WorldWideScience

Sample records for autistic disorder

  1. Catatonia and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Malone, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of catatonic-like states in people with autistic spectrum disorders is discussed in the context of current knowledge about catatonia as it occurs in severe mental illness and, less frequently documented, in conjunction with developmental disorders. The existing literature on catatonic-like states in people with autistic spectrum…

  2. Autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, Rajeshree

    2005-04-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders is a complex developmental disorder with social and communication dysfunction at its core. It has a wide clinical spectrum with a common triad of impairments -- social communication, social interaction and social imagination. Even mild or subtle difficulties can have a profound and devastating impact on the child. To be able to provide suitable treatments and interventions the distinctive way of thinking and learning of autistic children has to be understood. The core areas of social, emotional, communication and language deficits have to be addressed at all levels of functioning. The important goals of assessment include a categorical diagnosis of autism that looks at differential diagnosis, a refined precise documentation of the child's functioning in various developmental domains and ascertaining presence of co-morbid conditions. The interventions have to be adapted to the individual's chronological age, developmental phase and level of functioning. The strategies of curriculum delivery and teaching the child with autism is distinctive and includes presence of structure to increase predictability and strategies to reduce arousal of anxiety.

  3. Autistic disorder: a neuropsychological enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, R A

    1992-06-01

    Autism is increasingly viewed as an expression of an unidentified neurological disorder. Because understanding of neurological dysfunction is basic to evaluation and treatment in occupational therapy, this article provides a comprehensive and critical review of the literature since 1985 concerning the neuropsychology of autistic disorder. The research is categorized into four basic types: (a) neuropsychological testing of functional abilities, (b) treatment studies based on neuropsychological hypotheses, (c) autistic-related diseases and genetic disorders, and (d) neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies. The research shows a spectrum of neurological impairments within the brain stem, cerebellum, midbrain, and frontal lobe. These impairments are associated with deficits in socioemotional skills, sensory processing, motor planning, and cognitive flexibility. This research suggests that persons with autistic disorder need evaluation and treatment of a wide spectrum of functional deficits.

  4. Autistic Disorder Symptoms in Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulffaert, Josette; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; Scholte, Evert M.

    2009-01-01

    According to the major classification systems it is not possible to diagnose a comorbid autistic disorder in persons with Rett syndrome. However, this is a controversial issue, and given the level of functioning of persons with Rett syndrome, the autistic disorder is expected to be present in a comparable proportion as in people with the same…

  5. Autistic disorder and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbey, Jane E; Sweeten, Thayne L; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions, which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very early in development. The mechanism, by which viral infection may lead to autism, be it through direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS), through infection elsewhere in the body acting as a trigger for disease in the CNS, through alteration of the immune response of the mother or offspring, or through a combination of these, is not yet known. Animal models in which early viral infection results in behavioral changes later in life include the influenza virus model in pregnant mice and the Borna disease virus model in newborn Lewis rats. Many studies over the years have presented evidence both for and against the association of autism with various viral infections. The best association to date has been made between congenital rubella and autism; however, members of the herpes virus family may also have a role in autism. Recently, controversy has arisen as to the involvement of measles virus and/or the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in the development of autism. Biological assays lend support to the association between measles virus or MMR and autism whereas epidemiologic studies show no association between MMR and autism. Further research is needed to clarify both the mechanisms whereby viral infection early in development may lead to autism and the possible involvement of the MMR vaccine in the development of autism.

  6. The intestinal lesion of autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jass, Jeremy R

    2005-08-01

    This editorial briefly reviews the significance of lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in the intestinal tract of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The distinction between physiological and pathological lymphoid hyperplasia of the intestinal tract is of importance in the context of a possible causative link with autism. A primary intestinal lesion may occur as part of the broad spectrum of immunological disorders to which autistic children are prone. This could result in increased intestinal permeability to peptides of dietary origin which may then lead to disruption of neuroregulatory mechanisms required for normal brain development. Alternatively, there could be a primary defect in the translocation and processing of factors derived from the intestinal lumen. These possibilities deserve further investigation and should not be lost in the fog of the controversy regarding the role of measles/mumps/rubella vaccination in the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder.

  7. Reports on dietary intervention in autistic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knivsber, A M; Reichelt, K L; Nødland, M

    2001-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder for which no cure currently exists. Gluten and/or casein free diet has been implemented to reduce autistic behaviour, in addition to special education, since early in the eighties. Over the last twelve years various studies on this dietary intervention have been published in addition to anecdotal, parental reports. The scientific studies include both groups of participants as well as single cases, and beneficial results are reported in all, but one study. While some studies are based on urinary peptide abnormalities, others are not. The reported results are, however, more or less identical; reduction of autistic behaviour, increased social and communicative skills, and reappearance of autistic traits after the diet has been broken.

  8. Epidemiology of autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fombonne, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Is the incidence of autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) increasing? Recent epidemiological surveys of autistic disorder and other PDDs have heightened awareness of and concern about the prevalence of these disorders; however, differences in survey methodology, particularly changes in case definition and case identification over time, have made comparisons between surveys difficult to perform and interpret. Recent surveys suggest that the rate of all PDDs is about 60 per 10,000. The prevalence of autism today is estimated at 13 per 10,000, Asperger's disorder is approximately 3 per 10,000, and childhood disintegrative disorder is very rare at about 0.2 per 10,000. The assessment process, sample size, publication year, and geographic location of studies all have an effect on prevalence estimates. In addition, data from many of these surveys indicate correlates of autistic disorder and other PDDs with IQ, gender, and other medical disorders.

  9. The savant syndrome and autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffert, D A

    1999-12-01

    Savant syndrome, characterized by remarkable islands of mental ability in otherwise mentally handicapped persons, may occur in autistic as well as nonautistic individuals. Overall, approximately 10% of autistic persons exhibit savant abilities; roughly 50% of those with savant syndrome have autism, and the remaining 50% have other forms of developmental disability. Most commonly, savant syndrome takes the form of extraordinary musical abilities, but may also include calendar-calculation, artistic, mathematical, spatial, mechanical, and memory skills. While savant syndrome was first described more than a century ago, only recently have researchers begun to employ a more uniform nomenclature and more standardized testing in an effort to compare the abilities of savants with those of normal persons. Males show signs of savant syndrome approximately four times more often than females. Along with imaging study findings, this fact suggests the presence of a developmental disorder involving left-brain damage with right-brain compensation.

  10. Autistic spectrum disorders 2: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alice; Cork, Christine; Chowdhury, Uttom

    2006-04-01

    As many as six in every 1000 children may be affected by an autistic spectrum disorder. The previous article of this two-part series discussed the distinction between autism, Asperger's syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder, and examined the assessment process. This article looks at potential differential diagnoses that must be considered, as well as conditions associated with autism. Many theories about the causes of autism have been suggested, including the MMR vaccine. Recent research has suggested that there is no link between the vaccine and autism. There is no cure for autism, but intervention and management techniques should be aimed at educating parents and carers about the disorder and behavioural interventions to aid the child's skills development.

  11. Hyperserotonemia in Adults with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hranilovic, Dubravka; Bujas-Petkovic, Zorana; Vragovic, Renata; Vuk, Tomislav; Hock, Karlo; Jernej, Branimir

    2007-01-01

    Hyperserotonemia is the most consistent serotonin-related finding in autism. The basis of this phenomenon, and its relationship to the central serotonergic dysfunction remains unclear. Platelet serotonin level (PSL) in 53 autistic adults and 45 healthy controls was measured. Mean PSL in autistic group (75.7 [plus or minus] 37.4 ng/[microliters])…

  12. The Screening and Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipek, Pauline A.; Accardo, Pasquale J.; Baranek, Grace T.; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Dawson, Geraldine; Gordon, Barry; Gravel, Judith S.; Johnson, Chris P.; Kallen, Ronald J.; Levy, Susan E.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Prizant, Barry M.; Rapin, Isabelle; Rogers, Sally J.; Stone, Wendy L.; Teplin, Stuart; Tuchman, Roberto F.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents detailed recommendations for diagnosis of autism established by a multidisciplinary panel of the Child Neurology Society and the American Academy of Neurology. The paper offers dual-level (general development and specific symptoms) guidelines for diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative…

  13. [Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercadante, M.T.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Schwartzman, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative

  14. Caracterization of the motor profile of students with autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Matiko Okuda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Thematic focus: The motor abnormalities may be part of so-called comorbidities that can coexist with autistic disorder. Objective: To characterize the motor profile of students with autistic disorder. Method: the study included six children with autistic disorder in elementary school, male, aged 5 years and 5 months and 10 years and 9 months. After signing the consent form by parents or guardians, the students were submitted to the Motor Development Scale for assessment of fine motor, gross motor performance, balance, body scheme, spatial organization, temporal organization and laterality. Results: The results revealed a significant difference between the motor age and chronological age. According to the classification of the Scale of Motor Development, students in this study showed motor development lower than expected for age. Conclusion: The students with autistic disorder in this study presented a profile of Developmental Coordination Disorder in comorbidity, showing that participants of this research presented difficulties in activities that required skills such as handwriting. Thus, motor and psychomotor needs of these students were focused on educational and clinical environment to reduce the impact of behavioral and social manifestations.

  15. Impairment in Movement Skills of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dido; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Chandler, Susie; Loucas, Tom; Simonoff, Emily; Baird, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Aim: We undertook this study to explore the degree of impairment in movement skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and a wide IQ range. Method: Movement skills were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) in a large, well defined, population-derived group of children (n=101: 89 males,12 females; mean…

  16. Iron Deficiency in Preschool Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Gurkan, Kagan; Turkoglu, Serhat; Akca, Omer Faruk; Kilic, Birim Gunay; Uslu, Runa

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) causes negative outcomes on psychomotor and behavioral development of infants and young children. Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are under risk for ID and this condition may increase the severity of psychomotor and behavioral problems, some of which already inherently exist in these children. In the present…

  17. [Asperger's syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD) refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term,,autistic spectrum disorders" was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger's Syndrome (AS) remains the most controversial diagnosis in terms of its place within autism spectrum disorders. AS if often described as an equivalent of High Functioning Autism (HFA) or as a separate spectrum-related disorder with unique diagnostic criteria. Another important issue is the relationship between AS and speech disorders. Although it is relatively easy to draw a line between children with classical autism and speech disorders, the clear cut frontiers between them still remain to be found. The main distinguishing feature is the lack of stereotypic interests and unimpaired social interaction observed in children with speech disorders, such as semantic-pragmatic disorder.

  18. Catatonia in Autistic Disorder: A Sign of Comorbidity or Variable Expression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, George M.; August, Gerald J.

    1991-01-01

    Case studies are presented of three autistic adolescents who exhibited catatonia, and it is concluded that catatonia may be a sign of a comorbid condition (such as bipolar disorder) in autistic individuals. Autistic individuals with various other psychiatric, neurological, medical, and drug-related conditions may be at greater risk for catatonic…

  19. Auditory hypersensitivity in children and teenagers with autistic spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To verify if the clinical behavior of auditory hypersensitivity, reported in interviews with parents/caregivers and therapists/teachers of 46 children and teenagers suffering from autistic spectrum disorder, correspond to audiological findings. METHOD: The clinical diagnosis for auditory hypersensitivity was investigated by means of an interview. Subsequently, a test of the acoustic stapedial reflex was conducted, and responses to intense acoustic stimulus in open field were observ...

  20. Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.; Perrin, S.

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic tec

  1. The epidemiology of autistic spectrum disorders: is the prevalence rising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Lorna; Potter, David

    2002-01-01

    For decades after Kanner's original paper on the subject was published in 1943, autism was generally considered to be a rare condition with a prevalence of around 2-4 per 10,000 children. Then, studies carried out in the late 1990s and the present century reported annual rises in incidence of autism in pre-school children, based on age of diagnosis, and increases in the age-specific prevalence rates in children. Prevalence rates of up to 60 per 10,000 for autism and even more for the whole autistic spectrum were reported. Reasons for these increases are discussed. They include changes in diagnostic criteria, development of the concept of the wide autistic spectrum, different methods used in studies, growing awareness and knowledge among parents and professional workers and the development of specialist services, as well as the possibility of a true increase in numbers. Various environmental causes for a genuine rise in incidence have been suggested, including the triple vaccine for measles, mumps and rubella (MMR]. Not one of the possible environmental causes, including MMR, has been confirmed by independent scientific investigation, whereas there is strong evidence that complex genetic factors play a major role in etiology. The evidence suggests that the majority, if not all, of the reported rise in incidence and prevalence is due to changes in diagnostic criteria and increasing awareness and recognition of autistic spectrum disorders. Whether there is also a genuine rise in incidence remains an open question.

  2. Psychophysiological aspects of autistic disorders: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J B

    1996-03-01

    The neurological, neurochemical, and neurotransmitter level differences as well as genetic influences associated with autism have been studied extensively in the last two decades. The varied findings from research offer hope for better understanding, effective treatment, and, perhaps, cure of this pervasive developmental disorder.

  3. Neurofeedback application in the treatment of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivoder, Ivana; Martic-Biocina, Sanja; Kosic, Ana Vodanovic; Bosak, Josipa

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe neurofeedback (NFB) treatment in Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) children. There is no specific cure for autism and therapeutic guidelines are directed to improve the quality of life of people with autism by reducing the symptoms and by increasing their functioning. Neurofeedback is a computerized method based on tracking electrical activity of the brain (EEG) and giving a feedback about it. The method has been developed in neurophysiological labs of scientific institutes in USA and has been used very successfully for over last 20 years. It has proven its efficacy in practise, but also in scientific and clinical research. During 2010 and 2011 neurofeedback treatment was administered to 10 children (N=10, 7 males and 3 females) age range 4 to 7 years which have been diagnosed as autistic spectrum disorder (highly functional) with an unspecific impairment of speech development and trouble communicating. An evaluation of treatment was done according to estimation of changes in functioning (parents, teachers and therapists' ratings and all other experts that were monitoring the child before, during and after the treatment) and tracking of changes in electrophysiology. The results have shown most changes in behaviour (less aggressive, more cooperation, better communication), attention span and sensory motor skills. According to the assessment of parents, teachers, therapists and other experts all children have accomplished a certain degree of improvement in the level of daily functioning. Our experiences in usage of neurofeedback in Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) children confirmed previous data that this method can be applied to this category of patients.

  4. Autistic-Like Traits in Adult Patients with Mood Disorders and Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Junko Matsuo; Yoko Kamio; Hidetoshi Takahashi; Miho Ota; Toshiya Teraishi; Hiroaki Hori; Anna Nagashima; Reiko Takei; Teruhiko Higuchi; Nobutaka Motohashi; Hiroshi Kunugi

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and...

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Individuals with Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtar, Mohamad; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli

    2011-01-01

    Although children and adolescents with developmental disabilities are said to have higher risks of abuse than those without, trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are little examined in those diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Our study aims to assess trauma types, prevalence, risk factors and symptoms; and PTSD in…

  6. Parental satisfaction of an assessment unit for autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Amor, Arwa; Halayem, Soumeyya; Touati, Maissa; Belhadj, Ahlem; Gouider, Riadh; Mrad, Ridha; Bouden, Asma

    2016-06-01

    Background - Based on the recognized principles of assessment of autistic disorders, the child and adolescent psychiatry department in Razi Hospital developed an assessment unit with diagnostic as well as therapeutic roles. The aim of this work was to examine its functioning and to analyze the parents' perceptions about the unit services. Methods - We gathered the parental satisfaction about the unit by the means of a hetero-questionnaire. Results - Fifty-two parents of children evaluated within the unit were included.  Patients had received the diagnosis of Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorders Not Otherwise Specified and Asperger Syndrome in accordance with DSM IV criteria, and than that of Autism Spectrum Disorder after DSM 5 publication. The overall satisfaction rate was 63%. Most parents (84.6%) rated the Psycho Educative Profile examination positively, 75% appreciated the neurological examination and the final report steps, 55.8% appreciated step of the Autism Diagnostic Interview revised and 42.3% the genetic exploration. 67% of the parents reported an improvement of their child following the evaluation. This improvement was attributed to the unit in 57.7% of cases. Parents whose children did not have associated disorders such as intellectual disability (p = 0.02), aggressive behavior (p = 0.04), affective disorder (p = 0.01) and sleep-related disorders (p = 0.03) were the most satisfied. Parents of children with epilepsy comorbidity were the least satisfied (p <10-3). 96% of parents suggested repeating the assessment once a year. Conclusion - Assessment units are based on international recommendations. However, it would be interesting to adapt assessments and orientation to the parents' expectations.

  7. The Melatonin Receptor Agonist Ramelteon Effectively Treats Insomnia and Behavioral Symptoms in Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kawabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder.

  8. The melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon effectively treats insomnia and behavioral symptoms in autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Kentaro; Horiuchi, Fumie; Oka, Yasunori; Ueno, Shu-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder.

  9. Partial trisomy 16p in an adolescent with autistic disorder and Tourette`s syndrome

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    Hebebrand, J.; Martin, M.; Remschmidt, H. [Philipps-Univ., Marburg (Germany)] [and others

    1994-09-15

    A partial trisomy 16p was identified in a 14-year-old male adolescent with autistic disorder. He additionally showed complex motor and vocal phenomena, including some simple tics which had first appeared in childhood. Whereas these simple tics were of subclinical significance, an additional diagnosis of Tourette`s syndrome (TS) appears justified. The case report illustrates the diagnostic difficulties in assessing psychiatric symptomatology associated with both disorders, especially complex motor and vocal phenomena. The cytogenetic finding is discussed critically in the light of other chromosome abnormalities reported in both TS and autistic disorder. Chromosome 16p should be considered as a candidate region especially for autistic disorder. 21 refs.

  10. Molecular genetics and animal models in autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Autistic disorder is a behavioural syndrome beginning before the age of 3 years and lasting over the whole lifetime. It is characterised by impaired communication, impaired social interactions, and repetitive interests and behaviour. The prevalence is about 7/10,000 taking a restrictive definition and more than 1/500 with a broader definition, including all the pervasive developmental disorders. The importance of genetic factors has been highlighted by epidemiological studies showing that autistic disorder is one of the most genetic neuropsychiatric diseases. The relative risk of first relatives is about 100-fold higher than the risk in the normal population and the concordance in monozygotic twin is about 60%. Different strategies have been applied on the track of susceptibility genes. The systematic search of linked loci led to contradictory results, in part due to the heterogeneity of the clinical definitions, to the differences in the DNA markers, and to the different methods of analysis used. An oversimplification of the inferred model is probably also cause of our disappointment. More work is necessary to give a clearer picture. One region emerges more frequently: the long arm of chromosome 7. Several candidate genes have been studied and some gave indications of association: the Reelin gene and the Wnt2 gene. Cytogenetical abnormalities are frequent at 15q11-13, the region of the Angelman and Prader-Willi syndrome. Imprinting plays an important role in this region, no candidate gene has been identified in autism. Biochemical abnormalities have been found in the serotonin system. Association and linkage studies gave no consistent results with some serotonin receptors and in the transporter, although it seems interesting to go further in the biochemical characterisation of the serotonin transporter activity, particularly in platelets, easily accessible. Two monogenic diseases have been associated with autistic disorder: tuberous sclerosis and fragile X. A

  11. Autistic disorder: a review for the pediatric dentist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, U; Nowak, A J

    1998-01-01

    Dental publications on autism have been sparse since the first comprehensive article geared for the dental profession. New findings on the etiology of autistic disorder (AD) have been discovered, suggesting that it is an organic disorder characterized by abnormalities in the brain, especially the cerebellum and limbic system. This article summarizes the latest medical findings on the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment approaches of AD, and reviews the dental literature since 1969. The main dental topics reviewed are: oral health status and dental needs of patients with AD, characteristics of patients with AD, and self-injurious behavior (SIB) in the context of AD. Clinical behavior-management issues such as pharmacological and communicative techniques and physical restraint and desensitization are described. The affect of the dental office's environment and appointment structure on a patient with AD are presented.

  12. The importance of catatonia and stereotypies in autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Kakooza, Angelina

    2006-01-01

    Motor disturbances are often observed in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) and recognized as diagnostic features of these disorders. The movement disorders characteristically associated with autism include stereotypies and self-injurious behavior. Yet, individuals with ASD may also be at the risk for catatonia. Although not as frequent as stereotypies, up to 17% of older adolescents and adults with autistic disorder may have severe catatonic-like symptoms. Catatonia may be a comorbid risk factor of autism that warrants further empirical and clinical evaluations. Clinicians may need to be attentive to more subtle signs of catatonic-like symptoms in individuals diagnosed with ASDs, especially as they enter adolescence and young adulthood. Stress has been implicated as a possible precursor for symptoms; however, its role has not been empirically proven as a potential risk factor. Clinicians might also need to assess for signs of significant declines in motor movements, as this appears to be a useful diagnostic indicator of catatonic-like symptoms. The literature on stereotypies and autism is more extensive than for catatonia and ASDs, probably because of the higher rate of stereotypies with autism. Explanations for the occurrence of stereotypies range from genetic to behavioral contingencies, with evidence for a multifactor explanation. Assessment measures often include items that assess for stereotypies to aid with diagnosing these symptoms in individuals with autism. Treatment for stereotypies is largely behavioral at the present time and requires consistent reinforcement of treatment gains to manage the symptoms successfully. An important area of future research in autism is the relation among different types of motor abnormalities, including stereotypies and catatonia.

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all…

  14. Counseling parents regarding prognosis in autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, J

    2000-05-01

    A triaxial model for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is presented, incorporating age, degree of intelligence, and severity of autistic features. As the name implies, ASD can vary in degree of expression from minimal to profound. Furthermore, the symptoms of ASD change in predictable ways with the passage of time. For example, echolalia during early childhood may be replaced by verbal literalism and difficulty with verbal humor during later childhood or adolescence. The prognosis for children with ASD is governed by the joint impact of the degree of expression of ASD and the degree of developmental delay, if any. All combinations of ASD and intellect are possible (ie, severe ASD plus severe mental retardation, severe ASD plus normal general intelligence, and so forth). The relationship among these 3 parameters-severity of ASD, level of general intelligence, and change in symptom expression over time, is represented schematically as a 3-dimensional graph. The utility of this graph as a counseling tool, and as the basis for future research on the prognosis of ASD are discussed.

  15. Comparative analysis of autistic traits and behavioral disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome and Asperger disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dae Kwang; Sawada, Masayuki; Yokota, Shingo; Kuroda, Kenji; Uenishi, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Hiroshi; Nagai, Toshiro; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neuro-genetic disorder caused by the absence/loss of expression of one or more paternally expressed genes on chromosome 15 (q11-13). In this study, a comparative analysis of intelligence level and autistic traits was conducted between children with PWS (n = 30; 18 males, 12 females; age = 10.6 ± 2.8 years) and those with Asperger disorder (AD; n = 31; 24 males, 7 females; age = 10.5 ± 3.1 years). The children were compared by age group: lower elementary school age (6-8 years), upper elementary school age (9-12 years), and middle school age (13-15 years). As results, the intelligence levels of children with PWS were significantly lower than those with AD across all age groups. Autistic traits, assessed using the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), revealed that among elementary school age children, those with PWS had less prominent autistic traits than those with AD, however, among middle school age children, those with PWS and AD showed similar prominence. An analysis of the PARS subscale scores by age group showed that while the profiles of autistic traits for children with PWS differed from those of children with AD at elementary school age, the profiles showed no significant differences between the groups at middle school age. The findings suggest that autistic traits in PWS become gradually more prominent with increasing of age and that these autistic traits differ in their fundamental nature from those observed in AD.

  16. The Melatonin Receptor Agonist Ramelteon Effectively Treats Insomnia and Behavioral Symptoms in Autistic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kentaro Kawabe; Fumie Horiuchi; Yasunori Oka; Shu-ichi Ueno

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteo...

  17. Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebel, Antony; Brams, Matthew; Goldman, Robert S; Silva, Robert; Hernandez, David; Deng, Ling; Mankoski, Raymond; Findling, Robert L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of lurasidone in treating irritability associated with autistic disorder. In this multicenter trial, outpatients age 6-17 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, and who demonstrated irritability, agitation, and/or self-injurious behaviors were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with lurasidone 20 mg/day (N = 50), 60 mg/day (N = 49), or placebo (N = 51). Efficacy measures included the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale (ABC-I, the primary endpoint) and the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement (CGI-I) scale, and were analyzed using a likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures. Least squares (LS) mean (standard error [SE]) improvement from baseline to Week 6 in the ABC-I was not significantly different for lurasidone 20 mg/day (-8.8 [1.5]) and lurasidone 60 mg/day (-9.4 [1.4]) versus placebo (-7.5 [1.5]; p = 0.55 and 0.36, respectively). CGI-I scores showed significantly greater LS mean [SE] improvement at Week 6 for lurasidone 20 mg/day versus placebo (2.8 [0.2] vs. 3.4 [0.2]; p = 0.035) but not for lurasidone 60 mg/day (3.1 [0.2]; p = 0.27). Discontinuation rates due to adverse events were: lurasidone 20 mg/day, 4.1%; 60 mg/day, 3.9%; and placebo, 8.2%. Adverse events with an incidence ≥10% (lurasidone combined, placebo) included vomiting (18.0, 4.1%) and somnolence (12.0, 4.1%). Modest changes were observed in weight and selected metabolic parameters. In this study, once-daily, fixed doses of 20 and 60 mg/day of lurasidone were not demonstrated to be efficacious compared to placebo for the short-term treatment of children and adolescents with moderate-to-severe irritability associated with autistic disorder.

  18. Parental Perceptions of a Manchester Service for Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mischa Mockett

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. User feedback is now an integral part of both clinical governance and service development, and it also provides a key route to engaging parents and children. Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs can impact on all members of a family, and close working between parents and professionals is essential. Aim. To explore parental satisfaction rates and identify areas in need of improvement. Method. A postal survey was completed by parents whose children had been diagnosed with an ASD in the past 18 months in a Manchester Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service. The National Autism Plan for Children was used as a gold standard. Results. Parents were particularly satisfied with the way team members dealt with them and their children during appointments. However, the standard of written information provided about the condition, diagnosis, and support available could be improved. The findings show the benefits of receiving a diagnosis in the recommended timeframe. Discussion. We discuss ways of effectively using scarce resources.

  19. Demographic correlates of children and adolescents with Autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyoub Malek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Comparison of the demographic characteristics of patients provides useful information to their identification. This study aimed to determine the demographic characteristics of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: In this cross-sectional case-control study, 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected from Autism Society Rehabilitation Center in Tabriz, Iran, and 112 normal children and adolescents from the public schools, in 2014. The participants in both groups were matched regarding age and gender. Diagnosis of AD was performed using diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-4th edition (DSM-IV criteria and clinical diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The demographic information of children and adolescents and their parents were collected from the medical records of children and interviews with their mothers. Results: Most of the children with autism had second or higher birth order and had families with more than three members. Mothers of children with autism had significantly lower levels of education and were mostly housewives. Fathers of autistic children mostly had high school diploma and fewer had university education, and most of them were employed. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the AD group and the control group regarding the average height and weight of children and the residence (urban or rural and age of parents at childbirth.Conclusion: The demographic characteristics of the two groups of children and adolescents with AD and normal controls were different from each other regarding family size, birth order, parent occupation, and parent education variables.

  20. Prevalence of Parasomnia in Autistic Children with Sleep Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur S. Walters

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of sleep related complaints is reported by questionnaire studies to be as high as 83.3% in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Questionnaire studies report the presence of various parasomnia in ASD. However, no polysomnographic study reports non-REM parasomnias and only a single study reports REM related parasomnias in ASD. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of sleep disorders by polysomnographic study and questionnaires in a cohort of 23 children with ASD and 23 age-matched children of a non-autistic comparison group. The results showed significantly more non-REM parasomnias in 14 children with ASD on polysomnograms (PSG and 16 ASD children by questionnaire, a finding that was not associated with medication use, other comorbid medical or psychiatric disorders, or sleep disordered breathing. Of the 14 children with ASD who had PSG evidence of parasomnia, 11 of them had a history suggestive of parasomnia by questionnaire. There was a high sensitivity but a low specificity of parasomnia in ASD by questionnaire in predicting the presence of parasomnia in the PSG. Of the parasomnias recorded in the laboratory, 13 ASD children had Disorders of Partial Arousal, consistent with sleep terrors or confusional arousals. Furthermore, multiple episodes of partial arousal occurred in 11 of the 13 ASD children who had PSG evidence of Disorders of Partial Arousal. Of the 11 ASD children with multiple episodes of partial arousal, 6 ASD children had multiple partial arousals during both nights’ PSG study. Sleep architecture was abnormal in children with ASD, characterized by increased spontaneous arousals, prolonged REM latency and reduced REM percentage. These results suggest a high prevalence of parasomnia in this cohort of children with ASD and a careful history intake of symptoms compatible with parasomnia could be prudent to diagnose parasomnia in ASD children when performing a PSG is not possible.

  1. Prevalence of parasomnia in autistic children with sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Xue; Sun, Ye-Ming; Nachajon, Roberto V; Brimacombe, Michael; Walters, Arthur S

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep related complaints is reported by questionnaire studies to be as high as 83.3% in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Questionnaire studies report the presence of various parasomnia in ASD. However, no polysomnographic study reports non-REM parasomnias and only a single study reports REM related parasomnias in ASD. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of sleep disorders by polysomnographic study and questionnaires in a cohort of 23 children with ASD and 23 age-matched children of a non-autistic comparison group. The results showed significantly more non-REM parasomnias in 14 children with ASD on polysomnograms (PSG) and 16 ASD children by questionnaire, a finding that was not associated with medication use, other comorbid medical or psychiatric disorders, or sleep disordered breathing. Of the 14 children with ASD who had PSG evidence of parasomnia, 11 of them had a history suggestive of parasomnia by questionnaire. There was a high sensitivity but a low specificity of parasomnia in ASD by questionnaire in predicting the presence of parasomnia in the PSG. Of the parasomnias recorded in the laboratory, 13 ASD children had Disorders of Partial Arousal, consistent with sleep terrors or confusional arousals. Furthermore, multiple episodes of partial arousal occurred in 11 of the 13 ASD children who had PSG evidence of Disorders of Partial Arousal. Of the 11 ASD children with multiple episodes of partial arousal, 6 ASD children had multiple partial arousals during both nights' PSG study. Sleep architecture was abnormal in children with ASD, characterized by increased spontaneous arousals, prolonged REM latency and reduced REM percentage. These results suggest a high prevalence of parasomnia in this cohort of children with ASD and a careful history intake of symptoms compatible with parasomnia could be prudent to diagnose parasomnia in ASD children when performing a PSG is not possible.

  2. Autistic disorder : Current psychopharmacological treatments and areas of interest for future developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolov, R; Jonker, Jacob Jan; Scahill, L

    2006-01-01

    Autistic disorder and the group of related conditions defined as pervasive developmental disorders are chronic neurodevelopmental disorders starting in early childhood and affecting a significant number of children and families. Although the causes and much of the pathophysiology of the disorder rem

  3. Temporal Cognitive Disorders of Autistic Patients%孤独症患者的时间认知障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹; 黄希庭

    2003-01-01

    Besides cognitive disorders, such as disorders of learning, language, etc, the autistic patients generally have tempo-ral cognitive disorders as well, including disorders of sense of time, disorders of memory of time, disorders of temporal behaviour,and disorders of self - consistency. Researchers discussed the possible causes of the temporal cognitive disorders of autistic patients from various ways such as of physiology, heredity, and environment;whereas, there axe no generally accepted conclusions till now. Further researches axe still needed.

  4. Autistic-like traits in adult patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Matsuo

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and whether such an association is independent of symptom severity. The subjects were 290 adults of normal intelligence between 25 and 59 years of age (MDD, n=125; bipolar disorder, n=56; schizophrenia, n=44; healthy controls, n=65. Autistic-like traits/symptoms were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults. Symptom severity was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and/or the Young Mania Rating Scale. Almost half of the clinical subjects, except those with remitted MDD, exhibited autistic-like traits/symptoms at levels typical for sub-threshold or threshold autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the proportion of psychiatric patients that demonstrated high autistic-like traits/symptoms was significantly greater than that of healthy controls, and not different between that of remitted or unremitted subjects with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. On the other hand, remitted subjects with MDD did not differ from healthy controls with regard to the prevalence or degree of high autistic-like traits/symptoms. A substantial proportion of adults with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed high autistic-like traits/symptoms independent of symptom severity, suggesting a shared pathophysiology among autism spectrum disorder and these psychiatric disorders. Conversely, autistic-like traits among subjects with MDD were associated with the depressive symptom severity. These findings suggest the

  5. Autistic-like traits in adult patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Junko; Kamio, Yoko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ota, Miho; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Nagashima, Anna; Takei, Reiko; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Motohashi, Nobutaka; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and whether such an association is independent of symptom severity. The subjects were 290 adults of normal intelligence between 25 and 59 years of age (MDD, n=125; bipolar disorder, n=56; schizophrenia, n=44; healthy controls, n=65). Autistic-like traits/symptoms were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults. Symptom severity was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and/or the Young Mania Rating Scale. Almost half of the clinical subjects, except those with remitted MDD, exhibited autistic-like traits/symptoms at levels typical for sub-threshold or threshold autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the proportion of psychiatric patients that demonstrated high autistic-like traits/symptoms was significantly greater than that of healthy controls, and not different between that of remitted or unremitted subjects with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. On the other hand, remitted subjects with MDD did not differ from healthy controls with regard to the prevalence or degree of high autistic-like traits/symptoms. A substantial proportion of adults with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed high autistic-like traits/symptoms independent of symptom severity, suggesting a shared pathophysiology among autism spectrum disorder and these psychiatric disorders. Conversely, autistic-like traits among subjects with MDD were associated with the depressive symptom severity. These findings suggest the importance of

  6. Breastfeeding, infant formula supplementation, and Autistic Disorder: the results of a parent survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Stephen T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Autistic Disorder is associated with several congenital conditions, the cause for most cases is unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine whether breastfeeding or the use of infant formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid is associated with Autistic Disorder. The hypothesis is that breastfeeding and use of infant formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid are protective for Autistic Disorder. Methods This is a case-control study using data from the Autism Internet Research Survey, an online parental survey conducted from February to April 2005 with results for 861 children with Autistic Disorder and 123 control children. The analyses were performed using logistic regression. Results Absence of breastfeeding when compared to breastfeeding for more than six months was significantly associated with an increase in the odds of having autistic disorder when all cases were considered (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.42, 4.35 and after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.01, 3.78. Use of infant formula without docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid supplementation versus exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a significant increase in the odds of autistic disorder when all cases were considered (OR 4.41, 95% CI 1.24, 15.7 and after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 12.96, 95% CI 1.27, 132. Conclusion The results of this preliminary study indicate that children who were not breastfed or were fed infant formula without docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid supplementation were significantly more likely to have autistic disorder.

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all inclusion criteria. One small randomized controlled trial (n = 13) noted non-significant improvements in hyperactivity and stereotypy. The remaining five st...

  8. Sound before meaning: word learning in autistic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Griffiths, Helen; Nation, Kate

    2010-12-01

    Successful word learning depends on the integration of phonological and semantic information with social cues provided by interlocutors. How then, do children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) learn new words when social impairments pervade? We recorded the eye-movements of verbally-able children with ASD and their typical peers while completing a word learning task in a social context. We assessed learning of semantic and phonological features immediately after learning and again four weeks later. Eye-movement data revealed that both groups could follow social cues, but that typically developing children were more sensitive to the social informativeness of gaze cues. In contrast, children with ASD were more successful than peers at mapping phonological forms to novel referents; however, this advantage was not maintained over time. Typical children showed clear consolidation of learning both semantic and phonological information, children with ASD did not. These results provide unique evidence of qualitative differences in word learning and consolidation and elucidate the different mechanisms underlying the unusual nature of autistic language.

  9. Gluten- and casein-free diets for autistic spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Claire; Ferriter, Michael; Calver, Sarah J; Connell-Jones, Graham G

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that peptides from gluten and casein may have a role in the origins of autism and that the physiology and psychology of autism might be explained by excessive opioid activity linked to these peptides. Research has reported abnormal levels of peptides in the urine and cerebrospinal fluid of people with autism. Objectives To determine the efficacy of gluten and/or casein free diets as an intervention to improve behaviour, cognitive and social functioning in individuals with autism. Search methods The following electronic databases were searched: CENTRAL(The Cochrane Library Issue 2, 2007), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2007), PsycINFO (1971 to April 2007), EMBASE (1974 to April 2007), CINAHL (1982 to April 2007), ERIC (1965 to 2007), LILACS (1982 to April 2007), and the National Research register 2007 (Issue1). Review bibliographies were also examined to identify potential trials. Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials (RCT) involving programmes which eliminated gluten, casein or both gluten and casein from the diets of individuals diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder. Data collection and analysis Abstracts of studies identified in searches of electronic databases were assessed to determine inclusion by two independent authors The included trials did not share common outcome measures and therefore no meta-analysis was possible. Data are presented in narrative form. Main results Two small RCTs were identified (n = 35). No meta-analysis was possible. There were only three significant treatment effects in favour of the diet intervention: overall autistic traits, mean difference (MD) = −5.60 (95% CI −9.02 to −2.18), z = 3.21, p=0.001 (Knivsberg 2002) ; social isolation, MD = −3.20 (95% CI −5.20 to 1.20), z = 3.14, p = 0.002) and overall ability to communicate and interact, MD = 1.70 (95% CI 0.50 to 2.90), z = 2.77, p = 0.006) (Knivsberg 2003). In addition three outcomes showed no significant difference between the

  10. Serotonergic disturbances in autistic disorder: L-5-hydroxytryptophan administration to autistic youngsters increases the blood concentrations of serotonin in patients but not in controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croonenberghs, Jan; Verkerk, Robert; Scharpe, Simon; Deboutte, Dirk; Maes, Michael

    2005-03-25

    Some studies have suggested that disorders in the peripheral and central metabolism of serotonin (5-HT) may play a role in the pathophysiology of autistic disorder. This study examines the whole blood concentrations of 5-HT and 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in baseline conditions and during a challenge with L-5-OH-tryptophane (5-HTP; 4 mg/kg in non enteric-coated tablets), the precursor of 5-HT, in a study group of 18 male, post-pubertal, Caucasian autistic patients (age 13-19 y.; I.Q.>55) and 20 matched healthy volunteers. In baseline conditions, no significant differences in 5-HT or 5-HIAA levels could be found between autistic youngsters and normal controls. 5-HTP administration significantly increased the levels of 5-HT in autistic youngsters but not in normal controls. Following 5-HTP challenge the 5-HT levels were significantly higher in autistic patients than in healthy volunteers. After challenge with 5-HTP, no significant differences were found in the concentrations of 5-HIAA or the test substance between autistic youngsters and normal controls. Differences in the peripheral metabolism of 5-HT which may not be observed in baseline conditions but which became clear after loading with 5-HTP, suggest that an increased synthesis of 5-HT from its precursor 5-HTP might be a one factor responsible for differences in the serotonergic system between autistic post-pubertal youngsters and normal controls.

  11. Executive Functioning Differences between Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Initiation, Planning and Strategy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramham, Jessica; Ambery, Fiona; Young, Susan; Morris, Robin; Russell, Ailsa; Xenitidis, Kiriakos; Asherson, Philip; Murphy, Declan

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning deficits characterize the neuropsychological profiles of the childhood neurodevelopmental disorders of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). This study sought to determine whether similar impairments exist in adults with ADHD (N = 53) and ASD (N = 45) in comparison with a…

  12. Prodromal and autistic symptoms in schizotypal personality disorder and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterberg, Michelle L; Ousley, Opal Y; Cubells, Joseph F; Walker, Elaine F

    2013-02-01

    Despite clear diagnostic distinctions, schizophrenia and autism share symptoms on several dimensions. Recent research has suggested the two disorders overlap in etiology, particularly with respect to inherited and noninherited genetic factors. Studying the relationship between psychotic-like and autistic-like symptoms in risk groups such as 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) has the potential to shed light on such etiologic factors; thus, the current study examined prodromal symptoms and autistic features in samples of 22q11DS and SPD subjects using standardized diagnostic measures, including the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS) and the Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised (ADI-R). Results showed that SPD subjects manifested significantly more severe childhood and current social as well as stereotypic autistic features, as well as more severe positive prodromal symptoms. The two groups did not differ on negative, disorganized, or general prodromal symptoms, but were distinguishable based on correlations between prodromal and autistic features; the relationships between childhood autistic features and current prodromal symptoms were stronger for the SPD group. The results suggest that childhood autistic features are less continuous with subsequent prodromal signs in 22q11DS patients relative to those with SPD, and the findings highlight the importance of studying the overlap in diagnostic phenomenology in groups at risk for developing psychosis and/or autism.

  13. A review of neuropsychological and neuroimaging research in autistic spectrum disorders: Attention, inhibition and cognitive flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    PUBLISHED Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are devastating neurodevelopmental disorders of unknown aetiology with characteristic deficits in social interaction, communication and behaviour. Individuals with ASD show deficits in executive function (EF), which are hypothesised to underlie core repetitive, stereotyped behaviours of autism. Neuroimaging research has identified structural brain abnormalities in ASD, which coincide with brain regions involved in EF. Therefore, we reviewed the l...

  14. A Review of Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Research in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Attention, Inhibition and Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jane; Johnson, Katherine A.; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Gallagher, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are devastating neurodevelopmental disorders of unknown aetiology with characteristic deficits in social interaction, communication and behaviour. Individuals with ASD show deficits in executive function (EF), which are hypothesised to underlie core repetitive, stereotyped behaviours of autism. Neuroimaging…

  15. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use, Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, and Autistic Disorder: The Results of a Parent Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T.; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Akshoomoff, Natacha A.; Macera, Caroline A.; Ji, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80…

  16. A Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose Study of Aripiprazole in Children and Adolescents with Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Ronald N.; Owen, Randall; Kamen, Lisa; Manos, George; McQuade, Robert D.; Carson, William H.; Aman, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Method: Two hundred eighteen children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) with a diagnosis of autistic disorder, and with behaviors such as tantrums, aggression, self-injurious behavior, or a…

  17. Aggression in low functioning children and adolescents with autistic disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Bronsard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parents, caregivers and mental health professionals have often reported violence and aggression in children or adolescents with autistic disorder. However, most of these observations derived from anecdotal reports, and studies on frequency and characterization of aggression in autism remain limited. Our objective was to better characterize and understand the different types of aggressive behaviors displayed by a large group of individuals with autism in different observational situations. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The study was conducted on 74 children and adolescents with autism and 115 typically developing control individuals matched for sex, age and pubertal stage. Other-Injurious Behaviors (OIB were assessed in three observational situations (parents at home, two caregivers at day-care, a nurse and a child psychiatrist during blood drawing using validated scales. The frequency of OIB was significantly higher in individuals with autism compared to typically developing control individuals during the blood drawing (23% vs. 0%, P<0 .01. The parents observed significantly less OIB in their children than caregivers (34% vs. 58%, P<0.05. In addition, the most frequent concurrent behaviors occurring just before the appearance of OIB in individuals with autism were anxiety-related behaviors and excitation according to the parental as well as the caregiver observation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that in a stressful situation, such as the blood drawing, individuals with autism release their stress through behaviors such as OIB, whereas typically developing individuals regulate and express their stress through cognitive skills such as mental coping strategies, symbolization skills with representation and anticipation of the stressful situation, social interaction and verbal or non-verbal communication. The findings underline also the key role of the environment in assessing OIB and developing therapeutic perspectives, with an

  18. Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Two Brothers with Congenital Visual Impairment: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Altun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Autistic spectrum disorder is characterized by severe qualitative impairments in socialization, communication, and restricted repetitive behavior, interests and activities. It is a behaviorally defined disorder of unknown etiology that is thought to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Congenital visual impairment children are generally reported to be at risk for serious behavioral and psychological problems, such as withdrawal, isolation, and autism. Several studies have described the coexistence of autism or autistic behaviors in visually impaired individuals. To our knowledge, there is no case report about congenital visual impairment and comorbid autistic spectrum disorder in two brothers. In this case report, we aim to emphasise the comorbidity of congenital visual impairment and genetic predisposition which are risk factors for autism separately.

  19. Fluoxetine response in children with autistic spectrum disorders: correlation with familial major affective disorder and intellectual achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, G Robert; Ritch, Chad R; Burch, Sherri

    2002-10-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine children, 2 to 8 years old, with idiopathic autistic spectrum disorder diagnosed by standard instruments (Childhood Austim Ratings Scale and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were treated with fluoxetine (0.15 to 0.5mg/kg) for 5 to 76 months (mean 32 to 36 months), with discontinuation trials. Response criteria are described. Family histories were obtained using the family history method in repeated interviews. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder, and unusual intellectual achievement, pretreatment language, and hyperlexia were used to define a coherent subgroup of autistic spectrum disorder. Statistical analyses were post hoc. Of the children, 22 (17%) had an excellent response, 67 (52%) good, and 40 (31%) fair/poor. Treatment age did not correlate with response. Fluoxetine response correlated robustly with familial major affective disorder and unusual intellectual achievement, and with hyperlexia in the child. Family history of bipolar disorder and of unusual intellectual achievement correlated strongly. Five children developed bipolar disorder during follow-up. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder (especially bipolar), unusual achievement, and hyperlexia in the children appear to define a homogeneous autistic subgroup. Bipolar disorder, unusual intellectual achievement, and autistic spectrum disorders cluster strongly in families and may share genetic determinants.

  20. Evaluation of Planning Dysfunction in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorders Using the Zoo Map Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Marin, M. D.; Moreno-Granados, J. M.; Ruiz-Veguilla, M.; Ferrin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorders (ADHD) and Autistic-Spectrum-Disorders (ASD) share overlapping clinical and cognitive features that may confuse the diagnosis. Evaluation of executive problems and planning dysfunction may aid the clinical diagnostic process and help disentangle the neurobiological process underlying these conditions. This…

  1. The potential importance of steroids in the treatment of autistic spectrum disorders and other disorders involving mercury toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Mark R; Geier, David A

    2005-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) affects 1 in 150 children in the United States. Autism is characterized by impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, abnormal movements, and sensory dysfunction. Recently emerging evidence suggests that mercury, especially from childhood vaccines, appears to be a factor in the development of the autistic disorders, and that autistic children have higher than normal body-burdens of mercury. In considering mercury toxicity, it has previously been shown that testosterone significantly potentates mercury toxicity, whereas estrogen is protective. Examination of autistic children has shown that the severity of autistic disorders correlates with the amount of testosterone present in the amniotic fluid, and an examination of a case-series of autistic children has shown that some have plasma testosterone levels that were significantly elevated in comparison neurotypical control children. A review of some of the current biomedical therapies for autistics, such as glutathione and cysteine, chelation, secretin, and growth hormone, suggests that they may in fact lower testosterone levels. We put forward the medical hypothesis that autistic disorders, in fact, represents a form of testosterone mercury toxicity, and based upon this observation, one can design novel treatments for autistics directed towards higher testosterone levels in autistic children. We suggest a series of experiments that need to be conducted in order to evaluate the exact mechanisms for mercury-testosterone toxicity, and various types of clinical manipulations that may be employed to control testosterone levels. It is hoped by devising therapies that address the steroid hormone pathways, in addition to the current treatments that successful lower heavy metal body-burdens of mercury, will work synergistically to improve clinical outcomes. In light of the fact that

  2. Brief Report: Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed S.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Waly, Mostafa I.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in Oman is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of ASD among 0-14 year old children. Diagnoses were made as per DSM-IV-TR criteria and supplemented with information collected with the standard Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) questionnaire. A total 113 cases of…

  3. Brief Report: Pilot Investigation of Service Receipt by Young Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, John D.; Huculak, Susan; Sheehan, Debbie

    2008-01-01

    Whether children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families are receiving recommended assessments and services is poorly known. This pilot study examined service receipt as reported by parents of young children with ASD (n = 64) from four specialty centers in Canada. While almost all children had a speech and language assessment…

  4. Clinical and anatomical heterogeneity in autistic spectrum disorder: a structural MRI study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toal, F

    2010-07-01

    Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by stereotyped\\/obsessional behaviours and social and communicative deficits. However, there is significant variability in the clinical phenotype; for example, people with autism exhibit language delay whereas those with Asperger syndrome do not. It remains unclear whether localized differences in brain anatomy are associated with variation in the clinical phenotype.

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Parenting Stress Index with Parents of Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, L. A.; Ahmad, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and the theoretical structure of the Parenting Stress Index-short form (PSI-SF) with Jordanian parents of children with autistic disorder. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design for data collection, the convenience sample of the study was composed of 184 Jordanian…

  6. Why Youngsters with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Remain Underrepresented in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    Although numerous investigations have examined the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in the general population, have special education identification rates of autism kept pace? From the 1992-1993 to 2001-2002 school years, U.S. Department of Education data indicate an increase from 15,580 to 97,904 students with autism, an expansion…

  7. Brief Report: On the Concordance Percentages for Autistic Spectrum Disorder of Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Henry V.; Stewart, Melbourne G.

    2009-01-01

    In the development of genetic theories of Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) various characteristics of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins are often considered. This paper sets forth a possible refinement in the interpretation of the MZ twin concordance percentages for ASD underlying such genetic theories, and, drawing the consequences from…

  8. Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Speech-Generating Devices: Communication in Different Activities at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunberg, Gunilla; Ahlsen, Elisabeth; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2007-01-01

    The communication of four children with autistic spectrum disorder was investigated when they were supplied with a speech-generating device (SGD) in three different activities in their home environment: mealtime, story reading and "sharing experiences of the preschool day". An activity based communication analysis, in which collective and…

  9. Using Virtual Environments for Teaching Social Understanding to 6 Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Peter; Parsons, Sarah; Leonard, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Six teenagers with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) experienced a Virtual Environment (VE) of a cafe. They also watched three sets of videos of real cafe and buses and judged where they would sit and explained why. Half of the participants received their VE experience between the first and second sets of videos, and half experienced it between…

  10. Diagnostic Trends in Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the South Wales Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, A. H. A.; Williams, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides an analysis of the diagnostic trends in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) for children aged under 17 years in the Rhondda and Taff Ely districts of South Wales. In the period 1988-2004, 336 children received a diagnosis of ASD and represent the case registry data of one community pediatric team. For the period 1994-2003, the…

  11. Comparing the Intelligence Profiles of Savant and Nonsavant Individuals with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    It is yet unknown whether individuals with and without savant abilities being affected by the same mental disorder display differences with regard to their intelligence profile. To examine this issue, we compared the test performance of 33 savant and 26 nonsavant autistic subjects using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales-Revised for children or…

  12. Social Information Processing in Boys with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embregts, P.; van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) have less adaptive behaviour and more behaviour problems than children with mild to borderline ID. Social information processing appears to be an important mechanism in the explanation of the socially inadequate behaviour of children…

  13. The relationship between carers' report of autistic traits and clinical diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Sabyasachi; Tyrer, Freya; Barrett, Mary; Tin, Nyunt; McGrother, Catherine W; Kiani, Reza

    2010-01-01

    It is often difficult to determine the triad of impairments and whether autistic features are the consequence of intellectual impairment or autism spectrum disorders in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between carer-reported autistic traits and independent diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were collected on carers' subjective report of autistic traits and clinical diagnoses of ASD. Of 1145 adults with ID identified, 220 (19%) individuals had a diagnosis of ASD, and 778 (68%) individuals had at least one autistic trait. Optimal sensitivity and specificity were achieved with two or more autistic traits (sensitivity 63%; specificity 79%) and the positive predictive value increased substantially as the number of autistic traits increased. However, a significant proportion of individuals with ID who did not have a diagnosis of ASD also displayed autistic traits. Our findings suggest that in the absence of other measures, the presence of autistic traits can serve as a useful proxy measure for ASD in research (and/or clinical settings). However, although information on autistic traits may help healthcare practitioners to identify people with possible ASD, it cannot be used alone to make a formal diagnosis.

  14. Long-term oxytocin administration improves social behaviors in a girl with autistic disorder

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    Kosaka Hirotaka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs exhibit core autistic symptoms including social impairments from early childhood and mostly show secondary disabilities such as irritability and aggressive behavior based on core symptoms. However, there are still no radical treatments of social impairments in these patients. Oxytocin has been reported to play important roles in multiple social behaviors dependent on social recognition, and has been expected as one of the effective treatments of social impairments of patients with ASDs. Case presentation We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with autistic disorder who treated by long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray. Her autistic symptoms were successfully treated by two month administration; the girl’s social interactions and social communication began to improve without adverse effects. Her irritability and aggressive behavior also improved dramatically with marked decreases in aberrant behavior checklist scores from 69 to 7. Conclusion This case is the first to illustrate long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray in the targeted treatment of social impairments in a female with autistic disorder. This case suggests that long-term nasal oxytocin spray is promising and well-tolerated for treatment of social impairments of patients with ASDs.

  15. ON DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS BETWEEN AUTISTIC DISORDER AND ASPERGER’S SYNDROME

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    Stefan Todorov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis between Autistic disorder (AD and Asperger’s syndrome (AS in most cases is quite difficult since most of the symptoms are clinically undistinguished. Several factors complicate the diagnosis of AS- an autism spectrum disorder (ASD. It is considered by some authors to be simply a milder version of autistic disorder. Problems in diagnosis include disagreement among diagnostic criteria, controversy over the distinction between AS and other ASD forms or even whether AS exists as a separate syndrome, and over- and under-diagnosis. Our paper is based on the diagnostic and differential diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV, ICD-10 and our clinical experience.In the process of diagnosis and differential diagnosis we, naturally, illustrate and discuss the similarities and differences between the two disorders.

  16. Autistic Spectrum Disorder in Two Brothers with Congenital Visual Impairment: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice Altun

    2013-01-01

    Autistic spectrum disorder is characterized by severe qualitative impairments in socialization, communication, and restricted repetitive behavior, interests and activities. It is a behaviorally defined disorder of unknown etiology that is thought to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Congenital visual impairment children are generally reported to be at risk for serious behavioral and psychological problems, such as withdrawal, isolation, and autism. Several studies have descr...

  17. GENETICS OF AUTISTIC DISORDER (REVIEW OF FOREIGN LITERATURE)

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yu. Bobylova; H. L. Petchatnikova

    2013-01-01

    Autism can occur in combination with chromosomal and genetic syndromes, malformations of the brain, metabolic diseases, etc. In this regard, currently adopted the term «atypical» or «syndromic» autism – autism, which is a symptom of another disease. Genetic and chromosomal causes account for 25-50% of cases of autism. The authors presented a detailed review of the literature devoted to the genetic aspects of autism. The article discusses known hereditary diseases, manifested as autistic disor...

  18. Genetic studies in children with intellectual disability and autistic spectrum of disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Bhanumathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is one of the five disorders that falls under the umbrella of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, a category of neurological disorders characterized by "severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development." ASD is characterized by varying degrees of impairment in communication skills, social interaction and restricted, repetitive stereotyped patterns of behavior. The five disorders under PDD are autistic disorder, Asperger′s disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, Rett′s disorder and PDD-not otherwise specified. ASD can often be reliably detected by the age of 3 years and, in some cases, as early as 18 months. The appearance of any warning signs of ASD is reason to have the child evaluated by a professional specializing in these disorders.

  19. Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

  20. Aripiprazole: a review of its use in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder patients aged 6-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Hall, Petrina; Curran, Sarah; Bird, Victoria; Taylor, David

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed examining the efficacy of aripiprazole for the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents. Aripiprazole was found to be more effective in reducing irritability compared with placebo at 8 weeks, SMD -0.64 [-0.90 to -0.39, P autism. Long-term studies are required to determine the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in autistic disorder in children.

  1. Autism and autistic spectrum disorders in the context of new DSM-V classification, and clinical and epidemiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, Miodrag; Lakić, Aneta; Ilić, Neda

    2012-01-01

    Autism is one of disorders from the autism spectrum, besides Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. They are classified as mental disorders as being manifested by a wide range of cognitive, emotional and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Key categorical characteristics of the disorder are clear impairments of the development of the child's socialisation, understanding and production of verbal and non-verbal communication and restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Demarcation boundaries are not clear, neither within the very group of the disorders from the autistic spectrum, nor with respect to the autistic behavioural features in the general population. For this reason, the term spectrum points out the significance of the dimensional assessment of autistic disorders, which will most likely be the basis of the new diagnostic classification of the disorders belonging to the current group of pervasive developmental disorders in the new DSM-V classification. The understanding, as well as the prevalence of the autistic spectrum disorders has changed drastically in the last four decades. From the previous 4 per 10,000 people, today's prevalence estimates range from 0.6 to around 1%, and the increase of prevalence cannot be explained solely by better recognition on the part of experts and parents or by wider diagnostic criteria. The general conclusion is that the autistic spectrum disorders are no longer rare conditions and that the approach aimed at acknowledging the warning that this is an urgent public health problem is completely justified.

  2. Autism and autistic spectrum disorders in the context of new DSM-V classification, and clinical and epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is one of disorders from the autism spectrum, besides Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. They are classified as mental disorders as being manifested by a wide range of cognitive, emotional and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Key categorical characteristics of the disorder are clear impairments of the development of the child’s socialisation, understanding and production of verbal and non-verbal communication and restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Demarcation boundaries are not clear, neither within the very group of the disorders from the autistic spectrum, nor with respect to the autistic behavioural features in the general population. For this reason, the term spectrum points out the significance of the dimensional assessment of autistic disorders, which will most likely be the basis of the new diagnostic classification of the disorders belonging to the current group of pervasive developmental disorders in the new DSM-V classification. The understanding, as well as the prevalence of the autistic spectrum disorders has changed drastically in the last four decades. From the previous 4 per 10,000 people, today’s prevalence estimates range from 0.6 to around 1%, and the increase of prevalence cannot be explained solely by better recognition on the part of experts and parents or by wider diagnostic criteria. The general conclusion is that the autistic spectrum disorders are no longer rare conditions and that the approach aimed at acknowledging the warning that this is an urgent public health problem is completely justified.

  3. Catatonia in autistic spectrum disorders: a medical treatment algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Max; Taylor, Michael A; Ghaziuddin, Neera

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a developmental syndrome with an unknown biology and inadequate therapeutics. Assessing the elements of the syndrome for the presence of depression, psychosis, mania, or catatonia, offers opportunities for systematic intervention. Since almost all descriptions of autism highlight the presence of motor symptoms that characterize catatonia, an assessment for this eminently treatable syndrome is recommended for all patients considered to be autistic. A minimum examination includes a catatonia rating scale and for those patients with defined catatonia, a lorazepam test. For those whose catatonia responds to lorazepam, high dose lorazepam therapy is recommended. If this fails, electroconvulsive therapy is recommended. The assessment and treatment of catatonia offers positive medical therapy for the victims of autism and their families.

  4. Antibodies against Food Antigens in Patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

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    Laura de Magistris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Immune system of some autistic patients could be abnormally triggered by gluten/casein assumption. The prevalence of antibodies to gliadin and milk proteins in autistic children with paired/impaired intestinal permeability and under dietary regimen either regular or restricted is reported. Methods. 162 ASDs and 44 healthy children were investigated for intestinal permeability, tissue-transglutaminase (tTG, anti-endomysium antibodies (EMA-IgA, and total mucosal IgA to exclude celiac disease; HLA-DQ2/-DQ8 haplotypes; total systemic antibodies (IgA, IgG, and IgE; specific systemic antibodies: α-gliadin (AGA-IgA and IgG, deamidated–gliadin-peptide (DGP-IgA and IgG, total specific gliadin IgG (all fractions: α, β, γ, and ω, β-lactoglobulin IgG, α-lactalbumin IgG, casein IgG; and milk IgE, casein IgE, gluten IgE, -lactoglobulin IgE, and α-lactalbumin IgE. Results. AGA-IgG and DPG-IgG titers resulted to be higher in ASDs compared to controls and are only partially influenced by diet regimen. Casein IgG titers resulted to be more frequently and significantly higher in ASDs than in controls. Intestinal permeability was increased in 25.6% of ASDs compared to 2.3% of healthy children. Systemic antibodies production was not influenced by paired/impaired intestinal permeability. Conclusions. Immune system of a subgroup of ASDs is triggered by gluten and casein; this could be related either to AGA, DPG, and Casein IgG elevated production or to impaired intestinal barrier function.

  5. Early Interpersonal Neurobiological Assessment of Attachment and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

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    Allan Nelson Schore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally-laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the emotional brain. Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile-gestural nonverbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant’s developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily-based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant’s emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant-mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant-mother dyads. Throughout I offer implication of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early

  6. Early interpersonal neurobiological assessment of attachment and autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, Allan N

    2014-01-01

    There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the "emotional brain." Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile-gestural non-verbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant's developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant's emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant-mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant-mother dyads. Throughout I offer implications of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early intervention.

  7. Mindfulness Experiences of Children who have Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Anxiety- An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study explored the experiences of four children with\\ud Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and anxiety (aged 10-13 years) who took part in a\\ud mindfulness-based intervention. The research was conducted within a local authority in\\ud times of reform in both education and mental health. A systematic literature review\\ud indicated that the majority of children with ASD experience difficulties with attention,\\ud anxiety, empathy, comprehension and communication wi...

  8. Intervention,treatmentand care in autistic disorder. Challenging case reports from northern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Kielinen, Marko; Hjelmquist, Erland; Moilanen, Irma; Syrjälä, Leena

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. Autism produces characteristic patterns of behaviour, and individuals with autistic disorder (AD) have a lot in common in terms of behaviour and mannerisms. Individuals with autism, however, also have their own overall personalities, which both underlie and interact with their autism. This article focuses on challenges of identifying AD and delivering appropriate services in face of long distances and limited resources. Study Design. This study is a retrospective descriptive chart...

  9. [Empirically based early intervention programs for children with autistic disorders - a selective literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M

    2010-07-01

    Autistic Disorders (AD) are characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, as well as by stereotyped behaviors and interests. Early intervention programs in AD aim to improve several aspects of the child's abilities: joint attention, play abilities, language development, and especially social interaction and communication. In this review article based on a selective literature search, the relatively best empirically based early intervention programs will be discussed with a focus on the proven efficacy of these interventions.

  10. Migration abnormality in the left cingulate gyrus presenting with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Bariş; Benbir, Gülçin; Demirbilek, Veysi

    2006-07-01

    Autism, characterized by an impairment in communication, including language, narrowly focused interests, and poor sociability, is a neurodevelopmental disorder of still largely unknown pathogenesis. In children with autistic symptomatology, the most consistent functional or anatomic abnormalities are found in the cingulate gyrus, particularly in the anterior regions. Neuronal migration malformations caused by incomplete neuronal migration and characterized by loss of the normal gyral patterns in the cerebral hemispheres and prominent disorganization of the cerebral cortical cytoarchitecture are generally associated with profound neurologic deficits, epilepsy, and autism. In this report, we present a case with an isolated migration abnormality located in the anterior part of the left cingulate gyrus who was admitted with the complaints of epileptic seizures and autism. In addition, the role of the localization of the migration abnormality in the appearance of autistic symptomatology is discussed.

  11. Investigation of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Autistic Traits in an Adolescent Sample with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postorino, Valentina; Scahill, Lawrence; De Peppo, Lavinia; Fatta, Laura Maria; Zanna, Valeria; Castiglioni, Maria Chiara; Gillespie, Scott; Vicari, Stefano; Mazzone, Luigi

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the presence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in a sample of female adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) during the acute phase of illness. We also compare the level of autistic traits, social perception skills and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in four groups: AN, ASD, and two gender- and age-matched control groups. Of the 30 AN participants, only three scored above the conventional ADOS-2 threshold for ASD. The AN participants were similar to their controls on autistic trait measures, and to the ASD group on obsessive-compulsive measures, and on theory of mind ability and affect recognition measures. Further longitudinal studies are needed in order to determine the association between these conditions.

  12. Tetrasomy 15q11-q13 Diagnosed by FISH in a Patient with Autistic Disorder

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    Karim Ouldim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a Moroccan boy with mental retardation, hyperactivity, epilepsy, developmental problems and behavioural disorders. Cytogenetic analysis showed the presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome. Molecular cytogenetics allowed us to determine the marker as an inverted duplication of chromosome 15. It is the first case of a Moroccan patient with tetrasomy 15q in which fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH enabled us to specify the diagnosis. Interestingly, this patient has an infantile autism with cytogenetic abnormalities on chromosomal region 15q11-q13 as reported in patients with Autistic Disorder.

  13. Alzheimer's Disease and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Is there any Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarah A; Khan, Shahida A; Narendra, A R; Mushtaq, Gohar; Zahran, Solafa A; Khan, Shahzad; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders respectively, with devastating effects not only on the individual but also the society. Collectively, a number of factors contribute to the expression of ASD and AD. It is of utmost curiosity that these disorders express at different stages of life and there is an involvement of certain susceptible genes. This genetic basis makes the background of common associations like memory deficits, cognition changes, demyelination, oxidative stress and inflammation, an integral part of both disorders. Modern technology resulting in genetically modified crops and increase in gadgets emitting electromagnetic frequencies have resulted in enhanced risks for neurological dysfunctions and disorders like ASD and AD. Subsequent advances in the psychological, pharmacological, biochemical and nutritional aspects of the disorders have resulted in the development of newer therapeutic approaches. The common clinical features like language impairment, executive functions, and motor problems have been discussed along with the patho-physiological changes, role of DNA methylation, myelin development, and heavy metals in the expression of these disorders. Psychopharmacological and nutritional approaches towards the reduction and management of risk factors have gained attention from the researchers in recent years. Current major therapies either target the inflammatory pathways or reduce cellular oxidative stress. This contribution focuses on the commonalities of the two disorders.

  14. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder: the results of a parent survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S; Wingard, Deborah L; Akshoomoff, Natacha A; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming

    2008-05-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80 control children. Acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was significantly associated with autistic disorder when considering children 5 years of age or less (OR 6.11, 95% CI 1.42-26.3), after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.11-14.3), and when considering only children who had post-vaccination sequelae (OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.56-43.3), adjusting for age, gender, mother's ethnicity, and the presence of illness concurrent with measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Ibuprofen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was not associated with autistic disorder. This preliminary study found that acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was associated with autistic disorder.

  15. Prevalence of Parasomnia in Autistic Children with Sleep Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, Arthur S.; Michael Brimacombe; Roberto V. Nachajon; Xue Ming; Ye-Ming Sun

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep related complaints is reported by questionnaire studies to be as high as 83.3% in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Questionnaire studies report the presence of various parasomnia in ASD. However, no polysomnographic study reports non-REM parasomnias and only a single study reports REM related parasomnias in ASD. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of sleep disorders by polysomnographic study and questionnaires in a cohort of 23 children wit...

  16. Overlap of autistic and schizotypal traits in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barneveld, Petra S; Pieterse, Jolijn; de Sonneville, Leo; van Rijn, Sophie; Lahuis, Bertine; van Engeland, Herman; Swaab, Hanna

    2011-03-01

    This study addresses the unraveling of the relationship between autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum traits in a population of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Recent studies comparing isolated symptoms of both spectrum disorders as well as diagnostic criteria for each (DSM-IV-TR) suggest resemblances in the clinical phenotype. A group of 27 adolescents with ASD (11 to 18 years) and 30 typically developing adolescents, matched for age and gender, participated in this study. Within the ASD group 11 adolescents satisfied DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizotypal personality disorders. Autistic and schizotypal traits were identified by means of well validated questionnaires (Autism Questionnaire, AQ and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Revised, SPQ). Significantly more schizotypal traits in adolescents with ASD were found than in typically developing controls. Besides high levels of negative symptoms, adolescents with ASD also displayed high levels of positive and disorganized symptoms. There appeared to be a relationship between the mean level of autistic symptoms and schizotypal traits, as well as specific associations between autistic symptoms and negative, disorganized and positive schizotypal symptoms within individuals. Schizotypal symptomatology in all sub dimensions that are reflected by the SPQ scores, was most prominently associated with attention switching problems of the autism symptoms from the AQ. These findings indicate that patients diagnosed with an ASD show schizophrenia spectrum traits in adolescence. Although other studies have provided empirical support for this overlap in diagnostic criteria between both spectrum disorders, the present findings add to the literature that behavioral overlap is not limited to negative schizotypal symptoms, but extends to disorganized and positive symptoms as well.

  17. Evidence of a reduction over time in the behavioral severity of autistic disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Cooper, Matthew N; Bebbington, Keely; Alvares, Gail; Lin, Ashleigh; Wray, John; Glasson, Emma J

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may in part be due to a shift in the diagnostic threshold that has led to individuals with a less severe behavioral phenotype receiving a clinical diagnosis. This study examined whether there were changes over time in the qualitative and quantitative phenotype of individuals who received the diagnosis of Autistic Disorder. Data were from a prospective register of new diagnoses in Western Australia (n = 1252). From 2000 to 2006, we examined differences in both the percentage of newly diagnosed cases that met each criterion as well as severity ratings of the behaviors observed (not met, partially met, mild/moderate and extreme). Linear regression determined there was a statistically significant reduction from 2000 to 2006 in the percentage of new diagnoses meeting two of 12 criteria. There was also a reduction across the study period in the proportion of new cases rated as having extreme severity on six criteria. There was a reduction in the proportion of individuals with three or more criteria rated as extreme from 2000 (16.0%) to 2006 (1.6%), while percentage of new cases with no "extreme" rating on any criteria increased from 58.5% to 86.6% across the same period. This study provides the first clear evidence of a reduction over time in the behavioral severity of individuals diagnosed with Autistic Disorder during a period of stability in diagnostic criteria. A shift toward diagnosing individuals with less severe behavioral symptoms may have contributed to the increasing prevalence of Autistic Disorder diagnoses. Autism Res 2017, 10: 179-187. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Parental and grandparental ages in the autistic spectrum disorders: a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Golding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A number of studies have assessed ages of parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD, and reported both maternal and paternal age effects. Here we assess relationships with grandparental ages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the parental and grandparental ages of children in the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, according to their scores in regard to 4 autistic trait measures and whether they had been given a diagnosis of ASD. Mean maternal and paternal ages of ASD cases were raised, but this appears to be secondary to a maternal grandmother age effect (P = 0.006: OR = 1.66[95%CI 1.16, 2.37] for each 10-year increase in the grandmother's age at the birth of the mother. Trait measures also revealed an association between the maternal grandmother's age and the major autistic trait-the Coherence Scale (regression coefficient b = 0.142, [95%CI = 0.057, 0.228]P = 0.001. After allowing for confounders the effect size increased to b = 0.217[95%CI 0.125, 0.308](P<0.001 for each 10 year increase in age. CONCLUSIONS: Although the relationship between maternal grandmother's age and ASD and a major autistic trait was unexpected, there is some biological plausibility, for the maternal side at least, given that the timing of female meiosis I permits direct effects on the grandchild's genome during the grandmother's pregnancy. An alternative explanation is the meiotic mismatch methylation (3 M hypothesis, presented here for the first time. Nevertheless the findings should be treated as hypothesis generating pending corroborative results from other studies.

  19. A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of Piracetam Added to Risperidone in Patients with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Tajdar, Hamid; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Nouroozinejad, Gholam-Hossein; Shabstari, Omid L.; Ghelichnia, Hossein-Ali

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that autism is a hypoglutamatergic disorder. Therefore, it was of interest to assess the efficacy of piracetam, a positive modulator of AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptors in autistic disorder. About 40 children between the ages three and 11 years (inclusive) with a DSM IV clinical diagnosis of autism and who were outpatients…

  20. Brief Report: The Impact of Changing from DSM-IV "Asperger's" to DSM-5 "Autistic Spectrum Disorder" Diagnostic Labels on Stigma and Treatment Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan, Jeneva L.; Ellefson, Sarah E.; Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    In the DSM-5, "Asperger's Disorder" was incorporated into "Autistic Spectrum Disorder" (ASD). One key concern in this change has been that the ASD label will increase negative attitudes relative to the Asperger's label. To test this, we asked 465 American adults to read a vignette describing a child with autistic symptoms that…

  1. Memantine-induced Speech Problems in two Patients with Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Tehrani-Doost

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Stuttering is a complex speech disorder. There are two forms of stuttering: developmental stuttering and acquired stuttering. Developmental stuttering is a disorder of early childhood but acquired stuttering can develop at any age. Some medications can induce or deteriorate stuttering as an adverse effect. There are several reports of stuttering due to psychotropic drugs. Memantine, a glutamate antagonist used in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, has also been studied for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders. This report presents deterioration of stuttering and speech problem in two children with autistic disorder who were receiving memantine. Based on our knowledge, this is the first time these adverse drug reactions have been attributed to memantine. In conclusion clinicians should consider that speech problems including stuttering may be due to the consumption of memantine, especially, in children may be a side effect of memantine especially in children.

  2. Memantine-induced speech problems in two patients with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Nikvarz, Naemeh; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2013-07-02

    Stuttering is a complex speech disorder. There are two forms of stuttering: developmental stuttering and acquired stuttering. Developmental stuttering is a disorder of early childhood but acquired stuttering can develop at any age. Some medications can induce or deteriorate stuttering as an adverse effect. There are several reports of stuttering due to psychotropic drugs. Memantine, a glutamate antagonist used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, has also been studied for the treatment of autism spectrum disorders. This report presents deterioration of stuttering and speech problem in two children with autistic disorder who were receiving memantine. Based on our knowledge, this is the first time these adverse drug reactions have been attributed to memantine. In conclusion clinicians should consider that speech problems including stuttering may be due to the consumption of memantine, especially, in children may be a side effect of memantine especially in children.

  3. Blood and Brain Glutamate Levels in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Tamer H.; Abdelrahman, Hadeel M.; Fattah, Nelly R. Abdel; El-Masry, Nagda M.; Hashim, Haitham M.; El-Gerby, Khaled M.; Fattah, Nermin R. Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Despite of the great efforts that move forward to clarify the pathophysiologic mechanisms in autism, the cause of this disorder, however, remains largely unknown. There is an increasing body of literature concerning neurochemical contributions to the pathophysiology of autism. We aimed to determine blood and brain levels of glutamate in children…

  4. Language in low-functioning children with autistic disorder: differences between receptive and expressive skills and concurrent predictors of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-10-01

    Language profiles of children with autistic disorder and intellectual disability (n = 36) were significantly different from the comparison groups of children with intellectual disability (n = 26) and typically developing children (n = 34). The group low-functioning children with autistic disorder obtained a higher mean score on expressive than on receptive language, whereas both comparison groups showed the reverse pattern. Nonverbal mental age, joint attention, and symbolic understanding of pictures were analyzed in relation to concurrent receptive and expressive language abilities. In the group with autistic disorder and intellectual disability, symbol understanding and joint attention were most strongly related to language abilities. Nonverbal mental age was the most important predictor of language abilities in the comparison groups.

  5. Autistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    Autistic regression is one of the many mysteries in the developmental course of autism and pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Various definitions of this phenomenon have been used, further clouding the study of the topic. Despite this problem, some efforts at establishing prevalence have been made. The purpose of…

  6. Error and feedback processing in children with ADHD and children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder : An EEG event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Yvonne; Wijers, Albertus A.; Mulder, Lambertus J. M.; Waggeveld, Brenda; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Althaus, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Performance monitoring was investigated in typically developing (TD) children, children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and Methylphenidate (Mph)-treated and medication-free children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods: Subjects performed a feedback-based

  7. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the pervasive developmental disorders rating scale for young children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaves, Ronald C; Williams, Thomas O

    2006-03-01

    In this study, the authors examined the construct validity of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Rating Scale (PDDRS; R. C. Eaves, 1993), which is a screening instrument used to identify individuals with autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. The PDDRS is purported to measure 3 factors--arousal, affect, and cognition-that collectively make up the construct of autism. Using scores from 199 children (aged 1-6 years) diagnosed with autistic disorder, the authors submitted data to exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. In the 1st series of analyses, the authors analyzed a user-specified 3-factor solution using principal axis factor analysis with a promax rotation to evaluate the assertion of a correlated 3-factor structure. Next, the authors analyzed 1-factor and 2-factor solutions to determine if they provided a better factor structure for the data. In the 2nd series, the authors conducted confirmatory factor analyses, which compared the theorized hierarchical 2nd-order factor model with 5 plausible competing models. The results of the exploratory analyses supported the 3-factor solution. With the confirmatory analyses, the 2nd-order factor model provided the best fit for the data. The exploratory and confirmatory analyses supported the theoretical assumptions undergirding the development of the PDDRS. The authors discuss theoretical implications, practical implications, and areas for further research.

  8. Self-reported social skills impairment explains elevated autistic traits in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Natasha A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Fernandez, Katya C; Lim, Michelle H

    2016-03-01

    Screening for autism in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) is complicated by symptom overlap between GSAD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of self-reported autistic traits within a sample of participants with a diagnosis of GSAD (n=37) compared to individuals without a GSAD diagnosis (NOSAD; n=26). Of the GSAD sample participants, 70.84% self-reported autistic traits above a cut-off of 65 on the Autism Quotient-Short (AQ-S) and reported significantly more autistic traits on 3 of 5 AQ-S subscales compared to the NOSAD group. Diagnosis uniquely predicted variation in the social skills subscale above and beyond the other subscales and other predictors. Furthermore, variation in the social skills subscale largely explained group differences on the other subscales. Our results suggest caution in utilizing measures like the AQ-S with clinical populations characterized by social difficulties such as individuals with a GSAD diagnosis.

  9. Epidemiology and management of insomnia in children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Silvia; Ferri, Raffaele

    2010-04-01

    Insomnia is the predominant sleep concern in children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and its nature is most likely multifactorial, with neurochemical (abnormalities in serotonergic transmission or melatonin levels), psychiatric (anxiety), and behavioral (poor sleep habits) etiological factors involved. Children with ASD experience sleep problems similar to those of typically developing children, although the prevalence is markedly higher, occurring in 44-83% of school-aged children with ASD. Caregivers usually report that insomnia is the most frequent sleep disorder, described as disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, restless sleep, bedtime resistance, co-sleeping, alterations of sleep hygiene, and early awakenings in the morning. Many actigraphic studies have added information on sleep disorders, confirming the questionnaire findings in the majority of cases. There are relatively few polysomnographic data for ASD, compared with questionnaire studies, and most of these studies reported a reduction in total sleep time and more undifferentiated sleep in the youngest patients. These findings were associated with several sleep microstructure alterations during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and with non-REM (NREM) sleep microstructure changes that appeared to be related to cognitive impairment rather than to the autistic core. Moreover, few data about other less frequent sleep disorders, such as periodic limb movements disorder and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, bruxism, and the influence of epilepsy and EEG abnormalities, are available. Both pharmacologic and behavioral interventions have been suggested for the treatment of sleep problems in autistic children. The most common types of behavioral interventions are complete extinction (removing reinforcement to reduce a behavior) and various forms of graduated extinction. Melatonin has shown promising results in the treatment of insomnia in children with ASD. Although controlled studies are limited

  10. [Follow up of patients with developmental delay and autistic spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Riesgo, Rudimar; Becker, Michele M; Ranzan, Josiane; Bragatti Winckler, María I; Ohlweiler, Lygia

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of autism symptoms during life were revised, from childhood to adulthood. Little information is available. After a search in PubMed, no more than 40 publications address this issue. The review was divided into two parts: a) how change the three main symptoms of autism change; b) how change the other autism-associated symptoms. The three main symptoms, called "Triad of Wing" (communication problems, social skills deficits, and a restricted repertoire of interests) do not change significantly during lifetime. The diagnosis of autism remains stable during lifetime, and 80% of children continue with this diagnosis in adulthood. Furthermore, it is difficult to establish first diagnostic of autism in adults. In relation to the associated symptoms, one of the earliest are sleep disturbances and one of the most prevalent is both bipolar and anxiety disorders. Sleep disturbances are age-limited and disappear easily. Bipolar disorders are usually more severe in children with autism when compared to children without autism. The mood transitions are faster in autistic children. Anxiety is usually more intense in cognitive preserved autistic patients and tends to increase with age. The two main prognostic factors for autism in adults are: a) total IQ above 70. b) functional language before 6 years of age.

  11. Pharmacotherapy of target symptoms in autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosh, P J; Baird, G

    2001-05-01

    There are no aetiologically-based treatments available to cure autism. Though psychotropics have a role in the management of some symptoms of autism, clinical trial evidence for the use of psychotropics is in its infancy and needs close monitoring. About half of the subjects with high functioning pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) are currently reported to be on psychotropics (anti-depressants, stimulants and antipsychotics), with many of them being on anti-epileptic medication simultaneously. Despite this high level of psychotropic use, few studies exist investigating the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics or side-effect profiles in this population. Multiprofessional and parent partnership is essential in managing autism and psychopharmacology should be used in conjunction with environmental manipulation, educational modification and/or behavioral management strategies. A symptomatic approach to managing the difficult behaviours associated with autism is recommended. Some symptoms of autism may be medication responsive (hyperactivity, obsessions, rituals, inattention, tics, etc), while other symptoms may be responsive to behavioural interventions, but may require medication (aggression, anxiety, depression, impulsivity, sleep difficulties, etc), and symptoms which need specific skill remediation are usually non-responsive to medication (deficits in academic, social or sport domains). The new atypical antipsychotics (such as risperidone, olanzapine, amisulpiride, quetiapine) and SSRIs are increasingly being used in autism, with encouraging results, but a risk-benefit ratio of pharmacotherapy is essential with due weight being given to the side-effects of medication. Despite symptomatic improvement with medication, one should remain cautious about long-term use of psychotropics. It is also important to recognize that psychotropics can sometimes worsen behaviour, and can produce iatrogenic symptoms. Certain anti-epileptic medication and psychotropic drugs are

  12. Progress in researches on autistic disorder%孤独症研究新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞锡; 江开达; 彭裕文

    2010-01-01

    @@ 认识孤独症 孤独症(autism),又称自闭症或孤独性障碍(autistic disorder)等,是广泛性发育障碍(pervasive developmental disorders,PDD)的代表性疾病.将PDD分为5种:孤独性障碍、Retts综合征、童年瓦解性障碍、Asperger综合征和未特定的PDD.其中,孤独性障碍与Asperger综合征较为常见.孤独症的患病率报道不一,一般认为约为儿童人口的2~5/万人,男女比例约为3:1~4:1,女孩症状一般较男孩严重[1].

  13. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinah

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviours in children with autistic spectrum disorder. The study was designed to look at these behaviours in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and free play, and use both standardized...... tools and DVD analysis of sessions to evaluate changes in joint attention behaviours. A repeated measures, within subject comparison design was used and children were randomly assigned in to two groups; group 1 had music therapy first, and then free play later. Group 2 vice versa. Sessions were divided...... into unstructured and structured parts. There were four different types of dependent measurements; the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory (PDDBI), the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS), the Mother Play Intervention Profile (MPIP) and DVD analyses of selected session data. 10 children, all...

  14. Intellectual Ability, Self-Perceived Social Competence, and Depressive Symptomatology in Children with High-Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerstaff, Sandy; Heriot, Sandra; Wong, Michelle; Lopes, Ana; Dossetor, David

    2007-01-01

    Although social competence deficits in children with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorders (HFASD) are well documented, there is little research investigating self-perceptions of social limitations. This study replicated research showing a negative association between self-perceived social competence and intellectual ability and…

  15. Higher Plasma Concentration of Food-Specific Antibodies in Persons with Autistic Disorder in Comparison to Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, Vladimir; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Trajkov, Dejan; Arsov, Todor; Strezova, Ana; Ajdinski, Ljubomir; Spiroski, Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Specific IgA, IgG, and IgE antibodies to food antigens in 35 participants with autistic disorder and 21 of their siblings in the Republic of Macedonia were examined. Statistically significant higher plasma concentration of IgA antibodies against alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, casein, and gliadin were found in the children with autistic…

  16. Development of Symbolic Play through the Use of Virtual Reality Tools in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Gerardo; Alcantud, Francisco; Jordan, Rita; Blanquer, Amparo; Labajo, Gabriel; De Pablo, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Difficulties in understanding symbolism have been documented as characteristic of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). In general, virtual reality (VR) environments offer a set of potential advantages for educational intervention in ASD. In particular, VR offers the advantage, for teaching pretend play and for understanding imagination, of it being…

  17. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effectiveness of Behavioural Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of behavioural intervention programs for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders was addressed by a meta-analysis, which reviewed 14 studies. The findings suggest that the behavioural programs are effective in improving several developmental aspects in the children, in terms of their treatment gains, and also relative to…

  18. Parents' Views and Experiences about Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments for Their Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senel, Hatice Gunayer

    2010-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments have been increasing for children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, 38 Turkish parents of children with ASD were surveyed related with their use of CAM treatments, experiences, and views for each treatment. They mentioned "Vitamins and minerals",…

  19. Do Social Stories Help to Decrease Disruptive Behaviour in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? A Review of the Published Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A structured search and identification of themes within the literature regarding the use of Social Stories to decrease disruptive behaviour in children with autistic spectrum disorders is presented. The examination of seven studies showed that the Social Story intervention was successful for the majority of the participants, although the level of…

  20. Validation of the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire with Parents of Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa A.; Ahmad, Muayyad M.

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) has been used in many studies that target parents of children with Autistic Disorder. However, the measure has yet to be validated and adapted to this sample group whose daily experiences are considered substantially different from those of parents of children…

  1. Using Aromatherapy Massage to Increase Shared Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Severe Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) characteristically display a lack of shared attention behaviours and the lack of these behaviours impacts on their ability to develop social interactions and relationships with others. Steve Solomons, assistant headteacher at Rectory Paddock School and Research Unit in the London Borough of Bromley,…

  2. Parents' Experiences of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)-Based Interventions for Children Diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhilemy, Catherine; Dillenburger, Karola

    2013-01-01

    Applied behaviour analysis (ABA)-based programmes are endorsed as the gold standard for treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in most of North America. This is not the case in most of Europe, where instead a non-specified "eclectic" approach is adopted. We explored the social validity of ABA-based interventions with…

  3. Alterations of prolyl endopeptidase activity in the plasma of children with autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avarseji Hassan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolyl Endopeptidase (PEP, EC 3.4.21.26, a cytosolic endopeptidase, hydrolyses peptide bonds on the carboxyl side of proline residue in proteins with a relatively small molecular weight. It has been shown that altered PEP activity is associated with various psychological diseases such as schizophrenia, mania and depression. Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD are neuropsychiatric and behavioural syndromes affecting social behaviours and communication development. They are classified as developmental disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that PEP activity is also associated with ASDs. Methods Fluorometric assay was used to measure PEP activity in EDTA plasma in children with ASD (n = 18 aged 4–12 years (mean ± SD: 7.9 ± 2.5. These results were then compared to PEP activity in a control group of non-ASD children (n = 15 aged 2–10 years (mean ± SD: 6.4 ± 2.2. Results An alteration in PEP activity was found in the children with ASD compared to the control group. There was much greater variation of PEP activity in the group of ASD children when compared to the controls (SD= 39.9 and SD 9.6, respectively. This variation was significant (p Conclusion Our preliminary finding suggests a role for PEP enzyme in the pathophysiology of autism but further research should be conducted to establish its role in the aetiology of psychiatric and neurological disorders, including autism and related spectrum disorders.

  4. Prenatal alcohol exposure and autistic spectrum disorders--a population-based prospective study of 80,552 children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Tolstrup, Janne S; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake > or =5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism.......To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake > or =5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism....

  5. Technologies as Support Tools for Persons with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresti-Bartolome, Nuria; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the technologies most widely used to work on areas affected by the Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Technologies can focus on the strengths and weaknesses of this disorder as they make it possible to create controlled environments, reducing the anxiety produced by real social situations. Extensive research has proven the efficiency of technologies as support tools for therapy and their acceptation by ASD sufferers and the people who are with them on a daily basis. This article is organized by the types of systems developed: virtual reality applications, telehealth systems, social robots and dedicated applications, all of which are classified by the areas they center on: communication, social learning and imitation skills and other ASD-associated conditions. 40.5% of the research conducted is found to be focused on communication as opposed to 37.8% focused on learning and social imitation skills and 21.6% which underlines problems associated with this disorder. Although most of the studies reveal how useful these tools are in therapy, they are generic tools for ASD sufferers in general, which means there is a lack of personalised tools to meet each person’s needs. PMID:25093654

  6. Autistic disorders and schizophrenia: related or remote? An anatomical likelihood estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlton Cheung

    Full Text Available Shared genetic and environmental risk factors have been identified for autistic spectrum disorders (ASD and schizophrenia. Social interaction, communication, emotion processing, sensorimotor gating and executive function are disrupted in both, stimulating debate about whether these are related conditions. Brain imaging studies constitute an informative and expanding resource to determine whether brain structural phenotype of these disorders is distinct or overlapping. We aimed to synthesize existing datasets characterizing ASD and schizophrenia within a common framework, to quantify their structural similarities. In a novel modification of Anatomical Likelihood Estimation (ALE, 313 foci were extracted from 25 voxel-based studies comprising 660 participants (308 ASD, 352 first-episode schizophrenia and 801 controls. The results revealed that, compared to controls, lower grey matter volumes within limbic-striato-thalamic circuitry were common to ASD and schizophrenia. Unique features of each disorder included lower grey matter volume in amygdala, caudate, frontal and medial gyrus for schizophrenia and putamen for autism. Thus, in terms of brain volumetrics, ASD and schizophrenia have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms. However, the distinctive neuroanatomy also mapped in each condition raises the question about how this is arrived in the context of common etiological pressures.

  7. Technologies as Support Tools for Persons with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Aresti-Bartolome

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the technologies most widely used to work on areas affected by the Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Technologies can focus on the strengths and weaknesses of this disorder as they make it possible to create controlled environments, reducing the anxiety produced by real social situations. Extensive research has proven the efficiency of technologies as support tools for therapy and their acceptation by ASD sufferers and the people who are with them on a daily basis. This article is organized by the types of systems developed: virtual reality applications, telehealth systems, social robots and dedicated applications, all of which are classified by the areas they center on: communication, social learning and imitation skills and other ASD-associated conditions. 40.5% of the research conducted is found to be focused on communication as opposed to 37.8% focused on learning and social imitation skills and 21.6% which underlines problems associated with this disorder. Although most of the studies reveal how useful these tools are in therapy, they are generic tools for ASD sufferers in general, which means there is a lack of personalised tools to meet each person’s needs.

  8. Technologies as support tools for persons with autistic spectrum disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresti-Bartolome, Nuria; Garcia-Zapirain, Begonya

    2014-08-04

    This study analyzes the technologies most widely used to work on areas affected by the Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Technologies can focus on the strengths and weaknesses of this disorder as they make it possible to create controlled environments, reducing the anxiety produced by real social situations. Extensive research has proven the efficiency of technologies as support tools for therapy and their acceptation by ASD sufferers and the people who are with them on a daily basis. This article is organized by the types of systems developed: virtual reality applications, telehealth systems, social robots and dedicated applications, all of which are classified by the areas they center on: communication, social learning and imitation skills and other ASD-associated conditions. 40.5% of the research conducted is found to be focused on communication as opposed to 37.8% focused on learning and social imitation skills and 21.6% which underlines problems associated with this disorder. Although most of the studies reveal how useful these tools are in therapy, they are generic tools for ASD sufferers in general, which means there is a lack of personalised tools to meet each person's needs.

  9. Treatment of autistic spectrum disorder with insulin-like growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riikonen, Raili

    2016-11-01

    There are no treatments for the core symptoms of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), but there is now more knowledge on emerging mechanisms and on mechanism-based therapies. In autism there are altered synapses: genes affected are commonly related to synaptic and immune function. Dysregulation of activity-dependent signaling networks may have a key role the etiology of autism. There is an over-activation of IGF-AKT-mTor in autism spectrum disorders. Morphological and electro-physiological defects of the cerebellum are linked to system-wide ASD-like behavior defects. The molecular basis for a cerebellar contribution has been demonstrated in a mouse model. These have led to a potential mechanism-based use of drug targets and mouse models. Neurotrophic factors are potential candidates for the treatment. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is altered in autism. It reduces neuro-inflammation: by causing changes of cytokines such as IL-6 and microglial function. IGF-1 reduces the defects in the synapse. It alleviates NMDA-induced neurotoxicity via the IGF-AKT-mTor pathway in microglia. IGF-1 may rescue function in Rett syndrome and ASD caused by changes of the SCHANK3 gene. There are recently pilot studies of the treatment of Rett syndrome and of SCHANK3 gene deficiency syndromes. The FDA has granted Orphan drug designations for Fragile X syndrome, SCHANK3 gene deficiency syndrome and Rett syndrome.

  10. Effects of risperidone on core symptoms of autistic disorder based on childhood autism rating scale: An open label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padideh Ghaeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of risperidone in patients afflicted by autistic disorder especially with regards to its three core symptoms, including "relating to others", "communication skills", and "stereotyped behaviors" based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS. Materials and Methods: An 8-week open-label study of risperidone for treatment of autistic disorder in children 4-17 years old was designed. Risperidone dose titration was as follow: 0.02 mg/kg/day at the first week, 0.04 mg/kg/day at the second week, and 0.06 mg/kg/day at the third week and thereafter. The outcome measures were scores obtained by CARS, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I scale. Results: Fifteen patients completed this study. After 8 weeks, CARS total score decreased significantly, (P=0.001. At the end of the study, social interactions and verbal communication skills of the patients were significantly improved (P<0.001, P=0.03, respectively. However, stereotypic behaviors did not show any significant change in this study. Increase in appetite and somnolence were the most reported side effects. Conclusion: This study suggests that risperidone may be an effective treatment for the management of core symptoms of autistic disorder.

  11. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to…

  12. Kleine-Levin Syndrome in an 8-Year-Old Girl with Autistic Disorder: Does Autism Account a Primary or Secondary Cause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim Shoushtari, Mitra; Ghalebandi, Mirfarhad; Tavasoli, Azita; Pourshams, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is a rare disorder with an unknown etiology. Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by various degrees of impairment in social communication, repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Only four patients of KLS with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have been reported so far. This report presents an 8-year-old girl with history of autistic disorder and epilepsy that superimposed KLS. Because of the rarity of KLS and related studies did not address whether autism accounts for a primary or secondary cause, the area required attention further studies.

  13. Stressful life events during pregnancy as risk factors for developing autistic disorder in children

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    Salman Abdi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to examine the role of prenatal stressful events in mothers of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (AD. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in 2014. A total number of 115 children and adolescents with AD were selected by convenience method from the autism rehabilitation centers in Tabriz, Iran. Moreover, 112 typically developing (TD children and adolescents were selected from public schools using a random clustering method. Two groups were matched in terms of mother's and child's age and mother's educational level. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS semi-structured diagnostic interview was used to evaluate the presence of psychiatric disorders. The diagnosis of AD was made based on the DSM-IV criteria during separate diagnostic interviews by two child and adolescent psychiatrists. The life stressful events’ inventory was used to assess the presence of stressful events during pregnancy. Results: According to Fisher's exact test, the frequency of stressful life events including failure to achieve life goals, high debt, frequent marital conflict, conflict with spouse's family, changes in sleeping habits, and sexual difficulties in the mothers of AD children during pregnancy was significantly higher than the mothers of TD children. Also, mothers of AD children reported significantly higher frequency for the positive stressful life events including the major job progress, starting or finishing education, change of education, location, and summer vacation during pregnancy. Conclusion: Some stressful life events in mothers during pregnancy may be considered as risk factors for developing AD in their children. Further researches are needed to establish the results of this study.

  14. Down Syndrome Disintegrative Disorder: New-Onset Autistic Regression, Dementia, and Insomnia in Older Children and Adolescents With Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Gordon; Crissman, Blythe G; Cadogan, Emily; Milleson, Christie; Adkins, Deanna W; Kishnani, Priya S

    2015-08-01

    Over a 10-year period in a Down syndrome Clinic, 11 children and adolescents were encountered with a history of new-onset (8) or worsening (3) autistic characteristics. Ten of the 11 (91%) had cognitive decline to a dementia-like state and 9 of the 11 (82%) new-onset insomnia. The mean age at which symptoms developed was 11.4 years (standard deviation = 3.6 years; range 5-14 years), an older age than usual for autistic regression in Down syndrome. Ten of 11 cases (91%) had elevated ("positive") thyroperoxidase antibody titers compared to only 5 of 21 (23%) age-matched control subjects with Down syndrome (P Down syndrome disintegrative disorder seems an appropriate name for this newly recognized clinical association, which may be due to autoimmunity.

  15. Measuring the quality of teacher-child interaction in autistic disorder

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    Claudio Longobardi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The teacher-child relationship fulfils critical functions for the well being of the child, affecting emotive development, academic achievements, behavioral conducts and relationships with peers. The goal of the presented study is to compare the perceptions of the class teacher and of the support teacher concerning their relationship with subjects with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD; N=14; Mean age =90.07 months; SD=19.36 and with children of the control group (4 classmates per every subject of the experimental group, for a total of 56 pupils, Mean age = 80.36 months; SD=18.33. The perception by the teacher of the class, concerning the relationship with children with ASD, is characterized by higher levels of Conflict, and lower levels of Closeness, if compared with perceptions about the relationship with children of the control group (Conflict: t=-3.317; df= 14.931; p<0.01; Closeness: t= 5.638; df = 65; p < 0.001. The perception of the two teachers only correlates with regards to the Conflict dimension (r=0.769; p < 0.01. In reference to the child's adaptive skills only the social skills scale correlates with the Closeness. This is true in the perception of the support teacher (r=0.598; p<0.05. Finally, we take into account how the perception of the relationship relates with the socio-personal and professional data of the teachers and with the social features of the children.

  16. Intersubjectivity, affective neuroscience, and the neurobiology of autistic spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

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    Aitken, Kenneth J

    2008-03-01

    Intersubjectivity is an approach to the study of social interaction viewed from a perspective which rejects the view that reducing any such analysis to study at the level of the individual is adequate to address the issues of social functioning. It also stresses the view that social processes cannot be reduced to cognitive ones - most of the important questions in the study of developmental psychopathology deal with issues which have commonality with many other species and are patent well before the ontological emergence of 'cognitive' abilities. In this paper we review the evidence in this area, and discuss a range of issues relevant to autistic spectrum disorders. We focus in particular on social interaction; the role of the Intrinsic Motive Formation and recent work on mirror neurons in autism; genetic and teratogenic factors in the genesis of autism; and the role of a number of biological factors in pathogenesis - tryptophan; vitamin B12; sterol metabolism; glutamate and GABA; and the Fragile-X expansion.

  17. Hypnosis Without Empathy? Perspectives From Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Stage Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David B

    2016-01-01

    Despite volumes of published studies supporting the efficacy of hypnosis for ego-strengthening, performance, and physical and psychological disorders, the precise nature of hypnosis, and in particular, the neurobiological underpinnings of trance-phenomenon, remains tenuous at best. With his empathic involvement theory of hypnosis, Wickramasekera II (2015) brings us closer to an understanding of the elusive nature of hypnotic processes by proposing a bridging of two long-standing and seemingly incongruent theories of hypnosis (i.e., neodissociative versus socio-cognitive). Borrowing from neuroscientific studies of empathy, the empathic involvement theory maintains that empathy, beyond any other human dynamic (including emotions, behavior, personality, and imagination), facilitates and enhances hypnotic experiences for both recipient and provider alike. By the same token, one can reasonably infer from the empathic involvement theory that non-empathic individuals are less likely to benefit from hypnosis. With this perspective in mind, the empathic involvement theory's identification of empathy as an apparent "Holy Grail" of the neural underpinnings and precise nature of hypnosis may be challenged on a number of grounds. Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder, especially those suffering from alexithymia, have been identified as empathy deficient, and therefore according to the empathic involvement theory would be classified as "low-hypnotizable," yet empirical studies, albeit limited in number, suggest otherwise. Furthermore, hypnotic inductions of audience volunteers by stage hypnotists challenge the empathic involvement theory's supposition that empathy is a required component of hypnosis. It is this author's contention that empathy is a beneficial, though not essential, element of successful hypnosis.

  18. Investigation of the Association Between Motor Stereotypy Behavior With Fundamental Movement Skills, Adaptive Functioning, and Autistic Spectrum Disorder Symptomology in Children With Intellectual Disabilities.

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    Powell, Joanne L; Pringle, Lydia; Greig, Matt

    2017-02-01

    Motor stereotypy behaviors are patterned, coordinated, repetitive behaviors that are particularly evident in those with an autistic spectrum disorder and intellectual disabilities. The extent to which motor stereotypy behavior severity is associated with motor skills and maladaptive behavior, measures of adaptive functioning, along with fundamental movement skills and degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology is assessed in this preliminary report. Twelve participants, aged 7 to 16 years, with a reported motor stereotypy behavior and either mild or severe intellectual disability comprising developmental or global delay took part in the study. Spearman rho correlational analysis showed that severity of motor stereotypy behavior was significantly positively correlated with autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .008) and maladaptive behavior ( P = .008) but not fundamental movement skills ( P > .05). An increase in fundamental movement skills score was associated with a decrease in autistic spectrum disorder symptomology ( P = .01) and an increase in motor skills ( P = .002). This study provides evidence showing a significant relationship between motor stereotypy behavior severity with degree of autistic spectrum disorder symptomology and maladaptive behavior.

  19. Discourse Cohesion in the Verbal Interactions of Individuals Diagnosed with Autistic Disorder or Schizotypal Personality Disorder.

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    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study compared high functioning adolescents and young adults with autism (n=8) or schizotypal personality disorder (n=9) in use of social language referencing. Both groups had similar rates, types, and patterns of cohesive reference errors, though subjects with schizotypal disorder used cohesive ties of reference more often and more correctly…

  20. [Review of psychopharmacological treatments in adolescents and adults with autistic disorders].

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    Baghdadli, A; Gonnier, V; Aussilloux, C

    2002-01-01

    Autism is an early developmental disorder. It leads to severe and durable disturbances. Given this problem, no treatment can be excluded a priori. Thus, many approaches are used to deal with autistic disorders. In France, pharmacological treatments are, for instance, largely and mostly used in adults. In the USA, these treatments concern 50% of persons with autism of any age. Nevertheless, they are rarely based on controlled studies. At the present, however, prescriptions and expected effects appear to be hard to localize. Furthermore, only few controlled studies validate their use. Aim - We offer a review of studies about medical treatments used in adolescents and adults with autism. They are classified in 3 categories: the first (category I) includes drugs used for their neurochemical effects focusing on autistic signs. The second (category II) covers drugs used for treatment of behavioural disorders frequently associated with autism. The third (category III) corresponds to a wide range of drugs or vitamins for wich only few case studies exist reporting irregular positive effects. The main hypothesis of this review is that autism involves a dysfunction of the neuromediation systems. This hypothesis opens new perspectives in the research of medical treatments in autism by focusing on molecules, which are supposed to have an effect on neuromediation systems. Method - Our review is based on studies, which have been published during the past twenty years. For many studies, data are limited to adolescents and adults. So we expanded our review to data available in children. The data bases that we have used are medline and psyclit. Keywords have been chosen according to: pharmacological considerations (psychotropic, psychoactive drugs, psychopharmacology) and clinical symptoms (autism, automutilations, aggressive behavior, and hyperactivity). Hypothesis of a dysfunction in the neuromediation systems in autism - Many studies exist about biochemical abnormalities in

  1. Are autistic traits measured equivalently in individuals with and without an autism spectrum disorder? An invariance analysis of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Aja L; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen; Kuenssberg, Renate; O'Donnell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It is common to administer measures of autistic traits to those without autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with, for example, the aim of understanding autistic personality characteristics in non-autistic individuals. Little research has examined the extent to which measures of autistic traits actually measure the same traits in the same way across those with and without an ASD. We addressed this question using a multi-group confirmatory factor invariance analysis of the Autism Quotient Short Form (AQ-S: Hoekstra et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 41(5):589-596, 2011) across those with (n = 148) and without (n = 168) ASD. Metric variance (equality of factor loadings), but not scalar invariance (equality of thresholds), held suggesting that the AQ-S measures the same latent traits in both groups, but with a bias in the manner in which trait levels are estimated. We, therefore, argue that the AQ-S can be used to investigate possible causes and consequences of autistic traits in both groups separately, but caution is due when combining or comparing levels of autistic traits across the two groups.

  2. Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2, but Not Type 1, Is Up-Regulated in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Children Affected by Autistic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalco, Dario; Sapone, Anna; Giordano, Catia; Cirillo, Alessandra; de Magistris, Laura; Rossi, Francesco; Fasano, Alessio; Bradstreet, James Jeffrey; Maione, Sabatino; Antonucci, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Autistic disorders (ADs) are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders arised by the interaction of genes and environmental factors. Dysfunctions in social interaction and communication skills, repetitive and stereotypic verbal and non-verbal behaviours are common features of ADs. There are no defined mechanisms of pathogenesis, rendering…

  3. Is There a Need for a Focused Health Care Service for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? A Keyhole Look at This Problem in Tripoli, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeglam, Adel M.; Maouna, Ameena

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autism is a global disorder, but relatively little is known about its presentation and occurrence in many developing countries, including Libya. Aims: 1.) To estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in children referred to Al-Khadra hospital (KH). 2.) To increase the awareness among pediatrician and primary health care…

  4. Autistic epileptiform regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Roberto; Zappella, Michele

    2006-01-01

    Autistic regression is a well known condition that occurs in one third of children with pervasive developmental disorders, who, after normal development in the first year of life, undergo a global regression during the second year that encompasses language, social skills and play. In a portion of these subjects, epileptiform abnormalities are present with or without seizures, resembling, in some respects, other epileptiform regressions of language and behaviour such as Landau-Kleffner syndrome. In these cases, for a more accurate definition of the clinical entity, the term autistic epileptifom regression has been suggested. As in other epileptic syndromes with regression, the relationships between EEG abnormalities, language and behaviour, in autism, are still unclear. We describe two cases of autistic epileptiform regression selected from a larger group of children with autistic spectrum disorders, with the aim of discussing the clinical features of the condition, the therapeutic approach and the outcome.

  5. Play behaviours and play object preferences of young children with autistic disorder in a clinical play environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Anna; Ziviani, Jenny; Rodger, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Play is the primary occupation of childhood and provides a potentially powerful means of assessing and treating children with autistic disorder. This study utilized a cross-sectional comparison design to investigate the nature of play engagement in children with AD (n = 24), relative to typically developing children (n = 34) matched for chronological age. Play behaviours were recorded in a clinical play environment. Videotapes comprising 15 minutes of the children's spontaneous play behaviour were analysed using time-interval analysis. The particular play behaviours observed and play objects used were coded. Differences in play behaviours (p motivation.

  6. Heterogeneity of subclinical autistic traits among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder: Identifying the broader autism phenotype with a data-driven method.

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    Bora, Emre; Aydın, Aydan; Saraç, Tuğba; Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Köse, Sezen

    2017-02-01

    Clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be conceptualized as the extreme end of the distribution of subclinical autistic traits related to genetic susceptibility factors (broad autism phenotype (BAP)) in the general population. Subclinical autistic traits are significantly more common among unaffected first-degree relatives of probands with autism. However, there is a significant heterogeneity of autistic traits in family members of individuals with ASD and severity of autistic traits are not significantly different from controls in the majority of these relatives. The current study investigated the heterogeneity of autistic traits using latent class analysis (LCA) of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) ratings of 673 parents of children with ASD and 147 parents of typically developing children. Two distinct subgroups, including a "low-scoring" and a "high-scorer (BAP)" groups, were found. In comparison to control parents, a significantly larger proportion (21.1% vs. 7.5%) of parents of ASD were members of BAP group. Communication subscale made a distinctive contribution to the separation of high and low-scoring groups (d = 2.77). Further studies investigating neurobiological and genetic biomarkers and stability of these two subgroups over time are important for understanding the nature of autistic traits in the general population. Autism Res 2017, 10: 321-326. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A Systematic Review of Interventions Used to Treat Catatonic Symptoms in People with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Hannah; Bunton, Penny; Hare, Dougal J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the efficacy of a range of treatments for autistic catatonia. The review identified 22 relevant papers, reporting a total of 28 cases including both adult and paediatric patients. Treatment methods included electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), medication, behavioural and sensory interventions. Quality…

  8. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life.

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    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to communication, behavior and interests of their child, which impact their quality of life. There were also differences between boys and girls.

  9. Imitation and Action Understanding in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: How Valid Is the Hypothesis of a Deficit in the Mirror Neuron System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.; Brindley, Rachel M.; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    The motor mirror neuron system supports imitation and goal understanding in typical adults. Recently, it has been proposed that a deficit in this mirror neuron system might contribute to poor imitation performance in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and might be a cause of poor social abilities in these children. We aimed to test…

  10. A Randomised Group Comparison Controlled Trial of "Preschoolers with Autism": A Parent Education and Skills Training Intervention for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; Mackinnon, Andrew; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder. Method: A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent…

  11. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  12. Evaluation of the validity of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in differentiating high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder from schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Kenichi; Matsui, Yusuke; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2010-09-30

    The aim of this study is to examine the validity of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) to differentiate high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) from schizophrenia (SCH). The AQ was developed by Baron-Cohen et al. to measure autistic traits. In addition to the original AQ items, we created self-administered questions about psychotic symptoms (S-scale). We administered the modified AQ to 51 ASD patients and 46 SCH patients, and we compared these two groups in terms of total AQ score, AQ subscale scores and S-scale score. We applied receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to examine the discriminating power of the AQ. The mean total AQ score of the ASD group (32.6; SD=6.8; range: 8-48) was significantly higher than that of the SCH group (21.8; SD=7.4; range: 10-39) (p<0.001). All AQ subscale scores of the ASD group were significantly higher than those of the SCH group. By using a cut-off score of 29 for the AQ total score, we were able to correctly classify 80% of the subjects. At this cut-off, the positive and negative predictive values were 0.83 and 0.78, respectively. Inclusion of additional questions of the S-scale did not increase the power of differentiation. These results indicate that the usefulness of the AQ in differentiating high-functioning ASD from SCH is limited.

  13. Projection of Need for Pathogenetic Testing for Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD Children of India

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    Rashmi Chowdhary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background  Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder. There is a large quantity of evidence which point towards a positive correlation between Autism and Mitochondrial disorders (MD. In addition to that, several published reports, indicate that people with neurological disorders exhibit pathological signs of mitochondrial disorders and vice versa. Screening for underlying MD is essential in ASD as the children (clinically appear and behave the same way in the both instances; however, their management is very different. Materials and Methods The current study examined biochemical, neuroimaging and genotyping technique in ASD patients to see which technique would be easier to interpret and indicate underlying MD. The analysis of the screening was based on several objectives like clinical, histological, biochemical, molecular, neuroimaging and enzymatic findings. Results We found out that pathogenetic analysis based on clinical and genotyping gives spontaneous results to analyse the possibility of MD in ASD patients. Conclusion  It does not necessarily require blood samples from ASD patients to accomplish this type of analysis.

  14. 孤独症儿童家长生存质量的研究%Effects of life quality on autistic disorder children's parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振寰; 谢巧玲; 张勇

    2013-01-01

    [目的]分析孤独症患儿对其父母生存质量的影响,为有关机构展开工作提供参考依据. [方法]采用普适性生存质量测定量表(SF-36),对90例孤独症患儿父母及120例正常儿童的父母进行评定. [结果]1)孤独症组父母的生存质量总分及各领域评分均低于正常父母组(P<0.01);2)低功能孤独症组的父母生存质量评分明显低于高功能孤独症组(P<0.01);3)患儿家长的生存质量与患儿病情程度呈负相关,与智力水平呈正相关(P<0.01). [结论]孤独症儿童对患儿父母生存质量有影响,低功能孤独症患儿则影响更大.%【Objective】 To investigate the quality of life and related factors in parents of children with autism. 【Methods】 90 parents of autistic children and 120 parents of normal children were participated. SF-36 was employed to e-valuate both groups by questionnaire. Parents of autistic children also completed Clancy Autism Behavior Scale (CABS) Autistic Behavior Checklist (ABC),the Children Autistic Rating Scale (CARS)and Autistic children checked with the Gesell development diagnosis scale. 【Results】 1) Parents of autistic children reported substantially lower scores of SF-36 than that of parents with normal group (P<0. 01). 2) The quality of life of parents in low functioning intelligence group was worse than high functioning intelligence group(P<0. 01). 3) The quality of life of parents was positively correlated with intelligence of autistic children,and negative correlated with symptom of autistic children. 【Conclusion】 Children with autistic disorder took grievous influence on parents quality of life. Compared with high functioning intelligence group, the low functioning intelligence children's parents had even worse quality of life.

  15. Environmental risk factors associated with the persistence of conduct difficulties in children with intellectual disabilities and autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Eric; Blacher, Jan; Einfeld, Stewart; Hatton, Chris; Robertson, Janet; Stancliffe, Roger J

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the association between exposure to environmental risks in early childhood and the prevalence and persistence of conduct difficulties (CD) in children with intellectual disability (ID) who did not have autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children. Results indicated that: (1) exposure to risk was associated with elevated prevalence of CD at age three and, for TD children and children with ID, increased risk of CD persisting to ages five and seven; (2) at all levels of risk, children with ASD were more likely to show persistent CD than other children; (3) children with ID were no more likely to show persistent CD than TD children at low levels of exposure to environmental risk.

  16. A girl with increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner′s syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Mohseni Ahouee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the findings on the evaluation of a 9-year-old girl with disabling and pronounced increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner′s syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder. She spent most of the time doing these activities which affected not only her academic performance, but also social relationships. A comprehensive treatment plan consists of both biological and psychological aspects, is the main point of this case. Low dose of risperidone (0.5 mg/day was started to decrease the patient′s stereotypic behaviors. Sertraline (12.5 mg/day was prescribed for her phobia. She was also referred to an occupational therapist in order to improve her social skills.

  17. EEG correlates of emotions in dream narratives from typical young adults and individuals with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoust, Anne-Marie; Lusignan, Félix-Antoine; Braun, Claude M J; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2008-03-01

    The relationship between emotional dream content and Alpha and Beta REM sleep EEG activity was investigated in typical individuals and in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Dream narratives of persons with ASD contained fewer emotional elements. In both groups, emotions correlated positively with slow Alpha (8.0-10.0 Hz) spectral power over parieto-occipital and left central regions, as well as with a right occipital EEG asymmetry. Slow Alpha activity in ASD individuals was lower over midline and parasagittal areas and higher over lateral areas compared to controls. Both groups displayed a right-biased slow Alpha activity for midparietal and occipital (significantly higher in control) sites. Results indicate that Alpha EEG activity may represent a neurophysiological substrate associated with emotional dream content. Distinctive Alpha EEG patterns and asymmetries suggest that dream generation implies different brain connectivity in ASD.

  18. Adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) variants may increase autistic symptoms and anxiety in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M; Agelopoulos, Konstantin; Huy, Ellen; Rothermundt, Matthias; Krakowitzky, Petra; Meyer, Jobst; Deckert, Jürgen; von Gontard, Alexander; Hohoff, Christa

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are heterogeneous disorders presenting with increased rates of anxiety. The adenosine A(2A) receptor gene (ADORA2A) is associated with panic disorder and is located on chromosome 22q11.23. Its gene product, the adenosine A(2A) receptor, is strongly expressed in the caudate nucleus, which also is involved in ASD. As autistic symptoms are increased in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, and large 22q11.2 deletions and duplications have been observed in ASD individuals, in this study, 98 individuals with ASD and 234 control individuals were genotyped for eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ADORA2A. Nominal association with the disorder was observed for rs2236624-CC, and phenotypic variability in ASD symptoms was influenced by rs3761422, rs5751876 and rs35320474. In addition, association of ADORA2A variants with anxiety was replicated for individuals with ASD. Findings point toward a possible mediating role of ADORA2A variants on phenotypic expression in ASD that need to be replicated in a larger sample.

  19. Fatty acid metabolism in neurodevelopmental disorder: a new perspective on associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, dyspraxia and the autistic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A J; Ross, M A

    2000-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that abnormalities of fatty acid and membrane phospholipid metabolism play a part in a wide range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. This proposal is discussed here in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder (dyspraxia) and the autistic spectrum. These are among the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood, with significant implications for society as well as for those directly affected. However, controversy still surrounds both the identification and management of these conditions, and while their aetiology is recognized as being complex and multifactorial, little progress has yet been made in elucidating predisposing factors at the biological level. An overview is provided here of the contents of this Special Issue, which contains a selection of reports from a unique multidisciplinary workshop involving both researchers and clinicians. Its purpose was to explore the possibility that ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and autism fall within a phospholipid spectrum of disorders. This proposal could explain the high degree of co-morbidity between these conditions, their aggregation within families and relation to other psychiatric disorders, and a range of associated features that are already well known at a clinical level. The existing evidence for fatty acid abnormalities in these disorders is summarized, and new approaches are outlined that have the potential to improve both the identification and the management of these and related neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions.

  20. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy with people who have autistic spectrum disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Lisa; Hodgekins, Joanne; Langdon, Peter E

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were to undertake a meta-analytic and systematic appraisal of the literature investigating the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) when used with individuals who have autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) for either a) affective disorders, or b) the symptoms of ASDs. Following a systematic search, 48 studies were included. CBT, used for affective disorders, was associated with a non-significant small to medium effect size, g=0.24, for self-report measures, a significant medium effect size, g=0.66, for informant-report measures, and a significant medium effect size, g=0.73, for clinician-report measures. CBT, used as a treatment for symptoms of ASDs, was associated with a small to medium non-significant effect size, g=0.25, for self-report measures, a significant small to medium effect size, g=0.48, for informant-report measures, a significant medium effect size, g=0.65, for clinician-report measures, and a significant small to medium effect size, g=0.35, for task-based measures. Sensitivity analyses reduced effect size magnitude, with the exception of that based on informant-report measures for the symptoms of ASDs, which increased, g=0.52. Definitive trials are needed to demonstrate that CBT is an empirically validated treatment for use with people who have ASDs.

  1. [Autistic psychopathy or pervasive developmental disorder: how has Asperger's syndrome changed in the past sixty years?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Gen; Ichihashi, Kayo

    2007-03-01

    Bosch (1970) was the first author who used "Asperger's syndrome" in English literature. In those days, "Kanner's syndrome" i.e. autism, which had been under schizophrenic-versus-undeveloped arguments from the 1960's, was always contrasted with Asperger's "autistic psychopathy in children". From then on there have been vicissitudes over the notion of "Asperger's syndrome" and its clinical presentation. Nowadays, the restricted notion of "Asperger's syndrome" is dominant and used in both DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. However, debates concerning the aspect of Asperger s "psychopathy" in clinical study and practice have long disappeared. In daily life, when we describe someone as "like Asperger's", it means a personality deviation that is to the degree of Asperger's "psychopathy". The history of Asperger's "psychopathy" is still developing in our culture.

  2. Narrative responses as an aid to understanding the presentation of maltreated children who meet criteria for autistic spectrum disorder and reactive attachment disorder: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Elaine; Stedmon, Jacqui; Dallos, Rudi

    2014-07-01

    This paper offers research case studies of four severely maltreated children who had received a diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder. A range of measures were employed to explore the children's psychological and emotional functioning, including Theory of Mind assessment (Sally-Anne Test), attachment measures (Story Stems Assessment Profile and Relationship Problems Questionnaire), along with measures to assess general psychological and emotional well-being. Contrary to the diagnosis, the children did not reveal a theory of mind deficit. However, they did indicate a profile of difficulties in mentalisation on the Story Stems. The findings are discussed in terms of the extent to which mentalisation and theory of mind are influenced by situational factors, especially the anxiety evoked by the Story Stem attachment scenarios. Clinical implications regarding mentalisation as a state vs. trait phenomenon are discussed.

  3. Comparing Efficacy and Side Effects of Memantine vs. Risperidone in the Treatment of Autistic Disorder.

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    Nikvarz, Nikvarz; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Alimadadi, Abbas; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the efficacy and side effects of memantine, an antagonist of the NMDA receptor of glutamate, with risperidone given the fact that glutamate has been noted for its possible effects in the pathogenesis of autism. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, has been approved by FDA for the management of irritability associated with autism. Methods: 30 children, aged 4-17 years, entered an 8-week, randomized trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either risperidone or memantine. Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scales were used to assess behavioral symptoms of the patients. Results: Both risperidone and memantine reduced the scores of 4 subscales of ABC as well as the 10-item and the total score of CARS significantly. However, differences between the 2 drugs in the scores of each evaluating scale were not found to be significant. Relatively, larger number of patients on risperidone showed "very much improvement" when assessed by CGI-I scale when compared with those on memantine. Discussion and conclusion: The present study suggests that memantine may have beneficial effects in the treatment of many core symptoms of autism. Therefore, memantine may be considered as a potential medication in the treatment of those autistic children who do not respond or cannot tolerate side effects of risperidone.

  4. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder.

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    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna

    2014-03-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD.

  5. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Correlations with Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Controls

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    Niyonsenga, Theophile; Duff, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Background There is evidence that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) levels compared with controls and conflicting evidence regarding omega-6 (n-6) PUFA levels. Objectives This study investigated whether erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were lower and n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) higher in children with ADHD, ASD and controls, and whether lower n-3 and higher n-6 PUFAs correlated with poorer scores on the Australian Twin Behaviour Rating Scale (ATBRS; ADHD symptoms) and Test of Variable Attention (TOVA) in children with ADHD, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) in children with ASD. Methods Assessments and blood samples of 565 children aged 3–17 years with ADHD (n = 401), ASD (n = 85) or controls (n = 79) were analysed. One-way ANOVAs with Tukey’s post-hoc analysis investigated differences in PUFA levels between groups and Pearson’s correlations investigated correlations between PUFA levels and ATBRS, TOVA and CARS scores. Results Children with ADHD and ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA, higher AA/EPA ratio and lower n-3/n-6 than controls (Pfatty acid metabolism in these disorders. PMID:27232999

  6. Functional Evaluation of Hidden Figures Object Analysis in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisza, Krisztina L.; Clancy, Christine; Shiloff, Deborah; Foreman, Derek; Holden, Jeanette; Jones, Cheryl; Paulson, K.; Summers, Randy; Yu, C. T.; Chudley, Albert E.

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of a hidden figures task (HFT) was used to compare differences in brain function in children diagnosed with autism disorder (AD) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typical controls (TC). Overall greater functional MRI activity was observed in…

  7. White Matter Microstructure Predicts Autistic Traits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Miriam; Thapar, Anita; Jones, Derek K.

    2014-01-01

    Traits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have previously been found to index clinical severity. This study examined the association of ASD traits with diffusion parameters in adolescent males with ADHD (n = 17), and also compared WM microstructure relative to controls (n = 17).…

  8. Assessment in multisite randomized clinical trials of patients with autistic disorder: the Autism RUPP Network. Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L E; Aman, M G; Martin, A; Collier-Crespin, A; Vitiello, B; Tierney, E; Asarnow, R; Bell-Bradshaw, F; Freeman, B J; Gates-Ulanet, P; Klin, A; McCracken, J T; McDougle, C J; McGough, J J; Posey, D J; Scahill, L; Swiezy, N B; Ritz, L; Volkmar, F

    2000-04-01

    Assessment of autistic disorder (autism) symptoms, primary and secondary, poses more challenging problems than ordinarily found in multisite randomized clinical trial (RCT) assessments. For example, subjects may be uncommunicative and extremely heterogeneous in problem presentation, and current pharmacological treatments are not likely to alter most core features of autism. The Autism Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP Autism Network) resolved some of these problems during the design of a risperidone RCT in children/adolescents. The inappropriateness of the usual anchors for a Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) was resolved by defining uncomplicated autism without secondary symptoms as a CGI-S of 3, mildly ill. The communication problems, compromising use of the patient as an informant, were addressed by several strategies, including careful questioning of care providers, rating scales, laboratory tests, and physical exams. The broad subject heterogeneity requires outcome measures sensitive to individual change over a wide spectrum of treatment response and side effects. The problems of neuropsychologically testing nonverbal, lower functioning, sometimes noncompliant subjects requires careful instrument selection/adaptation and flexible administration techniques. The problems of assessing low-end IQs, neglected by most standardized test developers, was resolved by an algorithm of test hierarchy. Scarcity of other autism-adapted cognitive and neuropsychological tests and lack of standardization required development of a new, specially adapted battery. Reliability on the Autism Diagnostic Interview (currently the most valid diagnostic instrument) and other clinician instruments required extensive cross-site training (in-person, videotape, and teleconference sessions). Definition of a treatment responder required focus on individually relevant target symptoms, synthesis of possible modest improvements in many domains, and acceptance of

  9. Cortical gyrification in autistic and Asperger disorders: a preliminary magnetic resonance imaging study.

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    Jou, Roger J; Minshew, Nancy J; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2010-12-01

    The validity of Asperger disorder as a distinct syndrome from autism is unclear partly because of the paucity of differentiating neurobiological evidence. Frontal lobe cortical folding between these disorders was compared using the gyrification index. Twenty-three boys underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging: 6 with high-functioning autism, 9 with Asperger disorder, and 8 controls. Using the first coronal slice anterior to the corpus callosum, total and outer cortical contours were traced to calculate the gyrification index. This index was also calculated for superior and inferior regions to examine dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, respectively. Analysis of variance revealed differences in the left inferior gyrification index, which was higher in the autism group compared with Asperger and control groups. There were no differences in age, intelligence quotient, and brain volume. These preliminary findings suggest that cortical folding may be abnormally high in the frontal lobe in autism but not Asperger disorder, suggesting distinct frontal lobe neuropathology.

  10. Autistic traits in male and female students and individuals with high functioning autism spectrum disorders measured by the Polish version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient.

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    Ewa Pisula

    Full Text Available So far no standardized screening instrument for autism spectrum disorders for adults has been developed in Poland. The main aim of the study was to explore the properties of the Polish version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ, especially its reliability and discriminating power. The second purpose was to establish whether the pattern of sex and area of study differences in the amount of autistic traits found in other countries also exist in Poland. The groups in the study included students (n = 2819, adults with ASD (n = 60 and a non-clinical sample (n = 60 matched with the ASD group for age, sex, education and place of residence. The Polish version of AQ proved to be reliable, although--as in studies conducted in other countries--the internal consistency coefficients for subscales (with exception for social skill were low. ASD diagnosis was the most powerful determinant of AQ scores. Sex differences in autistic traits and a relationship between autistic traits and area of study were found.

  11. The Role of Early Childhood Professionals in the Early Identification of Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samms-Vaughan, Maureen; Franklyn-Banton, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder defined by impaired social skills, impaired language development and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. The increasing prevalence of autism worldwide has made this an important condition among professionals working with young children, including those in Jamaica. Early identification and intervention…

  12. Self-Disorders in Individuals with Autistic Traits: Contribution of Reduced Autobiographical Reasoning Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Fabrice; Göritz, Anja S.; Schröder, Johanna; Coutelle, Romain; Danion, Jean-Marie; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine V.; Moritz, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The present web-based study (N = 840) aimed to illuminate the cognitive mechanisms underlying self-disorders in autism. Initially, participants selected three self-defining memories. Then, we assessed their capacity to give meaning to these events (i.e., meaning making), their tendency to scrutinize autobiographical memory to better understand…

  13. Eye-Movement Patterns Are Associated with Communicative Competence in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

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    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Brock, Jon; Cragg, Lucy; Einav, Shiri; Griffiths, Helen; Nation, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Background: Investigations using eye-tracking have reported reduced fixations to salient social cues such as eyes when participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) view social scenes. However, these studies have not distinguished different cognitive phenotypes. Methods: The eye-movements of 28 teenagers with ASD and 18 typically developing…

  14. Secure Attachment in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Maternal Insightfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2008-01-01

    Do children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) form attachments to their caregivers? This article reviews research challenging the conventional view that children with autism are unable to form healthy attachment relationships. The authors describe a study examining the role of maternal insightfulness into the inner world of the child in…

  15. Autistic Tendencies: Are There Different Pathways for Blindness and Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Rebecca; Wyver, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    For many of the children who are blind and who also display features of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) it is possible that their characteristics, while being representative of ASD, actually follow a different pathway to those children who have ASD and are sighted. It is proposed that these children should be viewed as having specific features…

  16. Atypical benign partial epilepsy of childhood with acquired neurocognitive, lexical semantic, and autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nicholas M; Conroy, Judith; Deonna, Thierry; McCreary, Dara; McGettigan, Paul; Madigan, Cathy; Carter, Imogen; Ennis, Sean; Lynch, Sally A; Shahwan, Amre; King, Mary D

    2016-01-01

    Atypical benign partial epilepsy (ABPE) of childhood or pseudo-Lennox syndrome is a form of idiopathic focal epilepsy characterized by multiple seizure types, focal and/or generalized epileptiform discharges, continuous spike-wave during sleep (CSWS), and sometimes reversible neurocognitive deficits. There are few reported cases of ABPE describing detailed correlative longitudinal follow-up of the various associated neurocognitive, language, social communicative, or motor deficits, in parallel with the epilepsy. Furthermore, the molecular inheritance pattern for ABPE and the wider spectrum of epilepsy aphasia disorders have yet to be fully elucidated. We describe the phenotype-genotype study of a boy with ABPE with follow-up from ages 5 to 13 years showing acquired oromotor and, later, a specific lexical semantic and pervasive developmental disorder. Exome sequencing identified variants in SCN9A, CPA6, and SCNM1. A direct role of the epilepsy in the pathogenesis of the oromotor and neurocognitive deficits is apparent.

  17. Potential therapeutic use of the ketogenic diet in autistic spectrum disorders

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    Eleonora eNapoli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet (KGD has been recognized as an effective treatment for individuals with glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH deficiencies as well as with epilepsy. More recently, its use has been advocated in a number of neurological disorders prompting a newfound interest in its possible therapeutic use in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD. One study and one case report indicated that children with ASD treated with a KGD showed decreased seizure frequencies and exhibited behavioral improvements (i.e., improved learning abilities and social skills. The KGD could benefit individuals with ASD affected with epileptic episodes as well those with either PDH or mild RC (respiratory chain Complex deficiencies. Given that the mechanism of action of the KGD is not fully understood, caution should be exercised in ASD cases lacking a careful biochemical and metabolic characterization to avoid deleterious side effects or refractory outcomes.

  18. Review of foreign approaches to development of communication in children with autistic spectrum disorders

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    Soldatenkova E.N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a generalized overview of international approaches to the evaluation and formation of communication in children with autism spectrum disor ders (ASD. Described radicals communication disorders in children with ASD. Analyzed foreign approaches (Communication system for the exchange of images (PECS Lori Frost and Andrew Bondy; options piktogramme6ideogrammic communication (bliss6symbolism, Loeb system, a system of sign language; Program in Applied verbal behavior; a Method of facilitating communication (FC and others used for the development of communication in children with ASD and donditions underlying these approaches. Examined differences in focus for the development of communication in children with ASD in domestic and foreign schools. The main conditions for the development of communication in children with ASD described in the framework of cultural historical psychology and activity approach, ensuring the inclusion of children with ASD in education.

  19. [Clinical features, biology and neuropsychology of the autistic disorder: towards an integrative perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukier, Sebastián H

    2005-01-01

    Autism constitutes one of the most investigated disorders in child psychiatry. The heterogeneous clinical phenomena that characterize it have been exhaustibly described along the last 62 years. Multiple aetiological hypothesis, neuropsychological theories and physiopathological mechanisms, sometimes complementary and other times mutually exclusive, and different descriptions of neurobiological alterations that resulted, in general, of low replicability, have attempted to account for the marked variability of its manifestations. An integration of these different levels of analysis results even harder than the comprehension of each of them separately. In this article the author revises the three aspects considered the most characteristic of the syndrome (social interaction, communication and flexibility) and tries to integrate its clinical manifestations with some neuropsychological variables and the neurobiological substrates.

  20. Pharmacotherapy for the core symptoms in autistic disorder: current status of the research.

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    Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey; Grant, Paul

    2013-03-01

    The current review covers extant literature on pharmacotherapy for core symptoms of autism. The core symptoms of autism include impairments in social interaction and communication, as well as the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors. There are no known efficacious treatments for the core social symptoms, although effects on repetitive behaviors are indicated with some data. While studies of fenfluramine, secretin, opiates, and mood stabilizers generally find no effect, mixed results suggest more research is needed on antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics. Newer lines of research, including cholinergic and glutamatergic agents and oxytocin, will be of considerable interest in the future. However, research on the treatment of core symptoms is plagued by limitations in study design, statistical power, and other issues inherent to the study of treatments for autism (e.g., heterogeneity of the disorder) that continue to prevent the elucidation of efficacious treatments.

  1. Greater disruption to control of voluntary saccades in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder: evidence for greater cerebellar involvement in autism?

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    Stanley-Cary, Chloe; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce; White, Owen; Fielding, Joanne

    2011-03-01

    It remains unclear whether autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) exist on a symptom continuum or are separate disorders with discrete neurobiological underpinnings. In addition to impairments in communication and social cognition, motor deficits constitute a significant clinical feature in both disorders. It has been suggested that motor deficits and in particular the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may differentiate these disorders. We used a simple volitional saccade task to comprehensively profile the integrity of voluntary ocular motor behaviour in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or AD, and included measures sensitive to cerebellar dysfunction. We tested three groups of age-matched young males with normal intelligence (full scale, verbal, and performance IQ estimates >70) aged between 11 and 19 years; nine with AD, eight with HFA, and ten normally developing males as the comparison group. Overall, the metrics and dynamics of the voluntary saccades produced in this task were preserved in the AD group. In contrast, the HFA group demonstrated relatively preserved mean measures of ocular motricity with cerebellar-like deficits demonstrated in increased variability on measures of response time, final eye position, and movement dynamics. These deficits were considered to be consistent with reduced cerebellar online adaptation of movement. The results support the notion that the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may be different in AD and HFA, suggesting potentially differential neurobiological substrates may underpin these complex disorders.

  2. Abnormal patterns of cerebral lateralisation as revealed by the Universal Chimeric Faces Task in individuals with autistic disorder.

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    Taylor, Sandie; Workman, Lance; Yeomans, Heather

    2012-01-01

    A previous study by Workman, Chilvers, Yeomans, and Taylor (2006), using the "Universal" Chimeric Faces Task (UCFT) for six emotional expressions, demonstrated that an overall left hemispatial/right hemisphere (RH) advantage has begun to develop by the age of 7-8. Moreover, the development of this left hemispatial advantage was observed to correlate positively with the ability to read emotions in the faces of others. Adopting the UCFT, the current study compared autistic children (11-15) with unimpaired children of two age groups (5-6 and 7-8) from this previous study. The autistic children showed a left hemispatial/RH advantage only for the two emotional expressions of "happiness" and "anger". Results for the autistic children revealed a similar overall pattern of lateralisation to the 5-6-year-olds and one that is less lateralised than the pattern for the 7-8-year-olds. Autistic children appear to show a developmental deficit for left hemispatial/RH advantage for emotional expression with the exception of "happiness" and "anger." The findings are discussed in terms of role hemisphericity and an approach-avoidance model.

  3. Effectiveness of Methylcobalamin and Folinic Acid Treatment on Adaptive Behavior in Children with Autistic Disorder Is Related to Glutathione Redox Status

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    Richard E. Frye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatments targeting metabolic abnormalities in children with autism are limited. Previously we reported that a nutritional treatment significantly improved glutathione metabolism in children with autistic disorder. In this study we evaluated changes in adaptive behaviors in this cohort and determined whether such changes are related to changes in glutathione metabolism. Thirty-seven children diagnosed with autistic disorder and abnormal glutathione and methylation metabolism were treated with twice weekly 75 µg/Kg methylcobalamin and twice daily 400 µg folinic acid for 3 months in an open-label fashion. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS and glutathione redox metabolites were measured at baseline and at the end of the treatment period. Over the treatment period, all VABS subscales significantly improved with an average effect size of 0.59, and an average improvement in skills of 7.7 months. A greater improvement in glutathione redox status was associated with a greater improvement in expressive communication, personal and domestic daily living skills, and interpersonal, play-leisure, and coping social skills. Age, gender, and history of regression did not influence treatment response. The significant behavioral improvements observed and the relationship between these improvements to glutathione redox status suggest that nutritional interventions targeting redox metabolism may benefit some children with autism.

  4. Effectiveness of methylcobalamin and folinic Acid treatment on adaptive behavior in children with autistic disorder is related to glutathione redox status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Richard E; Melnyk, Stepan; Fuchs, George; Reid, Tyra; Jernigan, Stefanie; Pavliv, Oleksandra; Hubanks, Amanda; Gaylor, David W; Walters, Laura; James, S Jill

    2013-01-01

    Treatments targeting metabolic abnormalities in children with autism are limited. Previously we reported that a nutritional treatment significantly improved glutathione metabolism in children with autistic disorder. In this study we evaluated changes in adaptive behaviors in this cohort and determined whether such changes are related to changes in glutathione metabolism. Thirty-seven children diagnosed with autistic disorder and abnormal glutathione and methylation metabolism were treated with twice weekly 75 µg/Kg methylcobalamin and twice daily 400 µg folinic acid for 3 months in an open-label fashion. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) and glutathione redox metabolites were measured at baseline and at the end of the treatment period. Over the treatment period, all VABS subscales significantly improved with an average effect size of 0.59, and an average improvement in skills of 7.7 months. A greater improvement in glutathione redox status was associated with a greater improvement in expressive communication, personal and domestic daily living skills, and interpersonal, play-leisure, and coping social skills. Age, gender, and history of regression did not influence treatment response. The significant behavioral improvements observed and the relationship between these improvements to glutathione redox status suggest that nutritional interventions targeting redox metabolism may benefit some children with autism.

  5. An Examination of Challenging Behaviors in Autistic Disorder versus Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: Significant Differences and Gender Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Alison M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are well-known for engagement in challenging behaviors. Unfortunately, due to its absence as a criterion for diagnosis in the "DSM-IV-TR", little attention has been paid to the endorsement rates of such behaviors. However, a recently developed measure to assist in the diagnosis of infants and toddlers…

  6. Biological and psychological rhythms: an integrative approach to rhythm disturbances in autistic disorder.

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    Botbol, Michel; Cabon, Philippe; Kermarrec, Solenn; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2013-09-01

    Biological rhythms are crucial phenomena that are perfect examples of the adaptation of organisms to their environment. A considerable amount of work has described different types of biological rhythms (from circadian to ultradian), individual differences in their patterns and the complexity of their regulation. In particular, the regulation and maturation of the sleep-wake cycle have been thoroughly studied. Its desynchronization, both endogenous and exogenous, is now well understood, as are its consequences for cognitive impairments and health problems. From a completely different perspective, psychoanalysts have shown a growing interest in the rhythms of psychic life. This interest extends beyond the original focus of psychoanalysis on dreams and the sleep-wake cycle, incorporating central theoretical and practical psychoanalytic issues related to the core functioning of the psychic life: the rhythmic structures of drive dynamics, intersubjective developmental processes and psychic containment functions. Psychopathological and biological approaches to the study of infantile autism reveal the importance of specific biological and psychological rhythmic disturbances in this disorder. Considering data and hypotheses from both perspectives, this paper proposes an integrative approach to the study of these rhythmic disturbances and offers an etiopathogenic hypothesis based on this integrative approach.

  7. Perception and Lexicon Labeling Ability on a Child with Language Delay Diagnosed As Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Psycholinguistic Study

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    Rohmani Nur Indah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the semantics acquisition of a child with language delay diagnosed as autistic spectrum disorder (ASD. The research problem is on how the child acquired the ability to comprehend meaning. It aims at answering the questions on how the child identified lexical meanings and how he labeled targeted lexicons of his first language. The approach employed in this research is descriptive qualitative to get adequate explanation on a specific language phenomenon, namely semantics acquisition. Its design is case study with the type neo-ethnographic. As the data collection method, it uses participant observation of longitudinal study considering that the research subject has familial relation with the researcher. The data analysis shows that the semantic acquisition of the research subject has complexity in vocabulary enrichment. The research subject often performs echolalic speech when he is asked to identify or label certain object given. The typical idiosyncratic speech is shown by the unique feature of limited syllable and prosody. In general, his ability to identify lexical meanings is far exceeding his ability to label objects. He also has sensitivity to perceive the non-verbal symbol performed by the people he knows well. The use of verbal language supported by non-verbal language facilitates his perception. He finds it difficult to comprehend the lexicons having similar sound as he assumes that one lexicon represents one object which typically belongs to concrete object. In addition, the ability of the research subject in labeling objects cannot be developed easily because of his difficulty in expressing ideas through words. To pronounce the words correctly, he shows high anxiety by lowering down his speech. In selecting the lexicon he also finds it hard to use pronoun, to label homonyms and to apply both polysemy and hyponym. Accordingly, he tends to communicate only to fulfill his needs by asking things, asking the

  8. Recognition of face and non-face stimuli in autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkush, Leo; Smith-Collins, Adam P R; Fiorentini, Chiara; Skuse, David H

    2013-12-01

    The ability to remember faces is critical for the development of social competence. From childhood to adulthood, we acquire a high level of expertise in the recognition of facial images, and neural processes become dedicated to sustaining competence. Many people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poor face recognition memory; changes in hairstyle or other non-facial features in an otherwise familiar person affect their recollection skills. The observation implies that they may not use the configuration of the inner face to achieve memory competence, but bolster performance in other ways. We aimed to test this hypothesis by comparing the performance of a group of high-functioning unmedicated adolescents with ASD and a matched control group on a "surprise" face recognition memory task. We compared their memory for unfamiliar faces with their memory for images of houses. To evaluate the role that is played by peripheral cues in assisting recognition memory, we cropped both sets of pictures, retaining only the most salient central features. ASD adolescents had poorer recognition memory for faces than typical controls, but their recognition memory for houses was unimpaired. Cropping images of faces did not disproportionately influence their recall accuracy, relative to controls. House recognition skills (cropped and uncropped) were similar in both groups. In the ASD group only, performance on both sets of task was closely correlated, implying that memory for faces and other complex pictorial stimuli is achieved by domain-general (non-dedicated) cognitive mechanisms. Adolescents with ASD apparently do not use domain-specialized processing of inner facial cues to support face recognition memory.

  9. AUTISTIC CHILDREN PROTECTION SCHEME

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    Dragan LUKIC

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article sets forth the theoretical grounds which make the basis for the organizational scheme of the autistic persons social protection. This protection consists of the below listed forms of work:· Health service with the role of an early detection and participation in the creation of rehabilitation programs;· Social protection with its programs of work from the diagnostics where the defectologist makes a team together with the physician and the psychologists to the systems of rehabilitation institutions where the defectologist’s is the main responsibility.The present article underlines two facts, namely:· that an autistic person requires to be followed and every spare moment used to promote and advance the activities the doer commenced himself instead of having him carry out the programs which are beyond his internal motivations and which he finds emotionally inaccessible;· that and form of work organization with autistic persons must subordinate its administrative part to the basic professional requirements this kind of disorder (handicap sets in front of each professional.

  10. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Correlations with Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Parletta

    Full Text Available There is evidence that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD have lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA levels compared with controls and conflicting evidence regarding omega-6 (n-6 PUFA levels.This study investigated whether erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were lower and n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA higher in children with ADHD, ASD and controls, and whether lower n-3 and higher n-6 PUFAs correlated with poorer scores on the Australian Twin Behaviour Rating Scale (ATBRS; ADHD symptoms and Test of Variable Attention (TOVA in children with ADHD, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS in children with ASD.Assessments and blood samples of 565 children aged 3-17 years with ADHD (n = 401, ASD (n = 85 or controls (n = 79 were analysed. One-way ANOVAs with Tukey's post-hoc analysis investigated differences in PUFA levels between groups and Pearson's correlations investigated correlations between PUFA levels and ATBRS, TOVA and CARS scores.Children with ADHD and ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA, higher AA/EPA ratio and lower n-3/n-6 than controls (P<0.001 except AA between ADHD and controls: P = 0.047. Children with ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA than children with ADHD (P<0.001 for all comparisons. ATBRS scores correlated negatively with EPA (r = -.294, P<0.001, DHA (r = -.424, P<0.001, n-3/n-6 (r = -.477, P<0.001 and positively with AA/EPA (r = .222, P <.01. TOVA scores correlated positively with DHA (r = .610, P<0.001, EPA (r = .418, P<0.001 AA (r = .199, P<0.001, and n-3/n-6 (r = .509, P<0.001 and negatively with AA/EPA (r = -.243, P<0.001. CARS scores correlated significantly with DHA (r = .328, P = 0.002, EPA (r = -.225, P = 0.038 and AA (r = .251, P = 0.021.Children with ADHD and ASD had low levels of EPA, DHA and AA and high ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and these correlated significantly with symptoms. Future research should further

  11. The effectiveness of semantic aspect of language on reading comprehension in a 4-year-old child with autistic spectrum disorder and hyperlexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atusa Rabiee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperlexia is a super ability demonstrated by a very specific group of individuals with developmental disorders. This term is used to describe the children with high ability in word recognition, but low reading comprehension skills, despite the problems in language, cognitive and social skills. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of improving the semantic aspect of language (increase in understanding and expression vocabulary on reading comprehension in an autistic child with hyperlexia.Case: The child studied in this research was an autistic child with hyperlexia. At the beginning of this study he was 3 years and 11 months old. He could read, but his reading comprehension was low. In a period of 12 therapy session, understanding and expression of 160 words was taught to child. During this period, the written form of words was eliminated. After these sessions, the reading comprehension was re-assessed for the words that child could understand and express.Conclusion: Improving semantic aspect of language (understanding and expression of vocabulary increase reading comprehension of written words.

  12. Life quality of children with autistic disorder and its influencing factors%自闭症儿童的生存质量及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振寰; 谢巧玲; 林青梅; 张清华; 孟秀会; 曾艳冰; 张玉琼

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the life quality status in autistic disorder children and its influencing factors.Methods Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL4.0) was used to measure the life quality of 200 children with autistic disorder and 120 healthy children.Application of Gesell Development Diagnosis Scale (1981) test was used for intelligence development.Clancy Autism Behavior Scale,Autism Behavior Checklist,and Childhood Autism Rating Scale were used to evaluate the illness degree.Results The life quality of autistic disorder group was lower than that of control group in the scores of physical functioning,emotional functioning,social functioning,mental domain and the totals cores of PedsQL,the differences were significant (all P <0.01).High-functioning autism in all aspects and the overall life quality were higher than those of low function group,the differences were statistically significant (all P <0.01).By using variance analysis,intelligence factors had an impact on the patient's life quality,the difference was statistically significant(P < 0.01).Correlation analysis results suggested that the autism condition degree was heavier,the intelligence level was lower,the life quality was worse,and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusion Children with autistic disorder suffer grievous influence in life quality.%目的 探讨自闭症患儿的生存质量状况及其影响因素,为临床干预提供理论依据.方法 采用儿童生存质量自评式测定量表(PedsQL4.0),分别对200例自闭症患儿(自闭症组)及120例健康儿童(健康对照组)进行生存质量评定,应用Gesell发展诊断量表(1981年)进行智能发育测验,应用克氏自闭症行为量表、自闭症儿童行为检查量表、儿童自闭症评定量表评定自闭症病情程度.结果 自闭症组儿童的生存质量明显低于健康对照组儿童,自闭症组儿童的生理功能、情感功能、社会功能、心理领域及PedsQL

  13. [Features of nursing of the autistic children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinskiene, Sigita; Pūras, Dainius; Kajokiene, Asta; Senina, Julija

    2002-01-01

    Due to the behavioral and communication difficulties autistic children need individualized approaches providing them medical help. Aspects of nursing of autistic children were not investigated in our country. Thirty seven mothers of autistic children and 74 mothers of children without developmental disorders (control group) were interviewed orally and filled the questionnaire. The age of children was 3-12 years old. The aim of the research was to analyze peculiarities of behavior, communication and social adaptation of children with autism disorder together with troubles they face in medical services (outpatient and inpatient), and prepare practical recommendations to the pediatric and mental health nurses. It appeared that families with autistic children come across the great difficulties in various areas of the daily life. Autistic children tended to have severe behavioral and emotional difficulties while being examined by the medical staff. Adaptation difficulties in medical services were very prominent, especially at the in-patient departments (unpredictable and impulsive behavior, anxiety, decrease of appetite, sleep disturbances). Possibilities of home visit of the nurses are underestimated and could provide more useful and constructive help to the families. The data showed existing difficulties for the pediatric nurses and medical staff to establish good contact with the autistic children and their parents and lack of knowledge about the children with pervasive developmental disorders and their needs. Practical recommendations are provided.

  14. Two Autistic Savant Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, N.; Hermelin, B.

    1994-01-01

    Two young autistic children exhibited normal reading comprehension but reading speeds considerably faster than controls. The effect of randomizing word order was minimal for the older of the two autistic boys. Results indicate that efficient grapheme-phoneme conversion is primarily responsible for the fast reading of the autistic children.…

  15. Sex-Related Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum Disorders Diagnosed Late in Life: Implications for the Female Autistic Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnhardt, Fritz-Georg; Falter, Christine Michaela; Gawronski, Astrid; Pfeiffer, Kathleen; Tepest, Ralf; Franklin, Jeremy; Vogeley, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Females with high-functioning ASD are known to camouflage their autistic symptoms better than their male counterparts, making them prone to being under-ascertained and delayed in diagnostic assessment. Thus far the underlying cognitive processes that enable such successful socio-communicative adaptation are not well understood. The current results show sex-related differences in the cognitive profile of ASD individuals, which were diagnosed late in life exclusively. Higher verbal abilities were found in males (n = 69) as opposed to higher processing speed and better executive functions in females with ASD (n = 38). Since both sexes remained unidentified during childhood and adolescence, these results are suggestive for sex-distinctive cognitive strategies as an alternative to typically-developed reciprocal social behavior and social mimicry in high functioning ASD.

  16. Evidence for the involvement of genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in the etiology of autistic disorders on high-functioning level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermter, Anne-Kathrin; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Hesse, Philipp; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Strauch, Konstantin; Remschmidt, Helmut

    2010-03-05

    An increasing number of animal studies advert to a substantial role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in the regulation of social attachment and affiliation. Furthermore, animal studies showed anxiety and stress-reduced effects of oxytocin. First human studies confirm these findings in animal studies and implicate a crucial role of oxytocin in human social attachment behavior and in social interactions. Thus, the oxytocin system might be involved in the impairment of social interaction and attachment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The human oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) represents a plausible candidate gene for the etiology of ASD. To analyze whether genetic variants in the OXTR gene are associated with ASD we performed family-based single-marker and haplotype association analyses with 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OXTR and its 5' region in 100 families with autistic disorders on high-functioning level (Asperger syndrome (AS), high-functioning autism (HFA), and atypical autism (AA)). Single-marker and haplotype association analyses revealed nominally significant associations of one single SNP and one haplotype with autism, respectively. Furthermore, employing a "reverse phenotyping" approach, patients carrying the haplotype associated with autism showed nominally significant impairments in comparison to noncarriers of the haplotype in items of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised algorithm describing aspects of social interaction and communication. In conclusion, our results implicate that genetic variation in the OXTR gene might be relevant in the etiology of autism on high-functioning level.

  17. Early diagnosis and identification of children with autistic spectrum disorder%孤独症谱系障碍儿童的早期诊断与识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳娟; 卢云; 吴晓庆; 陈娟; 郑芹

    2012-01-01

    目的:在进行婴幼儿孤独症谱系障碍患病情况流行病学调查的同时早期诊断孤独症患儿,为早期干预做准备,并总结早期识别患儿的方法.方法:采用随机分层整群抽样方法,对连云港市8 532名0~3岁儿童进行横断面调查;应用婴幼儿孤独症筛查表(CHAT)筛查出可疑儿童,以儿童孤独症家长评定量表(ABC)、儿童期孤独症评定量表(CARS)及美国精神障碍诊断和统计手册(DSM-IV)的诊断依据进行确诊.结果:8 532名儿童中9名为孤独症阳性,阳性率为10.55/万,其中1岁内1例,1~2岁3例,2~3岁5例;男孩8例,女孩1例,男孩发病率高于女孩(P<0.05).结论:加强对孤独症谱系障碍患儿的早期识别、早期诊断,对孤独症患儿的日后康复意义重大;总结出的早期识别孤独症谱系障碍儿童方法,为婴幼儿父母及医务工作者提供早期筛查孤独症患儿的依据.%Objective: To diagnose the children with autism at early stage at the same time of conducting epidemiological investigation of prevalence of infantile autistic spectrum disorder, make preparations for early intervention, and summarize the methods to identify the children with autism early. Methods: A random stratified cluster sampling method was used to carry out cross - section survey among 8 532 children aged 0-3 years old; CHAT was used to screen out suspected children, then they were diagnosed definitely according to the diagnostic criteria of ABC, CARS, and DSM - IV. Results: Among 8 532 children, 9 children were found with autism, the positive rate was 10. 55/ten thousand, including one child within one year, three children aged 1-2 years old, and five children aged 2-3 years old; eight boys and one girl were included, the incidence of autism in boys was statistically significantly higher than that in girls ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion ; Enhancing early identification and diagnosis of children with autistic spectrum disorder has important

  18. Involvement of the PRKCB1 gene in autistic disorder: significant genetic association and reduced neocortical gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintas, C; Sacco, R; Garbett, K; Mirnics, K; Militerni, R; Bravaccio, C; Curatolo, P; Manzi, B; Schneider, C; Melmed, R; Elia, M; Pascucci, T; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Reichelt, K-L; Persico, A M

    2009-07-01

    Protein kinase C enzymes play an important role in signal transduction, regulation of gene expression and control of cell division and differentiation. The fsI and betaII isoenzymes result from the alternative splicing of the PKCbeta gene (PRKCB1), previously found to be associated with autism. We performed a family-based association study in 229 simplex and 5 multiplex families, and a postmortem study of PRKCB1 gene expression in temporocortical gray matter (BA41/42) of 11 autistic patients and controls. PRKCB1 gene haplotypes are significantly associated with autism (Pautism-associated alleles displayed mRNA levels comparable to those of controls. Whole genome expression analysis unveiled a partial disruption in the coordinated expression of PKCbeta-driven genes, including several cytokines. These results confirm the association between autism and PRKCB1 gene variants, point toward PKCbeta roles in altered epithelial permeability, demonstrate a significant downregulation of brain PRKCB1 gene expression in autism and suggest that it could represent a compensatory adjustment aimed at limiting an ongoing dysreactive immune process. Altogether, these data underscore potential PKCbeta roles in autism pathogenesis and spur interest in the identification and functional characterization of PRKCB1 gene variants conferring autism vulnerability.

  19. Separating 'emotion' from 'the science': Exploring the perceived value of information for parents and families of children with autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michelle; Karim, Khalid; Lester, Jessica Nina

    2015-07-01

    Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is a life-long condition. In recent years, there has been a rise in the number of children diagnosed with ASD and a greater recognition that parents need clear, accessible information communicated through different modalities. The objective of this research was to explore the views of stakeholders regarding their information needs, current information modalities and the perceived barriers and complexities of information. Three focus groups with the same stakeholders were conducted with a range of individuals from a variety of backgrounds, all of whom had a personal and/or professional interest in ASD. The same stakeholders were included in all three groups to promote depth of analysis and to facilitate rapport. All focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Three main issues were identified, including (1) the value of particular information sources; (2) the vulnerability of families and (3) the need for validated evidence. It was concluded, therefore, that information should be available through a multitude of modalities, accounting for the educational ability and economic status of families. The information should also be communicated in an accessible style, should be presented as trustworthy and clinical professionals may play a key role in translating information. Such information also needs to account for practical problems inherent to having a child with ASD, including time constraints and fatigue.

  20. Auditory hypersensitivity in children and teenagers with autistic spectrum disorder Hipersensibilidade auditiva em crianças e adolescentes com transtorno do espectro autista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erissandra Gomes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify if the clinical behavior of auditory hypersensitivity, reported in interviews with parents/caregivers and therapists/teachers of 46 children and teenagers suffering from autistic spectrum disorder, correspond to audiological findings. METHOD: The clinical diagnosis for auditory hypersensitivity was investigated by means of an interview. Subsequently, a test of the acoustic stapedial reflex was conducted, and responses to intense acoustic stimulus in open field were observed. RESULTS: Of the 46 subjects, 11 (23.9% were clinically diagnosed as oversensitive to sound and only 2 showed discomfort when exposed to intense acoustic stimulus in open field. There was no statistically significant difference for the test of the ipsilateral acoustic stapedial reflex between the groups. CONCLUSION: Behavioral manifestations to sounds are not associated to hypersensitivity of the auditory pathways, but instead these are associated to difficulties in the upper processing, involving systems that usually are impaired in autistic spectrum patients, such as the limbic system.OBJETIVO: Verificar se o comportamento clínico de hipersensibilidade auditiva, relatado nas entrevistas com os pais/cuidadores e terapeutas/professores de crianças e adolescentes com transtorno do espectro autista, corresponde aos achados audiológicos. MÉTODO: O diagnóstico clínico para a hipersensibilidade auditiva foi investigado a partir do protocolo de entrevista. Após, foi utilizada a pesquisa do reflexo acústico estapédico e observadas as reações ao estímulo sonoro intenso em campo aberto. RESULTADOS: Dos 46 sujeitos, 11 (23,9% foram diagnosticados clinicamente como hipersensíveis ao som, e somente 2 demonstraram desconforto quando expostos ao estímulo sonoro intenso em campo aberto. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante para a pesquisa do reflexo acústico estapédico ipsilateral entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: As manifesta

  1. Does WISC-IV Underestimate the Intelligence of Autistic Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Courchesne, Valérie; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is widely used to estimate autistic intelligence (Joseph in The neuropsychology of autism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Goldstein et al. in Assessment of autism spectrum disorders. Guilford Press, New York, 2008; Mottron in J Autism Dev Disord 34(1):19-27, 2004). However, previous studies suggest that while WISC-III and Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) provide similar estimates of non-autistic intelligence, autistic children perform significantly better on RPM (Dawson et al. in Psychol Sci 18(8):657-662, doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01954.x , 2007). The latest WISC version introduces substantial changes in subtests and index scores; thus, we asked whether WISC-IV still underestimates autistic intelligence. Twenty-five autistic and 22 typical children completed WISC-IV and RPM. Autistic children's RPM scores were significantly higher than their WISC-IV FSIQ, but there was no significant difference in typical children. Further, autistic children showed a distinctively uneven WISC-IV index profile, with a "peak" in the new Perceptual Reasoning Index. In spite of major changes, WISC-IV FSIQ continues to underestimate autistic intelligence.

  2. Multi-Touch Collaborative Gesture Recognition Based User Interfaces as Behavioral Interventions for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMED HASSAN

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses UI (User Interface designing based on multi-touch collaborative gesture recognition meant for ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder - affected children. The present user interfaces (in the context of behavioral interventions for Autism Spectrum disorder are investigated in detail. Thorough comparison has been made among various groups of these UIs. Advantages and limitations of these interfaces are discussed and future directions for the design of such interfaces are suggested.

  3. 自闭症谱系障碍发展沿革的回溯与探索%A Review and Exploration of the Development of Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹; 朱体壮

    2011-01-01

    It is a stride progress that autism has been seen a spectrum disorder. In this paper, we analyzed the origin of the word, trace back to the early definition and the raising of the concept of multi-dimension in order to show the establishment of autistic spectrum disorder. We also introduced the definition and the characteristic of the subtypes. And at last we discussed the confusion of autistic spectrum disorder and pervasive developmental disorder.%自闭症被视为一种谱系障碍是自闭症研究的一项跨越性进步.通过词源分析、早期定义追溯、多维度谱系概念的提出等一系列内容呈现了自闭症谱系障碍概念的形成过程.对自闭症谱系障碍所包含的亚类型及其特征作以介绍.并针对目前存在的"自闭症谱系障碍"与"广泛性发育障碍"之间的混用问题提出了思考.

  4. Cognitive characteristics of parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, C; Callias, M; Rutter, M

    1977-09-01

    The parents of 15 autistic boys with a nonverbal IQ of at least 80 were compared with a matched group of parents of normal boys on the Goldstein-Scheerer Object Sorting Test and the Bannister-Fransella Grid Test of Thought Disorder. It was necessary to control for social class effects as abnormal scores on the thought disorder tests were more frequent in parents of manual social class. It was found that (a) there was a lack of agreement between the two tests of thought disorder, (b) the parents of autistic children showed thought disorder scores closely comparable to those of the parents of normals, and (c) there was no consistent association between thought disorder and anxiety. The methodological and substantive implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the results of previous investigations.

  5. Physiological responses to social and nonsocial stimuli in neurotypical adults with high and low levels of autistic traits: implications for understanding nonsocial drive in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Clarence J; Ashwin, Chris; Brosnan, Mark

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have suggested that the two primary cognitive features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a drive toward nonsocial processing and a reduced drive toward social processing, may be unrelated to each other in the neurotypical (NT) population and may therefore require separate explanations. Drive toward types of processing may be related to physiological arousal to categories of stimuli, such as social (e.g., faces) or nonsocial (e.g., trains). This study investigated how autistic traits in an NT population might relate to differences in physiological responses to nonsocial compared with social stimuli. NT participants were recruited to examine these differences in those with high vs. low degrees of ASD traits. Forty-six participants (21 male, 25 female) completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) to measure ASD traits before viewing a series of 24 images while skin conductance response (SCR) was recorded. Images included six nonsocial, six social, six face-like cartoons, and six nonsocial (relating to participants' personal interests). Analysis revealed that those with a higher AQ had significantly greater SCR arousal to nonsocial stimuli than those with a low AQ, and the higher the AQ, the greater the difference between SCR arousal to nonsocial and social stimuli. This is the first study to identify the relationship between AQ and physiological response to nonsocial stimuli, and a relationship between physiological response to both social and nonsocial stimuli, suggesting that physiological response may underlie the atypical drive toward nonsocial processing seen in ASD, and that at the physiological level at least the social and nonsocial in ASD may be related to one another.

  6. CONCEPTOS GENERALES SOBRE ABA EN NIÑOS CON TRASTORNO DEL ESPECTRO AUTISTA General concepts concerning applied behaviour analysis (ABA in children suffering autistic spectrum disorders (ASD

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    Sandra Elizabeth Piñeros-Ortiz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos del espectro autista (TEA son entidades que generan discapacidad. Diversas intervenciones psicofarmacológicas y psicosociales modulan algunas de las alteraciones comportamentales asociadas y mejoran la calidad de vida de las personas afectadas y de sus cuidadores. La terapia ABA es una de las intervenciones psicosociales más conocidas y utilizada en población con TEA. Mediante de la formulación de preguntas clave y sus respuestas, este artículo realiza una breve descripción de los aspectos históricos, las principales características y los fundamentos teóricos del ABA. Se discuten los resultados de diversos estudios que señalan las limitaciones metodológicas de las investigaciones sobre la efectividad de esta terapia y sus implicaciones para la práctica clínica.Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD cause disability. Psychopharmacological and psychosocial interventions modulate some of the associated behavioural alterations and improve the quality of life for those affected and the people caring for them. Applied behaviour analysis (ABA therapy is one of the most well-known psychosocial interventions and is used with populations suffering ASD. This article gives a brief description of the historical aspects, the main characteristics and theoretical foundations regarding applied behaviour analysis (ABA by formulating key questions and their (expected responses. The results of some pertinent studies are discussed, pointing out the methodological limitations of research into the effectiveness of this therapy and its implications for clinical practice.

  7. A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of "Ginkgo Biloba" Added to Risperidone in Patients with Autistic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Elmira; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rezazadeh, Shams-Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Rezaei, Farzin; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    "Ginkgo biloba" has been reported to affect the neurotransmitter system and to have antioxidant properties that could impact the pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Based on these studies, we decided to assess the effectiveness of "Ginkgo biloba" extract (Ginko T.D., Tolidaru, Iran) as an adjunctive agent to risperidone in the treatment of…

  8. Autistic Traits, ADHD Symptoms, Neurological Soft Signs and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouilenko, Irina; Pagani, Marco; Stone-Elander, Sharon; Odh, Richard; Brolin, Fredrik; Hatherly, Robert; Jacobsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig A.; Bejerot, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to co-occurring symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity, neurological soft signs and motor problems have not yet been disclosed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study thirteen adults with ASD and ten matched neurotypical controls underwent PET. The scores of rating…

  9. Comparison of Conditioning Impairments in Children with Down Syndrome, Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Mental Age-Matched Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P.; Staytom, L.; Stott, S.; Truzoli, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the relative ease of learning across four tasks suggested by an adaptation of Thomas's hierarchy of learning in children with Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorders and mental age-matched controls. Methods: Learning trials were carried out to investigate observational learning, instrumental learning, reversal…

  10. Brief Report: Pilot Single-Blind Placebo Lead-in Study of Acamprosate in Youth with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Craig A.; Wink, Logan K.; Early, Maureen C.; Stiegelmeyer, Elizabeth; Mathieu-Frasier, Lauren; Patrick, Vanessa; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: An excitatory/inhibitory (E:I) imbalance marked by enhanced glutamate and deficient gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission may contribute to the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Objectives: We report on the first single-blind placebo lead-in trial of acamprosate, a drug with putative mechanisms restoring E:I…

  11. Screening of 50 cypriot patients with autism spectrum disorders or autistic features using 400K custom array-CGH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousoulidou, Ludmila; Moutafi, Maria; Nicolaides, Paola; Hadjiloizou, Stavros; Christofi, Christos; Paradesiotou, Anna; Anastasiadou, Violetta; Sismani, Carolina; Patsalis, Philippos C

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a distinct entity of neurodevelopmental disorders with a strong genetic component. Despite the identification of several candidate genes and causative genomic copy number variations (CNVs), the majority of ASD cases still remain unresolved. We have applied microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) using Agilent 400K custom array in the first Cyprus population screening for identification of ASD-associated CNVs. A cohort of 50 ASD patients (G1), their parents (G2), 50 ethnically matched normal controls (G3), and 80 normal individuals having children with various developmental and neurological conditions (G4) were tested. As a result, 14 patients were found to carry 20 potentially causative aberrations, two of which were de novo. Comparison of the four population groups revealed an increased rate of rare disease-associated variants in normal parents of children with autism. The above data provided additional evidence, supporting the complexity of ASD aetiology in comparison to other developmental disorders involving cognitive impairment. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the rationale of a more targeted approach combining accurate clinical description with high-resolution population-oriented genomic screening for defining the role of CNVs in autism and identifying meaningful associations on the molecular level.

  12. Screening of 50 Cypriot Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Autistic Features Using 400K Custom Array-CGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Kousoulidou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs comprise a distinct entity of neurodevelopmental disorders with a strong genetic component. Despite the identification of several candidate genes and causative genomic copy number variations (CNVs, the majority of ASD cases still remain unresolved. We have applied microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH using Agilent 400K custom array in the first Cyprus population screening for identification of ASD-associated CNVs. A cohort of 50 ASD patients (G1, their parents (G2, 50 ethnically matched normal controls (G3, and 80 normal individuals having children with various developmental and neurological conditions (G4 were tested. As a result, 14 patients were found to carry 20 potentially causative aberrations, two of which were de novo. Comparison of the four population groups revealed an increased rate of rare disease-associated variants in normal parents of children with autism. The above data provided additional evidence, supporting the complexity of ASD aetiology in comparison to other developmental disorders involving cognitive impairment. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the rationale of a more targeted approach combining accurate clinical description with high-resolution population-oriented genomic screening for defining the role of CNVs in autism and identifying meaningful associations on the molecular level.

  13. Asperger’s syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders? [Miejsce zespołu Aspergera w grupie całościowych zaburzeń rozwoju: kontinuum czy spektrum zaburzeń autystycznych?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term „autistic spectrum disorders” was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger’s Syndrome (AS remains the most controversial diagnosis in terms of its place within autism spectrum disorders. AS if often described as an equivalent of High Functioning Autism (HFA or as a separate spectrum-related disorder with unique diagnostic criteria. Another important issue is the relationship between AS and speech disorders. Although it is relatively easy to draw a line between children with classical autism and speech disorders, the clear cut frontiers between them still remain to be found. The main distinguishing feature is the lack of stereotypic interests and unimpaired social interaction observed in children with speech disorders, such as semantic-pragmatic disorder.

  14. A Comparison of PECS and iPad to Teach Requesting to Pre-schoolers with Autistic Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, May M; Vance, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have compared the efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and iPads used as speech generating devices (SGDs), and none have targeted preschoolers. This study compares the relative efficacy of PECS and an iPad/SGD with three preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder and limited functional speech who lived in Malta. The study utilized an adapted alternating treatment design embedded in a multiple baseline design, with requesting of reinforcers as the dependent variable. Visual analysis of the results indicated that all participants required more prompted trials and sessions for the iPad/SGD condition. All participants learned a three step navigational sequence on the iPad. Participant preference probes were inconclusive and were not linked to speed of acquisition of requesting skills. Results suggest that both PECS and an iPad could be appropriate for teaching requesting skills to beginning communicators.

  15. A Comparison of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 Diagnostic Classifications in the Clinical Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaylaci, Ferhat; Miral, Suha

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare children diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) according to DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic systems. One hundred fifty children aged between 3 and 15 years diagnosed with PDD by DSM-IV-TR were included. PDD symptoms were reviewed through psychiatric assessment based on DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria. Clinical severity was determined using Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). A statistically significant decrease (19.3 %) was detected in the diagnostic ratio with DSM-5. Age and symptom severity differed significantly between those who were and were not diagnosed with PDD using DSM-5. B4 criteria in DSM-5 was most common criterion. Results indicate that individuals diagnosed with PDD by DSM-IV-TR criteria may not be diagnosed using DSM-5 criteria.

  16. High-Dose Pyridoxine and Magnesium Administration in Children with Autistic Disorder: An Absence of Salutary Effects in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findling, Robert L.; Maxwell, Kathleen; Scotese-Wojtila, Lynette; Huang, Jie; Yamashita, Toyoko; Wiznitzer, Max

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of high doses of pyridoxine and magnesium in a 10-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial with 10 patients (mean age 6 years) having autism concluded that the high doses used were ineffective in ameliorating autistic behaviors. (DB)

  17. Associations between indoor environmental factors and parental-reported autistic spectrum disorders in children 6-8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Malin; Weiss, Bernard; Janson, Staffan; Sundell, Jan; Bornehag, Carl-Gustav

    2009-09-01

    Potential contributions of environmental chemicals and conditions to the etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders are the subject of considerable current research and speculation. The present paper describes the results of a study undertaken as part of a larger project devoted to the connection between properties of the indoor environment and asthma and allergy in young Swedish children. The larger project, The Dampness in Buildings and Health (DBH) Study, began in the year 2000 with a questionnaire distributed to parents of all children 1-6 years of age in one Swedish county (DBH-I). A second, follow-up questionnaire (DBH-III) was distributed in 2005. The original survey collected information about the child, the family situation, practices such as smoking, allergic symptoms, type of residence, moisture-related problems, and type of flooring material, which included polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The 2005 survey, based on the same children, now 6-8 years of age, also asked if, during the intervening period, the child had been diagnosed with Autism, Asperger's syndrome, or Tourette's syndrome. From a total of 4779 eligible children, 72 (60 boys, 12 girls) were identified with parentally reported autism spectrum disorder. A random sample of 10 such families confirmed that the diagnoses had been made by medical professionals, in accordance with the Swedish system for monitoring children's health. An analysis of the associations between indoor environmental variables in 2000 as well as other background factors and the ASD diagnosis indicated five statistically significant variables: (1) maternal smoking; (2) male sex; (3) economic problems in the family; (4) condensation on windows, a proxy for low ventilation rate in the home; (5) PVC flooring, especially in the parents' bedroom. In addition, airway symptoms of wheezing and physician-diagnosed asthma in the baseline investigation (2000) were associated with ASD 5 years later. Results from the second phase of the DBH

  18. Global methylation profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines reveals epigenetic contributions to autism spectrum disorders and a novel autism candidate gene, RORA, whose protein product is reduced in autistic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, AnhThu; Rauch, Tibor A; Pfeifer, Gerd P; Hu, Valerie W

    2010-08-01

    Autism is currently considered a multigene disorder with epigenetic influences. To investigate the contribution of DNA methylation to autism spectrum disorders, we have recently completed large-scale methylation profiling by CpG island microarray analysis of lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from monozygotic twins discordant for diagnosis of autism and their nonautistic siblings. Methylation profiling revealed many candidate genes differentially methylated between discordant MZ twins as well as between both twins and nonautistic siblings. Bioinformatics analysis of the differentially methylated genes demonstrated enrichment for high-level functions including gene transcription, nervous system development, cell death/survival, and other biological processes implicated in autism. The methylation status of 2 of these candidate genes, BCL-2 and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA), was further confirmed by bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific PCR, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses of tissue arrays containing slices of the cerebellum and frontal cortex of autistic and age- and sex-matched control subjects revealed decreased expression of RORA and BCL-2 proteins in the autistic brain. Our data thus confirm the role of epigenetic regulation of gene expression via differential DNA methylation in idiopathic autism, and furthermore link molecular changes in a peripheral cell model with brain pathobiology in autism.

  19. Neurotoxic syndrome induced by clomipramine plus risperidone in a patient with autistic spectrum disorder: serotonin or neuroleptic malignant syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Kalliopi N; Gournellis, Rossetos; Michopoulos, Ioannis; Dervenoulas, Georgios; Christodoulou, Christos; Douzenis, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, there are no case studies of serotonin syndrome (SS) in patients with autism spectrum disorder. We report the case of a 33-year-old male who presented SS under the combined use of clomipramine and risperidone. More specifically, within 2 days after clomipramine (10 mg/BID-two times a day) was added to risperidone (4 mg/OD-once a day), mirtazapine 45 mg/OD and alprazolam (0,5 mg/TID-three times a day) he began to present mental, neurological and autonomic symptoms. All his psychopathological manifestations and laboratory findings normalized after the above-mentioned drugs' discontinuation, and the administration of supportive medical care and lorazepam 2,5 mg/TID. The diagnosis of serotonin syndrome was challenging due to the relatively low dose of clomipramine, an increase of risperidone which had taken place before clomipramine administration and clinical symptoms which could be attributed to both serotonin and neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

  20. Parents' perspectives on care of children with autistic spectrum disorder in South Asia - Views from Pakistan and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Ayesha; Vajaratkar, Vivek; Divan, Gauri; Hamdani, Syed Usman; Leadbitter, Kathy; Taylor, Carol; Aldred, Catherine; Tariq, Ahmareen; Tariq, Mahjabeen; Cardoza, Percy; Green, Jonathan; Patel, Vikram; Rahman, Atif

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects about 1.4% of the population in South Asia but very few have access to any form of health care service. The objective of this study was to explore the beliefs and practices related to the care of children with ASD to inform strategies for intervention. In Pakistan, primary data were collected through in-depth interviews of parents (N = 15), while in India a narrative review of existing studies was conducted. The results show that the burden of care is almost entirely on the mother, leading to high levels of stress. Poor awareness of the condition in both family members and front-line health-providers leads to delay in recognition and appropriate management. There is considerable stigma and discrimination affecting children with autism and their families. Specialist services are rare, concentrated in urban areas, and inaccessible to the majority. Strategies for intervention should include building community and family support networks to provide respite to the main carer. In the absence of specialists, community members such as community health workers, traditional practitioners and even motivated family members could be trained in recognizing and providing evidence-based interventions. Such task-shifting strategies should be accompanied by campaigns to raise awareness so greater inclusivity can be achieved.

  1. The Ratio of Second to Fourth Digit Length (2D:4D in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Baharara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Emerging hypotheses suggest a causal role for prenatal androgen exposure in some cases of Autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The ratios of the lengths of the bones of the 2nd to the 4th digits (2D:4D are purported to be markers for prenatal androgen exposure and to be established early in gestation. Ratio of second and fourth digits (2D:4D  is usually used as a proxy for prenatal testosterone. Methods and Materials In this study, 2D:4D in 48 children with ASD and in 41  control child was measured. Two groups were matched with the gender and age. Both groups were selected by convenience sampling method. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 19.0 software, considering as significant less than .05 (p < .05. Results: Results showed that the average ratio of 2D:4D in ASD children were lower than the ratio in control children (P

  2. In Vivo Detection of Reduced Purkinje Cell Fibers with Diffusion MRI Tractography in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Won eJeong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Postmortem neuropathology studies report reduced number and size of Purkinje cells (PC in a majority of cerebellum specimens from persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. In this study using diffusion weighted MRI, we investigated whether structural changes related to decreased number and size of PC could be detected in vivo by measuring streamlines connecting the posterior-lateral region of the cerebellar cortex to the dentate nucleus using an independent component analysis with a ball and stick model (ICA+BSM. The tractography was performed in 14 typically developing children (TD and 15 children with ASD, using a cerebellar cortex seed region (crus I and II and two sorting regions, the dorsal dentate nucleus (DDN and the ventral dentate nucleus (VDN. Decreased numbers of streamlines were found in the children with ASD in the pathway connecting cerebellar cortex to right VDN (p-value = 0.015. Reduced fractional anisotropy values were observed in pathways connecting the cerebellar cortex to the right DDN (p-value=0.008, the right VDN (p-value=0.010 and left VDN (p-value=0.020 in children with ASD compared to the TD group. In an analysis of single subjects, reduced FA in the pathway connecting cerebellar cortex to the right VDN was found in 73% of the children in the ASD group using a threshold of 3 standards errors of the TD group. The detection of diffusion changes in cerebellum may provide an in vivo biomarker of Purkinje cell pathology in children with ASD.

  3. A case series of children with apparent mercury toxic encephalopathies manifesting with clinical symptoms of regressive autistic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, David A; Geier, Mark R

    2007-05-15

    Impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, and stereotypic abnormal movement patterns characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). It is clear that while genetic factors are important to the pathogenesis of ASDs, mercury exposure can induce immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions similar to traits defining or associated with ASDs. The Institutional Review Board of the Institute for Chronic Illnesses (Office for Human Research Protections, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, IRB number IRB00005375) approved the present study. A case series of nine patients who presented to the Genetic Centers of America for a genetic/developmental evaluation are discussed. Eight of nine patients (one patient was found to have an ASD due to Rett's syndrome) (a) had regressive ASDs; (b) had elevated levels of androgens; (c) excreted significant amounts of mercury post chelation challenge; (d) had biochemical evidence of decreased function in their glutathione pathways; (e) had no known significant mercury exposure except from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho(D)-immune globulin preparations; and (f) had alternate causes for their regressive ASDs ruled out. There was a significant dose-response relationship between the severity of the regressive ASDs observed and the total mercury dose children received from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho (D)-immune globulin preparations. Based upon differential diagnoses, 8 of 9 patients examined were exposed to significant mercury from Thimerosal-containing biologic/vaccine preparations during their fetal/infant developmental periods, and subsequently, between 12 and 24 mo of age, these previously normally developing children suffered mercury toxic encephalopathies that manifested with clinical symptoms consistent with regressive ASDs. Evidence for mercury intoxication should be considered in the differential diagnosis as contributing to some regressive ASDs.

  4. Withdrawal Study of Memantine in Pediatric Patients With Autism, Asperger's Disorder, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Previously Treated With Memantine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Autism; Autistic Disorder; Asperger's Disorder; Asperger's; Pediatric Autism; Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS); Pervasive Child Development Disorder

  5. The Embodied Nature of Autistic Learning: Implications for Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jespersen Ejgil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD and learning difficulties are difficult to separate in clinic manifestations and diagnoses. By taking learning as being-in-the-world, this article considers the embodied nature of autistic learning and urges its importance for understanding the phenomenological core of ASD. We begin by arguing that three mainstream contemporary ASD theories are inherently limited in offering an adequate account of autistic learning due to the disembodied ontology inscribed within them. Then, we provide an understanding of learning guided by the subjective dynamics of experience. Instead of having a disembodied and individualistic point of view, we suggest that autistic learning has an embodied nature. The “inappropriate” or “abnormal” affections and behaviors in the autistic experience of learning may actually be inherently meaningful for individuals with ASD. They strive to make sense of some basic disturbances and re-establish some form of coherence with the world, though this may only be possible in the form of delusions or autistic withdrawals. Finally, we explore the relationship between autistic learning and physical education and suggest in particular how spontaneous imitation can boost the development of children with ASD. We conclude that the application of implicit learning strategies in playful settings and the reduction of explicit strategies based upon intellectual reasoning rather than bodily reciprocity should be encouraged in the process of autistic learning.

  6. Memory in autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jill; Mayes, Andrew; Bigham, Sally

    2012-05-01

    Behavioral evidence concerning memory in forms of high-functioning autism (HFA) and in moderately low-functioning autism (M-LFA) is reviewed and compared. Findings on M-LFA are sparse. However, it is provisionally concluded that memory profiles in HFA and M-LFA (relative to ability-matched controls) are similar but that declarative memory impairments are more extensive in M-LFA than in HFA. Specifically, both groups have diminished memory for emotion- or person-related stimuli. Regarding memory for nonsocial stimuli, both groups probably have mental-age-appropriate nondeclarative memory, and within declarative memory, both groups have mental-age-appropriate immediate free recall of within-span or supraspan lists of unrelated items, as well as cued recall and paired associate learning. By contrast, recognition is largely unimpaired in HFA but moderately impaired in M-LFA, and free recall of meaningful or structured stimuli is moderately impaired in HFA but more severely impaired in M-LFA. Theoretical explanations of data on declarative memory in HFA identify problems in the integrative processing, or the consolidation and storage, of complex stimuli or a specific problem of recollection. Proposed neural substrates include the following: disconnectivity of primary sensory and association areas; dysfunctions of medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, or posterior parietal lobe; or combinations of these associated with neural disconnectivity. Hypothetically, perirhinal dysfunction might explain the more extensive declarative memory impairments in M-LFA. Foreseeable consequences of uneven memory abilities in HFA and M-LFA are outlined, including possible effects on language and learning in M-LFA. Finally, priorities for future research are identified, highlighting the urgent need for research on memory in lower functioning individuals.

  7. Social support and grand parenting in autistic children families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elona Mano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available About 1 in 68 children has been identified with autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years according to estimates from Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM (Baio, 2014. Not only undiscovered cause of autism is a source of stress for parents of autistic children, but the stress of raising a child with autism can lead to depression (Morgan, 1988, 263-280. In order to cope with this stressful situation, it is very important for parents of autistic children to find some explanation for their child‘s developmental disorder, and even to be supported by their family, institutions and society. Even though the pace of research has increased dramatically in recent years, a majority of studies on families with a child with autism collect information from the parents, but not from the other members of the family. This study examined the involvement of grandparents of autistic children. The study is based on a sample of 40 mothers of autistic children from Albania who completed a structured questionnaire. It was hypothesized that mothers of autistic children who live with other members of the family such as grandparents, perceive more social support compared to families of autistic children that consist only by the natural parents.

  8. Autistic traits in couple dyads as a predictor of anxiety spectrum symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2014-11-01

    The link between parental autistic tendency and anxiety symptoms was studied in 491 Taiwanese couples raising biological children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Parental autistic tendency as measured by Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was associated with anxiety symptoms across all domains. Large effect sizes were found in social phobia and post traumatic stress disorders for both parents, and in general anxiety disorder and agoraphobia for mothers. These associations were irrespective of child's autistic tendency, spouse's AQ scores and the couples' compatibility in their autistic tendency. Perceived family support and parental education moderated the link but not child's autistic severity. Research and clinical implications regarding psychiatric vulnerability of parents of children with ASD were drawn and discussed.

  9. Overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits is not accounted for by anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane

    2014-10-30

    Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders.

  10. Does WISC-IV Underestimate the Intelligence of Autistic Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Courchesne, Valérie; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is widely used to estimate autistic intelligence (Joseph in The neuropsychology of autism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Goldstein et al. in "Assessment of autism spectrum disorders." Guilford Press, New York, 2008; Mottron in "J Autism Dev Disord" 34(1):19-27, 2004).…

  11. Are Autistic Traits in the General Population Related to Global and Regional Brain Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.; van der Leij, Andries R.; Scholte, H. Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autistic-related traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with autism spectrum disorders representing the extreme end of this distribution. Here, we tested the hypothesis of a possible relationship between autistic traits and brain morphometry in the general population. Participants completed the…

  12. Elevated Urinary Glyphosate and Clostridia Metabolites With Altered Dopamine Metabolism in Triplets With Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Suspected Seizure Disorder: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William

    2017-01-01

    Context Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder for which a number of genetic, environmental, and nutritional causes have been proposed. Glyphosate is used widely as a crop desiccant and as an herbicide in fields of genetically modified foods that are glyphosate resistant. Several researchers have proposed that it may be a cause of autism, based on epidemiological data that correlates increased usage of glyphosate with an increased autism rate. Objective The current study was intended to determine if excessive glyphosate was present in the triplets and their parents and to evaluate biochemical findings for the family to determine the potential effects of its presence. Design The author performed a case study with the cooperation of the parents and the attending physician. Setting The study took place at The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc (Lenexa, KS, USA). Participants Participants were triplets, 2 male children and 1 female, and their parents. The 2 male children had autism, whereas the female had a possible seizure disorder. All 3 had elevated urinary glyphosate, and all of the triplets and their mother had elevated values of succinic acid or tiglylglycine, which are indicators of mitochondrial dysfunction. Intervention The participants received a diet of organic food only. Outcome Measures The study performed organic acids, glyphosate, toxic chemicals and tiglylglycine, and creatinine testing of the participants’ urine. Results The 2 male triplets with autism had abnormalities on at least 1 organic acids test, including elevated phenolic compounds such as 4-cresol, 3-[3-hydroxyphenyl]-3-hydroxypropionic acid and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, which have been previously associated with Clostridia bacteria and autism. The female, who was suspected of having a seizure disorder but not autism, did not have elevated phenolic compounds but did have a significantly elevated value of the metabolite tiglylglycine, a marker for mitochondrial dysfunction and/or mutations. One

  13. Power and Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  14. Power and Autistic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir Overskeid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness -- and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits

  15. Reflections on 'autistic integrity'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Barbara

    2012-03-01

    Autism, particularly its moderate to severe forms, has prompted considerable scientific study and clinical involvement because the associated behaviours imply disconnections with valued features of a 'good' life, such as close relationships, enjoyment, and adaptability. Proposed causes of autism involve potent philosophical concepts including consciousness, identity, mind, and relationality. The concept of autistic integrity is used by Barnbaum in The Ethics of Autism: Among Them, But Not of Them to help provide moral justification to stop efforts to cure adults with autism, especially if the cause is presumed to be a lack of a theory of mind.(1) This article has two goals: (1) to apply four familiar definitions or characterizations of integrity to the case of moderate to severe autism, and (2) to examine whether autistic integrity does provide the moral justification Barnbaum seeks.

  16. Low serum myeloperoxidase in autistic children with gastrointestinal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Russo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthony J Russo1, Arthur Krigsman2, Bryan Jepson2, Andy Wakefield21Research Director, Health Research Institute/Pfeiffer Treatment Center, Warrenville, IL, USA; 2Thoughtful House Center for Children, Austin, TX, USAAim: To assess serum myeloperoxidase (MPO levels in autistic children with severe gastrointestinal (GI disease and to test the hypothesis that there is an association between serum MPO concentration and inflammatory GI disease, including antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA, previously seen in a subgroup of autistic children.Subjects and methods: Serum from 40 autistic children with chronic digestive disease (most with ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH and inflammation of the colorectum, small bowel and/or stomach, and 48 controls (12 age-matched autistic children with no GI disease, 20 age-matched children without autism or GI disease, and 16 nonautistic individuals with no family history of autism were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays designed to quantitate serum MPO levels. MPO serum concentration of autistic children with GI disease was compared to GI disease severity (including LNH and erythema and presence of ANCA.Results: We found that a significant number of autistic children with chronic digestive disease had low serum levels of MPO. However, there was no significant relationship between these levels and severity of GI disease, including the presence of ANCA.Discussion: These results suggest a relationship between low MPO levels and GI disease seen in a subpopulation of autism spectrum disorders individuals. MPO concentration may therefore be a useful biomarker for GI disease in this group of autistic children.Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, autism, myeloperoxidase, GI disease, oxidative stress

  17. 自闭症儿童社会交往障碍的家庭康复护理%Family Autistic Children Social Interaction Disorders Rehabilitation Nursing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙娟娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the barriers to social interaction of autistic children home rehabilitation nursing method and application. Methods The control group of children with autism are providing clinical routine rehabilitation care, re-search group based on the use of conventional nursing home rehabilitation nursing. Record two autistic quality of life, changes in the extent of disease in children and their families for this job satisfaction before and after nursing care of chil-dren. Results The care of children with autism before the extent of disease and quality of life contrast there was no signifi-cant difference (P>0.05);by different methods prior to the above two groups after treatment compared ATEC scale score was significantly decreased, while the amount of SF-36 table is significantly improved compared to the previous study group to improve the condition and quality of life than children in the control group level (P0.05);经上述不同方法护理后两组ATEC量表评分均较之前显著降低,而SF-36量表则较之前显著提高,研究组病情及生活质量改善程度优于对照组患儿(P<0.05);研究组患儿家属对护理效果满意率高达86.67%,对照组仅获得33.33%护理效果满意率(P<0.05). 结论 对自闭症患儿给予常规护理基础上加用家庭康复护理可显著提高其疗效及生活质量,有利于保障患儿预后效果及维持良好的护患关系.

  18. Investigating the autistic traits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder%注意缺陷多动障碍儿童的孤独症特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑超群; 陈凯云; 梁亚勇; 李巧毅; 邓红珠; 唐春

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the autistic symptoms or autistic trait in the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) for facilitating the development of appropriate interventions.Methods Sixty-two 6-12-year-old high-functioned autism spectrum disorder (ASD),ADHD and typically developing (TD) children were assessed respectively using Chinese-version social responsiveness scale (SRS),and ADHD core symptoms were assessed in the ADHD children at the same time.Results ASD group>ADHD group> TD group on the SRS total raw score and the five dimensions scores as well(P<0.01).ASD,ADHD and TD group scored respectively 92.43±19.17,65.66±19.86 and 38.40±10.68 on the SRS total scale.The SRS total raw score of ADHD group exceeded the TD group for 2.55 standard deviant (SD) and with "social communication" (2.00 SD) and "autistic mannerism" (2.71 SD) deviating the most.22.58% (14 out of 62) children with ADHD scored above the threshold on the SRS total raw score which was significantly higher than that in the TD group(P<0.01).There were nonsignificant differences in the ADHD core symptoms between ADHD± children (with the SRS total raw score ≥85)and ADHD-children(with the SRS total raw score<85) (P>0.01).Conclusion Children with ADHD appear more ASD symptoms than the TD children and a considerable proportion of them reach the SRS diagnostic cut-off point.%目的 探讨注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)学龄儿童的孤独症症状和特征,以促进针对性的干预.方法 应用社交反应量表(social responsiveness scale,SRS)中文版分别对62名6~12岁高功能孤独症谱系障碍(autism spectrum disorder,ASD)、ADHD和正常儿童进行孤独症症状评估,ADHD组儿童同时进行ADHD核心症状评估.结果 SRS五个维度及总分均为ASD组>ADHD组>正常组(R0.01).ASD组、ADHD组和正常组SRS总分分别为[(92.43±19.17)分、(65.66±19.86)分和(38.40± 10.68)分],

  19. Investigation of parenting stress in primary care-givers with children undergoing autistic disorder%孤独症儿童主要照顾者亲职压力现状的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵国琼; 田征文

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of parenting stress in the primary care-givers of children diagnosed with autistic disorder and sum up the nursing strategies. Methods Seventy-eight primary care-givers of children diagnosed with autistic disorder were interviewed using the parenting stress index-short form (PSI-SF). Results The mean score of parenting stress was 104.08 ± 18.32, which was at a high level. The 3 subscales score from high to low:parenting anxiety(36.22 ± 8.46);disabled children (35.64 ± 6.41);parent-child interation disorder(32.01 ± 7.15). Conclusion Medical staff should pay more attertion to these care-givers in order to enhance their ability to cope with various problems in the parenting process and hence reduce the level of parenting pressure.%目的:了解孤独症儿童主要照顾者亲职压力现状,并提出相应的对策。方法采用亲职压力指标简表(parenting stress index-short form, PSI-SF)对78名孤独症儿童主要照顾者进行调查。结果孤独症儿童主要照顾者PSI-SF总分为(104.08±18.32)分,处于较高的水平,其3个子量表得分由高到低依次为亲职愁苦(36.22±8.46)分、困难儿童(35.64±6.41)分、亲子互动失调(32.01±7.15)分。结论医护工作者应加强对孤独症儿童主要照顾者亲职压力的评估,提供孤独症相关知识和情感支持和提高其创伤后成长水平,进而降低其亲职压力水平。

  20. The Psychic Organ Point of Autistic Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with autistic syntax and its expressions both in the fully fledged autistic structure and in the autistic zones of other personality structures. The musical notion of the organ point serves as a point of departure in an attempt to describe how autistic syntax transforms what was meant to constitute the substrate for linguistic…

  1. Estimation of autistic children by metallomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Yasuda, Yuichi; Tsutsui, Toyoharu

    2013-01-01

    Clarification of the pathogenesis and treatment of autism spectrum disorders is one of the challenges today. In this study, we examine scalp hair concentrations of 26 trace elements for 1,967 children with autistic disorders (1,553 males and 414 females). Five-hundred and eighty-four (29.7%), 347 (17.6%) and 114 (5.8%) subjects was found deficient in zinc, magnesium and calcium, respectively, and 2.0% or less in the other essential metals. The incidence rate of mineral deficiency was highly observed in infants aged 0-3 year-old. In contrast, 339 (17.2%), 168 (8.5%) and 94 (4.8%) individuals was found suffering from high burden of aluminium, cadmium and lead, and 2.8% or less from mercury and arsenic burden. These findings suggest that infantile zinc- and magnesium-deficiency and/or toxic metal burdens may epigenetically play principal roles as environmental factors in autistic disorders and that metallomics approach may lead to early screening and prevention of the neurodevelopment disorders.

  2. Asperger disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Manu; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sarkhel, Sujit; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Asperger disorder was first described in 1944 by the Austrian pediatrician, Hans Asperger. It was introduced as a separate diagnostic category from autistic disorder in DSM-IV and ICD-10. The pattern of comorbidity in Asperger disorder is different from autistic disorder, with a higher level of psychosis, violent behavior, anxiety, and mood disorders. We present three cases of Asperger disorder diagnosed for the first time in adulthood, with psychosis being the predominant reason for the referral. In each case, the psychosis improved with antipsychotic treatment, although core autistic symptoms remained the same.

  3. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  4. 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism: Analysis in South African Autistic Individuals

    KAUST Repository

    Arieff, Zainunisha

    2010-06-01

    The serotonin transporter promoter length polymorphism (5-hydroxytryptamine transporter length polymorphism; 5-HTTLPR) has long been implicated in autism and other psychiatric disorders. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has a positive effect on treating some symptoms of autism. The effects of these drugs vary in individuals because of the presence of the S or L allele of 5-HTTLPR. Studies performed on various autistic populations have found different allele frequencies for the L and S alleles. Allele frequencies and genotypes of the South African autistic populations (African, mixed, and Caucasian) were compared with matching South African ethnic control populations. The *S/*S genotype was found to be highly significantly associated with all the South African autistic ethnic populations. In the South African African population the *S/*S genotype was present in 7 (33%) of the autistic individuals but in none of the control subjects, yielding infinitely large odds of developing autism. The odds of developing autism with the *S/*S genotype compared to the *L/*L genotype increased 10.15-fold in the South African mixed group and 2.74-fold in the South African Caucasian population. The allele frequency of the South African autistic population was also compared with studies of other autistic populations around the world, and highly significant differences were found with the Japanese, Korean, and Indian population groups. The difference was not significant for the French, German, Israeli, Portuguese, and American groups. This is the first South African study of autistic individuals of different ethnic backgrounds that shows significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of 5-HTTLPR. The results of this study open new avenues for investigating the role of transmission of the L and S alleles in families with autism in South Africa.

  5. Transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento não-autísticos: síndrome de Rett, transtorno desintegrativo da infância e transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento sem outra especificação Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos T Mercadante

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A categoria "transtorno invasivos do desenvolvimento" inclui o autismo, a síndrome de Asperger, a síndrome de Rett, o transtorno desintegrativo da infância e uma categoria residual denominada transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento sem outra especificação. Nesta revisão, a síndrome de Rett e o transtorno desintegrativo da infância, que são categorias bem definidas, serão discutidas, assim como as categorias não tão bem definidas que foram incluídas no grupo transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento sem outra especificação. Diferentes propostas de categorização têm sido feitas, algumas baseadas em abordagem fenomenológica descritiva, outras baseadas em outras perspectivas teóricas, tais como a neuropsicologia. As propostas atuais são apresentadas e discutidas, seguidas por avaliações críticas sobre as vantagens e desvantagens desses conceitos.The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder, which are well-defined categories, will be discussed, as well as the not well defined categories that have been included in the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified group. Different proposals of categorization have been created, some of which based on descriptive phenomenological approach, and others based upon other theoretical perspectives, such as neuropsychology. Current proposals are presented and discussed, followed by critical appraisals on the clinical advantages and disadvantages of these concepts.

  6. Voxel-based morphometric analysis on the density of brain in children with autistic disorder%基于体素的形态测量法分析高功能孤独性障碍患儿的脑组织密度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯晓燕; 洪珊珊; 邹冰; 汤天宇; 李惠国; 周振宇; 杭跃跃; 阮宗才; 陆祖宏

    2008-01-01

    目的 分析学龄孤独性障碍患儿脑组织密度.方法 对17例智能正常的孤独性障碍患儿(病例组)以及15名年龄、性别、智商与之相匹配的健康儿童(对照组)进行T1加权三维磁共振成像扫描,应用基于体素的形态测量法(VBM)比较两组脑灰质及脑白质密度的差异.结果 与对照组相比,孤独性障碍患儿右侧小脑前叶的脑灰质密度低.右前扣带回、右额中回区域的脑白质密度低,双侧顶下小叶、右缘上回、右中央后回、右颞上回、右小脑后叶、左楔前叶、左楔叶的脑灰质密度高(P<0.001).结论 智力正常的学龄孤独性障碍患儿脑组织密度异常明显,且部位广泛.%Objective To assess the density difference in the cerebral grey and white matter in children with autistic disorder. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM) in conjunction with statistical parametric mapping was applied to the structural magnetic resonance images of 17 autistic disorder children and 15 normal controls. Results Compared with the controls, the grey matter density in autistic disorder children had significant decrease in the fight anterior lobe of cerebellum and increase in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right supramarginsl gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, right posterior lobe of cerebellum, right superior temporal gyms, left precunens and left cuneus (P<0.001). Significant dusters of reduced white matter density were found in the region of right anterior cingulated and right medial frontal gyms (P< 0.001) in autistic disorder children in comparison with controls. Conclusion The findings indicate structural grey and whim matter are significantly abnormal in children with autistic disorder and the deficits are widespread in brain regions.

  7. Alunos com distúrbios do espectro autístico em interação com professores na educação inclusiva: descrição de habilidades pragmáticas Students with autistic spectrum disorders in the interaction with teachers in inclusive education: description of pragmatic skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar as habilidades pragmáticas de alunos com distúrbios do espectro autístico durante a interação com suas professoras em salas comuns de escolas públicas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 14 alunos com distúrbios do espectro autístico, de ambos os gêneros, com idade entre três e oito anos (média=5,9; DP=1,8. Como parte do procedimento, foram realizadas filmagens em situações de sala de aula e para análise dos aspectos pragmáticos da comunicação dos participantes, foi utilizado o Protocolo de Pragmática. Os resultados foram tratados estatisticamente (pPURPOSE: To investigate the pragmatic skills of students with autistic spectrum disorders during interaction with their teachers, in regular classrooms of public schools. METHODS: Fourteen students with autistic spectrum disorders, both male and female, with ages between three and eight years (mean=5.9; SD=1.8, participated in the study. As part of the procedure, classroom situations were filmed for the analysis of the children's pragmatic aspects of communication, using the Pragmatic Protocol. Data were statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon, Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Spearman tests, with a significance level of p<0.05 and, in some cases, p<0.01. RESULTS: In average, the number of communicative acts expressed per minute by the teachers (3.4 acts/minute was superior (p<0.05 to the number presented by the students with autistic spectrum disorders (2.7 acts/minute. The students demonstrated prevalence in the use of the gestural communication mean, with an average of 36.2 occurrences, and of less interactive communicative functions, with an average of 24.1 occurrences. Moreover, there was positive correlation between students' and teachers' acts/minute (p=0.01. It was also observed that age and level of education did not present correlations with communication establishment in the dyads. CONCLUSION: It was possible to identify deficits and abilities of students with

  8. Brief report: Examining the link between autistic traits and compulsive internet use in a non-clinical sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkenauer, C.; Pollmann, M.M.H.; Begeer, S.; Kerkhof, P.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders or autistic traits may profit from Internet and computer-mediated interactions, but there is concern about their Internet use becoming compulsive. This study investigated the link between autistic traits and Internet use in a 2-wave longitudinal study with

  9. Brief Report: Examining the Link between Autistic Traits and Compulsive Internet Use in a Non-Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkenauer, Catrin; Pollmann, Monique M. H.; Begeer, Sander; Kerkhof, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders or autistic traits may profit from Internet and computer-mediated interactions, but there is concern about their Internet use becoming compulsive. This study investigated the link between autistic traits and Internet use in a 2-wave longitudinal study with a non-clinical community sample (n = 390). As…

  10. Autistic Features in Girls from a Psychiatric Sample Are Strongly Associated with a Low 2D:4D Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruin, Esther I.; De Nijs, Pieter F. A.; Verheij, Fop; Verhagen, Debora H.; Ferdinand, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Autistic features such as deficits in social interactions and communication have been associated with a low 2D:4D ratio in normal children.This study assessed this association in a large sample of children with a variety of psychiatric disorders (n = 35 girls and n = 147 boys). Autistic features were assessed with a highly valid and reliable…

  11. In vitro fermentation of B-GOS: impact on faecal bacterial populations and metabolic activity in autistic and non-autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Roberta; Cela, Drinalda; Swann, Jonathan R; Vulevic, Jelena; Gibson, Glenn R; Tzortzis, George; Costabile, Adele

    2017-02-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often suffer gastrointestinal problems consistent with imbalances in the gut microbial population. Treatment with antibiotics or pro/prebiotics has been postulated to regulate microbiota and improve gut symptoms, but there is a lack of evidence for such approaches, especially for prebiotics. This study assessed the influence of a prebiotic galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS) on gut microbial ecology and metabolic function using faecal samples from autistic and non-autistic children in an in vitro gut model system. Bacteriology was analysed using flow cytometry combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization and metabolic activity by HPLC and (1)H-NMR. Consistent with previous studies, the microbiota of children with ASD contained a higher number of Clostridium spp. and a lower number of bifidobacteria compared with non-autistic children. B-GOS administration significantly increased bifidobacterial populations in each compartment of the models, both with autistic and non-autistic-derived samples, and lactobacilli in the final vessel of non-autistic models. In addition, changes in other bacterial population have been seen in particular for Clostridium, Rosburia, Bacteroides, Atopobium, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Sutterella spp. and Veillonellaceae. Furthermore, the addition of B-GOS to the models significantly altered short-chain fatty acid production in both groups, and increased ethanol and lactate in autistic children.

  12. Brief report: postural reactivity to fast visual motion differentiates autistic from children with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepner, Bruno; Mestre, Daniel R

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to search for a sensorimotor marker (i.e., visuopostural tuning) that could be correlated with the severity of motor impairments in children with autistic spectrum disorders. Given that autistic children were previously reported to be posturally hyporeactive to visually perceived environmental motion in comparison with normal control children (Gepner et al., 1995), we sought to determine whether children with Asperger syndrome (AS) would share the same postural hyporeactivity to visual motion. Three autistic children with mild to severe motor impairments, three AS children with soft motor signs, and nine normal control children were tested for overall postural instability and postural reactivity to environmental motion. Results indicate, first, that overall postural instability is significantly reduced in autistic children compared with both AS and normal children. Second, although postural oscillations in the fore-aft axis become more attuned to the oscillation frequency of an immersive dynamic visual display as visual speed is increased, in both control and AS subjects, this is not the case in autistic children. Despite the small number of subjects tested in this study, our data confirm the existence of a visuopostural detuning in autistic children. Third, they argue for a correlation between visuopostural tuning and severity of motor signs in children with autistic spectrum disorders. Finally, they suggest a differentiation between children with autism and children with AS with regard to postural reactivity to fast visual motion. Neurophysiological implications of these results are discussed. In particular, a visuocerebellar pathway deficit hypothesis in autism is proposed.

  13. Common and distinct impacts of autistic traits and alexithymia on social reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Foulkes

    Full Text Available According to the social motivation hypothesis of autism, individuals with high levels of autistic traits experience reduced levels of reward from social interactions. However, empirical evidence to date has been mixed, with some studies reporting lower levels of social reward in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, and others finding no difference when compared to typically developing controls. Alexithymia, a subclinical condition associated with the reduced ability to identify and describe one's own emotions, has been found to account for other affective difficulties observed inconsistently in individuals with ASD. The current study used a nonclinical sample (N = 472 to explore the associations between autistic traits and the value of six types of social reward, as measured by the Social Reward Questionnaire. In addition, we measured alexithymia to assess if this accounted for associations between autistic traits and social reward. There were three main findings. Firstly, higher levels of autistic traits were associated with significantly less enjoyment of admiration and sociability, and adding alexithymia to these models did not account for any additional variance. Secondly, both autistic traits and alexithymia were uniquely associated with reduced levels of enjoyment of prosocial interactions and sexual relationships. Thirdly, autistic traits were associated with higher levels of enjoyment of passivity and negative social potency, but these associations were no longer significant once alexithymia was taken into account, suggesting that co-occurring alexithymia accounted for these apparent associations. Overall, the current findings provide a novel and more nuanced picture of the relationship between autistic traits and social reward.

  14. Common and distinct impacts of autistic traits and alexithymia on social reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, Lucy; Bird, Geoffrey; Gökçen, Elif; McCrory, Eamon; Viding, Essi

    2015-01-01

    According to the social motivation hypothesis of autism, individuals with high levels of autistic traits experience reduced levels of reward from social interactions. However, empirical evidence to date has been mixed, with some studies reporting lower levels of social reward in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and others finding no difference when compared to typically developing controls. Alexithymia, a subclinical condition associated with the reduced ability to identify and describe one's own emotions, has been found to account for other affective difficulties observed inconsistently in individuals with ASD. The current study used a nonclinical sample (N = 472) to explore the associations between autistic traits and the value of six types of social reward, as measured by the Social Reward Questionnaire. In addition, we measured alexithymia to assess if this accounted for associations between autistic traits and social reward. There were three main findings. Firstly, higher levels of autistic traits were associated with significantly less enjoyment of admiration and sociability, and adding alexithymia to these models did not account for any additional variance. Secondly, both autistic traits and alexithymia were uniquely associated with reduced levels of enjoyment of prosocial interactions and sexual relationships. Thirdly, autistic traits were associated with higher levels of enjoyment of passivity and negative social potency, but these associations were no longer significant once alexithymia was taken into account, suggesting that co-occurring alexithymia accounted for these apparent associations. Overall, the current findings provide a novel and more nuanced picture of the relationship between autistic traits and social reward.

  15. Proprioceptive versus Visual Control in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterton, B. A.; Biederman, G. B.

    1983-01-01

    The autistic children's presumed preference for proximal over distal sensory input was studied by requiring that "autistic," retarded, and "normal" children (7-15 years old) adapt to lateral displacement of the visual field. Only autistic Ss demonstrated transfer of adaptation to the nonadapted hand, indicating reliance on proprioception rather…

  16. sA Comparison of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 Diagnostic Classifications in the Clinical Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaylaci, Ferhat; Miral, Suha

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to compare children diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) according to DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic systems. One hundred fifty children aged between 3 and 15 years diagnosed with PDD by DSM-IV-TR were included. PDD symptoms were reviewed through psychiatric assessment based on DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 criteria.…

  17. Assessment of metallothionein and antibodies to metallothionein in normal and autistic children having exposure to vaccine-derived thimerosal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra K; Hanson, Jeff

    2006-06-01

    Allergic autoimmune reaction after exposure to heavy metals such as mercury may play a causal role in autism, a developmental disorder of the central nervous system. As metallothionein (MT) is the primary metal-detoxifying protein in the body, we conducted a study of the MT protein and antibodies to metallothionein (anti-MT) in normal and autistic children whose exposure to mercury was only from thimerosal-containing vaccines. Laboratory analysis by immunoassays revealed that the serum level of MT did not significantly differ between normal and autistic children. Furthermore, autistic children harboured normal levels of anti-MT, including antibodies to isoform MT-I (anti-MT-I) and MT-II (anti-MT-II), without any significant difference between normal and autistic children. Our findings indicate that because autistic children have a normal profile of MT and anti-MT, the mercury-induced autoimmunity to MT may not be implicated in the pathogenesis of autism.

  18. Clinical polymorphism and variability in education of autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov S.A.Morozova T.I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders are considered a highly heterogeneous group by clinical signs, which makes it impossible to develop a common method of correctional and educational development for them. In this article, results of an analysis of clinical, psychological and pedagogic polymorphism in autism spectrum disorders are shown, emphasized are its main components and basic consequences necessary for organizing education. Results are viewed in the context of the principle of variability in education. A dual structure of variability in education of autistic children has been discovered. Shortly reviewed are some topical problems of correctional education process for autism spectrum disorders

  19. Abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jennifer L; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven's Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level--concrete vs. abstract--and test domain--spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72) and non-autistic participants (N = 72) completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract) and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal). Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal) or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract), suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength.

  20. Abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Stevenson

    Full Text Available Autistic individuals typically excel on spatial tests that measure abstract reasoning, such as the Block Design subtest on intelligence test batteries and the Raven's Progressive Matrices nonverbal test of intelligence. Such well-replicated findings suggest that abstract spatial processing is a relative and perhaps absolute strength of autistic individuals. However, previous studies have not systematically varied reasoning level--concrete vs. abstract--and test domain--spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal, which the current study did. Autistic participants (N = 72 and non-autistic participants (N = 72 completed a battery of 12 tests that varied by reasoning level (concrete vs. abstract and domain (spatial vs. numerical vs. verbal. Autistic participants outperformed non-autistic participants on abstract spatial tests. Non-autistic participants did not outperform autistic participants on any of the three domains (spatial, numerical, and verbal or at either of the two reasoning levels (concrete and abstract, suggesting similarity in abilities between autistic and non-autistic individuals, with abstract spatial reasoning as an autistic strength.

  1. Elevated serum neurotensin and CRH levels in children with autistic spectrum disorders and tail-chasing Bull Terriers with a phenotype similar to autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilioni, I; Dodman, N; Petra, A I; Taliou, A; Francis, K; Moon-Fanelli, A; Shuster, L; Theoharides, T C

    2014-10-14

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by defects in communication and social interactions, as well as stereotypic behaviors. Symptoms typically worsen with anxiety and stress. ASD occur in early childhood, often present with regression and have a prevalence of 1 out of 68 children. The lack of distinct pathogenesis or any objective biomarkers or reliable animal models hampers our understanding and treatment of ASD. Neurotensin (NT) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) are secreted under stress in various tissues, and have proinflammatory actions. We had previously shown that NT augments the ability of CRH to increase mast cell (MC)-dependent skin vascular permeability in rodents. CRH also induced NT receptor gene and protein expression in MCs, which have been implicated in ASD. Here we report that serum of ASD children (4-10 years old) has significantly higher NT and CRH levels as compared with normotypic controls. Moreover, there is a statistically significant correlation between the number of children with gastrointestinal symptoms and high serum NT levels. In Bull Terriers that exhibit a behavioral phenotype similar to the clinical presentation of ASD, NT and CRH levels are also significantly elevated, as compared with unaffected dogs of the same breed. Further investigation of serum NT and CRH, as well as characterization of this putative canine breed could provide useful insights into the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of ASD.

  2. Specificity, contexts, and reference groups matter when assessing autistic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Dern, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Many of the personality and behavioral traits (e.g., social imperviousness, directness in conversation, lack of imagination, affinity for solitude, difficulty displaying emotions) that are known to be sensitive to context (with whom?) and reference group (according to whom?) also appear in questionnaire-based assessments of autistic traits. Therefore, two experiments investigated the effects of specifying contexts and reference groups when assessing autistic traits in autistic and non-autistic participants. Experiment 1 (124 autistic and 124 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that context matters when assessing autistic traits (F(1,244) = 267.5, p < .001, η2p = .523). When the context of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire was specified as the participants’ out-group (e.g., “I like being around non-autistic people” or “I like being around autistic people”), both autistic and non-autistic participants self-reported having more autistic traits; when the context was specified as the participants’ in-group, participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Experiment 2 (82 autistic and 82 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that reference group matters when assessing autistic traits (F(2,160) = 94.38, p < .001, η2p = .541). When the reference group on the Social Responsiveness Scale was specified as the participants’ out-group (e.g., “According to non-autistic people, I have unusual eye contact”), autistic participants reported having more autistic traits; when the reference group was their in-group, autistic participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Non-autistic participants appeared insensitive to reference group on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Exploratory analyses suggested that when neither the context nor the reference group is specified (for assessing autistic traits on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient), both autistic and non-autistic participants use the majority (“non-autistic people”) as the implied context and

  3. Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…

  4. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenberg, P.L.; David, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, dep

  5. On Normal and Autistic Pronouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Warren H.

    1971-01-01

    An alternative to the ego-based explanations for the autistic child's characteristic patterns of pronominal reversals and avoidances is an approach based on studies of echolalia which considers grammatical aspects of acquisition, reversal, and nonreversal. Focus is consequently shifted from primacy of expressive I to comprehension of you/me…

  6. Eating Behavior of Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulina Handayani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Association between autism and eating problem has been discussed in US and European countries recently, but there are only a few studies about that matter in Asian countries. Objective: This study provides information about eating behavior in autistic children in comparison with Typically Developing (TD children in two different countries, which are Japan and Indonesia. Method: Participants of this study were 39 Japanese and 13 Indonesian parents with autistic children and 197 Japanese and 144 Indonesian parents of TD. Ages of subjects were between 3 to 6 years old. Eating behavior was evaluated by using Brief Autism Mealtime Inventory (BAMBI completed by parents. Result showed that commonly children in both countries had eating behavior problems and children with autistic showed more problems than TD children. It is estimated that autistic children have a delay in eating development that may influence their eating behaviors. It is also reported that cultural background can be considered as another influencing factor in the difference of eating behavior in each country. Conclusion: Our study provided information that Autism children have problem in eating behavior. It needs to be noticed continually by clinicians and parents, although problem in eating behavior is not a core feature of autism; it can be an associate feature in autism. Key words: Autism, Eating behavior, Children

  7. Identification of Four Novel Synonymous Substitutions in the X-Linked Genes Neuroligin 3 and Neuroligin 4X in Japanese Patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

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    Kumiko Yanagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the X-linked genes neuroligin 3 (NLGN3 and neuroligin 4X (NLGN4X were first implicated in the pathogenesis of X-linked autism in Swedish families. However, reports of mutations in these genes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients from various ethnic backgrounds present conflicting results regarding the etiology of ASD, possibly because of genetic heterogeneity and/or differences in their ethnic background. Additional mutation screening study on another ethnic background could help to clarify the relevance of the genes to ASD. We scanned the entire coding regions of NLGN3 and NLGN4X in 62 Japanese patients with ASD by polymerase chain reaction-high-resolution melting curve and direct sequencing analyses. Four synonymous substitutions, one in NLGN3 and three in NLGN4X, were identified in four of the 62 patients. These substitutions were not present in 278 control X-chromosomes from unrelated Japanese individuals and were not registered in the database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms build 132 or in the Japanese Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms database, indicating that they were novel and specific to ASD. Though further analysis is necessary to determine the physiological and clinical importance of such substitutions, the possibility of the relevance of both synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions with the etiology of ASD should be considered.

  8. Basal and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulated Plasma Cortisol Levels Among Egyptian Autistic Children: Relation to Disease Severity

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    Hewedi Doaa H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a disorder of early childhood characterized by social impairment, communication abnormalities and stereotyped behaviors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis deserves special attention, since it is the basis for emotions and social interactions that are affected in autism. Aim To assess basal and stimulated plasma cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels in autistic children and their relationship to disease characteristics. Methods Fifty autistic children were studied in comparison to 50 healthy age-, sex- and pubertal stage- matched children. All subjects were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of plasma cortisol (basal and stimulated and ACTH. In addition, electroencephalography (EEG and intelligence quotient (IQ assessment were done for all autistic children. Results Sixteen% of autistic patients had high ACTH, 10% had low basal cortisol and 10% did not show adequate cortisol response to ACTH stimulation. Autistic patients had lower basal (p = 0.032 and stimulated cortisol (p = 0.04 and higher ACTH (p = 0.01 than controls. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS score correlated positively with ACTH (r = 0.71, p = 0.02 and negatively with each of basal (r = -0.64, p = 0.04 and stimulated cortisol (r = -0.88, p Conclusions The observed hormonal changes may be due to a dysfunction in the HPA axis in autistic individuals. Further studies are warranted regarding the role of HPA axis dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autism.

  9. Premedication in an autistic, combative child: Challenges and nuances

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    S Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autistic spectrum disorders are often encountered in anesthesia practice mainly for outdoor procedural sedation or anesthesia in endoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging suites. We describe a case of a 7-year-old autistic boy who required management of dental caries. He had a phobia to intravenous cannulation, displayed increasing anxiety and became combative on the day of surgery. With parental involvement and distraction, we succeeded in giving oral midazolam by concealing it, with the intent of avoiding intramuscular injection or unnecessary restraint. Lack of knowledge about the medical condition of such a patient can lead to inadequate preoperative preparation and use of restraint on the patient, which might cause anxiety or panic attacks in the operative room. To effectively manage children with special needs one needs to have clear guidelines on the management of uncooperative children, involve parents perioperatively, plan ahead with an emphasis on perioperative analgesia and sometimes incorporate the ethical use of restraint.

  10. Reduced incidence of Prevotella and other fermenters in intestinal microflora of autistic children.

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    Dae-Wook Kang

    Full Text Available High proportions of autistic children suffer from gastrointestinal (GI disorders, implying a link between autism and abnormalities in gut microbial functions. Increasing evidence from recent high-throughput sequencing analyses indicates that disturbances in composition and diversity of gut microbiome are associated with various disease conditions. However, microbiome-level studies on autism are limited and mostly focused on pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, here we aimed to define systemic changes in gut microbiome associated with autism and autism-related GI problems. We recruited 20 neurotypical and 20 autistic children accompanied by a survey of both autistic severity and GI symptoms. By pyrosequencing the V2/V3 regions in bacterial 16S rDNA from fecal DNA samples, we compared gut microbiomes of GI symptom-free neurotypical children with those of autistic children mostly presenting GI symptoms. Unexpectedly, the presence of autistic symptoms, rather than the severity of GI symptoms, was associated with less diverse gut microbiomes. Further, rigorous statistical tests with multiple testing corrections showed significantly lower abundances of the genera Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae in autistic samples. These are intriguingly versatile carbohydrate-degrading and/or fermenting bacteria, suggesting a potential influence of unusual diet patterns observed in autistic children. However, multivariate analyses showed that autism-related changes in both overall diversity and individual genus abundances were correlated with the presence of autistic symptoms but not with their diet patterns. Taken together, autism and accompanying GI symptoms were characterized by distinct and less diverse gut microbial compositions with lower levels of Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae.

  11. Gender Differences in the Social Motivation and Friendship Experiences of Autistic and Non-Autistic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgewick, Felicity; Hill, Vivian; Yates, Rhiannon; Pickering, Leanne; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined gender differences in the social motivation and friendship experiences of adolescent boys and girls with autism relative to those without autism, all educated within special education settings. Autistic girls showed similar social motivation and friendship quality to non-autistic girls, while autistic boys…

  12. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis: an unusual cause of autistic regression in a toddler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ori; Richer, Lawrence; Forbes, Karen; Sonnenberg, Lyn; Currie, Angela; Eliyashevska, Myroslava; Goez, Helly R

    2014-05-01

    Anti N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis in children is associated with psychiatric changes, seizures, and dyskinesias. We present the first report of autistic regression in a toddler caused by this entity. A 33-month-old boy presented with decreased appetite, irritability, and insomnia following an upper respiratory tract infection. Over the next few weeks he lost language and social skills, and abnormal movements of his hand developed. Within a month, this patient came to fit the diagnostic criteria for autistic spectrum disorder. Upon investigation, anti-NMDA receptor antibodies were found in the boy's cerebrospinal fluid. He was treated with intravenous immunoglobulins and steroids, resulting in reacquisition of language and social skills and resolution of movements. Our case emphasizes the significance of suspecting anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis as the cause of autistic regression, even in an age group where the diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder is typically made, and especially when presentation follows a febrile illness.

  13. Microtransplantation of neurotransmitter receptors from postmortem autistic brains to Xenopus oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Agenor; Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge Mauricio; Miledi, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a complex disorder that arises from the pervasive action of genetic and epigenetic factors that alter synaptic connectivity of the brain. Although GABA and glutamate receptors seem to be two of those factors, very little is known about the functional properties of the autistic receptors. Autistic tissue samples stored in brain banks usually have relatively long postmortem times, and it is highly desirable to know whether neurotransmitter receptors in such tissues are still functional. Here we demonstrate that native receptors microtransplanted from autistic brains, as well as de novo mRNA-expressed receptors, are still functional and susceptible to detailed electrophysiological characterization even after long postmortem intervals. The opportunity to study the properties of human receptors present in diseased brains not only opens new avenues toward understanding autism and other neurological disorders, but it also makes the microtransplantation method a useful translational system to evaluate and develop novel medicinal drugs. PMID:18645182

  14. Alteration of astrocytes and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the frontal cortex of autistic subjects

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    Cao Fujiang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, verbal communication and repetitive behaviors. To date the etiology of this disorder is poorly understood. Studies suggest that astrocytes play critical roles in neural plasticity by detecting neuronal activity and modulating neuronal networks. Recently, a number of studies suggested that an abnormal function of glia/astrocytes may be involved in the development of autism. However, there is yet no direct evidence showing how astrocytes develop in the brain of autistic individuals. Methods Study subjects include brain tissue from autistic subjects, BTBR T + tfJ (BTBR and Neuroligin (NL-3 knock-down mice. Western blot analysis, Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy studies have be used to examine the density and morphology of astrocytes, as well as Wnt and β-catenin protein expression. Results In this study, we demonstrate that the astrocytes in autisitcsubjects exhibit significantly reduced branching processes, total branching length and cell body sizes. We also detected an astrocytosis in the frontal cortex of autistic subjects. In addition, we found that the astrocytes in the brain of an NL3 knockdown mouse exhibited similar alterations to what we found in the autistic brain. Furthermore, we detected that both Wnt and β-catenin proteins are decreased in the frontal cortex of autistic subjects. Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of astrocyte development. Conclusions Our findings imply that defects in astrocytes could impair neuronal plasticity and partially contribute to the development of autistic-like behaviors in both humans and mice. The alteration of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the brain of autistic subjects may contribute to the changes of astrocytes.

  15. The mental health in mothers with autistic children: a case-control study in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, B C; Lung, F W; Chang, Y Y

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of autistic children on the mental health of their mothers. Autism is a complicated neuropsychiatric disorder. Evidence shows that mothers with autistic children experience greater stress than those having children with other chronic diseases. In this study we have 1) assessed the mental health of mothers with autistic children; 2) determined their prevalence of minor psychiatric morbidity (MPM); 3) classified their MPM; and 4) determined factors related to their mental health. A case-controlled design was used to compare the mental status among mothers having children with either autistic (n = 30), or Down syndrome (n = 11) and with normal children (n = 56). The mean score of the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ) showed no differences between those mothers of case and control groups. Using a 9-point criterion to screen for MPM in the CHQ, more mothers (37%) in the case group had scores > or = 9 compared with the control group (18%). Mothers of the case group had significantly higher for MPM using logistic regression analysis. The educational level was inversely related to the CHQ scores. Mothers with a CHQ score > or = 9, were later diagnosed with either depression (36%) and anxiety (46%); or anxiety and depression (9%). A primary care model for mothers with autistic children should therefore be developed to prevent them from developing mental disorders.

  16. NF-κB Signaling in the Brain of Autistic Subjects

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    Mazhar Malik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by problems in communication, social skills, and repetitive behavior. Recent studies suggest that apoptotic and inflammatory mechanisms may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disorder. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB is an important gene transcriptional factor involved in the mediation of inflammation and apoptosis. This study examined the activities of the NF-κB signaling pathway in the brain of autistic subjects and their age-matched controls. The NF-κB activation is also determined in the brain of BTBR mice, which is a promising animal model for study of pathogenic mechanisms responsible for autism. Our results showed that the level of IKKα kinase, which phosphorylates the inhibitory subunit IκBα, is significantly increased in the cerebellum of autistic subjects. However, the expression and phosphorylation of IκBα are not altered. In addition, our results demonstrated that the expression of NF-κB (p65, and the phosphorylation/activation of NF-κB (p65 at Ser536 are not significantly changed in the cerebellum and cortex of both autistic subjects and BTBR mice. Our findings suggest that the NF-κB signaling pathway is not disregulated in the brain of autistic subjects and thus may not be significantly involved in the processes of abnormal inflammatory responses suggested in autistic brain.

  17. Brief Report: Catatonia in Autistic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhossche, Dirk

    1998-01-01

    A case study of an adolescent with catatonia superimposed on autism is presented. The symptoms of the patient are highlighted and include abnormal social interactions, deficits in symbolic play and in communicative language, and occurrence of hallucinations and delusions. Treatment of the patient with clozapine and lorasepam is described. (CR)

  18. Anthropometric assessment of a Middle Eastern group of autistic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nagwa A Meguid; Wafaa A Kandeel; Khaled E Wakeel; Aly A El-Nofely

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth abnormalities are uniquely associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however, the extent to which growth abnormalities are present has hardly been investigated. The current study aims to compare the differences in anthropometric parameters in a group of autistic Egyptian children and the healthy normal population. Methods: We recruited 100 children with ASD from the Outpatient Clinic for "Autistic Children" at the Medical Research Hospital of Excellence, National Research Centre in Cairo, Egypt. They were diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria of the American Psychiatric Association, Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Of these children at age of 3-10 years, 71 were males and 29 females. Eight anthropometric parameters were assessed in view of data of the healthy Egyptians of pertinent sex and age. Results: Weight and body mass index increased because of a signifi cant increase in subcutaneous fat thickness. This tendency with a probable decrease in muscle mass was more evident in male or in older children, likely resulting from sedentary life style and food selectivity. Conclusions: The Z head circumference score and its variance signifi cantly increased especially in males or older children, suggesting the relative overgrowth of the brain in a substantial percentage of Egyptian children with autism. We concluded that increased fat composition in Egyptian autistic children with decreased muscle mass necessitates tailoring a specially designed food supplementation program to ameliorate the severity of autism symptoms.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of buspirone in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David J; Chugani, Diane C; Chugani, Harry T; Chehab, Jamal; Malian, Monica; Aranda, Jacob V

    2006-05-01

    Buspirone is used to treat generalized anxiety disorder in children and may be useful in developmental disorders in which brain serotonin synthesis is altered. Autistic children (13 boys, 7 girls) were given a single oral dose of 2.5 mg (2-3 years) or 5.0 mg (4-6 years). Blood was collected for 8 hours, and plasma was assayed for buspirone and its metabolite 1-pyrimidinylpiperazine (1-PP). The peak concentration of buspirone averaged 1141 +/- 748 pg/mL with a time to maximum concentration of 0.8 hours. Half-life was 1.6 +/- 0.3 hours. Peak concentrations of 1-PP were 4.5-fold higher than for buspirone. Girls had higher peak concentrations (1876 vs 746 pg/mL) for buspirone and a lower peak 1-PP/buspirone concentration ratio. These results suggest that buspirone is rapidly absorbed and eliminated in young children with extensive metabolism to 1-PP. Plasma concentrations with 2.5- to 5.0-mg doses were similar to those observed in older children receiving 7.5- to 15-mg doses.

  20. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient and Visual Search: Shallow and Deep Autistic Endophenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, B. L.; Plaisted-Grant, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    A high Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score (Baron-Cohen et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord" 31(1):5-17, 2001) is increasingly used as a proxy in empirical studies of perceptual mechanisms in autism. Several investigations have assessed perception in non-autistic people measured for AQ, claiming the same relationship exists between…

  1. Study the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in Egyptian autistic children: A clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-baz

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: HBOT is a treatment that has recently become quite popular in the autism spectrum disorder (ASD community. Its benefits cross a wide range of autistic traits as: improved language, increased awareness, behavior and socialization by affecting the pathophysiological findings in autism.

  2. Going "Above and Beyond": Are Those High in Autistic Traits Less Pro-Social?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Leila; Vyas, Karishma; Bellesi, Giulia; Roberts, Victoria; Channon, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have explored how the cognitive differences associated with autistic spectrum disorder translate into everyday social behaviour. This study investigated pro-social behaviour in students scoring high and low on the autism-spectrum quotient (AQ), using a novel scenario task: "Above and Beyond." Each scenario involved an…

  3. Tutoring an American Autistic College Student in Japanese and Its Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Tomoko

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between autism and teaching a foreign language (TFL) and explores how specific teaching styles may strengthen learners' motivation. Autism is simply considered to be a social disorder of development. Autistic people are often seen as having difficulty in learning a language other than their first language.…

  4. Detection of antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic children who received thimerosal-containing vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra K; Rivas, Wyatt H

    2004-01-01

    Autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder, may involve autoimmune pathogenesis. Since mercury is potentially a risk factor for autoimmunity, we conducted a study of mercury-induced antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic and normal children who had been pre-administered with thimerosal-containing vaccines. Laboratory analysis by different immunoassays showed that the serum level of these two autoimmune markers did not significantly differ between autistic and normal children. This finding suggests that the mercury as in thimerosal-containing vaccines is likely not related to autoimmune phenomenon in autism.

  5. Perceptual inference and autistic traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skewes, Joshua; Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Gebauer, Line

    2015-01-01

    Autistic people are better at perceiving details. Major theories explain this in terms of bottom-up sensory mechanisms, or in terms of top-down cognitive biases. Recently, it has become possible to link these theories within a common framework. This framework assumes that perception is implicit...... neural inference, combining sensory evidence with prior perceptual knowledge. Within this framework, perceptual differences may occur because of enhanced precision in how sensory evidence is represented, or because sensory evidence is weighted much higher than prior perceptual knowledge...

  6. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient and Visual Search: Shallow and Deep Autistic Endophenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, B L; Plaisted-Grant, K C

    2016-05-01

    A high Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score (Baron-Cohen et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 31(1):5-17, 2001) is increasingly used as a proxy in empirical studies of perceptual mechanisms in autism. Several investigations have assessed perception in non-autistic people measured for AQ, claiming the same relationship exists between performance on perceptual tasks in high-AQ individuals as observed in autism. We question whether the similarity in performance by high-AQ individuals and autistics reflects the same underlying perceptual cause in the context of two visual search tasks administered to a large sample of typical individuals assessed for AQ. Our results indicate otherwise and that deploying the AQ as a proxy for autism introduces unsubstantiated assumptions about high-AQ individuals, the endophenotypes they express, and their relationship to Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) individuals.

  7. Gender Differences in the Social Motivation and Friendship Experiences of Autistic and Non-autistic Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sedgewick, F.; Hill, V; Yates, R; Pickering, L.; Pellicano, E.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined gender differences in the social motivation and friendship experiences of adolescent boys and girls with autism relative to those without autism, all educated within special education settings. Autistic girls showed similar social motivation and friendship quality to non-autistic girls, while autistic boys reported having both qualitatively different friendships and less motivation for social contact relative to boys without autism and to girls with and witho...

  8. Gender Differences in the Social Motivation and Friendship Experiences of Autistic and Non-autistic Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sedgewick, Felicity; Hill, Vivian; Yates, Rhiannon; Pickering, Leanne; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined gender differences in the social motivation and friendship experiences of adolescent boys and girls with autism relative to those without autism, all educated within special education settings. Autistic girls showed similar social motivation and friendship quality to non-autistic girls, while autistic boys reported having both qualitatively different friendships and less motivation for social contact relative to boys without autism and to girls with and witho...

  9. Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Amy S; Blaxill, Mark F; Haley, Boyd E

    2003-01-01

    Reported rates of autism have increased sharply in the United States and the United Kingdom. One possible factor underlying these increases is increased exposure to mercury through thimerosal-containing vaccines, but vaccine exposures need to be evaluated in the context of cumulative exposures during gestation and early infancy. Differential rates of postnatal mercury elimination may explain why similar gestational and infant exposures produce variable neurological effects. First baby haircut samples were obtained from 94 children diagnosed with autism using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM IV) criteria and 45 age- and gender-matched controls. Information on diet, dental amalgam fillings, vaccine history, Rho D immunoglobulin administration, and autism symptom severity was collected through a maternal survey questionnaire and clinical observation. Hair mercury levels in the autistic group were 0.47 ppm versus 3.63 ppm in controls, a significant difference. The mothers in the autistic group had significantly higher levels of mercury exposure through Rho D immunoglobulin injections and amalgam fillings than control mothers. Within the autistic group, hair mercury levels varied significantly across mildly, moderately, and severely autistic children, with mean group levels of 0.79, 0.46, and 0.21 ppm, respectively. Hair mercury levels among controls were significantly correlated with the number of the mothers' amalgam fillings and their fish consumption as well as exposure to mercury through childhood vaccines, correlations that were absent in the autistic group. Hair excretion patterns among autistic infants were significantly reduced relative to control. These data cast doubt on the efficacy of traditional hair analysis as a measure of total mercury exposure in a subset of the population. In light of the biological plausibility of mercury's role in neurodevelopmental disorders, the present study provides further insight into one

  10. Impact of Casein and Gluten Free Dietary Intervention on Selected Autistic Children

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    Veerappan Nishadevi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autism is a life long developmental disorder that emerges in early childhood and results in significant lifelong disability. The goal of treatment is to promote the childs social and language development and minimize behaviors that interfere with the childs functioning and learning. This study evaluated the impact of casein and gluten free diet among selected autistic children. Methods: Three private special schools in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 50 autistic children 10 from SIMEC, 10 from MMIC and 30 from CSI comprised the study sample. Background information, clinical history and nutritional status, dietary pattern were collected from the 50 selected autistic children. Out of 50 autistic children 30 autistic children were selected for the dietary intervention. Diet counseling regarding casein free diet was imparted to Group I (n=10, gluten free diet to Group II (n=10 and both casein and gluten free diet for Group III (n=10. The diet was followed for a period of 2 months. The efficacy of the dietary exclusion of casein and gluten was evaluated using a food and behavior diary on a day to day basis, using observation method. Findings: Results about Group I autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of casein free diet showed that the mean scores before and after casein free dietary intervention depiticted these improvements as, 1 to 1.2 for attention, 2.8 to 2.9 for sleep, 1.1 to 1.3 for hyperactivity, 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety/compulsion. For Group II autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of gluten free diet showed the improvements as 1.1 to 1.4 for attention 2.5 to 3 for sleep, 1.7 to 1.9 for hyperactivity, 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety/compulsion. About Group III autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of both casein and gluten free diet showed the improvements as 1.1 to 1.3 for attention, 2.5 to 2.7 for sleep, 1.3 to 1.7 for hyperactivity, and 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety

  11. Cytokines profile and peripheral blood mononuclear cells morphology in Rett and autistic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorelli, Alessandra; Cervellati, Franco; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Montagner, Giulia; Waldon, PhiAnh; Hayek, Joussef; Gambari, Roberto; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    A potential role for immune dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been well established. However, immunological features of Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder closely related to autism, have not been well addressed yet. By using multiplex Luminex technology, a panel of 27 cytokines and chemokines was evaluated in serum from 10 RTT patients with confirmed diagnosis of MECP2 mutation (typical RTT), 12 children affected by classic autistic disorder and 8 control subjects. The cytokine/chemokine gene expression was assessed by real time PCR on mRNA of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Moreover, ultrastructural analysis of PBMCs was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Significantly higher serum levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-9, IL-13 were detected in RTT compared to control subjects, and IL-15 shows a trend toward the upregulation in RTT. In addition, IL-1β and VEGF were the only down-regulated cytokines in autistic patients with respect to RTT. No difference in cytokine/chemokine profile between autistic and control groups was detected. These data were also confirmed by ELISA real time PCR. At the ultrastructural level, the most severe morphological abnormalities were observed in mitochondria of both RTT and autistic PBMCs. In conclusion, our study shows a deregulated cytokine/chemokine profile together with morphologically altered immune cells in RTT. Such abnormalities were not quite as evident in autistic subjects. These findings indicate a possible role of immune dysfunction in RTT making the clinical features of this pathology related also to the immunology aspects, suggesting, therefore, novel possible therapeutic interventions for this disorder.

  12. Necrosis is increased in lymphoblastoid cell lines from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Penelope A E; Thomas, Philip; Esterman, Adrian; Fenech, Michael F

    2013-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterised by impairments in reciprocal social interaction, communication and stereotyped behaviours. As increased DNA damage events have been observed in a range of other neurological disorders, it was hypothesised that they would be elevated in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) obtained from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings. Six case-sibling pairs of LCLs from children with autistic disorder and their non-autistic siblings were obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) and cultured in standard RPMI-1640 tissue culture medium. Cells were exposed to medium containing either 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM hydrogen peroxide (an oxidative stressor) or 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 µM s-nitroprusside (a nitric oxide producer) for 1h. Following exposure, the cells were microscopically scored for DNA damage, cytostasis and cytotoxicity biomarkers as measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Necrosis was significantly increased in cases relative to controls when exposed to oxidative and nitrosative stress (P = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Nuclear division index was significantly lower in LCLs from children with autistic disorder than their non-autistic siblings when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (P = 0.016), but there was no difference in apoptosis, micronucleus frequency, nucleoplasmic bridges or nuclear buds. Exposure to s-nitroprusside significantly increased the number of micronuclei in non-autistic siblings compared with cases (P = 0.003); however, other DNA damage biomarkers, apoptosis and nuclear division did not differ significantly between groups. The findings of this study show (i) that LCLs from children with autism are more sensitive to necrosis under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress than their non-autistic siblings and (ii) refutes the hypothesis that children with autistic disorder are abnormally

  13. Necrosis is increased in lymphoblastoid cell lines from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterised by impairments in reciprocal social interaction, communication and stereotyped behaviours. As increased DNA damage events have been observed in a range of other neurological disorders, it was hypothesised that they would be elevated in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) obtained from children with autism compared with their non-autistic siblings. Six case–sibling pairs of LCLs from children with autistic disorder and their non-autistic siblings were obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) and cultured in standard RPMI-1640 tissue culture medium. Cells were exposed to medium containing either 0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 µM hydrogen peroxide (an oxidative stressor) or 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 µM s-nitroprusside (a nitric oxide producer) for 1h. Following exposure, the cells were microscopically scored for DNA damage, cytostasis and cytotoxicity biomarkers as measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay. Necrosis was significantly increased in cases relative to controls when exposed to oxidative and nitrosative stress (P = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). Nuclear division index was significantly lower in LCLs from children with autistic disorder than their non-autistic siblings when exposed to hydrogen peroxide (P = 0.016), but there was no difference in apoptosis, micronucleus frequency, nucleoplasmic bridges or nuclear buds. Exposure to s-nitroprusside significantly increased the number of micronuclei in non-autistic siblings compared with cases (P = 0.003); however, other DNA damage biomarkers, apoptosis and nuclear division did not differ significantly between groups. The findings of this study show (i) that LCLs from children with autism are more sensitive to necrosis under conditions of oxidative and nitrosative stress than their non-autistic siblings and (ii) refutes the hypothesis that children with autistic disorder are abnormally

  14. The level and nature of autistic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Mottron, Laurent

    2007-08-01

    Autistics are presumed to be characterized by cognitive impairment, and their cognitive strengths (e.g., in Block Design performance) are frequently interpreted as low-level by-products of high-level deficits, not as direct manifestations of intelligence. Recent attempts to identify the neuroanatomical and neurofunctional signature of autism have been positioned on this universal, but untested, assumption. We therefore assessed a broad sample of 38 autistic children on the preeminent test of fluid intelligence, Raven's Progressive Matrices. Their scores were, on average, 30 percentile points, and in some cases more than 70 percentile points, higher than their scores on the Wechsler scales of intelligence. Typically developing control children showed no such discrepancy, and a similar contrast was observed when a sample of autistic adults was compared with a sample of nonautistic adults. We conclude that intelligence has been underestimated in autistics.

  15. Toward Reducing Behavior Problems in Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopler, Eric

    1976-01-01

    An historical perspective of social sources that undermine general parental abilities to manage their autistic child is presented and some possible solutions to general management obstacles are suggested. (Author/SB)

  16. Echolalia and Comprehension in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jacqueline M. A.

    1989-01-01

    The study with 10 autistic children (ages 4-17) found that those children with poor receptive language skills produced significantly more echolalic utterances than those children whose receptive skills were more age-appropriate. (Author/DB)

  17. Atribuição de estados mentais no discurso de crianças do espectro autístico The attribution of mental states in the speech of children with autistic spectrum disorders

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    Lyvia Christina Camarotto Battiston Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a atribuição de estados mentais no discurso de crianças pertencentes aos Distúrbios do Espectro Autístico e verificar a modificação no vocabulário e extensão frasal desses, após período de terapia fonoaudiológica. MÉTODOS: Foram colhidas amostras de fala da avaliação fonoaudiológica inicial, após seis meses e um ano de terapia fonoaudiológica, registradas nos prontuários de cinco crianças com autismo infantil e cinco com síndrome de Asperger para caracterização do desempenho verbal e da habilidade de atribuição de estados mentais de cada criança. Considerando-se apenas as emissões espontâneas, foram verificadas as palavras pertencentes às classes substantivo e verbo e classificadas como termos que referem estados físicos e mentais. A comparação entre os três momentos foi realizada por meio da avaliação da significância entre as medianas das amostras obtidas (teste da mediana, com diferença significativa ao nível de 10%. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se aumento no número de palavras emitidas e também no número de palavras por frase emitida entre os períodos de avaliação e após um ano de terapia fonoaudiológica para crianças com autismo infantil. Não foram encontradas diferenças para a atribuição de verbos de estados físicos e mentais e substantivos de estados mentais para ambos os grupos, sendo observada diminuição na emissão de substantivos de estados físicos no grupo autismo infantil. CONCLUSÃO: A atribuição de estados mentais aumentou após período de intervenção terapêutica fonoaudiológica, porém, sem diferença significativa, verificando-se aumento no comportamento verbal de crianças com autismo infantil.PURPOSE: To analyze the attribution of mental states in the speech of children within the Autistic Spectrum Disorders, and verify the modification in their vocabulary and phrasal extension, after a period of speech-language therapy. METHODS: Speech samples from the

  18. Parenting stress and affective symptoms in parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yun; Du, YaSong; Li, HuiLin; Zhang, XiYan; An, Yu; Wu, Bai-Lin

    2015-10-01

    We examined parenting stress and mental health status in parents of autistic children and assessed factors associated with such stress. Participants were parents of 188 autistic children diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria and parents of 144 normally developing children. Parents of autistic children reported higher levels of stress, depression, and anxiety than parents of normally developing children. Mothers of autistic children had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than that did parents of normally developing children. Mothers compared to fathers of autistic children were more vulnerable to depression. Age, behavior problems of autistic children, and mothers' anxiety were significantly associated with parenting stress.

  19. Ketamine Induced Seizures in an Autistic Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali S Verma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An autistic child of eight years age, with attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome presented for tooth extraction under general anaesthesia. Ketamine was used for induction and the child developed seizures following its administration. Seizures were controlled, extraction done and post-operative period was uneventful. Ketamine was suspected to have caused seizures though safe use of Ketamine has been reported in autistic patient.

  20. Autistic traits in neurotypical adults: correlates of graph theoretical functional network topology and white matter anisotropy patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Jakab

    Full Text Available Attempts to explicate the neural abnormalities behind autism spectrum disorders frequently revealed impaired brain connectivity, yet our knowledge is limited about the alterations linked with autistic traits in the non-clinical population. In our study, we aimed at exploring the neural correlates of dimensional autistic traits using a dual approach of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and graph theoretical analysis of resting state functional MRI data. Subjects were sampled from a public neuroimaging dataset of healthy volunteers. Inclusion criteria were adult age (age: 18-65, availability of DTI and resting state functional acquisitions and psychological evaluation including the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS and Autistic Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ. The final subject cohort consisted of 127 neurotypicals. Global brain network structure was described by graph theoretical parameters: global and average local efficiency. Regional topology was characterized by degree and efficiency. We provided measurements for diffusion anisotropy. The association between autistic traits and the neuroimaging findings was studied using a general linear model analysis, controlling for the effects of age, gender and IQ profile. Significant negative correlation was found between the degree and efficiency of the right posterior cingulate cortex and autistic traits, measured by the combination of ASSQ and SRS scores. Autistic phenotype was associated with the decrease of whole-brain local efficiency. Reduction of diffusion anisotropy was found bilaterally in the temporal fusiform and parahippocampal gyri. Numerous models describe the autistic brain connectome to be dominated by reduced long-range connections and excessive short-range fibers. Our finding of decreased efficiency supports this hypothesis although the only prominent effect was seen in the posterior limbic lobe, which is known to act as a connector hub. The neural correlates of the autistic trait

  1. Autistic phenomena in neurotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klien, S

    1980-01-01

    I have described a group of patients who are seemingly successful in their professional and social lives, and who seek analysis ostensibly for professional reasons or for minor difficulties in their relationship. However, sooner or later they reveal phenomena which are strikingly similar to those observed in so-called autistic children. These autistic phenomena are characterized by an almost impenetrable encapsulation of part of the personality, mute and implacable resistance to change, and a lack of real emotional contact either with themselves or the analyst. Progress of the analysis reveals an underlying intense fear of pain, and of death, disintegration or breakdown. These anxieties occur as a reaction to real or feared separation, especially when commitment to analysis deepens. In the case I have described in detail the patient used various projective processes to deflect painful emotions either into other people, including the analyst, or into their own bodies. As a consequence the various objects or organs of the body swell up and became suffused with rage as a result of having to contain the unwanted feelings. This process leads in turn to intense persecutory fears and a heightened sensitivity to the analyst's tone of voice and facial expression. It would seem that the initial hypersensitivity of part of the personality is such as to lead it to anticipate danger to such an extent that it expels feelings even before they reach awareness. The sooner the analyst realizes the existence of this hidden part of the patient the less the danger of the analysis becoming an endless and meaningless intellectual dialogue and the greater the possibilities of the patient achieving a relatively stable equilibrium. Although the analyst has to live through a great deal of anxiety with the patient I feel that ultimately the results make it worth while.

  2. Short report: Autistic gastrointestinal and eating symptoms treated with secretin: a subtype of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallanti, Stefano; Lassi, Stefano; La Malfa, Giampaolo; Campigli, Marco; Di Rubbo, Roberto; Paolini, Giulia; Cesarali, Valentina

    2005-11-15

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) are chronic, lifelong disorders for which there is as yet no effective cure, and medical management remains a challenge for clinicians. The current report describes two patients affected by autistic disorder with associated gastrointestinal symptoms. They received multiple doses of intravenous secretin for a six-month period and were assessed with several specific outcome measures to evaluate drug effect. The administration of secretin led to some significant and lasting improvement in only one case. Gastroesophageal reflux may contribute to some of the behavioural problems and explain the effect of secretin since its suppressive effect on gastric secretion is well known. It is also true that autistic children with gastroesophageal reflux and a higher IQ could constitute a subtype which responds to secretin administration and that could be labelled as a "gastrointestinal subtype".

  3. Short report: autistic gastrointestinal and eating symptoms treated with secretin: a subtype of autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Malfa Giampaolo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD are chronic, lifelong disorders for which there is as yet no effective cure, and medical management remains a challenge for clinicians. The current report describes two patients affected by autistic disorder with associated gastrointestinal symptoms. They received multiple doses of intravenous secretin for a six-month period and were assessed with several specific outcome measures to evaluate drug effect. The administration of secretin led to some significant and lasting improvement in only one case. Gastroesophageal reflux may contribute to some of the behavioural problems and explain the effect of secretin since its suppressive effect on gastric secretion is well known. It is also true that autistic children with gastroesophageal reflux and a higher IQ could constitute a subtype which responds to secretin administration and that could be labelled as a "gastrointestinal subtype".

  4. 早期孤独谱系障碍社区筛查量表的编制与信度、效度分析%Compiling of early autistic spectrum disorders screening scale for community and its reliability and validity analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓勉; 赵玮

    2012-01-01

    目的 编制适用于社区的简单、便利、灵敏度高的早期孤独谱系障碍筛查量表,并对该量表进行信度和效度分析.方法 以美国精神障碍诊断统计手册第四版(DSM-Ⅳ)的孤独症临床表现和诊断标准为基础,参考婴幼儿孤独症筛查量表(CHAT)、孤独症行为量表(ABC)、儿童孤独症评定量表(CARS)、孤独症诊断访谈量表(中文修订本)(ADI-R)等编制成早期孤独谱系障碍社区筛查量表(EASSC).在深圳市随机选取6~24月龄儿童9 860人作为筛查对象,对该量表进行信度、效度检验.结果 该量表各因子和总分的评定者信度分别为0.945、0.973、0.874、0.952、0.962;重测信度分别为0.936、0.910、0.925、0.853、0.949.该量表的分半信度为0.917.该量表和ABC量表间的校标关联效度为0.835.当分界值为9分时,该量表的灵敏度为0.912,特异度为0.898.结论 该量表具有较好的信度和效度,费时少,容易填写,适用于早期孤独谱系障碍的社区筛查,具有一定的推广使用价值.%Objective To work out an easy and convenient screening scale of early autistic spectrum disorders with high sensitivity used in community, and to explore its reliability and validity. Methods Based on clinical manifestations and diagnostic standards of autism in DSM-Ⅳ , and referring CHAT, ABC, CARS and ADI-R, early autistic spectrum disorders screening scale for community ( EASSC ) was worked out. In Shenzhen 9 860 infants aged 6-24 months were randomly selected as screening objects, and the reliability and validity of the scale were tested. Results The rater reliability of each factor and total score was 0. 945, 0. 973 , 0. 874, 0. 952 and 0. 962, respectively, and the re-test reliability was 0.936, 0. 910, 0. 925, 0. 853 and 0. 949, respectively. The split reliability was 0. 917. Criterion-related validity between the scale and ABC was 0. 835. The sensitivity and specificity were 0. 912 and 0. 898, respectively when the

  5. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorenko, Elena L.; Han, Summer S.; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Leng, Lin; Mizue, Yuka; Anderson, George M.; Mulder, Erik J.; de Bildt, Annelies; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Volkmar, Fred R.; Chang, Joseph T.; Bucala, Richard

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Autistic spectrum disorders are childhood neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social and communicative impairment and repetitive and stereotypical behavior. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an upstream regulator of innate immunity that promotes monocyte/macrophage

  6. Control of psychomotor agitation and aggressive behavior in patients with autistic disorder: a retrospective chart review Controle da agitação psicomotora e agressividade em pacientes com autismo: estudo retrospectivo de revisão de prontuário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Marinho Novaes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of pharmacotherapy on the symptoms of psychomotor agitation and aggressive behavior in a sample of patients with autistic spectrum disorder. METHOD: The charts of all patients with a diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder, receiving care for psychomotor agitation and/or aggressive behavior in two psychiatric outpatient departments between 2001 and 2006, were reviewed. The Clinical Global Impression-Severity and -Improvement scales (CGI-S and CGI-I were applied to the data retrieved from the charts. RESULTS: The majority of the 26 patients included were treated with second-generation antipsychotics. A positive, statistically significant correlation was found between the implementation of pharmacotherapy and a reduction in CGI-S scores (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia do tratamento farmacológico dos sintomas de agitação psicomotora e agressividade em amostra de pacientes com transtorno do espectro autista. MÉTODO: Foram revisados os prontuários de pacientes com diagnóstico de transtorno do espectro autista que procuraram atendimento por apresentarem agitação psicomotora e/ou heteroagressividade, atendidos entre 2001 e 2006, em dois ambulatórios de psiquiatria. Para avaliação da evolução dos pacientes aplicou-se às informações do prontuário a escala de Impressão Clínica Global Sintomas (ICG-S e a Impressão Clínica Global Melhora (ICG-M. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos 26 pacientes estava em tratamento com antipsicóticos de segunda geração. Houve correlação positiva e estatisticamente significativa entre a introdução do tratamento farmacológico e a redução nos escores da ICG-S (p<0,05. A evolução do tratamento farmacológico foi melhor para os pacientes sem retardo mental do que para aqueles com retardo mental (p<0,05. A maioria dos pacientes que obteve melhora clínica com o tratamento participava de ao menos uma intervenção auxiliar ao tratamento principal (p<0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Os

  7. [Neural mechanism underlying autistic savant and acquired savant syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Keisuke; Kato, Motoichiro

    2008-07-01

    It is well known that the cases with savant syndrome, demonstrate outstanding mental capability despite coexisting severe mental disabilities. In many cases, savant skills are characterized by its domain-specificity, enhanced memory capability, and excessive focus on low-level perceptual processing. In addition, impaired integrative cognitive processing such as social cognition or executive function, restricted interest, and compulsive repetition of the same act are observed in savant individuals. All these are significantly relevant to the behavioral characteristics observed in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). A neurocognitive model of savant syndrome should explain these cognitive features and the juxtaposition of outstanding talents with cognitive disabilities. In recent neuropsychological studies, Miller (1998) reported clinical cases of "acquired savant," i.e., patients who improved or newly acquired an artistic savant-like skill in the early stage of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Although the relationship between an autistic savant and acquired savant remains to be elucidated, the advent of neuroimaging study of ASD and the clarification of FTD patients with savant-like skills may clarify the shared neural mechanisms of both types of talent. In this review, we classified current cognitive models of savant syndrome into the following 3 categories. (1) A hypermnesic model that suggests that savant skills develop from existing or dormant cognitive functions such as memory. However, recent findings obtained through neuropsychological examinations imply that savant individuals solve problems using a strategy that is fairly different from a non-autistic one. (2) A paradoxical functional facilitation model (Kapur, 1996) that offers possible explanations about how pathological states in the brain lead to development of prodigious skills. This model emphasizes the role of reciprocal inhibitory interaction among adjacent or distant cortical regions

  8. Lithium ameliorates autistic-like behaviors induced by neonatal isolation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan eWu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal isolation is a widely accepted model to study the long-term behavioral changes produced by the early life events. However, it remains unknown whether neonatal isolation can induce autistic-like behaviors, and if so, whether pharmacological treatment can overcome it. Here, we reported that newborn rats subjected to individual isolations from their mother and nest for 1 hr per day from postnatal days 1 to 9 displayed apparent autistic-like symptoms including social deficits, excessive repetitive self-grooming behavior, and increased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors tested in young adult (postnatal days 42-56 compared to normal reared controls. Furthermore, these behavioral changes were accompanied by impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis and reduced the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic transmissions, as reflected by an increase in spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC and normal spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron. More importantly, chronic administration of lithium, a clinically used mood stabilizer, completely overcame neonatal isolation-induced autistic-like behaviors, and restored adult hippocampal neurogenesis as well as the balance between excitatory and inhibitory activities to physiological levels. These findings indicate that neonatal isolation may produce autistic-like behaviors, and lithium may be a potential therapeutic agent against autism spectrum disorders during development.

  9. A reciprocal model of face recognition and autistic traits: evidence from an individual differences perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Drew W R; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Scherf, K Suzanne; Sherf, Suzanne K; Tanaka, James W

    2014-01-01

    Although not a core symptom of the disorder, individuals with autism often exhibit selective impairments in their face processing abilities. Importantly, the reciprocal connection between autistic traits and face perception has rarely been examined within the typically developing population. In this study, university participants from the social sciences, physical sciences, and humanities completed a battery of measures that assessed face, object and emotion recognition abilities, general perceptual-cognitive style, and sub-clinical autistic traits (the Autism Quotient (AQ)). We employed separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses to evaluate which factors could predict face recognition scores and AQ scores. Gender, object recognition performance, and AQ scores predicted face recognition behaviour. Specifically, males, individuals with more autistic traits, and those with lower object recognition scores performed more poorly on the face recognition test. Conversely, university major, gender and face recognition performance reliably predicted AQ scores. Science majors, males, and individuals with poor face recognition skills showed more autistic-like traits. These results suggest that the broader autism phenotype is associated with lower face recognition abilities, even among typically developing individuals.

  10. DNA Methylation Analysis of HTR2A Regulatory Region in Leukocytes of Autistic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hranilovic, Dubravka; Blazevic, Sofia; Stefulj, Jasminka; Zill, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Disturbed brain and peripheral serotonin homeostasis is often found in subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The role of the serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) in the regulation of central and peripheral serotonin homeostasis, as well as its altered expression in autistic subjects, have implicated the HTR2A gene as a major candidate for the serotonin disturbance seen in autism. Several studies, yielding so far inconclusive results, have attempted to associate autism with a functional SNP -1438 G/A (rs6311) in the HTR2A promoter region, while possible contribution of epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, to HTR2A dysregulation in autism has not yet been investigated. In this study, we compared the mean DNA methylation within the regulatory region of the HTR2A gene between autistic and control subjects. DNA methylation was analysed in peripheral blood leukocytes using bisulfite conversion and sequencing of the HTR2A region containing rs6311 polymorphism. Autistic subjects of rs6311 AG genotype displayed higher mean methylation levels within the analysed region than the corresponding controls (P < 0.05), while there was no statistically significant difference for AA and GG carriers. Our study provides preliminary evidence for increased HTR2A promoter methylation in leukocytes of a portion of adult autistic subjects, indicating that epigenetic mechanisms might contribute to HTR2A dysregulation observed in individuals with ASD.

  11. [Autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Early infantile autism' as defined by Kanner has grown into a spectrum of autistic disorders. The recognition of Asperger's disorder and of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), has led to increased demand for appropriate diagnostic assessment of autism in adults. The e

  12. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic…

  13. Keys to Success with Autistic Children: Structure, Predictability, and Consistency Are Essential for Students on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseminger, Scott H.

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood and elementary music teachers face particular challenges when including children with special needs in the music classroom. Children with autism act out and misbehave not because they are autistic, but because their fears and anxieties are so great. Knowing that children with autism and other neurological disorders have distinct…

  14. Brief Report: No Association between Parental Age and Extreme Social-Communicative Autistic Traits in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elise B.; Munir, Kerim; McCormick, Marie C.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Santangelo, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first investigation of the relationship between parental age and extreme social-communicative autistic traits in the general population. The parents of 5,246 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) completed the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC). The association between parental age…

  15. Brief Report: Comparative Effects of Antecedent Exercise and Lorazepam on the Aggressive Behavior of an Autistic Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, David B.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This case study of a 24-year-old man with autistic disorder and mental retardation who exhibited aggression found that antecedent exercise significantly decreased aggression; drug therapy with an anxiolytic (lorazepam) alone had no significant effect on aggression; and exercise plus medication decreased aggression to a somewhat lesser degree than…

  16. DIAGNOSTIC AND TREATMENT OPTIONS IN AUTISTIC SPECTRUM DIDORDERS – AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheffali GULATI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Goal: To highlight the recent recommenddations and future trends in diagnosing and managing autistic spectrum disorder. Methodology: Comprehensive search was done in the electronic database, journals, reference lists and dissertation related to the field. Results and conclusion: Autistic spectrum disorder is characterized by onset before the age of 3 years, qualitative impairment in social and communication skills along with repetitive behavioural pattern and restricted interests. Multiple pathways involving genetic, structural and environmental factors have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis. Diagnosis is primarily clinical, based on caregiver interview and observing the patient. However, certain biochemical, radiological and electrophysiological investigations are indicated in relevant scenarios. The mainstay of therapy is behavioural intervention with pharmacotherapy indicated for certain behavioural issues. Complementary and alternate treatment, dietary and stem cell therapies are still investigational with some benefits.Various newer therapeutic options are currently being investigated, exploring the molecular and genetic basis of causation.

  17. Otitis and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Zambrano-Enriquez, Diana; De Anta, Laura; Zelmanova, Julie; De Dios Vega, Jose Luis; Lopez-Ibor, Juan Jose

    2010-01-01

    The case of a 5-year-old child diagnosed as having pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), autistic type, from age 1 is reported. After surgery of vegetation in middle ear for repetitive otitis, the child presented an improvement in autistic behaviours, previously expressed as impaired social interactions, qualitative abnormalities in communication, a marked delay in language development, echolalia, stereotypies and self-aggressive behaviours. The aim of this paper is to bring attention to oc...

  18. Autistic phenomena in The Adventures of Pinocchio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    This paper seeks to demonstrate that the protagonist of Carlo Collodi's The Adventures of Pinocchio illustrates numerous autistic phenomena such as communication difficulties, sensory and perceptual distortions and mindblindness. While Pinocchio is viewed as a literary construct with contraindications of autism, it will be argued that his autistic traits are sufficient to suggest the possibility that Collodi had a partial intuition of the syndrome 60 years before it was identified by Leo Kanner. Approaching Collodi's text in this manner is taken as an opportunity to survey and reflect upon the psychoanalytic literature on autism and to position it in relation to contemporary theories from cognitive neuroscience.

  19. Phonological and Visuospatial Working Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, P.; Soriano, M. F.; Paredes, N.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated phonological and visuospatial working memory (WM) in autism spectrum disorders. Autistic children and typically developing children were compared. We used WM tasks that measured phonological and visuospatial WM up to the capacity limit of each children. Overall measures of WM did not show differences between autistic children and…

  20. Understanding the autistic dental patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Danielle; Flanagan, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of many pervasive developmental disorders (PDD); others include Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder (also known as Heller's syndrome), pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and the higher functioning Asperger's syndrome. Because ASD is the most common of the developmental disabilities, it is not unusual for dentists to have ASD patients among their patient population. As the name indicates, ASD varies widely in its clinical manifestations; however, dentists are likely to encounter difficulties with communication and socialization. Although communication may be difficult, it is not impossible. A thorough understanding of this complex neurological disorder and displaying patience are vital for the dentist. This article seeks to familiarize readers with ASD characteristics and co-morbid conditions that may affect dental treatment and provide some management strategies for this unique population.

  1. Effect of pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelson Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is complex neuro-developmental disorder which has a symptomatic diagnosis in patients characterized by disorders in language/communication, behavior, and social interactions. The exact causes for autism are largely unknown, but is has been speculated that immune and inflammatory responses, particularly those of Th2 type, may be involved. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a nuclear hormone receptor which modulates insulin sensitivity, and have been shown to induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes and exert anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells. The TZD pioglitazone (Actos is an FDA-approved PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, with a good safety profile, currently being tested in clinical trials of other neurological diseases including AD and MS. We therefore tested the safety and therapeutic potential of oral pioglitazone in a small cohort of children with diagnosed autism. Case description The rationale and risks of taking pioglitazone were explained to the parents, consent was obtained, and treatment was initiated at either 30 or 60 mg per day p.o. A total of 25 children (average age 7.9 ± 0.7 year old were enrolled. Safety was assessed by measurements of metabolic profiles and blood pressure; effects on behavioral symptoms were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, which measures hyperactivity, inappropriate speech, irritability, lethargy, and stereotypy, done at baseline and after 3–4 months of treatment. Discussion and evaluation In a small cohort of autistic children, daily treatment with 30 or 60 mg p.o. pioglitazone for 3–4 months induced apparent clinical improvement without adverse events. There were no adverse effects noted and behavioral measurements revealed a significant decrease in 4 out of 5 subcategories (irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, and hyperactivity. Improved behaviors were inversely

  2. Personal Pronouns and the Autistic Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Warren H.

    1979-01-01

    Current theory and research in development of self and of language in autistic children is considered, with emphasis on studies of normal development of personal pronouns and the roles played in that process by listening, echoic memory, mitigated echolalia (recording), and person deixis. (Author)

  3. Pragmatic Aesthetics and the Autistic Artist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kyle; Barnbaum, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    There are many prominent examples of artists with autism. However, even when confronted with evidence of these accomplished "autistic savants", pragmatic aesthetic theories cannot adequately account for the work of these accomplished artists as "artists". This article first examines the nature of autism and explores a prominent psychological…

  4. The Neuroanatomy of the Autistic Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Cherine; Meguid, Nagwa A.; Nashaat, Neveen H.; Yoon, Uicheul; Mancini-Marie, Adham; Evans, Alan C.

    2012-01-01

    The autism phenotype is associated with an excess of brain volume due in part to decreased pruning during development. Here we aimed at assessing brain volume early in development to further elucidate previous findings in autism and determine whether this pattern is restricted to idiopathic autism or shared within the autistic phenotype (fragile X…

  5. [Art therapy to support autistic people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Lysiane

    2014-01-01

    Art therapy, the result of a psychodynamic approach with mediation, can help autistic children and adults to express themselves and communicate. A one-to-one session gives rise to a therapeutic encounter which uses both analytical and educationaI approaches.

  6. Resistance to change and vulnerability to stress: autistic-like features of GAP43-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaria, K J; Lagace, D C; Eisch, A J; McCasland, J S

    2010-11-01

    There is an urgent need for animal models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to understand the underlying pathology and facilitate development and testing of new treatments. The synaptic growth-associated protein-43 (GAP43) has recently been identified as an autism candidate gene of interest. Our previous studies show many brain abnormalities in mice lacking one allele for GAP43 [GAP43 (+/-)] that are consistent with the disordered connectivity theory of ASD. Thus, we hypothesized that GAP43 (+/-) mice would show at least some autistic-like behaviors. We found that GAP43 (+/-) mice, relative to wild-type (+/+) littermates, displayed resistance to change, consistent with one of the diagnostic criteria for ASD. GAP43 (+/-) mice also displayed stress-induced behavioral withdrawal and anxiety, as seen in many autistic individuals. In addition, both GAP43 (+/-) mice and (+/+) littermates showed low social approach and lack of preference for social novelty, consistent with another diagnostic criterion for ASD. This low sociability is likely because of the mixed C57BL/6J 129S3/SvImJ background. We conclude that GAP43 deficiency leads to the development of a subset of autistic-like behaviors. As these behaviors occur in a mouse that displays disordered connectivity, we propose that future anatomical and functional studies in this mouse may help uncover underlying mechanisms for these specific behaviors. Strain-specific low sociability may be advantageous in these studies, creating a more autistic-like environment for study of the GAP43-mediated deficits of resistance to change and vulnerability to stress.

  7. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

  8. Global methylation profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines reveals epigenetic contributions to autism spectrum disorders and a novel autism candidate gene, RORA, whose protein product is reduced in autistic brain

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Anhthu; Rauch, Tibor A; Pfeifer, Gerd P.; Hu, Valerie W.

    2010-01-01

    Autism is currently considered a multigene disorder with epigenetic influences. To investigate the contribution of DNA methylation to autism spectrum disorders, we have recently completed large-scale methylation profiling by CpG island microarray analysis of lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from monozygotic twins discordant for diagnosis of autism and their nonautistic siblings. Methylation profiling revealed many candidate genes differentially methylated between discordant MZ twins as well ...

  9. Do Some Cases of Anorexia Nervosa Reflect Underlying Autistic-Like Conditions?

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    C. Gillberg

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In a sample of 51 teenagers with anorexia nervosa (AN—which included 24 cases constituting the total population of AN cases born in 1970—several had shown social, communicative and behaviour patterns suggestive of autistic-like conditions as children, long before the onset of AN. One of the three boys in the AN group had Asperger syndrome. Three of the 48 girls had histories suggesting high functioning autism and continued to show many features typical of autism. Two further girls had Tourette syndrome and obsessive–compulsive traits in combination with social interaction problems. Eighteen other girls met criteria for obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD and most of these also had had moderate–severe childhood social interaction problems. In a sex- and age-matched comparison group from the same schools, two girls had OCPD, but none had autistic-like conditions or Tourette syndrome. The results are discussed in the context of a recently suggested link between Asperger syndrome, Tourette syndrome and obsessive–compulsive problems, and it is suggested that AN in a subgroup of cases might represent a disorder belonging in the same class as autism and autistic-like conditions.

  10. A proteomic investigation of B lymphocytes in an autistic family: a pilot study of exposure to natural rubber latex (NRL) may lead to autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Zhao, Xin-liang; Ju, Weina; Zou, Xiao-bing; Huo, Li-rong; Yan, Wu; Zou, Jun-hua; Yan, Guo-di; Jenkins, Edmund C; Brown, W Ted; Zhong, Nanbert

    2011-03-01

    Autism is a multi-factorial neurodevelopmental disorder. We have investigated the molecular mechanism involved in a Chinese family with autism by a proteomic approach. Antibody chips containing 500 spots of human protein antibodies were used to screen for differentially expressed proteins in the peripheral B lymphocytes between autistic and non-autistic siblings in this family. Four proteins relevant to immuno-pathway, including IKKα that was up-regulated and Tyk2, EIF4G1 and PRKCI that were down-regulated, were identified differentially expressed in autistic versus non-autistic siblings. Western blot analysis and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction validated the differential expression of these four proteins. Based on the function of these differentially expressed proteins, relevant studies on immunoglobulin E (IgE) level, nuclear factor kappa B signaling activation and cell cycle were conducted in both autistic and non-autistic children of this family. Considering the fact that the family members were in close contact with natural rubber latex (NRL) and that IgE-mediated cross-reactions could be triggered by Hevea brasiliensis (Hev-b) proteins in NRL, we hypothesize that immune reactions triggered by close contact with NRL might influence the functions of B lymphocytes by altering expression of certain proteins identified in our experiments thus contributing to the occurrence of autism.

  11. The design principles of edutainment system for autistic children with communication difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azham; Abdullah, Adil; Husni, Husniza

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 50% of all individuals with Autism have difficulties in developing functional language owing to communication deterioration. Mobile devices with installed educational games help these individuals feel more comfortable and relaxed doing such activities. Although numerous mobile applications are available for individuals with Autism, they are difficult to use; particularly in terms of user-interface design. From the analysis of existing apps for autistic children, an app design principles are proposed based on interaction design (IxD), that would fulfil the users' requirements in a better manner. Five applications were involved in this analysis. The analysis identified fifteen suggestions for the design principles. These recommendations are offered by this paper towards designing and developing a prototype app for autistic children. This paper introduces an edutainment-system design principle formulated to help develop the communication skills of children with Autism-spectrum disorders.

  12. Autistic Enterocolitis: Fact or Fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polymnia Galiatsatos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder refers to syndromes of varying severity, typified by impaired social interactions, communicative delays and restricted, repetitive behaviours and interests. The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders has been on the rise, while the etiology remains unclear and most likely multifactorial. There have been several reports of a link between autism and chronic gastrointestinal symptoms. Endoscopy trials have demonstrated a higher prevalence of nonspecific colitis, lymphoid hyperplasia and focally enhanced gastritis compared with controls. Postulated mechanisms include aberrant immune responses to some dietary proteins, abnormal intestinal permeability and unfavourable gut microflora. Two autism spectrum disorder patients with chronic intestinal symptoms and abnormal endoscopic findings are described, followed by a review of this controversial topic.

  13. Neuroinformatic analyses of common and distinct genetic components associated with major neuropsychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lotan, Amit; Fenckova, Michaela; Bralten, Janita; Alttoa, Aet; Dixson, Luanna; Williams, Robert W.; van der Voet, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Major neuropsychiatric disorders are highly heritable, with mounting evidence suggesting that these disorders share overlapping sets of molecular and cellular underpinnings. In the current article we systematically test the degree of genetic commonality across six major neuropsychiatric disorders—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders (Anx), autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). We curate...

  14. The autistic mind in the light of neuropsychological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    The underlying causes of autism spectrum disorders have not yet been identified. There is a group of theories which attempt to explain the source of difficulties experienced by people with these disorders through neurocognitive deficits. The most popular among them refer to deficits in theory of mind, executive dysfunction and weak central coherence. The results of over 20 years of research show that although these deficits may at least partially explain variations in the course of social development, communication difficulties and the formation of rigid patterns of behavior and interests in individuals with autism, none of them is sufficient on its own to comprehensively explain the complex picture of autistic disorders. Information about the neurobiological correlates of these deficits complement our knowledge about their mutual relationships by showing that multiple neural networks are involved in the emergence of autism's signs and symptoms. Further investigation of various aspects of these cognitive deficits and the relationships between them may significantly improve our understanding of processes involved in the development of autism.

  15. Management of children with autism spectrum disorder in the dental setting: concerns, behavioural approaches and recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This article reviews the present literature on the issues encountered while coping with children with autistic spectrum disorder from the dental perspective. The autistic patient profile and external factors affecting the oral health status of this patient population are discussed upon the existing body of evidence. Material and Methods: The MEDLINE database was searched using the terms ‘Autistic Disorder’, ‘Behaviour Control/methods’, ‘Child’, ‘Dental care for disabled’, ‘Educati...

  16. A Scale to Assist the Diagnosis of Autism and Asperger's Disorder in Adults (RAADS): A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward R.; Guthrie, Donald; Yuwiler, Arthur; Ritvo, Max Joseph; Weisbender, Leo

    2008-01-01

    An empirically based 78 question self-rating scale based on DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria was developed to assist clinicians' diagnosis of adults with autism and Asperger's Disorder-the Ritvo Autism and Asperger's Diagnostic Scale (RAADS). It was standardized on 17 autistic and 20 Asperger's Disorder and 57 comparison subjects. Both autistic and…

  17. Seeking the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder. Part 2: functional neuroimaging [W poszukiwaniu przyczyn zaburzeń ze spektrum autyzmu – neuroobrazowanie funkcjonalne (część II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple functional imaging techniques help to a better understanding of the neurobiological basis of autism-spectrum disorders (ASD. The early functional imaging studies on ASD focused on task-specific methods related to core symptom domains and explored patterns of activation in response to face processing, theory of mind tasks, language processing and executive function tasks. On the other hand, fMRI research in ASD focused on the development of functional connectivity methods and has provided evidence of alterations in cortical connectivity in ASD and establish autism as a disorder of under-connectivity among the brain regions participating in cortical networks. This atypical functional connectivity in ASD results in inefficiency and poor integration of processing in network connections to achieve task performance. The goal of this review is to summarise the actual neuroimaging functional data and examine their implication for understanding of the neurobiology of ASD.

  18. The mind of the mnemonists: an MEG and neuropsychological study of autistic memory savants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Nicola; Dubischar-Krivec, Anna M; Braun, Christoph; Löw, Andreas; Poustka, Fritz; Bölte, Sven; Birbaumer, Niels

    2010-12-20

    About 10% of autistic individuals exhibit some form of islets of abilities in the face of serious intellectual or mental disability ("savant syndrome"). The aim of this study was to investigate brain mechanisms in a sample of autistic subjects with outstanding memory. We investigated seven mnemonist savants with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and seven matched controls with 151-channel whole-head magnetencephalography in a continuous old-new paradigm. They were presented with 300 pseudowords and 300 shapes and had to indicate by button press, whether the presented stimulus had been shown before. Unexpectedly, mnemonist savants did not perform better than controls, but were outperformed in the recognition of pseudowords. Accordingly, event-related magnetic fields elicited by pseudowords showed widespread old-new effects in controls, but not in savants. A source analysis of its early components revealed right occipital activation in savants, but left parietal activation in controls. This might be related to a visual processing style in mnemonist savants that proved to be inefficient in this task. During the possibly familiarity-based recognition of shapes, there were earlier and more widespread bilateral old-new effects in mnemonist savants, what might reflect their experience with figural material. In a neuropsychological test battery, mnemonist savants performed comparably to autistic people without special memory skills. However, a different factor structure of these tests pointed to a different organization of memory in mnemonist savants compared to controls that is characterized by its relative independence of general intelligence.

  19. Prenatal maternal stress associated with ADHD and autistic traits in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica eRonald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that offspring of mothers who experience high levels of stress during pregnancy are more likely to have problems in neurobehavioural development. There is preliminary evidence that prenatal maternal stress (PNMS is a risk factor for both autism and ADHD, however most studies do not control for confounding factors and no study has investigated PNMS as a risk factor for behaviors characteristic of these disorders in early childhood. A population cohort of 2900 pregnant women were recruited before their 18th week of pregnancy and investigated prospectively. Maternal experience of stressful life events was assessed during pregnancy. When offspring were age 2-years, mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Multiple regression showed that maternal stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted ADHD behaviours in offspring, after controlling for autistic traits and other confounding variables, in both males (p= .03 and females (p= .01. Similarly, stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted autistic traits in the offspring after controlling for ADHD behaviours and confounding variables, in males only (p= .04. In conclusion, this study suggests that PNMS, in the form of typical stressful live events such as divorce or a residential move, show a small but significant association with both autistic traits and ADHD behaviours independently, in offspring at age 2 years, after controlling for multiple antenatal, obstetric, postnatal and sociodemographic covariates. This finding supports future research using epigenetic, cross-fostering, and gene-environment interaction designs to identify the causal processes underlying this association.

  20. Confirmatory factor analytic structure and measurement invariance of quantitative autistic traits measured by the social responsiveness scale-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W; Ratliff, Kristin R; Gruber, Chris; Zhang, Yi; Law, Paul A; Constantino, John N

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factor structure of autistic symptomatology is critical to the discovery and interpretation of causal mechanisms in autism spectrum disorder. We applied confirmatory factor analysis and assessment of measurement invariance to a large (N = 9635) accumulated collection of reports on quantitative autistic traits using the Social Responsiveness Scale, representing a broad diversity of age, severity, and reporter type. A two-factor structure (corresponding to social communication impairment and restricted, repetitive behavior) as elaborated in the updated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) criteria for autism spectrum disorder exhibited acceptable model fit in confirmatory factor analysis. Measurement invariance was appreciable across age, sex, and reporter (self vs other), but somewhat less apparent between clinical and nonclinical populations in this sample comprised of both familial and sporadic autism spectrum disorders. The statistical power afforded by this large sample allowed relative differentiation of three factors among items encompassing social communication impairment (emotion recognition, social avoidance, and interpersonal relatedness) and two factors among items encompassing restricted, repetitive behavior (insistence on sameness and repetitive mannerisms). Cross-trait correlations remained extremely high, that is, on the order of 0.66-0.92. These data clarify domains of statistically significant factoral separation that may relate to partially-but not completely-overlapping biological mechanisms, contributing to variation in human social competency. Given such robust intercorrelations among symptom domains, understanding their co-emergence remains a high priority in conceptualizing common neural mechanisms underlying autistic syndromes.

  1. Echoing in Autistic Children: A Chronometric Study of Semantic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Theodore; Lucy, Peter

    1978-01-01

    Explores the idea that echoing in autistics differs from normal imitation and represents a different species of production. Subjects were five autistic children, ranging in age from 3 years 10 months to 6 years 8 months, and two normal children, aged 2 years 6 months and 3 years 11 months. (MP)

  2. Autistic symptoms in childhood arrestees : longitudinal association with delinquent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, Charlotte A. M. L.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van Domburgh, Lieke; de Bildt, Annelies; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To compare childhood arrestees with matched comparison groups on levels of autistic symptoms and to assess the unique predictive value of autistic symptoms for future delinquent behavior in childhood arrestees. Methods: Childhood first-time arrestees (n = 308, baseline age 10.7 +/- 1.5 y

  3. Family Characteristics of Autistic Children: A Further Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sukhdev; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Parents of 21 well-functioning autistic children were examined. Clinical details of the eight parents diagnosed as schizoid are analyzed, leading to the conclusion that one etiological factor may be a genetic predisposition to schizoid personality traits. Global and specific developmental delays in the autistic children's siblings were not found.…

  4. An Autistic Child Would Like to Say "Hello"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishkova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    There is so much information about autistic children in educational theory. And there is not so much know-how in educational practice. This statute is about science research which main goal is to prove that autistic children and their families shouldn't be isolate by society because it is the worst way to be supported. There are many options now…

  5. An Alternative View of Pronominal Errors in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Benaroya, Sigmund

    1989-01-01

    The study of four autistic children, aged six-nine, found support for the hypothesis that persistent pronominal errors by autistic children can be explained by failure to observe pronouns in speech addressed to another person, an aspect of language development in normal children. (Author/DB)

  6. Structural MRI-based discrimination between autistic and typically developing brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmi, R.; Hassan, H.; Farag, A.A. [CVIP Lab., Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States); Elbaz, A. [Dept. of Bioengineering, Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States); Casanova, M.F. [Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral science, Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by marked deficits in communication, social interaction, and interests. Various studies of autism have suggested abnormalities in several brain regions, with an increasing agreement on the abnormal anatomy of the white matter (WM) and on deficits in the size of the corpus callosum (CC) and its sub-regions in autism. In this paper, we aim at using these abnormalities in order to devise robust classification methods of autistic vs. typically developing brains by analyzing their respective MRIs. Our analysis is based on shape descriptions and geometric models. We compute the 3D distance map to describe the shape of the WM, and use it as a statistical feature to discriminate between the two groups. We also use our recently proposed non-rigid registration technique to devise another classification approach by statistically analyzing and comparing the deformation fields generated from registering segmented CC's onto each others. The proposed techniques are tested on postmortem and on in-vivo brain MR data. At the 85% confidence level the WM-based classification algorithm correctly classified 14/14 postmortem-autistics and 12/12 in-vivo autistics, a 100% accuracy rate, and 13/15 postmortem controls (86% accuracy rate) and 30/30 in-vivo controls (100% accuracy rate). The technique based on the analysis of the CC was applied only on the in vivo data. At the 85% confidence rate, this technique correctly classified 10/15 autistics, a 0.66 accuracy rate, and 29/30 controls, a 0.96 accuracy rate. These results are very promising and show that, contrary to traditional methods, the proposed techniques are less sensitive to age and volume effects. (orig.)

  7. Association between amygdala volume and anxiety level: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juranek, Jenifer; Filipek, Pauline A; Berenji, Gholam R; Modahl, Charlotte; Osann, Kathryn; Spence, M Anne

    2006-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate brain-behavior relationships between amygdala volume and anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist in a well-characterized population of autistic children. Volumes for the amygdala, hippocampus, and whole brain were obtained from three-dimensional magnetic resonance images (MRIs) captured from 42 children who met the criteria for autistic disorder. Anxious/depressed symptoms were assessed in these children by the Anxious/Depressed subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist. To investigate the association between anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist and amygdala volume, data were analyzed using linear regression methods with Pearson correlation coefficients. A multivariate model was used to adjust for potential covariates associated with amygdala volume, including age at MRI and total brain size. We found that anxious/depressed symptoms were significantly correlated with increased total amygdala volume (r = .386, P = .012) and right amygdala volume (r = .469, P = .002). The correlation between anxious/depressed symptoms and left amygdala volume did not reach statistical significance (r = .249, P = .112). Child Behavior Checklist anxious/depressed scores were found to be a significant predictor of amygdala total (P = .014) and right amygdala (P = .002) volumes. In conclusion, we have identified a significant brain-behavior relationship between amygdala volume and anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist in our autistic cohort. This specific relationship has not been reported in autism. However, the existing literature on human psychiatry and behavior supports our reported evidence for a neurobiologic relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression with amygdala structure and function. Our results highlight the importance of characterizing comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in autism. The abundance of inconsistent findings in the published literature on autism might reflect

  8. Autistic traits in women with primary dysmenorrhea: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toy H

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Harun Toy,1 Arzu Hergüner,2 Sevcan Şimşek,1 Sabri Hergüner3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, 2Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic, Konya Training and Research Hospital, 3Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey Objectives: Recent studies have shown that women with autism spectrum disorder have higher rates of menstrual problems, including irregular menstrual cycles, unusually painful periods (dysmenorrhea, and excessive menstrual bleeding. In this study, we investigated the autistic traits in female university students with primary dysmenorrhea (PD. Methods: Seventy females with PD and 70 females without PD were enrolled in the study. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ was used to measure autistic traits and the Brief Symptom Inventory was used for evaluating anxiety and depression levels. The dysmenorrheal pain was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS, coded from 0 to 10. Weight and height were measured, and the body mass index was calculated. Results: There were no statistical differences between the groups in terms of age, duration of education, and body mass index. Women with PD had higher AQ – Total, and AQ – Attention Switching subscale scores than subjects without PD. Spearman analysis revealed that AQ – Total and AQ – Attention Switching scores were correlated with VAS. According to the linear regression analysis, VAS was predicted only by AQ – Attention Switching subscale. Conclusion: Our findings showed an association between autistic traits and dysmenorrhea in typically developing females. Keywords: primary dysmenorrhea, autistic traits, androgens

  9. Goal directed locomotion and balance control in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernazza-Martin, S; Martin, N; Vernazza, A; Lepellec-Muller, A; Rufo, M; Massion, J; Assaiante, C

    2005-02-01

    This article focuses on postural anticipation and multi-joint coordination during locomotion in healthy and autistic children. Three questions were addressed. (1) Are gait parameters modified in autistic children? (2) Is equilibrium control affected in autistic children? (3) Is locomotion adjusted to the experimenter-imposed goal? Six healthy children and nine autistic children were instructed to walk to a location (a child-sized playhouse) inside the psychomotor room of the pedopsychiatric centre located approximately 5 m in front of them. A kinematic analysis of gait (ELITE system) indicates that, rather than gait parameters or balance control, the main components affected in autistic children during locomotion are the goal of the action, the orientation towards this goal and the definition of the trajectory due probably to an impairment of movement planning.

  10. The relationship between level of autistic traits and local bias in the context of the McGurk effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta eUjiie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The McGurk effect is a well-known illustration that demonstrates the influence of visual information on hearing in the context of speech perception. Some studies have reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD display abnormal processing of audio-visual speech integration, while other studies showed contradictory results. Based on the dimensional model of ASD, we administered two analog studies to examine the link between level of autistic traits, as assessed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ, and the McGurk effect among a sample of university students. In the first experiment, we found that autistic traits correlated negatively with fused (McGurk responses. Then, we manipulated presentation types of visual stimuli to examine whether the local bias toward visual speech cues modulated individual differences in the McGurk effect. The presentation included four types of visual images, comprising no image, mouth only, mouth and eyes, and full face. The results revealed that global facial information facilitates the influence of visual speech cues on McGurk stimuli. Moreover, individual differences between groups with low and high levels of autistic traits appeared when the full-face visual speech cue with an incongruent voice condition was presented. These results suggest that individual differences in the McGurk effect might be due to a weak ability to process global facial information in individuals with high levels of autistic traits.

  11. The theory of transformations and autistic states. Autistic transformations: a proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix Korbivcher, Celia

    2005-12-01

    This work integrates two areas of thinking: one in which the author develops considerations regarding observation methods of mental phenomena in psychoanalysis according to Bion's theory of transformations; the other in which she is concerned with the investigation of primitive mental states--protomental states--more specifically, the autistic states of neurotic patients, described by Tustin. Some ideas on the 'philosophical' position underlying transformations theory are elaborated, particularly emphasizing the idea that the same phenomenon in psychoanalysis may be considered from different perspectives, as long as it is situated within the theoretical reference frame to which it belongs. The author considers the idea that this method of phenomenon observation is part of a wider context of general human knowledge, in which uncertainty and relativity of concepts are the main components. By adopting transformations theory as a perspective of phenomena observation that pervades the analytical meeting, the author questions whether it is possible to include other groups of transformation of emotional experiences in this theory, which shows particular phenomena with specific qualities, distinct from those emphasized by Bion. She hypothesizes that autistic phenomena present in neurotic patients, characterizing autistic states, may be considered and detached, making up a particular group of transformation of emotional experience, which analysts often face in their daily practice. She names this group 'autistic transformations'.

  12. The Use of a Negative Reinforcement Procedure to Increase the Performance of Autistic and Mentally Retarded Children on Discrimination Training Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Negative reinforcement plus edibles and praise produced about 90 percent correct responding for four severely retarded/autistic children (six to eight years old), while edibles and praise alone were much less effective. Use of negative reinforcement with noncompliant or difficult- to-motivate behaviorally disordered children appeared to be an…

  13. Management of children with autism spectrum disorder in the dental setting : Concerns, behavioural approaches and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, Konstantina; Reichart, Peter A.; Bornstein, Michael M.; Livas, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This article reviews the present literature on the issues encountered while coping with children with autistic spectrum disorder from the dental perspective. The autistic patient profile and external factors affecting the oral health status of this patient population are discussed upon t

  14. Organization of brain networks governed by long-range connections index autistic traits in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Barttfeld, Pablo; Amoruso, Lucía; Ais, Joaquín; Cukier, Sebastián; Bavassi, Luz; Tomio, Ailin; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustín; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Background: The dimensional approach to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) considers ASD as the extreme of a dimension traversing through the entire population. We use electroencephalography (EEG) functional connectivity to explore its potential utility as a biomarker. We hypothesized that individual differences in autistic traits of typical subjects would involve a long-range connectivity diminution within the delta band. Methods: Resting state EEG functional connectivity was measured for 74 ne...

  15. Outsider Art and the autistic creator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Roger

    2009-05-27

    Outsider Art (art brut) is defined as a mode of original artistic expression which thrives on its independence, shunning the public sphere and the art market. Such art can be highly idiosyncratic and secretive, and reflects the individual creator's attempt to construct a coherent, albeit strange, private world. Certain practitioners of what may be termed autistic art are examined in the light of this definition; their work is considered as evidence not of a medical condition but of an expressive intentionality entirely worthy of the interest of those drawn to the aesthetic experience.

  16. Gray matter reduction in the vermis and CRUS-II is associated with social and interaction deficits in low-functioning children with autistic spectrum disorders: a VBM-DARTEL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Daria; Annunziata, Silvia; Contarino, Valeria; Erbetta, Alessandra; Aquino, Domenico; Bulgheroni, Sara

    2013-10-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have reported abnormalities in brain regions involved in functions that are commonly impaired in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, little is known about brain structure anomalies in low-functioning (LF) young children with ASD. A VBM analysis was carried out to assess brain regions involved in ASD LF children, and a multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between regional volume changes and autism symptom measures. Twenty-six LF ASD children (2-10 years) were compared with 21 controls. A VBM-Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration analysis using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to evaluate gray matter (GM) and white matter alterations, covaried with Intelligence Quotient, age, and total brain volume. The resulting altered regions were correlated with Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI)-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)-Generic scores. GM bilateral reduction was noted in the cerebellum (Crus II and vermis) and in the hippocampi in ASD group. GM reduction was also detected in the inferior and superior frontal gyri, in the occipital medial and superior gyri, and in the inferior temporal gyrus of the left cerebral hemisphere. In the right hemisphere, GM reduction was found in the post-central cortex and in the occipital inferior gyrus. Multiple regression analysis showed a correlation between alterations in GM volume in the cerebellum (Crus II and vermis) and ADI-communication and ADOS-total (communication and interaction) scores. These findings seem to confirm that the cerebellum is involved in integrating and regulating emotional and cognitive functions which are impaired in ASD.

  17. Coexisting Disorders and Problems in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Höglund Carlsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To analyze cooccurring disorders and problems in a representative group of 198 preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD who had had interventions at a specialized habilitation center. Methods. Parents and children were seen by a research team. Data were based on parental interviews, pediatric assessments, and tests of the child. Information on autistic symptoms, general cognitive function, speech and language, motor function, epilepsy, vision, hearing, activity level, behavior, and sleep was collected. Results. Three ASD categories were used: (1 autistic disorder (AD, (2 autistic-like condition (ALC or Asperger syndrome, and (3 one group with autistic symptoms/traits but not entirely all its criteria met for ASD. Children with autism had a mean of 3.2 coexisting disorders or problems, the ALC/Asperger group had a mean of 1.6, and children with autistic traits had a mean of 1.6. The most common disorder/problems in the total group pertained to language problems (78%, intellectual disability (ID (49%, below average motor function (37%, and severe hyperactivity/ADHD (33%. Conclusions. The results accord with the concept of early symptomatic syndromes eliciting neurodevelopmental clinical examination (ESSENCE, and highlight the need of considering ASD in a broad perspective taking also other cooccurring developmental disorders into account.

  18. Pancreatic Response to Gold Nanoparticles Includes Decrease of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation In Autistic Diabetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manar E. Selim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have a wide range of applications in various fields. This study provides an understanding of the modulatory effects of AuNPs on an antioxidant system in male Wistar diabetic rats with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Normal littermates fed by control mothers were injected with citrate buffer alone and served as normal, untreated controls controlin this study. Diabetes mellitus (DM was induced by administering a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ (100 mg/kg to the pups of (ND diabetic group, which had been fasted overnight. Autistic pups from mothers that had received a single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg sodium valproate on day 12.5 after conception were randomly divided into 2 groups (n 2 7/group as follow; administering single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ ( (100 mg/kg to the overnight fasted autistic pups of (AD autistic diabetic group. The treatment was started on the 5th day after STZ injection with the same dose as in group II and it was considered as 1st day of treatment with gold nanoparticles for 7 days to each rat of (group IV treated autistic diabetic group(TAD at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg. b. wt. Results: At this dose of administration AuNPs, the activities of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase were greater in group TAD compared with the control group (P 0.05 in the liver of autistic diabetic AuNPs -supplemented rats, whereas reduced glutathione was markedly higher than in control rats, especially after administration of AuNPs. Moreover, the kidney functions in addition to the fat profile scoring supported the protective potential of that dose of AuNPs. The beta cells revealed euchromatic nuclei with no evidence of separation of nuclear membrane. Conclusions: Our results showed that AuNPs improved many of the oxidative stress parameters (SOD, GPx and, CAT, plasma antioxidant capacity (ORAC and lipid profile

  19. Frequency of symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in autistic children Freqüência de sintomas de transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade em crianças autistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Pereira Pondé

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both DSM-IV and the ICD-10 exclude diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD when autism diagnostic is present. Some authors suggest, however, that autism can be associated to other comorbidity amongst which the ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence of ADHD in children with autism. METHOD: Children were selected from a specialized school, all of then had previous diagnosis or diagnostic suspicion of autism. The Brazilian version of the KIDDIE-SADS PL was applied to parents for diagnostic of ADHD. DSM-IV diagnostic of autism was based on parents' interview and child observation. RESULTS: 32 children were included in the study. Results show that 53.1% of the ASD child had ADHD symptoms enough to fulfill DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, whereas 56.9% did not fulfill DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. CONCLUSION: Results suggest a high frequency of ADHD symptoms in ASD patients. Elucidating if we are facing a comorbity or an autism distinct phenotype can contribute for a more adjusted pharmacotherapy approach for these children.Tanto o DSM-IV quanto a CID-10 excluem o diagnóstico de transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH em pacientes autistas. A literatura, no entanto, sugere que o autismo pode estar associado a outras doenças, dentre elas o TDAH. OBJETIVO: Estimar a freqüência de sintomas de TDAH em autistas. MÉTODO: As crianças foram selecionadas de uma escola especializada em crianças com transtorno do espectro autista (TEA; todas tinham um diagnóstico ou suspeita diagnóstica prévia de autismo. O instrumento de avaliação aplicado para o diagnóstico de TDAH foi a versão brasileira do KIDDIE-SADS PL. O diagnóstico de autismo de acordo com os critérios do DSM-IV foi feito através de entrevista com os pais e observação da criança. RESULTADOS: 32 crianças foram incluídas no estudo. Os resultados indicam que 53,1% dos pacientes apresentaram sintomas compatíveis com o diagnóstico de TDAH e de

  20. Factor analysis demonstrates a common schizoidal phenotype within autistic and schizotypal tendency: Implications for neuroscientific studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha Caitlyn Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural and cognitive dysfunction, particularly social and communication impairments are shared between autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, while evidence for a diametric autism-positive schizophrenia symptom profile is inconsistent. We investigated the shared phenotype at a personality trait level, particularly its resemblance to schizoid personality disorder, as well as differential aspects of the autism-schizophrenia model.Items of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ were pseudo-randomly combined, and were completed by 449 (162 male, 287 female non-clinical participants aged 18-40. A Factor Analysis revealed three factors; the first represented a shared social disorganization phenotype, the second reflected perceptual oddities specific to schizotypy while the third reflected social rigidity specific to autism. The AQ and SPQ were strongly correlated with Factor 1 (AQ: r=.75, p<.001; SPQ: r=.96, p<.001, SPQ score was correlated with Factor 2 (r=.51, p<.001, particularly in Cognitive-Perceptual features (r=.66, p<.001, and AQ score was strongly correlated with Factor 3 (r=.76, p<.001. Furthermore, there was no relationship between Factor 1 and Factor 2.Thus, there is robust evidence for a shared social disorganization phenotype in autistic and schizotypal tendency, which reflects the schizoid phenotype. Discriminating and independent dimensions of schizotypal and autistic tendency exist in Factors 2 and 3 respectively. Current diagnostic protocols could result in different diagnoses depending on the instrument used, suggesting the need for neuromarkers that objectively differentiate autistic and schizotypal traits and resolve the question of commonality versus comorbidity.

  1. The possible link between elevated serum levels of epithelial cell-derived neutrophil- activating peptide-78 (ENA-78/CXCL5) and autoimmunity in autistic children

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa, Gehan Ahmed; AL-Ayadhi, Laila Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background In autoimmune disorders, the underlying pathogenic mechanism is the formation of antigen-antibody complexes which trigger an inflammatory response by inducing the infiltration of neutrophils. Epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating peptide-78 (ENA-78) is a chemokine that recruits and activates neutrophils, thus it could play a pathogenic role in inflammation and autoimmune disorders. Some autistic children have elevated levels of brain specific auto-antibodies. We are the fir...

  2. Sleep Disorders, Epilepsy, and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe the clinical data linking autism with sleep and epilepsy and to discuss the impact of treating sleep disorders in children with autism either with or without coexisting epileptic seizures. Studies are presented to support the view that sleep is abnormal in individuals with autistic spectrum…

  3. Developmental Regression in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder Identified by a Population-Based Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Rice, Catherine E.; Baio, Jon

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the phenomenon of autistic regression using population-based data. The sample comprised 285 children who met the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) case definition within an ongoing surveillance program. Results indicated that children with a previously documented ASD diagnosis had higher rates of autistic regression than children…

  4. Homocysteine level in urine of autistic and healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Michalska, Monika; Rynkowski, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Homocysteine is an amino acid which plays several important roles in human physiology and is an important biomarker for possible deficiencies of various vitamins (vitamin B₆ and B₁₂, folic acid). In this work GC-MS method was used to determine the levels of homocysteine in the urine of autistic and healthy children. The levels of homocysteine in urine samples from 34 autistic and 21 healthy children were 2.36 ± 1.24 and 0.76 ± 0.31 (mmol∙mol⁻¹ creatinine), respectively. The higher level of homocysteine in autistic children may indicate deficiencies of folic acid and vitamins B₆ and B₁₂ in nutrition of these children. The results of this work were taken into consideration in the nutrition of autistic children treated in the Navicula Centre of Diagnosis and Therapy of Autism in Łódź (Poland).

  5. The level and nature of autistic intelligence III: Inspection time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Elise B; Soulières, Isabelle; Dawson, Michelle; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Mottron, Laurent

    2013-02-01

    Across the autism spectrum, level of intelligence is highly dependent on the psychometric instrument used for assessment, and there are conflicting views concerning which measures best estimate autistic cognitive abilities. Inspection time is a processing speed measure associated with general intelligence in typical individuals. We therefore investigated autism spectrum performance on inspection time in relation to two different general intelligence tests. Autism spectrum individuals were divided into autistic and Asperger subgroups according to speech development history. Compared to a typical control group, mean inspection time for the autistic subgroup but not the Asperger subgroup was significantly shorter (by 31%). However, the shorter mean autistic inspection time was evident only when groups were matched on Wechsler IQ and disappeared when they were matched using Raven's Progressive Matrices. When autism spectrum abilities are compared to typical abilities, results may be influenced by speech development history as well as by the instrument used for intelligence matching.

  6. A Comparative Dermatoglyphic Study of Autistic, Retarded, and Normal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartin, Phillip J.; Barry, Robert J.

    1979-01-01

    Significant differences were found between the autistic and normal children for distribution of dermal patterns and ridge line disruption, but no significant differences were found for the total mean ridge counts or mean ridge count rankings. (Author)

  7. Serotonin Signal Transduction in Two Groups of Autistic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0820 TITLE: Serotonin Signal Transduction in Two...Report 3. DATES COVERED 15 September 2011-14 September 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Serotonin Signal Transduction in Two Groups of Autistic Patients...the arena of serotonin sensitivity, from those cells obtained from autistic subjects with normal serum serotonin . This was not the case, as the

  8. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-03-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic traits. Seven studies were identified and subsequent meta-analysis indicated that those with AN appear to have significant difficulties of a manner characteristic of ASD, relative to controls. Whilst this analysis supports previous indications of higher prevalence of ASD in AN, the aetiology of these traits remains unclear. Studies using more robust clinical measures of ASD within AN are needed to confirm what self-report measures appear to show.

  9. Uncovering the social deficits in the autistic brain.A Source-Based Morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Grecucci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that mainly affects social interaction and communication. Evidence from behavioral and functional MRI studies supports the hypothesis that dysfunctional mechanisms involving social brain structures play a major role in autistic symptomatology. However, the investigation of anatomical abnormalities in the brain of people with autism has led to inconsistent results. We investigated whether specific brain regions, known to display functional abnormalities in autism, may exhibit mutual and peculiar patterns of covariance in their grey-matter concentrations. We analyzed structural MRI images of 32 young men affected by autistic disorder (AD and 50 healthy controls. Controls were matched for sex, age, handedness. IQ scores were also monitored to avoid confounding. A multivariate Source-Based Morphometry (SBM was applied for the first time on AD and controls to detect maximally independent networks of gray matter. Group comparison revealed a gray-matter source that showed differences in AD compared to controls. This network includes broad temporal regions involved in social cognition and high-level visual processing, but also motor and executive areas of the frontal lobe. Notably, we found that gray matter differences, as reflected by SBM, significantly correlated with social and behavioral deficits displayed by AD individuals and encoded via the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. These findings provide support for current hypotheses about the neural basis of atypical social and mental states information processing in autism.

  10. Factor Analysis Demonstrates a Common Schizoidal Phenotype within Autistic and Schizotypal Tendency: Implications for Neuroscientific Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Talitha C; Crewther, David P

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and cognitive dysfunction, particularly social and communication impairments, are shared between autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, while evidence for a diametric autism-positive schizophrenia symptom profile is inconsistent. We investigated the shared phenotype at a personality trait level, particularly its resemblance to schizoid personality disorder, as well as differential aspects of the autism-schizophrenia model. Items of the autism spectrum quotient (AQ) and schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ) were pseudo-randomly combined, and were completed by 449 (162 male, 287 female) non-clinical participants aged 18-40. A factor analysis revealed three factors; the first represented a shared social disorganization phenotype, the second reflected perceptual oddities specific to schizotypy while the third reflected social rigidity specific to autism. The AQ and SPQ were strongly correlated with Factor 1 (AQ: r = 0.75, p schizotypal tendency, which reflects the schizoid phenotype. Discriminating and independent dimensions of schizotypal and autistic tendency exist in Factors 2 and 3, respectively. Current diagnostic protocols could result in different diagnoses depending on the instrument used, suggesting the need for neuromarkers that objectively differentiate autistic and schizotypal traits and resolve the question of commonality versus co-morbidity.

  11. Superior Fluid Intelligence in Children with Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Mika; Kato, Motoichiro; Igarashi, Kazue; Kashima, Haruo

    2008-01-01

    Asperger's disorder is one of autistic spectrum disorders; sharing clinical features with autism, but without developmental delay in language acquisition. There have been some studies of intellectual functioning in autism so far, but very few in Asperger's disorder. In the present study, we investigated abstract reasoning ability, whose form of…

  12. Attachment in Toddlers with Autism and Other Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Fabienne B. A.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Dietz, Claudine; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Attachment was assessed in toddlers with Autistic Disorder (n = 20), Pervasive Developmental Disorder (n = 14), Mental Retardation (n = 12), Language Development Disorder (n = 16), and a non-clinical comparison group (n = 18), using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Children in the clinical groups were more often disorganized and less often…

  13. Attachment in toddlers with autism and other developmental disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, F.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; IJzendoorn, M.H. van; Dietz, C.; Daalen, E. van; Engeland, H. van

    2007-01-01

    Attachment was assessed in toddlers with Autistic Disorder (n=20), Pervasive Developmental Disorder (n=14), Mental Retardation (n=12), Language Development Disorder (n=16), and a non-clinical comparison group (n=18), using the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Children in the clinical groups were m

  14. Proinflammatory and proapoptotic markers in relation to mono and di-cations in plasma of autistic patients from Saudi Arabia

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    Ben Bacha Abir G

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by social and emotional deficits, language impairments and stereotyped behaviors that manifest in early postnatal life. This study aims to clarify the relationship amongst absolute and relative concentrations of K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and/or proinflammatory and proapoptotic biomarkers. Materials and methods Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+/K+, Ca2+/Mg2+ together with IL6, TNFα as proinflammatory cytokines and caspase3 as proapoptotic biomarker were determined in plasma of 25 Saudi autistic male patients and compared to 16 age and gender matching control samples. Results The obtained data recorded that Saudi autistic patients have a remarkable lower plasma caspase3, IL6, TNFα, Ca2+ and a significantly higher K+ compared to age and gender matching controls. On the other hand both Mg2+ and Na+ were non-significantly altered in autistic patients. Pearson correlations revealed that plasma concentrations of the measured cytokines and caspase-3 were positively correlated with Ca2+ and Ca2+/K+ ratio. Reciever Operating Characteristics (ROC analysis proved that the measured parameters recorded satisfactory levels of specificity and sensitivity. Conclusion Alteration of the selected measured ions confirms that oxidative stress and defective mitochondrial energy production could be contributed in the pathogenesis of autism. Moreover, it highlights the relationship between the measured ions, IL6, TNFα and caspase3 as a set of signalling pathways that might have a role in generating this increasingly prevalent disorder. The role of ions in the possible proinflammation and proapoptic mechanisms of autistics' brains were hypothesized and explained.

  15. Clinical trials of fatty acid treatment in ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and the autistic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A J

    2004-04-01

    Considerable clinical and experimental evidence now supports the idea that deficiencies or imbalances in certain highly unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to a range of common developmental disorders including ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Definitive evidence of a causal contribution, however, can only come from intervention studies in the form of randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Published studies of this kind are still fairly few in number, and mainly involve the diagnostic categories of ADHD and dyslexia, although other trials involving individuals with dyspraxia or ASD are in progress. The main findings to date from such studies are reviewed and evaluated here with the primary aim of guiding future research, although given that fatty acid supplementation for these conditions is already being adopted in many quarters, it is hoped that some of the information provided may also help to inform clinical practice.

  16. 自闭症患儿机构康复照顾者负担与社会支持的相关性研究%Study on correlations between burdens of caregivers in autistic - spectrum disorder children rehabilitation institutions and social supports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋忠燕; 陈玉明; 张小芳; 梁笛波; 梁小凤

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨自闭症(ASD)患儿机构康复照顾者负担与社会支持的相关性。方法:2015年6月运用一般人口学资料、照顾者负担量表及社会支持评定量表对我市某医院66例 ASD 患儿机构康复照顾者进行问卷调查。结果:ASD 患儿机构康复照顾者负担总分(48.82±15.25)分,照顾者有不同程度的负担;社会支持总分为(30.51±6.42)分,照顾者社会支持未达到高水平。社会支持总分与负担总分及角色负担呈负相关,客观支持与负担总分及角色负担呈负相关,主观支持与负担总分及个人负担呈负相关。结论:ASD 患儿机构康复照顾者负担与社会支持呈负相关,即所获得社会支持越多,照顾者的负担越少。机构、康复人员、特教老师、社会应给予照顾者更多的社会支持,以减轻照顾者身心照顾负担,使其能更好地承担照顾义务。%Objective:To discuss correlations between burdens of caregivers in autistic - spectrum disorder(ASD)children rehabilitation institutions and so-cial supports. Methods:Adopted general demographic data,caregiver burden inventory and social support revalued scale to investigate 66 caregivers from ASD children rehabilitation institution in a hospital of our city in June 2015. Results:Total score of caregivers in children rehabilitation institution was (48. 82 ± 15. 25),indicating that caregivers had different levels of burden;total score of social support was(30. 51 ± 6. 42),indicating that social support for caregivers failed to reach a high level. Social support total score was negatively correlated with burden total score and role burden,objective support was negatively correlated with burden total score and role burden,and subjective support was negatively correlated with burden total score and individual bur-den. Conclusion:Burden on caregivers in ASD children rehabilitation institutions is negatively correlated with social support

  17. Genome-wide association study of autistic-like traits in a general population study of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel Maree; Cadby, Gemma; Melton, Phillip E; Abraham, Lawrence J; Whitehouse, Andrew J; Moses, Eric K

    2013-01-01

    Lay abstract: It has been proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), representing the extreme end of this distribution. The current study undertook a genome-wide association (GWA) scan of 965 young Western Australian adults to identify novel risk variants associated with autistic-like traits. No associations reached genome-wide significance; however, a review of nominally associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) indicated two positional candidate loci that have been previously implicated in autistic-like trait etiology. Scientific abstract: Research has proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical ASD representing the extreme end of this distribution. Inherent in this proposal is that biological mechanisms associated with clinical ASD may also underpin variation in autistic-like traits within the general population. A GWA study using 2,462,046 SNPs was undertaken for ASD in 965 individuals from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. No SNP associations reached genome-wide significance (p CBLN1. The rs198198 SNP (p = 9.587 × 10(-6)), is located within an intron of the protein kinase C, beta 1 (PRKCB1) gene on chromosome 16p11. The PRKCB1 gene has been previously reported in linkage and association studies for ASD, and its mRNA expression has been shown to be significantly down regulated in ASD cases compared with controls. The rs16946931 SNP (p = 1.78 × 10(-6)) is located in a region flanking the Cerebellin 1 (CBLN1) gene on chromosome 16q12.1. The CBLN1 gene is involved with synaptogenesis and is part of a gene family previously implicated in ASD. This GWA study is only the second to examine SNPs associated with autistic-like traits in the general population, and provides evidence to support roles for the PRKCB1 and CBLN1 genes in risk of clinical ASD.

  18. Case-control study of autistic children's temperament%孤独症儿童气质特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江瑞芬; 刘文龙; 赵旭

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the temperament characteristics of autistic children. [Methods] 112 case-control study was adopted. 40 autistic children and 80 normal children aged from 3 to 7 were selected and assessed with Behavioral Style Questionnaire (BSQ), Self-revised questionnaire of family and environment factors and Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) scale. [Results] The adaptability, reaction intensity, persistence, response threshold scores of the autistic children's temperament dimensions were significantly different from normal children (P <0, 05); Autistic children group's verbal communication, social skills, cognitive awareness were correlated with the temperament dimensions (P<0. 05). [Conclusions] Temperament dimensions of autistic children are different from the normal children; The disorder of social skills, communication and cognition of autistic children influenced by the development of their temperament dimensions themselves.%[目的] 分析孤独症儿童的气质特征,为孤独症早期防治提供依据. [方法] 采1:2病例对照研究,对40例孤独症患儿及80例正常儿童采用《3~7岁儿童气质问卷》、自制的家庭与环境因素调查表、《孤独症治疗评定量表》进行评估. [结果] 40例孤独症组儿童的气质维度中适应性、反应强度、坚持性、反应阈分值与正常儿童组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);孤独症组ATEC量表中语言交流、社会能力、感知认知意识三个分量表分值与气质维度存在相关性(P<0.05). [结论] 孤独症组儿童气质维度与正常儿童组存在差异;孤独症儿童的社交、语言和认知等障碍影响气质维度的发展.

  19. Do the Traits of Autism-Spectrum Overlap with Those of Schizophrenia or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in the General Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Akio; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Ashwin, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Social and communicative deficits, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors are diagnostic features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study examined the relationship between autistic characteristics and schizophrenia-spectrum traits as well as between autistic characteristics and obsessive-compulsive traits in typically…

  20. Using psychodrama to relieve social barriers in an autistic child: A case study and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: It was possible for autistic children to relieve social barriers by implementing psychodrama training, then to improve the social cognitive ability and enhance the social function of the autistic children. These results provided basic Clinical implications for exploring a new intervention technique to reduce autistic symptom severity.

  1. The Comparative and Developmental Study of Auditory Information Processing in Autistic Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kenryu; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The study examined brain functions related to information processing in autistic adults using auditory evoked potentials (AEP) and missing stimulus potentials (MSP). Both nonautistic and autistic adults showed normal mature patterns and lateralities in AEP for music stimuli, but nonautistic children did not. Autistic adults showed matured patterns…

  2. The Effects of Echolalia on Acquisition and Generalization of Receptive Labeling in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlop, Marjorie H.

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments, with about five autistic children (two to 14 years old) in each experiment, assessed the effects of autistic immediate echolalia on acquisition and generalization of receptive labeling tasks. These results indicated that echolalia faciliated generalization for echolalic autistic children but not for functionally mute autistic…

  3. Classification of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Finite Mixture Modeling Approach to Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Rose F.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

    2010-01-01

    The heterogeneity found in autism and related disorders (i.e., "autism spectrum disorders") is widely acknowledged. Even within a specific disorder, such as Autistic Disorder, the range in abilities and clinical presentation is broad. The heterogeneity observed has prompted many researchers to propose subtypes beyond the commonly used DSM-IV-TR…

  4. Comparative RNA editing in autistic and neurotypical cerebella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eran, A; Li, J B; Vatalaro, K; McCarthy, J; Rahimov, F; Collins, C; Markianos, K; Margulies, D M; Brown, E N; Calvo, S E; Kohane, I S; Kunkel, L M

    2013-09-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is a neurodevelopmentally regulated epigenetic modification shown to modulate complex behavior in animals. Little is known about human A-to-I editing, but it is thought to constitute one of many molecular mechanisms connecting environmental stimuli and behavioral outputs. Thus, comprehensive exploration of A-to-I RNA editing in human brains may shed light on gene-environment interactions underlying complex behavior in health and disease. Synaptic function is a main target of A-to-I editing, which can selectively recode key amino acids in synaptic genes, directly altering synaptic strength and duration in response to environmental signals. Here, we performed a high-resolution survey of synaptic A-to-I RNA editing in a human population, and examined how it varies in autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder in which synaptic abnormalities are a common finding. Using ultra-deep (>1000 × ) sequencing, we quantified the levels of A-to-I editing of 10 synaptic genes in postmortem cerebella from 14 neurotypical and 11 autistic individuals. A high dynamic range of editing levels was detected across individuals and editing sites, from 99.6% to below detection limits. In most sites, the extreme ends of the population editing distributions were individuals with autism. Editing was correlated with isoform usage, clusters of correlated sites were identified, and differential editing patterns examined. Finally, a dysfunctional form of the editing enzyme adenosine deaminase acting on RNA B1 was found more commonly in postmortem cerebella from individuals with autism. These results provide a population-level, high-resolution view of A-to-I RNA editing in human cerebella and suggest that A-to-I editing of synaptic genes may be informative for assessing the epigenetic risk for autism.

  5. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caihong; Zou, Mingyang; Zhao, Dong; Xia, Wei; Wu, Lijie

    2016-06-07

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily) for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group), while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group). The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group). The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism.

  6. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caihong Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group, while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group. The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3 were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group. The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism.

  7. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits.

  8. Regional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in autistic individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisaoka, S.; Harada, M.; Nishitani, H. [Dept. of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan); Mori, K. [Dept. of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    We studied the variations in the concentration of metabolites with brain region and age in autistic individuals and normal controls using multiple analysis of covariance. We examined 55 autistic individuals (2-21 years old, 47 male and eight female) and 51 normal children (3 months-15 years old, 26 boys and 25 girls). Single volumes of interest were placed in the frontal, parietal and temporal region on both sides, the brain stem and cingulate gyrus. The concentration of each metabolite was quantified by the water reference method. The concentration of N-acetylaspartate in the temporal regions (Brodmann's areas 41 and 42) in the autistic individuals were significantly lower than those in the controls (P < 0.05), but concentrations in other regions were not significantly different between the autistic individuals and controls. This suggests low density or dysfunction of neurones in Brodmann's areas 41 and 42 in autistic individual, which might be related to the disturbances of the sensory speech centre (Wernicke's area) in autism. (orig.)

  9. Is fever a predictive factor in the autism spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megremi, Amalia S F

    2013-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display such a marked increase in recent decades that researchers speak of "epidemic outbreak" of the disease. Although the diagnostic framework has been expanded and thus more disorders now fall within the autistic spectrum, no one disputes the increased incidence of autism in modern societies, making it a major public health problem. On the other hand, heterogeneity is a major feature of the disorder, both in terms of the etiopathogenesis as well as to the phenotypic expression, natural history and evolution. Consequently, there is considerable research interest in determining factors which are etiopathogenetically, prognostically, preventively or/and therapeutically associated with the disorder. Literature data indicate that probably there are differences in susceptibility to various infections between normal and autistic children. In addition, some autistic children show improvement in the characteristics of their autistic behavior during febrile incident and repression of fever (through antipyretics) might be associated with the onset of autistic disorder. Since fever has been associated with mental illness since the time of Hippocrates already and the presence of fever is associated with a favorable outcome in various pathologic conditions, it is assumed that there are probably two subgroups of autistic children: those who have the possibility to develop acute febrile incidents and those who develop acute incidents without fever. If this is the case, it is important to know whether there are differences between the two subgroups in various biological markers (cytokines/chemokines, autoantibodies), neuroimaging findings, personal and family history of these children (use of drugs, vaccinations, history of autoimmunity, etc.) and, if the first subgroup consists of autistic people of higher functionality and better outcome, or not. If such a classification is real, is there a possibility for the fever to be used as a predictor of

  10. What affects social attention? Social presence, eye contact and autistic traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Freeth

    Full Text Available Social understanding is facilitated by effectively attending to other people and the subtle social cues they generate. In order to more fully appreciate the nature of social attention and what drives people to attend to social aspects of the world, one must investigate the factors that influence social attention. This is especially important when attempting to create models of disordered social attention, e.g. a model of social attention in autism. Here we analysed participants' viewing behaviour during one-to-one social interactions with an experimenter. Interactions were conducted either live or via video (social presence manipulation. The participant was asked and then required to answer questions. Experimenter eye-contact was either direct or averted. Additionally, the influence of participant self-reported autistic traits was also investigated. We found that regardless of whether the interaction was conducted live or via a video, participants frequently looked at the experimenter's face, and they did this more often when being asked a question than when answering. Critical differences in social attention between the live and video interactions were also observed. Modifications of experimenter eye contact influenced participants' eye movements in the live interaction only; and increased autistic traits were associated with less looking at the experimenter for video interactions only. We conclude that analysing patterns of eye-movements in response to strictly controlled video stimuli and natural real-world stimuli furthers the field's understanding of the factors that influence social attention.

  11. Do autistic children have higher levels of caries? A cross-sectional study in Turkish children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namal Necmi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess whether the dental caries experience is higher in children with an autistic disorder (AD than in normal children. Three schools for autistic children and three standard elementary schools in Istanbul, Turkey, were included in a cross-sectional study. Subjects were orally examined. Socio-demographic information and data about their oral care habits were obtained from their parents from records. Sixty-two children with AD and 301 children without AD were examined. Their ages varied between 6 and 12 years. Children with AD compared to those without AD had lower experience of caries. Logistic regression analysis of DMFT showed that the dental status was positively affected in younger children (OR = 15.57; 95% CI 7.62, 31.80, children from families with high income (OR = 5.42; 95% CI 2.31, 12.75, children brushing teeth regularly (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.10, 3.68, children consuming less sugar (OR = 5.01; 95% CI 2.57, 9.76 and in those with AD (OR=3.99; 95% CI 1.56, 10.19. Children with AD had better caries status than children without AD at younger ages.

  12. Theory of mind and verbal working memory deficits in parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcen, Sezen; Bora, Emre; Erermis, Serpil; Kesikci, Hande; Aydin, Cahide

    2009-03-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential values of executive function and social cognition deficits as endophenotypes of autism. While theory of mind (ToM) is generally accepted as a unitary concept, some have suggested that ToM may be separated into two components (mental state reasoning and decoding). In this study, both aspects of ToM and verbal working memory abilities were investigated with relatively demanding tasks. The authors used a neurocognitive battery to compare the executive function and social cognition skills of 76 parents of autistic probands with 41 parents of healthy children. Both groups were matched for IQ, age and gender. Index parents had verbal working memory deficits. They had also low performance on a mental state reasoning task. Index parents had difficulties in reasoning about others' emotions. In contrast to findings in the control group, low performance of mental state reasoning ability was not associated with working memory deficit in index parents. Social cognition and working memory impairments may represent potential endophenotypes, related to an underlying vulnerability for autistic spectrum disorders.

  13. [Pervasive developmental disorders: controversies concerning the classification of autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, E

    2000-01-01

    Autistic Disorder was described by Leo Kanner in 1943. Since that time not only the name of this disorder (initially early infantile autism) has changed but also it's relation to other disorders. DSM-IV includes autism together with Rett's Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Asperger's Disorder and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified into one category: Pervasive Developmental Disorders. The definition and contents of Pervasive Developmental Disorders raise many controversies. Differentiation between particular disorders within this category is also difficult. This paper discusses some of these problems.

  14. Assessing musical skills in autistic children who are not savants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Pamela

    2009-05-27

    Descriptions of autistic musical savants suggest that they possess extraordinary skills within the domain. However, until recently little was known about the musical skills and potential of individuals with autism who are not savants. The results from these more recent studies investigating music perception, cognition and learning in musically untrained children with autism have revealed a pattern of abilities that are either enhanced or spared. For example, increased sensitivity to musical pitch and timbre is frequently observed, and studies investigating perception of musical structure and emotions have consistently failed to reveal deficits in autism. While the phenomenon of the savant syndrome is of considerable theoretical interest, it may have led to an under-consideration of the potential talents and skills of that vast majority of autistic individuals, who do not meet savant criteria. Data from empirical studies show that many autistic children possess musical potential that can and should be developed.

  15. Neuroinformatic Analyses of Common and Distinct Genetic Components Associated with Major Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Amit eLotan; Michaela eFenckova; Janita eBralten; Aet eAlttoa; Luanna eDixson; Williams, Robert W.; Monique evan der Voet

    2014-01-01

    Major neuropsychiatric disorders are highly heritable, with mounting evidence suggesting that these disorders share overlapping sets of molecular and cellular underpinnings. In the current article we systematically test the degree of genetic commonality across six major neuropsychiatric disorders—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, autistic spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. We curated a well-vetted list of genes based o...

  16. Sleep Disturbances and Correlates of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianchen; Hubbard, Julie A.; Fabes, Richard A.; Adam, James B.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sleep patterns, sleep problems, and their correlates in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Subjects consisted of 167 ASD children, including 108 with autistic disorder, 27 with Asperger's syndrome, and 32 with other diagnoses of ASD. Mean age was 8.8 years (SD = 4.2), 86% were boys. Parents completed a…

  17. Asperger's Disorder Will Be Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Luke Y.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on identifying up-to-date number of publications that compared DSM-IV/ICD-10 Asperger's disorder (AspD) to Autistic Disorder/High-functioning Autism (AD/HFA). One hundred and twenty-eight publications were identified through an extensive search of major electronic databases and journals. Based on more than 90 clinical…

  18. Evaluate the Ability of Autistic Children to Use Expressive Language and Receptive Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hojjati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In early typical language development, children understand words before they are able to use them in speech. Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD generally show impairments in both the comprehension and the production of language. However, the relative degree of delay or impairment in each of these sub-domains may also be atypical and remains less well-understood. Materials and Methods: This study was a causal-comparative that including 30 children ( 15 girls and 15 boys with ASD,   who elected by random sampling. Data analysis was done using SPSS-16 and T-student test. Results: Results of t- tests showed significant differences between the two groups, autistic and normal children in the expressive language skill, cognitive and received language skill (P

  19. Atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, Pieter W.; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Tuynman-Qua, Hanneke G.; Kalverdijk, Luuk J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the effects of atomoxetine on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autistic features in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Method: Twelve children (aged 6-14 years) with PDD accompanied by ADHD symptoms entered a 10-wee

  20. Atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, P.W.; Steenhuis, M.P.; Tuynman-Qua, H.G.; Kalverdijk, L.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This pilot study examined the effects of atomoxetine on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autistic features in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). METHOD: Twelve children (aged 6-14 years) with PDD accompanied by ADHD symptoms entered a 10-wee

  1. Predictive value of subclinical autistic traits at age 14-15 months for behavioural and cognitive problems at age 3-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möricke, Esmé; Swinkels, Sophie H N; Beuker, Karin T; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2010-08-01

    It is unclear whether subclinical autistic traits at very young age are transient or stable, and have clinical relevance. This study investigated the relationship between early subclinical autistic traits and the occurrence of later developmental and behavioural problems as well as problems in cognitive and language functioning. Parents of infants aged 14-15 months from the general population completed the Early Screening of Autistic Traits Questionnaire (ESAT). Three groups of children with high, moderate, and low ESAT-scores (total n = 103) were selected. Follow-up assessments included the CBCL 1(1/2)-5 at age 3 years, and the SCQ, the ADI-R, the ADOS-G, an on-verbal intelligence test, and language tests for comprehension and production at age 4-5 years. None of the children met criteria for autism spectrum disorder at follow-up. Children with high ESAT-scores at 14-15 months showed significantly more internalizing and externalizing problems at age 3 years and scored significantly lower on language tests at age 4-5 years than children with moderate or low ESAT-scores. Further, significantly more children with high ESAT-scores (14/26, 53.8%) than with moderate and low ESAT-scores (5/36, 13.9% and 1/41, 2.4%, respectively) were in the high-risk/clinical range on one or more outcome domains (autistic symptoms, behavioural problems, cognitive and language abilities). Subclinical autistic traits at 14-15 months predict later behavioural problems and delays in cognitive and language functioning rather than later ASD-diagnoses. The theoretical implications of the findings lie in the pivotal role of early social and communication skills for the development of self-regulation of emotions and impulses. The practical implications bear on the early recognition of children at risk for behavioural problems and for language and cognitive problems.

  2. Attention Orienting in Response to Non-conscious Hierarchical Arrows: Individuals with Higher Autistic Traits Differ in Their Global/Local Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Robin; Chan, Daniel; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2017-01-01

    One aspect of the social communication impairments that characterize autism spectrum disorder (ASD) include reduced use of often subtle non-verbal social cues. People with ASD, and those with self-reported sub-threshold autistic traits, also show impairments in rapid visual processing of stimuli unrelated to social or emotional properties. Hence, this study sought to investigate whether perceptually non-conscious visual processing is related to autistic traits. A neurotypical sample of thirty young adults completed the Subthreshold Autism Trait Questionnaire and a Posner-like attention cueing task. Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS) was employed to render incongruous hierarchical arrow cues perceptually invisible prior to consciously presented targets. This was achieved via a 10 Hz masking stimulus presented to the dominant eye that suppressed information presented to the non-dominant eye. Non-conscious arrows consisted of local arrow elements pointing in one direction, and forming a global arrow shape pointing in the opposite direction. On each trial, the cue provided either a valid or invalid cue for the spatial location of the subsequent target, depending on which level (global or local) received privileged attention. A significant autism-trait group by global cue validity interaction indicated a difference in the extent of non-conscious local/global cueing between groups. Simple effect analyses revealed that whilst participants with lower autistic traits showed a global arrow cueing effect, those with higher autistic traits demonstrated a small local arrow cueing effect. These results suggest that non-conscious processing biases in local/global attention may be related to individual differences in autistic traits. PMID:28149288

  3. Explore the Possibility of Using Sand Play to Distinguish the Function Level of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder%运用沙箱游戏区分自闭症谱系障碍儿童功能的可行性探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周念丽; 方俊明

    2012-01-01

    本研究力图探索通过沙箱游戏过程观察和作品分析来区分自闭症谱系障碍(ASD)儿奄功能水平的可能性。通过对152名已被诊断为ASD的3.2—14.5岁儿童的沙箱游戏过程观察及作品分析,提炼出“体验与适应”、“识认与选择”和“策略与操作”三个具有内在一致性和较高辨别力的等级性功能指标。研究表明:第一等级功能指标适用于对所有ASD儿童的功能评估,第二等级功能指标是区分ASD儿童功能水平的分水岭,第三等级功能指标是甄别中、高功能ASD儿童有力工具。%Sand play reflects player's mind and emotion. However, it is rarely used to distinguish the functional level of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). This study aims to explore the interplay. The subjects were 152 children diagnosed by hospital as having ASD, 121 boys, 31 girls, ranging from 3 years and 2 months old to 14 years and 5 months old, with a mean age of 8 years and 8 months. Based on IQ scores, parent questionnaires, and play observations, tbe subjects were grouped into four function levels: low, middle-low, middle-high, and high. During the study, children were told to play freely in the sandbox with toys and create something. Still and video cameras were used to record the play processes and products and then recordings were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Three hierarchical function indexes, "Experience and Adaption", "Recognition and Selection", and "Strategy and Operation" with three variables in each index, were used to quantitatively analyze the process and products of children's sand play. Function indexes are found to be consistent in all three levels. The range of correlation coefficients of the three variables, "attention", "action", and "adaptation", of the first function index is. 399 to. 536. The range of correlation coefficients of the three variables, "choosing plastic toys", "using plastic toys", and

  4. The Place of Complementary Medicine in the Treatment of Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Taşkıran Konaç

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to achieve a vision for autistic children and their parents aimed at generating interest in ideas such as “Sanitas Per Aquam” (SPA, massage and music therapy, which has begun to have widespread use and to attract attention. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out with autistic children and their parents from February to April 2015 in Muğla, Turkey. The study was began by interviewing experts in the field and by developing a suitable assessment questionnaire. In order to direct the flow of conversation between the researchers and the autisitc children and their parents, the researchers conducted semi-structured face to face interviews in a form that had been determined by using reports in the literature and the opinions of experts in the field. Results: Forty two boys (84% and eight girls (16% with autism participated in our study. Children in the 0 ─ 7 age group spent long time in the bathroom (P = 0.001. Boys liked to be hugged more than girls (P = 0.01. Children ages 0 ─ 7 years liked bright lighting while those 15 years of age and older liked gloomy lighting (P = 0.009. Except for these statistically significant sex- and age-related differences, no other statistically significant differences were noted in the parameters of this study. Although the result was not statistically significant, more children with mild autism disorder obeyed commands like inhale or exhale (P = 0.051. Conclusion: Treatment for autism spectrum disorders is not yet fully possible, so many studies are being done to alleviate some symptoms and to improve the quality of life for individuals with autism and their families. As a result of our study, whether touching the areas the children want touched and listening to their favorite music are required to stimulate the brain remain as questions in our minds.

  5. Impaired Antioxidant Status and Reduced Energy Metabolism in Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, M. M.; Braidy, N.; Waly, M. I.; Al-Farsi, Y. M.; Al-Sharbati, M.; Subash, S.; Amanat, A.; Al-Shaffaee, M. A.; Guillemin, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress induced mechanisms are believed to be associated with the pathophysiology of autism. In this study, we recruited 19 Omani autistic children with age-matched controls to analyze their plasma and serum redox status and the levels of ATP, NAD[superscript +] and NADH using well established…

  6. Social training of autistic children with interactive intelligent agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakova, Emilia; Gillessen, Jan; Feijs, Loe

    2009-03-01

    The ability of autistic children to learn by applying logical rules has been used widely in behavioral therapies for social training. We propose to teach social skills to autistic children through games that simultaneously stimulate social behavior and include recognition of elements of social interaction. For this purpose we created a multi-agent platform of interactive blocks, and we created appropriate games that require shared activities leading to a common goal. The games included perceiving and understanding elements of social behavior that non-autistic children can recognize. We argue that the importance of elements of social interaction such as perceiving interaction behaviors and assigning metaphoric meanings has been overlooked, and that they are very important in the social training of autistic children. Two games were compared by testing them with users. The first game focused only on the interaction between the agents and the other combined interaction between the agents and metaphoric meanings that are assigned to them. The results show that most of the children recognized the patterns of interaction as well as the metaphors when they were demonstrated through embodied agents and were included within games having features that engage the interest of this user group. The results also show the potential of the platform and the games to influence the social behavior of the children positively.

  7. Setting Effects on the Occurrence of Autistic Children's Immediate Echolalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlop, Marjorie H.

    1986-01-01

    Six autistic boys (ages 3-11) were presented with a receptive labeling task in several settings which varied in familiarity of person, room, and task stimuli. Results indicated that the greatest amount of echolalia occurred in settings in which an unfamiliar person presented unfamiliar task stimuli. (Author)

  8. Analysis of Functions of Delayed Echolalia in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prizant, Barry M.; Rydell, Patrick J.

    1984-01-01

    Fourteen functional categories of delayed echolalia in three autistic children (4-14 years old) were derived from videotape analyses. Individual differences in functional usage were apparent across Ss. Delayed echolalia varied along the dimensions of interactiveness, comprehension of the utterance produced, and relevance to linguistic or…

  9. The Functions of Immediate Echolalia in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prizant, Barry M.; Duchan, Judith F.

    1981-01-01

    A multilevel analysis of verbal and nonverbal factors, response latency, and intonation, in four autistic boys (4 to 9 years old) revealed that immediate echolalia is far more than a meaningless behavior. Seven functional categories of echolalia were discovered and are discussed in reference to behavioral and linguistic features of each category.…

  10. Using Aberrant Behaviors as Reinforcers for Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlop, Marjorie H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments assessed the efficacy of various reinforcers to increase correct task responding in a total of 10 autistic children, aged 6-9. Of the reinforcers used (stereotypy, delayed echolalia, perseverative behavior, and food), task performance was highest with opportunities to engage in aberrant behaviors, and lowest with edible…

  11. Modular playware as a playful diagnosis tool for autistic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    Based upon user-configurable modular robotics and design principles for modular playware, we developed modular robotic tiles to be used as playful, interactive tools for children with autism. The modular playware can make automatic documentation of the construction play activities by the autistic...

  12. Brief Report: Implications of Hyperlexia in an Autistic Savant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Paul J.; Lupinetti, Laura

    1993-01-01

    This case study presents a female young adult with autism who was discovered to be hyperlexic and possessing of savant abilities. The paper proposes that hyperlexia (highly developed word recognition skills but little or no comprehension of the words recognized) is a savant ability found in many autistic individuals with exceptional skills and not…

  13. Children Apart: Autistic Children and Their Families [Reprint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Lorna

    The booklet, written by a parent and psychiatrist, provides basic information on autistic children and their families. Introductory sections touch on the history of the condition, its incidence, and its associated learning problems. Subsequent sections address the following topics: signs and symptoms, basic handicaps, behavior problems (such as…

  14. Blood-Based Gene Expression Signatures of Autistic Infants and Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatt, Stephen J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Winn, Mary; Chandler, Sharon D.; Collins, Melanie; Lopez, Linda; Weinfeld, Melanie; Carter, Cindy; Schork, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Objective Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that onset clinically during the first years of life. ASD-risk biomarkers expressed early in life could significantly impact diagnosis and treatment, but no transcriptome-wide biomarker classifiers derived from fresh blood samples from children with autism have yet emerged. Method Using a community-based, prospective, longitudinal method, we identified 60 infants and toddlers at-risk for ASDs (autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorder), 34 at-risk for language delay (LD), 17 at-risk for global developmental delay (DD), and 68 typically developing (TD) comparison children. Diagnoses were confirmed via longitudinal follow-up. Each child's mRNA expression profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was determined by microarray. Results Potential ASD biomarkers were discovered in one half of the sample and used to build a classifier with high diagnostic accuracy in the remaining half of the sample. Conclusions The mRNA expression abnormalities reliably observed in PBMCs, which are safely and easily assayed in babies, offer the first potential peripheral blood-based early biomarker panel of risk for autism in infants and toddlers. Future work should verify these biomarkers and evaluate if they may also serve as indirect indices of deviant molecular neural mechanisms in autism. PMID:22917206

  15. Defense behavior and coping in an autistic savant: the story of Temple Grandin, PhD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratey, J J; Grandin, T; Miller, A

    1992-11-01

    The causal factors in the behaviorally defined syndrome of autism remain unclear, although the past decade has brought to bear two significant developments that shape our view of the disorder. The first of these developments is a growing body of biomedical research that indicates there are multiple etiologies associated with the disorder. This research has allowed for the formation of subgroups based upon neuroanatomical, neurobiological, and neurophysiological abnormalities (Damasio 1984; Piggot 1979; Ritvo et al. 1990). The second is neuropsychological research indicating that the socioemotional deficits are primary to the disorder and may underlie much of the behavioral symptomatology (Fein et al. 1986). These areas of concern undoubtedly have enhanced our understanding of the disorder, yet in their achievements they may too easily absorb what we know about autistics who experience a chronic state of physiological hyperarousal, evidence of which has been found in neurophysiological studies (Delius 1967; Hutt et al. 1965), neurochemical studies (Lake et al. 1977), psychopharmacologic studies (Ratey et al. 1987a), and behavioral studies (Kinsbourne 1980; Kootz et al. 1982; Tinbergen and Tinbergen 1972; Zentall and Zentall 1983). These individuals, perhaps constituting a subgroup of their own, experience an inner state of disorganization that markedly impairs their functioning (Sands and Ratey 1986).

  16. Melatonin in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Daniel A.; Frye, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate melatonin-related findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorders, not otherwise specified. Method: Comprehensive searches were conducted in the PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and ERIC…

  17. Dynamic Fearful Gaze Does Not Enhance Attention Orienting in Individuals with Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2009-01-01

    Although impaired joint attention is one of the core clinical features of pervasive developmental disorder including autistic disorder and Asperger's disorder, experimental studies failed to report its impairment. This discrepancy might be the result of differences between real-life and experimental situations. The present study examined joint…

  18. Is anorexia nervosa a neuropsychiatric developmental disorder? An illustrative case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbeshian, Jacob; Burd, Larry

    2009-01-01

    We propose the concept that anorexia nervosa is a neuropsychiatric developmental disorder. In support of the concept we present a case report of a 12-year-old girl with high functioning autistic disorder who developed Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. She subsequently experienced

  19. Narrowly versus Broadly Defined Autism Spectrum Disorders: Differences in Pre-and Perinatal Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Janne C.; Rommelse, Nanda; Vink, Lianne; Schrieken, Margo; Oosterling, Iris J.; Gaag, Rutger J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the differential contribution of pre-and perinatal risks in narrowly versus broadly defined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and across core symptom domains, IQ and co-morbid problems. Children with a DSM-IV diagnosis of autistic disorder (AD) (n = 121) or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)…

  20. Lack of infection with XMRV or other MLV-related viruses in blood, post-mortem brains and paternal gametes of autistic individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lintas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD is characterized by impaired language, communication and social skills, as well as by repetitive and stereotypic patterns of behavior. Many autistic subjects display a dysregulation of the immune system which is compatible with an unresolved viral infection with prenatal onset, potentially due to vertical viral transmission. Recently, the xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV has been implicated in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS and in prostate cancer by several, though not all studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed whether XMRV or other murine leukemia virus (MLV-related viruses are involved in autistic disorder. Using nested PCR targeted to gag genomic sequences, we screened DNA samples from: (i peripheral blood of 102 ASD patients and 97 controls, (ii post-mortem brain samples of 20 ASD patients and 17 sex- and age-matched controls, (iii semen samples of 11 fathers of ASD children, 25 infertile individuals and 7 fertile controls. No XMRV gag DNA sequences were detected, whereas peripheral blood samples of 3/97 (3.1% controls were positive for MLV. CONCLUSIONS| SIGNIFICANCE: No MLV-related virus was detected in blood, brain, and semen samples of ASD patients or fathers. Hence infection with XMRV or other MLV-related viruses is unlikely to contribute to autism pathogenesis.

  1. A lack of association between hyperserotonemia and the increased frequency of serum anti-myelin basic protein auto-antibodies in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL-Ayadhi Laila

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent biological findings in autism is the elevated blood serotonin levels. Immune abnormalities, including autoimmunity with production of brain specific auto-antibodies, are also commonly observed in this disorder. Hyperserotonemia may be one of the contributing factors to autoimmunity in some patients with autism through the reduction of T-helper (Th 1-type cytokines. We are the first to investigate the possible role of hyperserotonemia in the induction of autoimmunity, as indicated by serum anti-myelin-basic protein (anti-MBP auto-antibodies, in autism. Methods Serum levels of serotonin and anti-MBP auto-antibodies were measured, by ELISA, in 50 autistic patients, aged between 5 and 12 years, and 30 healthy-matched children. Results Autistic children had significantly higher serum levels of serotonin and anti-MBP auto-antibodies than healthy children (P Conclusions Hyperserotonemia may not be one of the contributing factors to the increased frequency of serum anti-MBP auto-antibodies in some autistic children. These data should be treated with caution until further investigations are performed. However, inclusion of serum serotonin levels as a correlate may be useful in other future immune studies in autism to help unravel the long-standing mystery of hyperserotonemia and its possible role in the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...

  3. Perceptions of autistic children’s parents about dental care: Preliminary study. Concepción, 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Hernández

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of parents of children with autistic disorder (AD of the school of Association of Parents and Friends of Autistics (ASPAUT Chiguayante. A cross-sectional and exploratory study was conducted. The target population were the parents of 60 schoolchildren at ASPAUT school. The measuring instrument was a survey of thirty closed questions and one open question. Of the 60 surveys sent out 26 were recovered with varying degrees of response to each of the questions. Almost all children with AD receives dental care, about 1 time per year and mostly by pediatric dentists. There is generally a good perception of the care provided, but the need for specialized in autism spectrum disorders professionals, the existence of specific dental programs and reducing the associated costs are recognized. The issues identified by parents as most relevant for improving care were: a specialized dental care (26.9%, more humane treatment (19.2% and using distracting techniques (11.5%. 15.4% of parents believe good dental care as well as excellent. In Chile the dental care of this population is just beginning and there are many areas that need improvements.

  4. PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTISTS AND THEIR PROTOTYPES IN AMERICAN CINEMA DISCOURSE (BASED ON THE FILMS RAIN MAN AND THE REAL RAIN MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Ikalyuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the study of the main characteristics of people with autistic spectrum disorders. The comparison between the famous American savant, Kim Peek, and his prototype in the American cinema discourse has been made on the basis of the films Rain Man and The Real Rain Man. With the help of psychographological analysis, the speech of the man and his fictional prototype has been examined. The analysis showed that the difference between the two persons is indubitable, which can be explained by the fact that the savant syndrome was caused by different disorders.

  5. The level and nature of autistic intelligence II: what about Asperger syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Soulières

    Full Text Available A distinctively uneven profile of intelligence is a feature of the autistic spectrum. Within the spectrum, Asperger individuals differ from autistics in their early speech development and in being less likely to be characterized by visuospatial peaks. While different specific strengths characterize different autistic spectrum subgroups, all such peaks of ability have been interpreted as deficits: isolated, aberrant, and irreconcilable with real human intelligence. This view has recently been challenged by findings of autistic strengths in performance on Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM, an important marker of general and fluid intelligence. We investigated whether these findings extend to Asperger syndrome, an autistic spectrum subgroup characterized by verbal peaks of ability, and whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying autistic and Asperger RPM performance differ. Thirty-two Asperger adults displayed a significant advantage on RPM over Wechsler Full-Scale and Performance scores relative to their typical controls, while in 25 Asperger children an RPM advantage was found over Wechsler Performance scores only. As previously found with autistics, Asperger children and adults achieved RPM scores at a level reflecting their Wechsler peaks of ability. Therefore, strengths in RPM performance span the autistic spectrum and imply a common mechanism advantageously applied to different facets of cognition. Autistic spectrum intelligence is atypical, but also genuine, general, and underestimated.

  6. The level and nature of autistic intelligence II: what about Asperger syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulières, Isabelle; Dawson, Michelle; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Mottron, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    A distinctively uneven profile of intelligence is a feature of the autistic spectrum. Within the spectrum, Asperger individuals differ from autistics in their early speech development and in being less likely to be characterized by visuospatial peaks. While different specific strengths characterize different autistic spectrum subgroups, all such peaks of ability have been interpreted as deficits: isolated, aberrant, and irreconcilable with real human intelligence. This view has recently been challenged by findings of autistic strengths in performance on Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM), an important marker of general and fluid intelligence. We investigated whether these findings extend to Asperger syndrome, an autistic spectrum subgroup characterized by verbal peaks of ability, and whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying autistic and Asperger RPM performance differ. Thirty-two Asperger adults displayed a significant advantage on RPM over Wechsler Full-Scale and Performance scores relative to their typical controls, while in 25 Asperger children an RPM advantage was found over Wechsler Performance scores only. As previously found with autistics, Asperger children and adults achieved RPM scores at a level reflecting their Wechsler peaks of ability. Therefore, strengths in RPM performance span the autistic spectrum and imply a common mechanism advantageously applied to different facets of cognition. Autistic spectrum intelligence is atypical, but also genuine, general, and underestimated.

  7. Exploring the Association between Cognitive Functioning and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social Understanding and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L.; Hill, Trenesha

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ,…

  8. The interactional significance of formulas in autistic language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbinson, Sushie; Perkins, Mick; Boucher, Jill

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of echolalia in autistic language is well documented. Whilst much early research dismissed echolalia as merely an indicator of cognitive limitation, later work identified particular discourse functions of echolalic utterances. The work reported here extends the study of the interactional significance of echolalia to formulaic utterances. Audio and video recordings of conversations between the first author and two research participants were transcribed and analysed according to a Conversation Analysis framework and a multi-layered linguistic framework. Formulaic language was found to have predictable interactional significance within the language of an individual with autism, and the generic phenomenon of formulaicity in company with predictable discourse function was seen to hold across the research participants, regardless of cognitive ability. The implications of formulaicity in autistic language for acquisition and processing mechanisms are discussed.

  9. Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy in autistic catatonia: a case series review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, Lee E; Hermida, Adriana; Dhossche, Dirk M

    2010-05-30

    The usage of electroconvulsive therapy for the acute resolution of catatonia in autistic children and adults is a novel area that has received increased attention over the past few years. Reported length of the acute ECT course varies among these patients, and there is no current literature on maintenance ECT in autism. The maintenance ECT courses of three patients with autism who developed catatonia are presented. Clinical, research, legal, and administrative implications for ECT treatment in this special population are discussed.

  10. Low serum myeloperoxidase in autistic children with gastrointestinal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Anthony J; Arthur Krigsman; Bryan Jepson; et al

    2009-01-01

    Anthony J Russo1, Arthur Krigsman2, Bryan Jepson2, Andy Wakefield21Research Director, Health Research Institute/Pfeiffer Treatment Center, Warrenville, IL, USA; 2Thoughtful House Center for Children, Austin, TX, USAAim: To assess serum myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in autistic children with severe gastrointestinal (GI) disease and to test the hypothesis that there is an association between serum MPO concentration and inflammatory GI disease, including antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANC...

  11. Genome-wide association study of autistic-like traits in a general population study of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Maree Jones

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research has proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD representing the extreme end of this distribution. Inherent in this proposal is that biological mechanisms associated with clinical ASD may also underpin variation in autistic-like traits within the general population. A genome-wide association study using 2,462,046 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was undertaken for ASD in 965 individuals from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. No SNP associations reached genome-wide significance (p < 5.0 x 10-8. However, investigations into nominal observed SNP associations (p < 1.0 x 10-5 add support to two positional candidate genes previously implicated in ASD aetiology, PRKCB1 and CBLN1.The rs198198 SNP (p = 9.587 x 10-6, is located within an intron of the protein kinase C, beta 1 (PRKCB1 gene on chromosome 16p11. The PRKCB1 gene has been previously reported in linkage and association studies for ASD, and its mRNA expression has been shown to be significantly down regulated in ASD cases compared with controls. The rs16946931 SNP (p = 1.78 x 10-6 is located in a region flanking the Cerebellin 1 (CBLN1 gene on chromosome 16q12.1. The CBLN1 gene is involved with synaptogenesis and is part of a gene family previously implicated in ASD. This GWA study is only the second to examine SNPs associated with autistic-like traits in the general population, and provides evidence to support roles for the PRKCB1 and CBLN1 genes in risk of clinical ASD.

  12. Social and attention-to-detail subclusters of autistic traits differentially predict looking at eyes and face identity recognition ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joshua; McKone, Elinor; Zirnsak, Marc; Moore, Tirin; O'Kearney, Richard; Apthorp, Deborah; Palermo, Romina

    2017-02-01

    This study distinguished between different subclusters of autistic traits in the general population and examined the relationships between these subclusters, looking at the eyes of faces, and the ability to recognize facial identity. Using the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) measure in a university-recruited sample, we separate the social aspects of autistic traits (i.e., those related to communication and social interaction; AQ-Social) from the non-social aspects, particularly attention-to-detail (AQ-Attention). We provide the first evidence that these social and non-social aspects are associated differentially with looking at eyes: While AQ-Social showed the commonly assumed tendency towards reduced looking at eyes, AQ-Attention was associated with increased looking at eyes. We also report that higher attention-to-detail (AQ-Attention) was then indirectly related to improved face recognition, mediated by increased number of fixations to the eyes during face learning. Higher levels of socially relevant autistic traits (AQ-Social) trended in the opposite direction towards being related to poorer face recognition (significantly so in females on the Cambridge Face Memory Test). There was no evidence of any mediated relationship between AQ-Social and face recognition via reduced looking at the eyes. These different effects of AQ-Attention and AQ-Social suggest face-processing studies in Autism Spectrum Disorder might similarly benefit from considering symptom subclusters. Additionally, concerning mechanisms of face recognition, our results support the view that more looking at eyes predicts better face memory.

  13. Levels of depression and anxiety among parents of autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunay Firat

    2016-09-01

    Results: Participants in the study were parents of 26 male (65% and 14 female (35% autistic children. The average age of the children was 62.9+/-16.6 months. .Mothers had higher levels of depression and anxiety scores. Mothers of autistic children who participated in the study received higher scores on depression, state anxiety and trait anxiety compared to fathers. Among mothers, a significant relationship was found between level of education and level of state anxiety. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that mothers have higher levels of depression and anxiety compared to fathers. This finding might be explained with reference to customs and traditions of the Turkish society in which the study was conducted, which require women to take more responsiblity for family matters. It is recommended that special education and rehabilitation centers provide counseling to parents about the effects of having an autistic children on their lives, and advise them on seeking psychological help if necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 539-547

  14. Autistic barriers in the psychoanalysis of borderline adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D; Jay, S M

    1996-10-01

    The authors discuss Frances Tustin's work on childhood autism in order to clarify the nature and protective function of autistic barriers in adult patients who present challenging resistances in treatment. Tustin's thesis is that childhood autism constitutes a massive formation of avoidance reactions that develop in infancy to ward off traumatic awareness of bodily separateness. She describes two forms of childhood pathology that may develop: the encapsulated child who defends against all 'not me' experience by means of self-generated bodily sensations that augment the illusion of complete bodily continuity with the mother; and the entangled child who generates a protective illusion of being enfolded inside the body of the mother to minimise the experience of separateness. The transference resistances of borderline adults can be categorised according to Tustin's typology of encapsulation and entanglement. Clinical material is presented from the analyses of two borderline patients, one encapsulated and the other entangled. Despite seemingly different transference manifestations, both belong to the category of autistic barriers inasmuch as they ward off awareness of separation-induced injury to the primal self. The countertransference difficulties that the analyst encounters with patients who employ autistic barriers are discussed and treatment issues are reviewed.

  15. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL-DEVELOPMENT APPROACH IN AUTISTIC CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper on the children’s autism gives an overview of neuropsychological aspect and in context of the development dynamic approach.The author expresses some characteristics and dilemmas which refer to the Kanner’s autism and Asperger`s syndrome. He presents his own opinion and dilemmas about the every day practice in relation to children’s autism as a pathological disorder which is an expression of pervasive disorder, children’s psychosis or just one development phase in which children are fixated forever.The author thinks children’s autism should be seen in context of the inter-game of biological factors, development and the stress.

  16. Examining the Genetic and Environmental Associations between Autistic Social and Communication Deficits and Psychopathic Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth O'Nions

    Full Text Available Difficulties in appropriate social interaction are characteristic of both children with autism spectrum disorders and children with callous-unemotional traits (who are at risk of developing psychopathy. Extant experimental studies suggest that the nature of atypical social cognition that characterises these two profiles is not identical. However, 'empathizing' difficulties have been hypothesised for both groups, raising questions about the degree of aetiological separation between social impairments that characterize each disorder. This study explored the relative contribution of independent vs. shared aetiological influences to social and communication impairments associated with autistic traits and callous-unemotional traits, indexed by parent-report in a population-based cohort of twins.Participants were over 5,000 twin pairs from a UK cohort (the Twins Early Development Study; TEDS, assessed for callous-unemotional traits at 7 years and autistic social and communication impairments at 8 years. Multivariate model-fitting was used to explore the relative contribution of independent vs. overlapping genetic/environmental influences on these traits.Both social and communication impairments and callous-unemotional traits were highly heritable, although the genetic and environmental influences accounting for individual differences on each domain were predominantly independent.Extant evidence from experimental and neuro-imaging studies has suggested that, despite some superficially overlapping behaviours, the social difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and callous-unemotional traits are largely distinct. The current study is the first to demonstrate considerable aetiological independence of the social interaction difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and those with callous-unemotional traits.

  17. ON ORTHODOX/HETERODOX AND AUTISTIC/POST AUTISTIC ECONOMICS – A VIEW FROM THE ROMANIAN ACADEMIC LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica IANOLE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The way economics is perceived nowadays seems to be going back to the old label of `dismal science`, because it has not achieved to offer consistent and valid solutions to real problems in critical moments. In a constructive defense of our profession, we need to acknowledge the existence of some oversimplified hypothesis that do not conform to the actual human behavior, and thus to turn to different branches of the discipline (from behavioral to feminist, green economics and econo-physics, just to give some examples that try to reintegrate economic thinking in the real landscape, through different approaches. The post autistic economics represents a powerful example within this attempt of offering economics a new spirit and new insights of how it should be taught and applied. The aim of this paper is to discuss on the multiple perspectives, orthodox and heterodox, autistic and post-autistic, and on the manner they appear to be understood, accepted and implemented in the Romanian economic higher education. We question the neoclassical paradigm in search for new insights that could lead to a possible internal reform of the field, opening it more to the opinions of the surrounding social sciences.

  18. The Effects of Applying Game-Based Learning to Webcam Motion Sensor Games for Autistic Students' Sensory Integration Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun-Hsien; Lou, Shi-Jer; Tsai, Huei-Yin; Shih, Ru-Chu

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of applying game-based learning to webcam motion sensor games for autistic students' sensory integration training for autistic students. The research participants were three autistic students aged from six to ten. Webcam camera as the research tool wad connected internet games to engage in motion sensor…

  19. The Role of the New mTOR Complex, mTORC2, in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Disorder (ASD). ASD individuals exhibit impaired social interactions, seizures and abnormal repetitive behavior. In addition, 70-80% of autistic...communication, and abnormal repetitive behavior. In addition, 70-80% of autistic individuals suffer from mental retardation1-3. The major goal of this award...addition, we have found that by promoting mTORC2 activity, with a new agent A-443654, it facilitates L-LTP and enhances long-term memory formation in

  20. Mediators of the Link between Autistic Traits and Relationship Satisfaction in a Non-Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmann, Monique M. H.; Finkenauer, Catrin; Begeer, Sander

    2010-01-01

    People with ASD have deficits in their social skills and may therefore experience lower relationship satisfaction. This study investigated possible mechanisms to explain whether and how autistic traits, measured with the AQ, influence relationship satisfaction in a non-clinical sample of 195 married couples. More autistic traits were associated…

  1. Autonomic and Neuroendocrine Responses to a Psychosocial Stressor in Adults with Autistic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C.; Wiegant, Victor M.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Lahuis, Bertine E.; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Objective of the study was to replicate in adults our previous findings of decreased heart rate and normal endocrine responses to stress in autistic children and to elucidate the discrepancy between autonomic and endocrine stress responses by including epinephrine, norepinephrine, oxytocin and vasopressin measurements. Ten autistic spectrum…

  2. Learning and Self-Stimulation in Mute and Echolalic Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chock, Patricia N.; Glahn, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of self-stimulation on task acquisition were studied in three mute low-functioning autistic and three echolic higher-functioning autistic children in multiple-baseline designs. The study found that the echolalic children were able to learn the task without external suppression of their self-stimulation but the mute Ss were not. (CL)

  3. The Autistic Savant: Recognizing and Serving the Gifted Student with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Julie A.; Altman, Reuben

    1994-01-01

    This article focuses attention on the underserved population of gifted students with autism. The article examines savant abilities in the autistic population, needs of the gifted student with autism, similarities between the gifted autistic and other populations, and implications for treatment. (JDD)

  4. Neurexin Dysfunction in Adult Neurons Results in Autistic-like Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis G. Rabaneda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs comprise a group of clinical phenotypes characterized by repetitive behavior and social and communication deficits. Autism is generally viewed as a neurodevelopmental disorder where insults during embryonic or early postnatal periods result in aberrant wiring and function of neuronal circuits. Neurexins are synaptic proteins associated with autism. Here, we generated transgenic βNrx1ΔC mice in which neurexin function is selectively impaired during late postnatal stages. Whole-cell recordings in cortical neurons show an impairment of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the βNrx1ΔC mice. Importantly, mutant mice exhibit autism-related symptoms, such as increased self-grooming, deficits in social interactions, and altered interaction for nonsocial olfactory cues. The autistic-like phenotype of βNrx1ΔC mice can be reversed after removing the mutant protein in aged animals. The defects resulting from disruption of neurexin function after the completion of embryonic and early postnatal development suggest that functional impairment of mature circuits can trigger autism-related phenotypes.

  5. Oxytocin enhances attentional bias for neutral and positive expression faces in individuals with higher autistic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Ma, Xiaole; Zhao, Weihua; Luo, Lizhu; Yao, Shuxia; Kendrick, Keith M

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable interest in the potential therapeutic role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in altering attentional bias towards emotional social stimuli in psychiatric disorders. However, it is still unclear whether oxytocin primarily influences attention towards positive or negative valence social stimuli. Here in a double-blind, placebo controlled, between subject design experiment in 60 healthy male subjects we have used the highly sensitive dual-target rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm to investigate whether intranasal oxytocin (40IU) treatment alters attentional bias for emotional faces. Results show that oxytocin improved recognition accuracy of neutral and happy expression faces presented in the second target position (T2) during the period of reduced attentional capacity following prior presentation of a first neutral face target (T1), but had no effect on recognition of negative expression faces (angry, fearful, sad). Oxytocin also had no effect on recognition of non-social stimuli (digits) in this task. Recognition accuracy for neutral faces at T2 was negatively associated with autism spectrum quotient (ASQ) scores in the placebo group, and oxytocin's facilitatory effects were restricted to a sub-group of subjects with higher ASQ scores. Our results therefore indicate that oxytocin primarily enhances the allocation of attentional resources towards faces expressing neutral or positive emotion and does not influence that towards negative emotion ones or non-social stimuli. This effect of oxytocin is strongest in healthy individuals with higher autistic trait scores, thereby providing further support for its potential therapeutic use in autism spectrum disorder.

  6. Minocycline ameliorates prenatal valproic acid induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hariom; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopment disorder. One percent worldwide population suffers with autism and males suffer more than females. Microglia plays an important role in neurodevelopment, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of minocycline in prenatal valproic acid induced autism in rats. Animals with prenatal valproic acid have reduced social interaction (three chamber social behaviour apparatus), spontaneous alteration (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (both in prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complexes I, II, IV). Furthermore, prenatal valproic acid treated animals have shown an increase in locomotion (actophotometer), anxiety (elevated plus maze), brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione, catalase), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), inflammation (both in brain and ileum myeloperoxidase activity), calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Treatment with minocycline significantly attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced reduction in social interaction, spontaneous alteration, exploratory activity intestinal motility, serotonin levels and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity. Furthermore, minocycline has also attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced increase in locomotion, anxiety, brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammation, calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Thus, it may be concluded that prenatal valproic acid has induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairment in animals, which were significantly attenuated by minocycline. Minocycline should be explored further for its therapeutic benefits in autism.

  7. Sera from children with autism induce autistic features which can be rescued with a CNTF small peptide mimetic in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Faraz Kazim

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6, which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism.

  8. Gene expression profiling of lymphoblasts from autistic and nonaffected sib pairs: altered pathways in neuronal development and steroid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Valerie W; Nguyen, AnhThu; Kim, Kyung Soon; Steinberg, Mara E; Sarachana, Tewarit; Scully, Michele A; Soldin, Steven J; Luu, Truong; Lee, Norman H

    2009-06-03

    Despite the identification of numerous autism susceptibility genes, the pathobiology of autism remains unknown. The present "case-control" study takes a global approach to understanding the molecular basis of autism spectrum disorders based upon large-scale gene expression profiling. DNA microarray analyses were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines from over 20 sib pairs in which one sibling had a diagnosis of autism and the other was not affected in order to identify biochemical and signaling pathways which are differentially regulated in cells from autistic and nonautistic siblings. Bioinformatics and gene ontological analyses of the data implicate genes which are involved in nervous system development, inflammation, and cytoskeletal organization, in addition to genes which may be relevant to gastrointestinal or other physiological symptoms often associated with autism. Moreover, the data further suggests that these processes may be modulated by cholesterol/steroid metabolism, especially at the level of androgenic hormones. Elevation of male hormones, in turn, has been suggested as a possible factor influencing susceptibility to autism, which affects approximately 4 times as many males as females. Preliminary metabolic profiling of steroid hormones in lymphoblastoid cell lines from several pairs of siblings reveals higher levels of testosterone in the autistic sibling, which is consistent with the increased expression of two genes involved in the steroidogenesis pathway. Global gene expression profiling of cultured cells from ASD probands thus serves as a window to underlying metabolic and signaling deficits that may be relevant to the pathobiology of autism.

  9. Gene expression profiling of lymphoblasts from autistic and nonaffected sib pairs: altered pathways in neuronal development and steroid biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie W Hu

    Full Text Available Despite the identification of numerous autism susceptibility genes, the pathobiology of autism remains unknown. The present "case-control" study takes a global approach to understanding the molecular basis of autism spectrum disorders based upon large-scale gene expression profiling. DNA microarray analyses were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines from over 20 sib pairs in which one sibling had a diagnosis of autism and the other was not affected in order to identify biochemical and signaling pathways which are differentially regulated in cells from autistic and nonautistic siblings. Bioinformatics and gene ontological analyses of the data implicate genes which are involved in nervous system development, inflammation, and cytoskeletal organization, in addition to genes which may be relevant to gastrointestinal or other physiological symptoms often associated with autism. Moreover, the data further suggests that these processes may be modulated by cholesterol/steroid metabolism, especially at the level of androgenic hormones. Elevation of male hormones, in turn, has been suggested as a possible factor influencing susceptibility to autism, which affects approximately 4 times as many males as females. Preliminary metabolic profiling of steroid hormones in lymphoblastoid cell lines from several pairs of siblings reveals higher levels of testosterone in the autistic sibling, which is consistent with the increased expression of two genes involved in the steroidogenesis pathway. Global gene expression profiling of cultured cells from ASD probands thus serves as a window to underlying metabolic and signaling deficits that may be relevant to the pathobiology of autism.

  10. Targeting anandamide metabolism rescues core and associated autistic-like symptoms in rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servadio, M; Melancia, F; Manduca, A; di Masi, A; Schiavi, S; Cartocci, V; Pallottini, V; Campolongo, P; Ascenzi, P; Trezza, V

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by altered sociability, compromised communication and stereotyped/repetitive behaviors, for which no specific treatments are currently available. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) is a known, although still underestimated, environmental risk factor for ASD. Altered endocannabinoid activity has been observed in autistic patients, and endocannabinoids are known to modulate behavioral traits that are typically affected in ASD. On this basis, we tested the hypothesis that changes in the endocannabinoid tone contribute to the altered phenotype induced by prenatal VPA exposure in rats, with focus on behavioral features that resemble the core and associated symptoms of ASD. In the course of development, VPA-exposed rats showed early deficits in social communication and discrimination, compromised sociability and social play behavior, stereotypies and increased anxiety, thus providing preclinical proof of the long-lasting deleterious effects induced by prenatal VPA exposure. At the neurochemical level, VPA-exposed rats displayed altered phosphorylation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in different brain areas, associated with changes in anandamide metabolism from infancy to adulthood. Interestingly, enhancing anandamide signaling through inhibition of its degradation rescued the behavioral deficits displayed by VPA-exposed rats at infancy, adolescence and adulthood. This study therefore shows that abnormalities in anandamide activity may underlie the deleterious impact of environmental risk factors on ASD-relevant behaviors and that the endocannabinoid system may represent a therapeutic target for the core and associated symptoms displayed by autistic patients. PMID:27676443

  11. Sera from children with autism induce autistic features which can be rescued with a CNTF small peptide mimetic in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Cardenas-Aguayo, Maria Del Carmen; Arif, Mohammad; Blanchard, Julie; Fayyaz, Fatima; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6), which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism.

  12. Impaired plasma phospholipids and relative amounts of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in autistic patients from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Ansary Afaf K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by social and emotional deficits, language impairments and stereotyped behaviors that manifest in early postnatal life. This study aims to compare the relative concentrations of essential fatty acids (Linoleic and α- linolenic, their long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and phospholipids in plasma of autistic patients from Saudi Arabia with age-matching controls. Methods 25 autistic children aged 3-15 years and 16 healthy children as control group were included in this study. Relative concentration of essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid series together with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine were measured in plasma of both groups. Results Remarkable alteration of essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, omeg-3/omega-6 and significant lower levels of phospholipids were reported. Reciever Operating characteristics (ROC analysis of the measured parameters revealed a satisfactory level of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion Essential fatty acids/long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and omeg-3/omega-6 ratios, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylcholine could be used as potential biomarkers that point to specific mechanisms in the development of autism and may help tailor treatment or prevention strategies.

  13. MRI measurements of the brain stem and cerebellum in high functioning autistic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Tayama, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Masahito; Murakawa, Kazuyoshi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro (Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-01-01

    To determine involvements of the brain stem and/or cerebellum in autism, we compared midsagittal magnetic resonance images of the brains of high functioning autistic children with those of normal controls. We found that the midbrain and medulla oblongata were significantly smaller in these autistic children than in the control children. The pons area did not differ between the two groups, nor was there any difference in the cerebellar vermis area. The ratio of the brain stem and cerebellum to the posterior fossa area did not differ significantly between the high functioning autistic and the control children. The development of the cerebellar vermis area was delayed in autistic children as compared with that in the control children. Thus, it was suggested that significant anatomical changes in the midbrain and medulla oblongata existed in the autistic children. (author).

  14. Online Training of Discrete‐Trials Teaching for Educating Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Thomson, Kendra; Boris, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    with autism spectrum disor-ders to a confederate role-playing a child with autistic disorder. During training, participants studied a self-instructional manual using CAPSI to demonstrate mastery of study questions about DTT. Overall mean baseline accuracy was 54.9%, and improved to 84.7% in post...

  15. High Self-Perceived Stress and Poor Coping in Intellectually Able Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvikoski, Tatja; Blomqvist, My

    2015-01-01

    Despite average intellectual capacity, autistic traits may complicate performance in many everyday situations, thus leading to stress. This study focuses on stress in everyday life in intellectually able adults with autism spectrum disorders. In total, 53 adults (25 with autism spectrum disorder and 28 typical adults from the general population)…

  16. Using Carey Temperament Scales to Assess Behavioral Style in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Susan L.; Stone, Wendy L.

    2006-01-01

    Many researchers have suggested that temperament information could be useful for understanding the behavioral variability within the autism spectrum. The purpose of this brief report is to examine temperament profiles of 110 children with ASD (ages 3-8 years, 61 with Autistic Disorder, 42 with PDD-NOS; and 7 with Asperger Disorder) via a commonly…

  17. Sensitivity and Specificity of Proposed "DSM-5" Diagnostic Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James C.; Reichow, Brian; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the potential impact of proposed "DSM-5" diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: The study focused on a sample of 933 participants evaluated during the "DSM-IV" field trial; 657 carried a clinical diagnosis of an ASD, and 276 were diagnosed with a non-autistic disorder. Sensitivity and…

  18. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Do Not Help Support DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Janssen, Joost; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aims to determine whether or not structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data support the DSM-5 proposal of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic category, and whether or not classical DSM-IV autistic disorder (AD) and Asperger syndrome (AS) categories should be subsumed into it. The most replicated sMRI findings…

  19. Cultural Basis of Social "Deficits" in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepa, Prithvi

    2014-01-01

    There is very little research that specifically looks at how autism spectrum disorders are perceived in various communities. This qualitative research was conducted with parents who had children on the autistic spectrum belonging to four different ethnic communities (White British, Somali, West African and South Asian--63 in total) and living in…

  20. Sex Differences in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Mahmoud, El-Hassanin; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady

    2011-01-01

    Although autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence is higher in males than females in Arab countries, few studies address sex differences in autistic symptoms and coexiting behavioral problems. A total of 37 boys and 23 girls recruited from three Arab countries (Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan) matched for age and IQ. They were compared using Indian…

  1. Pragmatics Abilities in Narrative Production: A Cross-Disorder Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Gemmell, Tracey; Paul, Rhea

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to disentangle contributions of socio-pragmatic and structural language deficits to narrative competence by comparing the narratives of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n=25), non-autistic children with language impairments (LI; n=23), and children with typical development (TD; n=27). Groups were matched for age (6½ to 15…

  2. Reduced Mimicry to Virtual Reality Avatars in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Paul A. G.; Pan, Xueni; de C. Hamilton, Antonia F.

    2016-01-01

    Mimicry involves unconsciously copying the actions of others. Increasing evidence suggests that autistic people can copy the goal of an observed action but show differences in their mimicry. We investigated mimicry in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) within a two-dimensional virtual reality environment. Participants played an imitation game with a…

  3. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  4. Language processing and forms of immediate echolalia in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccia, J M; Curcio, F

    1982-03-01

    Several aspects of echolalic speech produced by five autistic children were investigated. We found that the incidence of echolalia was influenced by the type of question addressed to the child and, to a lesser extent, by the child's comprehension of the specific relationships expressed in the question. Additionally, acoustic analysis showed that a substantial proportion of echoes involved a prosodic modification of the examiner's question. Further analyses indicated that some of these modified echoes represent more than just a primitive conversational strategy. Specifically, they seem to reflect a higher level of processing and serve a semantic function, that of affirming the examiner's question.

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4:1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and 4 Iranian databases (IranPsych,IranMedex, Irandoc and Scientific Information Database (SID to find Iranian studies on  ASDs. The results of 39 investigations, comprising original, review and editorial articles; proceedings; and available dissertations were categorized by prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.ConclusionSeveral preliminary investigations have been done to evaluate the prevalence of ASDs, and risk factors and effective variables have been studied with regard to etiology. The diagnostic evaluation of ASDs, especially based on EEG, and several pharmacological and behavioral interventions for ASD have been implemented in Iran. Mental health, stress levels, and personality characteristics were examined in the parents of children with ASDs, which were focused on mothers.ReferencesFirst MB, Frances A, Pincus HA. DSM-IV-TR: Handbook of differential diagnosis. United States of America:American Psychiatric Publishing; 2002.Parker S, Zuckerman B, Augustyn M. Developmental and behavioral pediatrics, 2 th ed. United States of America:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.Howlin P. Autism and Asperger syndrome, 2 th ed. United States of America: Routledge; 2005.Mohammadi MR, Akhondzadeh S. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Etiology and Pharmacotherapy. Curr Drug ther2007; 2: 97-103.Newschaffer CJ, Croen LA, Daniels J, Giarelli E, GretherJK, Levy SE, et al. The epidemiology of autism spectrumdisorders. Annu Rev Public Health

  6. Why Bother About Clumsiness? The Implications of Having Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a common motor problem affecting—even in rather severe form—several percent of school age children. In the past, DCD has usually been called ‘clumsy child syndrome’ or ‘non-cerebralpalsy motor-perception dysfunction’. This disorder is more common in boys than in girls and is very often associated with psychopathology, particularly with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders/ autistic-type problems. Conversely,...

  7. Autistic Traits Moderate the Impact of Reward Learning on Social Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasiti, Maria Serena; Puzzo, Ignazio; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev

    2016-04-01

    A deficit in empathy has been suggested to underlie social behavioural atypicalities in autism. A parallel theoretical account proposes that reduced social motivation (i.e., low responsivity to social rewards) can account for the said atypicalities. Recent evidence suggests that autistic traits modulate the link between reward and proxy metrics related to empathy. Using an evaluative conditioning paradigm to associate high and low rewards with faces, a previous study has shown that individuals high in autistic traits show reduced spontaneous facial mimicry of faces associated with high vs. low reward. This observation raises the possibility that autistic traits modulate the magnitude of evaluative conditioning. To test this, we investigated (a) if autistic traits could modulate the ability to implicitly associate a reward value to a social stimulus (reward learning/conditioning, using the Implicit Association Task, IAT); (b) if the learned association could modulate participants' prosocial behaviour (i.e., social reciprocity, measured using the cyberball task); (c) if the strength of this modulation was influenced by autistic traits. In 43 neurotypical participants, we found that autistic traits moderated the relationship of social reward learning on prosocial behaviour but not reward learning itself. This evidence suggests that while autistic traits do not directly influence social reward learning, they modulate the relationship of social rewards with prosocial behaviour.

  8. Autistic expertise: a critical reflection on the production of knowledge in autism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Damian Em

    2014-10-01

    The field of autism studies is a highly disputed territory within which competing contradictory discourses abound. In this field, it is the voices and claims of autistic people regarding their own expertise in knowledge production concerning autism that is most recent in the debate, and traditionally the least attended to. In this article, I utilise the theories of Harry Collins and colleagues in order to reflect upon and conceptualise the various claims to knowledge production and expertise within the field of autism studies, from the perspective of an author who has been diagnosed as being on the autism spectrum. The notion that autistic people lack sociality is problematised, with the suggestion that autistic people are not well described by notions such as the 'social brain', or as possessing 'zero degrees of cognitive empathy'. I then argue, however, that there is a qualitative difference in autistic sociality, and question to what extent such differences are of a biological or cultural nature, and to what extent interactional expertise can be gained by both parties in interactions between autistic and non-autistic people. In conclusion, I argue that autistic people have often become distrustful of researchers and their aims, and are frequently frozen out of the processes of knowledge production. Such a context results in a negative feedback spiral with further damage to the growth of interactional expertise between researchers and autistic people, and a breakdown in trust and communication leading to an increase in tension between stakeholder groups. The involvement of autistic scholars in research and improvements in participatory methods can thus be seen as a requirement, if social research in the field of autism is to claim ethical and epistemological integrity.

  9. The Autistic Phenotype Exhibits a Remarkably Localized Modification of Brain Protein by Products of Free Radical-Induced Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A. Evans

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage has been documented in the peripheral tissues of autism patients. In this study, we sought evidence of oxidative injury in autistic brain. Carboxyethyl pyrrole (CEP and iso[4]levuglandin (iso[4]LGE2-protein adducts, that are uniquely generated through peroxidation of docosahexaenoate and arachidonate-containing lipids respectively, and heme oxygenase-1 were detected immunocytochemically in cortical brain tissues and by ELISA in blood plasma. Significant immunoreactivity toward all three of these markers of oxidative damage in the white matter and often extending well into the grey matter of axons was found in every case of autism examined. This striking threadlike pattern appears to be a hallmark of the autistic brain as it was not seen in any control brain, young or aged, used as controls for the oxidative assays. Western blot and immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed neurofilament heavy chain to be a major target of CEP-modification. In contrast, in plasma from 27 autism spectrum disorder patients and 11 age-matched healthy controls we found similar levels of plasma CEP (124.5 ± 57.9 versus 110.4 ± 30.3 pmol/mL, iso[4]LGE2 protein adducts (16.7 ± 5.8 versus 13.4 ± 3.4 nmol/mL, anti-CEP (1.2 ± 0.7 versus 1.2 ± 0.3 and anti-iso[4]LGE2 autoantibody titre (1.3 ± 1.6 versus 1.0 ± 0.9, and no differences between the ratio of NO2Tyr/Tyr (7.81 E-06 ± 3.29 E-06 versus 7.87 E-06 ± 1.62 E-06. These findings provide the first direct evidence of increased oxidative stress in the autistic brain. It seems likely that oxidative injury of proteins in the brain would be associated with neurological abnormalities and provide a cellular basis at the root of autism spectrum disorders.

  10. [Comorbid psychiatric disorders and differential diagnosis of patients with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Sandra; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) without intellectual disability are often diagnosed late in life. Little is known about co-occurring psychiatric disorders and differential diagnosis of ASC in adulthood, particularly with regard to personality disorders. What kind of comorbid psychiatric disorders occur in ASC? Which are the most prevalent differential diagnoses in a sample of patients who seek autism specific clinical diagnostics? 118 adults who were referred with a presumed diagnosis of autistic disorder, were diagnosed with autism specific instruments and the prevalence of further psychiatric disorders was investigated. 59 (50%) fulfilled the criteria of ASC. 36% of the individuals with ASC fulfilled also criteria for a DSM-IV axis-I psychiatric disorder. Affective disorders (24%) and social phobia (14%) were the most prevalent comorbid disorders. The most frequent differential diagnoses were depression, social phobia, paranoid, avoidant and narcissistic personality disorder.

  11. Combined prenatal and postnatal butyl paraben exposure produces autism-like symptoms in offspring: comparison with valproic acid autistic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Elham H A; Elgoly, Amany H Mahmoud

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the impact of butyl paraben (BP) in brain of the pups developed for mothers administered BP from early pregnancy till weaning and its effect on studying the behavior, brain neurotransmitters and brain derived neurotrophic factor BDNF via comparing the results with valproic acid (VA) autistic-rat model preparing by a single oral injection dose of VA (800 mg/kg b.wt) at the 12.5 days of gestation. Butyl paraben was orally and subcutaneously administered (200 mg/kg b.wt) to pregnant rats from gestation day 1 to lactation day 21. The offspring male rats were subjected at the last 3 days of lactation to Morris water maze and three chamber sociability test then decapitated and the brain was excised and dissected to the cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, midbrain and pons for the determination of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin (NE, DA and 5-HT) and cortex amino acids and whole brain BDNF. The results showed similar social and learning and memory behavioral deficits in VA rat model and the butyl paraben offspring in comparison with the controls. Also, some similar alterations were observed in monoamine content, amino acids and BDNF factor in the autistic-like model and butyl paraben offspring in comparison with the controls. The alterations were recorded notably in hippocampus and pons NE, midbrain DA, hippocampus and midbrain 5-HT, and frontal cortex GABA and asparagine. These data suggest that prenatal exposure to butyl paraben induced neuro-developmental disorders similar to some of the neurodevelopmental disorders observed in the VA model of autism.

  12. Autistic children exhibit decreased levels of essential Fatty acids in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandi, Sarah A; Shao, Hong; Qian, Steven Y; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Bai-Lin; Kang, Jing X

    2015-05-04

    Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential nutrients for brain development and function. However, whether or not the levels of these fatty acids are altered in individuals with autism remains debatable. In this study, we compared the fatty acid contents between 121 autistic patients and 110 non-autistic, non-developmentally delayed controls, aged 3-17. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids showed that the percentage of total PUFA was lower in autistic patients than in controls; levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (AA) and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were particularly decreased (pautism.

  13. Overlap of Obsessive-compulsive Traits and Autistic Traits in College Students%大学生的强迫特征与自闭特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐苏勤; 王建平; 刘君; 孙宏伟; 唐谭

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between obsessive-compulsive and autistic traits in college students, laying the foundation of exploring the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder and autistic spectrum disorder. Methods: A total of 1918 college students were investigated with Padua Inventory (PI) and Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Results: (T)Males scored higher than females on Impulses, Checking subscale, the total score of PI, Attention to Detail, Communication, Imagination subscale and the total score of AQ. 〢ll PI subscales and its total score were significantly positively correlated with all AQ subscales and its total score. Particularly, for the total score of PI, the correlation coefficient was 0.310 to the total score of AQ (P<0.01). ㏕here was good consistency between High Obsessive-Compulsive group and High Autistic group, and Low Obsessive-Compulsive group and Low Autistic group (kappa=0.531, P<0.001). Conclusion: There is partial overlap of obsessive-compulsive and autistic traits in college students, implying there may be overlap of mechanism of obsessive-compulsive disorder and autistic spectrum disorder.%目的:考察大学生群体中强迫特征与自闭特征的关系,为深入探讨强迫症与自闭谱系障碍的关系奠定基础.方法:采用方便取样,选取大学生1918名;用帕多瓦量表(Padua Inventory,PI)和自闭症量表(Autism-Spectrum Quotient,AQ)进行测查.结果:①男生在受驱使与行为失控感、检查、强迫症状总分、对细节的注意、沟通能力、想象能力和自闭症状总分上的得分均高于女生;②强迫症状总分及各因素均与自闭症状总分及各因素呈显著正相关,其中强迫症状总分与自闭症状总分的相关为0.310(P<1.01);③强迫特征高低分组(前后27%)和自闭特征高低分组(前后27%)具有良好的一致性(kappa=0.531,P<o.001).结论:大学生强迫特征与自闭特征存在部分重叠,提示强迫症和自

  14. On the application of Quantitative EEG for characterizing autistic brain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia eBilleci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are thought to be associated with abnormalities in neural connectivity at both the global and local levels. Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG is a non-invasive technique that allows a highly precise measurement of brain function and connectivity. This review encompasses the key findings of QEEG application in subjects with ASD, in order to assess the relevance of this approach in characterizing brain function and clustering phenotypes. QEEG studies evaluating both the spontaneous brain activity and brain signals under controlled experimental stimuli were examined. Despite conflicting results, literature analysis suggests that QEEG features are sensitive to modification in neuronal regulation dysfunction which characterize autistic brain. QEEG may therefore help in detecting regions of altered brain function and connectivity abnormalities, in linking behavior with brain activity, and subgrouping affected individuals within the wide heterogeneity of ASD. The use of advanced techniques for the increase of the specificity and of spatial localization could allow finding distinctive patterns of QEEG abnormalities in ASD subjects, paving the way for the development of tailored intervention strategies.

  15. Vision Therapy for the Autistic Patient: A Literature Review and Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Au, OD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The heightened awareness of autism spectrum disorder (ASD has propelled concern for proper care into a significant public health issue. Vision deficits, including visual processing and integration, may contribute to the anxiety and uneasiness that these individuals frequently experience. Additionally, these deficits often translate into considerable hindrances to classroom success. This paper addresses a sampling of vision-based behaviors in ASD including visual hyper/hyposensitivity, poor facial recognition, lack of eye contact, and visual-motor integration impairments. Case Summary: A 10-year-old autistic male was referred for diagnosis of convergence insufficiency. There were notable developmental delays and concerns primarily regarding reading comprehension, attention deficits, and spatial organization. He previously received speech and language therapies in conjunction with occupational therapy. Diagnostic testing of the patient’s ocular motility yielded tracking inefficiencies and poor accuracy. The Wachs Analysis of Cognitive Structures (WACS evaluation was performed and revealed weaknesses in a number of visualization tasks as well as in gross and fine motor coordination. An individualized program of vision therapy was recommended to improve his visualization, tracking, and visual motor integration abilities. Conclusion: This case report illustrates how the distinctive challenges of structuring a successful vision therapy program for the varying presentations of ASD can be met by adapting techniques to the appropriate developmental stage of the child. Vision therapy provides the framework to build skills that are transferrable and valuable in the classroom.

  16. Facial emotion recognition system for autistic children: a feasible study based on FPGA implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, K G; Vinod, A P

    2015-11-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty in understanding the emotional and mental states from the facial expressions of the people they interact. The inability to understand other people's emotions will hinder their interpersonal communication. Though many facial emotion recognition algorithms have been proposed in the literature, they are mainly intended for processing by a personal computer, which limits their usability in on-the-move applications where portability is desired. The portability of the system will ensure ease of use and real-time emotion recognition and that will aid for immediate feedback while communicating with caretakers. Principal component analysis (PCA) has been identified as the least complex feature extraction algorithm to be implemented in hardware. In this paper, we present a detailed study of the implementation of serial and parallel implementation of PCA in order to identify the most feasible method for realization of a portable emotion detector for autistic children. The proposed emotion recognizer architectures are implemented on Virtex 7 XC7VX330T FFG1761-3 FPGA. We achieved 82.3% detection accuracy for a word length of 8 bits.

  17. Autistic fluid intelligence: Increased reliance on visual functional connectivity with diminished modulation of coupling by task difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Simard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different test types lead to different intelligence estimates in autism, as illustrated by the fact that autistic individuals obtain higher scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RSPM test than they do on the Wechsler IQ, in contrast to relatively similar performance on both tests in non-autistic individuals. However, the cerebral processes underlying these differences are not well understood. This study investigated whether activity in the fluid “reasoning” network, which includes frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital regions, is differently modulated by task complexity in autistic and non-autistic individuals during the RSPM. In this purpose, we used fMRI to study autistic and non-autistic participants solving the 60 RSPM problems focussing on regions and networks involved in reasoning complexity. As complexity increased, activity in the left superior occipital gyrus and the left middle occipital gyrus increased for autistic participants, whereas non-autistic participants showed increased activity in the left middle frontal gyrus and bilateral precuneus. Using psychophysiological interaction analyses (PPI, we then verified in which regions did functional connectivity increase as a function of reasoning complexity. PPI analyses revealed greater connectivity in autistic, compared to non-autistic participants, between the left inferior occipital gyrus and areas in the left superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal lobe, right middle occipital gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus. We also observed generally less modulation of the reasoning network as complexity increased in autistic participants. These results suggest that autistic individuals, when confronted with increasing task complexity, rely mainly on visuospatial processes when solving more complex matrices. In addition to the now well-established enhanced activity observed in visual areas in a range of tasks, these results suggest that the enhanced reliance on visual

  18. Autistic fluid intelligence: Increased reliance on visual functional connectivity with diminished modulation of coupling by task difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Isabelle; Luck, David; Mottron, Laurent; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Soulières, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Different test types lead to different intelligence estimates in autism, as illustrated by the fact that autistic individuals obtain higher scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RSPM) test than they do on the Wechsler IQ, in contrast to relatively similar performance on both tests in non-autistic individuals. However, the cerebral processes underlying these differences are not well understood. This study investigated whether activity in the fluid "reasoning" network, which includes frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital regions, is differently modulated by task complexity in autistic and non-autistic individuals during the RSPM. In this purpose, we used fMRI to study autistic and non-autistic participants solving the 60 RSPM problems focussing on regions and networks involved in reasoning complexity. As complexity increased, activity in the left superior occipital gyrus and the left middle occipital gyrus increased for autistic participants, whereas non-autistic participants showed increased activity in the left middle frontal gyrus and bilateral precuneus. Using psychophysiological interaction analyses (PPI), we then verified in which regions did functional connectivity increase as a function of reasoning complexity. PPI analyses revealed greater connectivity in autistic, compared to non-autistic participants, between the left inferior occipital gyrus and areas in the left superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal lobe, right middle occipital gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus. We also observed generally less modulation of the reasoning network as complexity increased in autistic participants. These results suggest that autistic individuals, when confronted with increasing task complexity, rely mainly on visuospatial processes when solving more complex matrices. In addition to the now well-established enhanced activity observed in visual areas in a range of tasks, these results suggest that the enhanced reliance on visual perception has a

  19. ON ORTHODOX/HETERODOX AND AUTISTIC/POST AUTISTIC ECONOMICS – A VIEW FROM THE ROMANIAN ACADEMIC LANDSCAPE

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    RODICA IANOLE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The way economics is perceived nowadays seems to be going back to the old label of `dismal science`, because it has not achieved to offer consistent and valid solutions to real problems in critical moments. In a constructive defense of our profession, we need to acknowledge the existence of some oversimplified hypothesis that do not conform to the actual human behavior, and thus to turn to different branches of the discipline (from behavioral to feminist, green economics and econo-physics, just to give some examples that try to reintegrate economic thinking in the real landscape, through different approaches. The post autistic economics represents a powerful example within this attempt of offering economics a new spirit and new insights of how it should be taught and applied.The aim of this paper is to discuss on the multiple perspectives, orthodox and heterodox, autistic and postautistic, and on the manner they appear to be understood, accepted and implemented in the Romanian economic higher education. We question the neoclassical paradigm in search for new insights that could lead to a possible internal reform of the field, ppening it more to the opinions of the surrounding social sciences.

  20. Reliability of the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters (MESSY) for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Horovitz, Max; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to update the psychometrics of the "Matson Evaluation of Social Skills for Youngsters" ("MESSY") with children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), specifically with respect to internal consistency, split-half reliability, and inter-rater reliability. In Study 1, 114 children with ASD (Autistic Disorder, Asperger's…

  1. Moderating Effects of Challenging Behaviors and Communication Deficits on Social Skills in Children Diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hess, Julie A.; Mahan, Sara

    2013-01-01

    One-hundred nine children 3-16 years of age diagnosed with Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, or Asperger's Syndrome were studied. Children resided in six states in the United States. Using moderation analysis via multiple regression, verbal communication and challenging behaviors and how they interact…

  2. Drug-Refractory Aggression, Self-Injurious Behavior, and Severe Tantrums in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Chart Review Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Benjamin A.; Wink, Logan K.; Early, Maureen; Shaffer, Rebecca; Minshawi, Noha; McDougle, Christopher J.; Erickson, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums are impairing symptoms frequently experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Despite US Food and Drug Administration approval of two atypical antipsychotics targeting these symptoms in youth with autistic disorder, they remain frequently drug refractory. We define…

  3. Locus of Control Fails to Mediate between Stress and Anxiety and Depression in Parents of Children with a Developmental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn-Wright, Sarah; Draghi-Lorenz, Riccardo; Ellis, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Stress, anxiety and depression are raised amongst parents of children with a developmental disorder. However, the processes by which stress leads to depression and anxiety are poorly understood. In a cross-sectional survey, levels of parental stress, depression and anxiety were compared between parents of children with an autistic disorder,…

  4. Effectiveness of Therapeutic Horseback Riding on Social Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Shiraz, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorban, Hemati; Sedigheh, Rezaei Dehnavi; Marzieh, Gholami; Yaghoob, Gharghani

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of therapeutic horseback riding on social skills of children with autism spectrum disorder. Participants were 6 children with autism spectrum disorder in a special education center for autistic children in Shiraz, Iran. The hypothesis of the study was that participants would demonstrate…

  5. Sub-Threshold Autistic Traits in Normal Population:Its Concept, Structure and Influencing Factors%基于正常人群的阈下自闭特质:概念、结构和影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关荐; 赵旭东

    2015-01-01

    阈下自闭特质是正常人群表现出来的,自闭症谱系障碍(Autism Spectrum Disorder, ASD)阈限以下温和的社会性、交流能力损伤以及与ASD相关的人格和认知特征。其研究有助于ASD的干预及对ASD实质的更好理解。研究者用共情–系统化理论对其进行了理论解释。近来研究表明阈下自闭特质的结构与 ASD 核心行为维度类似,且遗传、性别、认知风格等因素影响阈下自闭特质水平。未来研究应更有效地对阈下自闭特质进行评估,并进一步探讨其可能存在的病理性质、与ASD的理论界限等问题。%Sub-threshold autistic traits refer to mild damages in social and communicational abilities and certain types of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-related personality and cognitive features that are well below ASD diagnostic criteria and observed in Normal Population. Researches on sub-threshold autistic traits contribute to the intervention of ASD and improve our understanding on ASD. Sub-threshold autistic traits has been accounted for by researchers using the theory of Empathy-System. Recent studies demonstrated similarities between the structure of sub-threshold autistic traits and the core behavioral dimensions of ASD. Additionally, the level of sub-threshold autistic traits is influenced by various factors, such as inheritance, gender and cognitive style. Future research should focus on more effective assessment of sub-threshold autistic traits, its possible pathological characteristics and how it is differed from ASD theoretically, etc.

  6. Bad Mothers and Monstrous Sons: Autistic Adults, Lifelong Dependency, and Sensationalized Narratives of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Holly

    2017-03-01

    Sensationalized representations of autistic families in film and other media frequently feature violent encounters between mothers and sons. This essay analyzes two media stories and three films that suggest how limited-and therefore misleading-popular representations of the autism family are. Except for one of the films, these representations blame the problem of adult autistic dependency on either monstrous autism or bad mothering. Doing so elides collective social responsibility for autism care and denies the reality that autistic adults continue to have complex dependency needs that families cannot always meet. Narratives that sensationalize youth and adults with autism or scapegoat their maternal caregivers also diminish opportunities for social inclusion and for autistic people to live fully and dependently.

  7. Evidence for gender-specific endophenotypes in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder during empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Karla; Regenbogen, Christina; Pauly, Katharina D; Gossen, Anna; Schneider, Daniel A; Mevissen, Lea; Michel, Tanja M; Gur, Ruben C; Habel, Ute; Schneider, Frank

    2013-12-01

    Despite remarkable behavioral gender differences in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and growing evidence for a diminished male : female ratio for the putative "male disorder" ASD, aspects of gender are not addressed accordingly in ASD research. Our study aims at filling this gap by exploring empathy abilities in a group of 28 patients with high-functioning ASD and 28 gender-, age- and education-matched non-autistic subjects, for the first time by means of functional neuroimaging (fMRI). In an event-related fMRI paradigm, emotional ("E") and neutral ("N") video clips presented actors telling self-related short stories. After each clip, participants were asked to indicate their own emotion and its intensity as well as the emotion and intensity perceived for the actor. Behaviorally, we found significantly less empathic responses in the overall ASD group compared with non-autistic subjects, and inadequate emotion recognition for the neutral clips in the female ASD group compared with healthy women. Neurally, increased activation of the bilateral medial frontal gyrus was found in male patients compared with female patients, a pattern which was not present in the non-autistic group. Additionally, autistic women exhibited decreased activation of midbrain and limbic regions compared with non-autistic women, whereas there was no significant difference within the male group. While we did not find a fundamental empathic deficit in autistic patients, our data propose different ways of processing empathy in autistic men and women, suggesting stronger impairments in cognitive aspects of empathy/theory of mind for men, and alterations of social reciprocity for women.

  8. On The Spectrum: Autistics, Functioning, and Care

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew J. Moore

    2014-01-01

    On the Spectrum explores the recent flourishing of autistic self-advocates as social actors, stakeholders, and co-creators of autism worlds. In the contentious and contradictory discourses surrounding autism, it considers ways that all participants - medical practitioners, researchers, educators, parents, and autistics - are interested actors. To understand how and why autism worlds both overlap and diverge, contemporary concerns are examined in terms of inherited legacies from earlier hist...

  9. The effects of echolalia on acquisition and generalization of receptive labeling in autistic children.

    OpenAIRE

    Charlop, M H

    1983-01-01

    This investigation, consisting of two experiments, was designed to assess the effects of autistic immediate echolalia on acquisition and generalization of receptive labeling tasks. Experiment 1 addressed whether autistic children could use their echolalia to facilitate acquisition. The results indicated that incorporating echolalia (echo of the requested object's label) into the task before manual response (handing the requested object to the experimenter) facilitated receptive labeling. Expe...

  10. Statistical distribution of blood serotonin as a predictor of early autistic brain abnormalities

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    Janušonis Skirmantas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of abnormalities has been reported in autistic brains, but these abnormalities may be the result of an earlier underlying developmental alteration that may no longer be evident by the time autism is diagnosed. The most consistent biological finding in autistic individuals has been their statistically elevated levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin in blood platelets (platelet hyperserotonemia. The early developmental alteration of the autistic brain and the autistic platelet hyperserotonemia may be caused by the same biological factor expressed in the brain and outside the brain, respectively. Unlike the brain, blood platelets are short-lived and continue to be produced throughout the life span, suggesting that this factor may continue to operate outside the brain years after the brain is formed. The statistical distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups have characteristic features and may contain information about the nature of this yet unidentified factor. Results The identity of this factor was studied by using a novel, quantitative approach that was applied to published distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups. It was shown that the published data are consistent with the hypothesis that a factor that interferes with brain development in autism may also regulate the release of 5-HT from gut enterochromaffin cells. Numerical analysis revealed that this factor may be non-functional in autistic individuals. Conclusion At least some biological factors, the abnormal function of which leads to the development of the autistic brain, may regulate the release of 5-HT from the gut years after birth. If the present model is correct, it will allow future efforts to be focused on a limited number of gene candidates, some of which have not been suspected to be involved in autism (such as the 5-HT4 receptor gene based on currently available clinical and

  11. Decreased Serum Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) in Autistic Children with Severe Gastrointestinal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, A.J.; Krigsman, A; Jepson, B; Wakefield, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess serum Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) levels in autistic children with severe gastrointestinal (GI) disease and to test the hypothesis that there is a relationship between GI pathology and HGF concentration. Subjects and Methods: Serum from 29 autistic children with chronic digestive disease (symptoms for a minimum of 6–12 months), most with ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH—markedly enlarged lymphoid nodules) and inflammation of the colorectum, small bowel and/or s...

  12. Affairs and Issues of Special Education for Autistic Children in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    渡部, かなえ

    2008-01-01

    In developing a curriculum for training educational specialists of autistic children, an inspection of the educational system for autistic children in Canada was carried out. A School Base Team (members:School Master, Head Teacher or Resource Teacher; Behavior Consultant, Classroom teacher) plans and practices IEPs (Individual Education Plan). To achieve the IEP goal, the School Board dispatches workers by the hour. An allowance is paid to the school and the guardian during compulsory school ...

  13. Genotype and natural history in unrelated individuals with phenylketonuria and autistic behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Steiner; Angelina Xavier Acosta; Marilisa Mantovani Guerreiro; Antonia Paula Marques-de-Faria

    2007-01-01

    We describe three unrelated individuals, two males (ages 35 and 9) and a female (age 8) presenting with late diagnosed phenylketonuria (PKU) and autistic behavior, all showing poor adhesion to the dietary treatment resulting in high plasmatic phenylalanine levels, particularly in the oldest subject. Clinical findings included hair hypopigmentation, microcephaly, severe mental retardation with absent development of verbal language and autistic symptoms in all three patients, whereas variable n...

  14. Axiom, anguish and amazement: How autistic traits modulate emotional and proprioceptive mental imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eEsposito

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to feel their own and others’ internal states, with those that have more autistic and less empathic traits clustering at the clinical end of the spectrum. However, when we consider semantic competence, we would expect this group to compensate with a higher capacity to imagine the meaning of words referring to emotions. This is indeed what we found when we asked people with different levels of autistic and empathic traits to rate the degree of imageability of various kinds of words. But this was not the whole story. Individuals with marked autistic traits demonstrated outstanding ability to imagine theoretical concepts, i.e. concepts that are commonly grasped linguistically through their definitions. This distinctive characteristic was so pronounced that, using tree-based predictive models, it was possible to accurately predict participants’ inclination to manifest autistic traits, as well as their adherence to autistic profiles – including whether they fell above or below the diagnostic threshold – from their imageability ratings. We speculate that this quasi-perceptual ability to imagine theoretical concepts, coupled with a lowered ability to imagine emotional terms represents a specific cognitive pattern that, while hindering social interaction, may favour problem solving in abstract, non-socially related tasks. This would allow people with marked autistic traits to make use of perceptual, possibly visuo-spatial, information for higher cognitive processing.

  15. Comparison of psychopathology in the mothers of autistic and mentally retarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Sunay; Diler, Rasim Somer; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety, depression, alexithymia, and general psychological symptoms in the mothers of autistic children in comparison with those in the mothers of mentally retarded children. Forty mothers of autistic children and 38 mothers of mentally retarded children were included in the study. After a clinical interview, psychometric tests were performed for depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and Symptom Distress Check List (SCL-90) for general psychological symptoms. Non-depression rates was 27.5% in the mothers of autistic children whereas the rate was 55.3% in the mothers of mentally retarded children. There was no difference regarding anxiety and alexithymia between the two groups. The psychopathology in the mothers of autistic children was more frequent than in those of mentally retarded children in all sub-scales of SCL-90 (somatization obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, anger-hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid thought, psychotism, and extra scale). The mothers of autistic children experienced more psychological distress than those of mentally retarded children. Our findings indicates that the assessment of autistic and mentally retarded children should include psychological assessment of their mothers.

  16. Divergent roles of autistic and alexithymic traits in utilitarian moral judgments in adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Indrajeet; Melsbach, Jens; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Silani, Giorgia

    2016-03-29

    This study investigated hypothetical moral choices in adults with high-functioning autism and the role of empathy and alexithymia in such choices. We used a highly emotionally salient moral dilemma task to investigate autistics' hypothetical moral evaluations about personally carrying out harmful utilitarian behaviours aimed at maximizing welfare. Results showed that they exhibited a normal pattern of moral judgments despite the deficits in social cognition and emotional processing. Further analyses revealed that this was due to mutually conflicting biases associated with autistic and alexithymic traits after accounting for shared variance: (a) autistic traits were associated with reduced utilitarian bias due to elevated personal distress of demanding social situations, while (b) alexithymic traits were associated with increased utilitarian bias on account of reduced empathic concern for the victim. Additionally, autistics relied on their non-verbal reasoning skills to rigidly abide by harm-norms. Thus, utilitarian moral judgments in autism were spared due to opposite influences of autistic and alexithymic traits and compensatory intellectual strategies. These findings demonstrate the importance of empathy and alexithymia in autistic moral cognition and have methodological implications for studying moral judgments in several other clinical populations.

  17. Modifying the verbal expression of a child with autistic behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, E; Swisher, L

    1975-06-01

    The Bell and Howell Language Master was used in conjunction with the Monterey Language Program to modify the verbal expression of a nine-year-old boy with autistic behaviors. The goal was to train the child to correctly name up to 10 pictures presented individually. Two training modes were used. For one, the therapist spoke at the time (live voice). For the other, she presented a tape recording of her voice via a Language Master. The results suggested that the child's responses to the Language Master were as good as, if not better than, his responses to the live-voice presentations. In addition, observation indicated that he responded more readily to the Language Master presentations. His spontaneous speech was also noted by independent observers to improve in his classroom and in his home. Possible reasons for the improvement in verbal expression are considered.

  18. An update on autism spectrum disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuto, A; Marciano, S; Capuano, I; Curatolo, P

    2013-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) constitute a class of severe neurodevelopmental conditions caused by atypical brain development beginning during early prenatal or postnatal life. Autistic features begin to be evident in children between 12 and 18 months of age and are considered to be life-long conditions, with core symptoms being permanent across the lifespan. Etiology is multifactorial, involving a strong genetic underpinning. Studies of genetic and environmental epigenetic factors are beginning to provide some clues to clarify the complexities of autism pathogenesis, associated with altered functional and structural connectivity patterns in several brain regions that occur early in life. Genetic syndromes, defined chromosomal abnormalities, and metabolic diseases account for less than 20% of autistic patients and etiologic causes of ASDs remain elusive in more than 80% of cases. Currently, no treatments have been proven to completely reverse the core symptoms but progress in early detection of autistic symptoms in young children has promoted earlier interventions, which should begin soon after the diagnosis is made and be individualized and intensive, for reaching more positive outcomes in terms of cognitive improvement and decrease of symptoms severity. The management of individuals with ASDs requires a multimodal approach of behavioral, medical and pharmacological treatments. Therefore, it is highly important for pediatricians to recognize early signs of ASDs and to know multiple genetic and non genetic disorders that underlie autistic phenotype.

  19. Deep-feeling development gives autistics abstractions: when a young person has no abstractions, his or her thoughts or behaviors frequently seem autistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Kenneth J

    2005-01-01

    The heart of autism is existence by oneself. It is being, talking and acting by oneself. Talking by oneself is not talking to oneself but talking at others. Its purpose is not exchanging or hearing words. Its purpose is sending words to another person. If being completely by themselves is autistics' experience of their existence, then they may have no need for language. And there is no language development in about half of all autistics. For autistics who do have language, if they are mostly sending out words and are only sometimes exchanging or hearing words, then another person's language has little or no effect on them. Without language from outside persons as a guide, autistics' language becomes strange and free from the normal body motions (gestures) that come with language. So strange language and uncommon body motions with that language are two of autism's chief signs. Autistics are unnerved by change. So they keep their behaviors in a narrow range and do them over and over with no connection to other persons' purposes. A narrow range of behaviors done over and over for no seeming purpose is another chief sign of autism. Because young boys and girls get to being, talking and acting by themselves when they come down with autism, they no longer seem to have any idea of what is going on between themselves and other persons. So when boys and girls get autism, they frequently do or say strange and surprising things with other persons. The knowledge of what to do and say with other persons comes as abstractions. This paper's one hypothesis is that autistic persons have no abstractions because the development of their deep feelings has not gone far enough to let abstractions come into existence. By acting or talking without the support of abstractions, autistic persons have a hard time with language, learning, living and loving in relation to other persons or to society. Autism comes from stopping the development of a baby's deep feelings within the first six

  20. Cerebellar Development and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Maria; Sahin, Mustafa

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 50% of patients with the genetic disease tuberous sclerosis complex present with autism spectrum disorder. Although a number of studies have investigated the link between autism and tuberous sclerosis complex, the etiology of autism spectrum disorder in these patients remains unclear. Abnormal cerebellar function during critical phases of development could disrupt functional processes in the brain, leading to development of autistic features. Accordingly, the authors review the potential role of cerebellar dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder in tuberous sclerosis complex. The authors also introduce conditional knockout mouse models of Tsc1 and Tsc2 that link cerebellar circuitry to the development of autistic-like features. Taken together, these preclinical and clinical investigations indicate the cerebellum has a profound regulatory role during development of social communication and repetitive behaviors.