotional contact either with themselves or the analyst. Progress of the analysis reveals an underlying intense fear of pain, and of death, disintegration or breakdown. These anxieties occur as a reaction to real or feared separation, especially when commitment to analysis deepens. In the case I have described in detail the patient used various projective processes to deflect painful emotions either into other people, including the analyst, or into their own bodies. As a consequence the various objects or organs of the body swell up and became suffused with rage as a result of having to contain the unwanted feelings. This process leads in turn to intense persecutory fears and a heightened sensitivity to the analyst's tone of voice and facial expression. It would seem that the initial hypersensitivity of part of the personality is such as to lead it to anticipate danger to such an extent that it expels feelings even before they reach awareness. The sooner the analyst realizes the existence of this hidden part of the patient the less the danger of the analysis becoming an endless and meaningless intellectual dialogue and the greater the possibilities of the patient achieving a relatively stable equilibrium. Although the analyst has to live through a great deal of anxiety with the patient I feel that ultimately the results make it worth while.

  20. Personality disorders: review and clinical application in daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstman, Kurt B; Rasmussen, Norman H

    2011-12-01

    Personality disorders have been documented in approximately 9 percent of the general U.S. population. Psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, and brief interventions designed for use by family physicians can improve the health of patients with these disorders. Personality disorders are classified into clusters A, B, and C. Cluster A includes schizoid, schizotypal, and paranoid personality disorders. Cluster B includes borderline, histrionic, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders. Cluster C disorders are more prevalent and include avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorders. Many patients with personality disorders can be treated by family physicians. Patients with borderline personality disorder may benefit from the use of omega-3 fatty acids, second-generation antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers. Patients with antisocial personality disorder may benefit from the use of mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antidepressants. Other therapeutic interventions include motivational interviewing and solution-based problem solving.

  1. A systematic review of cognitive rehabilitation for bipolar disorder

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    Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been shown that bipolar disorder (BD has a direct impact on neurocognitive functioning and behavior. This finding has prompted studies to investigate cognitive enhancement programs as potential treatments for BD, primarily focusing on cognitive reinforcement and daily functioning and not restricted to psychoeducation and coping strategies, unlike traditional psychosocial treatments. Objective: This study presents a systematic review of controlled trials of cognitive rehabilitation (CR for BD. Our main objective is to describe the results of studies of rehabilitation programs for BD and related methodological issues. Method: Electronic database searches (MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Embase were conducted to identify articles using terms related to BD and CR. The methodological quality of each article was measured using the 5-item Jadad scale. Results: A total of 239 articles were initially identified, but after application of exclusion criteria, only four were retained for this review. An average of 17 hours of intervention sessions were conducted, distributed as 0.95 hours per week and three of the four studies reported better executive function performance after CR interventions. Conclusions: We did not find robust evidence to support cognitive rehabilitation as an effective treatment for BD, because of: 1 the variety of intervention designs; 2 the methodological limitations of the studies; and 3 the lack of studies in the field.

  2. A Review of Visual Perspective taking in Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Amy ePearson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in social cognition are a key symptom of Autism Spectrum Disorder. People with autism have great difficulty with understanding the beliefs and desires of other people. In recent years literature has begun to examine the link between impairments in social cognition and abilities which demand the use of spatial and social skills, such as visual perspective taking (VPT. Flavell (1977 defined two levels of perspective taking: VPT level 1 is the ability to understand that other people have a different line of sight to ourselves, whereas VPT level 2 is the understanding that two people viewing the same item from different points in space may see different things. So far, literature on whether either level of VPT is impaired or intact in autism is inconsistent. Here we review studies which have examined VPT levels 1 and 2 in people with autism with a focus on the methods that have been used to measure perspective taking. We conclude the review with an evaluation of the findings into VPT in autism and give recommendations for future research which may give a clearer insight into whether perspective taking is truly impaired in autism.

  3. Exercise and bipolar disorder: a review of neurobiological mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuwaidan, Mohammad T; Kucyi, Aaron; Law, Candy W Y; McIntyre, Roger S

    2009-01-01

    Extant evidence indicates that individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) are differentially affected by overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity. Excess weight is associated with a more complex illness presentation, non-recovery, and recurrence. Herein, we sought to review literature describing the effects of structured individualized physical exercise on disparate neurobiological substrates implicated in the pathophysiology of BD. We conducted a PubMed search of all English-language articles published between 1966 and July 2008 with BD cross-referenced with the following search terms: exercise, neurobiology, pathophysiology, pathoetiology, brain, cognition, neuroplasticity, and neurodegeneration. Articles selected for review were based on adequacy of sample size, the use of standardized experimental procedures, validated assessment measures, and overall manuscript quality. Contemporary models of disease pathophysiology in BD implicate disturbances in cellular resilience, plasticity, and survival in the central nervous system. Individualized exercise interventions are capable of alleviating the severity of affective and cognitive difficulties in heterogeneous samples. It is posited that exercise is a pleiotropic intervention that engages aberrant neurobiological systems implicated in metabolism, immuno-inflammatory function, and cellular respiration. Structured exercise regimens exert a salutary effect on interacting networks mediating metabolism, immuno-inflammatory function, and cellular respiration. In keeping this view, buttressed by controlled evidence describing robust anti-depressant effects with exercise (e.g., public health dose), a testable hypothesis is that structured exercise is capable of improving psychiatric and somatic health in BD.

  4. Photodynamic Therapy and Skin Appendage Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megna, Matteo; Fabbrocini, Gabriella; Marasca, Claudio; Monfrecola, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive treatment that utilizes light treatment along with application of a photosensitizing agent. In dermatology, PDT is commonly used and approved for the treatment of oncological conditions such as actinic keratosis, Bowen disease and superficial basal cell carcinoma. In the last 2 decades however, PDT has also been used for the treatment of several nonneoplastic dermatological diseases. The present review summarizes published data on PDT application in skin appendage disorders. Our literature review shows that: (a) PDT may be a suitable treatment for acne, folliculitis decalvans, hidradenitis suppurativa, nail diseases, and sebaceous hyperplasia; (b) there is a lack of agreement on PDT features (type, concentrations and incubation period of used substances, number and frequency of PDT sessions, optimal parameters of light sources, and patient characteristics [e.g., failure to previous treatments, disease severity, body surface area involved, etc.] which should guide PDT use in these diseases); (c) further research is needed to establish international guidelines helping dermatologists to choose PDT for the right patient at the right time.

  5. Short report: Autistic gastrointestinal and eating symptoms treated with secretin: a subtype of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallanti, Stefano; Lassi, Stefano; La Malfa, Giampaolo; Campigli, Marco; Di Rubbo, Roberto; Paolini, Giulia; Cesarali, Valentina

    2005-11-15

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) are chronic, lifelong disorders for which there is as yet no effective cure, and medical management remains a challenge for clinicians. The current report describes two patients affected by autistic disorder with associated gastrointestinal symptoms. They received multiple doses of intravenous secretin for a six-month period and were assessed with several specific outcome measures to evaluate drug effect. The administration of secretin led to some significant and lasting improvement in only one case. Gastroesophageal reflux may contribute to some of the behavioural problems and explain the effect of secretin since its suppressive effect on gastric secretion is well known. It is also true that autistic children with gastroesophageal reflux and a higher IQ could constitute a subtype which responds to secretin administration and that could be labelled as a "gastrointestinal subtype".

  6. Short report: autistic gastrointestinal and eating symptoms treated with secretin: a subtype of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Malfa Giampaolo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD are chronic, lifelong disorders for which there is as yet no effective cure, and medical management remains a challenge for clinicians. The current report describes two patients affected by autistic disorder with associated gastrointestinal symptoms. They received multiple doses of intravenous secretin for a six-month period and were assessed with several specific outcome measures to evaluate drug effect. The administration of secretin led to some significant and lasting improvement in only one case. Gastroesophageal reflux may contribute to some of the behavioural problems and explain the effect of secretin since its suppressive effect on gastric secretion is well known. It is also true that autistic children with gastroesophageal reflux and a higher IQ could constitute a subtype which responds to secretin administration and that could be labelled as a "gastrointestinal subtype".

  7. Child and Adolescent Behaviorally Based Disorders: A Critical Review of Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the historical construction and empirical support of two child and adolescent behaviorally based mental health disorders: oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. Method: The study utilized a historiography methodology to review, from 1880 to 2012, these disorders' inclusion in…

  8. The Effects of Physical Activity on Children Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Matthew Jonathan; Bailey, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder among children. Despite the noted positive aspects of the disorder, it is often associated with a range of negative outcomes for that are detrimental to children's education and wider well-being. This comprehensive scoping review examined…

  9. 孤独症儿童父母亲职压力研究综述%A Review on Parenting Stress on Parents of Autistic Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆; 兰继军

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviewed the related research on autism children parenting stress, and pointed out its influence factors such as parents’ ages, education level and children’s mood, action and condition. The formal and simple scale of parenting stress, stress and resource questionnaire and simple questionnaire are the measuring tools of parenting stress. It also forecasted future research directions as mutual influence and cultural backgrounds of parenting stress.%孤独症儿童父母的亲职压力水平常高于其他残疾儿童父母,照顾者的年龄,教育水平和儿童的情绪行为及病情均是亲职压力的影响因素,长式、简式亲职压力量表、压力与资源问卷和简式问卷均是常用的亲职压力测量工具。父母亲职压力的相互影响和文化背景是亲职压力的研究趋势,当前的研究存在缺乏实质性研究、纵向的长期跟踪研究不够、推广度受限等不足,需要进一步深入开展。

  10. 'Hot' cognition in major depressive disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, Andre F

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant cognitive dysfunction in both 'hot' (i.e. emotion-laden) and 'cold' (non-emotional) domains. Here we review evidence pertaining to 'hot' cognitive changes in MDD. This systematic review searched the PubMed and PsycInfo computerized databases in May 2014 augmented by hand searches of reference lists. We included original articles in which MDD participants (or their healthy first-degree relatives) and a healthy control group were compared on standard measures of emotional processing or reward/ punishment processing as well as systematic reviews and meta-analyses. A total of 116 articles met the inclusion criteria of which 97 were original studies. Negative biases in perception, attention and memory for emotional information, and aberrant reward/punishment processing occur in MDD. Imbalanced responses to negative stimuli in a fronto-limbic network with hyper-activity in limbic and ventral prefrontal regions paired with hypo-activity of dorsal prefrontal regions subserve these abnormalities. A cross-talk of 'hot' and 'cold' cognition disturbances in MDD occurs. Disturbances in 'hot cognition' may also contribute to the perpetuation of negative emotional states in MDD. Limited success in the identification of susceptibility genes in MDD has led to great research interest in identifying vulnerability biomarkers or endophenotypes. Emerging evidence points to the persistence of 'hot' cognition dysfunction during remission and to subtle 'hot' cognition deficits in healthy relatives of patients with MDD. Taken together, these findings suggest that abnormalities in 'hot' cognition may constitute a candidate neurocognitive endophenotype for depression.

  11. Comorbid psychopathology in adolescents and young adults treated for substance use disorders: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couwenbergh, C.; Brink, W. van den; Zwart, K.P.; Vreugdenhil, C.; Wijngaarden-Cremers, P. van; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a recent review, the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in non-treated adolescents and young adults with substance use disorders (SUD) in the general population was summarized. This review looks into the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents and young adults tr

  12. A Review of Eating Disorders in Athletes: Recommendations for Secondary School Prevention and Intervention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom

    2005-01-01

    The current review aims to evaluate the literature on eating disorders and athletes with the purpose of making recommendations for sport psychologists and other relevant personnel on how to proceed in identifying, managing, and preventing eating disorders in school settings. Whereas the intention of this review is to make recommendations for…

  13. Annual Research Review: Hoarding Disorder-- Potential Benefits and Pitfalls of a New Mental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataix-Cols, David; Pertusa, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background: The inclusion of a new mental disorder in the nomenclature is not a trivial matter. Many have highlighted the risks of an ever-increasing number of mental disorders and of overpathologizing human behaviour. Given the proposed inclusion of a new hoarding disorder (HD) in DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,…

  14. Heredity and Environment in Etiology of Eating Disorders. I. Review of Twin Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkova T.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twin studies of eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating are reviewed. Historically, eating disorders (ED was viewed as a disorders primarily influenced by sociocultural factors, however, over the past decade, this perception has been challenged. Twin studies demonstrate that genetic factors significantly influence the risk for ED and substantially contribute to the observed association between ED and other disorders and personal traits (major depression, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, perfectionism. Among environmental factors nonshared (unique environment plays the main role, except of early puberty.

  15. 早期孤独谱系障碍社区筛查量表的编制与信度、效度分析%Compiling of early autistic spectrum disorders screening scale for community and its reliability and validity analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓勉; 赵玮

    2012-01-01

    目的 编制适用于社区的简单、便利、灵敏度高的早期孤独谱系障碍筛查量表,并对该量表进行信度和效度分析.方法 以美国精神障碍诊断统计手册第四版(DSM-Ⅳ)的孤独症临床表现和诊断标准为基础,参考婴幼儿孤独症筛查量表(CHAT)、孤独症行为量表(ABC)、儿童孤独症评定量表(CARS)、孤独症诊断访谈量表(中文修订本)(ADI-R)等编制成早期孤独谱系障碍社区筛查量表(EASSC).在深圳市随机选取6~24月龄儿童9 860人作为筛查对象,对该量表进行信度、效度检验.结果 该量表各因子和总分的评定者信度分别为0.945、0.973、0.874、0.952、0.962;重测信度分别为0.936、0.910、0.925、0.853、0.949.该量表的分半信度为0.917.该量表和ABC量表间的校标关联效度为0.835.当分界值为9分时,该量表的灵敏度为0.912,特异度为0.898.结论 该量表具有较好的信度和效度,费时少,容易填写,适用于早期孤独谱系障碍的社区筛查,具有一定的推广使用价值.%Objective To work out an easy and convenient screening scale of early autistic spectrum disorders with high sensitivity used in community, and to explore its reliability and validity. Methods Based on clinical manifestations and diagnostic standards of autism in DSM-Ⅳ , and referring CHAT, ABC, CARS and ADI-R, early autistic spectrum disorders screening scale for community ( EASSC ) was worked out. In Shenzhen 9 860 infants aged 6-24 months were randomly selected as screening objects, and the reliability and validity of the scale were tested. Results The rater reliability of each factor and total score was 0. 945, 0. 973 , 0. 874, 0. 952 and 0. 962, respectively, and the re-test reliability was 0.936, 0. 910, 0. 925, 0. 853 and 0. 949, respectively. The split reliability was 0. 917. Criterion-related validity between the scale and ABC was 0. 835. The sensitivity and specificity were 0. 912 and 0. 898, respectively when the

  16. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorenko, Elena L.; Han, Summer S.; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Leng, Lin; Mizue, Yuka; Anderson, George M.; Mulder, Erik J.; de Bildt, Annelies; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Volkmar, Fred R.; Chang, Joseph T.; Bucala, Richard

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Autistic spectrum disorders are childhood neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social and communicative impairment and repetitive and stereotypical behavior. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an upstream regulator of innate immunity that promotes monocyte/macrophage

  17. A systematic review of musculoskeletal disorders among school teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Patience N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD represent one of the most common and most expensive occupational health problems in both developed and developing countries. School teachers represent an occupational group among which there appears to be a high prevalence of MSD. Given that causes of MSD have been described as multi-factorial and prevalence rates vary between body sites and location of study, the objective of this systematic review was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for MSD among teaching staff. Methods The study involved an extensive search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases in 2011. All studies which reported on the prevalence and/or risk factors for MSD in the teaching profession were initially selected for inclusion. Reference lists of articles identified in the original search were then examined for additional publications. Of the 80 articles initially located, a final group of 33 met the inclusion criteria and were examined in detail. Results This review suggests that the prevalence of self-reported MSD among school teachers ranges between 39% and 95%. The most prevalent body sites appear to be the back, neck and upper limbs. Nursery school teachers appear to be more likely to report suffering from low back pain. Factors such as gender, age, length of employment and awkward posture have been associated with higher MSD prevalence rates. Conclusion Overall, this study suggests that school teachers are at a high risk of MSD. Further research, preferably longitudinal, is required to more thoroughly investigate the issue of MSD among teachers, with a greater emphasis on the possible wider use of ergonomic principles. This would represent a major step forward in the prevention of MSD among teachers, especially if easy to implement control measures could be recommended.

  18. The epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the Arab world: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanios, Christine Y; Abou-Saleh, Mohammad T; Karam, Aimée N; Salamoun, Mariana M; Mneimneh, Zeina N; Karam, Elie G

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies are quite rare in the Arab world. The Institute for Development Research Advocacy and Applied Care (IDRAAC) has conducted a systematic review of all epidemiologic research on anxiety disorders in the Arab world up to 2006. Specific keywords were used in the search for affective disorders, namely anxiety, generalized anxiety disorder, GAD, panic, separation anxiety disorder, SAD, overanxious disorder, OAD, phobia, fear, post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), obsessive compulsive symptom (OCS), obsession, compulsion, obsessive, compulsive. All results were screened and categorized. Epidemiological data on prevalence, gender differences, age of onset, comorbidity, risk factors and treatment of anxiety disorders in the Arab world were found in clinical and community samples. There is an evident need for national data on anxiety disorders in the Arab world in order to identify the magnitude of these diseases and their burden on the individual and community.

  19. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and disordered eating behaviour: A systematic review and a framework for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisari, Panagiota; Dourish, Colin T; Higgs, Suzanne

    2017-03-06

    Preliminary findings suggest that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may be associated with disordered eating behaviour, but whether there is sufficient evidence to suggest an association between ADHD and specific types of disordered eating behaviour is unclear. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether specific features associated with ADHD are differentially associated with disordered eating behaviour. A systematic review of seventy-five studies was conducted to evaluate the potential association between ADHD symptomatology and disordered eating behaviour and to provide an estimate of the strength of evidence for any association. Overall, a moderate strength of evidence exists for a positive association between ADHD and disordered eating and with specific types of disordered-eating behaviour, in particular, overeating behaviour. There is consistent evidence that impulsivity symptoms of ADHD are positively associated with overeating and bulimia nervosa and more limited evidence for an association between hyperactivity symptoms and restrictive eating in males but not females. Further research is required to assess the potential direction of the relationship between ADHD and disordered eating, the underlying mechanisms and the role of specific ADHD symptoms in the development and/or maintenance of disordered eating behaviour. We propose a framework that could be used to guide the design of future studies.

  20. Chemicals, nutrition, and autism spectrum disorder: a mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo eFujiwara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD suggests that exposure to chemicals may impact the development of ASD. Therefore, we reviewed literature on the following chemicals, nutrient to investigate their association with ASD: 1 smoke/tobacco, 2 alcohol, 3 air pollution, 4 pesticides, 5 endocrine-disrupting chemicals, 6 heavy metals, 7 micronutrients, 8 fatty acid, and 9 parental obesity as a proxy of accumulation of specific chemicals or nutritional status. Several chemical exposures such as air pollution (e.g., particular matter 2.5, pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, mercury, and nutrition deficiency such as folic acid, vitamin D, or fatty acid may possibly be associated with an increased risk of ASD, whereas other traditional risk factors such as smoking/tobacco, alcohol, or polychlorinated biphenyls are less likely to be associated with ASD. Further research is needed to accumulate evidence on the association between chemical exposure and nutrient deficiencies and ASD in various doses and populations.

  1. Emotional language processing in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartseva, Alina; Dijkstra, Ton; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2014-01-01

    In his first description of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), Kanner emphasized emotional impairments by characterizing children with ASD as indifferent to other people, self-absorbed, emotionally cold, distanced, and retracted. Thereafter, emotional impairments became regarded as part of the social impairments of ASD, and research mostly focused on understanding how individuals with ASD recognize visual expressions of emotions from faces and body postures. However, it still remains unclear how emotions are processed outside of the visual domain. This systematic review aims to fill this gap by focusing on impairments of emotional language processing in ASD. We systematically searched PubMed for papers published between 1990 and 2013 using standardized search terms. Studies show that people with ASD are able to correctly classify emotional language stimuli as emotionally positive or negative. However, processing of emotional language stimuli in ASD is associated with atypical patterns of attention and memory performance, as well as abnormal physiological and neural activity. Particularly, younger children with ASD have difficulties in acquiring and developing emotional concepts, and avoid using these in discourse. These emotional language impairments were not consistently associated with age, IQ, or level of development of language skills. We discuss how emotional language impairments fit with existing cognitive theories of ASD, such as central coherence, executive dysfunction, and weak Theory of Mind. We conclude that emotional impairments in ASD may be broader than just a mere consequence of social impairments, and should receive more attention in future research.

  2. St. John's Wort for Major Depressive Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Alicia Ruelaz; Hempel, Susanne; Apaydin, Eric; Shanman, Roberta M; Booth, Marika; Miles, Jeremy N V; Sorbero, Melony E

    2016-05-09

    RAND researchers conducted a systematic review that synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials of St. John's wort (SJW)-used adjunctively or as monotherapy-to provide estimates of its efficacy and safety in treating adults with major depressive disorder. Outcomes of interest included changes in depressive symptomatology, quality of life, and adverse effects. Efficacy meta-analyses used the Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman method for random-effects models. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. In total, 35 studies met inclusion criteria. There is moderate evidence, due to unexplained heterogeneity between studies, that depression improvement based on the number of treatment responders and depression scale scores favors SJW over placebo, and results are comparable to antidepressants. The existing evidence is based on studies testing SJW as monotherapy; there is a lack of evidence for SJW given as adjunct therapy to standard antidepressant therapy. We found no systematic difference between SJW extracts, but head-to-head trials are missing; LI 160 (0.3% hypericin, 1-4% hyperforin) was the extract with the greatest number of studies. Only two trials assessed quality of life. SJW adverse events reported in included trials were comparable to placebo, and were fewer compared with antidepressant medication; however, adverse event assessments were limited, and thus we have limited confidence in this conclusion.

  3. Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

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    Deirdre Kindregan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning.

  4. Hemiplegia and headache: a review of hemiplegia in headache disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, J Ivan; Holdridge, Ashley; Rothrock, John F

    2015-01-01

    The most common scenario wherein the practicing neurologist is likely to encounter a patient with headache and hemiplegia will vary depending on his/her specific type of practice. A neurologist providing consultative service to an emergency department is far more likely to see patients with "secondary" headache and hemiplegia in the setting of either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke than hemiplegia as a transient feature of a primary headache disorder. Neurologists subspecializing in headache medicine who practice in a tertiary referral headache clinic are more likely to encounter hemiplegic migraine, but even in that clinical setting hemiplegic migraine is by no means a frequent diagnosis. The acute onset of hemiplegia can be very frightening not only to the patient but also to the medical personnel. Given the abundance of mimicry, practitioners must judiciously ascertain the correct diagnosis as treatment may greatly vary depending on the cause of both headache and hemiplegia. In this review, we will address the most common causes of hemiplegia associated with headache.

  5. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in neurodegenerative disorders: a selective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, Latha; Van Diepen, Erik; Marudkar, Mangesh; Hands, Oliver; Suribhatla, Srinivas; Prettyman, Richard; Murray, Jonathan; Baillon, Sarah; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

    2014-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is now recognised as an important modulator of various central nervous system processes. More recently, an increasing body of evidence has accumulated to suggest antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective roles of ECS. In this review we discuss the role and therapeutic potential of ECS in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Tourette's syndrome, brain ischemia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Elements of the ECS, such as fatty acid amide hydrolase or the cannabinoid receptors are now considered as promising pharmacological targets for some diseases. Although still preliminary, recent reports suggest that modulation of the ECS may constitute a novel approach for the treatment of AD. There are windows of opportunity in conditions caused by acute events such as trauma and ischemia as well in conditions that may involve altered functionality of the target receptors of the ECS, such as in AD. The ECS changes in Parkinson's disease could be compensatory as well as pathogenic of the illness process and needs further understanding and clinical studies are still in the preliminary stage. There is not enough evidence to support use of cannabinoids in treating Huntington's disease, tics and obsessive compulsive behaviour in Tourette's syndrome. Evidence on therapeutic use of cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis and ALS is currently limited. A major challenge for future research is the development of novel compounds with more selectivity for various components of the ECS which could target different neurotoxic pathways and be used in combination therapy.

  6. Vitamin D and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mazahery

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin D status in early development has been hypothesised as an environmental risk factor for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, given the concurrent increase in the prevalence of these two conditions, and the association of vitamin D with many ASD-associated medical conditions. Identification of vitamin D-ASD factors may provide indications for primary and secondary prevention interventions. We systematically reviewed the literature for studies on vitamin D-ASD relationship, including potential mechanistic pathways. We identified seven specific areas, including: latitude, season of conception/birth, maternal migration/ethnicity, vitamin D status of mothers and ASD patients, and vitamin D intervention to prevent and treat ASD. Due to differences in the methodological procedures and inconsistent results, drawing conclusions from the first three areas is difficult. Using a more direct measure of vitamin D status—that is, serum 25(OHD level during pregnancy or childhood—we found growing evidence for a relationship between vitamin D and ASD. These findings are supported by convincing evidence from experimental studies investigating the mechanistic pathways. However, with few primary and secondary prevention intervention trials, this relationship cannot be determined, unless randomised placebo-controlled trials of vitamin D as a preventive or disease-modifying measure in ASD patients are available.

  7. Emotional language processing in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina eLartseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In his first description of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, Kanner emphasized emotional impairments by characterizing children with ASD as indifferent to other people, self-absorbed, emotionally cold, distanced, and retracted. Thereafter, emotional impairments became regarded as part of the social impairments of ASD, and research mostly focused on understanding how individuals with ASD recognize visual expressions of emotions from faces and body postures. However, it still remains unclear how emotions are processed outside of the visual domain. This systematic review aims to fill this gap by focusing on impairments of emotional language processing in ASD.We systematically searched PubMed for papers published between 1990 and 2013 using standardized search terms. Studies show that people with ASD are able to correctly classify emotional language stimuli as emotionally positive or negative. However, processing of emotional language stimuli in ASD is associated with atypical patterns of attention and memory performance, as well as abnormal physiological and neural activity. Particularly, younger children with ASD have difficulties in acquiring and developing emotional concepts, and avoid using these in discourse. These emotional language impairments were not consistently associated with age, IQ, or level of development of language skills.We discuss how emotional language impairments fit with existing cognitive theories of ASD, such as central coherence, executive dysfunction, and weak Theory of Mind. We conclude that emotional impairments in ASD may be broader than just a mere consequence of social impairments, and should receive more attention in future research.

  8. Occlusion, Orthodontic treatment, and temporomandibular disorders: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J A; Seligman, D A; Okeson, J P

    1995-01-01

    A review of the current literature regarding the interaction of morphologic and functional occlusal factors relative to TMD indicates that there is a relatively low association of occlusal factors in characterizing TMD. Skeletal anterior open bite, overjets greater than 6 to 7 mm, retruded cuspal position/intercuspal position slides greater than 4 mm, unilateral lingual crossbite, and five or more missing posterior teeth are the five occlusal features that have been associated with specific diagnostic groups of TMD conditions. The first three factors often are associated with TMJ arthropathies and may be the result of osseous or ligamentous changes within the temporomandibular articulation. With regard to the relationship of orthodontic treatment to TMD, the current literature indicates that orthodontic treatment performed during adolescence generally does not increase or decrease the odds of developing TMD later in life. There is no elevated risk of TMD associated with any particular type of orthodontic mechanics or with extraction protocols. Although a stable occlusion is a reasonable orthodontic treatment goal, not achieving a specific gnathologically ideal occlusion does not result in TMD signs and symptoms. Thus, according to the existing literature, the relationship of TMD to occlusion and orthodontic treatment is minor. Signs and symptoms of TMD occur in healthy individuals and increase with age, particularly during adolescence; thus, TM disorders that originate during various types of dental treatment may not be related to the treatment but may be a naturally occurring phenomenon.

  9. Global prevalence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabbagh, Mayada; Divan, Gauri; Koh, Yun-Joo; Kim, Young Shin; Kauchali, Shuaib; Marcín, Carlos; Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Patel, Vikram; Paula, Cristiane S; Wang, Chongying; Yasamy, Mohammad Taghi; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-06-01

    We provide a systematic review of epidemiological surveys of autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) worldwide. A secondary aim was to consider the possible impact of geographic, cultural/ethnic, and socioeconomic factors on prevalence estimates and on clinical presentation of PDD. Based on the evidence reviewed, the median of prevalence estimates of autism spectrum disorders was 62/10 000. While existing estimates are variable, the evidence reviewed does not support differences in PDD prevalence by geographic region nor of a strong impact of ethnic/cultural or socioeconomic factors. However, power to detect such effects is seriously limited in existing data sets, particularly in low-income countries. While it is clear that prevalence estimates have increased over time and these vary in different neighboring and distant regions, these findings most likely represent broadening of the diagnostic concets, diagnostic switching from other developmental disabilities to PDD, service availability, and awareness of autistic spectrum disorders in both the lay and professional public. The lack of evidence from the majority of the world's population suggests a critical need for further research and capacity building in low- and middle-income countries.

  10. Lithium ameliorates autistic-like behaviors induced by neonatal isolation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan eWu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal isolation is a widely accepted model to study the long-term behavioral changes produced by the early life events. However, it remains unknown whether neonatal isolation can induce autistic-like behaviors, and if so, whether pharmacological treatment can overcome it. Here, we reported that newborn rats subjected to individual isolations from their mother and nest for 1 hr per day from postnatal days 1 to 9 displayed apparent autistic-like symptoms including social deficits, excessive repetitive self-grooming behavior, and increased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors tested in young adult (postnatal days 42-56 compared to normal reared controls. Furthermore, these behavioral changes were accompanied by impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis and reduced the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic transmissions, as reflected by an increase in spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC and normal spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron. More importantly, chronic administration of lithium, a clinically used mood stabilizer, completely overcame neonatal isolation-induced autistic-like behaviors, and restored adult hippocampal neurogenesis as well as the balance between excitatory and inhibitory activities to physiological levels. These findings indicate that neonatal isolation may produce autistic-like behaviors, and lithium may be a potential therapeutic agent against autism spectrum disorders during development.

  11. A reciprocal model of face recognition and autistic traits: evidence from an individual differences perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Drew W R; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Scherf, K Suzanne; Sherf, Suzanne K; Tanaka, James W

    2014-01-01

    Although not a core symptom of the disorder, individuals with autism often exhibit selective impairments in their face processing abilities. Importantly, the reciprocal connection between autistic traits and face perception has rarely been examined within the typically developing population. In this study, university participants from the social sciences, physical sciences, and humanities completed a battery of measures that assessed face, object and emotion recognition abilities, general perceptual-cognitive style, and sub-clinical autistic traits (the Autism Quotient (AQ)). We employed separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses to evaluate which factors could predict face recognition scores and AQ scores. Gender, object recognition performance, and AQ scores predicted face recognition behaviour. Specifically, males, individuals with more autistic traits, and those with lower object recognition scores performed more poorly on the face recognition test. Conversely, university major, gender and face recognition performance reliably predicted AQ scores. Science majors, males, and individuals with poor face recognition skills showed more autistic-like traits. These results suggest that the broader autism phenotype is associated with lower face recognition abilities, even among typically developing individuals.

  12. DNA Methylation Analysis of HTR2A Regulatory Region in Leukocytes of Autistic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hranilovic, Dubravka; Blazevic, Sofia; Stefulj, Jasminka; Zill, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Disturbed brain and peripheral serotonin homeostasis is often found in subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The role of the serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) in the regulation of central and peripheral serotonin homeostasis, as well as its altered expression in autistic subjects, have implicated the HTR2A gene as a major candidate for the serotonin disturbance seen in autism. Several studies, yielding so far inconclusive results, have attempted to associate autism with a functional SNP -1438 G/A (rs6311) in the HTR2A promoter region, while possible contribution of epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, to HTR2A dysregulation in autism has not yet been investigated. In this study, we compared the mean DNA methylation within the regulatory region of the HTR2A gene between autistic and control subjects. DNA methylation was analysed in peripheral blood leukocytes using bisulfite conversion and sequencing of the HTR2A region containing rs6311 polymorphism. Autistic subjects of rs6311 AG genotype displayed higher mean methylation levels within the analysed region than the corresponding controls (P < 0.05), while there was no statistically significant difference for AA and GG carriers. Our study provides preliminary evidence for increased HTR2A promoter methylation in leukocytes of a portion of adult autistic subjects, indicating that epigenetic mechanisms might contribute to HTR2A dysregulation observed in individuals with ASD.

  13. [Autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Early infantile autism' as defined by Kanner has grown into a spectrum of autistic disorders. The recognition of Asperger's disorder and of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), has led to increased demand for appropriate diagnostic assessment of autism in adults. The e

  14. Keys to Success with Autistic Children: Structure, Predictability, and Consistency Are Essential for Students on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseminger, Scott H.

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood and elementary music teachers face particular challenges when including children with special needs in the music classroom. Children with autism act out and misbehave not because they are autistic, but because their fears and anxieties are so great. Knowing that children with autism and other neurological disorders have distinct…

  15. Brief Report: No Association between Parental Age and Extreme Social-Communicative Autistic Traits in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elise B.; Munir, Kerim; McCormick, Marie C.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Santangelo, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first investigation of the relationship between parental age and extreme social-communicative autistic traits in the general population. The parents of 5,246 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) completed the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC). The association between parental age…

  16. Brief Report: Comparative Effects of Antecedent Exercise and Lorazepam on the Aggressive Behavior of an Autistic Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, David B.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This case study of a 24-year-old man with autistic disorder and mental retardation who exhibited aggression found that antecedent exercise significantly decreased aggression; drug therapy with an anxiolytic (lorazepam) alone had no significant effect on aggression; and exercise plus medication decreased aggression to a somewhat lesser degree than…

  17. DIAGNOSTIC AND TREATMENT OPTIONS IN AUTISTIC SPECTRUM DIDORDERS – AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheffali GULATI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Goal: To highlight the recent recommenddations and future trends in diagnosing and managing autistic spectrum disorder. Methodology: Comprehensive search was done in the electronic database, journals, reference lists and dissertation related to the field. Results and conclusion: Autistic spectrum disorder is characterized by onset before the age of 3 years, qualitative impairment in social and communication skills along with repetitive behavioural pattern and restricted interests. Multiple pathways involving genetic, structural and environmental factors have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis. Diagnosis is primarily clinical, based on caregiver interview and observing the patient. However, certain biochemical, radiological and electrophysiological investigations are indicated in relevant scenarios. The mainstay of therapy is behavioural intervention with pharmacotherapy indicated for certain behavioural issues. Complementary and alternate treatment, dietary and stem cell therapies are still investigational with some benefits.Various newer therapeutic options are currently being investigated, exploring the molecular and genetic basis of causation.

  18. Interrater reliability of schizoaffective disorder compared with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression - A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelmann, Hanno; Franklin, Jeremy; Bußhoff, Jana; Baethge, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Schizoaffective disorder is a common diagnosis in clinical practice but its nosological status has been subject to debate ever since it was conceptualized. Although it is key that diagnostic reliability is sufficient, schizoaffective disorder has been reported to have low interrater reliability. Evidence based on systematic review and meta-analysis methods, however, is lacking. Using a highly sensitive literature search in Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo we identified studies measuring the interrater reliability of schizoaffective disorder in comparison to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar disorder. Out of 4126 records screened we included 25 studies reporting on 7912 patients diagnosed by different raters. The interrater reliability of schizoaffective disorder was moderate (meta-analytic estimate of Cohen's kappa 0.57 [95% CI: 0.41-0.73]), and substantially lower than that of its main differential diagnoses (difference in kappa between 0.22 and 0.19). Although there was considerable heterogeneity, analyses revealed that the interrater reliability of schizoaffective disorder was consistently lower in the overwhelming majority of studies. The results remained robust in subgroup and sensitivity analyses (e.g., diagnostic manual used) as well as in meta-regressions (e.g., publication year) and analyses of publication bias. Clinically, the results highlight the particular importance of diagnostic re-evaluation in patients diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder. They also quantify a widely held clinical impression of lower interrater reliability and agree with earlier meta-analysis reporting low test-retest reliability.

  19. Psychogenetics of post-traumatic stress disorder: a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Rady

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Rady, Adel Elsheshai, Osama Elkholy, Heba Abou el WafaDepartment of Psychiatry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptAbstract: Post-traumatic stress disorder is a commonly overlooked psychiatric disorder due to the heterogeneity of symptoms that may simulate many other psychiatric disorders. Such heterogeneity of manifestations may be explained by the multifaceted nature of the different neurotransmitters, endocrinologic axis, and their genetic basis, that are implicated in the etiology. Although this disorder has been studied from many different perspectives, its etiology is still enigmatic. This minireview demonstrates, in brief, that different susceptibility genes are associated with post traumatic stress disorder.Keywords: trauma, post traumatic stress disorder, psychogenetic, stress response, neurobiology

  20. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza Moura, Antonio Marcos; Lamego, Murilo Khede; Paes, Flávia; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa; Simoes-Silva, Vitor; Rocha, Susana; Sá Filho,Alberto Souza; Rimes, Ridson; Manochio, João; Budde, Henning; Wegner, Mirko; Mura, Gioia; Arias-Carrión,Oscar; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders observed currently. It is a normal adaptive response to stress that allows coping with adverse situations. Nevertheless, when anxiety becomes excessive or disproportional in relation to the situation that evokes it or when there is not any special object directed at it, such as an irrational dread of routine stimuli, it becomes a disabling disorder and is considered to be pathological. The traditional treatment used is medication and...