WorldWideScience

Sample records for autistic disorder

  1. [Language in autistic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas, J

    1999-02-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder affecting social relationships, communication and flexibility of thought. These three basic aspects of autism may present in many different forms and degrees. Therefore autism should be considered to be a spectrum of autistic disorders rather than a single strictly defined condition. The spectrum of autistic disorders extends from intelligent individuals with acceptable social integration, to severely retarded patients with scarcely any social interaction. Language is almost always affected either in its formal aspects or in its usage. Autistic linguistic disorders form a specific language disorder (developmental dysphasia) and a pragmatic disorder linked both to the primary language problem and to the social cognitive deficit. We discuss the different linguistic syndromes observed in autistic patients with special emphasis on the semantic-pragmatic disorder. PMID:10778500

  2. Catatonia and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Dougal Julian; Malone, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of catatonic-like states in people with autistic spectrum disorders is discussed in the context of current knowledge about catatonia as it occurs in severe mental illness and, less frequently documented, in conjunction with developmental disorders. The existing literature on catatonic-like states in people with autistic spectrum…

  3. Autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, Rajeshree

    2005-04-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders is a complex developmental disorder with social and communication dysfunction at its core. It has a wide clinical spectrum with a common triad of impairments -- social communication, social interaction and social imagination. Even mild or subtle difficulties can have a profound and devastating impact on the child. To be able to provide suitable treatments and interventions the distinctive way of thinking and learning of autistic children has to be understood. The core areas of social, emotional, communication and language deficits have to be addressed at all levels of functioning. The important goals of assessment include a categorical diagnosis of autism that looks at differential diagnosis, a refined precise documentation of the child's functioning in various developmental domains and ascertaining presence of co-morbid conditions. The interventions have to be adapted to the individual's chronological age, developmental phase and level of functioning. The strategies of curriculum delivery and teaching the child with autism is distinctive and includes presence of structure to increase predictability and strategies to reduce arousal of anxiety.

  4. Deafness and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, McCay; Rhodes, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    An orientation to autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), also known as autism, is provided, and the specific syndrome of autism and deafness is addressed. The two conditions have in common a major problem: communication. Case histories are provided, the development of treatment for autism is discussed, and the separate disorders that make up ASD are…

  5. Autistic Disorder Symptoms in Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulffaert, Josette; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; Scholte, Evert M.

    2009-01-01

    According to the major classification systems it is not possible to diagnose a comorbid autistic disorder in persons with Rett syndrome. However, this is a controversial issue, and given the level of functioning of persons with Rett syndrome, the autistic disorder is expected to be present in a comparable proportion as in people with the same…

  6. Autistic spectrum disorders in preschool children.

    OpenAIRE

    Zwaigenbaum, L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review existing data on early signs of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and on how these disorders can be distinguished from other atypical patterns of development, and to describe a developmental surveillance approach that family physicians can use to ensure that children with these diagnoses are detected as early as possible. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched from January 1966 to July 2000 using the MeSH terms autistic disorder/diagnosis AND diagnosis, differential AN...

  7. Autistic disorder and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbey, Jane E; Sweeten, Thayne L; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions, which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very early in development. The mechanism, by which viral infection may lead to autism, be it through direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS), through infection elsewhere in the body acting as a trigger for disease in the CNS, through alteration of the immune response of the mother or offspring, or through a combination of these, is not yet known. Animal models in which early viral infection results in behavioral changes later in life include the influenza virus model in pregnant mice and the Borna disease virus model in newborn Lewis rats. Many studies over the years have presented evidence both for and against the association of autism with various viral infections. The best association to date has been made between congenital rubella and autism; however, members of the herpes virus family may also have a role in autism. Recently, controversy has arisen as to the involvement of measles virus and/or the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in the development of autism. Biological assays lend support to the association between measles virus or MMR and autism whereas epidemiologic studies show no association between MMR and autism. Further research is needed to clarify both the mechanisms whereby viral infection early in development may lead to autism and the possible involvement of the MMR vaccine in the development of autism.

  8. The intestinal lesion of autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jass, Jeremy R

    2005-08-01

    This editorial briefly reviews the significance of lymphoid nodular hyperplasia in the intestinal tract of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The distinction between physiological and pathological lymphoid hyperplasia of the intestinal tract is of importance in the context of a possible causative link with autism. A primary intestinal lesion may occur as part of the broad spectrum of immunological disorders to which autistic children are prone. This could result in increased intestinal permeability to peptides of dietary origin which may then lead to disruption of neuroregulatory mechanisms required for normal brain development. Alternatively, there could be a primary defect in the translocation and processing of factors derived from the intestinal lumen. These possibilities deserve further investigation and should not be lost in the fog of the controversy regarding the role of measles/mumps/rubella vaccination in the aetiology of autistic spectrum disorder.

  9. Caracterization of the motor profile of students with autistic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Matiko Okuda

    2010-01-01

    Thematic focus: The motor abnormalities may be part of so-called comorbidities that can coexist with autistic disorder. Objective: To characterize the motor profile of students with autistic disorder. Method: the study included six children with autistic disorder in elementary school, male, aged 5 years and 5 months and 10 years and 9 months. After signing the consent form by parents or guardians, the students were submitted to the Motor Development Scale for assessment of fine motor, gross m...

  10. The savant syndrome and autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffert, D A

    1999-12-01

    Savant syndrome, characterized by remarkable islands of mental ability in otherwise mentally handicapped persons, may occur in autistic as well as nonautistic individuals. Overall, approximately 10% of autistic persons exhibit savant abilities; roughly 50% of those with savant syndrome have autism, and the remaining 50% have other forms of developmental disability. Most commonly, savant syndrome takes the form of extraordinary musical abilities, but may also include calendar-calculation, artistic, mathematical, spatial, mechanical, and memory skills. While savant syndrome was first described more than a century ago, only recently have researchers begun to employ a more uniform nomenclature and more standardized testing in an effort to compare the abilities of savants with those of normal persons. Males show signs of savant syndrome approximately four times more often than females. Along with imaging study findings, this fact suggests the presence of a developmental disorder involving left-brain damage with right-brain compensation.

  11. Audio Linguistic Disorders in Autistic Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore auditory function abnormalities and language disorder in autistic children. Twelve children with criteria of infantile autism were tested using Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA), Immitancemetry, Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission Test (TEOAE), Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR), Standardized Arabic Test of Early Language Development (for both receptive and expressive language). For comparison twlive normal children were chosen as control group. Statistically significant increase in hearing threshold level for the autistic children at low frequency region 250, 500 and 1000 Hz, significant reduction of the amplitude of TEOAE test and significant increase in wave I and V latency and I-V inter-peak latency at both RR 21.2 and 51.2 msec when compared to the control group. A positive correlation was found in this study between the changes in ABR latency and the severity of verbal disability. These resuts leed to the conclusion that Auditory dysfunction in autistic children can be verified through the presence of cochlear involvement and a delay in the brain stem transmission time in those patients. Disturbed verbal communication can be due to dysfunction in the auditory processing mechanisms

  12. Autistic spectrum disorders 2: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alice; Cork, Christine; Chowdhury, Uttom

    2006-04-01

    As many as six in every 1000 children may be affected by an autistic spectrum disorder. The previous article of this two-part series discussed the distinction between autism, Asperger's syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder, and examined the assessment process. This article looks at potential differential diagnoses that must be considered, as well as conditions associated with autism. Many theories about the causes of autism have been suggested, including the MMR vaccine. Recent research has suggested that there is no link between the vaccine and autism. There is no cure for autism, but intervention and management techniques should be aimed at educating parents and carers about the disorder and behavioural interventions to aid the child's skills development.

  13. Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: Implications for environmental toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To address a possible environmental contribution to autism, we carried out a retrospective study on urinary porphyrin levels, a biomarker of environmental toxicity, in 269 children with neurodevelopmental and related disorders referred to a Paris clinic (2002-2004), including 106 with autistic disorder. Urinary porphyrin levels determined by high-performance liquid chromatography were compared between diagnostic groups including internal and external control groups. Coproporphyrin levels were elevated in children with autistic disorder relative to control groups. Elevation was maintained on normalization for age or to a control heme pathway metabolite (uroporphyrin) in the same samples. The elevation was significant (P < 0.001). Porphyrin levels were unchanged in Asperger's disorder, distinguishing it from autistic disorder. The atypical molecule precoproporphyrin, a specific indicator of heavy metal toxicity, was also elevated in autistic disorder (P < 0.001) but not significantly in Asperger's. A subgroup with autistic disorder was treated with oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) with a view to heavy metal removal. Following DMSA there was a significant (P = 0.002) drop in urinary porphyrin excretion. These data implicate environmental toxicity in childhood autistic disorder

  14. The Screening and Diagnosis of Autistic Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipek, Pauline A.; Accardo, Pasquale J.; Baranek, Grace T.; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Dawson, Geraldine; Gordon, Barry; Gravel, Judith S.; Johnson, Chris P.; Kallen, Ronald J.; Levy, Susan E.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Prizant, Barry M.; Rapin, Isabelle; Rogers, Sally J.; Stone, Wendy L.; Teplin, Stuart; Tuchman, Roberto F.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents detailed recommendations for diagnosis of autism established by a multidisciplinary panel of the Child Neurology Society and the American Academy of Neurology. The paper offers dual-level (general development and specific symptoms) guidelines for diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative…

  15. [Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercadante, M.T.; Gaag, R.J. van der; Schwartzman, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative

  16. Caracterization of the motor profile of students with autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Matiko Okuda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Thematic focus: The motor abnormalities may be part of so-called comorbidities that can coexist with autistic disorder. Objective: To characterize the motor profile of students with autistic disorder. Method: the study included six children with autistic disorder in elementary school, male, aged 5 years and 5 months and 10 years and 9 months. After signing the consent form by parents or guardians, the students were submitted to the Motor Development Scale for assessment of fine motor, gross motor performance, balance, body scheme, spatial organization, temporal organization and laterality. Results: The results revealed a significant difference between the motor age and chronological age. According to the classification of the Scale of Motor Development, students in this study showed motor development lower than expected for age. Conclusion: The students with autistic disorder in this study presented a profile of Developmental Coordination Disorder in comorbidity, showing that participants of this research presented difficulties in activities that required skills such as handwriting. Thus, motor and psychomotor needs of these students were focused on educational and clinical environment to reduce the impact of behavioral and social manifestations.

  17. Iron Deficiency in Preschool Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, Ayhan; Gurkan, Kagan; Turkoglu, Serhat; Akca, Omer Faruk; Kilic, Birim Gunay; Uslu, Runa

    2010-01-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) causes negative outcomes on psychomotor and behavioral development of infants and young children. Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are under risk for ID and this condition may increase the severity of psychomotor and behavioral problems, some of which already inherently exist in these children. In the present…

  18. Neurofeedback improves executive functioning in children with autistic spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouijzer, M.E.J.; Moor, J.M.H. de; Gerrits, B.J.L.; Congedo, M.; Schie, H.T. van

    2009-01-01

    Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children’s heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation ove

  19. Catatonia in Autistic Disorder: A Sign of Comorbidity or Variable Expression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, George M.; August, Gerald J.

    1991-01-01

    Case studies are presented of three autistic adolescents who exhibited catatonia, and it is concluded that catatonia may be a sign of a comorbid condition (such as bipolar disorder) in autistic individuals. Autistic individuals with various other psychiatric, neurological, medical, and drug-related conditions may be at greater risk for catatonic…

  20. Motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zikl Pavel; Petrů Dita; Daňková Aneta; Doležalová Hana; Šafaříková Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    The contribution contains results of a research of motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The group of children represents besides major triad of symptoms, also described difficulties in the field of motor skills. Our aim to find out what motor skills of these children are in comparison with intact population and what differences are found in individual motor items, i.e. in fine motor skills, gross motor skills and in balance. The data was gained with the use of standardize...

  1. Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels; S. Perrin

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic tec

  2. Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Perrin, Sean

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic…

  3. The epidemiology of autistic spectrum disorders: is the prevalence rising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Lorna; Potter, David

    2002-01-01

    For decades after Kanner's original paper on the subject was published in 1943, autism was generally considered to be a rare condition with a prevalence of around 2-4 per 10,000 children. Then, studies carried out in the late 1990s and the present century reported annual rises in incidence of autism in pre-school children, based on age of diagnosis, and increases in the age-specific prevalence rates in children. Prevalence rates of up to 60 per 10,000 for autism and even more for the whole autistic spectrum were reported. Reasons for these increases are discussed. They include changes in diagnostic criteria, development of the concept of the wide autistic spectrum, different methods used in studies, growing awareness and knowledge among parents and professional workers and the development of specialist services, as well as the possibility of a true increase in numbers. Various environmental causes for a genuine rise in incidence have been suggested, including the triple vaccine for measles, mumps and rubella (MMR]. Not one of the possible environmental causes, including MMR, has been confirmed by independent scientific investigation, whereas there is strong evidence that complex genetic factors play a major role in etiology. The evidence suggests that the majority, if not all, of the reported rise in incidence and prevalence is due to changes in diagnostic criteria and increasing awareness and recognition of autistic spectrum disorders. Whether there is also a genuine rise in incidence remains an open question.

  4. [Asperger's syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD) refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term,,autistic spectrum disorders" was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger's Syndrome (AS) remains the most controversial diagnosis in terms of its place within autism spectrum disorders. AS if often described as an equivalent of High Functioning Autism (HFA) or as a separate spectrum-related disorder with unique diagnostic criteria. Another important issue is the relationship between AS and speech disorders. Although it is relatively easy to draw a line between children with classical autism and speech disorders, the clear cut frontiers between them still remain to be found. The main distinguishing feature is the lack of stereotypic interests and unimpaired social interaction observed in children with speech disorders, such as semantic-pragmatic disorder. PMID:22220491

  5. Molecular genetics and animal models in autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Autistic disorder is a behavioural syndrome beginning before the age of 3 years and lasting over the whole lifetime. It is characterised by impaired communication, impaired social interactions, and repetitive interests and behaviour. The prevalence is about 7/10,000 taking a restrictive definition and more than 1/500 with a broader definition, including all the pervasive developmental disorders. The importance of genetic factors has been highlighted by epidemiological studies showing that autistic disorder is one of the most genetic neuropsychiatric diseases. The relative risk of first relatives is about 100-fold higher than the risk in the normal population and the concordance in monozygotic twin is about 60%. Different strategies have been applied on the track of susceptibility genes. The systematic search of linked loci led to contradictory results, in part due to the heterogeneity of the clinical definitions, to the differences in the DNA markers, and to the different methods of analysis used. An oversimplification of the inferred model is probably also cause of our disappointment. More work is necessary to give a clearer picture. One region emerges more frequently: the long arm of chromosome 7. Several candidate genes have been studied and some gave indications of association: the Reelin gene and the Wnt2 gene. Cytogenetical abnormalities are frequent at 15q11-13, the region of the Angelman and Prader-Willi syndrome. Imprinting plays an important role in this region, no candidate gene has been identified in autism. Biochemical abnormalities have been found in the serotonin system. Association and linkage studies gave no consistent results with some serotonin receptors and in the transporter, although it seems interesting to go further in the biochemical characterisation of the serotonin transporter activity, particularly in platelets, easily accessible. Two monogenic diseases have been associated with autistic disorder: tuberous sclerosis and fragile X. A

  6. Motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zikl Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution contains results of a research of motor skills of children with autistic spectrum disorder. The group of children represents besides major triad of symptoms, also described difficulties in the field of motor skills. Our aim to find out what motor skills of these children are in comparison with intact population and what differences are found in individual motor items, i.e. in fine motor skills, gross motor skills and in balance. The data was gained with the use of standardized Movement Assessment Battery test for Children 2 (MABC-2. Objective testing of this group of children is relatively difficult. There were successfully tested 36 children with ASD during this phase of research. The research demonstrated evident motor disorder at 86% of children in the observed sample. Statistically significant were worse results in the field of fine motor skills compared to the results in gross motor skills and balance.

  7. Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Steensel, van, A.; Bögels, S.M.; Perrin, S

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic review of the literature identified 31 studies involving 2,121 young people (aged

  8. Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Hendren, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review to determine the safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). Articles were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database using the terms autism or autistic and omega-3 fatty acids. The search identified 143 potential articles and six satisfied all…

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk Factors and Autistic Traits in Gender Dysphoric Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderLaan, Doug P.; Leef, Jonathan H.; Wood, Hayley; Hughes, S. Kathleen; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Gender dysphoria (GD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated. In 49 GD children (40 natal males), we examined ASD risk factors (i.e., birth weight, parental age, sibling sex ratio) in relation to autistic traits. Data were gathered on autistic traits, birth weight, parents' ages at birth, sibling sex ratio, gender nonconformity, age,…

  10. Factors Impacting on the Outcomes of Greek Intervention Programmes for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the best predictors of the progress of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), on some developmental domains (autistic severity, language, communication and socialisation), which are related to the core features of ASD. Eighty-six children (2.5-14 years old) with ASD, from 10 schools in Greece, were included in the…

  11. Comparative analysis of autistic traits and behavioral disorders in Prader-Willi syndrome and Asperger disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dae Kwang; Sawada, Masayuki; Yokota, Shingo; Kuroda, Kenji; Uenishi, Hiroyuki; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Hiroshi; Nagai, Toshiro; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neuro-genetic disorder caused by the absence/loss of expression of one or more paternally expressed genes on chromosome 15 (q11-13). In this study, a comparative analysis of intelligence level and autistic traits was conducted between children with PWS (n = 30; 18 males, 12 females; age = 10.6 ± 2.8 years) and those with Asperger disorder (AD; n = 31; 24 males, 7 females; age = 10.5 ± 3.1 years). The children were compared by age group: lower elementary school age (6-8 years), upper elementary school age (9-12 years), and middle school age (13-15 years). As results, the intelligence levels of children with PWS were significantly lower than those with AD across all age groups. Autistic traits, assessed using the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), revealed that among elementary school age children, those with PWS had less prominent autistic traits than those with AD, however, among middle school age children, those with PWS and AD showed similar prominence. An analysis of the PARS subscale scores by age group showed that while the profiles of autistic traits for children with PWS differed from those of children with AD at elementary school age, the profiles showed no significant differences between the groups at middle school age. The findings suggest that autistic traits in PWS become gradually more prominent with increasing of age and that these autistic traits differ in their fundamental nature from those observed in AD.

  12. Disorders of regulation of cognitive activity in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrien, J L; Martineau, J; Barthélémy, C; Bruneau, N; Garreau, B; Sauvage, D

    1995-06-01

    Infantile autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by disturbances concerning not only the areas of socialization and communication ("aloneness") but also the ability to modify and change behavior ("need for sameness"). In most recent studies, various abnormal and deviant cognitive activities, such as the ability to regulate one's behavior, were considered as accounting for these signs. In this report, we examined the regulation of cognitive activity, from a developmental perspective in comparing autistic with mentally retarded children matched in a pairwise manner by global, verbal, and nonverbal developmental ages. All children were tested with tasks adapted from the Object Permanence Test which corresponds to Piaget's sensorimotor development Stages IV to VI. Results showed that autistic children had a pervasive difficulty in maintenance set, made more perseverative errors when the abstraction degree of task was higher, and were more variable in their behavioral strategies. Discussion is focused on the interests and limits of these tasks for the examination of regulation activity from diagnostic and developmental perspectives. Finally, interpretations about recent neuropsychological and neurophysiological works, and additional interdisciplinary studies are suggested. PMID:7559291

  13. ON DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS BETWEEN AUTISTIC DISORDER AND ASPERGER’S SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Todorov; Mariana Arnaoudova

    2012-01-01

    The differential diagnosis between Autistic disorder (AD) and Asperger’s syndrome (AS) in most cases is quite difficult since most of the symptoms are clinically undistinguished. Several factors complicate the diagnosis of AS- an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is considered by some authors to be simply a milder version of autistic disorder. Problems in diagnosis include disagreement among diagnostic criteria, controversy over the distinction between AS and other ASD forms or even whether ...

  14. Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebel, Antony; Brams, Matthew; Goldman, Robert S; Silva, Robert; Hernandez, David; Deng, Ling; Mankoski, Raymond; Findling, Robert L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of lurasidone in treating irritability associated with autistic disorder. In this multicenter trial, outpatients age 6-17 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, and who demonstrated irritability, agitation, and/or self-injurious behaviors were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with lurasidone 20 mg/day (N = 50), 60 mg/day (N = 49), or placebo (N = 51). Efficacy measures included the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale (ABC-I, the primary endpoint) and the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement (CGI-I) scale, and were analyzed using a likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures. Least squares (LS) mean (standard error [SE]) improvement from baseline to Week 6 in the ABC-I was not significantly different for lurasidone 20 mg/day (-8.8 [1.5]) and lurasidone 60 mg/day (-9.4 [1.4]) versus placebo (-7.5 [1.5]; p = 0.55 and 0.36, respectively). CGI-I scores showed significantly greater LS mean [SE] improvement at Week 6 for lurasidone 20 mg/day versus placebo (2.8 [0.2] vs. 3.4 [0.2]; p = 0.035) but not for lurasidone 60 mg/day (3.1 [0.2]; p = 0.27). Discontinuation rates due to adverse events were: lurasidone 20 mg/day, 4.1%; 60 mg/day, 3.9%; and placebo, 8.2%. Adverse events with an incidence ≥10% (lurasidone combined, placebo) included vomiting (18.0, 4.1%) and somnolence (12.0, 4.1%). Modest changes were observed in weight and selected metabolic parameters. In this study, once-daily, fixed doses of 20 and 60 mg/day of lurasidone were not demonstrated to be efficacious compared to placebo for the short-term treatment of children and adolescents with moderate-to-severe irritability associated with autistic disorder.

  15. Parental Perceptions of a Manchester Service for Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mischa Mockett

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. User feedback is now an integral part of both clinical governance and service development, and it also provides a key route to engaging parents and children. Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs can impact on all members of a family, and close working between parents and professionals is essential. Aim. To explore parental satisfaction rates and identify areas in need of improvement. Method. A postal survey was completed by parents whose children had been diagnosed with an ASD in the past 18 months in a Manchester Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service. The National Autism Plan for Children was used as a gold standard. Results. Parents were particularly satisfied with the way team members dealt with them and their children during appointments. However, the standard of written information provided about the condition, diagnosis, and support available could be improved. The findings show the benefits of receiving a diagnosis in the recommended timeframe. Discussion. We discuss ways of effectively using scarce resources.

  16. Temporal Cognitive Disorders of Autistic Patients%孤独症患者的时间认知障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莹; 黄希庭

    2003-01-01

    Besides cognitive disorders, such as disorders of learning, language, etc, the autistic patients generally have tempo-ral cognitive disorders as well, including disorders of sense of time, disorders of memory of time, disorders of temporal behaviour,and disorders of self - consistency. Researchers discussed the possible causes of the temporal cognitive disorders of autistic patients from various ways such as of physiology, heredity, and environment;whereas, there axe no generally accepted conclusions till now. Further researches axe still needed.

  17. Autistic-like traits in adult patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Matsuo

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and whether such an association is independent of symptom severity. The subjects were 290 adults of normal intelligence between 25 and 59 years of age (MDD, n=125; bipolar disorder, n=56; schizophrenia, n=44; healthy controls, n=65. Autistic-like traits/symptoms were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults. Symptom severity was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and/or the Young Mania Rating Scale. Almost half of the clinical subjects, except those with remitted MDD, exhibited autistic-like traits/symptoms at levels typical for sub-threshold or threshold autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the proportion of psychiatric patients that demonstrated high autistic-like traits/symptoms was significantly greater than that of healthy controls, and not different between that of remitted or unremitted subjects with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. On the other hand, remitted subjects with MDD did not differ from healthy controls with regard to the prevalence or degree of high autistic-like traits/symptoms. A substantial proportion of adults with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed high autistic-like traits/symptoms independent of symptom severity, suggesting a shared pathophysiology among autism spectrum disorder and these psychiatric disorders. Conversely, autistic-like traits among subjects with MDD were associated with the depressive symptom severity. These findings suggest the

  18. Autistic-like traits in adult patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Junko; Kamio, Yoko; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Ota, Miho; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Nagashima, Anna; Takei, Reiko; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Motohashi, Nobutaka; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Although a high prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms has been identified in the pediatric psychiatric population of normal intelligence, there are no reports from adult psychiatric population. This study examined whether there is a greater prevalence of autistic-like traits/symptoms in patients with adult-onset psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia, and whether such an association is independent of symptom severity. The subjects were 290 adults of normal intelligence between 25 and 59 years of age (MDD, n=125; bipolar disorder, n=56; schizophrenia, n=44; healthy controls, n=65). Autistic-like traits/symptoms were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale for Adults. Symptom severity was measured using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and/or the Young Mania Rating Scale. Almost half of the clinical subjects, except those with remitted MDD, exhibited autistic-like traits/symptoms at levels typical for sub-threshold or threshold autism spectrum disorder. Furthermore, the proportion of psychiatric patients that demonstrated high autistic-like traits/symptoms was significantly greater than that of healthy controls, and not different between that of remitted or unremitted subjects with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. On the other hand, remitted subjects with MDD did not differ from healthy controls with regard to the prevalence or degree of high autistic-like traits/symptoms. A substantial proportion of adults with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia showed high autistic-like traits/symptoms independent of symptom severity, suggesting a shared pathophysiology among autism spectrum disorder and these psychiatric disorders. Conversely, autistic-like traits among subjects with MDD were associated with the depressive symptom severity. These findings suggest the importance of

  19. Breastfeeding, infant formula supplementation, and Autistic Disorder: the results of a parent survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Stephen T

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Autistic Disorder is associated with several congenital conditions, the cause for most cases is unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine whether breastfeeding or the use of infant formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid is associated with Autistic Disorder. The hypothesis is that breastfeeding and use of infant formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid are protective for Autistic Disorder. Methods This is a case-control study using data from the Autism Internet Research Survey, an online parental survey conducted from February to April 2005 with results for 861 children with Autistic Disorder and 123 control children. The analyses were performed using logistic regression. Results Absence of breastfeeding when compared to breastfeeding for more than six months was significantly associated with an increase in the odds of having autistic disorder when all cases were considered (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.42, 4.35 and after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.01, 3.78. Use of infant formula without docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid supplementation versus exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a significant increase in the odds of autistic disorder when all cases were considered (OR 4.41, 95% CI 1.24, 15.7 and after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 12.96, 95% CI 1.27, 132. Conclusion The results of this preliminary study indicate that children who were not breastfed or were fed infant formula without docosahexaenoic acid/arachidonic acid supplementation were significantly more likely to have autistic disorder.

  20. Parental and Grandparental Ages in the Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Golding; Colin Steer; Marcus Pembrey

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A number of studies have assessed ages of parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), and reported both maternal and paternal age effects. Here we assess relationships with grandparental ages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the parental and grandparental ages of children in the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), according to their scores in regard to 4 autistic trait measures and whether they had been given a diagnosis of ...

  1. Prodromal and autistic symptoms in schizotypal personality disorder and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterberg, Michelle L; Ousley, Opal Y; Cubells, Joseph F; Walker, Elaine F

    2013-02-01

    Despite clear diagnostic distinctions, schizophrenia and autism share symptoms on several dimensions. Recent research has suggested the two disorders overlap in etiology, particularly with respect to inherited and noninherited genetic factors. Studying the relationship between psychotic-like and autistic-like symptoms in risk groups such as 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) has the potential to shed light on such etiologic factors; thus, the current study examined prodromal symptoms and autistic features in samples of 22q11DS and SPD subjects using standardized diagnostic measures, including the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS) and the Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised (ADI-R). Results showed that SPD subjects manifested significantly more severe childhood and current social as well as stereotypic autistic features, as well as more severe positive prodromal symptoms. The two groups did not differ on negative, disorganized, or general prodromal symptoms, but were distinguishable based on correlations between prodromal and autistic features; the relationships between childhood autistic features and current prodromal symptoms were stronger for the SPD group. The results suggest that childhood autistic features are less continuous with subsequent prodromal signs in 22q11DS patients relative to those with SPD, and the findings highlight the importance of studying the overlap in diagnostic phenomenology in groups at risk for developing psychosis and/or autism.

  2. A Review of Neuropsychological and Neuroimaging Research in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: Attention, Inhibition and Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jane; Johnson, Katherine A.; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Gallagher, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are devastating neurodevelopmental disorders of unknown aetiology with characteristic deficits in social interaction, communication and behaviour. Individuals with ASD show deficits in executive function (EF), which are hypothesised to underlie core repetitive, stereotyped behaviours of autism. Neuroimaging…

  3. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Use, Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination, and Autistic Disorder: The Results of a Parent Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T.; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S.; Wingard, Deborah L.; Akshoomoff, Natacha A.; Macera, Caroline A.; Ji, Ming

    2008-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80…

  4. A Placebo-Controlled, Fixed-Dose Study of Aripiprazole in Children and Adolescents with Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Ronald N.; Owen, Randall; Kamen, Lisa; Manos, George; McQuade, Robert D.; Carson, William H.; Aman, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Method: Two hundred eighteen children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) with a diagnosis of autistic disorder, and with behaviors such as tantrums, aggression, self-injurious behavior, or a…

  5. Aggression in low functioning children and adolescents with autistic disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Bronsard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parents, caregivers and mental health professionals have often reported violence and aggression in children or adolescents with autistic disorder. However, most of these observations derived from anecdotal reports, and studies on frequency and characterization of aggression in autism remain limited. Our objective was to better characterize and understand the different types of aggressive behaviors displayed by a large group of individuals with autism in different observational situations. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The study was conducted on 74 children and adolescents with autism and 115 typically developing control individuals matched for sex, age and pubertal stage. Other-Injurious Behaviors (OIB were assessed in three observational situations (parents at home, two caregivers at day-care, a nurse and a child psychiatrist during blood drawing using validated scales. The frequency of OIB was significantly higher in individuals with autism compared to typically developing control individuals during the blood drawing (23% vs. 0%, P<0 .01. The parents observed significantly less OIB in their children than caregivers (34% vs. 58%, P<0.05. In addition, the most frequent concurrent behaviors occurring just before the appearance of OIB in individuals with autism were anxiety-related behaviors and excitation according to the parental as well as the caregiver observation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that in a stressful situation, such as the blood drawing, individuals with autism release their stress through behaviors such as OIB, whereas typically developing individuals regulate and express their stress through cognitive skills such as mental coping strategies, symbolization skills with representation and anticipation of the stressful situation, social interaction and verbal or non-verbal communication. The findings underline also the key role of the environment in assessing OIB and developing therapeutic perspectives, with an

  6. Fluoxetine response in children with autistic spectrum disorders: correlation with familial major affective disorder and intellectual achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, G Robert; Ritch, Chad R; Burch, Sherri

    2002-10-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine children, 2 to 8 years old, with idiopathic autistic spectrum disorder diagnosed by standard instruments (Childhood Austim Ratings Scale and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) were treated with fluoxetine (0.15 to 0.5mg/kg) for 5 to 76 months (mean 32 to 36 months), with discontinuation trials. Response criteria are described. Family histories were obtained using the family history method in repeated interviews. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder, and unusual intellectual achievement, pretreatment language, and hyperlexia were used to define a coherent subgroup of autistic spectrum disorder. Statistical analyses were post hoc. Of the children, 22 (17%) had an excellent response, 67 (52%) good, and 40 (31%) fair/poor. Treatment age did not correlate with response. Fluoxetine response correlated robustly with familial major affective disorder and unusual intellectual achievement, and with hyperlexia in the child. Family history of bipolar disorder and of unusual intellectual achievement correlated strongly. Five children developed bipolar disorder during follow-up. Fluoxetine response, family history of major affective disorder (especially bipolar), unusual achievement, and hyperlexia in the children appear to define a homogeneous autistic subgroup. Bipolar disorder, unusual intellectual achievement, and autistic spectrum disorders cluster strongly in families and may share genetic determinants.

  7. Annotation: The Similarities and Differences between Autistic Disorder and Asperger's Disorder--A Review of the Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Kathleen E.; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    Background: The ongoing controversy over the distinction between autistic disorder and Asperger's disorder is important to resolve because of the implications regarding an understanding of the aetiology and prognosis, and the diagnostic and clinical practices relating to these conditions. This paper provides a critical evaluation of current…

  8. Evaluation of Planning Dysfunction in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Autistic Spectrum Disorders Using the Zoo Map Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo-Marin, M. D.; Moreno-Granados, J. M.; Ruiz-Veguilla, M.; Ferrin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorders (ADHD) and Autistic-Spectrum-Disorders (ASD) share overlapping clinical and cognitive features that may confuse the diagnosis. Evaluation of executive problems and planning dysfunction may aid the clinical diagnostic process and help disentangle the neurobiological process underlying these conditions. This…

  9. The potential importance of steroids in the treatment of autistic spectrum disorders and other disorders involving mercury toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, Mark R; Geier, David A

    2005-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) affects 1 in 150 children in the United States. Autism is characterized by impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, abnormal movements, and sensory dysfunction. Recently emerging evidence suggests that mercury, especially from childhood vaccines, appears to be a factor in the development of the autistic disorders, and that autistic children have higher than normal body-burdens of mercury. In considering mercury toxicity, it has previously been shown that testosterone significantly potentates mercury toxicity, whereas estrogen is protective. Examination of autistic children has shown that the severity of autistic disorders correlates with the amount of testosterone present in the amniotic fluid, and an examination of a case-series of autistic children has shown that some have plasma testosterone levels that were significantly elevated in comparison neurotypical control children. A review of some of the current biomedical therapies for autistics, such as glutathione and cysteine, chelation, secretin, and growth hormone, suggests that they may in fact lower testosterone levels. We put forward the medical hypothesis that autistic disorders, in fact, represents a form of testosterone mercury toxicity, and based upon this observation, one can design novel treatments for autistics directed towards higher testosterone levels in autistic children. We suggest a series of experiments that need to be conducted in order to evaluate the exact mechanisms for mercury-testosterone toxicity, and various types of clinical manipulations that may be employed to control testosterone levels. It is hoped by devising therapies that address the steroid hormone pathways, in addition to the current treatments that successful lower heavy metal body-burdens of mercury, will work synergistically to improve clinical outcomes. In light of the fact that

  10. Clinical and anatomical heterogeneity in autistic spectrum disorder: a structural MRI study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toal, F

    2010-07-01

    Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by stereotyped\\/obsessional behaviours and social and communicative deficits. However, there is significant variability in the clinical phenotype; for example, people with autism exhibit language delay whereas those with Asperger syndrome do not. It remains unclear whether localized differences in brain anatomy are associated with variation in the clinical phenotype.

  11. Why Youngsters with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Remain Underrepresented in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    Although numerous investigations have examined the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in the general population, have special education identification rates of autism kept pace? From the 1992-1993 to 2001-2002 school years, U.S. Department of Education data indicate an increase from 15,580 to 97,904 students with autism, an expansion…

  12. Social information processing in boys with autistic spectrum disorder and mild to borderline intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Nieuwenhuijzen, M. van

    2009-01-01

    Background - Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) have less adaptive behaviour and more behaviour problems than children with mild to borderline ID. Social information processing appears to be an important mechanism in the explanation of

  13. Social Information Processing in Boys with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embregts, P.; van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) have less adaptive behaviour and more behaviour problems than children with mild to borderline ID. Social information processing appears to be an important mechanism in the explanation of the socially inadequate behaviour of children…

  14. Brief Report: Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed S.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Waly, Mostafa I.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in Oman is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of ASD among 0-14 year old children. Diagnoses were made as per DSM-IV-TR criteria and supplemented with information collected with the standard Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) questionnaire. A total 113 cases of…

  15. Factors Contributing to Stress in Parents of Individuals with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehee, Erin; Honan, Rita; Hevey, David

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study explores the experiences of parents of individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs), and examines the influences of parent gender and child age on perceived stress, stress and coping, child-rearing involvement, support and information/education accessed. Methods and Materials: Questionnaires assessed general perceived…

  16. Investigating mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental phenotypes of autistic and intellectual disability disorders: a perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tim eKroon; Martijn eSierksma; Rhiannon Mair Meredith

    2013-01-01

    Brain function and behaviour undergo significant plasticity and refinement, particularly during specific critical and sensitive periods. In autistic and intellectual disability neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and their corresponding genetic mouse models, impairments in many neuronal and behavioural phenotypes are temporally regulated and in some cases, transient. However, the links between neurobiological mechanisms governing typically normal brain and behavioural development (referred to...

  17. Comparing the Intelligence Profiles of Savant and Nonsavant Individuals with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    It is yet unknown whether individuals with and without savant abilities being affected by the same mental disorder display differences with regard to their intelligence profile. To examine this issue, we compared the test performance of 33 savant and 26 nonsavant autistic subjects using the Wechsler Intelligence Scales-Revised for children or…

  18. Dental Survey of Institutionalized Children with Autistic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mohinderpal Chadha, Gagandeep; Kakodkar, Pradnya; Chaugule, Vishwas; Nimbalkar, Vidya

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the oral hygiene practices, dietary pattern, dental caries status and needs of institutionalized autistic children. The sample consisted of 35 children (28 males and 7 females) in the age group of 5 to 10 years from two institutions in Maharashtra, India. The parents of the children were interviewed regarding oral hygiene practices of their respective ward and instructed to maintain a 4-day diet chart for their children. A clinical examinatio...

  19. The effect of epilepsy on autistic symptom severity assessed by the social responsiveness scale in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Chanyoung; Kim, Namwook; Kim, Eunjoo; Song, Dong Ho; Cheon, Keun-Ah

    2016-01-01

    Background As the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in people with epilepsy ranges from 15 to 47 % (Clarke et al. in Epilepsia 46:1970–1977, 2005), it is speculated that there is a special relationship between the two disorders, yet there has been a lack of systematic studies comparing the behavioral phenotype between autistic individuals and autistic individuals with epilepsy. This study aims to investigate how the co-occurrence of epilepsy and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects au...

  20. Long-term oxytocin administration improves social behaviors in a girl with autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosaka Hirotaka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs exhibit core autistic symptoms including social impairments from early childhood and mostly show secondary disabilities such as irritability and aggressive behavior based on core symptoms. However, there are still no radical treatments of social impairments in these patients. Oxytocin has been reported to play important roles in multiple social behaviors dependent on social recognition, and has been expected as one of the effective treatments of social impairments of patients with ASDs. Case presentation We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with autistic disorder who treated by long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray. Her autistic symptoms were successfully treated by two month administration; the girl’s social interactions and social communication began to improve without adverse effects. Her irritability and aggressive behavior also improved dramatically with marked decreases in aberrant behavior checklist scores from 69 to 7. Conclusion This case is the first to illustrate long-term administration of oxytocin nasal spray in the targeted treatment of social impairments in a female with autistic disorder. This case suggests that long-term nasal oxytocin spray is promising and well-tolerated for treatment of social impairments of patients with ASDs.

  1. ON DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS BETWEEN AUTISTIC DISORDER AND ASPERGER’S SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Todorov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis between Autistic disorder (AD and Asperger’s syndrome (AS in most cases is quite difficult since most of the symptoms are clinically undistinguished. Several factors complicate the diagnosis of AS- an autism spectrum disorder (ASD. It is considered by some authors to be simply a milder version of autistic disorder. Problems in diagnosis include disagreement among diagnostic criteria, controversy over the distinction between AS and other ASD forms or even whether AS exists as a separate syndrome, and over- and under-diagnosis. Our paper is based on the diagnostic and differential diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV, ICD-10 and our clinical experience.In the process of diagnosis and differential diagnosis we, naturally, illustrate and discuss the similarities and differences between the two disorders.

  2. Judicial Perceptions of Media Portrayals of Offenders with High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Berryessa, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, sensational media reporting focusing on crimes committed by those diagnosed with or thought to have High Functioning Autistic Spectrum Disorders (hfASDs) has caused societal speculation that there is a link between the disorder and violent criminality. No research exists on how and if the judiciary understands and is affected by this coverage. Therefore this study aims to examine how judges perceive and are influenced by media attention surrounding hfASDs and criminality. Sem...

  3. Motor Skill Abilities in Toddlers with Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; Fodstad, Jill C.; Hess, Julie A.; Neal, Daniene

    2010-01-01

    Motor skills were assessed in 397 toddlers, and it was demonstrated that atypically developing toddlers exhibited significantly greater motor skill abilities than toddlers with autistic disorder. No significant difference on gross or fine motor skill abilities were found between atypically developing toddlers and toddlers with pervasive…

  4. Genetic studies in children with intellectual disability and autistic spectrum of disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian Bhanumathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is one of the five disorders that falls under the umbrella of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, a category of neurological disorders characterized by "severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development." ASD is characterized by varying degrees of impairment in communication skills, social interaction and restricted, repetitive stereotyped patterns of behavior. The five disorders under PDD are autistic disorder, Asperger′s disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, Rett′s disorder and PDD-not otherwise specified. ASD can often be reliably detected by the age of 3 years and, in some cases, as early as 18 months. The appearance of any warning signs of ASD is reason to have the child evaluated by a professional specializing in these disorders.

  5. Differentiating Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Learning Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders by Means of Their Motor Behavior Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratopoulou, Maria; Janssen, Rianne; Simons, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the discriminant validity of the Motor Behavior Checklist (MBC) for distinguishing four group of children independently classified with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD; N = 22), Conduct Disorder (CD; N = 17), Learning Disabilities (LD; N = 24) and Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD; N = 20).…

  6. Autism and autistic spectrum disorders in the context of new DSM-V classification, and clinical and epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is one of disorders from the autism spectrum, besides Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. They are classified as mental disorders as being manifested by a wide range of cognitive, emotional and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Key categorical characteristics of the disorder are clear impairments of the development of the child’s socialisation, understanding and production of verbal and non-verbal communication and restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour. Demarcation boundaries are not clear, neither within the very group of the disorders from the autistic spectrum, nor with respect to the autistic behavioural features in the general population. For this reason, the term spectrum points out the significance of the dimensional assessment of autistic disorders, which will most likely be the basis of the new diagnostic classification of the disorders belonging to the current group of pervasive developmental disorders in the new DSM-V classification. The understanding, as well as the prevalence of the autistic spectrum disorders has changed drastically in the last four decades. From the previous 4 per 10,000 people, today’s prevalence estimates range from 0.6 to around 1%, and the increase of prevalence cannot be explained solely by better recognition on the part of experts and parents or by wider diagnostic criteria. The general conclusion is that the autistic spectrum disorders are no longer rare conditions and that the approach aimed at acknowledging the warning that this is an urgent public health problem is completely justified.

  7. Early interpersonal neurobiological assessment of attachment and autistic spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, Allan N.

    2014-01-01

    There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the “emotional brain.” Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile–gestural non-verbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant’s developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant’s emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant–mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant–mother dyads. Throughout I offer implications of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early

  8. Antibodies against Food Antigens in Patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura de Magistris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Immune system of some autistic patients could be abnormally triggered by gluten/casein assumption. The prevalence of antibodies to gliadin and milk proteins in autistic children with paired/impaired intestinal permeability and under dietary regimen either regular or restricted is reported. Methods. 162 ASDs and 44 healthy children were investigated for intestinal permeability, tissue-transglutaminase (tTG, anti-endomysium antibodies (EMA-IgA, and total mucosal IgA to exclude celiac disease; HLA-DQ2/-DQ8 haplotypes; total systemic antibodies (IgA, IgG, and IgE; specific systemic antibodies: α-gliadin (AGA-IgA and IgG, deamidated–gliadin-peptide (DGP-IgA and IgG, total specific gliadin IgG (all fractions: α, β, γ, and ω, β-lactoglobulin IgG, α-lactalbumin IgG, casein IgG; and milk IgE, casein IgE, gluten IgE, -lactoglobulin IgE, and α-lactalbumin IgE. Results. AGA-IgG and DPG-IgG titers resulted to be higher in ASDs compared to controls and are only partially influenced by diet regimen. Casein IgG titers resulted to be more frequently and significantly higher in ASDs than in controls. Intestinal permeability was increased in 25.6% of ASDs compared to 2.3% of healthy children. Systemic antibodies production was not influenced by paired/impaired intestinal permeability. Conclusions. Immune system of a subgroup of ASDs is triggered by gluten and casein; this could be related either to AGA, DPG, and Casein IgG elevated production or to impaired intestinal barrier function.

  9. Early interpersonal neurobiological assessment of attachment and autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, Allan N

    2014-01-01

    There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the "emotional brain." Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile-gestural non-verbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant's developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant's emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant-mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant-mother dyads. Throughout I offer implications of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early intervention.

  10. Early Interpersonal Neurobiological Assessment of Attachment and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Nelson Schore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurobiological mechanisms by which early rapid, spontaneous and thereby implicit emotionally-laden attachment communications indelibly impact the experience-dependent maturation of the right brain, the emotional brain. Reciprocal right-lateralized visual-facial, auditory-prosodic, and tactile-gestural nonverbal communications lie at the psychobiological core of the emotional attachment bond between the infant and primary caregiver. These affective communications can in turn be interactively regulated by the primary caregiver, thereby expanding the infant’s developing right brain regulatory systems. Regulated and dysregulated bodily-based communications can be assessed in order to determine the ongoing status of both the infant’s emotional and social development as well as the quality and efficiency of the infant-mother attachment relationship. I then apply the model to the assessment of early stages of autism. Developmental neurobiological research documents significant alterations of the early developing right brain in autistic infants and toddlers, as well profound attachment failures and intersubjective deficits in autistic infant-mother dyads. Throughout I offer implication of the theory for clinical assessment models. This work suggests that recent knowledge of the social and emotional functions of the early developing right brain may not only bridge the attachment and autism worlds, but facilitate more effective attachment and autism models of early

  11. The Effects of Improvisational Music Therapy on Joint Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jinah

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated the effects of improvisational music therapy on joint attention behaviours in children with autistic spectrum disorder. The study was designed to look at these behaviours in two different conditions, improvisational music therapy and free play, and use both standardized tools and DVD analysis of sessions to evaluate changes in joint attention behaviours.A repeated measures, within subject comparison design was used and children were randomly assigned in to two group...

  12. Anesthetic management of a child with autistic spectrum disorder and homocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Choudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD is a developmental disability of the central nervous system with rapid worsening. A subset of patients also has mitochondrial dysfunction leading to increased sensitivity to various anesthetic agents. Rarely, gene mutation in these patients results in homocysteinemia which causes higher incidences of thromboembolism, hypoglycemia, and seizures. Anesthetic management of ASD with homocysteinemia and refractory seizures has not been previously reported.

  13. [Empirically based early intervention programs for children with autistic disorders - a selective literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M

    2010-07-01

    Autistic Disorders (AD) are characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, as well as by stereotyped behaviors and interests. Early intervention programs in AD aim to improve several aspects of the child's abilities: joint attention, play abilities, language development, and especially social interaction and communication. In this review article based on a selective literature search, the relatively best empirically based early intervention programs will be discussed with a focus on the proven efficacy of these interventions.

  14. A girl with increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner's syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shohreh Mohseni Ahouee; Mitra Hakim Shooshtari; Reza Bidaki

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the findings on the evaluation of a 9-year-old girl with disabling and pronounced increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner′s syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder. She spent most of the time doing these activities which affected not only her academic performance, but also social relationships. A comprehensive treatment plan consists of both biological and psychological aspects, is the main point of this case. Low dose of risperidone (0.5 mg/day)...

  15. Hyperlexia in a 4-year-old boy with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Atkin, K; Lorch, Marjorie P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a 4-year-old boy with Autistic Spectrum Disorder and a mental age of approximately 1:5 who demonstrates precocious oral-reading behaviour in the absence of spontaneous speech. Tests of reading regular and irregular words, pseudowords, homographic heterophones, single sentences and texts were carried out. Performance on a variety of reading tasks suggests the ability to use grapheme–phoneme correspondences and whole word reading for decoding...

  16. Parasympathetic Response Profiles Related to Social Functioning in Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; A. Rebecca Neal-Beevers; Levine, Todd P.; Cynthia Miller-Loncar; Barry Lester

    2013-01-01

    Psychophysiology studies of heart rate and heart rate variability can be employed to study regulatory processes in children with autism. The objective of this study was to test for differences in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; a measure of heart rate variability) and to examine the relationship between physiologic responses and measures of social behavior. Participants included 2- to 6-year-old children with Autistic Disorder and children without autism. Heart rate and RSA were derived f...

  17. Tetrasomy 15q11-q13 Diagnosed by FISH in a Patient with Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Ouldim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a Moroccan boy with mental retardation, hyperactivity, epilepsy, developmental problems and behavioural disorders. Cytogenetic analysis showed the presence of a supernumerary marker chromosome. Molecular cytogenetics allowed us to determine the marker as an inverted duplication of chromosome 15. It is the first case of a Moroccan patient with tetrasomy 15q in which fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH enabled us to specify the diagnosis. Interestingly, this patient has an infantile autism with cytogenetic abnormalities on chromosomal region 15q11-q13 as reported in patients with Autistic Disorder.

  18. Alzheimer's Disease and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Is there any Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarah A; Khan, Shahida A; Narendra, A R; Mushtaq, Gohar; Zahran, Solafa A; Khan, Shahzad; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders respectively, with devastating effects not only on the individual but also the society. Collectively, a number of factors contribute to the expression of ASD and AD. It is of utmost curiosity that these disorders express at different stages of life and there is an involvement of certain susceptible genes. This genetic basis makes the background of common associations like memory deficits, cognition changes, demyelination, oxidative stress and inflammation, an integral part of both disorders. Modern technology resulting in genetically modified crops and increase in gadgets emitting electromagnetic frequencies have resulted in enhanced risks for neurological dysfunctions and disorders like ASD and AD. Subsequent advances in the psychological, pharmacological, biochemical and nutritional aspects of the disorders have resulted in the development of newer therapeutic approaches. The common clinical features like language impairment, executive functions, and motor problems have been discussed along with the patho-physiological changes, role of DNA methylation, myelin development, and heavy metals in the expression of these disorders. Psychopharmacological and nutritional approaches towards the reduction and management of risk factors have gained attention from the researchers in recent years. Current major therapies either target the inflammatory pathways or reduce cellular oxidative stress. This contribution focuses on the commonalities of the two disorders. PMID:26996178

  19. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) use, measles-mumps-rubella vaccination, and autistic disorder: the results of a parent survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Stephen T; Klonoff-Cohen, Hillary S; Wingard, Deborah L; Akshoomoff, Natacha A; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming

    2008-05-01

    The present study was performed to determine whether acetaminophen (paracetamol) use after the measles-mumps-rubella vaccination could be associated with autistic disorder. This case-control study used the results of an online parental survey conducted from 16 July 2005 to 30 January 2006, consisting of 83 children with autistic disorder and 80 control children. Acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was significantly associated with autistic disorder when considering children 5 years of age or less (OR 6.11, 95% CI 1.42-26.3), after limiting cases to children with regression in development (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.11-14.3), and when considering only children who had post-vaccination sequelae (OR 8.23, 95% CI 1.56-43.3), adjusting for age, gender, mother's ethnicity, and the presence of illness concurrent with measles-mumps-rubella vaccination. Ibuprofen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was not associated with autistic disorder. This preliminary study found that acetaminophen use after measles-mumps-rubella vaccination was associated with autistic disorder.

  20. Parental and grandparental ages in the autistic spectrum disorders: a birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Golding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A number of studies have assessed ages of parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD, and reported both maternal and paternal age effects. Here we assess relationships with grandparental ages. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared the parental and grandparental ages of children in the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, according to their scores in regard to 4 autistic trait measures and whether they had been given a diagnosis of ASD. Mean maternal and paternal ages of ASD cases were raised, but this appears to be secondary to a maternal grandmother age effect (P = 0.006: OR = 1.66[95%CI 1.16, 2.37] for each 10-year increase in the grandmother's age at the birth of the mother. Trait measures also revealed an association between the maternal grandmother's age and the major autistic trait-the Coherence Scale (regression coefficient b = 0.142, [95%CI = 0.057, 0.228]P = 0.001. After allowing for confounders the effect size increased to b = 0.217[95%CI 0.125, 0.308](P<0.001 for each 10 year increase in age. CONCLUSIONS: Although the relationship between maternal grandmother's age and ASD and a major autistic trait was unexpected, there is some biological plausibility, for the maternal side at least, given that the timing of female meiosis I permits direct effects on the grandchild's genome during the grandmother's pregnancy. An alternative explanation is the meiotic mismatch methylation (3 M hypothesis, presented here for the first time. Nevertheless the findings should be treated as hypothesis generating pending corroborative results from other studies.

  1. Neurotensin is increased in serum of young children with autistic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelidou Asimenia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed in early childhood. They are associated with a set of "core symptoms" that include disabilities in social interaction skills, verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. There is no definite pathogenetic mechanism or diagnostic tests. Many children with ASD also have "allergic-like" symptoms, but test negative implying mast cell activation by non-allergic triggers. We measured by Milliplex arrays serum levels of 3 neuropeptides that could stimulate mast cells in children with autistic disorder (n = 19; 16 males and 3 females; mean age 3.0 ± 0.4 years and healthy, unrelated controls (n = 16; 13 males and 3 females; mean age 3 ± 1.2 years. Only neurotensin (NT was significantly increased from 60.5 ± 6.0 pg/ml in controls to 105.6 ± 12.4 pg/ml in autistic disorder (p = 0.004. There was no statistically significant difference in the serum levels of β-endorphin or substance P (SP. NT could stimulate immune cells, especially mast cells, and/or have direct effects on brain inflammation and ASD.

  2. Brief Report: The Impact of Changing from DSM-IV "Asperger's" to DSM-5 "Autistic Spectrum Disorder" Diagnostic Labels on Stigma and Treatment Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan, Jeneva L.; Ellefson, Sarah E.; Corrigan, Patrick W.

    2015-01-01

    In the DSM-5, "Asperger's Disorder" was incorporated into "Autistic Spectrum Disorder" (ASD). One key concern in this change has been that the ASD label will increase negative attitudes relative to the Asperger's label. To test this, we asked 465 American adults to read a vignette describing a child with autistic symptoms that…

  3. Coping strategies as mediators and moderators between stress and quality of life among parents of children with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardas, Latefa A; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine coping strategies as mediators and moderators between stress and quality of life (QoL) among parents of children with autistic disorder. The convenience sample of the study consisted of 184 parents of children with autistic disorder. Advanced statistical methods for analyses of mediator and moderator effects of coping strategies were used. The results revealed that 'accepting responsibility' was the only mediator strategy in the relationship between stress and QoL. The results also revealed that only 'seeking social support' and 'escape avoidance' were moderator strategies in the relationship between stress and QoL. This study is perhaps the first to investigate the mediating and moderating effects of coping on QoL of parents of children with autistic disorder. Recommendations for practice and future research are presented. PMID:23868562

  4. Blood and Brain Glutamate Levels in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Tamer H.; Abdelrahman, Hadeel M.; Fattah, Nelly R. Abdel; El-Masry, Nagda M.; Hashim, Haitham M.; El-Gerby, Khaled M.; Fattah, Nermin R. Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Despite of the great efforts that move forward to clarify the pathophysiologic mechanisms in autism, the cause of this disorder, however, remains largely unknown. There is an increasing body of literature concerning neurochemical contributions to the pathophysiology of autism. We aimed to determine blood and brain levels of glutamate in children…

  5. [Autistic-like behavioural disorders and deafness in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deggouj, N; Eliot, M M

    2005-01-01

    There is a co-morbidity between autism spectrum behaviour disorders and deafness in children. Their behavioural difficulties may appear primary and/or secondary to hearing deprivation. In this paper, we present how we manage those patients on the base of our clinical experience. The auditory assessment must be based on subjective tests taking account of their special reactions. It needs objective tests to complete and help the behavioural responses. The hearing aids amplification is increased progressively, to allow the development of a tolerance to the sounds world. The multidisciplinary team tends to open them to the world and to the communication. PMID:16676561

  6. Self-reported social skills impairment explains elevated autistic traits in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Natasha A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Fernandez, Katya C; Lim, Michelle H

    2016-03-01

    Screening for autism in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) is complicated by symptom overlap between GSAD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of self-reported autistic traits within a sample of participants with a diagnosis of GSAD (n=37) compared to individuals without a GSAD diagnosis (NOSAD; n=26). Of the GSAD sample participants, 70.84% self-reported autistic traits above a cut-off of 65 on the Autism Quotient-Short (AQ-S) and reported significantly more autistic traits on 3 of 5 AQ-S subscales compared to the NOSAD group. Diagnosis uniquely predicted variation in the social skills subscale above and beyond the other subscales and other predictors. Furthermore, variation in the social skills subscale largely explained group differences on the other subscales. Our results suggest caution in utilizing measures like the AQ-S with clinical populations characterized by social difficulties such as individuals with a GSAD diagnosis.

  7. Epidemiology and management of insomnia in children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Silvia; Ferri, Raffaele

    2010-04-01

    Insomnia is the predominant sleep concern in children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and its nature is most likely multifactorial, with neurochemical (abnormalities in serotonergic transmission or melatonin levels), psychiatric (anxiety), and behavioral (poor sleep habits) etiological factors involved. Children with ASD experience sleep problems similar to those of typically developing children, although the prevalence is markedly higher, occurring in 44-83% of school-aged children with ASD. Caregivers usually report that insomnia is the most frequent sleep disorder, described as disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, restless sleep, bedtime resistance, co-sleeping, alterations of sleep hygiene, and early awakenings in the morning. Many actigraphic studies have added information on sleep disorders, confirming the questionnaire findings in the majority of cases. There are relatively few polysomnographic data for ASD, compared with questionnaire studies, and most of these studies reported a reduction in total sleep time and more undifferentiated sleep in the youngest patients. These findings were associated with several sleep microstructure alterations during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and with non-REM (NREM) sleep microstructure changes that appeared to be related to cognitive impairment rather than to the autistic core. Moreover, few data about other less frequent sleep disorders, such as periodic limb movements disorder and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, bruxism, and the influence of epilepsy and EEG abnormalities, are available. Both pharmacologic and behavioral interventions have been suggested for the treatment of sleep problems in autistic children. The most common types of behavioral interventions are complete extinction (removing reinforcement to reduce a behavior) and various forms of graduated extinction. Melatonin has shown promising results in the treatment of insomnia in children with ASD. Although controlled studies are limited

  8. [Follow up of patients with developmental delay and autistic spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Riesgo, Rudimar; Becker, Michele M; Ranzan, Josiane; Bragatti Winckler, María I; Ohlweiler, Lygia

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of autism symptoms during life were revised, from childhood to adulthood. Little information is available. After a search in PubMed, no more than 40 publications address this issue. The review was divided into two parts: a) how change the three main symptoms of autism change; b) how change the other autism-associated symptoms. The three main symptoms, called "Triad of Wing" (communication problems, social skills deficits, and a restricted repertoire of interests) do not change significantly during lifetime. The diagnosis of autism remains stable during lifetime, and 80% of children continue with this diagnosis in adulthood. Furthermore, it is difficult to establish first diagnostic of autism in adults. In relation to the associated symptoms, one of the earliest are sleep disturbances and one of the most prevalent is both bipolar and anxiety disorders. Sleep disturbances are age-limited and disappear easily. Bipolar disorders are usually more severe in children with autism when compared to children without autism. The mood transitions are faster in autistic children. Anxiety is usually more intense in cognitive preserved autistic patients and tends to increase with age. The two main prognostic factors for autism in adults are: a) total IQ above 70. b) functional language before 6 years of age.

  9. Progress in researches on autistic disorder%孤独症研究新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞锡; 江开达; 彭裕文

    2010-01-01

    @@ 认识孤独症 孤独症(autism),又称自闭症或孤独性障碍(autistic disorder)等,是广泛性发育障碍(pervasive developmental disorders,PDD)的代表性疾病.将PDD分为5种:孤独性障碍、Retts综合征、童年瓦解性障碍、Asperger综合征和未特定的PDD.其中,孤独性障碍与Asperger综合征较为常见.孤独症的患病率报道不一,一般认为约为儿童人口的2~5/万人,男女比例约为3:1~4:1,女孩症状一般较男孩严重[1].

  10. Parents' Experiences of Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA)-Based Interventions for Children Diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhilemy, Catherine; Dillenburger, Karola

    2013-01-01

    Applied behaviour analysis (ABA)-based programmes are endorsed as the gold standard for treatment of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in most of North America. This is not the case in most of Europe, where instead a non-specified "eclectic" approach is adopted. We explored the social validity of ABA-based interventions with…

  11. Objective Investigation of the Sleep-Wake Cycle in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, D. J.; Jones, S.; Evershed, K.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Disturbances in circadian rhythm functioning, as manifest in abnormal sleep-wake cycles, have been postulated to be present in people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs). To date, research into the sleep-wake cycle in people with ASDs has been primarily dependant on third-party data collection. Method: The utilization of…

  12. Higher Plasma Concentration of Food-Specific Antibodies in Persons with Autistic Disorder in Comparison to Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, Vladimir; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Trajkov, Dejan; Arsov, Todor; Strezova, Ana; Ajdinski, Ljubomir; Spiroski, Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Specific IgA, IgG, and IgE antibodies to food antigens in 35 participants with autistic disorder and 21 of their siblings in the Republic of Macedonia were examined. Statistically significant higher plasma concentration of IgA antibodies against alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, casein, and gliadin were found in the children with autistic…

  13. Dyadic and Triadic Behaviours in Infancy as Precursors to Later Social Responsiveness in Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Sally; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between dyadic (eye contact and affect) and triadic (joint attention) behaviours in infancy, and social responsiveness at pre-school age, was investigated in 36 children with Autistic Disorder. Measures of eye contact and affect, and joint attention, including requesting behaviours, were obtained retrospectively via parental…

  14. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Effectiveness of Behavioural Early Intervention Programs for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrygianni, Maria K.; Reed, Phil

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of behavioural intervention programs for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders was addressed by a meta-analysis, which reviewed 14 studies. The findings suggest that the behavioural programs are effective in improving several developmental aspects in the children, in terms of their treatment gains, and also relative to…

  15. Autistic Traits and Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Clinical Validity of Two Measures Presuming a Continuum of Social Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Sven; Westerwald, Eva; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine; Poustka, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that autism is the extreme end of a continuously distributed trait. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC) aim to assess autistic traits. The objective of this study was to compare their clinical validity. The SRS showed sensitivities of 0.74 to 0.80 and specificities of…

  16. Parents' Views and Experiences about Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments for Their Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senel, Hatice Gunayer

    2010-01-01

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments have been increasing for children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, 38 Turkish parents of children with ASD were surveyed related with their use of CAM treatments, experiences, and views for each treatment. They mentioned "Vitamins and minerals", "Special Diet",…

  17. Using Aromatherapy Massage to Increase Shared Attention Behaviours in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Severe Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) characteristically display a lack of shared attention behaviours and the lack of these behaviours impacts on their ability to develop social interactions and relationships with others. Steve Solomons, assistant headteacher at Rectory Paddock School and Research Unit in the London Borough of Bromley,…

  18. A girl with increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner's syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahouee, Shohreh Mohseni; Shooshtari, Mitra Hakim; Bidaki, Reza

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the findings on the evaluation of a 9-year-old girl with disabling and pronounced increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner's syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder. She spent most of the time doing these activities which affected not only her academic performance, but also social relationships. A comprehensive treatment plan consists of both biological and psychological aspects, is the main point of this case. Low dose of risperidone (0.5 mg/day) was started to decrease the patient's stereotypic behaviors. Sertraline (12.5 mg/day) was prescribed for her phobia. She was also referred to an occupational therapist in order to improve her social skills. PMID:26015917

  19. Self-Disorders in Individuals with Autistic Traits: Contribution of Reduced Autobiographical Reasoning Capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Fabrice; Göritz, Anja S; Schröder, Johanna; Coutelle, Romain; Danion, Jean-Marie; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine V; Moritz, Steffen

    2016-08-01

    The present web-based study (N = 840) aimed to illuminate the cognitive mechanisms underlying self-disorders in autism. Initially, participants selected three self-defining memories. Then, we assessed their capacity to give meaning to these events (i.e., meaning making), their tendency to scrutinize autobiographical memory to better understand themselves (i.e., self-continuity function of autobiographical memory) and their clarity of self-concept. The results showed that individuals with high autistic traits (ATs) had a lower clarity of self-concept than control participants. Meaning making was also reduced in AT individuals and mediated the relation between AT and self-concept clarity. Our results suggest that the reduced clarity of self-concept in AT individuals is related to an impaired capacity to make meaning of important past life events. PMID:27101235

  20. Prenatal alcohol exposure and autistic spectrum disorders--a population-based prospective study of 80,552 children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Tolstrup, Janne S; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie;

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake > or =5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism.......To examine whether maternal alcohol intake, including binge drinking (intake > or =5 drinks, equivalent to 60 g pure ethanol on a single occasion), is associated with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and infantile autism....

  1. Distinguishing and Improving Mouse Behavior with Educational Computer Games in Young Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Executive Function-Based Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Baukje; van Geert, Paul L. C.; van der Meulen, Bieuwe F.

    2012-01-01

    In this exploratory multiple case study, it is examined how a computer game focused on improving ineffective learning behavior can be used as a tool to assess, improve, and study real-time mouse behavior (MB) in different types of children: 18 children (3.8-6.3 years) with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder…

  2. Autistic disorders and schizophrenia: related or remote? An anatomical likelihood estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlton Cheung

    Full Text Available Shared genetic and environmental risk factors have been identified for autistic spectrum disorders (ASD and schizophrenia. Social interaction, communication, emotion processing, sensorimotor gating and executive function are disrupted in both, stimulating debate about whether these are related conditions. Brain imaging studies constitute an informative and expanding resource to determine whether brain structural phenotype of these disorders is distinct or overlapping. We aimed to synthesize existing datasets characterizing ASD and schizophrenia within a common framework, to quantify their structural similarities. In a novel modification of Anatomical Likelihood Estimation (ALE, 313 foci were extracted from 25 voxel-based studies comprising 660 participants (308 ASD, 352 first-episode schizophrenia and 801 controls. The results revealed that, compared to controls, lower grey matter volumes within limbic-striato-thalamic circuitry were common to ASD and schizophrenia. Unique features of each disorder included lower grey matter volume in amygdala, caudate, frontal and medial gyrus for schizophrenia and putamen for autism. Thus, in terms of brain volumetrics, ASD and schizophrenia have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms. However, the distinctive neuroanatomy also mapped in each condition raises the question about how this is arrived in the context of common etiological pressures.

  3. Technologies as Support Tools for Persons with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Aresti-Bartolome

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the technologies most widely used to work on areas affected by the Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Technologies can focus on the strengths and weaknesses of this disorder as they make it possible to create controlled environments, reducing the anxiety produced by real social situations. Extensive research has proven the efficiency of technologies as support tools for therapy and their acceptation by ASD sufferers and the people who are with them on a daily basis. This article is organized by the types of systems developed: virtual reality applications, telehealth systems, social robots and dedicated applications, all of which are classified by the areas they center on: communication, social learning and imitation skills and other ASD-associated conditions. 40.5% of the research conducted is found to be focused on communication as opposed to 37.8% focused on learning and social imitation skills and 21.6% which underlines problems associated with this disorder. Although most of the studies reveal how useful these tools are in therapy, they are generic tools for ASD sufferers in general, which means there is a lack of personalised tools to meet each person’s needs.

  4. Disordered recognition of facial identity and emotions in three Asperger type autists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njiokiktjien, C; Verschoor, A; de Sonneville, L; Huyser, C; Op het Veld, V; Toorenaar, N

    2001-03-01

    In this report we aim to explore severe deficits in facial affect recognition in three boys all of whom meet the criteria of Asperger's syndrome (AS), as well as overt prosopagnosia in one (B) and covert prosopagnosia in the remaining two (C and D). Subject B, with a familially-based talent of being highly gifted in physics and mathematics, showed no interest in people, a quasi complete lack of comprehension of emotions, and very poor emotional reactivity. The marked neuropsychological deficits were a moderate prosopagnosia and severely disordered recognition of facial emotions, gender and age. Expressive facial emotion, whole body psychomotor expression and speech prosody were quasi absent as well. In all three boys these facial processing deficits were more or less isolated, and general visuospatial functions, attention, formal language and scholastic performances were normal or even highly developed with the exception of deficient gestalt perception in B. We consider the deficient facial emotion perception as an important pathogenetic symptom for the autistic behaviour in the three boys. Prosopagnosia, the absent facial and bodily expression, and speech prosody were important but varying co-morbid disorders. The total clinical picture of non-verbal disordered communication is a complex of predominantly bilateral and/or right hemisphere cortical deficits. Moreover, in B, insensitivity to pain, smells, noises and internal bodily feelings suggested a more general emotional anaesthesia and/or a deficient means of expression. It is possible that a limbic component might be involved, thus making affective appreciation also deficient. PMID:11315539

  5. Speech Preference Is Associated with Autistic-Like Behavior in 18-Months-Olds at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Suzanne; Vouloumanos, Athena

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether infants' preference for speech at 12 months is associated with autistic-like behaviors at 18 months in infants who are at increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have an older sibling diagnosed with ASD and in low-risk infants. Only low-risk infants listened significantly longer to speech than to…

  6. Investigating mechanisms underlying neurodevelopmental phenotypes of autistic and intellectual disability disorders: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eKroon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Brain function and behaviour undergo significant plasticity and refinement, particularly during specific critical and sensitive periods. In autistic and intellectual disability neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs and their corresponding genetic mouse models, impairments in many neuronal and behavioural phenotypes are temporally regulated and in some cases, transient. However, the links between neurobiological mechanisms governing typically normal brain and behavioural development (referred to also as ‘neurotypical’ development and timing of NDD impairments are not fully investigated.This perspective highlights temporal patterns of synaptic and neuronal impairment, with a restricted focus on autism and intellectual disability types of NDDs. Given the varying known genetic and environmental causes for NDDs, this perspective proposes two strategies for investigation: (1 a focus on neurobiological mechanisms underlying known critical periods in the (typically normal-developing brain (2 investigation of spatio-temporal expression profiles of genes implicated in monogenic syndromes throughout affected brain regions.This approach may help explain why many NDDs with differing genetic causes can result in overlapping phenotypes at similar developmental stages and better predict vulnerable periods within these disorders, with implications for both therapeutic rescue and ultimately, prevention.

  7. Effects of risperidone on core symptoms of autistic disorder based on childhood autism rating scale: An open label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padideh Ghaeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of risperidone in patients afflicted by autistic disorder especially with regards to its three core symptoms, including "relating to others", "communication skills", and "stereotyped behaviors" based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS. Materials and Methods: An 8-week open-label study of risperidone for treatment of autistic disorder in children 4-17 years old was designed. Risperidone dose titration was as follow: 0.02 mg/kg/day at the first week, 0.04 mg/kg/day at the second week, and 0.06 mg/kg/day at the third week and thereafter. The outcome measures were scores obtained by CARS, Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I scale. Results: Fifteen patients completed this study. After 8 weeks, CARS total score decreased significantly, (P=0.001. At the end of the study, social interactions and verbal communication skills of the patients were significantly improved (P<0.001, P=0.03, respectively. However, stereotypic behaviors did not show any significant change in this study. Increase in appetite and somnolence were the most reported side effects. Conclusion: This study suggests that risperidone may be an effective treatment for the management of core symptoms of autistic disorder.

  8. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to…

  9. Hypnosis Without Empathy? Perspectives From Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Stage Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David B

    2016-01-01

    Despite volumes of published studies supporting the efficacy of hypnosis for ego-strengthening, performance, and physical and psychological disorders, the precise nature of hypnosis, and in particular, the neurobiological underpinnings of trance-phenomenon, remains tenuous at best. With his empathic involvement theory of hypnosis, Wickramasekera II (2015) brings us closer to an understanding of the elusive nature of hypnotic processes by proposing a bridging of two long-standing and seemingly incongruent theories of hypnosis (i.e., neodissociative versus socio-cognitive). Borrowing from neuroscientific studies of empathy, the empathic involvement theory maintains that empathy, beyond any other human dynamic (including emotions, behavior, personality, and imagination), facilitates and enhances hypnotic experiences for both recipient and provider alike. By the same token, one can reasonably infer from the empathic involvement theory that non-empathic individuals are less likely to benefit from hypnosis. With this perspective in mind, the empathic involvement theory's identification of empathy as an apparent "Holy Grail" of the neural underpinnings and precise nature of hypnosis may be challenged on a number of grounds. Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder, especially those suffering from alexithymia, have been identified as empathy deficient, and therefore according to the empathic involvement theory would be classified as "low-hypnotizable," yet empirical studies, albeit limited in number, suggest otherwise. Furthermore, hypnotic inductions of audience volunteers by stage hypnotists challenge the empathic involvement theory's supposition that empathy is a required component of hypnosis. It is this author's contention that empathy is a beneficial, though not essential, element of successful hypnosis.

  10. Discourse Cohesion in the Verbal Interactions of Individuals Diagnosed with Autistic Disorder or Schizotypal Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaxe, Christiane A. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study compared high functioning adolescents and young adults with autism (n=8) or schizotypal personality disorder (n=9) in use of social language referencing. Both groups had similar rates, types, and patterns of cohesive reference errors, though subjects with schizotypal disorder used cohesive ties of reference more often and more correctly…

  11. [Review of psychopharmacological treatments in adolescents and adults with autistic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadli, A; Gonnier, V; Aussilloux, C

    2002-01-01

    Autism is an early developmental disorder. It leads to severe and durable disturbances. Given this problem, no treatment can be excluded a priori. Thus, many approaches are used to deal with autistic disorders. In France, pharmacological treatments are, for instance, largely and mostly used in adults. In the USA, these treatments concern 50% of persons with autism of any age. Nevertheless, they are rarely based on controlled studies. At the present, however, prescriptions and expected effects appear to be hard to localize. Furthermore, only few controlled studies validate their use. Aim - We offer a review of studies about medical treatments used in adolescents and adults with autism. They are classified in 3 categories: the first (category I) includes drugs used for their neurochemical effects focusing on autistic signs. The second (category II) covers drugs used for treatment of behavioural disorders frequently associated with autism. The third (category III) corresponds to a wide range of drugs or vitamins for wich only few case studies exist reporting irregular positive effects. The main hypothesis of this review is that autism involves a dysfunction of the neuromediation systems. This hypothesis opens new perspectives in the research of medical treatments in autism by focusing on molecules, which are supposed to have an effect on neuromediation systems. Method - Our review is based on studies, which have been published during the past twenty years. For many studies, data are limited to adolescents and adults. So we expanded our review to data available in children. The data bases that we have used are medline and psyclit. Keywords have been chosen according to: pharmacological considerations (psychotropic, psychoactive drugs, psychopharmacology) and clinical symptoms (autism, automutilations, aggressive behavior, and hyperactivity). Hypothesis of a dysfunction in the neuromediation systems in autism - Many studies exist about biochemical abnormalities in

  12. Are autistic traits measured equivalently in individuals with and without an autism spectrum disorder? An invariance analysis of the Autism Spectrum Quotient Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Aja L; Booth, Tom; McKenzie, Karen; Kuenssberg, Renate; O'Donnell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    It is common to administer measures of autistic traits to those without autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) with, for example, the aim of understanding autistic personality characteristics in non-autistic individuals. Little research has examined the extent to which measures of autistic traits actually measure the same traits in the same way across those with and without an ASD. We addressed this question using a multi-group confirmatory factor invariance analysis of the Autism Quotient Short Form (AQ-S: Hoekstra et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 41(5):589-596, 2011) across those with (n = 148) and without (n = 168) ASD. Metric variance (equality of factor loadings), but not scalar invariance (equality of thresholds), held suggesting that the AQ-S measures the same latent traits in both groups, but with a bias in the manner in which trait levels are estimated. We, therefore, argue that the AQ-S can be used to investigate possible causes and consequences of autistic traits in both groups separately, but caution is due when combining or comparing levels of autistic traits across the two groups.

  13. Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2, but Not Type 1, Is Up-Regulated in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Children Affected by Autistic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalco, Dario; Sapone, Anna; Giordano, Catia; Cirillo, Alessandra; de Magistris, Laura; Rossi, Francesco; Fasano, Alessio; Bradstreet, James Jeffrey; Maione, Sabatino; Antonucci, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Autistic disorders (ADs) are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders arised by the interaction of genes and environmental factors. Dysfunctions in social interaction and communication skills, repetitive and stereotypic verbal and non-verbal behaviours are common features of ADs. There are no defined mechanisms of pathogenesis, rendering…

  14. Agreement in Multi-Informant Assessment of Behaviour and Emotional Problems and Social Functioning in Adolescents with Autistic and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Matthew I.; Gray, Kylie M.; Taffe, John R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of evidence concerning the patterns of multi-informant agreement in populations with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study compared ratings of behaviour and emotional problems and social functioning provided by 45 adolescents aged 12-18 years, with Autistic or Asperger's Disorder with ratings by their parents and teachers.…

  15. Is There a Need for a Focused Health Care Service for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders? A Keyhole Look at This Problem in Tripoli, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeglam, Adel M.; Maouna, Ameena

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autism is a global disorder, but relatively little is known about its presentation and occurrence in many developing countries, including Libya. Aims: 1.) To estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders in children referred to Al-Khadra hospital (KH). 2.) To increase the awareness among pediatrician and primary health care…

  16. Autistic traits and autism spectrum disorders : the clinical validity of two measures presuming a continuum of social communication skills

    OpenAIRE

    Bölte, Sven; Westerwald, Eva; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine M.; Poustka, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that autism is the extreme end of a continuously distributed trait. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC) aim to assess autistic traits. The objective of this study was to compare their clinical validity. The SRS showed sensitivities of .74 to .80 and specificities of .69 to 1.00 for autism. Sensitivities were .85 to .90 and specificities .28 to.82 for the SCDC. Correlations with the ADI-R, ADOS and SCQ were higher...

  17. The autistic spectrum: subgroups, boundaries, and treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, S.H.N.

    2002-01-01

    There is consensus about the disorders that comprise the autistic spectrum, with autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-NOS as the most typical examples and Rett's disorder and disintegrative disorder as the other components. Important controversies regarding the precise definitions of auti

  18. A Systematic Review of Interventions Used to Treat Catatonic Symptoms in People with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Hannah; Bunton, Penny; Hare, Dougal J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to examine the efficacy of a range of treatments for autistic catatonia. The review identified 22 relevant papers, reporting a total of 28 cases including both adult and paediatric patients. Treatment methods included electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), medication, behavioural and sensory interventions. Quality…

  19. MRI or not to MRI! Should brain MRI be a routine investigation in children with autistic spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeglam, Adel M; Al-Ogab, Marwa F; Al-Shaftery, Thouraya

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the routine usage of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of brain and estimate the prevalence of brain abnormalities in children presenting to the Neurodevelopment Clinic of Al-Khadra Hospital (NDC-KH), Tripoli, Libya with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The records of all children with ASD presented to NDC-KH over 4-year period (from January 2009 to December 2012) were reviewed. All MRIs were acquired with a 1.5-T Philips (3-D T1, T2, FLAIR coronal and axial sequences). MRIs were reported to be normal, abnormal or no significant abnormalities by a consultant neuroradiologist. One thousand and seventy-five children were included in the study. Seven hundred and eighty-two children (72.7 %) had an MRI brain of whom 555 (71 %) were boys. 26 children (24 males and 2 females) (3.3 %) demonstrated MRI abnormalities (8 leukodystrophic changes, 4 periventricular leukomalacia, 3 brain atrophy, 2 tuberous sclerosis, 2 vascular changes, 1 pineoblastoma, 1 cerebellar angioma, 1 cerebellar hypoplasia, 3 agenesis of corpus callosum, 1 neuro-epithelial cyst). An unexpectedly high rate of MRI abnormalities was found in the first large series of clinical MRI investigations in children with autism. These results could contribute to further research into the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorder. PMID:25344829

  20. Brief Report: Parent-Reported Problems Related to Communication, Behavior and Interests in Children with Autistic Disorder and Their Impact on Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øien, Roald; Eisemann, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism spectrum disorders often report elevated levels of stress, depression and anxiety compared to parents of children with other developmental disorders. The present study investigated experiences of mothers of children with autistic disorder, both boys and girls. The results show that mothers report problems related to communication, behavior and interests of their child, which impact their quality of life. There were also differences between boys and girls.

  1. Imitation and Action Understanding in Autistic Spectrum Disorders: How Valid Is the Hypothesis of a Deficit in the Mirror Neuron System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.; Brindley, Rachel M.; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    The motor mirror neuron system supports imitation and goal understanding in typical adults. Recently, it has been proposed that a deficit in this mirror neuron system might contribute to poor imitation performance in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and might be a cause of poor social abilities in these children. We aimed to test…

  2. A Randomised Group Comparison Controlled Trial of "Preschoolers with Autism": A Parent Education and Skills Training Intervention for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; Mackinnon, Andrew; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder. Method: A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent…

  3. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…

  4. 孤独症儿童家长生存质量的研究%Effects of life quality on autistic disorder children's parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振寰; 谢巧玲; 张勇

    2013-01-01

    [目的]分析孤独症患儿对其父母生存质量的影响,为有关机构展开工作提供参考依据. [方法]采用普适性生存质量测定量表(SF-36),对90例孤独症患儿父母及120例正常儿童的父母进行评定. [结果]1)孤独症组父母的生存质量总分及各领域评分均低于正常父母组(P<0.01);2)低功能孤独症组的父母生存质量评分明显低于高功能孤独症组(P<0.01);3)患儿家长的生存质量与患儿病情程度呈负相关,与智力水平呈正相关(P<0.01). [结论]孤独症儿童对患儿父母生存质量有影响,低功能孤独症患儿则影响更大.%【Objective】 To investigate the quality of life and related factors in parents of children with autism. 【Methods】 90 parents of autistic children and 120 parents of normal children were participated. SF-36 was employed to e-valuate both groups by questionnaire. Parents of autistic children also completed Clancy Autism Behavior Scale (CABS) Autistic Behavior Checklist (ABC),the Children Autistic Rating Scale (CARS)and Autistic children checked with the Gesell development diagnosis scale. 【Results】 1) Parents of autistic children reported substantially lower scores of SF-36 than that of parents with normal group (P<0. 01). 2) The quality of life of parents in low functioning intelligence group was worse than high functioning intelligence group(P<0. 01). 3) The quality of life of parents was positively correlated with intelligence of autistic children,and negative correlated with symptom of autistic children. 【Conclusion】 Children with autistic disorder took grievous influence on parents quality of life. Compared with high functioning intelligence group, the low functioning intelligence children's parents had even worse quality of life.

  5. A girl with increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner′s syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Mohseni Ahouee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the findings on the evaluation of a 9-year-old girl with disabling and pronounced increased writing and painting activities associated with Turner′s syndrome and autistic spectrum disorder. She spent most of the time doing these activities which affected not only her academic performance, but also social relationships. A comprehensive treatment plan consists of both biological and psychological aspects, is the main point of this case. Low dose of risperidone (0.5 mg/day was started to decrease the patient′s stereotypic behaviors. Sertraline (12.5 mg/day was prescribed for her phobia. She was also referred to an occupational therapist in order to improve her social skills.

  6. EEG correlates of emotions in dream narratives from typical young adults and individuals with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoust, Anne-Marie; Lusignan, Félix-Antoine; Braun, Claude M J; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2008-03-01

    The relationship between emotional dream content and Alpha and Beta REM sleep EEG activity was investigated in typical individuals and in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Dream narratives of persons with ASD contained fewer emotional elements. In both groups, emotions correlated positively with slow Alpha (8.0-10.0 Hz) spectral power over parieto-occipital and left central regions, as well as with a right occipital EEG asymmetry. Slow Alpha activity in ASD individuals was lower over midline and parasagittal areas and higher over lateral areas compared to controls. Both groups displayed a right-biased slow Alpha activity for midparietal and occipital (significantly higher in control) sites. Results indicate that Alpha EEG activity may represent a neurophysiological substrate associated with emotional dream content. Distinctive Alpha EEG patterns and asymmetries suggest that dream generation implies different brain connectivity in ASD.

  7. Fatty acid metabolism in neurodevelopmental disorder: a new perspective on associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, dyspraxia and the autistic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A J; Ross, M A

    2000-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that abnormalities of fatty acid and membrane phospholipid metabolism play a part in a wide range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. This proposal is discussed here in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dyslexia, developmental coordination disorder (dyspraxia) and the autistic spectrum. These are among the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood, with significant implications for society as well as for those directly affected. However, controversy still surrounds both the identification and management of these conditions, and while their aetiology is recognized as being complex and multifactorial, little progress has yet been made in elucidating predisposing factors at the biological level. An overview is provided here of the contents of this Special Issue, which contains a selection of reports from a unique multidisciplinary workshop involving both researchers and clinicians. Its purpose was to explore the possibility that ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and autism fall within a phospholipid spectrum of disorders. This proposal could explain the high degree of co-morbidity between these conditions, their aggregation within families and relation to other psychiatric disorders, and a range of associated features that are already well known at a clinical level. The existing evidence for fatty acid abnormalities in these disorders is summarized, and new approaches are outlined that have the potential to improve both the identification and the management of these and related neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions. PMID:10970706

  8. Brief report: the impact of changing from DSM-IV 'Asperger's' to DSM-5 'autistic spectrum disorder' diagnostic labels on stigma and treatment attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan, Jeneva L; Ellefson, Sarah E; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2015-10-01

    In the DSM-5, 'Asperger's Disorder' was incorporated into 'Autistic Spectrum Disorder' (ASD). One key concern in this change has been that the ASD label will increase negative attitudes relative to the Asperger's label. To test this, we asked 465 American adults to read a vignette describing a child with autistic symptoms that included an ASD label, an Asperger's label, or no label, and rate their stigma and treatment attitudes (help-seeking and perceived effectiveness). Contrary to predictions, label did not impact stigma. Label did impact treatment attitudes, with greater help-seeking and perceived treatment effectiveness for both Asperger's and ASD labels. In sum, concern that the ASD label will increase negative perceptions, at least amongst the general public, is not supported. PMID:26043847

  9. A survey of parents' reactions to the diagnosis of an autistic spectrum disorder by a local service: access to information and use of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Warren; Morris, Kathleen

    2004-12-01

    We conducted a postal survey of parents whose child had been diagnosed with an autistic spectrum disorder by a district diagnostic service. The service was regarded as having improved significantly following recent changes, but there were still shortcomings. Parents had obtained useful information from a range of other sources, including a parents' support group, school teachers, speech and language therapists, educational psychologists, the Internet, books and academic journals. Special units and schools were rated as the most useful source of support and treatment, but many other interventions were rated highly. Parents reported a diverse range of both negative and positive consequences of diagnosis, and many reported a change in their attitudes to diagnosis over time. Many expressed frustration with trying to get an early diagnosis, with the social, educational and health services, and with the way that autistic spectrum disorders are regarded by lay people and other parents.

  10. Heritability of autistic traits in the general population.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, R A; Bartels, M.; Verweij, C.J.H.; Boomsma, D I

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent research has indicated that autism is not a discrete disorder and that family members of autistic probands have an increased likelihood of exhibiting autistic symptoms with a wide range of severity, often below the threshold for a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder. Objective To examine the distribution and genetic structure of autistic traits in the general population using a newly established quantitative measure of autistic traits, the Social Responsiveness S...

  11. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna

    2014-03-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD.

  12. Applying the Hexagon-Spindle Model to the design of school environments for children with Autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Andrée; Woolner, Alex; Benedyk, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Schools and other educational environments beyond serving as the primary work places of children provide the backdrop against which formative emotional, psychological, cognitive and physical development takes place. However, ergonomists have paid little attention to the design of these environments, the interactions within them or their organization from a child's perspective. Children with special education needs, such as those with hearing or visual difficulties, cognitive or social disabilities, or even those with different learning styles may be placed in mainstream schools ill-equipped to suit their needs. Rather than retrofitting classrooms as children with different requirements enter the school, a ground-up approach could be taken to create effective educational environments based on an understanding of the learning tasks to be supported, the learner characteristics and the facilities and interactions needed to effect task completion. The application of an holistic ergonomic model, such as the Hexagon-Spindle model provides a means of systematically considering the variables which need to be included in the design and evaluation of such environments. This paper presents a case study of the application of this model to the design of low sensory classrooms and interactive learning experiences for children with an autistic spectrum disorder. PMID:19369717

  13. Cortical Gyrification in Autistic and Asperger Disorders: A Preliminary Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Roger J.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of Asperger disorder as a distinct syndrome from autism is unclear partly due to the paucity of differentiating neurobiological evidence. Frontal lobe cortical folding between these disorders was compared using the gyrification index. Twenty-three boys underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging: six with high-functioning autism, nine with Asperger disorder, and eight controls. Using the first coronal slice anterior to the corpus callosum, total and outer cortical contours we...

  14. White Matter Microstructure Predicts Autistic Traits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Miriam; Thapar, Anita; Jones, Derek K.

    2014-01-01

    Traits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have previously been found to index clinical severity. This study examined the association of ASD traits with diffusion parameters in adolescent males with ADHD (n = 17), and also compared WM microstructure relative to controls (n = 17).…

  15. Application of custom-designed oligonucleotide array CGH in 145 patients with autistic spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wiśniowiecka-Kowalnik, Barbara; Kastory-Bronowska, Monika; Bartnik, Magdalena; Derwińska, Katarzyna; Dymczak-Domini, Wanda; Szumbarska, Dorota; Ziemka, Ewa; Szczałuba, Krzysztof; Sykulski, Maciej; Gambin, Tomasz; Gambin, Anna; Shaw, Chad A.; Mazurczak, Tadeusz; Obersztyn, Ewa; Bocian, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders, including childhood autism, atypical autism, and Asperger syndrome, with an estimated prevalence of 1.0–2.5% in the general population. ASDs have a complex multifactorial etiology, with genetic causes being recognized in only 10–20% of cases. Recently, copy-number variants (CNVs) have been shown to contribute to over 10% of ASD cases. We have applied a custom-designed oligonucleotide array comparative ...

  16. Neurotensin is increased in serum of young children with autistic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Angelidou Asimenia; Francis Konstantinos; Vasiadi Magdalini; Alysandratos Konstantinos-Dionysios; Zhang Bodi; Theoharides Athanasios; Lykouras Lefteris; Sideri Kyriaki; Kalogeromitros Dimitrios; Theoharides Theoharis C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed in early childhood. They are associated with a set of "core symptoms" that include disabilities in social interaction skills, verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. There is no definite pathogenetic mechanism or diagnostic tests. Many children with ASD also have "allergic-like" symptoms, but test negative implying mast cell activation by non-a...

  17. The utility of patient specific induced pluripotent stem cells for the modelling of Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cocks, Graham; Curran, Sarah; Gami, Priya; Uwanogho, Dafe; Jeffries, Aaron R.; Kathuria, Annie; Lucchesi, Walter; Wood, Victoria; Dixon, Rosemary; Ogilvie, Caroline; Steckler, Thomas; Price, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Until now, models of psychiatric diseases have typically been animal models. Whether they were to be used to further understand the pathophysiology of the disorder, or as drug discovery tools, animal models have been the choice of preference in mimicking psychiatric disorders in an experimental setting. While there have been cellular models, they have generally been lacking in validity. This situation is changing with the advent of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In t...

  18. Eye-Movement Patterns Are Associated with Communicative Competence in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Brock, Jon; Cragg, Lucy; Einav, Shiri; Griffiths, Helen; Nation, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Background: Investigations using eye-tracking have reported reduced fixations to salient social cues such as eyes when participants with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) view social scenes. However, these studies have not distinguished different cognitive phenotypes. Methods: The eye-movements of 28 teenagers with ASD and 18 typically developing…

  19. Secure Attachment in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Maternal Insightfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2008-01-01

    Do children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) form attachments to their caregivers? This article reviews research challenging the conventional view that children with autism are unable to form healthy attachment relationships. The authors describe a study examining the role of maternal insightfulness into the inner world of the child in…

  20. Can Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders Extract Emotions out of Contextual Cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, David; Santos, Andreia; Bastard-Rosset, Delphine; Rondan, Cecilie; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are able to recognize facial expressions of emotion and objects missing on the basis of contextual cues. While most of these studies focused on facial emotion recognition, here we examined the ability to extract emotional information on the basis…

  1. Self-Disorders in Individuals with Autistic Traits: Contribution of Reduced Autobiographical Reasoning Capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Fabrice; Göritz, Anja S.; Schröder, Johanna; Coutelle, Romain; Danion, Jean-Marie; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine V.; Moritz, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The present web-based study (N = 840) aimed to illuminate the cognitive mechanisms underlying self-disorders in autism. Initially, participants selected three self-defining memories. Then, we assessed their capacity to give meaning to these events (i.e., meaning making), their tendency to scrutinize autobiographical memory to better understand…

  2. Autistic Tendencies: Are There Different Pathways for Blindness and Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Rebecca; Wyver, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    For many of the children who are blind and who also display features of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) it is possible that their characteristics, while being representative of ASD, actually follow a different pathway to those children who have ASD and are sighted. It is proposed that these children should be viewed as having specific features…

  3. Greater disruption to control of voluntary saccades in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder: evidence for greater cerebellar involvement in autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley-Cary, Chloe; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce; White, Owen; Fielding, Joanne

    2011-03-01

    It remains unclear whether autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) exist on a symptom continuum or are separate disorders with discrete neurobiological underpinnings. In addition to impairments in communication and social cognition, motor deficits constitute a significant clinical feature in both disorders. It has been suggested that motor deficits and in particular the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may differentiate these disorders. We used a simple volitional saccade task to comprehensively profile the integrity of voluntary ocular motor behaviour in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or AD, and included measures sensitive to cerebellar dysfunction. We tested three groups of age-matched young males with normal intelligence (full scale, verbal, and performance IQ estimates >70) aged between 11 and 19 years; nine with AD, eight with HFA, and ten normally developing males as the comparison group. Overall, the metrics and dynamics of the voluntary saccades produced in this task were preserved in the AD group. In contrast, the HFA group demonstrated relatively preserved mean measures of ocular motricity with cerebellar-like deficits demonstrated in increased variability on measures of response time, final eye position, and movement dynamics. These deficits were considered to be consistent with reduced cerebellar online adaptation of movement. The results support the notion that the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may be different in AD and HFA, suggesting potentially differential neurobiological substrates may underpin these complex disorders.

  4. Parent-child gesture use during problem solving in autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Kristen; Winsler, Adam

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between child language skills and parent and child gestures of 58 youths with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Frequencies and rates of total gesture use as well as five categories of gestures (deictic, conventional, beat, iconic, and metaphoric) were reliably coded during the collaborative Tower of Hanoi task. Children with ASD had lower Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores and gestured less and at lower rates compared to typically developing children. Gesture use was unrelated to vocabulary for typically developing children, but positively associated with vocabulary for those with ASD. Demographic correlates of gesturing differed by group. Gesture may be a point of communication intervention for families with children with ASD. PMID:24535577

  5. Review of foreign approaches to development of communication in children with autistic spectrum disorders

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    Soldatenkova E.N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a generalized overview of international approaches to the evaluation and formation of communication in children with autism spectrum disor ders (ASD. Described radicals communication disorders in children with ASD. Analyzed foreign approaches (Communication system for the exchange of images (PECS Lori Frost and Andrew Bondy; options piktogramme6ideogrammic communication (bliss6symbolism, Loeb system, a system of sign language; Program in Applied verbal behavior; a Method of facilitating communication (FC and others used for the development of communication in children with ASD and donditions underlying these approaches. Examined differences in focus for the development of communication in children with ASD in domestic and foreign schools. The main conditions for the development of communication in children with ASD described in the framework of cultural historical psychology and activity approach, ensuring the inclusion of children with ASD in education.

  6. Sex-Related Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum Disorders Diagnosed Late in Life: Implications for the Female Autistic Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnhardt, Fritz-Georg; Falter, Christine Michaela; Gawronski, Astrid; Pfeiffer, Kathleen; Tepest, Ralf; Franklin, Jeremy; Vogeley, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Females with high-functioning ASD are known to camouflage their autistic symptoms better than their male counterparts, making them prone to being under-ascertained and delayed in diagnostic assessment. Thus far the underlying cognitive processes that enable such successful socio-communicative adaptation are not well understood. The current results…

  7. Effectiveness of Methylcobalamin and Folinic Acid Treatment on Adaptive Behavior in Children with Autistic Disorder Is Related to Glutathione Redox Status

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    Richard E. Frye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatments targeting metabolic abnormalities in children with autism are limited. Previously we reported that a nutritional treatment significantly improved glutathione metabolism in children with autistic disorder. In this study we evaluated changes in adaptive behaviors in this cohort and determined whether such changes are related to changes in glutathione metabolism. Thirty-seven children diagnosed with autistic disorder and abnormal glutathione and methylation metabolism were treated with twice weekly 75 µg/Kg methylcobalamin and twice daily 400 µg folinic acid for 3 months in an open-label fashion. The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS and glutathione redox metabolites were measured at baseline and at the end of the treatment period. Over the treatment period, all VABS subscales significantly improved with an average effect size of 0.59, and an average improvement in skills of 7.7 months. A greater improvement in glutathione redox status was associated with a greater improvement in expressive communication, personal and domestic daily living skills, and interpersonal, play-leisure, and coping social skills. Age, gender, and history of regression did not influence treatment response. The significant behavioral improvements observed and the relationship between these improvements to glutathione redox status suggest that nutritional interventions targeting redox metabolism may benefit some children with autism.

  8. An Examination of Challenging Behaviors in Autistic Disorder versus Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified: Significant Differences and Gender Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Alison M.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are well-known for engagement in challenging behaviors. Unfortunately, due to its absence as a criterion for diagnosis in the "DSM-IV-TR", little attention has been paid to the endorsement rates of such behaviors. However, a recently developed measure to assist in the diagnosis of infants and toddlers…

  9. Reducing auditory hypersensitivities in autistic spectrum disorders: Preliminary findings evaluating the Listening Project Protocol

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    Stephen W Porges

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hypersensitivities are a common feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. In the present study the effectiveness of a novel intervention, the Listening Project Protocol (LPP was evaluated in two trials conducted with children diagnosed with ASD. LPP was developed to reduce auditory hypersensitivities. LPP is based on a theoretical neural exercise model that uses computer altered acoustic stimulation to recruit the neural regulation of middle ear muscles. Features of the intervention stimuli were informed by basic research in speech and hearing sciences that has identified the specific acoustic frequencies necessary to understand speech, which must pass through middle ear structures before being processed by other components of the auditory system. LPP was hypothesized to reduce auditory hypersensitivities by increasing the neural tone to the middle ear muscles to functionally dampen competing sounds in frequencies lower than human speech. The trials demonstrated that LPP, when contrasted to control conditions, selectively reduced auditory hypersensitivities. These findings are consistent with the Polyvagal Theory, which emphasizes the role of the middle ear muscles in social communication.

  10. Biological and psychological rhythms: an integrative approach to rhythm disturbances in autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botbol, Michel; Cabon, Philippe; Kermarrec, Solenn; Tordjman, Sylvie

    2013-09-01

    Biological rhythms are crucial phenomena that are perfect examples of the adaptation of organisms to their environment. A considerable amount of work has described different types of biological rhythms (from circadian to ultradian), individual differences in their patterns and the complexity of their regulation. In particular, the regulation and maturation of the sleep-wake cycle have been thoroughly studied. Its desynchronization, both endogenous and exogenous, is now well understood, as are its consequences for cognitive impairments and health problems. From a completely different perspective, psychoanalysts have shown a growing interest in the rhythms of psychic life. This interest extends beyond the original focus of psychoanalysis on dreams and the sleep-wake cycle, incorporating central theoretical and practical psychoanalytic issues related to the core functioning of the psychic life: the rhythmic structures of drive dynamics, intersubjective developmental processes and psychic containment functions. Psychopathological and biological approaches to the study of infantile autism reveal the importance of specific biological and psychological rhythmic disturbances in this disorder. Considering data and hypotheses from both perspectives, this paper proposes an integrative approach to the study of these rhythmic disturbances and offers an etiopathogenic hypothesis based on this integrative approach.

  11. Asperger’s syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders? [Miejsce zespołu Aspergera w grupie całościowych zaburzeń rozwoju: kontinuum czy spektrum zaburzeń autystycznych?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD) refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term „autistic spectrum disorders” was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger’s Syndrome (AS) remains the most controversial diagnosis in t...

  12. AUTISTIC CHILDREN PROTECTION SCHEME

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    Dragan LUKIC

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article sets forth the theoretical grounds which make the basis for the organizational scheme of the autistic persons social protection. This protection consists of the below listed forms of work:· Health service with the role of an early detection and participation in the creation of rehabilitation programs;· Social protection with its programs of work from the diagnostics where the defectologist makes a team together with the physician and the psychologists to the systems of rehabilitation institutions where the defectologist’s is the main responsibility.The present article underlines two facts, namely:· that an autistic person requires to be followed and every spare moment used to promote and advance the activities the doer commenced himself instead of having him carry out the programs which are beyond his internal motivations and which he finds emotionally inaccessible;· that and form of work organization with autistic persons must subordinate its administrative part to the basic professional requirements this kind of disorder (handicap sets in front of each professional.

  13. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Levels and Correlations with Symptoms in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Controls.

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    Natalie Parletta

    Full Text Available There is evidence that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD have lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA levels compared with controls and conflicting evidence regarding omega-6 (n-6 PUFA levels.This study investigated whether erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were lower and n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA higher in children with ADHD, ASD and controls, and whether lower n-3 and higher n-6 PUFAs correlated with poorer scores on the Australian Twin Behaviour Rating Scale (ATBRS; ADHD symptoms and Test of Variable Attention (TOVA in children with ADHD, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS in children with ASD.Assessments and blood samples of 565 children aged 3-17 years with ADHD (n = 401, ASD (n = 85 or controls (n = 79 were analysed. One-way ANOVAs with Tukey's post-hoc analysis investigated differences in PUFA levels between groups and Pearson's correlations investigated correlations between PUFA levels and ATBRS, TOVA and CARS scores.Children with ADHD and ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA, higher AA/EPA ratio and lower n-3/n-6 than controls (P<0.001 except AA between ADHD and controls: P = 0.047. Children with ASD had lower DHA, EPA and AA than children with ADHD (P<0.001 for all comparisons. ATBRS scores correlated negatively with EPA (r = -.294, P<0.001, DHA (r = -.424, P<0.001, n-3/n-6 (r = -.477, P<0.001 and positively with AA/EPA (r = .222, P <.01. TOVA scores correlated positively with DHA (r = .610, P<0.001, EPA (r = .418, P<0.001 AA (r = .199, P<0.001, and n-3/n-6 (r = .509, P<0.001 and negatively with AA/EPA (r = -.243, P<0.001. CARS scores correlated significantly with DHA (r = .328, P = 0.002, EPA (r = -.225, P = 0.038 and AA (r = .251, P = 0.021.Children with ADHD and ASD had low levels of EPA, DHA and AA and high ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFAs and these correlated significantly with symptoms. Future research should further

  14. [Features of nursing of the autistic children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinskiene, Sigita; Pūras, Dainius; Kajokiene, Asta; Senina, Julija

    2002-01-01

    Due to the behavioral and communication difficulties autistic children need individualized approaches providing them medical help. Aspects of nursing of autistic children were not investigated in our country. Thirty seven mothers of autistic children and 74 mothers of children without developmental disorders (control group) were interviewed orally and filled the questionnaire. The age of children was 3-12 years old. The aim of the research was to analyze peculiarities of behavior, communication and social adaptation of children with autism disorder together with troubles they face in medical services (outpatient and inpatient), and prepare practical recommendations to the pediatric and mental health nurses. It appeared that families with autistic children come across the great difficulties in various areas of the daily life. Autistic children tended to have severe behavioral and emotional difficulties while being examined by the medical staff. Adaptation difficulties in medical services were very prominent, especially at the in-patient departments (unpredictable and impulsive behavior, anxiety, decrease of appetite, sleep disturbances). Possibilities of home visit of the nurses are underestimated and could provide more useful and constructive help to the families. The data showed existing difficulties for the pediatric nurses and medical staff to establish good contact with the autistic children and their parents and lack of knowledge about the children with pervasive developmental disorders and their needs. Practical recommendations are provided.

  15. Two Autistic Savant Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, N.; Hermelin, B.

    1994-01-01

    Two young autistic children exhibited normal reading comprehension but reading speeds considerably faster than controls. The effect of randomizing word order was minimal for the older of the two autistic boys. Results indicate that efficient grapheme-phoneme conversion is primarily responsible for the fast reading of the autistic children.…

  16. Sex-Related Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum Disorders Diagnosed Late in Life: Implications for the Female Autistic Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnhardt, Fritz-Georg; Falter, Christine Michaela; Gawronski, Astrid; Pfeiffer, Kathleen; Tepest, Ralf; Franklin, Jeremy; Vogeley, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Females with high-functioning ASD are known to camouflage their autistic symptoms better than their male counterparts, making them prone to being under-ascertained and delayed in diagnostic assessment. Thus far the underlying cognitive processes that enable such successful socio-communicative adaptation are not well understood. The current results show sex-related differences in the cognitive profile of ASD individuals, which were diagnosed late in life exclusively. Higher verbal abilities were found in males (n = 69) as opposed to higher processing speed and better executive functions in females with ASD (n = 38). Since both sexes remained unidentified during childhood and adolescence, these results are suggestive for sex-distinctive cognitive strategies as an alternative to typically-developed reciprocal social behavior and social mimicry in high functioning ASD.

  17. Early diagnosis and identification of children with autistic spectrum disorder%孤独症谱系障碍儿童的早期诊断与识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳娟; 卢云; 吴晓庆; 陈娟; 郑芹

    2012-01-01

    目的:在进行婴幼儿孤独症谱系障碍患病情况流行病学调查的同时早期诊断孤独症患儿,为早期干预做准备,并总结早期识别患儿的方法.方法:采用随机分层整群抽样方法,对连云港市8 532名0~3岁儿童进行横断面调查;应用婴幼儿孤独症筛查表(CHAT)筛查出可疑儿童,以儿童孤独症家长评定量表(ABC)、儿童期孤独症评定量表(CARS)及美国精神障碍诊断和统计手册(DSM-IV)的诊断依据进行确诊.结果:8 532名儿童中9名为孤独症阳性,阳性率为10.55/万,其中1岁内1例,1~2岁3例,2~3岁5例;男孩8例,女孩1例,男孩发病率高于女孩(P<0.05).结论:加强对孤独症谱系障碍患儿的早期识别、早期诊断,对孤独症患儿的日后康复意义重大;总结出的早期识别孤独症谱系障碍儿童方法,为婴幼儿父母及医务工作者提供早期筛查孤独症患儿的依据.%Objective: To diagnose the children with autism at early stage at the same time of conducting epidemiological investigation of prevalence of infantile autistic spectrum disorder, make preparations for early intervention, and summarize the methods to identify the children with autism early. Methods: A random stratified cluster sampling method was used to carry out cross - section survey among 8 532 children aged 0-3 years old; CHAT was used to screen out suspected children, then they were diagnosed definitely according to the diagnostic criteria of ABC, CARS, and DSM - IV. Results: Among 8 532 children, 9 children were found with autism, the positive rate was 10. 55/ten thousand, including one child within one year, three children aged 1-2 years old, and five children aged 2-3 years old; eight boys and one girl were included, the incidence of autism in boys was statistically significantly higher than that in girls ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion ; Enhancing early identification and diagnosis of children with autistic spectrum disorder has important

  18. Autism and autistic spectrum disorders in the context of new DSM-V classification, and clinical and epidemiological data

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Miodrag; Lakić Aneta; Ilić Neda

    2012-01-01

    Autism is one of disorders from the autism spectrum, besides Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. They are classified as mental disorders as being manifested by a wide range of cognitive, emotional and neurobehavioural abnormalities. Key categorical characteristics of the disorder are clear impairments of the development of the child’s socialisation, understanding and production of verbal and non-verbal communication and restri...

  19. Brief Report: Autistic Behaviors among Children with Fragile X or Rett Syndrome: Implications for the Classification of Pervasive Developmental Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Pulsifer, Margaret; Fiumara, Agata; Cocuzza, M.; Nigro, F.; Incorpora, G.; Barone, R.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 14 males with fragile X syndrome, 12 females with Rett Syndrome, and 25 individuals with other developmental disorders found that among those with fragile X syndrome, none of the 11 who did not have a diagnosis of autism met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for pervasive developmental disorder.…

  20. Auditory hypersensitivity in children and teenagers with autistic spectrum disorder Hipersensibilidade auditiva em crianças e adolescentes com transtorno do espectro autista

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    Erissandra Gomes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify if the clinical behavior of auditory hypersensitivity, reported in interviews with parents/caregivers and therapists/teachers of 46 children and teenagers suffering from autistic spectrum disorder, correspond to audiological findings. METHOD: The clinical diagnosis for auditory hypersensitivity was investigated by means of an interview. Subsequently, a test of the acoustic stapedial reflex was conducted, and responses to intense acoustic stimulus in open field were observed. RESULTS: Of the 46 subjects, 11 (23.9% were clinically diagnosed as oversensitive to sound and only 2 showed discomfort when exposed to intense acoustic stimulus in open field. There was no statistically significant difference for the test of the ipsilateral acoustic stapedial reflex between the groups. CONCLUSION: Behavioral manifestations to sounds are not associated to hypersensitivity of the auditory pathways, but instead these are associated to difficulties in the upper processing, involving systems that usually are impaired in autistic spectrum patients, such as the limbic system.OBJETIVO: Verificar se o comportamento clínico de hipersensibilidade auditiva, relatado nas entrevistas com os pais/cuidadores e terapeutas/professores de crianças e adolescentes com transtorno do espectro autista, corresponde aos achados audiológicos. MÉTODO: O diagnóstico clínico para a hipersensibilidade auditiva foi investigado a partir do protocolo de entrevista. Após, foi utilizada a pesquisa do reflexo acústico estapédico e observadas as reações ao estímulo sonoro intenso em campo aberto. RESULTADOS: Dos 46 sujeitos, 11 (23,9% foram diagnosticados clinicamente como hipersensíveis ao som, e somente 2 demonstraram desconforto quando expostos ao estímulo sonoro intenso em campo aberto. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante para a pesquisa do reflexo acústico estapédico ipsilateral entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: As manifesta

  1. Female patient with autistic disorder, intellectual disability, and co-morbid anxiety disorder: Expanding the phenotype associated with the recurrent 3q13.2-q13.31 microdeletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintela, Ines; Gomez-Guerrero, Lorena; Fernandez-Prieto, Montse; Resches, Mariela; Barros, Francisco; Carracedo, Angel

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the advent of comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and its use as a first genetic test for the diagnosis of patients with neurodevelopmental phenotypes has allowed the identification of novel submicroscopic chromosomal abnormalities (namely, copy number variants or CNVs), imperceptible by conventional cytogenetic techniques. The 3q13.31 microdeletion syndrome (OMIM #615433) has been defined as a genomic disorder mainly characterized by developmental delay, postnatal overgrowth, hypotonia, genital abnormalities in males, and characteristic craniofacial features. Although the 3q13.31 CNVs are variable in size, a 3.4 Mb recurrently altered region at 3q13.2-q13.31 has been recently described and non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR) mediated by flanking human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-H) elements has been suggested as the mechanism of deletion formation. We expand the phenotypic spectrum associated with this recurrent deletion performing the clinical description of a 9-year-old female patient with autistic disorder, total absence of language, intellectual disability, anxiety disorder and disruptive, and compulsive eating behaviors. The array-based molecular karyotyping allowed the identification of a de novo recurrent 3q13.2-q13.31 deletion encompassing 25 genes. In addition, we compare her clinical phenotype with previous reports of patients with neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders and proximal 3q microdeletions. Finally, we also review the candidate genes proposed so far for these phenotypes. PMID:26332054

  2. Towards a New Functional Assessment of Autistic Dysfunction in Children with Developmental Disorders: The Behaviour Function Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrien, Jean-Louis; Roux, Sylvie; Couturier, Guylene; Malvy, Joelle; Guerin, Pascaline; Debuly, Sabine; Lelord, Gilbert; Berthelemy, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Behaviour Function Inventory (BFI), an instrument designed to assess particular disorders of psychological development and functioning in children with developmental disorders including autism. A study of the reliability and validity of the scale indicated that the BFI provides precise information on the…

  3. Longitudinal association between early atopic dermatitis and subsequent attention-deficit or autistic disorder: A population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Ying; Chen, Mu-Hong; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Bai, Ya-Mei; Hung, Giun-Yi; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Su, Tung-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the common allergic diseases in children. The presence of allergic diseases was found to have association with the risk of developing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in children, but it is still inconclusive. This study was to investigate the longitudinal relationship between AD developed during toddlerhood and subsequent development of ADHD or ASD in later childhood. Toddlers born between 1998 and 2008 and diagnosed with AD at the age younger than 3 years and older than 1 month were retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Age- and gender-matched toddlers with no lifetime AD were enrolled as the control group. All enrolled toddlers were followed until 2011 to identify the development of ADHD or ASD. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to analyze the hazard ratios (HRs). The risks associated with allergic comorbidities were analyzed. A total of 18,473 toddlers were enrolled into the AD group. The presence of AD significantly increased the risk of developing ADHD (HR = 2.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.48-3.45) or ASD (HR = 8.90, 95% CI = 4.98-15.92) when aged 3 years or older. Children from the AD group with 3 comorbidities together, namely, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and asthma, had the greatest risk of developing ADHD and ASD (ADHD: HR = 4.67, 95% CI = 3.81-5.43; ASD: HR = 16.65, 95% CI = 8.63-30.60). In conclusion, toddlers who suffer from AD at the age younger than 3 years are at a higher risk of developing ADHD and ASD during later childhood. Pediatricians taking care of toddlers with AD should have knowledge of this increased risk of developing ADHD and ASD later in life, especially when children have certain comorbidities such as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and asthma. PMID:27684861

  4. Cognitive characteristics of parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, C; Callias, M; Rutter, M

    1977-09-01

    The parents of 15 autistic boys with a nonverbal IQ of at least 80 were compared with a matched group of parents of normal boys on the Goldstein-Scheerer Object Sorting Test and the Bannister-Fransella Grid Test of Thought Disorder. It was necessary to control for social class effects as abnormal scores on the thought disorder tests were more frequent in parents of manual social class. It was found that (a) there was a lack of agreement between the two tests of thought disorder, (b) the parents of autistic children showed thought disorder scores closely comparable to those of the parents of normals, and (c) there was no consistent association between thought disorder and anxiety. The methodological and substantive implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the results of previous investigations.

  5. Autistic functioning and therapeutical dimension of mediations (Tome 1 and 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Chocron, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Care for subjects with autistic or related disorders in medical institutes is mainly based on activities using mediation. This research deals with the caring of youngsters with Pervasive Developmental Disorder in a medical institute. Using both autobiographical work from author with autism and case study of psychotherapeutic follow-up in a medical institute, the idea of autistic functioning will be exposed. This idea is a way to comprehend psychic process mostly seen in autistic persons. In a...

  6. CONCEPTOS GENERALES SOBRE ABA EN NIÑOS CON TRASTORNO DEL ESPECTRO AUTISTA General concepts concerning applied behaviour analysis (ABA in children suffering autistic spectrum disorders (ASD

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    Sandra Elizabeth Piñeros-Ortiz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los trastornos del espectro autista (TEA son entidades que generan discapacidad. Diversas intervenciones psicofarmacológicas y psicosociales modulan algunas de las alteraciones comportamentales asociadas y mejoran la calidad de vida de las personas afectadas y de sus cuidadores. La terapia ABA es una de las intervenciones psicosociales más conocidas y utilizada en población con TEA. Mediante de la formulación de preguntas clave y sus respuestas, este artículo realiza una breve descripción de los aspectos históricos, las principales características y los fundamentos teóricos del ABA. Se discuten los resultados de diversos estudios que señalan las limitaciones metodológicas de las investigaciones sobre la efectividad de esta terapia y sus implicaciones para la práctica clínica.Autistic spectrum disorders (ASD cause disability. Psychopharmacological and psychosocial interventions modulate some of the associated behavioural alterations and improve the quality of life for those affected and the people caring for them. Applied behaviour analysis (ABA therapy is one of the most well-known psychosocial interventions and is used with populations suffering ASD. This article gives a brief description of the historical aspects, the main characteristics and theoretical foundations regarding applied behaviour analysis (ABA by formulating key questions and their (expected responses. The results of some pertinent studies are discussed, pointing out the methodological limitations of research into the effectiveness of this therapy and its implications for clinical practice.

  7. A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of "Ginkgo Biloba" Added to Risperidone in Patients with Autistic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Elmira; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rezazadeh, Shams-Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Rezaei, Farzin; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2012-01-01

    "Ginkgo biloba" has been reported to affect the neurotransmitter system and to have antioxidant properties that could impact the pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Based on these studies, we decided to assess the effectiveness of "Ginkgo biloba" extract (Ginko T.D., Tolidaru, Iran) as an adjunctive agent to risperidone in the treatment of…

  8. Brief Report: Pilot Single-Blind Placebo Lead-in Study of Acamprosate in Youth with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Craig A.; Wink, Logan K.; Early, Maureen C.; Stiegelmeyer, Elizabeth; Mathieu-Frasier, Lauren; Patrick, Vanessa; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: An excitatory/inhibitory (E:I) imbalance marked by enhanced glutamate and deficient gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission may contribute to the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Objectives: We report on the first single-blind placebo lead-in trial of acamprosate, a drug with putative mechanisms restoring E:I…

  9. Asperger’s syndrome: continuum or spectrum of autistic disorders? [Miejsce zespołu Aspergera w grupie całościowych zaburzeń rozwoju: kontinuum czy spektrum zaburzeń autystycznych?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryńska, Anita

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PPD refers to the group of disorders characterised by delayed or inappropriate development of multiple basic functions including socialisation, communication, behaviour and cognitive functioning. The term „autistic spectrum disorders” was established as a result of the magnitude of the intensity of symptoms and their proportions observed in all types of pervasive developmental disorders. Asperger’s Syndrome (AS remains the most controversial diagnosis in terms of its place within autism spectrum disorders. AS if often described as an equivalent of High Functioning Autism (HFA or as a separate spectrum-related disorder with unique diagnostic criteria. Another important issue is the relationship between AS and speech disorders. Although it is relatively easy to draw a line between children with classical autism and speech disorders, the clear cut frontiers between them still remain to be found. The main distinguishing feature is the lack of stereotypic interests and unimpaired social interaction observed in children with speech disorders, such as semantic-pragmatic disorder.

  10. Autism and Related Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), and Rett’s Disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, and PDD-NOS) a...

  11. Withdrawal Study of Memantine in Pediatric Patients With Autism, Asperger's Disorder, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Previously Treated With Memantine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Autism; Autistic Disorder; Asperger's Disorder; Asperger's; Pediatric Autism; Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS); Pervasive Child Development Disorder

  12. Structural and functional deficits in a neuronal calcium sensor-1 mutant identified in a case of autistic spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T W Handley

    Full Text Available Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1 is a Ca(2+ sensor protein that has been implicated in the regulation of various aspects of neuronal development and neurotransmission. It exerts its effects through interactions with a range of target proteins one of which is interleukin receptor accessory protein like-1 (IL1RAPL1 protein. Mutations in IL1RAPL1 have recently been associated with autism spectrum disorders and a missense mutation (R102Q on NCS-1 has been found in one individual with autism. We have examined the effect of this mutation on the structure and function of NCS-1. From use of NMR spectroscopy, it appeared that the R102Q affected the structure of the protein particularly with an increase in the extent of conformational exchange in the C-terminus of the protein. Despite this change NCS-1(R102Q did not show changes in its affinity for Ca(2+ or binding to IL1RAPL1 and its intracellular localisation was unaffected. Assessment of NCS-1 dynamics indicated that it could rapidly cycle between cytosolic and membrane pools and that the cycling onto the plasma membrane was specifically changed in NCS-1(R102Q with the loss of a Ca(2+ -dependent component. From these data we speculate that impairment of the normal cycling of NCS-1 by the R102Q mutation could have subtle effects on neuronal signalling and physiology in the developing and adult brain.

  13. Parents' perspectives on care of children with autistic spectrum disorder in South Asia - Views from Pakistan and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Ayesha; Vajaratkar, Vivek; Divan, Gauri; Hamdani, Syed Usman; Leadbitter, Kathy; Taylor, Carol; Aldred, Catherine; Tariq, Ahmareen; Tariq, Mahjabeen; Cardoza, Percy; Green, Jonathan; Patel, Vikram; Rahman, Atif

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects about 1.4% of the population in South Asia but very few have access to any form of health care service. The objective of this study was to explore the beliefs and practices related to the care of children with ASD to inform strategies for intervention. In Pakistan, primary data were collected through in-depth interviews of parents (N = 15), while in India a narrative review of existing studies was conducted. The results show that the burden of care is almost entirely on the mother, leading to high levels of stress. Poor awareness of the condition in both family members and front-line health-providers leads to delay in recognition and appropriate management. There is considerable stigma and discrimination affecting children with autism and their families. Specialist services are rare, concentrated in urban areas, and inaccessible to the majority. Strategies for intervention should include building community and family support networks to provide respite to the main carer. In the absence of specialists, community members such as community health workers, traditional practitioners and even motivated family members could be trained in recognizing and providing evidence-based interventions. Such task-shifting strategies should be accompanied by campaigns to raise awareness so greater inclusivity can be achieved.

  14. The Ratio of Second to Fourth Digit Length (2D:4D in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Baharara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Emerging hypotheses suggest a causal role for prenatal androgen exposure in some cases of Autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The ratios of the lengths of the bones of the 2nd to the 4th digits (2D:4D are purported to be markers for prenatal androgen exposure and to be established early in gestation. Ratio of second and fourth digits (2D:4D  is usually used as a proxy for prenatal testosterone. Methods and Materials In this study, 2D:4D in 48 children with ASD and in 41  control child was measured. Two groups were matched with the gender and age. Both groups were selected by convenience sampling method. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 19.0 software, considering as significant less than .05 (p < .05. Results: Results showed that the average ratio of 2D:4D in ASD children were lower than the ratio in control children (P

  15. A case series of children with apparent mercury toxic encephalopathies manifesting with clinical symptoms of regressive autistic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, David A; Geier, Mark R

    2007-05-15

    Impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, and stereotypic abnormal movement patterns characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). It is clear that while genetic factors are important to the pathogenesis of ASDs, mercury exposure can induce immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions similar to traits defining or associated with ASDs. The Institutional Review Board of the Institute for Chronic Illnesses (Office for Human Research Protections, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, IRB number IRB00005375) approved the present study. A case series of nine patients who presented to the Genetic Centers of America for a genetic/developmental evaluation are discussed. Eight of nine patients (one patient was found to have an ASD due to Rett's syndrome) (a) had regressive ASDs; (b) had elevated levels of androgens; (c) excreted significant amounts of mercury post chelation challenge; (d) had biochemical evidence of decreased function in their glutathione pathways; (e) had no known significant mercury exposure except from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho(D)-immune globulin preparations; and (f) had alternate causes for their regressive ASDs ruled out. There was a significant dose-response relationship between the severity of the regressive ASDs observed and the total mercury dose children received from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho (D)-immune globulin preparations. Based upon differential diagnoses, 8 of 9 patients examined were exposed to significant mercury from Thimerosal-containing biologic/vaccine preparations during their fetal/infant developmental periods, and subsequently, between 12 and 24 mo of age, these previously normally developing children suffered mercury toxic encephalopathies that manifested with clinical symptoms consistent with regressive ASDs. Evidence for mercury intoxication should be considered in the differential diagnosis as contributing to some regressive ASDs.

  16. An investigation of the relationship between functional impairment and autistic traits in a clinical population

    OpenAIRE

    Varrall, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Based on theories of dimensionality and fractionation of the autistic triad, this study investigates the role of autistic traits in adaptive functioning. The suitability of current diagnostic thresholds and classification criteria are explored with particular interest in partial and mild sub-threshold autistic presentations. Method: Seventy-two young people (mean age = 11.03 years), referred for assessment at a specialist autism spectrum disorder (ASD) clinic were administered the Vinel...

  17. Association of autistic traits in adulthood with childhood abuse, interpersonal victimization, and posttraumatic stress

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Lyall, Kristen; Robinson, Elise; Marc G Weisskopf

    2015-01-01

    Persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk for interpersonal victimization across the life course. Children with high levels of autistic traits may be targeted for abuse, and deficits in social awareness may increase risk of interpersonal victimization. Additionally, persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms subsequent to trauma. We examined retrospectively reported prevalence of childhood abuse, trauma victimization and PT...

  18. The Embodied Nature of Autistic Learning: Implications for Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jespersen Ejgil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD and learning difficulties are difficult to separate in clinic manifestations and diagnoses. By taking learning as being-in-the-world, this article considers the embodied nature of autistic learning and urges its importance for understanding the phenomenological core of ASD. We begin by arguing that three mainstream contemporary ASD theories are inherently limited in offering an adequate account of autistic learning due to the disembodied ontology inscribed within them. Then, we provide an understanding of learning guided by the subjective dynamics of experience. Instead of having a disembodied and individualistic point of view, we suggest that autistic learning has an embodied nature. The “inappropriate” or “abnormal” affections and behaviors in the autistic experience of learning may actually be inherently meaningful for individuals with ASD. They strive to make sense of some basic disturbances and re-establish some form of coherence with the world, though this may only be possible in the form of delusions or autistic withdrawals. Finally, we explore the relationship between autistic learning and physical education and suggest in particular how spontaneous imitation can boost the development of children with ASD. We conclude that the application of implicit learning strategies in playful settings and the reduction of explicit strategies based upon intellectual reasoning rather than bodily reciprocity should be encouraged in the process of autistic learning.

  19. Attachment Behaviors in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Marian; Ungerer, Judy A.

    1984-01-01

    Observation of 14 autistic and 14 nonautistic children of equivalent mental age revealed that autistic Ss showed evidence of attachment to their mothers. Among autistic Ss, those showing increased attachment behaviors in response to separation and reunion demonstrated more advanced symbolic play skills than those showing no attachment change.…

  20. Reduced GABAergic Action in the Autistic Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Caroline E; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2016-01-11

    An imbalance between excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmission has been posited as a central characteristic of the neurobiology of autism [1], inspired in part by the striking prevalence of seizures among individuals with the disorder [2]. Evidence supporting this hypothesis has specifically implicated the signaling pathway of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), in this putative imbalance: GABA receptor genes have been associated with autism in linkage and copy number variation studies [3-7], fewer GABA receptor subunits have been observed in the post-mortem tissue of autistic individuals [8, 9], and GABAergic signaling is disrupted across heterogeneous mouse models of autism [10]. Yet, empirical evidence supporting this hypothesis in humans is lacking, leaving a gulf between animal and human studies of the condition. Here, we present a direct link between GABA signaling and autistic perceptual symptomatology. We first demonstrate a robust, replicated autistic deficit in binocular rivalry [11], a basic visual function that is thought to rely on the balance of excitation/inhibition in visual cortex [12-15]. Then, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we demonstrate a tight linkage between binocular rivalry dynamics in typical participants and both GABA and glutamate levels in the visual cortex. Finally, we show that the link between GABA and binocular rivalry dynamics is completely and specifically absent in autism. These results suggest a disruption in inhibitory signaling in the autistic brain and forge a translational path between animal and human models of the condition. PMID:26711497

  1. Traits Contributing to the Autistic Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Steer, Colin D; Jean Golding; Bolton, Patrick F

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is increasingly recognised that traits associated with autism reflect a spectrum with no clear boundary between typical and atypical behaviour. Dimensional traits are needed to investigate the broader autism phenotype. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety-three individual measures reflecting components of social, communication and repetitive behaviours characterising autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) were identified between the ages of 6 months and 9 years from the ALSPAC data...

  2. Power and Autistic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others - which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness - and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question - and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members' needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper's thesis - and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone's effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more common - which can

  3. Autistic traits in couple dyads as a predictor of anxiety spectrum symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2014-11-01

    The link between parental autistic tendency and anxiety symptoms was studied in 491 Taiwanese couples raising biological children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Parental autistic tendency as measured by Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was associated with anxiety symptoms across all domains. Large effect sizes were found in social phobia and post traumatic stress disorders for both parents, and in general anxiety disorder and agoraphobia for mothers. These associations were irrespective of child's autistic tendency, spouse's AQ scores and the couples' compatibility in their autistic tendency. Perceived family support and parental education moderated the link but not child's autistic severity. Research and clinical implications regarding psychiatric vulnerability of parents of children with ASD were drawn and discussed.

  4. Overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits is not accounted for by anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealey, Alex; Abbott, Gavin; Byrne, Linda K; McGillivray, Jane

    2014-10-30

    Autism spectrum and schizophrenia spectrum disorders are classified separately in the DSM-5, yet research indicates that these two disorders share overlapping features. The aim of the present study was to examine the overlap between autistic and schizotypal personality traits and whether anxiety and depression act as confounding variables in this relationship within a non-clinical population. One hundred and forty-four adults completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. A number of associations were seen between autistic and schizotypal personality traits. However, negative traits were the only schizotypal feature to uniquely predict global autistic traits, thus highlighting the importance of interpersonal qualities in the overlap of autistic and schizotypal characteristics. The inclusion of anxiety and depression did not alter relationships between autistic and schizotypal traits, indicating that anxiety and depression are not confounders of this relationship. These findings have important implications for the conceptualisation of both disorders.

  5. Does WISC-IV Underestimate the Intelligence of Autistic Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Courchesne, Valérie; Dawson, Michelle; Soulières, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) is widely used to estimate autistic intelligence (Joseph in The neuropsychology of autism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Goldstein et al. in "Assessment of autism spectrum disorders." Guilford Press, New York, 2008; Mottron in "J Autism Dev Disord" 34(1):19-27, 2004).…

  6. Autistic Traits in Couple Dyads as a Predictor of Anxiety Spectrum Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The link between parental autistic tendency and anxiety symptoms was studied in 491 Taiwanese couples raising biological children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Parental autistic tendency as measured by Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was associated with anxiety symptoms across all domains. Large effect sizes were found in social phobia and…

  7. Power and Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  8. Low serum myeloperoxidase in autistic children with gastrointestinal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J Russo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthony J Russo1, Arthur Krigsman2, Bryan Jepson2, Andy Wakefield21Research Director, Health Research Institute/Pfeiffer Treatment Center, Warrenville, IL, USA; 2Thoughtful House Center for Children, Austin, TX, USAAim: To assess serum myeloperoxidase (MPO levels in autistic children with severe gastrointestinal (GI disease and to test the hypothesis that there is an association between serum MPO concentration and inflammatory GI disease, including antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA, previously seen in a subgroup of autistic children.Subjects and methods: Serum from 40 autistic children with chronic digestive disease (most with ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH and inflammation of the colorectum, small bowel and/or stomach, and 48 controls (12 age-matched autistic children with no GI disease, 20 age-matched children without autism or GI disease, and 16 nonautistic individuals with no family history of autism were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays designed to quantitate serum MPO levels. MPO serum concentration of autistic children with GI disease was compared to GI disease severity (including LNH and erythema and presence of ANCA.Results: We found that a significant number of autistic children with chronic digestive disease had low serum levels of MPO. However, there was no significant relationship between these levels and severity of GI disease, including the presence of ANCA.Discussion: These results suggest a relationship between low MPO levels and GI disease seen in a subpopulation of autism spectrum disorders individuals. MPO concentration may therefore be a useful biomarker for GI disease in this group of autistic children.Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, autism, myeloperoxidase, GI disease, oxidative stress

  9. 自闭症儿童社会交往障碍的家庭康复护理%Family Autistic Children Social Interaction Disorders Rehabilitation Nursing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙娟娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the barriers to social interaction of autistic children home rehabilitation nursing method and application. Methods The control group of children with autism are providing clinical routine rehabilitation care, re-search group based on the use of conventional nursing home rehabilitation nursing. Record two autistic quality of life, changes in the extent of disease in children and their families for this job satisfaction before and after nursing care of chil-dren. Results The care of children with autism before the extent of disease and quality of life contrast there was no signifi-cant difference (P>0.05);by different methods prior to the above two groups after treatment compared ATEC scale score was significantly decreased, while the amount of SF-36 table is significantly improved compared to the previous study group to improve the condition and quality of life than children in the control group level (P0.05);经上述不同方法护理后两组ATEC量表评分均较之前显著降低,而SF-36量表则较之前显著提高,研究组病情及生活质量改善程度优于对照组患儿(P<0.05);研究组患儿家属对护理效果满意率高达86.67%,对照组仅获得33.33%护理效果满意率(P<0.05). 结论 对自闭症患儿给予常规护理基础上加用家庭康复护理可显著提高其疗效及生活质量,有利于保障患儿预后效果及维持良好的护患关系.

  10. Investigating the autistic traits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder%注意缺陷多动障碍儿童的孤独症特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑超群; 陈凯云; 梁亚勇; 李巧毅; 邓红珠; 唐春

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the autistic symptoms or autistic trait in the children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) for facilitating the development of appropriate interventions.Methods Sixty-two 6-12-year-old high-functioned autism spectrum disorder (ASD),ADHD and typically developing (TD) children were assessed respectively using Chinese-version social responsiveness scale (SRS),and ADHD core symptoms were assessed in the ADHD children at the same time.Results ASD group>ADHD group> TD group on the SRS total raw score and the five dimensions scores as well(P<0.01).ASD,ADHD and TD group scored respectively 92.43±19.17,65.66±19.86 and 38.40±10.68 on the SRS total scale.The SRS total raw score of ADHD group exceeded the TD group for 2.55 standard deviant (SD) and with "social communication" (2.00 SD) and "autistic mannerism" (2.71 SD) deviating the most.22.58% (14 out of 62) children with ADHD scored above the threshold on the SRS total raw score which was significantly higher than that in the TD group(P<0.01).There were nonsignificant differences in the ADHD core symptoms between ADHD± children (with the SRS total raw score ≥85)and ADHD-children(with the SRS total raw score<85) (P>0.01).Conclusion Children with ADHD appear more ASD symptoms than the TD children and a considerable proportion of them reach the SRS diagnostic cut-off point.%目的 探讨注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)学龄儿童的孤独症症状和特征,以促进针对性的干预.方法 应用社交反应量表(social responsiveness scale,SRS)中文版分别对62名6~12岁高功能孤独症谱系障碍(autism spectrum disorder,ASD)、ADHD和正常儿童进行孤独症症状评估,ADHD组儿童同时进行ADHD核心症状评估.结果 SRS五个维度及总分均为ASD组>ADHD组>正常组(R0.01).ASD组、ADHD组和正常组SRS总分分别为[(92.43±19.17)分、(65.66±19.86)分和(38.40± 10.68)分],

  11. Estimation of autistic children by metallomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Yasuda, Yuichi; Tsutsui, Toyoharu

    2013-01-01

    Clarification of the pathogenesis and treatment of autism spectrum disorders is one of the challenges today. In this study, we examine scalp hair concentrations of 26 trace elements for 1,967 children with autistic disorders (1,553 males and 414 females). Five-hundred and eighty-four (29.7%), 347 (17.6%) and 114 (5.8%) subjects was found deficient in zinc, magnesium and calcium, respectively, and 2.0% or less in the other essential metals. The incidence rate of mineral deficiency was highly observed in infants aged 0-3 year-old. In contrast, 339 (17.2%), 168 (8.5%) and 94 (4.8%) individuals was found suffering from high burden of aluminium, cadmium and lead, and 2.8% or less from mercury and arsenic burden. These findings suggest that infantile zinc- and magnesium-deficiency and/or toxic metal burdens may epigenetically play principal roles as environmental factors in autistic disorders and that metallomics approach may lead to early screening and prevention of the neurodevelopment disorders.

  12. The Psychic Organ Point of Autistic Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with autistic syntax and its expressions both in the fully fledged autistic structure and in the autistic zones of other personality structures. The musical notion of the organ point serves as a point of departure in an attempt to describe how autistic syntax transforms what was meant to constitute the substrate for linguistic…

  13. Autism and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R

    2012-01-01

    The pervasive developmental disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), and Rett's disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as autism spectrum disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiological characteristics compared to Rett's disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews research and clinical information to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  14. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  15. 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism: Analysis in South African Autistic Individuals

    KAUST Repository

    Arieff, Zainunisha

    2010-06-01

    The serotonin transporter promoter length polymorphism (5-hydroxytryptamine transporter length polymorphism; 5-HTTLPR) has long been implicated in autism and other psychiatric disorders. The use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has a positive effect on treating some symptoms of autism. The effects of these drugs vary in individuals because of the presence of the S or L allele of 5-HTTLPR. Studies performed on various autistic populations have found different allele frequencies for the L and S alleles. Allele frequencies and genotypes of the South African autistic populations (African, mixed, and Caucasian) were compared with matching South African ethnic control populations. The *S/*S genotype was found to be highly significantly associated with all the South African autistic ethnic populations. In the South African African population the *S/*S genotype was present in 7 (33%) of the autistic individuals but in none of the control subjects, yielding infinitely large odds of developing autism. The odds of developing autism with the *S/*S genotype compared to the *L/*L genotype increased 10.15-fold in the South African mixed group and 2.74-fold in the South African Caucasian population. The allele frequency of the South African autistic population was also compared with studies of other autistic populations around the world, and highly significant differences were found with the Japanese, Korean, and Indian population groups. The difference was not significant for the French, German, Israeli, Portuguese, and American groups. This is the first South African study of autistic individuals of different ethnic backgrounds that shows significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of 5-HTTLPR. The results of this study open new avenues for investigating the role of transmission of the L and S alleles in families with autism in South Africa.

  16. Systemic multimodal approach to speech therapy treatment in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaš Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Conditions in which speech therapy treatment is applied in autistic children are often not in accordance with characteristics of opinions and learning of people with autism. A systemic multimodal approach means motivating autistic people to develop their language speech skill through the procedure which allows reliving of their personal experience according to the contents that are presented in the their natural social environment. This research was aimed at evaluating the efficiency of speech treatment based on the systemic multimodal approach to the work with autistic children. Material and Methods. The study sample consisted of 34 children, aged from 8 to 16 years, diagnosed to have different autistic disorders, whose results showed a moderate and severe clinical picture of autism on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. The applied instruments for the evaluation of ability were the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and Ganzberg II test. The study subjects were divided into two groups according to the type of treatment: children who were covered by the continuing treatment and systemic multimodal approach in the treatment, and children who were covered by classical speech treatment. Results. It is shown that the systemic multimodal approach in teaching autistic children affects the stimulation of communication, socialization, self-service and work as well as that the progress achieved in these areas of functioning was retainable after long time, too. Conclusion. By applying the systemic multimodal approach when dealing with autistic children and by comparing their achievements on tests applied before, during and after the application of this mode, it has been concluded that certain improvement has been achieved in the functionality within the diagnosed category. The results point to a possible direction in the creation of new methods, plans and programs in dealing with autistic children based on empirical and interactive learning.

  17. Transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento não-autísticos: síndrome de Rett, transtorno desintegrativo da infância e transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento sem outra especificação Non-autistic pervasive developmental disorders: Rett syndrome, disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos T Mercadante

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A categoria "transtorno invasivos do desenvolvimento" inclui o autismo, a síndrome de Asperger, a síndrome de Rett, o transtorno desintegrativo da infância e uma categoria residual denominada transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento sem outra especificação. Nesta revisão, a síndrome de Rett e o transtorno desintegrativo da infância, que são categorias bem definidas, serão discutidas, assim como as categorias não tão bem definidas que foram incluídas no grupo transtornos invasivos do desenvolvimento sem outra especificação. Diferentes propostas de categorização têm sido feitas, algumas baseadas em abordagem fenomenológica descritiva, outras baseadas em outras perspectivas teóricas, tais como a neuropsicologia. As propostas atuais são apresentadas e discutidas, seguidas por avaliações críticas sobre as vantagens e desvantagens desses conceitos.The category "Pervasive Developmental Disorders" includes autistic disorder, Asperger's syndrome, Rett's syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and a residual category, named pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. In this review, Rett's syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder, which are well-defined categories, will be discussed, as well as the not well defined categories that have been included in the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified group. Different proposals of categorization have been created, some of which based on descriptive phenomenological approach, and others based upon other theoretical perspectives, such as neuropsychology. Current proposals are presented and discussed, followed by critical appraisals on the clinical advantages and disadvantages of these concepts.

  18. Association of autistic traits in adulthood with childhood abuse, interpersonal victimization, and posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L; Koenen, Karestan C; Lyall, Kristen; Robinson, Elise B; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2015-07-01

    Persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk for interpersonal victimization across the life course. Children with high levels of autistic traits may be targeted for abuse, and deficits in social awareness may increase risk of interpersonal victimization. Additionally, persons with autistic traits may be at elevated risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms subsequent to trauma. We examined retrospectively reported prevalence of childhood abuse, trauma victimization and PTSD symptoms by autistic traits among adult women in a population-based longitudinal cohort, the Nurses' Health Study II (N=1,077). Autistic traits were measured by the 65-item Social Responsiveness Scale. We estimated odds ratios (OR) for childhood sexual and physical/emotional abuse and PTSD symptoms by quintiles of autistic traits. We examined possible mediation of PTSD risk by abuse and trauma type. Women in the highest versus lowest quintile of autistic traits were more likely to have been sexually abused (40.1% versus 26.7%), physically/emotionally abused (23.9% versus 14.3%), mugged (17.1% versus 10.1%), pressured into sexual contact (25.4% versus 15.6%) and have high PTSD symptoms (10.7% versus 4.5%). Odds of PTSD were elevated in women in the top three quintiles of autistic traits compared with the reference group (OR range=1.4 to 1.9). Childhood abuse exposure partly accounted for elevated risk of PTSD in women with autistic traits. We identify for the first time an association between autistic traits, childhood abuse, trauma victimization, and PTSD. Levels of autistic traits that are highly prevalent in the general population are associated with abuse, trauma and PTSD. PMID:25957197

  19. Alunos com distúrbios do espectro autístico em interação com professores na educação inclusiva: descrição de habilidades pragmáticas Students with autistic spectrum disorders in the interaction with teachers in inclusive education: description of pragmatic skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia Brito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar as habilidades pragmáticas de alunos com distúrbios do espectro autístico durante a interação com suas professoras em salas comuns de escolas públicas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 14 alunos com distúrbios do espectro autístico, de ambos os gêneros, com idade entre três e oito anos (média=5,9; DP=1,8. Como parte do procedimento, foram realizadas filmagens em situações de sala de aula e para análise dos aspectos pragmáticos da comunicação dos participantes, foi utilizado o Protocolo de Pragmática. Os resultados foram tratados estatisticamente (pPURPOSE: To investigate the pragmatic skills of students with autistic spectrum disorders during interaction with their teachers, in regular classrooms of public schools. METHODS: Fourteen students with autistic spectrum disorders, both male and female, with ages between three and eight years (mean=5.9; SD=1.8, participated in the study. As part of the procedure, classroom situations were filmed for the analysis of the children's pragmatic aspects of communication, using the Pragmatic Protocol. Data were statistically analyzed using Wilcoxon, Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Spearman tests, with a significance level of p<0.05 and, in some cases, p<0.01. RESULTS: In average, the number of communicative acts expressed per minute by the teachers (3.4 acts/minute was superior (p<0.05 to the number presented by the students with autistic spectrum disorders (2.7 acts/minute. The students demonstrated prevalence in the use of the gestural communication mean, with an average of 36.2 occurrences, and of less interactive communicative functions, with an average of 24.1 occurrences. Moreover, there was positive correlation between students' and teachers' acts/minute (p=0.01. It was also observed that age and level of education did not present correlations with communication establishment in the dyads. CONCLUSION: It was possible to identify deficits and abilities of students with

  20. "I'm thrilled that you see that": guiding parents to see success in interactions with children with deafness and autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilnick, Alison; James, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Children with deafness who are also on the autistic spectrum are a group with complex support needs. Carers worry about their ability to communicate with them, and are often uncertain about what constitutes 'good' communication in this context. This paper analyses the use of a therapeutic intervention, Video Interaction Guidance (VIG), which originates in developmental psychology and focuses on the relational foundations of communication. We draw on a single case using an ethnomethodological/conversation analytic framework, and in particular Goodwin's (1994) work on 'professional vision', to show how the ability to see 'success' is a socially situated activity. Since what counts as success in this setting is often far removed from everyday ideas of good communication, how guiders facilitate particular 'ways of seeing' are critical for both the support of carers and the impact of the intervention. We argue that this work has implications in three areas: for the practice of VIG itself; for the role of qualitative, interactional research addressing the way in which interaction-based interventions are protocolised, enacted and assessed; and for the way in which expertise is conceptualised in professional/client interactions in health and social care. PMID:24355475

  1. “I'm thrilled that you see that”: Guiding parents to see success in interactions with children with deafness and autistic spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilnick, Alison; James, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Children with deafness who are also on the autistic spectrum are a group with complex support needs. Carers worry about their ability to communicate with them, and are often uncertain about what constitutes ‘good’ communication in this context. This paper analyses the use of a therapeutic intervention, Video Interaction Guidance (VIG), which originates in developmental psychology and focuses on the relational foundations of communication. We draw on a single case using an ethnomethodological/conversation analytic framework, and in particular Goodwin's (1994) work on ‘professional vision’, to show how the ability to see ‘success’ is a socially situated activity. Since what counts as success in this setting is often far removed from everyday ideas of good communication, how guiders facilitate particular ‘ways of seeing’ are critical for both the support of carers and the impact of the intervention. We argue that this work has implications in three areas: for the practice of VIG itself; for the role of qualitative, interactional research addressing the way in which interaction-based interventions are protocolised, enacted and assessed; and for the way in which expertise is conceptualised in professional/client interactions in health and social care. PMID:24355475

  2. Confirmatory Factor Analytic Structure and Measurement Invariance of Quantitative Autistic Traits Measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Ratliff, Kristin R.; Gruber, Chris; Zhang, Yi; Law, Paul A.; Constantino, John N.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factor structure of autistic symptomatology is critical to the discovery and interpretation of causal mechanisms in autism spectrum disorder. We applied confirmatory factor analysis and assessment of measurement invariance to a large ("N" = 9635) accumulated collection of reports on quantitative autistic traits using…

  3. Brief report: Examining the link between autistic traits and compulsive internet use in a non-clinical sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Finkenauer; M.M.H. Pollmann; S. Begeer; P. Kerkhof

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders or autistic traits may profit from Internet and computer-mediated interactions, but there is concern about their Internet use becoming compulsive. This study investigated the link between autistic traits and Internet use in a 2-wave longitudinal study with

  4. The Relationship between Autistic Traits and Social Anxiety, Worry, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Depressive Symptoms: Specific and Non-Specific Mediators in a Student Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Shi Min; Thevaraja, Nishta; Hong, Ryan Y.; Magiati, Iliana

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of anxiety symptoms in individuals with autism spectrum disorders has now been well documented. There is also a positive relationship between autistic traits and anxiety symptoms in unselected samples and individuals with anxiety disorders have more autistic traits compared to those without. Less is known, however, regarding…

  5. Quantitative autistic traits ascertained in a national survey of 22 529 Japanese schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Kamio, Y; Inada, N.; Moriwaki, A; Kuroda, M; Koyama, T; Tsujii, H.; Kawakubo, Y; Kuwabara, H.; Tsuchiya, K J; Uno, Y; Constantino, J N

    2012-01-01

    Objective Recent epidemiologic studies worldwide have documented a rise in prevalence rates for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Broadening of diagnostic criteria for ASD may be a major contributor to the rise in prevalence, particularly if superimposed on an underlying continuous distribution of autistic traits. This study sought to determine the nature of the population distribution of autistic traits using a quantitative trait measure in a large national population sample of children. Meth...

  6. Changes in autistic trait indicators in parents and their children with ASD: A preliminary longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Chiaki; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Yuko; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Munesue, Toshio; Takesaki, Natsumi; Higashida, Haruhiro; Oi, Manabu; Minabe, Yoshio; Asada, Minoru

    2015-08-30

    This study investigated whether the longitudinal changes in symptom severity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with changes in the parents׳ autistic traits. The results demonstrated two significant correlations between the changes in children׳s Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) score changes in either the father or both parents. Autistic symptom mitigation in ASD children was associated with increased empathy levels in their parents. PMID:26099658

  7. Synchrony between sensory and cognitive networks is associated with subclinical variation in autistic traits

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob Young; Smith, David V.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autistic spectrum disorders exhibit distinct personality traits linked to attentional, social, and affective functions, and those traits are expressed with varying levels of severity in the neurotypical and subclinical population. Variation in autistic traits has been linked to reduced functional and structural connectivity (i.e., underconnectivity, or reduced synchrony) with neural networks modulated by attentional, social, and affective functions. Yet, it remains unclear wh...

  8. Proprioceptive versus Visual Control in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterton, B. A.; Biederman, G. B.

    1983-01-01

    The autistic children's presumed preference for proximal over distal sensory input was studied by requiring that "autistic," retarded, and "normal" children (7-15 years old) adapt to lateral displacement of the visual field. Only autistic Ss demonstrated transfer of adaptation to the nonadapted hand, indicating reliance on proprioception rather…

  9. Does Gender Matter? A One Year Follow-Up of Autistic, Attention and Anxiety Symptoms in High-Functioning Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Tamara; Cornish, Kim; Rinehart, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Gender differences in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms and associated problem behaviours over development may provide clues regarding why more males than females are diagnosed with ASD. Fifty-six high-functioning children with ASD, and 44 typically developing controls, half of the participants female, were assessed at baseline (aged…

  10. Assessment of metallothionein and antibodies to metallothionein in normal and autistic children having exposure to vaccine-derived thimerosal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra K; Hanson, Jeff

    2006-06-01

    Allergic autoimmune reaction after exposure to heavy metals such as mercury may play a causal role in autism, a developmental disorder of the central nervous system. As metallothionein (MT) is the primary metal-detoxifying protein in the body, we conducted a study of the MT protein and antibodies to metallothionein (anti-MT) in normal and autistic children whose exposure to mercury was only from thimerosal-containing vaccines. Laboratory analysis by immunoassays revealed that the serum level of MT did not significantly differ between normal and autistic children. Furthermore, autistic children harboured normal levels of anti-MT, including antibodies to isoform MT-I (anti-MT-I) and MT-II (anti-MT-II), without any significant difference between normal and autistic children. Our findings indicate that because autistic children have a normal profile of MT and anti-MT, the mercury-induced autoimmunity to MT may not be implicated in the pathogenesis of autism.

  11. 自闭症谱系儿童驭物动作模仿能力的试验研究%The research on imitation of action involved objects in children with autistic spectrum disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光华; 方俊明

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨自闭症谱系儿童的驭物动作模仿缺陷特点.方法 采用不同呈现时间、不同动作数量和不同动作意义的条件下进行的驭物动作模仿任务,对12名自闭症谱系儿童、与年龄和非语言智商匹配的聋童(n=12),年龄和语言智商匹配的弱智儿童(n=12)的2个对照组进行测试,使用SPSS 10.0分析测试结果 .结果 3组被试的驭物模仿成绩呈现出显著统计意义差异(F(2.33)=10.138,P<0.01);自闭症谱系儿童的模仿成绩最差[(0.766±0.029)分],显著落后于弱智儿童[(0.861±0.029)分],更落后于聋童[(0.949±0.029)分].这一驭物动作模仿缺陷主要体现在延迟模仿和无意义动作模仿成绩方面.结论 自闭症谱系儿童具有明显的驭物动作模仿缺陷.%Objective To explore the characteristics of deficit in action imitation upon objects for the children with autistic spectrum disorder(ASD). Methods Imitative tasks involved objects under the condition of different time after the modelling action ,different action number, different action meaning were used to examine the variations between 12 young children with ASD,and with deaf children(D) matched with the non-verbal IQ and CA( n= 12) ,and children with mental retardation (MR) matched with verbal IQ and CA( n= 12). Results Analyses of repeated ANOVA revealed that: there were significant main effect on the imitation of action involved objects within three subjects(F(2.33) = 10. 138, P<0.01 ) ;the individuals with ASD achieved lower scores(0.766 ±0.029 ) than the children with MR (0.861 ± 0. 029 ), and the children with deaf significantly ( 0. 949 ± 0. 029). Especially,the autistic imitation deficit was shown on tasks of deferred and meaningless action imitation. Conclusion Children with ASD show deficit on imitation involved objects significantly.

  12. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenberg, P.L.; David, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, dep

  13. Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…

  14. Mothers of autistic children: lower plasma levels of oxytocin and Arg-vasopressin and a higher level of testosterone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Jie Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder,thought to be caused by a combination of genetic heritability and environmental risk factors. Some autistic-like traits have been reported in mothers of autistic children. We hypothesized that dysregulation of oxytocin (OXT, Arg-vasopressin (AVP and sex hormones, found in autistic children, may also exist in their mothers. METHODS: We determined plasma levels of OXT (40 in autism vs. 26 in control group, AVP (40 vs. 17 and sex hormones (61 vs. 47 in mothers of autistic and normal children by enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay, respectively and investigated their relationships with the children's autistic behavior scores (Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC. RESULTS: Significantly lower plasma concentrations of OXT (p<0.001 and AVP (p<0.001, as well as a higher level of plasma testosterone (p<0.05, were found in mothers of autistic children vs. those of control. The children's autistic behavior scores were negatively associated with maternal plasma levels of OXT and AVP. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that dysregulation of OXT, AVP and/or testosterone systems exist in mothers of autistic children, which may impact children's susceptibility to autism.

  15. Perceptual inference and autistic traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skewes, Joshua; Jegindø, Else-Marie Elmholdt; Gebauer, Line

    2015-01-01

    Autistic people are better at perceiving details. Major theories explain this in terms of bottom-up sensory mechanisms, or in terms of top-down cognitive biases. Recently, it has become possible to link these theories within a common framework. This framework assumes that perception is implicit n...

  16. Identification of Four Novel Synonymous Substitutions in the X-Linked Genes Neuroligin 3 and Neuroligin 4X in Japanese Patients with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Yanagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the X-linked genes neuroligin 3 (NLGN3 and neuroligin 4X (NLGN4X were first implicated in the pathogenesis of X-linked autism in Swedish families. However, reports of mutations in these genes in autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients from various ethnic backgrounds present conflicting results regarding the etiology of ASD, possibly because of genetic heterogeneity and/or differences in their ethnic background. Additional mutation screening study on another ethnic background could help to clarify the relevance of the genes to ASD. We scanned the entire coding regions of NLGN3 and NLGN4X in 62 Japanese patients with ASD by polymerase chain reaction-high-resolution melting curve and direct sequencing analyses. Four synonymous substitutions, one in NLGN3 and three in NLGN4X, were identified in four of the 62 patients. These substitutions were not present in 278 control X-chromosomes from unrelated Japanese individuals and were not registered in the database of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms build 132 or in the Japanese Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms database, indicating that they were novel and specific to ASD. Though further analysis is necessary to determine the physiological and clinical importance of such substitutions, the possibility of the relevance of both synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions with the etiology of ASD should be considered.

  17. Basal and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulated Plasma Cortisol Levels Among Egyptian Autistic Children: Relation to Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewedi Doaa H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a disorder of early childhood characterized by social impairment, communication abnormalities and stereotyped behaviors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis deserves special attention, since it is the basis for emotions and social interactions that are affected in autism. Aim To assess basal and stimulated plasma cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels in autistic children and their relationship to disease characteristics. Methods Fifty autistic children were studied in comparison to 50 healthy age-, sex- and pubertal stage- matched children. All subjects were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of plasma cortisol (basal and stimulated and ACTH. In addition, electroencephalography (EEG and intelligence quotient (IQ assessment were done for all autistic children. Results Sixteen% of autistic patients had high ACTH, 10% had low basal cortisol and 10% did not show adequate cortisol response to ACTH stimulation. Autistic patients had lower basal (p = 0.032 and stimulated cortisol (p = 0.04 and higher ACTH (p = 0.01 than controls. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS score correlated positively with ACTH (r = 0.71, p = 0.02 and negatively with each of basal (r = -0.64, p = 0.04 and stimulated cortisol (r = -0.88, p Conclusions The observed hormonal changes may be due to a dysfunction in the HPA axis in autistic individuals. Further studies are warranted regarding the role of HPA axis dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autism.

  18. Reduced incidence of Prevotella and other fermenters in intestinal microflora of autistic children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Wook Kang

    Full Text Available High proportions of autistic children suffer from gastrointestinal (GI disorders, implying a link between autism and abnormalities in gut microbial functions. Increasing evidence from recent high-throughput sequencing analyses indicates that disturbances in composition and diversity of gut microbiome are associated with various disease conditions. However, microbiome-level studies on autism are limited and mostly focused on pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, here we aimed to define systemic changes in gut microbiome associated with autism and autism-related GI problems. We recruited 20 neurotypical and 20 autistic children accompanied by a survey of both autistic severity and GI symptoms. By pyrosequencing the V2/V3 regions in bacterial 16S rDNA from fecal DNA samples, we compared gut microbiomes of GI symptom-free neurotypical children with those of autistic children mostly presenting GI symptoms. Unexpectedly, the presence of autistic symptoms, rather than the severity of GI symptoms, was associated with less diverse gut microbiomes. Further, rigorous statistical tests with multiple testing corrections showed significantly lower abundances of the genera Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae in autistic samples. These are intriguingly versatile carbohydrate-degrading and/or fermenting bacteria, suggesting a potential influence of unusual diet patterns observed in autistic children. However, multivariate analyses showed that autism-related changes in both overall diversity and individual genus abundances were correlated with the presence of autistic symptoms but not with their diet patterns. Taken together, autism and accompanying GI symptoms were characterized by distinct and less diverse gut microbial compositions with lower levels of Prevotella, Coprococcus, and unclassified Veillonellaceae.

  19. Premedication in an autistic, combative child: Challenges and nuances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autistic spectrum disorders are often encountered in anesthesia practice mainly for outdoor procedural sedation or anesthesia in endoscopy and magnetic resonance imaging suites. We describe a case of a 7-year-old autistic boy who required management of dental caries. He had a phobia to intravenous cannulation, displayed increasing anxiety and became combative on the day of surgery. With parental involvement and distraction, we succeeded in giving oral midazolam by concealing it, with the intent of avoiding intramuscular injection or unnecessary restraint. Lack of knowledge about the medical condition of such a patient can lead to inadequate preoperative preparation and use of restraint on the patient, which might cause anxiety or panic attacks in the operative room. To effectively manage children with special needs one needs to have clear guidelines on the management of uncooperative children, involve parents perioperatively, plan ahead with an emphasis on perioperative analgesia and sometimes incorporate the ethical use of restraint.

  20. Gender Differences in the Social Motivation and Friendship Experiences of Autistic and Non-Autistic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgewick, Felicity; Hill, Vivian; Yates, Rhiannon; Pickering, Leanne; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined gender differences in the social motivation and friendship experiences of adolescent boys and girls with autism relative to those without autism, all educated within special education settings. Autistic girls showed similar social motivation and friendship quality to non-autistic girls, while autistic boys…

  1. Autistic Traits in Neurotypical Adults: correlates of Graph Theoretical Functional Network Topology and White Matter Anisotropy Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Andras Jakab; Miklos Emri; Tamas Spisak; Anita Szeman-Nagy; Monika Beres; Sandor Attila Kis; Peter Molnar; Ervin Berenyi

    2013-01-01

    Attempts to explicate the neural abnormalities behind autism spectrum disorders frequently revealed impaired brain connectivity, yet our knowledge is limited about the alterations linked with autistic traits in the non-clinical population. In our study, we aimed at exploring the neural correlates of dimensional autistic traits using a dual approach of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and graph theoretical analysis of resting state functional MRI data. Subjects were sampled from a public neuroim...

  2. Social communication deficits and conduct disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Donno, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that a proportion of children with Conduct Disorder may have unidentified Autistic Spectrum Disorder (Gilchrist et al., 2001 Gilmour, Hill, Place & Skuse, 2004). This paper considers the argument that a subgroup of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder are undetected and subsumed under Conduct Disorder or similar descriptors. Diagnostic criteria are described and issues relevant to Conduct Disorder discussed. This is followed by an examination of the similariti...

  3. Alteration of astrocytes and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the frontal cortex of autistic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Fujiang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, verbal communication and repetitive behaviors. To date the etiology of this disorder is poorly understood. Studies suggest that astrocytes play critical roles in neural plasticity by detecting neuronal activity and modulating neuronal networks. Recently, a number of studies suggested that an abnormal function of glia/astrocytes may be involved in the development of autism. However, there is yet no direct evidence showing how astrocytes develop in the brain of autistic individuals. Methods Study subjects include brain tissue from autistic subjects, BTBR T + tfJ (BTBR and Neuroligin (NL-3 knock-down mice. Western blot analysis, Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy studies have be used to examine the density and morphology of astrocytes, as well as Wnt and β-catenin protein expression. Results In this study, we demonstrate that the astrocytes in autisitcsubjects exhibit significantly reduced branching processes, total branching length and cell body sizes. We also detected an astrocytosis in the frontal cortex of autistic subjects. In addition, we found that the astrocytes in the brain of an NL3 knockdown mouse exhibited similar alterations to what we found in the autistic brain. Furthermore, we detected that both Wnt and β-catenin proteins are decreased in the frontal cortex of autistic subjects. Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been suggested to be involved in the regulation of astrocyte development. Conclusions Our findings imply that defects in astrocytes could impair neuronal plasticity and partially contribute to the development of autistic-like behaviors in both humans and mice. The alteration of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in the brain of autistic subjects may contribute to the changes of astrocytes.

  4. The mental health in mothers with autistic children: a case-control study in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, B C; Lung, F W; Chang, Y Y

    2000-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of autistic children on the mental health of their mothers. Autism is a complicated neuropsychiatric disorder. Evidence shows that mothers with autistic children experience greater stress than those having children with other chronic diseases. In this study we have 1) assessed the mental health of mothers with autistic children; 2) determined their prevalence of minor psychiatric morbidity (MPM); 3) classified their MPM; and 4) determined factors related to their mental health. A case-controlled design was used to compare the mental status among mothers having children with either autistic (n = 30), or Down syndrome (n = 11) and with normal children (n = 56). The mean score of the Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ) showed no differences between those mothers of case and control groups. Using a 9-point criterion to screen for MPM in the CHQ, more mothers (37%) in the case group had scores > or = 9 compared with the control group (18%). Mothers of the case group had significantly higher for MPM using logistic regression analysis. The educational level was inversely related to the CHQ scores. Mothers with a CHQ score > or = 9, were later diagnosed with either depression (36%) and anxiety (46%); or anxiety and depression (9%). A primary care model for mothers with autistic children should therefore be developed to prevent them from developing mental disorders.

  5. Autistic People at Work

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Habahbeh, Maria; Damary, Tamia; Erbenova, Lucie; Håkan, Mette Brenneke; Lazdaja, Andina; Mirza, Daniel Ali

    2006-01-01

    In our project we will investigate the challenges when integrating people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) into a workplace. We will use the theory of ‘Mindblindness’ and ‘central coherence theory’ in order to investigate in which way people with ASD are inhibited. We will investigate three areas from the field of organizational psychology; communication groups and conflict in order to illuminate the challenges ‘normal’ people face when entering a workplace. Furthermore, we have cond...

  6. Brief Report: Catatonia in Autistic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhossche, Dirk

    1998-01-01

    A case study of an adolescent with catatonia superimposed on autism is presented. The symptoms of the patient are highlighted and include abnormal social interactions, deficits in symbolic play and in communicative language, and occurrence of hallucinations and delusions. Treatment of the patient with clozapine and lorasepam is described. (CR)

  7. Virtual Worlds Turn Therapeutic for Autistic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Asperger's patients have been treated by role-playing with real-life therapists. The virtual-reality town at the medical center is a new twist. The University of Texas at Dallas uses a platform from Second Life, the popular virtual world, in which patients go to an "island" customized for therapeutic purposes. The island was built by…

  8. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may improve symptoms in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Daniel A; Rossignol, Lanier W

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that currently affects as many as 1 out of 166 children in the United States. Recent research has discovered that some autistic individuals have decreased cerebral perfusion, evidence of neuroinflammation, and increased markers of oxidative stress. Multiple independent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) research studies have revealed hypoperfusion to several areas of the autistic brain, most notably the temporal regions and areas specifically related to language comprehension and auditory processing. Several studies show that diminished blood flow to these areas correlates with many of the clinical features associated with autism including repetitive, self-stimulatory and stereotypical behaviors, and impairments in communication, sensory perception, and social interaction. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been used with clinical success in several cerebral hypoperfusion syndromes including cerebral palsy, fetal alcohol syndrome, closed head injury, and stroke. HBOT can compensate for decreased blood flow by increasing the oxygen content of plasma and body tissues and can even normalize oxygen levels in ischemic tissue. In addition, animal studies have shown that HBOT has potent anti-inflammatory effects and reduces oxidative stress. Furthermore, recent evidence demonstrates that HBOT mobilizes stem cells from human bone marrow, which may aid recovery in neurodegenerative diseases. Based upon these findings, it is hypothesized that HBOT will improve symptoms in autistic individuals. A retrospective case series is presented that supports this hypothesis. PMID:16554123

  9. Anthropometric assessment of a Middle Eastern group of autistic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nagwa A Meguid; Wafaa A Kandeel; Khaled E Wakeel; Aly A El-Nofely

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth abnormalities are uniquely associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however, the extent to which growth abnormalities are present has hardly been investigated. The current study aims to compare the differences in anthropometric parameters in a group of autistic Egyptian children and the healthy normal population. Methods: We recruited 100 children with ASD from the Outpatient Clinic for "Autistic Children" at the Medical Research Hospital of Excellence, National Research Centre in Cairo, Egypt. They were diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria of the American Psychiatric Association, Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Of these children at age of 3-10 years, 71 were males and 29 females. Eight anthropometric parameters were assessed in view of data of the healthy Egyptians of pertinent sex and age. Results: Weight and body mass index increased because of a signifi cant increase in subcutaneous fat thickness. This tendency with a probable decrease in muscle mass was more evident in male or in older children, likely resulting from sedentary life style and food selectivity. Conclusions: The Z head circumference score and its variance signifi cantly increased especially in males or older children, suggesting the relative overgrowth of the brain in a substantial percentage of Egyptian children with autism. We concluded that increased fat composition in Egyptian autistic children with decreased muscle mass necessitates tailoring a specially designed food supplementation program to ameliorate the severity of autism symptoms.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of buspirone in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David J; Chugani, Diane C; Chugani, Harry T; Chehab, Jamal; Malian, Monica; Aranda, Jacob V

    2006-05-01

    Buspirone is used to treat generalized anxiety disorder in children and may be useful in developmental disorders in which brain serotonin synthesis is altered. Autistic children (13 boys, 7 girls) were given a single oral dose of 2.5 mg (2-3 years) or 5.0 mg (4-6 years). Blood was collected for 8 hours, and plasma was assayed for buspirone and its metabolite 1-pyrimidinylpiperazine (1-PP). The peak concentration of buspirone averaged 1141 +/- 748 pg/mL with a time to maximum concentration of 0.8 hours. Half-life was 1.6 +/- 0.3 hours. Peak concentrations of 1-PP were 4.5-fold higher than for buspirone. Girls had higher peak concentrations (1876 vs 746 pg/mL) for buspirone and a lower peak 1-PP/buspirone concentration ratio. These results suggest that buspirone is rapidly absorbed and eliminated in young children with extensive metabolism to 1-PP. Plasma concentrations with 2.5- to 5.0-mg doses were similar to those observed in older children receiving 7.5- to 15-mg doses.

  11. Autistic Traits and Cognitive Performance in Young People with Mild Intellectual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jonathan M.; Best, Catherine S.; Moffat, Vivien J.; Spencer, Michael D.; Philip, Ruth C. M.; Power, Michael J.; Johnstone, Eve C.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive performance and the relationship between theory of mind (TOM), weak central coherence and executive function were investigated in a cohort of young people with additional learning needs. Participants were categorized by social communication questionnaire score into groups of 10 individuals within the autistic spectrum disorder (ASD)…

  12. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient and Visual Search: Shallow and Deep Autistic Endophenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, B. L.; Plaisted-Grant, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    A high Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score (Baron-Cohen et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord" 31(1):5-17, 2001) is increasingly used as a proxy in empirical studies of perceptual mechanisms in autism. Several investigations have assessed perception in non-autistic people measured for AQ, claiming the same relationship exists between…

  13. Study the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in Egyptian autistic children: A clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-baz

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: HBOT is a treatment that has recently become quite popular in the autism spectrum disorder (ASD community. Its benefits cross a wide range of autistic traits as: improved language, increased awareness, behavior and socialization by affecting the pathophysiological findings in autism.

  14. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Autistic Traits in the UK, India and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeth, Megan; Sheppard, Elizabeth; Ramachandran, Rajani; Milne, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The disorder of autism is widely recognised throughout the world. However, the diagnostic criteria and theories of autism are based on research predominantly conducted in Western cultures. Here we compare the expression of autistic traits in a sample of neurotypical individuals from one Western culture (UK) and two Eastern cultures (India and…

  15. Detection of antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic children who received thimerosal-containing vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijendra K; Rivas, Wyatt H

    2004-01-01

    Autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder, may involve autoimmune pathogenesis. Since mercury is potentially a risk factor for autoimmunity, we conducted a study of mercury-induced antinuclear and antilaminin antibodies in autistic and normal children who had been pre-administered with thimerosal-containing vaccines. Laboratory analysis by different immunoassays showed that the serum level of these two autoimmune markers did not significantly differ between autistic and normal children. This finding suggests that the mercury as in thimerosal-containing vaccines is likely not related to autoimmune phenomenon in autism.

  16. The Autism-Spectrum Quotient and Visual Search: Shallow and Deep Autistic Endophenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, B L; Plaisted-Grant, K C

    2016-05-01

    A high Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) score (Baron-Cohen et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 31(1):5-17, 2001) is increasingly used as a proxy in empirical studies of perceptual mechanisms in autism. Several investigations have assessed perception in non-autistic people measured for AQ, claiming the same relationship exists between performance on perceptual tasks in high-AQ individuals as observed in autism. We question whether the similarity in performance by high-AQ individuals and autistics reflects the same underlying perceptual cause in the context of two visual search tasks administered to a large sample of typical individuals assessed for AQ. Our results indicate otherwise and that deploying the AQ as a proxy for autism introduces unsubstantiated assumptions about high-AQ individuals, the endophenotypes they express, and their relationship to Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC) individuals. PMID:24077740

  17. Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Amy S; Blaxill, Mark F; Haley, Boyd E

    2003-01-01

    Reported rates of autism have increased sharply in the United States and the United Kingdom. One possible factor underlying these increases is increased exposure to mercury through thimerosal-containing vaccines, but vaccine exposures need to be evaluated in the context of cumulative exposures during gestation and early infancy. Differential rates of postnatal mercury elimination may explain why similar gestational and infant exposures produce variable neurological effects. First baby haircut samples were obtained from 94 children diagnosed with autism using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM IV) criteria and 45 age- and gender-matched controls. Information on diet, dental amalgam fillings, vaccine history, Rho D immunoglobulin administration, and autism symptom severity was collected through a maternal survey questionnaire and clinical observation. Hair mercury levels in the autistic group were 0.47 ppm versus 3.63 ppm in controls, a significant difference. The mothers in the autistic group had significantly higher levels of mercury exposure through Rho D immunoglobulin injections and amalgam fillings than control mothers. Within the autistic group, hair mercury levels varied significantly across mildly, moderately, and severely autistic children, with mean group levels of 0.79, 0.46, and 0.21 ppm, respectively. Hair mercury levels among controls were significantly correlated with the number of the mothers' amalgam fillings and their fish consumption as well as exposure to mercury through childhood vaccines, correlations that were absent in the autistic group. Hair excretion patterns among autistic infants were significantly reduced relative to control. These data cast doubt on the efficacy of traditional hair analysis as a measure of total mercury exposure in a subset of the population. In light of the biological plausibility of mercury's role in neurodevelopmental disorders, the present study provides further insight into one

  18. Cytokines profile and peripheral blood mononuclear cells morphology in Rett and autistic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorelli, Alessandra; Cervellati, Franco; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Montagner, Giulia; Waldon, PhiAnh; Hayek, Joussef; Gambari, Roberto; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    A potential role for immune dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been well established. However, immunological features of Rett syndrome (RTT), a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder closely related to autism, have not been well addressed yet. By using multiplex Luminex technology, a panel of 27 cytokines and chemokines was evaluated in serum from 10 RTT patients with confirmed diagnosis of MECP2 mutation (typical RTT), 12 children affected by classic autistic disorder and 8 control subjects. The cytokine/chemokine gene expression was assessed by real time PCR on mRNA of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Moreover, ultrastructural analysis of PBMCs was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Significantly higher serum levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-9, IL-13 were detected in RTT compared to control subjects, and IL-15 shows a trend toward the upregulation in RTT. In addition, IL-1β and VEGF were the only down-regulated cytokines in autistic patients with respect to RTT. No difference in cytokine/chemokine profile between autistic and control groups was detected. These data were also confirmed by ELISA real time PCR. At the ultrastructural level, the most severe morphological abnormalities were observed in mitochondria of both RTT and autistic PBMCs. In conclusion, our study shows a deregulated cytokine/chemokine profile together with morphologically altered immune cells in RTT. Such abnormalities were not quite as evident in autistic subjects. These findings indicate a possible role of immune dysfunction in RTT making the clinical features of this pathology related also to the immunology aspects, suggesting, therefore, novel possible therapeutic interventions for this disorder.

  19. Impact of Casein and Gluten Free Dietary Intervention on Selected Autistic Children

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    Veerappan Nishadevi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Autism is a life long developmental disorder that emerges in early childhood and results in significant lifelong disability. The goal of treatment is to promote the childs social and language development and minimize behaviors that interfere with the childs functioning and learning. This study evaluated the impact of casein and gluten free diet among selected autistic children. Methods: Three private special schools in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 50 autistic children 10 from SIMEC, 10 from MMIC and 30 from CSI comprised the study sample. Background information, clinical history and nutritional status, dietary pattern were collected from the 50 selected autistic children. Out of 50 autistic children 30 autistic children were selected for the dietary intervention. Diet counseling regarding casein free diet was imparted to Group I (n=10, gluten free diet to Group II (n=10 and both casein and gluten free diet for Group III (n=10. The diet was followed for a period of 2 months. The efficacy of the dietary exclusion of casein and gluten was evaluated using a food and behavior diary on a day to day basis, using observation method. Findings: Results about Group I autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of casein free diet showed that the mean scores before and after casein free dietary intervention depiticted these improvements as, 1 to 1.2 for attention, 2.8 to 2.9 for sleep, 1.1 to 1.3 for hyperactivity, 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety/compulsion. For Group II autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of gluten free diet showed the improvements as 1.1 to 1.4 for attention 2.5 to 3 for sleep, 1.7 to 1.9 for hyperactivity, 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety/compulsion. About Group III autistic children who followed dietary exclusion of both casein and gluten free diet showed the improvements as 1.1 to 1.3 for attention, 2.5 to 2.7 for sleep, 1.3 to 1.7 for hyperactivity, and 1.1 to 1.2 for anxiety

  20. Autistic traits in neurotypical adults: correlates of graph theoretical functional network topology and white matter anisotropy patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Andras; Emri, Miklos; Spisak, Tamas; Szeman-Nagy, Anita; Beres, Monika; Kis, Sandor Attila; Molnar, Peter; Berenyi, Ervin

    2013-01-01

    Attempts to explicate the neural abnormalities behind autism spectrum disorders frequently revealed impaired brain connectivity, yet our knowledge is limited about the alterations linked with autistic traits in the non-clinical population. In our study, we aimed at exploring the neural correlates of dimensional autistic traits using a dual approach of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and graph theoretical analysis of resting state functional MRI data. Subjects were sampled from a public neuroimaging dataset of healthy volunteers. Inclusion criteria were adult age (age: 18-65), availability of DTI and resting state functional acquisitions and psychological evaluation including the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and Autistic Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ). The final subject cohort consisted of 127 neurotypicals. Global brain network structure was described by graph theoretical parameters: global and average local efficiency. Regional topology was characterized by degree and efficiency. We provided measurements for diffusion anisotropy. The association between autistic traits and the neuroimaging findings was studied using a general linear model analysis, controlling for the effects of age, gender and IQ profile. Significant negative correlation was found between the degree and efficiency of the right posterior cingulate cortex and autistic traits, measured by the combination of ASSQ and SRS scores. Autistic phenotype was associated with the decrease of whole-brain local efficiency. Reduction of diffusion anisotropy was found bilaterally in the temporal fusiform and parahippocampal gyri. Numerous models describe the autistic brain connectome to be dominated by reduced long-range connections and excessive short-range fibers. Our finding of decreased efficiency supports this hypothesis although the only prominent effect was seen in the posterior limbic lobe, which is known to act as a connector hub. The neural correlates of the autistic trait in neurotypicals

  1. Autistic traits in neurotypical adults: correlates of graph theoretical functional network topology and white matter anisotropy patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Jakab

    Full Text Available Attempts to explicate the neural abnormalities behind autism spectrum disorders frequently revealed impaired brain connectivity, yet our knowledge is limited about the alterations linked with autistic traits in the non-clinical population. In our study, we aimed at exploring the neural correlates of dimensional autistic traits using a dual approach of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and graph theoretical analysis of resting state functional MRI data. Subjects were sampled from a public neuroimaging dataset of healthy volunteers. Inclusion criteria were adult age (age: 18-65, availability of DTI and resting state functional acquisitions and psychological evaluation including the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS and Autistic Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ. The final subject cohort consisted of 127 neurotypicals. Global brain network structure was described by graph theoretical parameters: global and average local efficiency. Regional topology was characterized by degree and efficiency. We provided measurements for diffusion anisotropy. The association between autistic traits and the neuroimaging findings was studied using a general linear model analysis, controlling for the effects of age, gender and IQ profile. Significant negative correlation was found between the degree and efficiency of the right posterior cingulate cortex and autistic traits, measured by the combination of ASSQ and SRS scores. Autistic phenotype was associated with the decrease of whole-brain local efficiency. Reduction of diffusion anisotropy was found bilaterally in the temporal fusiform and parahippocampal gyri. Numerous models describe the autistic brain connectome to be dominated by reduced long-range connections and excessive short-range fibers. Our finding of decreased efficiency supports this hypothesis although the only prominent effect was seen in the posterior limbic lobe, which is known to act as a connector hub. The neural correlates of the autistic trait

  2. Atribuição de estados mentais no discurso de crianças do espectro autístico The attribution of mental states in the speech of children with autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyvia Christina Camarotto Battiston Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a atribuição de estados mentais no discurso de crianças pertencentes aos Distúrbios do Espectro Autístico e verificar a modificação no vocabulário e extensão frasal desses, após período de terapia fonoaudiológica. MÉTODOS: Foram colhidas amostras de fala da avaliação fonoaudiológica inicial, após seis meses e um ano de terapia fonoaudiológica, registradas nos prontuários de cinco crianças com autismo infantil e cinco com síndrome de Asperger para caracterização do desempenho verbal e da habilidade de atribuição de estados mentais de cada criança. Considerando-se apenas as emissões espontâneas, foram verificadas as palavras pertencentes às classes substantivo e verbo e classificadas como termos que referem estados físicos e mentais. A comparação entre os três momentos foi realizada por meio da avaliação da significância entre as medianas das amostras obtidas (teste da mediana, com diferença significativa ao nível de 10%. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se aumento no número de palavras emitidas e também no número de palavras por frase emitida entre os períodos de avaliação e após um ano de terapia fonoaudiológica para crianças com autismo infantil. Não foram encontradas diferenças para a atribuição de verbos de estados físicos e mentais e substantivos de estados mentais para ambos os grupos, sendo observada diminuição na emissão de substantivos de estados físicos no grupo autismo infantil. CONCLUSÃO: A atribuição de estados mentais aumentou após período de intervenção terapêutica fonoaudiológica, porém, sem diferença significativa, verificando-se aumento no comportamento verbal de crianças com autismo infantil.PURPOSE: To analyze the attribution of mental states in the speech of children within the Autistic Spectrum Disorders, and verify the modification in their vocabulary and phrasal extension, after a period of speech-language therapy. METHODS: Speech samples from the

  3. Parenting stress and affective symptoms in parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yun; Du, YaSong; Li, HuiLin; Zhang, XiYan; An, Yu; Wu, Bai-Lin

    2015-10-01

    We examined parenting stress and mental health status in parents of autistic children and assessed factors associated with such stress. Participants were parents of 188 autistic children diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria and parents of 144 normally developing children. Parents of autistic children reported higher levels of stress, depression, and anxiety than parents of normally developing children. Mothers of autistic children had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than that did parents of normally developing children. Mothers compared to fathers of autistic children were more vulnerable to depression. Age, behavior problems of autistic children, and mothers' anxiety were significantly associated with parenting stress.

  4. Traits contributing to the autistic spectrum.

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    Colin D Steer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is increasingly recognised that traits associated with autism reflect a spectrum with no clear boundary between typical and atypical behaviour. Dimensional traits are needed to investigate the broader autism phenotype. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety-three individual measures reflecting components of social, communication and repetitive behaviours characterising autistic spectrum disorder (ASD were identified between the ages of 6 months and 9 years from the ALSPAC database. Using missing value imputation, data for 13,138 children were analysed. Factor analysis suggested the existence of 7 factors explaining 85% of the variance. The factors were labelled: verbal ability, language acquisition, social understanding, semantic-pragmatic skills, repetitive-stereotyped behaviour, articulation and social inhibition. Four factors (1, 3, 5 and 7 were specific to ASD being more strongly associated with this phenotype than other co-morbid conditions while other factors were more associated with learning difficulties and specific language impairment. Nevertheless, all 7 factors contributed independently to the explanation of ASD (p<0.001. Exploration of putative genetic causal factors such as variants in the CNTNAP2 gene showed a varying pattern of associations with these traits. An alternative predictive model of ASD was derived using four individual measures: the coherence subscale of the Children's Communication Checklist (9y, the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (91 m, repetitive behaviour (69 m and the sociability subscale of the Emotionality Activity and Sociability measure (38 m. Although univarably these traits performed better than some factors, their combined explanations of ASD were similar (R(2 =  0.48. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results support the fractional nature of ASD with different aetiological origins for these components despite pleiotropic genetic effects being observed. These traits are

  5. The autistic brain in the context of normal neurodevelopment

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    Mark Nicholas Ziats

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD is complex and largely unclear. Among various lines of inquiry, many have suggested convergence onto disruptions in both neural circuitry and immune regulation/glial cell function pathways. However, the interpretation of the relationship between these two putative mechanisms has largely focused on the role of exogenous factors and insults, such as maternal infection, in generating activating immune pathways that in turn result in neural network abnormalities. Yet, given recent insights in our understanding of human neurodevelopment, and in particular the critical role of glia and the immune system in normal brain development, it is important to consider these putative pathological processes in their appropriate normal neurodevelopmental context. In this review, we explore the hypothesis that the autistic brain cellular phenotype likely represents intrinsic abnormalities of glial/immune processes constitutively operant in normal brain development that result in the observed neural network dysfunction. We review recent studies demonstrating the intercalated role of neural circuit development, the immune system, and glial cells in the normal developing brain, an integrate them with studies demonstrating pathological alterations in these processes in autism. By discussing known abnormalities in the autistic brain in the context of normal brain development, we explore the hypothesis that the glial/immune component of ASD may instead be related to intrinsic exaggerated/abnormal constitutive neurodevelopmental processes such as network pruning. Moreover, this hypothesis may be relevant to other neurodevelopmental disorders that share genetic, pathologic, and clinical features with autism.

  6. Age-related decreased inhibitory versus excitatory gene expression in the adult autistic brain

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    Louie Nathan van de Lagemaat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by impaired social interaction and communication, and restricted behaviour and interests. A disruption in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission has been hypothesised to underlie these disorders. Here we demonstrate that genes of both pathways are affected by ASD, and that gene expression of inhibitory and excitatory genes is altered in the cerebral cortex of adult but not younger autistic individuals. We have developed a measure for the difference in the level of excitation and inhibition based on gene expression and observe that in this measure inhibition is decreased relative to excitation in adult ASD compared to control. This difference was undetectable in young autistic brains. Given that many psychiatric features of autism are already present at an early age, this suggests that the observed imbalance in gene expression is an ageing phenomenon in ASD rather than its underlying cause.

  7. Autistic phenomena in neurotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klien, S

    1980-01-01

    I have described a group of patients who are seemingly successful in their professional and social lives, and who seek analysis ostensibly for professional reasons or for minor difficulties in their relationship. However, sooner or later they reveal phenomena which are strikingly similar to those observed in so-called autistic children. These autistic phenomena are characterized by an almost impenetrable encapsulation of part of the personality, mute and implacable resistance to change, and a lack of real emotional contact either with themselves or the analyst. Progress of the analysis reveals an underlying intense fear of pain, and of death, disintegration or breakdown. These anxieties occur as a reaction to real or feared separation, especially when commitment to analysis deepens. In the case I have described in detail the patient used various projective processes to deflect painful emotions either into other people, including the analyst, or into their own bodies. As a consequence the various objects or organs of the body swell up and became suffused with rage as a result of having to contain the unwanted feelings. This process leads in turn to intense persecutory fears and a heightened sensitivity to the analyst's tone of voice and facial expression. It would seem that the initial hypersensitivity of part of the personality is such as to lead it to anticipate danger to such an extent that it expels feelings even before they reach awareness. The sooner the analyst realizes the existence of this hidden part of the patient the less the danger of the analysis becoming an endless and meaningless intellectual dialogue and the greater the possibilities of the patient achieving a relatively stable equilibrium. Although the analyst has to live through a great deal of anxiety with the patient I feel that ultimately the results make it worth while.

  8. 早期孤独谱系障碍社区筛查量表的编制与信度、效度分析%Compiling of early autistic spectrum disorders screening scale for community and its reliability and validity analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓勉; 赵玮

    2012-01-01

    目的 编制适用于社区的简单、便利、灵敏度高的早期孤独谱系障碍筛查量表,并对该量表进行信度和效度分析.方法 以美国精神障碍诊断统计手册第四版(DSM-Ⅳ)的孤独症临床表现和诊断标准为基础,参考婴幼儿孤独症筛查量表(CHAT)、孤独症行为量表(ABC)、儿童孤独症评定量表(CARS)、孤独症诊断访谈量表(中文修订本)(ADI-R)等编制成早期孤独谱系障碍社区筛查量表(EASSC).在深圳市随机选取6~24月龄儿童9 860人作为筛查对象,对该量表进行信度、效度检验.结果 该量表各因子和总分的评定者信度分别为0.945、0.973、0.874、0.952、0.962;重测信度分别为0.936、0.910、0.925、0.853、0.949.该量表的分半信度为0.917.该量表和ABC量表间的校标关联效度为0.835.当分界值为9分时,该量表的灵敏度为0.912,特异度为0.898.结论 该量表具有较好的信度和效度,费时少,容易填写,适用于早期孤独谱系障碍的社区筛查,具有一定的推广使用价值.%Objective To work out an easy and convenient screening scale of early autistic spectrum disorders with high sensitivity used in community, and to explore its reliability and validity. Methods Based on clinical manifestations and diagnostic standards of autism in DSM-Ⅳ , and referring CHAT, ABC, CARS and ADI-R, early autistic spectrum disorders screening scale for community ( EASSC ) was worked out. In Shenzhen 9 860 infants aged 6-24 months were randomly selected as screening objects, and the reliability and validity of the scale were tested. Results The rater reliability of each factor and total score was 0. 945, 0. 973 , 0. 874, 0. 952 and 0. 962, respectively, and the re-test reliability was 0.936, 0. 910, 0. 925, 0. 853 and 0. 949, respectively. The split reliability was 0. 917. Criterion-related validity between the scale and ABC was 0. 835. The sensitivity and specificity were 0. 912 and 0. 898, respectively when the

  9. Control of psychomotor agitation and aggressive behavior in patients with autistic disorder: a retrospective chart review Controle da agitação psicomotora e agressividade em pacientes com autismo: estudo retrospectivo de revisão de prontuário

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    Camila Marinho Novaes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of pharmacotherapy on the symptoms of psychomotor agitation and aggressive behavior in a sample of patients with autistic spectrum disorder. METHOD: The charts of all patients with a diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorder, receiving care for psychomotor agitation and/or aggressive behavior in two psychiatric outpatient departments between 2001 and 2006, were reviewed. The Clinical Global Impression-Severity and -Improvement scales (CGI-S and CGI-I were applied to the data retrieved from the charts. RESULTS: The majority of the 26 patients included were treated with second-generation antipsychotics. A positive, statistically significant correlation was found between the implementation of pharmacotherapy and a reduction in CGI-S scores (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia do tratamento farmacológico dos sintomas de agitação psicomotora e agressividade em amostra de pacientes com transtorno do espectro autista. MÉTODO: Foram revisados os prontuários de pacientes com diagnóstico de transtorno do espectro autista que procuraram atendimento por apresentarem agitação psicomotora e/ou heteroagressividade, atendidos entre 2001 e 2006, em dois ambulatórios de psiquiatria. Para avaliação da evolução dos pacientes aplicou-se às informações do prontuário a escala de Impressão Clínica Global Sintomas (ICG-S e a Impressão Clínica Global Melhora (ICG-M. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos 26 pacientes estava em tratamento com antipsicóticos de segunda geração. Houve correlação positiva e estatisticamente significativa entre a introdução do tratamento farmacológico e a redução nos escores da ICG-S (p<0,05. A evolução do tratamento farmacológico foi melhor para os pacientes sem retardo mental do que para aqueles com retardo mental (p<0,05. A maioria dos pacientes que obteve melhora clínica com o tratamento participava de ao menos uma intervenção auxiliar ao tratamento principal (p<0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Os

  10. Ear Infections in Autistic and Normal Children. Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantareas, M. Mary; Homatidis, Soula

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the frequency of ear infections, ear tube drainage, and deafness for 51 autistic children (ages 2-18) indicated that autistic children had a greater incidence of ear infections than matched normal peers and lower functioning children had an earlier onset of ear infections than higher functioning autistic peers. (Author)

  11. Fmr1 KO Mice as a Possible Model of Autistic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maude Bernardet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder appearing before the age of 3, where communication and social interactions are impaired. It also entails stereotypic behavior or restricted interests. Although this disorder was first described in 1943, little is still known about its etiology and that of related developmental disorders. Work with human patients has provided many data on neuropathological and cognitive symptoms, but our understanding of the functional defects at the cellular level and how they come about remains sketchy. To improve this situation, autism research is in need of valid animal models. However, despite a strong hereditary component, attempts to identify genes have generally failed, suggesting that many different genes are involved. As a high proportion of patients suffering from the Fragile X Syndrome show many autistic symptoms, a mouse model of this disorder could potentially also serve as a model for autism. The Fmr1 KO mouse is a valid model of the Fragile X Syndrome and many data on behavioral and sensory-motor characteristics of this model have been gathered. We present here an assessment of autistic features in this candidate model. We conclude that Fmr1 KO mice display several autistic-like features, but more work is needed to validate this model.

  12. [Autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Early infantile autism' as defined by Kanner has grown into a spectrum of autistic disorders. The recognition of Asperger's disorder and of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), has led to increased demand for appropriate diagnostic assessment of autism in adults. The e

  13. [Neural mechanism underlying autistic savant and acquired savant syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Keisuke; Kato, Motoichiro

    2008-07-01

    It is well known that the cases with savant syndrome, demonstrate outstanding mental capability despite coexisting severe mental disabilities. In many cases, savant skills are characterized by its domain-specificity, enhanced memory capability, and excessive focus on low-level perceptual processing. In addition, impaired integrative cognitive processing such as social cognition or executive function, restricted interest, and compulsive repetition of the same act are observed in savant individuals. All these are significantly relevant to the behavioral characteristics observed in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). A neurocognitive model of savant syndrome should explain these cognitive features and the juxtaposition of outstanding talents with cognitive disabilities. In recent neuropsychological studies, Miller (1998) reported clinical cases of "acquired savant," i.e., patients who improved or newly acquired an artistic savant-like skill in the early stage of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Although the relationship between an autistic savant and acquired savant remains to be elucidated, the advent of neuroimaging study of ASD and the clarification of FTD patients with savant-like skills may clarify the shared neural mechanisms of both types of talent. In this review, we classified current cognitive models of savant syndrome into the following 3 categories. (1) A hypermnesic model that suggests that savant skills develop from existing or dormant cognitive functions such as memory. However, recent findings obtained through neuropsychological examinations imply that savant individuals solve problems using a strategy that is fairly different from a non-autistic one. (2) A paradoxical functional facilitation model (Kapur, 1996) that offers possible explanations about how pathological states in the brain lead to development of prodigious skills. This model emphasizes the role of reciprocal inhibitory interaction among adjacent or distant cortical regions

  14. Acquired Autistic Behaviors in Children with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Robin K.; Rudser, Kyle; Delaney, Kathleen; Potegal, Michael; Whitley, Chester B.; Shapiro, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess autism spectrum disorder (ASD) behaviors in children with mucopolysaccharidosis Type IIIA (MPS IIIA), using a standard measure, understand the behavioral evolution of the disease, and provide specific guidelines for diagnosis. Study design Children (n=21) with documented enzyme deficiency and SGSH gene mutations, cognitive age-equivalent over 12 months, and early onset were administered the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) (Module 1) and Bayley Scales of Infant Development–III (BSID-III). ADOS Social Affect and Restricted Repetitive Behavior total scores are reported as well as BSID-III cognitive age-equivalent using descriptive statistics and graphic presentations. Results Thirteen of 21 children met ADOS criteria for ASD/autism. ADOS score was strongly associated with age; all 11 children over 46 months met criteria, and 8 of 10 under 46 months did not. Social and affective abnormalities were most frequent; restricted interests and repetitive behaviors were largely absent. Lack of cognitive growth paralleled ADOS score. Conclusions An increased incidence of autistic-like social behaviors occurred between ages 3 and 4 in children with early onset MPS IIIA. Although more frequent in the severely impaired, ASD behaviors were observed across the entire range of cognitive impairment. Clinicians must be aware that when a child acquires autistic-like behaviors, MPS IIIA should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:24582005

  15. Does bilateral damage to the human amygdala produce autistic symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lynn K; Corsello, Christina; Tranel, Daniel; Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-09-01

    A leading neurological hypothesis for autism postulates amygdala dysfunction. This hypothesis has considerable support from anatomical and neuroimaging studies. Individuals with bilateral amygdala lesions show impairments in some aspects of social cognition. These impairments bear intriguing similarity to those reported in people with autism, such as impaired recognition of emotion in faces, impaired theory of mind abilities, failure to fixate eyes in faces, and difficulties in regulating personal space distance to others. Yet such neurological cases have never before been assessed directly to see if they meet criteria for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Here we undertook such an investigation in two rare participants with developmental-onset bilateral amygdala lesions. We administered a comprehensive clinical examination, as well as the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), together with several other standardized questionnaires. Results from the two individuals with amygdala lesions were compared with published norms from both healthy populations as well as from people with ASD. Neither participant with amygdala lesions showed any evidence of autism across the array of different measures. The findings demonstrate that amygdala lesions in isolation are not sufficient for producing autistic symptoms. We suggest instead that it may be abnormal connectivity between the amygdala and other structures that contributes to autistic symptoms at a network level. PMID:20700516

  16. A Reciprocal Model of Face Recognition and Autistic Traits: Evidence from an Individual Differences Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Drew W. R.; MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Sherf, Suzanne K.; Tanaka, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Although not a core symptom of the disorder, individuals with autism often exhibit selective impairments in their face processing abilities. Importantly, the reciprocal connection between autistic traits and face perception has rarely been examined within the typically developing population. In this study, university participants from the social sciences, physical sciences, and humanities completed a battery of measures that assessed face, object and emotion recognition abilities, general perceptual-cognitive style, and sub-clinical autistic traits (the Autism Quotient (AQ)). We employed separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses to evaluate which factors could predict face recognition scores and AQ scores. Gender, object recognition performance, and AQ scores predicted face recognition behaviour. Specifically, males, individuals with more autistic traits, and those with lower object recognition scores performed more poorly on the face recognition test. Conversely, university major, gender and face recognition performance reliably predicted AQ scores. Science majors, males, and individuals with poor face recognition skills showed more autistic-like traits. These results suggest that the broader autism phenotype is associated with lower face recognition abilities, even among typically developing individuals. PMID:24853862

  17. A reciprocal model of face recognition and autistic traits: evidence from an individual differences perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Drew W R; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Scherf, K Suzanne; Sherf, Suzanne K; Tanaka, James W

    2014-01-01

    Although not a core symptom of the disorder, individuals with autism often exhibit selective impairments in their face processing abilities. Importantly, the reciprocal connection between autistic traits and face perception has rarely been examined within the typically developing population. In this study, university participants from the social sciences, physical sciences, and humanities completed a battery of measures that assessed face, object and emotion recognition abilities, general perceptual-cognitive style, and sub-clinical autistic traits (the Autism Quotient (AQ)). We employed separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses to evaluate which factors could predict face recognition scores and AQ scores. Gender, object recognition performance, and AQ scores predicted face recognition behaviour. Specifically, males, individuals with more autistic traits, and those with lower object recognition scores performed more poorly on the face recognition test. Conversely, university major, gender and face recognition performance reliably predicted AQ scores. Science majors, males, and individuals with poor face recognition skills showed more autistic-like traits. These results suggest that the broader autism phenotype is associated with lower face recognition abilities, even among typically developing individuals. PMID:24853862

  18. A reciprocal model of face recognition and autistic traits: evidence from an individual differences perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew W R Halliday

    Full Text Available Although not a core symptom of the disorder, individuals with autism often exhibit selective impairments in their face processing abilities. Importantly, the reciprocal connection between autistic traits and face perception has rarely been examined within the typically developing population. In this study, university participants from the social sciences, physical sciences, and humanities completed a battery of measures that assessed face, object and emotion recognition abilities, general perceptual-cognitive style, and sub-clinical autistic traits (the Autism Quotient (AQ. We employed separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses to evaluate which factors could predict face recognition scores and AQ scores. Gender, object recognition performance, and AQ scores predicted face recognition behaviour. Specifically, males, individuals with more autistic traits, and those with lower object recognition scores performed more poorly on the face recognition test. Conversely, university major, gender and face recognition performance reliably predicted AQ scores. Science majors, males, and individuals with poor face recognition skills showed more autistic-like traits. These results suggest that the broader autism phenotype is associated with lower face recognition abilities, even among typically developing individuals.

  19. Synchrony Between Sensory and Cognitive Networks is Associated with Subclinical Variation in Autistic Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob eYoung

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with autistic spectrum disorders exhibit distinct personality traits linked to attentional, social, and affective functions, and those traits are expressed with varying levels of severity in the neurotypical and subclinical population. Variation in autistic traits has been linked to reduced functional and structural connectivity (i.e., underconnectivity, or reduced synchrony with neural networks modulated by attentional, social, and affective functions. Yet, it remains unclear whether reduced synchrony between these neural networks contributes to autistic traits. To investigate this issue, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to record brain activation while neurotypical participants who varied in their subclinical scores on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ viewed alternating blocks of social and nonsocial stimuli (i.e., images of faces and of landscape scenes. We used independent component analysis combined with a spatiotemporal regression to quantify synchrony between neural networks. Our results indicated that decreased synchrony between the executive control network and a face-scene network predicted higher scores on the AQ. This relationship was not explained by individual differences in head motion, preferences for faces, or personality variables related to social cognition. Our findings build on clinical reports by demonstrating that reduced synchrony between distinct neural networks contributes to a range of subclinical autistic traits.

  20. Keys to Success with Autistic Children: Structure, Predictability, and Consistency Are Essential for Students on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseminger, Scott H.

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood and elementary music teachers face particular challenges when including children with special needs in the music classroom. Children with autism act out and misbehave not because they are autistic, but because their fears and anxieties are so great. Knowing that children with autism and other neurological disorders have distinct…

  1. Brief Report: No Association between Parental Age and Extreme Social-Communicative Autistic Traits in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elise B.; Munir, Kerim; McCormick, Marie C.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Santangelo, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first investigation of the relationship between parental age and extreme social-communicative autistic traits in the general population. The parents of 5,246 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) completed the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC). The association between parental age…

  2. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic…

  3. Otitis and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Zambrano-Enriquez, Diana; de Anta, Laura; Zelmanova, Julie; De Dios Vega, Jose Luis; Lopez-Ibor, Juan Jose

    2010-01-01

    The case of a 5-year-old child diagnosed as having pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), autistic type, from age 1 is reported. After surgery of vegetation in middle ear for repetitive otitis, the child presented an improvement in autistic behaviours, previously expressed as impaired social interactions, qualitative abnormalities in communication, a marked delay in language development, echolalia, stereotypies and self-aggressive behaviours. The aim of this paper is to bring attention to oc...

  4. Levels of autistic traits in anorexia nervosa: a comparative psychometric study.

    OpenAIRE

    Courty, Annaig; Maria, Anne,; Lalanne, Christophe; Ringuenet, Damien; Vindreau, Christine; Chevallier, Coralie; Pouga, Lydia; Pinabel, François; Philippe, Anne; Adrien, Jean-Louis; Barry, Caroline; Berthoz, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    International audience BACKGROUND: A number of characteristics associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are over-represented among patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) as well as among relatives of these patients. Yet the co-occurrence of autistic traits in AN has not been fully explored and no previous study has directly compared self-reported evaluations of cognitive and socio-affective skills in AN and ASD. METHODS: We aimed to determine the degree of overlap between AN and ASD fr...

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

  6. Effect of pioglitazone treatment on behavioral symptoms in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelson Stephen M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Autism is complex neuro-developmental disorder which has a symptomatic diagnosis in patients characterized by disorders in language/communication, behavior, and social interactions. The exact causes for autism are largely unknown, but is has been speculated that immune and inflammatory responses, particularly those of Th2 type, may be involved. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs are agonists of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a nuclear hormone receptor which modulates insulin sensitivity, and have been shown to induce apoptosis in activated T-lymphocytes and exert anti-inflammatory effects in glial cells. The TZD pioglitazone (Actos is an FDA-approved PPARγ agonist used to treat type 2 diabetes, with a good safety profile, currently being tested in clinical trials of other neurological diseases including AD and MS. We therefore tested the safety and therapeutic potential of oral pioglitazone in a small cohort of children with diagnosed autism. Case description The rationale and risks of taking pioglitazone were explained to the parents, consent was obtained, and treatment was initiated at either 30 or 60 mg per day p.o. A total of 25 children (average age 7.9 ± 0.7 year old were enrolled. Safety was assessed by measurements of metabolic profiles and blood pressure; effects on behavioral symptoms were assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC, which measures hyperactivity, inappropriate speech, irritability, lethargy, and stereotypy, done at baseline and after 3–4 months of treatment. Discussion and evaluation In a small cohort of autistic children, daily treatment with 30 or 60 mg p.o. pioglitazone for 3–4 months induced apparent clinical improvement without adverse events. There were no adverse effects noted and behavioral measurements revealed a significant decrease in 4 out of 5 subcategories (irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, and hyperactivity. Improved behaviors were inversely

  7. Pragmatic Aesthetics and the Autistic Artist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kyle; Barnbaum, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    There are many prominent examples of artists with autism. However, even when confronted with evidence of these accomplished "autistic savants", pragmatic aesthetic theories cannot adequately account for the work of these accomplished artists as "artists". This article first examines the nature of autism and explores a prominent psychological…

  8. Conceptualising Well-being for Autistic Persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robeyns, I.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    In the philosophy of well-being, there is hardly anything written on the lives of people with autism, or on the question whether existing philosophical theories of well-being are suited for understanding how well the lives of autistic persons are going. This paper tries to make some progress towards

  9. Parenting Stress in Raising Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, Norman A.; Atzil, Mira

    1988-01-01

    The study of coping in 46 parents of 23 autistic children had findings consistent with a cognitive appraisal orientation to the stressor-stress reaction relationship. The best predictor of life satisfaction for fathers was the absolute parenting burden they were assuming and for mothers it was the relative burden. (Author/DB)

  10. Empirically Derived Subclassification of the Autistic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Bryna; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A method for empirical classification of autistic and autisticlike children, based on behavior observations of 35 males and 11 females (ages 4-28 years) was examined. Factor and cluster analysis indicated four subtypes, characterized by perseverative thinking and play, motor disturbances, schizotypal/schizoid features, and anxiety and negativism.…

  11. Do Some Cases of Anorexia Nervosa Reflect Underlying Autistic-Like Conditions?

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    C. Gillberg

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In a sample of 51 teenagers with anorexia nervosa (AN—which included 24 cases constituting the total population of AN cases born in 1970—several had shown social, communicative and behaviour patterns suggestive of autistic-like conditions as children, long before the onset of AN. One of the three boys in the AN group had Asperger syndrome. Three of the 48 girls had histories suggesting high functioning autism and continued to show many features typical of autism. Two further girls had Tourette syndrome and obsessive–compulsive traits in combination with social interaction problems. Eighteen other girls met criteria for obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD and most of these also had had moderate–severe childhood social interaction problems. In a sex- and age-matched comparison group from the same schools, two girls had OCPD, but none had autistic-like conditions or Tourette syndrome. The results are discussed in the context of a recently suggested link between Asperger syndrome, Tourette syndrome and obsessive–compulsive problems, and it is suggested that AN in a subgroup of cases might represent a disorder belonging in the same class as autism and autistic-like conditions.

  12. The design principles of edutainment system for autistic children with communication difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azham; Abdullah, Adil; Husni, Husniza

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 50% of all individuals with Autism have difficulties in developing functional language owing to communication deterioration. Mobile devices with installed educational games help these individuals feel more comfortable and relaxed doing such activities. Although numerous mobile applications are available for individuals with Autism, they are difficult to use; particularly in terms of user-interface design. From the analysis of existing apps for autistic children, an app design principles are proposed based on interaction design (IxD), that would fulfil the users' requirements in a better manner. Five applications were involved in this analysis. The analysis identified fifteen suggestions for the design principles. These recommendations are offered by this paper towards designing and developing a prototype app for autistic children. This paper introduces an edutainment-system design principle formulated to help develop the communication skills of children with Autism-spectrum disorders.

  13. A Scale to Assist the Diagnosis of Autism and Asperger's Disorder in Adults (RAADS): A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritvo, Riva Ariella; Ritvo, Edward R.; Guthrie, Donald; Yuwiler, Arthur; Ritvo, Max Joseph; Weisbender, Leo

    2008-01-01

    An empirically based 78 question self-rating scale based on DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 criteria was developed to assist clinicians' diagnosis of adults with autism and Asperger's Disorder-the Ritvo Autism and Asperger's Diagnostic Scale (RAADS). It was standardized on 17 autistic and 20 Asperger's Disorder and 57 comparison subjects. Both autistic and…

  14. The effectiveness of melodic intonation therapy on fundamental frequency and intensity in Persian autistic children’s speech

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    Neda Ferdosi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder with several speech disorders such as prosodic and pragmatic impairments. Melodic intonation therapy (MIT based on Albert et al. model (1973 is a rehabilitation method, developed on prosodic features. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MIT on Persian autistic children’s prosody.Methods: An easy version of MIT, adopted for Persian language was designed by researchers. Then, after a successful pilot study on a 10-years-old boy for one month, 13 subjects were selected for the main study. All the subjects were autistic, male, right-handed, 7-10-years-old Persian children studied for 48 sessions (16 weeks. Background information gathered from the parents by a questionnaire. As pre- and post-test, some assessments about children’s fundamental frequency (Fº and intensity of the Persian vowel sounds and declarative and interrogative sentences were accomplished. The data analysis was done using Praat and SPSS softwares.Results: There was a statistically significant increase in acoustic features, such as intensity, and fundamental frequency of declarative and interrogative sentences; also all six vowels of Persian, excluding /â/ and /æ/ (p<0.05 for all.Conclusion: The widely reported unusual prosody in autistic children was quantified by this study, too. In addition, there was convincing evidence of the positive effects of melodic intonation therapy on acoustic features in Persian autistic children.

  15. Autist mobile seat's frame strength simulation used in a car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryo, S. H.; Jamari, J.; Naufal, G. K.; Ismail, R.; Bayuseno, A. P.; Desiningrum, D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Going on a car with autistic children needs a special handling. Autistic children that tend to be hyperactive in the car may disturb driving. A tool is needed to keep them in a calm state when they are in the car. Autist Mobile Seat is an aid for the autistic children when going on a car. The aid is an additional seat paired with the main seat of the car. This aid consists of three main things: Main frame, body skin, and pneumatic system. Frame as the main component supporting the Autist Mobile Seat functions as a holder as well as a body skin retainer in order to be able to retain the body of the autistic children. The strength of the frame from this Autist Mobile Seat should be counted as an anticipation from the failure of the frame function when receiving load when used by the autistic children in the car. Consequently, a test on the frame of the Autist Mobile Seat towards the load received should be conducted by using a method of FEM (Finite Element Method) with the help of commercial software. The simulation produces the maximum strength, the frame towards the load received as well as the critical point on the frame when loading occurs.

  16. Imitation and social responsiveness in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, G; Adams, A

    1984-06-01

    Fifteen autistic children, ages 4-6 years, participated in the present study. Imitation and object permanence skills were assessed. Language and social behaviors were observed during free play. Children were also exposed to three interactive procedures that differed in developmental sophistication. The experimenter either (1) simultaneously imitated the child's actions, (2) modeled a familiar action, or (3) modeled a novel action. It was found that the autistic children who had a low level of imitative ability (Piaget's Stages 2-3) were more socially responsive, showed more eye contact, and played with toys in a less perseverative manner when the experimenter imitated their behavior than when the experimenter modeled either a familiar or a novel action. When the experimenter modeled a familiar as opposed to a novel action, these children were more likely to spontaneously imitate the experimenter. The autistic children with more highly developed imitation skills, however, responded similarly to all conditions. They also were generally more socially and verbally responsive. These results suggest that developmental status is an important variable in designing intervention programs for severely impaired children. PMID:6725782

  17. Autistic traits in women with primary dysmenorrhea: a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Harun; Hergüner, Arzu; Şimşek, Sevcan; Hergüner, Sabri

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Recent studies have shown that women with autism spectrum disorder have higher rates of menstrual problems, including irregular menstrual cycles, unusually painful periods (dysmenorrhea), and excessive menstrual bleeding. In this study, we investigated the autistic traits in female university students with primary dysmenorrhea (PD). Methods Seventy females with PD and 70 females without PD were enrolled in the study. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was used to measure autistic traits and the Brief Symptom Inventory was used for evaluating anxiety and depression levels. The dysmenorrheal pain was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS), coded from 0 to 10. Weight and height were measured, and the body mass index was calculated. Results There were no statistical differences between the groups in terms of age, duration of education, and body mass index. Women with PD had higher AQ – Total, and AQ – Attention Switching subscale scores than subjects without PD. Spearman analysis revealed that AQ – Total and AQ – Attention Switching scores were correlated with VAS. According to the linear regression analysis, VAS was predicted only by AQ – Attention Switching subscale. Conclusion Our findings showed an association between autistic traits and dysmenorrhea in typically developing females. PMID:27672325

  18. Prenatal maternal stress associated with ADHD and autistic traits in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica eRonald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that offspring of mothers who experience high levels of stress during pregnancy are more likely to have problems in neurobehavioural development. There is preliminary evidence that prenatal maternal stress (PNMS is a risk factor for both autism and ADHD, however most studies do not control for confounding factors and no study has investigated PNMS as a risk factor for behaviors characteristic of these disorders in early childhood. A population cohort of 2900 pregnant women were recruited before their 18th week of pregnancy and investigated prospectively. Maternal experience of stressful life events was assessed during pregnancy. When offspring were age 2-years, mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Multiple regression showed that maternal stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted ADHD behaviours in offspring, after controlling for autistic traits and other confounding variables, in both males (p= .03 and females (p= .01. Similarly, stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted autistic traits in the offspring after controlling for ADHD behaviours and confounding variables, in males only (p= .04. In conclusion, this study suggests that PNMS, in the form of typical stressful live events such as divorce or a residential move, show a small but significant association with both autistic traits and ADHD behaviours independently, in offspring at age 2 years, after controlling for multiple antenatal, obstetric, postnatal and sociodemographic covariates. This finding supports future research using epigenetic, cross-fostering, and gene-environment interaction designs to identify the causal processes underlying this association.

  19. The mind of the mnemonists: an MEG and neuropsychological study of autistic memory savants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Nicola; Dubischar-Krivec, Anna M; Braun, Christoph; Löw, Andreas; Poustka, Fritz; Bölte, Sven; Birbaumer, Niels

    2010-12-20

    About 10% of autistic individuals exhibit some form of islets of abilities in the face of serious intellectual or mental disability ("savant syndrome"). The aim of this study was to investigate brain mechanisms in a sample of autistic subjects with outstanding memory. We investigated seven mnemonist savants with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and seven matched controls with 151-channel whole-head magnetencephalography in a continuous old-new paradigm. They were presented with 300 pseudowords and 300 shapes and had to indicate by button press, whether the presented stimulus had been shown before. Unexpectedly, mnemonist savants did not perform better than controls, but were outperformed in the recognition of pseudowords. Accordingly, event-related magnetic fields elicited by pseudowords showed widespread old-new effects in controls, but not in savants. A source analysis of its early components revealed right occipital activation in savants, but left parietal activation in controls. This might be related to a visual processing style in mnemonist savants that proved to be inefficient in this task. During the possibly familiarity-based recognition of shapes, there were earlier and more widespread bilateral old-new effects in mnemonist savants, what might reflect their experience with figural material. In a neuropsychological test battery, mnemonist savants performed comparably to autistic people without special memory skills. However, a different factor structure of these tests pointed to a different organization of memory in mnemonist savants compared to controls that is characterized by its relative independence of general intelligence.

  20. Autistic symptoms in childhood arrestees : longitudinal association with delinquent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, Charlotte A. M. L.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van Domburgh, Lieke; de Bildt, Annelies; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To compare childhood arrestees with matched comparison groups on levels of autistic symptoms and to assess the unique predictive value of autistic symptoms for future delinquent behavior in childhood arrestees. Methods: Childhood first-time arrestees (n = 308, baseline age 10.7 +/- 1.5 y

  1. Lymphocyte Subsets and Interleukin-2 Receptors in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Douglas R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Blood samples were obtained from 10 male autistic children, ages 7-15 years, and 10 controls. The children with autism had a lower percentage of helper-inducer cells and a lower helper:suppressor ratio, with both measures inversely related to the severity of autistic symptoms. (Author/DB)

  2. Family Characteristics of Autistic Children: A Further Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sukhdev; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Parents of 21 well-functioning autistic children were examined. Clinical details of the eight parents diagnosed as schizoid are analyzed, leading to the conclusion that one etiological factor may be a genetic predisposition to schizoid personality traits. Global and specific developmental delays in the autistic children's siblings were not found.…

  3. Association between amygdala volume and anxiety level: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juranek, Jenifer; Filipek, Pauline A; Berenji, Gholam R; Modahl, Charlotte; Osann, Kathryn; Spence, M Anne

    2006-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate brain-behavior relationships between amygdala volume and anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist in a well-characterized population of autistic children. Volumes for the amygdala, hippocampus, and whole brain were obtained from three-dimensional magnetic resonance images (MRIs) captured from 42 children who met the criteria for autistic disorder. Anxious/depressed symptoms were assessed in these children by the Anxious/Depressed subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist. To investigate the association between anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist and amygdala volume, data were analyzed using linear regression methods with Pearson correlation coefficients. A multivariate model was used to adjust for potential covariates associated with amygdala volume, including age at MRI and total brain size. We found that anxious/depressed symptoms were significantly correlated with increased total amygdala volume (r = .386, P = .012) and right amygdala volume (r = .469, P = .002). The correlation between anxious/depressed symptoms and left amygdala volume did not reach statistical significance (r = .249, P = .112). Child Behavior Checklist anxious/depressed scores were found to be a significant predictor of amygdala total (P = .014) and right amygdala (P = .002) volumes. In conclusion, we have identified a significant brain-behavior relationship between amygdala volume and anxious/depressed scores on the Child Behavior Checklist in our autistic cohort. This specific relationship has not been reported in autism. However, the existing literature on human psychiatry and behavior supports our reported evidence for a neurobiologic relationship between symptoms of anxiety and depression with amygdala structure and function. Our results highlight the importance of characterizing comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in autism. The abundance of inconsistent findings in the published literature on autism might reflect

  4. Structural MRI-based discrimination between autistic and typically developing brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmi, R.; Hassan, H.; Farag, A.A. [CVIP Lab., Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States); Elbaz, A. [Dept. of Bioengineering, Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States); Casanova, M.F. [Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral science, Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by marked deficits in communication, social interaction, and interests. Various studies of autism have suggested abnormalities in several brain regions, with an increasing agreement on the abnormal anatomy of the white matter (WM) and on deficits in the size of the corpus callosum (CC) and its sub-regions in autism. In this paper, we aim at using these abnormalities in order to devise robust classification methods of autistic vs. typically developing brains by analyzing their respective MRIs. Our analysis is based on shape descriptions and geometric models. We compute the 3D distance map to describe the shape of the WM, and use it as a statistical feature to discriminate between the two groups. We also use our recently proposed non-rigid registration technique to devise another classification approach by statistically analyzing and comparing the deformation fields generated from registering segmented CC's onto each others. The proposed techniques are tested on postmortem and on in-vivo brain MR data. At the 85% confidence level the WM-based classification algorithm correctly classified 14/14 postmortem-autistics and 12/12 in-vivo autistics, a 100% accuracy rate, and 13/15 postmortem controls (86% accuracy rate) and 30/30 in-vivo controls (100% accuracy rate). The technique based on the analysis of the CC was applied only on the in vivo data. At the 85% confidence rate, this technique correctly classified 10/15 autistics, a 0.66 accuracy rate, and 29/30 controls, a 0.96 accuracy rate. These results are very promising and show that, contrary to traditional methods, the proposed techniques are less sensitive to age and volume effects. (orig.)

  5. Structural MRI-based discrimination between autistic and typically developing brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by marked deficits in communication, social interaction, and interests. Various studies of autism have suggested abnormalities in several brain regions, with an increasing agreement on the abnormal anatomy of the white matter (WM) and on deficits in the size of the corpus callosum (CC) and its sub-regions in autism. In this paper, we aim at using these abnormalities in order to devise robust classification methods of autistic vs. typically developing brains by analyzing their respective MRIs. Our analysis is based on shape descriptions and geometric models. We compute the 3D distance map to describe the shape of the WM, and use it as a statistical feature to discriminate between the two groups. We also use our recently proposed non-rigid registration technique to devise another classification approach by statistically analyzing and comparing the deformation fields generated from registering segmented CC's onto each others. The proposed techniques are tested on postmortem and on in-vivo brain MR data. At the 85% confidence level the WM-based classification algorithm correctly classified 14/14 postmortem-autistics and 12/12 in-vivo autistics, a 100% accuracy rate, and 13/15 postmortem controls (86% accuracy rate) and 30/30 in-vivo controls (100% accuracy rate). The technique based on the analysis of the CC was applied only on the in vivo data. At the 85% confidence rate, this technique correctly classified 10/15 autistics, a 0.66 accuracy rate, and 29/30 controls, a 0.96 accuracy rate. These results are very promising and show that, contrary to traditional methods, the proposed techniques are less sensitive to age and volume effects. (orig.)

  6. Autistic traits in women with primary dysmenorrhea: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toy H

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Harun Toy,1 Arzu Hergüner,2 Sevcan Şimşek,1 Sabri Hergüner3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, 2Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic, Konya Training and Research Hospital, 3Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey Objectives: Recent studies have shown that women with autism spectrum disorder have higher rates of menstrual problems, including irregular menstrual cycles, unusually painful periods (dysmenorrhea, and excessive menstrual bleeding. In this study, we investigated the autistic traits in female university students with primary dysmenorrhea (PD. Methods: Seventy females with PD and 70 females without PD were enrolled in the study. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ was used to measure autistic traits and the Brief Symptom Inventory was used for evaluating anxiety and depression levels. The dysmenorrheal pain was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS, coded from 0 to 10. Weight and height were measured, and the body mass index was calculated. Results: There were no statistical differences between the groups in terms of age, duration of education, and body mass index. Women with PD had higher AQ – Total, and AQ – Attention Switching subscale scores than subjects without PD. Spearman analysis revealed that AQ – Total and AQ – Attention Switching scores were correlated with VAS. According to the linear regression analysis, VAS was predicted only by AQ – Attention Switching subscale. Conclusion: Our findings showed an association between autistic traits and dysmenorrhea in typically developing females. Keywords: primary dysmenorrhea, autistic traits, androgens

  7. Management of children with autism spectrum disorder in the dental setting : Concerns, behavioural approaches and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, Konstantina; Reichart, Peter A.; Bornstein, Michael M.; Livas, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This article reviews the present literature on the issues encountered while coping with children with autistic spectrum disorder from the dental perspective. The autistic patient profile and external factors affecting the oral health status of this patient population are discussed upon t

  8. The relationship between level of autistic traits and local bias in the context of the McGurk effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta eUjiie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The McGurk effect is a well-known illustration that demonstrates the influence of visual information on hearing in the context of speech perception. Some studies have reported that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD display abnormal processing of audio-visual speech integration, while other studies showed contradictory results. Based on the dimensional model of ASD, we administered two analog studies to examine the link between level of autistic traits, as assessed by the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ, and the McGurk effect among a sample of university students. In the first experiment, we found that autistic traits correlated negatively with fused (McGurk responses. Then, we manipulated presentation types of visual stimuli to examine whether the local bias toward visual speech cues modulated individual differences in the McGurk effect. The presentation included four types of visual images, comprising no image, mouth only, mouth and eyes, and full face. The results revealed that global facial information facilitates the influence of visual speech cues on McGurk stimuli. Moreover, individual differences between groups with low and high levels of autistic traits appeared when the full-face visual speech cue with an incongruent voice condition was presented. These results suggest that individual differences in the McGurk effect might be due to a weak ability to process global facial information in individuals with high levels of autistic traits.

  9. The Boundaries of the Cognitive Phenotype of Autism: Theory of Mind, Central Coherence and Ambiguous Figure Perception in Young People with Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Catherine S.; Moffat, Vivien J.; Power, Michael J.; Owens, David G. C.; Johnstone, Eve C.

    2008-01-01

    Theory of Mind, Weak Central Coherence and executive dysfunction, were investigated as a function of behavioural markers of autism. This was irrespective of the presence or absence of a diagnosis of an autistic spectrum disorder. Sixty young people completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), false belief tests, the block design test,…

  10. The theory of transformations and autistic states. Autistic transformations: a proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix Korbivcher, Celia

    2005-12-01

    This work integrates two areas of thinking: one in which the author develops considerations regarding observation methods of mental phenomena in psychoanalysis according to Bion's theory of transformations; the other in which she is concerned with the investigation of primitive mental states--protomental states--more specifically, the autistic states of neurotic patients, described by Tustin. Some ideas on the 'philosophical' position underlying transformations theory are elaborated, particularly emphasizing the idea that the same phenomenon in psychoanalysis may be considered from different perspectives, as long as it is situated within the theoretical reference frame to which it belongs. The author considers the idea that this method of phenomenon observation is part of a wider context of general human knowledge, in which uncertainty and relativity of concepts are the main components. By adopting transformations theory as a perspective of phenomena observation that pervades the analytical meeting, the author questions whether it is possible to include other groups of transformation of emotional experiences in this theory, which shows particular phenomena with specific qualities, distinct from those emphasized by Bion. She hypothesizes that autistic phenomena present in neurotic patients, characterizing autistic states, may be considered and detached, making up a particular group of transformation of emotional experience, which analysts often face in their daily practice. She names this group 'autistic transformations'. PMID:16318939

  11. The applicability of Webster-Stratton Parenting Programmes to deaf children with emotional and behavioural problems, and autism, and their families: annotation and case report of a child with autistic spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ruth; Turk, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a pilot project whose objective was to explore whether the Webster-Stratton Parenting Programme may be effective for hearing parents and their deaf children who present with conduct disorders and other emotional, behavioural and developmental problems. Outcome measures aimed at overall impact in decreasing behavioural problems and improving overall family function were used. Participants were hearing parents of deaf children referred to our specialist service whose assessment had recommended a parenting skills group as treatment of choice. The children had been diagnosed with behavioural problems with or without additional comorbidity. This pilot phase focused deliberately on one participant, in order to explore whether the approach justified further, more comprehensive evaluative research. Outcome was positive, suggesting that modified Webster-Stratton approaches may well be of use in deaf children of hearing parents. PMID:17375814

  12. Organization of brain networks governed by long-range connections index autistic traits in the general population.

    OpenAIRE

    Barttfeld, Pablo; Amoruso, Lucía; Ais, Joaquín; Cukier, Sebastián; Bavassi, Luz; Tomio, Ailin; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustín; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dimensional approach to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) considers ASD as the extreme of a dimension traversing through the entire population. We explored the potential utility of electroencephalography (EEG) functional connectivity as a biomarker. We hypothesized that individual differences in autistic traits of typical subjects would involve a long-range connectivity diminution within the delta band. METHODS: Resting-state EEG functional connectivity was measured for 74 neurot...

  13. Coexisting Disorders and Problems in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Höglund Carlsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To analyze cooccurring disorders and problems in a representative group of 198 preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD who had had interventions at a specialized habilitation center. Methods. Parents and children were seen by a research team. Data were based on parental interviews, pediatric assessments, and tests of the child. Information on autistic symptoms, general cognitive function, speech and language, motor function, epilepsy, vision, hearing, activity level, behavior, and sleep was collected. Results. Three ASD categories were used: (1 autistic disorder (AD, (2 autistic-like condition (ALC or Asperger syndrome, and (3 one group with autistic symptoms/traits but not entirely all its criteria met for ASD. Children with autism had a mean of 3.2 coexisting disorders or problems, the ALC/Asperger group had a mean of 1.6, and children with autistic traits had a mean of 1.6. The most common disorder/problems in the total group pertained to language problems (78%, intellectual disability (ID (49%, below average motor function (37%, and severe hyperactivity/ADHD (33%. Conclusions. The results accord with the concept of early symptomatic syndromes eliciting neurodevelopmental clinical examination (ESSENCE, and highlight the need of considering ASD in a broad perspective taking also other cooccurring developmental disorders into account.

  14. Gray matter reduction in the vermis and CRUS-II is associated with social and interaction deficits in low-functioning children with autistic spectrum disorders: a VBM-DARTEL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Daria; Annunziata, Silvia; Contarino, Valeria; Erbetta, Alessandra; Aquino, Domenico; Bulgheroni, Sara

    2013-10-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have reported abnormalities in brain regions involved in functions that are commonly impaired in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, little is known about brain structure anomalies in low-functioning (LF) young children with ASD. A VBM analysis was carried out to assess brain regions involved in ASD LF children, and a multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between regional volume changes and autism symptom measures. Twenty-six LF ASD children (2-10 years) were compared with 21 controls. A VBM-Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration analysis using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to evaluate gray matter (GM) and white matter alterations, covaried with Intelligence Quotient, age, and total brain volume. The resulting altered regions were correlated with Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI)-Revised and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS)-Generic scores. GM bilateral reduction was noted in the cerebellum (Crus II and vermis) and in the hippocampi in ASD group. GM reduction was also detected in the inferior and superior frontal gyri, in the occipital medial and superior gyri, and in the inferior temporal gyrus of the left cerebral hemisphere. In the right hemisphere, GM reduction was found in the post-central cortex and in the occipital inferior gyrus. Multiple regression analysis showed a correlation between alterations in GM volume in the cerebellum (Crus II and vermis) and ADI-communication and ADOS-total (communication and interaction) scores. These findings seem to confirm that the cerebellum is involved in integrating and regulating emotional and cognitive functions which are impaired in ASD. PMID:23572290

  15. Pancreatic Response to Gold Nanoparticles Includes Decrease of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation In Autistic Diabetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manar E. Selim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have a wide range of applications in various fields. This study provides an understanding of the modulatory effects of AuNPs on an antioxidant system in male Wistar diabetic rats with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Normal littermates fed by control mothers were injected with citrate buffer alone and served as normal, untreated controls controlin this study. Diabetes mellitus (DM was induced by administering a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ (100 mg/kg to the pups of (ND diabetic group, which had been fasted overnight. Autistic pups from mothers that had received a single intraperitoneal injection of 600 mg/kg sodium valproate on day 12.5 after conception were randomly divided into 2 groups (n 2 7/group as follow; administering single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ ( (100 mg/kg to the overnight fasted autistic pups of (AD autistic diabetic group. The treatment was started on the 5th day after STZ injection with the same dose as in group II and it was considered as 1st day of treatment with gold nanoparticles for 7 days to each rat of (group IV treated autistic diabetic group(TAD at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg. b. wt. Results: At this dose of administration AuNPs, the activities of hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and catalase were greater in group TAD compared with the control group (P 0.05 in the liver of autistic diabetic AuNPs -supplemented rats, whereas reduced glutathione was markedly higher than in control rats, especially after administration of AuNPs. Moreover, the kidney functions in addition to the fat profile scoring supported the protective potential of that dose of AuNPs. The beta cells revealed euchromatic nuclei with no evidence of separation of nuclear membrane. Conclusions: Our results showed that AuNPs improved many of the oxidative stress parameters (SOD, GPx and, CAT, plasma antioxidant capacity (ORAC and lipid profile

  16. Study on CT changes in autistic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1979 we have performed CT examinations on 132 autistic children. Neurological diagnosis of the lesion was established by Dr. Segawa's group. On the CT of many autistic children, we found a small low density change located in the anterior wall of the temporal horn, or localized dilatation of the inferior horn near the damaged brain. We reviewed 96 of these patients who all had the obvious low density changes, or localized irregular dilatations in the anterior wall of the temporal horn. By measuring the distance of damage from the midline, we divided the 96 cases into two groups. Group 1 consisted of those with damage located laterally more than 30 mm line from the midline. Group 2 consisted of those with damage medially to the 30 mm line from the midline. Those cases with a large lesion both laterally and medially of the 30 mm line were categorized into group 1. In the adult brain the lateral border of the amygdaloid nucleus was never located laterally more than 30 mm from the midline. Laterally over the 30 mm line there were two marked fiber systems running near the anterior wall of the temporal horn: the fiber of the anterior commissure and the uncinate fascicle. Group 1 consisted of 62 patients and group 2 of 34 patients. The majority of the two group patients were pure autism children. This suggested that the main lesion in autism was in the amygdala. (author)

  17. Sleep Disorders, Epilepsy, and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe the clinical data linking autism with sleep and epilepsy and to discuss the impact of treating sleep disorders in children with autism either with or without coexisting epileptic seizures. Studies are presented to support the view that sleep is abnormal in individuals with autistic spectrum…

  18. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat p...

  19. The possible link between elevated serum levels of epithelial cell-derived neutrophil- activating peptide-78 (ENA-78/CXCL5) and autoimmunity in autistic children

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa, Gehan Ahmed; AL-Ayadhi, Laila Yousef

    2015-01-01

    Background In autoimmune disorders, the underlying pathogenic mechanism is the formation of antigen-antibody complexes which trigger an inflammatory response by inducing the infiltration of neutrophils. Epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating peptide-78 (ENA-78) is a chemokine that recruits and activates neutrophils, thus it could play a pathogenic role in inflammation and autoimmune disorders. Some autistic children have elevated levels of brain specific auto-antibodies. We are the fir...

  20. Frequency of symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in autistic children Freqüência de sintomas de transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade em crianças autistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Pereira Pondé

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both DSM-IV and the ICD-10 exclude diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD when autism diagnostic is present. Some authors suggest, however, that autism can be associated to other comorbidity amongst which the ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence of ADHD in children with autism. METHOD: Children were selected from a specialized school, all of then had previous diagnosis or diagnostic suspicion of autism. The Brazilian version of the KIDDIE-SADS PL was applied to parents for diagnostic of ADHD. DSM-IV diagnostic of autism was based on parents' interview and child observation. RESULTS: 32 children were included in the study. Results show that 53.1% of the ASD child had ADHD symptoms enough to fulfill DSM-IV diagnostic criteria, whereas 56.9% did not fulfill DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. CONCLUSION: Results suggest a high frequency of ADHD symptoms in ASD patients. Elucidating if we are facing a comorbity or an autism distinct phenotype can contribute for a more adjusted pharmacotherapy approach for these children.Tanto o DSM-IV quanto a CID-10 excluem o diagnóstico de transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH em pacientes autistas. A literatura, no entanto, sugere que o autismo pode estar associado a outras doenças, dentre elas o TDAH. OBJETIVO: Estimar a freqüência de sintomas de TDAH em autistas. MÉTODO: As crianças foram selecionadas de uma escola especializada em crianças com transtorno do espectro autista (TEA; todas tinham um diagnóstico ou suspeita diagnóstica prévia de autismo. O instrumento de avaliação aplicado para o diagnóstico de TDAH foi a versão brasileira do KIDDIE-SADS PL. O diagnóstico de autismo de acordo com os critérios do DSM-IV foi feito através de entrevista com os pais e observação da criança. RESULTADOS: 32 crianças foram incluídas no estudo. Os resultados indicam que 53,1% dos pacientes apresentaram sintomas compatíveis com o diagnóstico de TDAH e de

  1. 孤独症儿童代谢障碍的比例及类型分析%Analysis of proportion and type of metabolic disorders of autistic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾美香; 彭旦媛; 贾萌

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨孤独症儿童中存在代谢障碍的比例及其类型,以揭示孤独症儿童与代谢病之间的关系.方法 选取精神疾病诊断与统计手册(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,DSM-Ⅳ)诊断标准作为依据,以从2007年至2011年在北大六院儿科门诊确诊为孤独症的1 253名患儿作为研究对象,通过敏路思代谢检查分析孤独症儿童代谢障碍是否存在异常.结果 在此五年间确诊为孤独症儿童的1 253例病例中,存在代谢障碍者共204例,占总人数的16.3%.在存在代谢障碍的患儿中,出现了35种代谢病,其中患有酮性双羧酸尿或轻度酮性双羧酸尿者(19.12%)、轻度酮尿症的儿童(17.15%)、乳糖或半乳糖高(12.74%)、轻度非酮性双羧酸尿(9.8%)四类代谢障碍者人数最多,总比例占总人数的58.81%.结论 孤独症与代谢障碍之间是正相关的,其中最敏感的有10种:酮性双羧酸尿或轻度酮性双羧酸尿、轻度酮尿症、乳糖及半乳糖高、轻度非酮性双羧酸尿、赖氨酸高、半胱氨酸高、甲基丙二酸高及甲基丙二酸血症、四羟基苯乳酸高、三羟基丙酸高、四羟基苯丙酮酸.对于一些可用药改善的代谢障碍疾病,如果能够在康复训练的同时进行代谢疾病的治疗,双管齐下,可能有助于提高孤独症儿童的康复效果.

  2. Prenatal Maternal Stress Associated with ADHD and Autistic Traits in early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald, Angelica; Pennell, Craig E; Whitehouse, Andrew J O

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that offspring of mothers who experience high levels of stress during pregnancy are more likely to have problems in neurobehavioral development. There is preliminary evidence that prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) is a risk factor for both autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), however most studies do not control for confounding factors and no study has investigated PNMS as a risk factor for behaviors characteristic of these disorders in early childhood. A population cohort of 2900 pregnant women were recruited before their 18th week of pregnancy and investigated prospectively. Maternal experience of stressful life events was assessed during pregnancy. When offspring were age 2 years, mothers completed the child behavior checklist. Multiple regression showed that maternal stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted ADHD behaviors in offspring, after controlling for autistic traits and other confounding variables, in both males (p = 0.03) and females (p = 0.01). Similarly, stressful events during pregnancy significantly predicted autistic traits in the offspring after controlling for ADHD behaviors and confounding variables, in males only (p = 0.04). In conclusion, this study suggests that PNMS, in the form of typical stressful life events such as divorce or a residential move, show a small but significant association with both autistic traits and ADHD behaviors independently, in offspring at age 2 years, after controlling for multiple antenatal, obstetric, postnatal, and sociodemographic covariates. This finding supports future research using epigenetic, cross-fostering, and gene-environment interaction designs to identify the causal processes underlying this association. PMID:21833278

  3. Factor analysis demonstrates a common schizoidal phenotype within autistic and schizotypal tendency: Implications for neuroscientific studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha Caitlyn Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Behavioural and cognitive dysfunction, particularly social and communication impairments are shared between autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, while evidence for a diametric autism-positive schizophrenia symptom profile is inconsistent. We investigated the shared phenotype at a personality trait level, particularly its resemblance to schizoid personality disorder, as well as differential aspects of the autism-schizophrenia model.Items of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ were pseudo-randomly combined, and were completed by 449 (162 male, 287 female non-clinical participants aged 18-40. A Factor Analysis revealed three factors; the first represented a shared social disorganization phenotype, the second reflected perceptual oddities specific to schizotypy while the third reflected social rigidity specific to autism. The AQ and SPQ were strongly correlated with Factor 1 (AQ: r=.75, p<.001; SPQ: r=.96, p<.001, SPQ score was correlated with Factor 2 (r=.51, p<.001, particularly in Cognitive-Perceptual features (r=.66, p<.001, and AQ score was strongly correlated with Factor 3 (r=.76, p<.001. Furthermore, there was no relationship between Factor 1 and Factor 2.Thus, there is robust evidence for a shared social disorganization phenotype in autistic and schizotypal tendency, which reflects the schizoid phenotype. Discriminating and independent dimensions of schizotypal and autistic tendency exist in Factors 2 and 3 respectively. Current diagnostic protocols could result in different diagnoses depending on the instrument used, suggesting the need for neuromarkers that objectively differentiate autistic and schizotypal traits and resolve the question of commonality versus comorbidity.

  4. A Comparative Dermatoglyphic Study of Autistic, Retarded, and Normal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartin, Phillip J.; Barry, Robert J.

    1979-01-01

    Significant differences were found between the autistic and normal children for distribution of dermal patterns and ridge line disruption, but no significant differences were found for the total mean ridge counts or mean ridge count rankings. (Author)

  5. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Measure Autistic Traits in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Heather; Eisler, Ivan; Mandy, William; Leppanen, Jenni; Treasure, Janet; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-03-01

    Interest in the link between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has led to estimates of the prevalence of autistic traits in AN. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the use of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) or abbreviated version (AQ-10) to examine whether patients with AN have elevated levels of autistic traits. Seven studies were identified and subsequent meta-analysis indicated that those with AN appear to have significant difficulties of a manner characteristic of ASD, relative to controls. Whilst this analysis supports previous indications of higher prevalence of ASD in AN, the aetiology of these traits remains unclear. Studies using more robust clinical measures of ASD within AN are needed to confirm what self-report measures appear to show.

  6. Superior Fluid Intelligence in Children with Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Mika; Kato, Motoichiro; Igarashi, Kazue; Kashima, Haruo

    2008-01-01

    Asperger's disorder is one of autistic spectrum disorders; sharing clinical features with autism, but without developmental delay in language acquisition. There have been some studies of intellectual functioning in autism so far, but very few in Asperger's disorder. In the present study, we investigated abstract reasoning ability, whose form of…

  7. Do girls with anorexia nervosa have elevated autistic traits?

    OpenAIRE

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Jaffa, Tony; Davies, Sarah; Auyeung, Bonnie; Allison, Carrie; Wheelwright, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with anorexia may have elevated autistic traits. In this study, we tested test whether patients with anorexia nervosa (anorexia) have an elevated score on a dimensional measure of autistic traits, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), as well as on trait measures relevant to the autism spectrum: the Empathy Quotient (EQ), and the Systemizing Quotient (SQ). Methods Two groups were tested: (1) female adolescents with anorexia: n = 66, aged 12 to 18 years; and (2) female adolesc...

  8. Uncovering the social deficits in the autistic brain.A Source-Based Morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Grecucci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that mainly affects social interaction and communication. Evidence from behavioral and functional MRI studies supports the hypothesis that dysfunctional mechanisms involving social brain structures play a major role in autistic symptomatology. However, the investigation of anatomical abnormalities in the brain of people with autism has led to inconsistent results. We investigated whether specific brain regions, known to display functional abnormalities in autism, may exhibit mutual and peculiar patterns of covariance in their grey-matter concentrations. We analyzed structural MRI images of 32 young men affected by autistic disorder (AD and 50 healthy controls. Controls were matched for sex, age, handedness. IQ scores were also monitored to avoid confounding. A multivariate Source-Based Morphometry (SBM was applied for the first time on AD and controls to detect maximally independent networks of gray matter. Group comparison revealed a gray-matter source that showed differences in AD compared to controls. This network includes broad temporal regions involved in social cognition and high-level visual processing, but also motor and executive areas of the frontal lobe. Notably, we found that gray matter differences, as reflected by SBM, significantly correlated with social and behavioral deficits displayed by AD individuals and encoded via the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. These findings provide support for current hypotheses about the neural basis of atypical social and mental states information processing in autism.

  9. Uncovering the Social Deficits in the Autistic Brain. A Source-Based Morphometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Rubicondo, Danilo; Siugzdaite, Roma; Surian, Luca; Job, Remo

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that mainly affects social interaction and communication. Evidence from behavioral and functional MRI studies supports the hypothesis that dysfunctional mechanisms involving social brain structures play a major role in autistic symptomatology. However, the investigation of anatomical abnormalities in the brain of people with autism has led to inconsistent results. We investigated whether specific brain regions, known to display functional abnormalities in autism, may exhibit mutual and peculiar patterns of covariance in their gray-matter concentrations. We analyzed structural MRI images of 32 young men affected by autistic disorder (AD) and 50 healthy controls. Controls were matched for sex, age, handedness. IQ scores were also monitored to avoid confounding. A multivariate Source-Based Morphometry (SBM) was applied for the first time on AD and controls to detect maximally independent networks of gray matter. Group comparison revealed a gray-matter source that showed differences in AD compared to controls. This network includes broad temporal regions involved in social cognition and high-level visual processing, but also motor and executive areas of the frontal lobe. Notably, we found that gray matter differences, as reflected by SBM, significantly correlated with social and behavioral deficits displayed by AD individuals and encoded via the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. These findings provide support for current hypotheses about the neural basis of atypical social and mental states information processing in autism. PMID:27630538

  10. Uncovering the Social Deficits in the Autistic Brain. A Source-Based Morphometric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Rubicondo, Danilo; Siugzdaite, Roma; Surian, Luca; Job, Remo

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that mainly affects social interaction and communication. Evidence from behavioral and functional MRI studies supports the hypothesis that dysfunctional mechanisms involving social brain structures play a major role in autistic symptomatology. However, the investigation of anatomical abnormalities in the brain of people with autism has led to inconsistent results. We investigated whether specific brain regions, known to display functional abnormalities in autism, may exhibit mutual and peculiar patterns of covariance in their gray-matter concentrations. We analyzed structural MRI images of 32 young men affected by autistic disorder (AD) and 50 healthy controls. Controls were matched for sex, age, handedness. IQ scores were also monitored to avoid confounding. A multivariate Source-Based Morphometry (SBM) was applied for the first time on AD and controls to detect maximally independent networks of gray matter. Group comparison revealed a gray-matter source that showed differences in AD compared to controls. This network includes broad temporal regions involved in social cognition and high-level visual processing, but also motor and executive areas of the frontal lobe. Notably, we found that gray matter differences, as reflected by SBM, significantly correlated with social and behavioral deficits displayed by AD individuals and encoded via the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. These findings provide support for current hypotheses about the neural basis of atypical social and mental states information processing in autism. PMID:27630538

  11. Factor Analysis Demonstrates a Common Schizoidal Phenotype within Autistic and Schizotypal Tendency: Implications for Neuroscientific Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Talitha C; Crewther, David P

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and cognitive dysfunction, particularly social and communication impairments, are shared between autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders, while evidence for a diametric autism-positive schizophrenia symptom profile is inconsistent. We investigated the shared phenotype at a personality trait level, particularly its resemblance to schizoid personality disorder, as well as differential aspects of the autism-schizophrenia model. Items of the autism spectrum quotient (AQ) and schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ) were pseudo-randomly combined, and were completed by 449 (162 male, 287 female) non-clinical participants aged 18-40. A factor analysis revealed three factors; the first represented a shared social disorganization phenotype, the second reflected perceptual oddities specific to schizotypy while the third reflected social rigidity specific to autism. The AQ and SPQ were strongly correlated with Factor 1 (AQ: r = 0.75, p schizotypal tendency, which reflects the schizoid phenotype. Discriminating and independent dimensions of schizotypal and autistic tendency exist in Factors 2 and 3, respectively. Current diagnostic protocols could result in different diagnoses depending on the instrument used, suggesting the need for neuromarkers that objectively differentiate autistic and schizotypal traits and resolve the question of commonality versus co-morbidity.

  12. A controlled study of formal thought disorder in children with autism and multiple complex developmental disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, R.J. van der; Caplan, R.; Engeland, H. van; Loman, F.

    2005-01-01

    Along with well-defined categories in classification systems (e.g., autistic disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)), practitioners are confronted with many children showing mixed forms of developmental psychopathology. These clusters of symptoms are on the borderlines of more

  13. Visual Perspective Taking Impairment in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.; Brindley, Rachel; Frith, Uta

    2009-01-01

    Evidence from typical development and neuroimaging studies suggests that level 2 visual perspective taking--the knowledge that different people may see the same thing differently at the same time--is a mentalising task. Thus, we would expect children with autism, who fail typical mentalising tasks like false belief, to perform poorly on level 2…

  14. Early interpersonal neurobiological assessment of attachment and autistic spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Allan Nelson Schore

    2014-01-01

    There is now a strong if not urgent call in both the attachment and autism literatures for updated, research informed, clinically relevant interventions that can more effectively assess the mother infant dyad during early periods of brain plasticity. In this contribution I describe my work in regulation theory, an overarching interpersonal neurobiological model of the development, psychopathogenesis, and treatment of the early forming subjective self system. The theory models the psychoneurob...

  15. Social cognition in developmental language disorders and high-level autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, J; Varley, R; Broks, P; Simpson, A

    1996-06-01

    Two groups of children with contrasting types of developmental language disorder (phonologic-syntactic and semantic-pragmatic) were compared with a group of children with high-level autism and with a control group of normal children on tests of social cognition (theory of mind; social comprehension; and detection of eye direction). The similarly poor performances of the semantic-pragmatic group and the autistic group suggest that semantic-pragmatic language disorder lies on the autistic spectrum. PMID:8647328

  16. Famílias com crianças autistas na literatura internacional Families with autistic children: international literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Dreux Miranda Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo revisou os 39 artigos publicados nos últimos cinco anos em três periódicos (Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disorders e Autism a respeito de famílias com crianças autistas. Ele aponta para cinco grandes temas abordados: estresse e dificuldades emocionais, grupos de suporte e qualidade de vida, características das famílias, perspectivas das famílias a respeito da criança autista, e resultados de intervenção.This article reviewed the 39 papers published in the last five years in three journals (Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disorders and Autism about families with autistic children. It points out to five main issues that were studied: stress and emotional disorders, support groups and quality of life, characteristics of the families, family's perspectives about the autistic child, and intervention results.

  17. Clinical trials of fatty acid treatment in ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and the autistic spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A J

    2004-04-01

    Considerable clinical and experimental evidence now supports the idea that deficiencies or imbalances in certain highly unsaturated fatty acids may contribute to a range of common developmental disorders including ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia and autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Definitive evidence of a causal contribution, however, can only come from intervention studies in the form of randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Published studies of this kind are still fairly few in number, and mainly involve the diagnostic categories of ADHD and dyslexia, although other trials involving individuals with dyspraxia or ASD are in progress. The main findings to date from such studies are reviewed and evaluated here with the primary aim of guiding future research, although given that fatty acid supplementation for these conditions is already being adopted in many quarters, it is hoped that some of the information provided may also help to inform clinical practice. PMID:15041031

  18. 自闭症患儿机构康复照顾者负担与社会支持的相关性研究%Study on correlations between burdens of caregivers in autistic - spectrum disorder children rehabilitation institutions and social supports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋忠燕; 陈玉明; 张小芳; 梁笛波; 梁小凤

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨自闭症(ASD)患儿机构康复照顾者负担与社会支持的相关性。方法:2015年6月运用一般人口学资料、照顾者负担量表及社会支持评定量表对我市某医院66例 ASD 患儿机构康复照顾者进行问卷调查。结果:ASD 患儿机构康复照顾者负担总分(48.82±15.25)分,照顾者有不同程度的负担;社会支持总分为(30.51±6.42)分,照顾者社会支持未达到高水平。社会支持总分与负担总分及角色负担呈负相关,客观支持与负担总分及角色负担呈负相关,主观支持与负担总分及个人负担呈负相关。结论:ASD 患儿机构康复照顾者负担与社会支持呈负相关,即所获得社会支持越多,照顾者的负担越少。机构、康复人员、特教老师、社会应给予照顾者更多的社会支持,以减轻照顾者身心照顾负担,使其能更好地承担照顾义务。%Objective:To discuss correlations between burdens of caregivers in autistic - spectrum disorder(ASD)children rehabilitation institutions and so-cial supports. Methods:Adopted general demographic data,caregiver burden inventory and social support revalued scale to investigate 66 caregivers from ASD children rehabilitation institution in a hospital of our city in June 2015. Results:Total score of caregivers in children rehabilitation institution was (48. 82 ± 15. 25),indicating that caregivers had different levels of burden;total score of social support was(30. 51 ± 6. 42),indicating that social support for caregivers failed to reach a high level. Social support total score was negatively correlated with burden total score and role burden,objective support was negatively correlated with burden total score and role burden,and subjective support was negatively correlated with burden total score and individual bur-den. Conclusion:Burden on caregivers in ASD children rehabilitation institutions is negatively correlated with social support

  19. Case-control study of autistic children's temperament%孤独症儿童气质特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江瑞芬; 刘文龙; 赵旭

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the temperament characteristics of autistic children. [Methods] 112 case-control study was adopted. 40 autistic children and 80 normal children aged from 3 to 7 were selected and assessed with Behavioral Style Questionnaire (BSQ), Self-revised questionnaire of family and environment factors and Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) scale. [Results] The adaptability, reaction intensity, persistence, response threshold scores of the autistic children's temperament dimensions were significantly different from normal children (P <0, 05); Autistic children group's verbal communication, social skills, cognitive awareness were correlated with the temperament dimensions (P<0. 05). [Conclusions] Temperament dimensions of autistic children are different from the normal children; The disorder of social skills, communication and cognition of autistic children influenced by the development of their temperament dimensions themselves.%[目的] 分析孤独症儿童的气质特征,为孤独症早期防治提供依据. [方法] 采1:2病例对照研究,对40例孤独症患儿及80例正常儿童采用《3~7岁儿童气质问卷》、自制的家庭与环境因素调查表、《孤独症治疗评定量表》进行评估. [结果] 40例孤独症组儿童的气质维度中适应性、反应强度、坚持性、反应阈分值与正常儿童组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);孤独症组ATEC量表中语言交流、社会能力、感知认知意识三个分量表分值与气质维度存在相关性(P<0.05). [结论] 孤独症组儿童气质维度与正常儿童组存在差异;孤独症儿童的社交、语言和认知等障碍影响气质维度的发展.

  20. Do the Traits of Autism-Spectrum Overlap with Those of Schizophrenia or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in the General Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Akio; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Ashwin, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Social and communicative deficits, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors are diagnostic features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study examined the relationship between autistic characteristics and schizophrenia-spectrum traits as well as between autistic characteristics and obsessive-compulsive traits in typically…

  1. Transition from Pervasive Developmental Disorders to Autism Spectrum Disorder: Proposed Changes for the Upcoming DSM-5

    OpenAIRE

    Banu Tortamis Ozkaya

    2013-01-01

    American Psychiatry Assosiation has scheduled to release The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) in May 2013. According to the main changes being proposed about autism, there will be one unified Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5 classification. This unified diagnosis will eliminate the distinct diagnostic categories under Pervasive Developmental Disorders in the DSM-IV-TR, namely autistic disorder, asperger syndrome, pervasive development...

  2. Study the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in Egyptian autistic children: A clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Farida El-baz; Reham M. Elhossiny; Yasser Abdel Azeem; Marianne Girgis

    2014-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies of autistic individuals have revealed evidence of cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, gastrointestinal inflammation, immune dysregulation, oxidative stress, relative mitochondrial dysfunction, and neurotransmitter abnormalities. Many of these findings have been correlated with core autistic symptoms. For example, cerebral hypoperfusion in autistic children has been correlated with repetitive, self-stimulatory and stereotypical behaviors, and impairments in ...

  3. Using psychodrama to relieve social barriers in an autistic child: A case study and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: It was possible for autistic children to relieve social barriers by implementing psychodrama training, then to improve the social cognitive ability and enhance the social function of the autistic children. These results provided basic Clinical implications for exploring a new intervention technique to reduce autistic symptom severity.

  4. Is fever a predictive factor in the autism spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megremi, Amalia S F

    2013-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display such a marked increase in recent decades that researchers speak of "epidemic outbreak" of the disease. Although the diagnostic framework has been expanded and thus more disorders now fall within the autistic spectrum, no one disputes the increased incidence of autism in modern societies, making it a major public health problem. On the other hand, heterogeneity is a major feature of the disorder, both in terms of the etiopathogenesis as well as to the phenotypic expression, natural history and evolution. Consequently, there is considerable research interest in determining factors which are etiopathogenetically, prognostically, preventively or/and therapeutically associated with the disorder. Literature data indicate that probably there are differences in susceptibility to various infections between normal and autistic children. In addition, some autistic children show improvement in the characteristics of their autistic behavior during febrile incident and repression of fever (through antipyretics) might be associated with the onset of autistic disorder. Since fever has been associated with mental illness since the time of Hippocrates already and the presence of fever is associated with a favorable outcome in various pathologic conditions, it is assumed that there are probably two subgroups of autistic children: those who have the possibility to develop acute febrile incidents and those who develop acute incidents without fever. If this is the case, it is important to know whether there are differences between the two subgroups in various biological markers (cytokines/chemokines, autoantibodies), neuroimaging findings, personal and family history of these children (use of drugs, vaccinations, history of autoimmunity, etc.) and, if the first subgroup consists of autistic people of higher functionality and better outcome, or not. If such a classification is real, is there a possibility for the fever to be used as a predictor of

  5. Treadmill exercise ameliorates motor dysfunction through inhibition of Purkinje cell loss in cerebellum of valproic acid-induced autistic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Park, Hye-Sang; Shin, Mal-Soon; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2016-08-01

    Autism is a complex developmental disorder with impairments in social interaction, communication, repetitive behavior and motor skills. Exercise enhances cognitive function, ameliorates motor dysfunction, and provides protective profits against neurodegeneration. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of treadmill exercise on the motor coordination and Purkinje cell loss in relation with reactive astrocytes and microglial activation in the cerebellum using valproic acid (VPA)-induced autism rat model. On the 12th day of pregnancy, the pregnant rats in the VPA-exposed group received intraperitoneal injections of 600-mg/kg VPA. After birth, the rat pups were divided into four groups: the control group, the exercise group, the VPA-treated group, the VPA-treated and exercise group. The rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. In the present results, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the autistic rats. Purkinje cell loss, reactive astrocytes, and microglial activation were occurred by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced survival rate of Purkinje neurons through inhibition of reactive astrocytes and microglia in the autistic rats. The present study showed that exercise may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for the alleviation of motor dysfunction in autistic patients. PMID:27656625

  6. Greater magnocellular saccadic suppression in high versus low autistic tendency suggests a causal path to local perceptual style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, David P.; Crewther, Daniel; Bevan, Stephanie; Goodale, Melvyn A.; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2015-01-01

    Saccadic suppression—the reduction of visual sensitivity during rapid eye movements—has previously been proposed to reflect a specific suppression of the magnocellular visual system, with the initial neural site of that suppression at or prior to afferent visual information reaching striate cortex. Dysfunction in the magnocellular visual pathway has also been associated with perceptual and physiological anomalies in individuals with autism spectrum disorder or high autistic tendency, leading us to question whether saccadic suppression is altered in the broader autism phenotype. Here we show that individuals with high autistic tendency show greater saccadic suppression of low versus high spatial frequency gratings while those with low autistic tendency do not. In addition, those with high but not low autism spectrum quotient (AQ) demonstrated pre-cortical (35–45 ms) evoked potential differences (saccade versus fixation) to a large, low contrast, pseudo-randomly flashing bar. Both AQ groups showed similar differential visual evoked potential effects in later epochs (80–160 ms) at high contrast. Thus, the magnocellular theory of saccadic suppression appears untenable as a general description for the typically developing population. Our results also suggest that the bias towards local perceptual style reported in autism may be due to selective suppression of low spatial frequency information accompanying every saccadic eye movement. PMID:27019719

  7. Treadmill exercise ameliorates motor dysfunction through inhibition of Purkinje cell loss in cerebellum of valproic acid-induced autistic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Park, Hye-Sang; Shin, Mal-Soon; Baek, Seung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a complex developmental disorder with impairments in social interaction, communication, repetitive behavior and motor skills. Exercise enhances cognitive function, ameliorates motor dysfunction, and provides protective profits against neurodegeneration. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of treadmill exercise on the motor coordination and Purkinje cell loss in relation with reactive astrocytes and microglial activation in the cerebellum using valproic acid (VPA)-induced autism rat model. On the 12th day of pregnancy, the pregnant rats in the VPA-exposed group received intraperitoneal injections of 600-mg/kg VPA. After birth, the rat pups were divided into four groups: the control group, the exercise group, the VPA-treated group, the VPA-treated and exercise group. The rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. In the present results, motor balance and coordination was disturbed by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the autistic rats. Purkinje cell loss, reactive astrocytes, and microglial activation were occurred by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced survival rate of Purkinje neurons through inhibition of reactive astrocytes and microglia in the autistic rats. The present study showed that exercise may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for the alleviation of motor dysfunction in autistic patients.

  8. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits.

  9. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2′-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits. PMID:27419108

  10. Music application alleviates short-term memory impairments through increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampus of valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Tae-Woon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Choi, Hyun-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder and this disorder shows impairment in reciprocal social interactions, deficits in communication, and restrictive and repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. The effect of music on short-term memory in the view of cell proliferation in the hippocampus was evaluated using valproic acid-induced autistic rat pups. Animal model of autism was made by subcutaneous injection of 400-mg/kg valproic acid into the rat pups on the postnatal day 14. The rat pups in the music-applied groups were exposed to the 65-dB comfortable classic music for 1 hr once a day, starting postnatal day 15 and continued until postnatal day 28. In the present results, short-term memory was deteriorated by autism induction. The numbers of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine (BrdU)-positive, Ki-67-positive, and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were decreased by autism induction. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) expressions in the hippocampus were also suppressed in the autistic rat pups. Music application alleviated short-term memory deficits with enhancing the numbers of BrdU-positive, Ki-67-positive, and DCX-positive cells in the autistic rat pups. Music application also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the autistic rat pups. The present study show that application of music enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation and alleviated short-term memory impairment through stimulating BDNF-TrkB signaling in the autistic rat pups. Music can be suggested as the therapeutic strategy to overcome the autism-induced memory deficits. PMID:27419108

  11. Regional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in autistic individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisaoka, S.; Harada, M.; Nishitani, H. [Dept. of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan); Mori, K. [Dept. of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Tokushima (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    We studied the variations in the concentration of metabolites with brain region and age in autistic individuals and normal controls using multiple analysis of covariance. We examined 55 autistic individuals (2-21 years old, 47 male and eight female) and 51 normal children (3 months-15 years old, 26 boys and 25 girls). Single volumes of interest were placed in the frontal, parietal and temporal region on both sides, the brain stem and cingulate gyrus. The concentration of each metabolite was quantified by the water reference method. The concentration of N-acetylaspartate in the temporal regions (Brodmann's areas 41 and 42) in the autistic individuals were significantly lower than those in the controls (P < 0.05), but concentrations in other regions were not significantly different between the autistic individuals and controls. This suggests low density or dysfunction of neurones in Brodmann's areas 41 and 42 in autistic individual, which might be related to the disturbances of the sensory speech centre (Wernicke's area) in autism. (orig.)

  12. Regional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain in autistic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the variations in the concentration of metabolites with brain region and age in autistic individuals and normal controls using multiple analysis of covariance. We examined 55 autistic individuals (2-21 years old, 47 male and eight female) and 51 normal children (3 months-15 years old, 26 boys and 25 girls). Single volumes of interest were placed in the frontal, parietal and temporal region on both sides, the brain stem and cingulate gyrus. The concentration of each metabolite was quantified by the water reference method. The concentration of N-acetylaspartate in the temporal regions (Brodmann's areas 41 and 42) in the autistic individuals were significantly lower than those in the controls (P < 0.05), but concentrations in other regions were not significantly different between the autistic individuals and controls. This suggests low density or dysfunction of neurones in Brodmann's areas 41 and 42 in autistic individual, which might be related to the disturbances of the sensory speech centre (Wernicke's area) in autism. (orig.)

  13. [Comparative EEG study in normal and autistic children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushchekina, E A; Podreznaia, E D; Lushchekin, V S; Strelets, V B

    2010-01-01

    The work represents the results of a comparative study of spectral power as well as averaged coherence in alpha, beta and gamma EEG bands in 5-to-7-year-old autistic and healthy boys in the state of rest and under cognitive load (mental calculation). The mean age of the examined children was 6 years 4 months. In both healthy and autistic children, there was a clear-cut baseline frontal-occipital gradient of the alpha activity. Performance of the cognitive task led to enhancement of spectral power in the alpha1 band and shifting its maximum to the left hemisphere, did not change the activity in the alpha2 band, and considerably increased the spectral power in the alpha3 band. In healthy children, the spectral power and average coherence of the fast rhythms increased in the central and frontal areas of the left hemisphere. The right-side dominance of the spectral power of the alpha band was revealed in autistic children both in the baseline and during cognitive task. The spectral power of the gamma band was higher in autistic children than in healthy children in the baseline. The cognitive task did not change this fast activity in autistic children. PMID:21434401

  14. What affects social attention? Social presence, eye contact and autistic traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Freeth

    Full Text Available Social understanding is facilitated by effectively attending to other people and the subtle social cues they generate. In order to more fully appreciate the nature of social attention and what drives people to attend to social aspects of the world, one must investigate the factors that influence social attention. This is especially important when attempting to create models of disordered social attention, e.g. a model of social attention in autism. Here we analysed participants' viewing behaviour during one-to-one social interactions with an experimenter. Interactions were conducted either live or via video (social presence manipulation. The participant was asked and then required to answer questions. Experimenter eye-contact was either direct or averted. Additionally, the influence of participant self-reported autistic traits was also investigated. We found that regardless of whether the interaction was conducted live or via a video, participants frequently looked at the experimenter's face, and they did this more often when being asked a question than when answering. Critical differences in social attention between the live and video interactions were also observed. Modifications of experimenter eye contact influenced participants' eye movements in the live interaction only; and increased autistic traits were associated with less looking at the experimenter for video interactions only. We conclude that analysing patterns of eye-movements in response to strictly controlled video stimuli and natural real-world stimuli furthers the field's understanding of the factors that influence social attention.

  15. Do autistic children have higher levels of caries? A cross-sectional study in Turkish children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namal Necmi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess whether the dental caries experience is higher in children with an autistic disorder (AD than in normal children. Three schools for autistic children and three standard elementary schools in Istanbul, Turkey, were included in a cross-sectional study. Subjects were orally examined. Socio-demographic information and data about their oral care habits were obtained from their parents from records. Sixty-two children with AD and 301 children without AD were examined. Their ages varied between 6 and 12 years. Children with AD compared to those without AD had lower experience of caries. Logistic regression analysis of DMFT showed that the dental status was positively affected in younger children (OR = 15.57; 95% CI 7.62, 31.80, children from families with high income (OR = 5.42; 95% CI 2.31, 12.75, children brushing teeth regularly (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.10, 3.68, children consuming less sugar (OR = 5.01; 95% CI 2.57, 9.76 and in those with AD (OR=3.99; 95% CI 1.56, 10.19. Children with AD had better caries status than children without AD at younger ages.

  16. Individual differences in autistic trait load in the general population predict visual working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Lauren L; Thorpe, Melissa; Berryhill, Marian E; Klugman, Joshua; Olson, Ingrid R

    2013-06-01

    Prior studies have reported instances of both intact and impaired working memory (WM) performance in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In order to investigate the relation between autistic traits that extend into the normal population and WM, 104 normal college-aged students who varied in their levels of autistic traits were tested. The loading of ASD-associated traits in the normal population leads to differing predictions about WM performance. ASD traits related to a local processing style (or "attention to detail") might enhance WM while ASD-associated traits related to difficulty switching attention and reorienting focus (or "social interaction") might impair WM performance. To assess these predictions, participants filled out the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and performed a working memory task with both visual and verbal variants. AQ scores were then broken into "attention to detail" and "social interaction" factors, as proposed by Hoekstra and colleagues. The results showed that AQ scores did not predict verbal WM performance but they did predict visual WM performance. The social interaction and attention to detail factors of the AQ had opposing relationships with visual WM performance: A higher level of social difficulty was associated with significantly poorer visual WM performance while a higher level of attention to detail was associated with enhanced visual WM performance. Further investigation of the relation between AQ and WM using the original five-factor model proposed by Baron-Cohen and colleagues (2001) revealed an association between impoverished imagination and visual WM overall. PMID:23121303

  17. Theory of mind and verbal working memory deficits in parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcen, Sezen; Bora, Emre; Erermis, Serpil; Kesikci, Hande; Aydin, Cahide

    2009-03-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential values of executive function and social cognition deficits as endophenotypes of autism. While theory of mind (ToM) is generally accepted as a unitary concept, some have suggested that ToM may be separated into two components (mental state reasoning and decoding). In this study, both aspects of ToM and verbal working memory abilities were investigated with relatively demanding tasks. The authors used a neurocognitive battery to compare the executive function and social cognition skills of 76 parents of autistic probands with 41 parents of healthy children. Both groups were matched for IQ, age and gender. Index parents had verbal working memory deficits. They had also low performance on a mental state reasoning task. Index parents had difficulties in reasoning about others' emotions. In contrast to findings in the control group, low performance of mental state reasoning ability was not associated with working memory deficit in index parents. Social cognition and working memory impairments may represent potential endophenotypes, related to an underlying vulnerability for autistic spectrum disorders.

  18. Phonological and Visuospatial Working Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, P; Soriano, M F; Paredes, N

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated phonological and visuospatial working memory (WM) in autism spectrum disorders. Autistic children and typically developing children were compared. We used WM tasks that measured phonological and visuospatial WM up to the capacity limit of each children. Overall measures of WM did not show differences between autistic children and control children. However, when the recall of children was examined in detail, autistic children showed reduced phonological WM compared with control children. Moreover, phonological and visuospatial WM did not increase with the age of autistic children while a development of phonological and visuospatial WM with age was found in control children. The pattern of results is discussed in terms of previous studies about WM and autism. PMID:27314268

  19. Folate concentrations during pregnancy and autistic traits in the offspring. The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; Roza, Sabine J

    2015-06-01

    In a population-based study, we examined the associations of maternal plasma folate concentrations at 13 weeks of gestation and prenatal folic acid supplement use with autistic traits in the offspring at the age of six years. Parent-reported autistic traits were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale short form. Maternal folate was not associated with autistic traits in the offspring. In contrast, prenatal folic acid use was associated with less child autistic traits. Future research should focus on the timing of the potential effect of prenatal folate on the development of autistic traits in combination with clinical diagnosis of autism in the offspring. PMID:25085472

  20. Assessing musical skills in autistic children who are not savants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Pamela

    2009-05-27

    Descriptions of autistic musical savants suggest that they possess extraordinary skills within the domain. However, until recently little was known about the musical skills and potential of individuals with autism who are not savants. The results from these more recent studies investigating music perception, cognition and learning in musically untrained children with autism have revealed a pattern of abilities that are either enhanced or spared. For example, increased sensitivity to musical pitch and timbre is frequently observed, and studies investigating perception of musical structure and emotions have consistently failed to reveal deficits in autism. While the phenomenon of the savant syndrome is of considerable theoretical interest, it may have led to an under-consideration of the potential talents and skills of that vast majority of autistic individuals, who do not meet savant criteria. Data from empirical studies show that many autistic children possess musical potential that can and should be developed.

  1. Obsessive-compulsive phenomena and symptoms in Asperger’s disorder and High-functioning Autism: An evaluative literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer-Terworth, Christian; Probst, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Although obsessional, ritualistic and stereotyped behaviors are a core feature of autistic disorders, substantial data related to those phenomena are lacking. Ritualistic and stereotyped behaviours can be found in almost all autistic patients. Additionally, cognitive able individuals with Asperger’s disorder (AD) and High-Functioning Autism (HFA: defined by the presence of IQ- levels > 70, Howlin, 2004, p. 6) mostly develop circumscribed, often called obsessional interests and preoccupations....

  2. The functional significance of autistic behaviors for the psychotic child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L A; Stuecher, H U; Stutzer, W

    1973-09-01

    Physiological, cognitive, and emotional factors were examined throughout the treatment of a psychotic child. Heart rate, latency and accuracy in task performance, behavioral indices of stress (e.g., muscular tension, facial expression), and frequency of autistic mannerisms were measured concurrently. Both contemporaneous relationships and patterns of change suggested that autistic behaviors were organized and psychologically meaningful. Self-stimulation, conflict, and negativism (deliberate erroneous performance) occurred predictably, were intimately related, and were associated with specific patterns of heart-rate change. The changing function of self-stimulation across treatment and the centrality of negativism in this child's disturbance were discussed. PMID:24198177

  3. Sleep Disturbances and Correlates of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianchen; Hubbard, Julie A.; Fabes, Richard A.; Adam, James B.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sleep patterns, sleep problems, and their correlates in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Subjects consisted of 167 ASD children, including 108 with autistic disorder, 27 with Asperger's syndrome, and 32 with other diagnoses of ASD. Mean age was 8.8 years (SD = 4.2), 86% were boys. Parents completed a…

  4. Asperger's Disorder Will Be Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Luke Y.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on identifying up-to-date number of publications that compared DSM-IV/ICD-10 Asperger's disorder (AspD) to Autistic Disorder/High-functioning Autism (AD/HFA). One hundred and twenty-eight publications were identified through an extensive search of major electronic databases and journals. Based on more than 90 clinical…

  5. Atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, P.W.; Steenhuis, M.P.; Tuynman-Qua, H.G.; Kalverdijk, L.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Minderaa, R.B.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This pilot study examined the effects of atomoxetine on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autistic features in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). METHOD: Twelve children (aged 6-14 years) with PDD accompanied by ADHD symptoms entered a 10-wee

  6. Atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with pervasive developmental disorders : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troost, Pieter W.; Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Tuynman-Qua, Hanneke G.; Kalverdijk, Luuk J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined the effects of atomoxetine on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and autistic features in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Method: Twelve children (aged 6-14 years) with PDD accompanied by ADHD symptoms entered a 10-wee

  7. Brief Report: Autistic Features in Children and Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagerberg, Elin; Di Ceglie, Domenico; Carmichael, Polly

    2015-08-01

    This paper looks at the association between gender dysphoria (GD), scores on the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and reported diagnoses of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Parents of 166 young people presenting with GD (Mean age = 14.26, SD = 2.68) completed the SRS. Information concerning an ASD diagnosis was also extracted from the patient files. 45.8% fell within the normal range on the SRS and of those 2.8% had an ASD diagnosis. 27.1% fell within the mild/moderate range and of those 15.6% had an ASD diagnosis and 6.7% an ASD query. 27.1% fell within the severe range and of those 24.4% had an ASD diagnosis and 26.7% an ASD query. No difference was found in autistic features between the natal females and males. PMID:25772537

  8. Evaluate the Ability of Autistic Children to Use Expressive Language and Receptive Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hojjati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In early typical language development, children understand words before they are able to use them in speech. Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD generally show impairments in both the comprehension and the production of language. However, the relative degree of delay or impairment in each of these sub-domains may also be atypical and remains less well-understood. Materials and Methods: This study was a causal-comparative that including 30 children ( 15 girls and 15 boys with ASD,   who elected by random sampling. Data analysis was done using SPSS-16 and T-student test. Results: Results of t- tests showed significant differences between the two groups, autistic and normal children in the expressive language skill, cognitive and received language skill (P

  9. Explore the Possibility of Using Sand Play to Distinguish the Function Level of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder%运用沙箱游戏区分自闭症谱系障碍儿童功能的可行性探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周念丽; 方俊明

    2012-01-01

    本研究力图探索通过沙箱游戏过程观察和作品分析来区分自闭症谱系障碍(ASD)儿奄功能水平的可能性。通过对152名已被诊断为ASD的3.2—14.5岁儿童的沙箱游戏过程观察及作品分析,提炼出“体验与适应”、“识认与选择”和“策略与操作”三个具有内在一致性和较高辨别力的等级性功能指标。研究表明:第一等级功能指标适用于对所有ASD儿童的功能评估,第二等级功能指标是区分ASD儿童功能水平的分水岭,第三等级功能指标是甄别中、高功能ASD儿童有力工具。%Sand play reflects player's mind and emotion. However, it is rarely used to distinguish the functional level of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). This study aims to explore the interplay. The subjects were 152 children diagnosed by hospital as having ASD, 121 boys, 31 girls, ranging from 3 years and 2 months old to 14 years and 5 months old, with a mean age of 8 years and 8 months. Based on IQ scores, parent questionnaires, and play observations, tbe subjects were grouped into four function levels: low, middle-low, middle-high, and high. During the study, children were told to play freely in the sandbox with toys and create something. Still and video cameras were used to record the play processes and products and then recordings were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Three hierarchical function indexes, "Experience and Adaption", "Recognition and Selection", and "Strategy and Operation" with three variables in each index, were used to quantitatively analyze the process and products of children's sand play. Function indexes are found to be consistent in all three levels. The range of correlation coefficients of the three variables, "attention", "action", and "adaptation", of the first function index is. 399 to. 536. The range of correlation coefficients of the three variables, "choosing plastic toys", "using plastic toys", and

  10. The Place of Complementary Medicine in the Treatment of Autistic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Taşkıran Konaç

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to achieve a vision for autistic children and their parents aimed at generating interest in ideas such as “Sanitas Per Aquam” (SPA, massage and music therapy, which has begun to have widespread use and to attract attention. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive study was carried out with autistic children and their parents from February to April 2015 in Muğla, Turkey. The study was began by interviewing experts in the field and by developing a suitable assessment questionnaire. In order to direct the flow of conversation between the researchers and the autisitc children and their parents, the researchers conducted semi-structured face to face interviews in a form that had been determined by using reports in the literature and the opinions of experts in the field. Results: Forty two boys (84% and eight girls (16% with autism participated in our study. Children in the 0 ─ 7 age group spent long time in the bathroom (P = 0.001. Boys liked to be hugged more than girls (P = 0.01. Children ages 0 ─ 7 years liked bright lighting while those 15 years of age and older liked gloomy lighting (P = 0.009. Except for these statistically significant sex- and age-related differences, no other statistically significant differences were noted in the parameters of this study. Although the result was not statistically significant, more children with mild autism disorder obeyed commands like inhale or exhale (P = 0.051. Conclusion: Treatment for autism spectrum disorders is not yet fully possible, so many studies are being done to alleviate some symptoms and to improve the quality of life for individuals with autism and their families. As a result of our study, whether touching the areas the children want touched and listening to their favorite music are required to stimulate the brain remain as questions in our minds.

  11. Narrowly versus Broadly Defined Autism Spectrum Disorders: Differences in Pre-and Perinatal Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Janne C.; Rommelse, Nanda; Vink, Lianne; Schrieken, Margo; Oosterling, Iris J.; Gaag, Rutger J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the differential contribution of pre-and perinatal risks in narrowly versus broadly defined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and across core symptom domains, IQ and co-morbid problems. Children with a DSM-IV diagnosis of autistic disorder (AD) (n = 121) or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)…

  12. Melatonin in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Daniel A.; Frye, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate melatonin-related findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorders, not otherwise specified. Method: Comprehensive searches were conducted in the PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and ERIC…

  13. Is anorexia nervosa a neuropsychiatric developmental disorder? An illustrative case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbeshian, Jacob; Burd, Larry

    2009-01-01

    We propose the concept that anorexia nervosa is a neuropsychiatric developmental disorder. In support of the concept we present a case report of a 12-year-old girl with high functioning autistic disorder who developed Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. She subsequently experienced

  14. Brief Report: Biochemical Correlates of Clinical Impairment in High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Weaver, Kurt E.; Liang, Olivia; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Amygdala dysfunction has been proposed as a critical contributor to social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigated biochemical abnormalities in the amygdala in 20 high functioning adults with autistic disorder or Asperger's disorder and 19 typically developing adults matched on age and IQ. Magnetic resonance…

  15. WISC-III Index Score Profiles of 520 Swedish Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Eric; Dahlgren, Sven Olof

    2010-01-01

    WISC-III (Wechsler, 1991) index score profiles and their characteristics were examined with traditional statistics in a large Swedish sample consisting of children with autistic disorder (n = 85), Asperger's disorder (n = 341), or pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; n = 94). There was a clear and significant…

  16. High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder: Utility and Meaning for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Calzada, Luisa; Pistrang, Nancy; Mandy, William P. L.

    2012-01-01

    We used framework analysis to investigate the utility of pervasive developmental disorder diagnoses, interviewing young people (aged 9-16 years) with high-functioning autistic disorder (AD) and Asperger's disorder (AsD), and their parents. Twenty two participants from ten families described both gains and costs resulting from diagnosis. Perceived…

  17. Dynamic Fearful Gaze Does Not Enhance Attention Orienting in Individuals with Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2009-01-01

    Although impaired joint attention is one of the core clinical features of pervasive developmental disorder including autistic disorder and Asperger's disorder, experimental studies failed to report its impairment. This discrepancy might be the result of differences between real-life and experimental situations. The present study examined joint…

  18. Treatment of Inattention, Overactivity, and Impulsiveness in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Aman, Michael G; Farmer, Cristan A.; Hollway, Jill; Arnold, L. Eugene

    2008-01-01

    We reviewed the recent literature on medicines used to manage inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity in children with pervasive developmental disorders (autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, Asperger’s disorder) using computer searches of pharmacological studies. A substantial number of reports were identified and summarized. The literature tends to be dominated by uncontrolled studies, although the number of controlled trials is growing. The findi...

  19. Social training of autistic children with interactive intelligent agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakova, Emilia; Gillessen, Jan; Feijs, Loe

    2009-03-01

    The ability of autistic children to learn by applying logical rules has been used widely in behavioral therapies for social training. We propose to teach social skills to autistic children through games that simultaneously stimulate social behavior and include recognition of elements of social interaction. For this purpose we created a multi-agent platform of interactive blocks, and we created appropriate games that require shared activities leading to a common goal. The games included perceiving and understanding elements of social behavior that non-autistic children can recognize. We argue that the importance of elements of social interaction such as perceiving interaction behaviors and assigning metaphoric meanings has been overlooked, and that they are very important in the social training of autistic children. Two games were compared by testing them with users. The first game focused only on the interaction between the agents and the other combined interaction between the agents and metaphoric meanings that are assigned to them. The results show that most of the children recognized the patterns of interaction as well as the metaphors when they were demonstrated through embodied agents and were included within games having features that engage the interest of this user group. The results also show the potential of the platform and the games to influence the social behavior of the children positively.

  20. Modular playware as a playful diagnosis tool for autistic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    Based upon user-configurable modular robotics and design principles for modular playware, we developed modular robotic tiles to be used as playful, interactive tools for children with autism. The modular playware can make automatic documentation of the construction play activities by the autistic...

  1. Young Children with Autism or Autistic-Like Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary

    1989-01-01

    This paper on autism in young children discusses the differences between classic infantile autism and autistic-like conditions; the evolving manifestations of autism; accompanying handicaps such as mental retardation, epilepsy, blindness, and deafness; possible infectious or metabolic disease etiologies; and treatment through behavior…

  2. Modulation of Response to Environmental Stimulation in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kootz, John P.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Autistic children's blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral blood flow (PBF), and peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) were measured during three types of tasks (reaction time, social interaction, at rest). Disturbances in filtering environmental stimulation and modulating response to novelty may be part of the basic pathology of autism apparent…

  3. Do autistics perceive facial expressions in a piecemeal fashion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.W.C.J.; Benson, P.J.; Jonkers, M.; Rietberg, S.

    2002-01-01

    Whilst people with autism process many types of visual information at a level commensurate with their age, studies have shown that they have difficulty interpreting facial expressions. One of the reasons could be that autistics suffer from weak central coherence, ie a failure to integrate parts of i

  4. Autistic Behavior, Behavior Analysis, and the Gene—Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Malott, Richard W.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the negative behavior-analytic commentary on Drash and Tudor's behavior-analytic analysis of the etiology of autistic repertoires and values. This article also asks that, in our effort to scrub it clean, we not drown Drash and Tudor's beautiful, but fragile, new-born, behavior-analytic baby in hyper-methodological, hyper-scholarly bathwater.

  5. Brief Report: Implications of Hyperlexia in an Autistic Savant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Paul J.; Lupinetti, Laura

    1993-01-01

    This case study presents a female young adult with autism who was discovered to be hyperlexic and possessing of savant abilities. The paper proposes that hyperlexia (highly developed word recognition skills but little or no comprehension of the words recognized) is a savant ability found in many autistic individuals with exceptional skills and not…

  6. Impaired Antioxidant Status and Reduced Energy Metabolism in Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, M. M.; Braidy, N.; Waly, M. I.; Al-Farsi, Y. M.; Al-Sharbati, M.; Subash, S.; Amanat, A.; Al-Shaffaee, M. A.; Guillemin, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress induced mechanisms are believed to be associated with the pathophysiology of autism. In this study, we recruited 19 Omani autistic children with age-matched controls to analyze their plasma and serum redox status and the levels of ATP, NAD[superscript +] and NADH using well established…

  7. Designing Mouse Behavioral Tasks Relevant to Autistic-Like Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2004-01-01

    The importance of genetic factors in autism has prompted the development of mutant mouse models to advance our understanding of biological mechanisms underlying autistic behaviors. Mouse models of human neuropsychiatric diseases are designed to optimize (1) face validity, i.e., resemblance to the human symptoms; (2) construct validity, i.e.,…

  8. Plasma level of transforming growth factor β 1 in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek Mohamed El Gohary; Nahal Abd El Aziz; Mohamed Darweesh; Ebtihal Shukery Sadaa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by pervasive abnormalities in social interaction and communication, and repetitive and restricted behavioral patterns and interests. ASD include autistic disorder, Asperger’s disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specific and childhood disintegrative disorders. Objectives: To detect plasma level of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβl) in children with ASD and to fi...

  9. Analysis of Copper and Zinc Plasma Concentration and the Efficacy of Zinc Therapy in Individuals with Asperger's Syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and Autism

    OpenAIRE

    A.J. Russo; Robert deVito

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess plasma zinc and copper concentration in individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and autistic disorder, and to analyze the efficacy of zinc therapy on the normalization of zinc and copper levels and symptom severity in these disorders. Subjects and methods Plasma from 79 autistic individuals, 52 individuals with PDD-NOS, 21 individuals with Asperger’s Syndrome (all meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria), and 18 age and...

  10. Defense behavior and coping in an autistic savant: the story of Temple Grandin, PhD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratey, J J; Grandin, T; Miller, A

    1992-11-01

    The causal factors in the behaviorally defined syndrome of autism remain unclear, although the past decade has brought to bear two significant developments that shape our view of the disorder. The first of these developments is a growing body of biomedical research that indicates there are multiple etiologies associated with the disorder. This research has allowed for the formation of subgroups based upon neuroanatomical, neurobiological, and neurophysiological abnormalities (Damasio 1984; Piggot 1979; Ritvo et al. 1990). The second is neuropsychological research indicating that the socioemotional deficits are primary to the disorder and may underlie much of the behavioral symptomatology (Fein et al. 1986). These areas of concern undoubtedly have enhanced our understanding of the disorder, yet in their achievements they may too easily absorb what we know about autistics who experience a chronic state of physiological hyperarousal, evidence of which has been found in neurophysiological studies (Delius 1967; Hutt et al. 1965), neurochemical studies (Lake et al. 1977), psychopharmacologic studies (Ratey et al. 1987a), and behavioral studies (Kinsbourne 1980; Kootz et al. 1982; Tinbergen and Tinbergen 1972; Zentall and Zentall 1983). These individuals, perhaps constituting a subgroup of their own, experience an inner state of disorganization that markedly impairs their functioning (Sands and Ratey 1986).

  11. Quality of life in siblings of autistic patients Qualidade de vida em irmãos de autistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Regina Ferreira Marciano

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Quality of Life (QoL among siblings of autistic patients. METHODS: Casuistic: siblings of autistic patients (n = 31 and, as a control group, siblings of patients with speech disorder (n = 30. Inclusion criteria: age between 7 and 11 years old; absence of current mental disorder; regular attendance to school. Exclusion criteria: antecedents of clinical or psychiatric diseases; disabilities (visual, auditive or motor; antecedents of cognitive and/or intelligence disabilities. Instruments included a questionnaire which evaluated the quality of life in a subjective way. RESULTS: it was observed worse QoL among siblings of autistic patients (p = 0.000. CONCLUSION: The hypothesis that the quality of life was compromised in children (aged 7 to 11 by the presence of an autistic sibling was confirmed, and was worse than that of siblings of children with speech disorders.OBJETIVO: Avaliou-se a Qualidade de Vida (QV em irmãos de autistas. MÉTODOS: casuística: irmãos de autistas (n = 31 e irmãos de crianças com problemas de fala (n = 30, como controles. Critérios de inclusão: idade entre 7 e 11 anos; ausência de transtorno mental atual; freqüentar escola regular. Critérios de exclusão: antecedentes de doenças clínicas ou psiquiátricas; deficiências visual, auditiva ou motora; deficiências cognitivas e/ou de inteligência. Utilizou-se questionário que avalia a qualidade de vida de forma subjetiva. RESULTADOS: houve prejuízo na qualidade de vida de irmãos de autistas, em relação ao grupo controle (p = 0,000. CONCLUSÃO: Confirmou-se a hipótese de que a QV estaria comprometida, em crianças de 7 a 11 anos, pela presença de um irmão(ã com autismo e seria pior do que a de irmãos de crianças com problemas de fala.

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...

  13. A lack of association between hyperserotonemia and the increased frequency of serum anti-myelin basic protein auto-antibodies in autistic children

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    AL-Ayadhi Laila

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent biological findings in autism is the elevated blood serotonin levels. Immune abnormalities, including autoimmunity with production of brain specific auto-antibodies, are also commonly observed in this disorder. Hyperserotonemia may be one of the contributing factors to autoimmunity in some patients with autism through the reduction of T-helper (Th 1-type cytokines. We are the first to investigate the possible role of hyperserotonemia in the induction of autoimmunity, as indicated by serum anti-myelin-basic protein (anti-MBP auto-antibodies, in autism. Methods Serum levels of serotonin and anti-MBP auto-antibodies were measured, by ELISA, in 50 autistic patients, aged between 5 and 12 years, and 30 healthy-matched children. Results Autistic children had significantly higher serum levels of serotonin and anti-MBP auto-antibodies than healthy children (P Conclusions Hyperserotonemia may not be one of the contributing factors to the increased frequency of serum anti-MBP auto-antibodies in some autistic children. These data should be treated with caution until further investigations are performed. However, inclusion of serum serotonin levels as a correlate may be useful in other future immune studies in autism to help unravel the long-standing mystery of hyperserotonemia and its possible role in the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  14. PSYCHOLINGUISTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTISTS AND THEIR PROTOTYPES IN AMERICAN CINEMA DISCOURSE (BASED ON THE FILMS RAIN MAN AND THE REAL RAIN MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Ikalyuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the study of the main characteristics of people with autistic spectrum disorders. The comparison between the famous American savant, Kim Peek, and his prototype in the American cinema discourse has been made on the basis of the films Rain Man and The Real Rain Man. With the help of psychographological analysis, the speech of the man and his fictional prototype has been examined. The analysis showed that the difference between the two persons is indubitable, which can be explained by the fact that the savant syndrome was caused by different disorders.

  15. Exploring the Association between Cognitive Functioning and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Role of Social Understanding and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique; Kamps, Jodi L.; Hill, Trenesha

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations between anxiety, aggression, social understanding, IQ, and diagnosis in a sample of 231 children (ages 2-9) diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs; Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified) in a hospital setting. Children were administered tests of IQ,…

  16. The level and nature of autistic intelligence II: what about Asperger syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulières, Isabelle; Dawson, Michelle; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Mottron, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    A distinctively uneven profile of intelligence is a feature of the autistic spectrum. Within the spectrum, Asperger individuals differ from autistics in their early speech development and in being less likely to be characterized by visuospatial peaks. While different specific strengths characterize different autistic spectrum subgroups, all such peaks of ability have been interpreted as deficits: isolated, aberrant, and irreconcilable with real human intelligence. This view has recently been challenged by findings of autistic strengths in performance on Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM), an important marker of general and fluid intelligence. We investigated whether these findings extend to Asperger syndrome, an autistic spectrum subgroup characterized by verbal peaks of ability, and whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying autistic and Asperger RPM performance differ. Thirty-two Asperger adults displayed a significant advantage on RPM over Wechsler Full-Scale and Performance scores relative to their typical controls, while in 25 Asperger children an RPM advantage was found over Wechsler Performance scores only. As previously found with autistics, Asperger children and adults achieved RPM scores at a level reflecting their Wechsler peaks of ability. Therefore, strengths in RPM performance span the autistic spectrum and imply a common mechanism advantageously applied to different facets of cognition. Autistic spectrum intelligence is atypical, but also genuine, general, and underestimated.

  17. The level and nature of autistic intelligence II: what about Asperger syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Soulières

    Full Text Available A distinctively uneven profile of intelligence is a feature of the autistic spectrum. Within the spectrum, Asperger individuals differ from autistics in their early speech development and in being less likely to be characterized by visuospatial peaks. While different specific strengths characterize different autistic spectrum subgroups, all such peaks of ability have been interpreted as deficits: isolated, aberrant, and irreconcilable with real human intelligence. This view has recently been challenged by findings of autistic strengths in performance on Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM, an important marker of general and fluid intelligence. We investigated whether these findings extend to Asperger syndrome, an autistic spectrum subgroup characterized by verbal peaks of ability, and whether the cognitive mechanisms underlying autistic and Asperger RPM performance differ. Thirty-two Asperger adults displayed a significant advantage on RPM over Wechsler Full-Scale and Performance scores relative to their typical controls, while in 25 Asperger children an RPM advantage was found over Wechsler Performance scores only. As previously found with autistics, Asperger children and adults achieved RPM scores at a level reflecting their Wechsler peaks of ability. Therefore, strengths in RPM performance span the autistic spectrum and imply a common mechanism advantageously applied to different facets of cognition. Autistic spectrum intelligence is atypical, but also genuine, general, and underestimated.

  18. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL-DEVELOPMENT APPROACH IN AUTISTIC CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    2005-01-01

    This paper on the children’s autism gives an overview of neuropsychological aspect and in context of the development dynamic approach.The author expresses some characteristics and dilemmas which refer to the Kanner’s autism and Asperger`s syndrome. He presents his own opinion and dilemmas about the every day practice in relation to children’s autism as a pathological disorder which is an expression of pervasive disorder, children’s psychosis or just one development phase in which children are...

  19. The interactional significance of formulas in autistic language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbinson, Sushie; Perkins, Mick; Boucher, Jill

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of echolalia in autistic language is well documented. Whilst much early research dismissed echolalia as merely an indicator of cognitive limitation, later work identified particular discourse functions of echolalic utterances. The work reported here extends the study of the interactional significance of echolalia to formulaic utterances. Audio and video recordings of conversations between the first author and two research participants were transcribed and analysed according to a Conversation Analysis framework and a multi-layered linguistic framework. Formulaic language was found to have predictable interactional significance within the language of an individual with autism, and the generic phenomenon of formulaicity in company with predictable discourse function was seen to hold across the research participants, regardless of cognitive ability. The implications of formulaicity in autistic language for acquisition and processing mechanisms are discussed. PMID:12945605

  20. Genome-wide association study of autistic-like traits in a general population study of young adults

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    Rachel Maree Jones

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research has proposed that autistic-like traits in the general population lie on a continuum, with clinical Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD representing the extreme end of this distribution. Inherent in this proposal is that biological mechanisms associated with clinical ASD may also underpin variation in autistic-like traits within the general population. A genome-wide association study using 2,462,046 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was undertaken for ASD in 965 individuals from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. No SNP associations reached genome-wide significance (p < 5.0 x 10-8. However, investigations into nominal observed SNP associations (p < 1.0 x 10-5 add support to two positional candidate genes previously implicated in ASD aetiology, PRKCB1 and CBLN1.The rs198198 SNP (p = 9.587 x 10-6, is located within an intron of the protein kinase C, beta 1 (PRKCB1 gene on chromosome 16p11. The PRKCB1 gene has been previously reported in linkage and association studies for ASD, and its mRNA expression has been shown to be significantly down regulated in ASD cases compared with controls. The rs16946931 SNP (p = 1.78 x 10-6 is located in a region flanking the Cerebellin 1 (CBLN1 gene on chromosome 16q12.1. The CBLN1 gene is involved with synaptogenesis and is part of a gene family previously implicated in ASD. This GWA study is only the second to examine SNPs associated with autistic-like traits in the general population, and provides evidence to support roles for the PRKCB1 and CBLN1 genes in risk of clinical ASD.

  1. Assessing the Influence of Researcher-Partner Involvement on the Process and Outcomes of Participatory Research in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2014-01-01

    Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify…

  2. Exploring autistic traits in anorexia: a clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Tchanturia, Kate; Smith, Emma; Weineck, Felicitas; Fidanboylu, Eliz; Kern, Nikola; Treasure, Janet; Baron Cohen, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to explore associations between autistic traits and self-reported clinical symptoms in a population with anorexia nervosa (AN). Experimental and self-report evidence reveals similarities between AN and autism spectrum condition (ASC) populations in socio-emotional and cognitive domains; this includes difficulties with empathy, set-shifting and global processing. Focusing on these similarities may lead to better tailored interventions for both condi...

  3. Acquisition and functional analysis of manding with autistic students.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, J; Mochizuki, A

    1988-01-01

    Three autistic students were trained to request a specific object from an adult "supplier" with the sentence, "Give me--" and to deliver that object to another adult, the "director." Subsequently, the degree to which the object offered by the supplier controlled the "Give me--" verbal response was assessed by delivering to the student an object other than the one requested. Despite knowing the names of all objects used in the experiment, students accepted and delivered to the director any obj...

  4. Autistic barriers in the psychoanalysis of borderline adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D; Jay, S M

    1996-10-01

    The authors discuss Frances Tustin's work on childhood autism in order to clarify the nature and protective function of autistic barriers in adult patients who present challenging resistances in treatment. Tustin's thesis is that childhood autism constitutes a massive formation of avoidance reactions that develop in infancy to ward off traumatic awareness of bodily separateness. She describes two forms of childhood pathology that may develop: the encapsulated child who defends against all 'not me' experience by means of self-generated bodily sensations that augment the illusion of complete bodily continuity with the mother; and the entangled child who generates a protective illusion of being enfolded inside the body of the mother to minimise the experience of separateness. The transference resistances of borderline adults can be categorised according to Tustin's typology of encapsulation and entanglement. Clinical material is presented from the analyses of two borderline patients, one encapsulated and the other entangled. Despite seemingly different transference manifestations, both belong to the category of autistic barriers inasmuch as they ward off awareness of separation-induced injury to the primal self. The countertransference difficulties that the analyst encounters with patients who employ autistic barriers are discussed and treatment issues are reviewed.

  5. Examining the Genetic and Environmental Associations between Autistic Social and Communication Deficits and Psychopathic Callous-Unemotional Traits.

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    Elizabeth O'Nions

    Full Text Available Difficulties in appropriate social interaction are characteristic of both children with autism spectrum disorders and children with callous-unemotional traits (who are at risk of developing psychopathy. Extant experimental studies suggest that the nature of atypical social cognition that characterises these two profiles is not identical. However, 'empathizing' difficulties have been hypothesised for both groups, raising questions about the degree of aetiological separation between social impairments that characterize each disorder. This study explored the relative contribution of independent vs. shared aetiological influences to social and communication impairments associated with autistic traits and callous-unemotional traits, indexed by parent-report in a population-based cohort of twins.Participants were over 5,000 twin pairs from a UK cohort (the Twins Early Development Study; TEDS, assessed for callous-unemotional traits at 7 years and autistic social and communication impairments at 8 years. Multivariate model-fitting was used to explore the relative contribution of independent vs. overlapping genetic/environmental influences on these traits.Both social and communication impairments and callous-unemotional traits were highly heritable, although the genetic and environmental influences accounting for individual differences on each domain were predominantly independent.Extant evidence from experimental and neuro-imaging studies has suggested that, despite some superficially overlapping behaviours, the social difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and callous-unemotional traits are largely distinct. The current study is the first to demonstrate considerable aetiological independence of the social interaction difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and those with callous-unemotional traits.

  6. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms moderate cognition and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Sokoloff, Jennifer L.; Shook, Devon A.; James, Joette D.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that over 30% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) meet diagnostic criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and another 20% of children with ASD exhibit subthreshold clinical ADHD symptoms. Presence of ADHD symptoms in the context of ASD could have a variety of effects on cognition, autistic traits, and adaptive/maladaptive behaviors including: exacerbating core ASD impairments; adding unique impairments specific to ADHD; producing new...

  7. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL-DEVELOPMENT APPROACH IN AUTISTIC CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav KOPACHEV

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper on the children’s autism gives an overview of neuropsychological aspect and in context of the development dynamic approach.The author expresses some characteristics and dilemmas which refer to the Kanner’s autism and Asperger`s syndrome. He presents his own opinion and dilemmas about the every day practice in relation to children’s autism as a pathological disorder which is an expression of pervasive disorder, children’s psychosis or just one development phase in which children are fixated forever.The author thinks children’s autism should be seen in context of the inter-game of biological factors, development and the stress.

  8. The Effects of Applying Game-Based Learning to Webcam Motion Sensor Games for Autistic Students' Sensory Integration Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun-Hsien; Lou, Shi-Jer; Tsai, Huei-Yin; Shih, Ru-Chu

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of applying game-based learning to webcam motion sensor games for autistic students' sensory integration training for autistic students. The research participants were three autistic students aged from six to ten. Webcam camera as the research tool wad connected internet games to engage in motion sensor…

  9. The use of the analyst as an autistic shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Dolan

    2016-08-01

    In this paper I describe through detailed clinical material the challenges posed by patients who employ entangled autistic defenses. I discuss the complicated nature of treating a patient who employed entangled autistic defenses and utilized my voice in an effort to preserve an undifferentiated state of dual unity. My patient's pursuit of dual unity took a very concrete form in her attempt to mitigate the terror of separateness. This concreteness was expressed via the patient's urgent request that I read letters she wrote to me between sessions. This type of autistic defense placed great strain on my ability to think analytically and I also became increasingly concrete in my response to the patient. Crucial to the analyst's regaining a space in which to think and a sense of separateness is the ability to contact the ground floor of her separate bodily experience. This is just the beginning step in the analyst separating herself from the powerful press to join the patient in a state of dual unity. Interpretation in action (Ogden, 1994) was an effective way to convey the importance of creating and tolerating internal space in myself and begin to create internal space in the patient. Previously such space had been closed down in order to manage primitive fears of annihilation. When a patient is absorbed in an entangling autistic retreat words do not reach the patient on a symbolic level but rather are experienced primarily as an assault on the need for dual unity with the analyst. The patient's need to be wrapped in a sensation based world of dual unity is preferable to a world of spoken words that carry the danger of delineating psychic separateness. In essence there is no self to speak words, only a whirl of an amorphous sensation self lacking definition. I believe with certain kinds of patients it may be necessary to first lose and then work to regain one's analytic mind, as I have powerfully described in the case of Linda. Linda's profound loss of connection to

  10. ON ORTHODOX/HETERODOX AND AUTISTIC/POST AUTISTIC ECONOMICS – A VIEW FROM THE ROMANIAN ACADEMIC LANDSCAPE

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    Rodica IANOLE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The way economics is perceived nowadays seems to be going back to the old label of `dismal science`, because it has not achieved to offer consistent and valid solutions to real problems in critical moments. In a constructive defense of our profession, we need to acknowledge the existence of some oversimplified hypothesis that do not conform to the actual human behavior, and thus to turn to different branches of the discipline (from behavioral to feminist, green economics and econo-physics, just to give some examples that try to reintegrate economic thinking in the real landscape, through different approaches. The post autistic economics represents a powerful example within this attempt of offering economics a new spirit and new insights of how it should be taught and applied. The aim of this paper is to discuss on the multiple perspectives, orthodox and heterodox, autistic and post-autistic, and on the manner they appear to be understood, accepted and implemented in the Romanian economic higher education. We question the neoclassical paradigm in search for new insights that could lead to a possible internal reform of the field, opening it more to the opinions of the surrounding social sciences.

  11. Minocycline ameliorates prenatal valproic acid induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hariom; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopment disorder. One percent worldwide population suffers with autism and males suffer more than females. Microglia plays an important role in neurodevelopment, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of minocycline in prenatal valproic acid induced autism in rats. Animals with prenatal valproic acid have reduced social interaction (three chamber social behaviour apparatus), spontaneous alteration (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (both in prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complexes I, II, IV). Furthermore, prenatal valproic acid treated animals have shown an increase in locomotion (actophotometer), anxiety (elevated plus maze), brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione, catalase), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), inflammation (both in brain and ileum myeloperoxidase activity), calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Treatment with minocycline significantly attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced reduction in social interaction, spontaneous alteration, exploratory activity intestinal motility, serotonin levels and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity. Furthermore, minocycline has also attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced increase in locomotion, anxiety, brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammation, calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Thus, it may be concluded that prenatal valproic acid has induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairment in animals, which were significantly attenuated by minocycline. Minocycline should be explored further for its therapeutic benefits in autism.

  12. Minocycline ameliorates prenatal valproic acid induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hariom; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopment disorder. One percent worldwide population suffers with autism and males suffer more than females. Microglia plays an important role in neurodevelopment, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of minocycline in prenatal valproic acid induced autism in rats. Animals with prenatal valproic acid have reduced social interaction (three chamber social behaviour apparatus), spontaneous alteration (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (both in prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complexes I, II, IV). Furthermore, prenatal valproic acid treated animals have shown an increase in locomotion (actophotometer), anxiety (elevated plus maze), brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione, catalase), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), inflammation (both in brain and ileum myeloperoxidase activity), calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Treatment with minocycline significantly attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced reduction in social interaction, spontaneous alteration, exploratory activity intestinal motility, serotonin levels and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity. Furthermore, minocycline has also attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced increase in locomotion, anxiety, brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammation, calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Thus, it may be concluded that prenatal valproic acid has induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairment in animals, which were significantly attenuated by minocycline. Minocycline should be explored further for its therapeutic benefits in autism. PMID:26551768

  13. Training Mildly Handicapped Peers to Facilitate Changes in the Social Interaction Skills of Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Michael S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A peer training strategy featuring direct prompting and modeling and involving 16 nonautistic peers (five-eight years old) resulted in immediate and substantial increases in peer trainers' interactions with their four autistic tutees. All four autistic Ss substantially increased their responsiveness to the peer trainers. (CL)

  14. Autonomic and Neuroendocrine Responses to a Psychosocial Stressor in Adults with Autistic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C.; Wiegant, Victor M.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Lahuis, Bertine E.; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Objective of the study was to replicate in adults our previous findings of decreased heart rate and normal endocrine responses to stress in autistic children and to elucidate the discrepancy between autonomic and endocrine stress responses by including epinephrine, norepinephrine, oxytocin and vasopressin measurements. Ten autistic spectrum…

  15. Brief Report: Autistic Traits in Mothers and Children Associated with Child's Gender Nonconformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumer, Daniel E.; Roberts, Andrea L.; Reisner, Sari L.; Lyall, Kristen; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    We examined relationships between autistic traits in children, mothers, and fathers and gender nonconformity (GNC) in children using data from the Nurses' Health Study II and the Growing Up Today Study 1. Autistic traits of mothers, fathers and children were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). GNC in children was measured using…

  16. Maternal Fatty Acid Status During Pregnancy and Child Autistic Traits: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; Tiemeier, Henning; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Roza, Sabine J

    2016-05-01

    ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids are important for brain function and development. We examined whether maternal polyunsaturated fatty acid status during pregnancy affects risk of autistic traits in childhood. Within the Generation R cohort, we measured maternal plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations and the ω-3:ω-6 ratio in midpregnancy (Rotterdam, the Netherlands, 2001-2005). Child autistic traits at 6 years were assessed by using the Social Responsiveness Scale short form in 4,624 children. A lower maternal ω-3:ω-6 ratio during pregnancy was associated with more autistic traits in the offspring (β = -0.008, 95% confidence interval: -0.016, -0.001). In particular, a higher total ω-6 and linoleic acid status were associated with more autistic traits (all P's < 0.05). Associations were independent of child intelligence, suggesting that the fatty acid distribution specifically affects the development of autistic traits in addition to general neurodevelopment. Maternal plasma ω-3 status was not associated with child autistic traits and, consistently, neither was prenatal dietary fish intake. Our study shows that a lower prenatal ω-3:ω-6 ratio is associated with more child autistic traits, which is largely accounted for by higher ω-6 instead of lower ω-3 status. These results suggest a biological pathway between maternal fatty acid intake during pregnancy and autistic traits in the offspring. PMID:27052119

  17. Brief Report: Autistic-Like Traits in Childhood Predict Later Age at Menarche in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Hickey, Martha; Sloboda, Deborah M.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between autistic-like traits in early childhood and age at menarche in typically developing girls. Autistic-like symptoms were measured at age 2 years using the Child Behaviour Checklist, and age at menarche (AAM) was determined prospectively using self-report questionnaires at age 8, 10, 14 and 17 years. Girls…

  18. Brief Report: The Association of Autistic Traits and Behavioural Patterns in Adolescents Receiving Special Educational Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Abigail R.; McKechanie, Andrew G.; Johnstone, Eve C.; Owens, David G. Cunningham; Stanfield, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The study aim was to describe behaviours associated with autistic traits. Methods: The Childhood Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) were used as measures of behaviour and autistic traits respectively in 331 adolescents receiving educational support. CBCL scores were compared between three groups…

  19. The Autistic Savant: Recognizing and Serving the Gifted Student with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Julie A.; Altman, Reuben

    1994-01-01

    This article focuses attention on the underserved population of gifted students with autism. The article examines savant abilities in the autistic population, needs of the gifted student with autism, similarities between the gifted autistic and other populations, and implications for treatment. (JDD)

  20. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Do Not Help Support DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Janssen, Joost; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aims to determine whether or not structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data support the DSM-5 proposal of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic category, and whether or not classical DSM-IV autistic disorder (AD) and Asperger syndrome (AS) categories should be subsumed into it. The most replicated sMRI findings…

  1. Delayed Video Self-Recognition in Children with High Vo Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Cheryl; Shembrey, Joh; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Two studies are reported which investigate delayed video self-recognition (DSR) in children with autistic disorder and Asperger's disorder relative to one another and to their typically developing peers. A secondary aim was to establish whether DSR ability is dependent on metarepresentational ability. Children's verbal and affective responses to…

  2. Sera from children with autism induce autistic features which can be rescued with a CNTF small peptide mimetic in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Faraz Kazim

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6, which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism.

  3. Targeting anandamide metabolism rescues core and associated autistic-like symptoms in rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servadio, M; Melancia, F; Manduca, A; di Masi, A; Schiavi, S; Cartocci, V; Pallottini, V; Campolongo, P; Ascenzi, P; Trezza, V

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by altered sociability, compromised communication and stereotyped/repetitive behaviors, for which no specific treatments are currently available. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) is a known, although still underestimated, environmental risk factor for ASD. Altered endocannabinoid activity has been observed in autistic patients, and endocannabinoids are known to modulate behavioral traits that are typically affected in ASD. On this basis, we tested the hypothesis that changes in the endocannabinoid tone contribute to the altered phenotype induced by prenatal VPA exposure in rats, with focus on behavioral features that resemble the core and associated symptoms of ASD. In the course of development, VPA-exposed rats showed early deficits in social communication and discrimination, compromised sociability and social play behavior, stereotypies and increased anxiety, thus providing preclinical proof of the long-lasting deleterious effects induced by prenatal VPA exposure. At the neurochemical level, VPA-exposed rats displayed altered phosphorylation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in different brain areas, associated with changes in anandamide metabolism from infancy to adulthood. Interestingly, enhancing anandamide signaling through inhibition of its degradation rescued the behavioral deficits displayed by VPA-exposed rats at infancy, adolescence and adulthood. This study therefore shows that abnormalities in anandamide activity may underlie the deleterious impact of environmental risk factors on ASD-relevant behaviors and that the endocannabinoid system may represent a therapeutic target for the core and associated symptoms displayed by autistic patients. PMID:27676443

  4. Structural and functional correlates of a quantitative autistic trait measured using the social responsive scale in neurotypical male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Pei-Chi; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Lan, Chen-Chia; Liu, Chia-Chien; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue

    2016-05-01

    Behaviors associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been suggested to be considered as quantitative traits. This study investigated the structural and functional correlates of autistic traits measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in neurotypical adolescents. Twenty-six neurotypical male adolescents (12-18 years old) were recruited for this study and underwent structural and resting functional magnetic resonance image scanning, and intelligence quotient and SRS evaluations. We used the automated surface-based method (FreeSurfer) to measure cortical thickness and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analysis to derive the FC map of the dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC). Brain-wise regression analyses of cortical thickness and FC maps on SRS scores were performed using a general linear model. The results indicated that higher autistic trait ratings of total SRS scores were associated with a thinner cortex in the left insula, right insula, and right superior temporal gyrus. Furthermore, we observed that only higher scores of social awareness were correlated with increased FC between the dACC and right superior temporal gyrus and decreased FC between the dACC and right putamen and thalamus. These results indicated that a quantitative trait in social cognition is associated with structural and connectivity variations linked to ASD patients. Autism Res 2016, 9: 570-578. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26284955

  5. Gene expression profiling of lymphoblasts from autistic and nonaffected sib pairs: altered pathways in neuronal development and steroid biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie W Hu

    Full Text Available Despite the identification of numerous autism susceptibility genes, the pathobiology of autism remains unknown. The present "case-control" study takes a global approach to understanding the molecular basis of autism spectrum disorders based upon large-scale gene expression profiling. DNA microarray analyses were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines from over 20 sib pairs in which one sibling had a diagnosis of autism and the other was not affected in order to identify biochemical and signaling pathways which are differentially regulated in cells from autistic and nonautistic siblings. Bioinformatics and gene ontological analyses of the data implicate genes which are involved in nervous system development, inflammation, and cytoskeletal organization, in addition to genes which may be relevant to gastrointestinal or other physiological symptoms often associated with autism. Moreover, the data further suggests that these processes may be modulated by cholesterol/steroid metabolism, especially at the level of androgenic hormones. Elevation of male hormones, in turn, has been suggested as a possible factor influencing susceptibility to autism, which affects approximately 4 times as many males as females. Preliminary metabolic profiling of steroid hormones in lymphoblastoid cell lines from several pairs of siblings reveals higher levels of testosterone in the autistic sibling, which is consistent with the increased expression of two genes involved in the steroidogenesis pathway. Global gene expression profiling of cultured cells from ASD probands thus serves as a window to underlying metabolic and signaling deficits that may be relevant to the pathobiology of autism.

  6. Data of multiple regressions analysis between selected biomarkers related to glutamate excitotoxicity and oxidative stress in Saudi autistic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ansary, Afaf

    2016-06-01

    This work demonstrates data of multiple regression analysis between nine biomarkers related to glutamate excitotoxicity and impaired detoxification as two mechanisms recently recorded as autism phenotypes. The presented data was obtained by measuring a panel of markers in 20 autistic patients aged 3-15 years and 20 age and gender matching healthy controls. Levels of GSH, glutathione status (GSH/GSSG), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and peroxidoxins (Prxs I and III), glutamate, glutamine, glutamate/glutamine ratio glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in plasma and mercury (Hg) in red blood cells were determined in both groups. In Multiple regression analysis, R (2) values which describe the proportion or percentage of variance in the dependent variable attributed to the variance in the independent variables together were calculated. Moreover, β coefficients values which show the direction either positive or negative and the contribution of the independent variable relative to the other independent variables in explaining the variation of the dependent variable were determined. A panel of inter-related markers was recorded. This paper contains data related to and supporting research articles currently published entitled "Mechanism of nitrogen metabolism-related parameters and enzyme activities in the pathophysiology of autism" [1], "Novel metabolic biomarkers related to sulfur-dependent detoxification pathways in autistic patients of Saudi Arabia [2], and "A key role for an impaired detoxification mechanism in the etiology and severity of autism spectrum disorders" [3]. PMID:26933667

  7. Neurofeedback Improves Executive Functioning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Congedo, Marco; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children's heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation over sessions. Following treatment, children's…

  8. Cultural Basis of Social "Deficits" in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepa, Prithvi

    2014-01-01

    There is very little research that specifically looks at how autism spectrum disorders are perceived in various communities. This qualitative research was conducted with parents who had children on the autistic spectrum belonging to four different ethnic communities (White British, Somali, West African and South Asian--63 in total) and living in…

  9. MRI measurements of the brain stem and cerebellum in high functioning autistic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Tayama, Masanobu; Miyazaki, Masahito; Murakawa, Kazuyoshi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro (Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-01-01

    To determine involvements of the brain stem and/or cerebellum in autism, we compared midsagittal magnetic resonance images of the brains of high functioning autistic children with those of normal controls. We found that the midbrain and medulla oblongata were significantly smaller in these autistic children than in the control children. The pons area did not differ between the two groups, nor was there any difference in the cerebellar vermis area. The ratio of the brain stem and cerebellum to the posterior fossa area did not differ significantly between the high functioning autistic and the control children. The development of the cerebellar vermis area was delayed in autistic children as compared with that in the control children. Thus, it was suggested that significant anatomical changes in the midbrain and medulla oblongata existed in the autistic children. (author).

  10. MRI measurements of the brain stem and cerebellum in high functioning autistic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine involvements of the brain stem and/or cerebellum in autism, we compared midsagittal magnetic resonance images of the brains of high functioning autistic children with those of normal controls. We found that the midbrain and medulla oblongata were significantly smaller in these autistic children than in the control children. The pons area did not differ between the two groups, nor was there any difference in the cerebellar vermis area. The ratio of the brain stem and cerebellum to the posterior fossa area did not differ significantly between the high functioning autistic and the control children. The development of the cerebellar vermis area was delayed in autistic children as compared with that in the control children. Thus, it was suggested that significant anatomical changes in the midbrain and medulla oblongata existed in the autistic children. (author)

  11. Assessing autistic traits: cross-cultural validation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz; Constantino, John N

    2008-12-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a quantitative measure of autistic traits in 4- to 18-year-olds, which has been used in behavior-genetic, epidemiological and intervention studies. The US standardization demonstrated a single-factor structure and good to excellent psychometric properties. The cross-cultural validity of the German adaptation of the parent-report SRS in a sample of N=1,436 children and adolescents: 838 typically developing and 527 clinical participants (160 with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)) was examined. Internal consistency (0.91-0.97), test-retest reliability (0.84-0.97), interrater reliability (0.76 and 0.95) and convergent validity with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule as well as the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Social Communication Questionnaire (0.35-0.58) were satisfactory to good. The SRS total score discriminated between ASD and other mental disorders. SRS scores proved to be sufficiently independent of general psychopathology. Principal component analyses yielded single-factor solutions for the normative and clinical subsamples. In addition, construct validity was ensured by consistent correlations with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, the Child Behavior Checklist and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory. Normative SRS total scores for girls and boys as well as values for ASD were lower in the German sample, while scores for conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity/conduct disorder combined were higher. Generally, cross-cultural validity of the SRS seems to be sufficiently assured for a large European sample. However, some discrepancies regarding SRS normative and clinical raw score distributions, reliability and validity findings are critically discussed. PMID:19360690

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4:1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and 4 Iranian databases (IranPsych,IranMedex, Irandoc and Scientific Information Database (SID to find Iranian studies on  ASDs. The results of 39 investigations, comprising original, review and editorial articles; proceedings; and available dissertations were categorized by prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.ConclusionSeveral preliminary investigations have been done to evaluate the prevalence of ASDs, and risk factors and effective variables have been studied with regard to etiology. The diagnostic evaluation of ASDs, especially based on EEG, and several pharmacological and behavioral interventions for ASD have been implemented in Iran. Mental health, stress levels, and personality characteristics were examined in the parents of children with ASDs, which were focused on mothers.ReferencesFirst MB, Frances A, Pincus HA. DSM-IV-TR: Handbook of differential diagnosis. United States of America:American Psychiatric Publishing; 2002.Parker S, Zuckerman B, Augustyn M. Developmental and behavioral pediatrics, 2 th ed. United States of America:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.Howlin P. Autism and Asperger syndrome, 2 th ed. United States of America: Routledge; 2005.Mohammadi MR, Akhondzadeh S. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Etiology and Pharmacotherapy. Curr Drug ther2007; 2: 97-103.Newschaffer CJ, Croen LA, Daniels J, Giarelli E, GretherJK, Levy SE, et al. The epidemiology of autism spectrumdisorders. Annu Rev Public Health

  13. Why Bother About Clumsiness? The Implications of Having Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD)

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Gillberg; Björn Kadesjö

    2003-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a common motor problem affecting—even in rather severe form—several percent of school age children. In the past, DCD has usually been called ‘clumsy child syndrome’ or ‘non-cerebralpalsy motor-perception dysfunction’. This disorder is more common in boys than in girls and is very often associated with psychopathology, particularly with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders/ autistic-type problems. Conversely,...

  14. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  15. Computational Approach To Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Włodzisław Duch; Wiesław Nowak; Jaroslaw Meller; Grzegorz Osiński; Krzysztof Dobosz; Dariusz Mikołajewski; Grzegorz Marcin Wójcik

    2012-01-01

    Every year the prevalence of Autism Spectrum of Disorders (ASD) is rising. Is there a unifying mechanism of various ASD cases at the genetic, molecular, cellular or systems level? The hypothesis advanced in this paper is focused on neural dysfunctions that lead to problems with attention in autistic people. Simulations of attractor neural networks performing cognitive functions help to assess system long-term neurodynamics. The Fuzzy Symbolic Dynamics (FSD) technique is used for the visualiza...

  16. Supporting and treating families with children on the autistic spectrum: The unique role of the generalist psychologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Research findings indicate that intensive behavior therapy (e.g., applied behavioral analysis, or ABA) represents an effective treatment for autistic spectrum disorders. Unfortunately, children with autism represent an underserved patient population. Parents often make treatment decisions with insufficient information and report problems in establishing and maintaining treatment programs. This practice review asserts that psychologists, including those without professional certification or coursework in ABA, are in a unique position to assist affected children and their families. Psychologists can provide critical information about evidence-based treatment; offer assistance in overcoming barriers to intensive treatment, including personnel selection; and provide ongoing support to family members. Case examples also illustrate how psychologists can help families address specific barriers to intensive treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122105

  17. The Autistic Phenotype Exhibits a Remarkably Localized Modification of Brain Protein by Products of Free Radical-Induced Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A. Evans

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage has been documented in the peripheral tissues of autism patients. In this study, we sought evidence of oxidative injury in autistic brain. Carboxyethyl pyrrole (CEP and iso[4]levuglandin (iso[4]LGE2-protein adducts, that are uniquely generated through peroxidation of docosahexaenoate and arachidonate-containing lipids respectively, and heme oxygenase-1 were detected immunocytochemically in cortical brain tissues and by ELISA in blood plasma. Significant immunoreactivity toward all three of these markers of oxidative damage in the white matter and often extending well into the grey matter of axons was found in every case of autism examined. This striking threadlike pattern appears to be a hallmark of the autistic brain as it was not seen in any control brain, young or aged, used as controls for the oxidative assays. Western blot and immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed neurofilament heavy chain to be a major target of CEP-modification. In contrast, in plasma from 27 autism spectrum disorder patients and 11 age-matched healthy controls we found similar levels of plasma CEP (124.5 ± 57.9 versus 110.4 ± 30.3 pmol/mL, iso[4]LGE2 protein adducts (16.7 ± 5.8 versus 13.4 ± 3.4 nmol/mL, anti-CEP (1.2 ± 0.7 versus 1.2 ± 0.3 and anti-iso[4]LGE2 autoantibody titre (1.3 ± 1.6 versus 1.0 ± 0.9, and no differences between the ratio of NO2Tyr/Tyr (7.81 E-06 ± 3.29 E-06 versus 7.87 E-06 ± 1.62 E-06. These findings provide the first direct evidence of increased oxidative stress in the autistic brain. It seems likely that oxidative injury of proteins in the brain would be associated with neurological abnormalities and provide a cellular basis at the root of autism spectrum disorders.

  18. Autistic expertise: a critical reflection on the production of knowledge in autism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Damian Em

    2014-10-01

    The field of autism studies is a highly disputed territory within which competing contradictory discourses abound. In this field, it is the voices and claims of autistic people regarding their own expertise in knowledge production concerning autism that is most recent in the debate, and traditionally the least attended to. In this article, I utilise the theories of Harry Collins and colleagues in order to reflect upon and conceptualise the various claims to knowledge production and expertise within the field of autism studies, from the perspective of an author who has been diagnosed as being on the autism spectrum. The notion that autistic people lack sociality is problematised, with the suggestion that autistic people are not well described by notions such as the 'social brain', or as possessing 'zero degrees of cognitive empathy'. I then argue, however, that there is a qualitative difference in autistic sociality, and question to what extent such differences are of a biological or cultural nature, and to what extent interactional expertise can be gained by both parties in interactions between autistic and non-autistic people. In conclusion, I argue that autistic people have often become distrustful of researchers and their aims, and are frequently frozen out of the processes of knowledge production. Such a context results in a negative feedback spiral with further damage to the growth of interactional expertise between researchers and autistic people, and a breakdown in trust and communication leading to an increase in tension between stakeholder groups. The involvement of autistic scholars in research and improvements in participatory methods can thus be seen as a requirement, if social research in the field of autism is to claim ethical and epistemological integrity.

  19. Overlap of Obsessive-compulsive Traits and Autistic Traits in College Students%大学生的强迫特征与自闭特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐苏勤; 王建平; 刘君; 孙宏伟; 唐谭

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between obsessive-compulsive and autistic traits in college students, laying the foundation of exploring the relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorder and autistic spectrum disorder. Methods: A total of 1918 college students were investigated with Padua Inventory (PI) and Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Results: (T)Males scored higher than females on Impulses, Checking subscale, the total score of PI, Attention to Detail, Communication, Imagination subscale and the total score of AQ. 〢ll PI subscales and its total score were significantly positively correlated with all AQ subscales and its total score. Particularly, for the total score of PI, the correlation coefficient was 0.310 to the total score of AQ (P<0.01). ㏕here was good consistency between High Obsessive-Compulsive group and High Autistic group, and Low Obsessive-Compulsive group and Low Autistic group (kappa=0.531, P<0.001). Conclusion: There is partial overlap of obsessive-compulsive and autistic traits in college students, implying there may be overlap of mechanism of obsessive-compulsive disorder and autistic spectrum disorder.%目的:考察大学生群体中强迫特征与自闭特征的关系,为深入探讨强迫症与自闭谱系障碍的关系奠定基础.方法:采用方便取样,选取大学生1918名;用帕多瓦量表(Padua Inventory,PI)和自闭症量表(Autism-Spectrum Quotient,AQ)进行测查.结果:①男生在受驱使与行为失控感、检查、强迫症状总分、对细节的注意、沟通能力、想象能力和自闭症状总分上的得分均高于女生;②强迫症状总分及各因素均与自闭症状总分及各因素呈显著正相关,其中强迫症状总分与自闭症状总分的相关为0.310(P<1.01);③强迫特征高低分组(前后27%)和自闭特征高低分组(前后27%)具有良好的一致性(kappa=0.531,P<o.001).结论:大学生强迫特征与自闭特征存在部分重叠,提示强迫症和自

  20. Genetic-background modulation of core and variable autistic-like symptoms in Fmr1 knock-out mice.

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    Susanna Pietropaolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No animal models of autism spectrum disorders (ASD with good construct validity are currently available; using genetic models of pathologies characterized by ASD-like deficits, but with known causes, may be therefore a promising strategy. The Fmr1-KO mouse is an example of this approach, modeling Fragile X syndrome, a well-known genetic disorder presenting ASD symptoms. The Fmr1-KO is available on different genetic backgrounds (FVB versus C57BL/6, which may explain some of the conflicting results that have been obtained with these mutants up till now. METHODS: Fmr1 KO and their wild-type littermates on both the FVB and C57BL/6 genetic backgrounds were examined on a battery of tests modeling the clinical symptoms of ASD, including the triad of core symptoms (alterations in social interaction and communication, presence of repetitive behaviors, as well as the secondary symptoms (disturbances in sensori-motor reactivity and in circadian patterns of activity, epileptic events. RESULTS: Fmr1-KO mice displayed autistic-like core symptoms of altered social interaction and occurrence of repetitive behaviors with additional hyperactivity. The genetic background modulated the effects of the Fmr1 deletion and it appears that the C57BL/6 background may be more suitable for further research on core autistic-like symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The Fmr1-mouse line does not recapitulate all of the main core and secondary ASD symptoms, but still can be useful to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying specific ASD-like endophenotypes.

  1. Modeling the autistic cell: iPSCs recapitulate developmental principles of syndromic and nonsyndromic ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Reuven, Lihi; Reiner, Orly

    2016-06-01

    The opportunity to model autism spectrum disorders (ASD) through generation of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is currently an emerging topic. Wide-scale research of altered brain circuits in syndromic ASD, including Rett Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, Angelman's Syndrome and sporadic Schizophrenia, was made possible through animal models. However, possibly due to species differences, and to the possible contribution of epigenetics in the pathophysiology of these diseases, animal models fail to recapitulate many aspects of ASD. With the advent of iPSCs technology, 3D cultures of patient-derived cells are being used to study complex neuronal phenotypes, including both syndromic and nonsyndromic ASD. Here, we review recent advances in using iPSCs to study various aspects of the ASD neuropathology, with emphasis on the efforts to create in vitro model systems for syndromic and nonsyndromic ASD. We summarize the main cellular activity phenotypes and aberrant genetic interaction networks that were found in iPSC-derived neurons of syndromic and nonsyndromic autistic patients. PMID:27111774

  2. Facial emotion recognition system for autistic children: a feasible study based on FPGA implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, K G; Vinod, A P

    2015-11-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty in understanding the emotional and mental states from the facial expressions of the people they interact. The inability to understand other people's emotions will hinder their interpersonal communication. Though many facial emotion recognition algorithms have been proposed in the literature, they are mainly intended for processing by a personal computer, which limits their usability in on-the-move applications where portability is desired. The portability of the system will ensure ease of use and real-time emotion recognition and that will aid for immediate feedback while communicating with caretakers. Principal component analysis (PCA) has been identified as the least complex feature extraction algorithm to be implemented in hardware. In this paper, we present a detailed study of the implementation of serial and parallel implementation of PCA in order to identify the most feasible method for realization of a portable emotion detector for autistic children. The proposed emotion recognizer architectures are implemented on Virtex 7 XC7VX330T FFG1761-3 FPGA. We achieved 82.3% detection accuracy for a word length of 8 bits. PMID:26239162

  3. Vision Therapy for the Autistic Patient: A Literature Review and Case Report

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    Michael Au, OD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The heightened awareness of autism spectrum disorder (ASD has propelled concern for proper care into a significant public health issue. Vision deficits, including visual processing and integration, may contribute to the anxiety and uneasiness that these individuals frequently experience. Additionally, these deficits often translate into considerable hindrances to classroom success. This paper addresses a sampling of vision-based behaviors in ASD including visual hyper/hyposensitivity, poor facial recognition, lack of eye contact, and visual-motor integration impairments. Case Summary: A 10-year-old autistic male was referred for diagnosis of convergence insufficiency. There were notable developmental delays and concerns primarily regarding reading comprehension, attention deficits, and spatial organization. He previously received speech and language therapies in conjunction with occupational therapy. Diagnostic testing of the patient’s ocular motility yielded tracking inefficiencies and poor accuracy. The Wachs Analysis of Cognitive Structures (WACS evaluation was performed and revealed weaknesses in a number of visualization tasks as well as in gross and fine motor coordination. An individualized program of vision therapy was recommended to improve his visualization, tracking, and visual motor integration abilities. Conclusion: This case report illustrates how the distinctive challenges of structuring a successful vision therapy program for the varying presentations of ASD can be met by adapting techniques to the appropriate developmental stage of the child. Vision therapy provides the framework to build skills that are transferrable and valuable in the classroom.

  4. Locus of Control Fails to Mediate between Stress and Anxiety and Depression in Parents of Children with a Developmental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn-Wright, Sarah; Draghi-Lorenz, Riccardo; Ellis, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Stress, anxiety and depression are raised amongst parents of children with a developmental disorder. However, the processes by which stress leads to depression and anxiety are poorly understood. In a cross-sectional survey, levels of parental stress, depression and anxiety were compared between parents of children with an autistic disorder,…

  5. Anxiety Disorders in Typically Developing Youth: Autism Spectrum Symptoms as a Predictor of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puleo, Connor M.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were assessed (Social Responsiveness Scale-Parent (SRS-P); coded in-session behavior) in typically-developing, anxiety-disordered children (N = 50) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). "Study 1": children with moderate autistic symptomology (per SRS-P) were significantly more likely to improve…

  6. Moderating Effects of Challenging Behaviors and Communication Deficits on Social Skills in Children Diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hess, Julie A.; Mahan, Sara

    2013-01-01

    One-hundred nine children 3-16 years of age diagnosed with Autistic Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, or Asperger's Syndrome were studied. Children resided in six states in the United States. Using moderation analysis via multiple regression, verbal communication and challenging behaviors and how they interact…

  7. The PDD-MRS : An instrument for identification of autism spectrum disorders in persons with mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraijer, D; de Bildt, A

    2005-01-01

    The Scale of Pervasive Developmental Disorder in Mentally Retarded Persons (PDD-MRS) is described. The PDD-MRS is a simple classification and screening instrument devised for identification of autistic disorders (of the entire spectrum) in persons with mental retardation from mild to profound levels

  8. Autistic fluid intelligence: Increased reliance on visual functional connectivity with diminished modulation of coupling by task difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Simard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different test types lead to different intelligence estimates in autism, as illustrated by the fact that autistic individuals obtain higher scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RSPM test than they do on the Wechsler IQ, in contrast to relatively similar performance on both tests in non-autistic individuals. However, the cerebral processes underlying these differences are not well understood. This study investigated whether activity in the fluid “reasoning” network, which includes frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital regions, is differently modulated by task complexity in autistic and non-autistic individuals during the RSPM. In this purpose, we used fMRI to study autistic and non-autistic participants solving the 60 RSPM problems focussing on regions and networks involved in reasoning complexity. As complexity increased, activity in the left superior occipital gyrus and the left middle occipital gyrus increased for autistic participants, whereas non-autistic participants showed increased activity in the left middle frontal gyrus and bilateral precuneus. Using psychophysiological interaction analyses (PPI, we then verified in which regions did functional connectivity increase as a function of reasoning complexity. PPI analyses revealed greater connectivity in autistic, compared to non-autistic participants, between the left inferior occipital gyrus and areas in the left superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal lobe, right middle occipital gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus. We also observed generally less modulation of the reasoning network as complexity increased in autistic participants. These results suggest that autistic individuals, when confronted with increasing task complexity, rely mainly on visuospatial processes when solving more complex matrices. In addition to the now well-established enhanced activity observed in visual areas in a range of tasks, these results suggest that the enhanced reliance on visual

  9. ON ORTHODOX/HETERODOX AND AUTISTIC/POST AUTISTIC ECONOMICS – A VIEW FROM THE ROMANIAN ACADEMIC LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA IANOLE

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The way economics is perceived nowadays seems to be going back to the old label of `dismal science`, because it has not achieved to offer consistent and valid solutions to real problems in critical moments. In a constructive defense of our profession, we need to acknowledge the existence of some oversimplified hypothesis that do not conform to the actual human behavior, and thus to turn to different branches of the discipline (from behavioral to feminist, green economics and econo-physics, just to give some examples that try to reintegrate economic thinking in the real landscape, through different approaches. The post autistic economics represents a powerful example within this attempt of offering economics a new spirit and new insights of how it should be taught and applied.The aim of this paper is to discuss on the multiple perspectives, orthodox and heterodox, autistic and postautistic, and on the manner they appear to be understood, accepted and implemented in the Romanian economic higher education. We question the neoclassical paradigm in search for new insights that could lead to a possible internal reform of the field, ppening it more to the opinions of the surrounding social sciences.

  10. Evidence for gender-specific endophenotypes in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder during empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Karla; Regenbogen, Christina; Pauly, Katharina D; Gossen, Anna; Schneider, Daniel A; Mevissen, Lea; Michel, Tanja M; Gur, Ruben C; Habel, Ute; Schneider, Frank

    2013-12-01

    Despite remarkable behavioral gender differences in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and growing evidence for a diminished male : female ratio for the putative "male disorder" ASD, aspects of gender are not addressed accordingly in ASD research. Our study aims at filling this gap by exploring empathy abilities in a group of 28 patients with high-functioning ASD and 28 gender-, age- and education-matched non-autistic subjects, for the first time by means of functional neuroimaging (fMRI). In an event-related fMRI paradigm, emotional ("E") and neutral ("N") video clips presented actors telling self-related short stories. After each clip, participants were asked to indicate their own emotion and its intensity as well as the emotion and intensity perceived for the actor. Behaviorally, we found significantly less empathic responses in the overall ASD group compared with non-autistic subjects, and inadequate emotion recognition for the neutral clips in the female ASD group compared with healthy women. Neurally, increased activation of the bilateral medial frontal gyrus was found in male patients compared with female patients, a pattern which was not present in the non-autistic group. Additionally, autistic women exhibited decreased activation of midbrain and limbic regions compared with non-autistic women, whereas there was no significant difference within the male group. While we did not find a fundamental empathic deficit in autistic patients, our data propose different ways of processing empathy in autistic men and women, suggesting stronger impairments in cognitive aspects of empathy/theory of mind for men, and alterations of social reciprocity for women.

  11. Reducing the Disparity Between Model Stimulus and Imitative Response in Two Autistic Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Thomas S.

    1978-01-01

    Two autistic boys, ages 6 and 10 years, whose imitative responding was functionally inaccurate and whose performance generalized poorly, were trained to imitate accurately using a reinforcement-extinction strategy. (DLS)

  12. Responses to the negative emotions of others by autistic, mentally retarded, and normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, M D; Kasari, C; Kwon, J H; Yirmiya, N

    1992-08-01

    Attention, facial affect, and behavioral responses to adults showing distress, fear, and discomfort were compared for autistic, mentally retarded, and normal children. The normal and mentally retarded children were very attentive to adults in all 3 situations. In contrast, many of the autistic children appeared to ignore or not notice the adults showing these negative affects. As a group, the autistic children looked at the adults less and were much more engaged in toy play than the other children during periods when an adult pretended to be hurt. The autistic children were also less attentive to adults showing fear, although their behavior was not different from the normal children. Few of the children in any group showed much facial affect in response to these situations. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of affect in the social learning experiences of the young child. PMID:1505241

  13. The sociocommunicative deficit subgroup in anorexia nervosa: autism spectrum disorders and neurocognition in a community-based, longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Anckarsäter, Henrik; Hofvander, Björn; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Carina; Gillberg, Christopher; Wentz, Elisabet; Råstam, Maria

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A subgroup of persons with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been proposed to have sociocommunicative problems corresponding to autism spectrum disorders [ASDs, i.e. DSM-IV pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs): autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, PDD not otherwise specified (NOS)]. Here, clinical problems, personality traits, cognitive test results and outcome are compared across 16 subjects (32%) with teenage-onset AN who meet or have met ASD criteria (AN+ASD), 34 ASD-negati...

  14. A longitudinal twin study of the association between childhood autistic traits and psychotic experiences in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Mark J.; Robinson, Elise B.; Happé, Francesca; Bolton, Patrick; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Background This twin study investigated whether autistic traits during childhood were associated with adolescent psychotic experiences. Methods Data were collected from a community sample of approximately 5000 twin pairs, which included 32 individuals with diagnosed autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Parents rated autistic traits in the twins at four points between ages 8–16 years. Positive, negative, and cognitive psychotic experiences were assessed at age 16 years using self- and parent-repo...

  15. Statistical distribution of blood serotonin as a predictor of early autistic brain abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janušonis Skirmantas

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A wide range of abnormalities has been reported in autistic brains, but these abnormalities may be the result of an earlier underlying developmental alteration that may no longer be evident by the time autism is diagnosed. The most consistent biological finding in autistic individuals has been their statistically elevated levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin in blood platelets (platelet hyperserotonemia. The early developmental alteration of the autistic brain and the autistic platelet hyperserotonemia may be caused by the same biological factor expressed in the brain and outside the brain, respectively. Unlike the brain, blood platelets are short-lived and continue to be produced throughout the life span, suggesting that this factor may continue to operate outside the brain years after the brain is formed. The statistical distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups have characteristic features and may contain information about the nature of this yet unidentified factor. Results The identity of this factor was studied by using a novel, quantitative approach that was applied to published distributions of the platelet 5-HT levels in normal and autistic groups. It was shown that the published data are consistent with the hypothesis that a factor that interferes with brain development in autism may also regulate the release of 5-HT from gut enterochromaffin cells. Numerical analysis revealed that this factor may be non-functional in autistic individuals. Conclusion At least some biological factors, the abnormal function of which leads to the development of the autistic brain, may regulate the release of 5-HT from the gut years after birth. If the present model is correct, it will allow future efforts to be focused on a limited number of gene candidates, some of which have not been suspected to be involved in autism (such as the 5-HT4 receptor gene based on currently available clinical and

  16. The limits and motivating potential of sensory stimuli as reinforcers for autistic children.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, M; Harris, S L

    1981-01-01

    This study investigated the reinforcing properties, limits, and motivating potentials of sensory stimuli with autistic children. In the first phase of the study, four intellectually retarded autistic children were exposed to three different types of sensory stimulation (vibration, music, and strobe light) as well as edible and social reinforcers for ten-second intervals contingent upon six simple bar pressing responses. In the second phase, the same events were used as reinforcers for correct...

  17. Autistic trait interactions underlie sex-dependent facial recognition abilities in the normal population

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey eValla; Jeffrey eMaendel; Barbara eGanzel; Andrew eBarsky; Belmonte, Matthew K.

    2013-01-01

    Autistic face processing difficulties are said to be either uniquely social or due to a piecemeal cognitive ‘style’. Co-morbidity of social deficits and piecemeal cognition in autism makes teasing apart these accounts difficult. These traits vary normally, and are more separable in the general population, suggesting another way to compare accounts. Participants completed the Autism Quotient survey of autistic traits, and one of three face recognition tests: full-face, eyes-only, or mouth-only...

  18. Autistic trait interactions underlie sex-dependent facial recognition abilities in the normal population

    OpenAIRE

    Valla, Jeffrey M.; Maendel, Jeffrey W.; Ganzel, Barbara L.; Barsky, Andrew R.; Belmonte, Matthew K.

    2013-01-01

    Autistic face processing difficulties are either uniquely social or due to a piecemeal cognitive “style.” Co-morbidity of social deficits and piecemeal cognition in autism makes teasing apart these accounts difficult. These traits vary normally, and are more separable in the general population, suggesting another way to compare accounts. Participants completed the Autism Quotient survey of autistic traits, and one of three face recognition tests: full-face, eyes-only, or mouth-only. Social tr...

  19. Comparative evaluation of oral hygiene practices and oral health status in autistic and normal individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Vajawat, M.; Deepika, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The present study attempts to explore the oral hygiene practices and oral health status in autistic patients as compared to nonaffected, same aged healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: The oral hygiene practices, prevalence of caries and periodontal status were evaluated in 117 autistic patients and 126 healthy individuals. The test and control groups were divided into three categories, based on the type of dentition as Primary dentition (Category 1), Mixed dentition (Category 2) a...

  20. The Evolution of Autistic-Like and Schizotypal Traits: A Sexual Selection Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Del Giudice; Romina Angeleri; Adelina Brizio; Marco R Elena

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new hypothesis on the evolution of autistic-like and schizotypal personality traits. We argue that autistic-like and schizotypal traits contribute in opposite ways to individual differences in reproductive and mating strategies, and have been maintained – at least in part – by sexual selection through mate choice. Whereas positive schizotypy can be seen as a psychological phenotype oriented to high mating effort and good genes displays in both sexes, aut...

  1. Axiom, anguish and amazement: How autistic traits modulate emotional and proprioceptive mental imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eEsposito

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to feel their own and others’ internal states, with those that have more autistic and less empathic traits clustering at the clinical end of the spectrum. However, when we consider semantic competence, we would expect this group to compensate with a higher capacity to imagine the meaning of words referring to emotions. This is indeed what we found when we asked people with different levels of autistic and empathic traits to rate the degree of imageability of various kinds of words. But this was not the whole story. Individuals with marked autistic traits demonstrated outstanding ability to imagine theoretical concepts, i.e. concepts that are commonly grasped linguistically through their definitions. This distinctive characteristic was so pronounced that, using tree-based predictive models, it was possible to accurately predict participants’ inclination to manifest autistic traits, as well as their adherence to autistic profiles – including whether they fell above or below the diagnostic threshold – from their imageability ratings. We speculate that this quasi-perceptual ability to imagine theoretical concepts, coupled with a lowered ability to imagine emotional terms represents a specific cognitive pattern that, while hindering social interaction, may favour problem solving in abstract, non-socially related tasks. This would allow people with marked autistic traits to make use of perceptual, possibly visuo-spatial, information for higher cognitive processing.

  2. Comparison of psychopathology in the mothers of autistic and mentally retarded children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Sunay; Diler, Rasim Somer; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety, depression, alexithymia, and general psychological symptoms in the mothers of autistic children in comparison with those in the mothers of mentally retarded children. Forty mothers of autistic children and 38 mothers of mentally retarded children were included in the study. After a clinical interview, psychometric tests were performed for depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and Symptom Distress Check List (SCL-90) for general psychological symptoms. Non-depression rates was 27.5% in the mothers of autistic children whereas the rate was 55.3% in the mothers of mentally retarded children. There was no difference regarding anxiety and alexithymia between the two groups. The psychopathology in the mothers of autistic children was more frequent than in those of mentally retarded children in all sub-scales of SCL-90 (somatization obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, anger-hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid thought, psychotism, and extra scale). The mothers of autistic children experienced more psychological distress than those of mentally retarded children. Our findings indicates that the assessment of autistic and mentally retarded children should include psychological assessment of their mothers.

  3. Divergent roles of autistic and alexithymic traits in utilitarian moral judgments in adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Indrajeet; Melsbach, Jens; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Silani, Giorgia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated hypothetical moral choices in adults with high-functioning autism and the role of empathy and alexithymia in such choices. We used a highly emotionally salient moral dilemma task to investigate autistics' hypothetical moral evaluations about personally carrying out harmful utilitarian behaviours aimed at maximizing welfare. Results showed that they exhibited a normal pattern of moral judgments despite the deficits in social cognition and emotional processing. Further analyses revealed that this was due to mutually conflicting biases associated with autistic and alexithymic traits after accounting for shared variance: (a) autistic traits were associated with reduced utilitarian bias due to elevated personal distress of demanding social situations, while (b) alexithymic traits were associated with increased utilitarian bias on account of reduced empathic concern for the victim. Additionally, autistics relied on their non-verbal reasoning skills to rigidly abide by harm-norms. Thus, utilitarian moral judgments in autism were spared due to opposite influences of autistic and alexithymic traits and compensatory intellectual strategies. These findings demonstrate the importance of empathy and alexithymia in autistic moral cognition and have methodological implications for studying moral judgments in several other clinical populations. PMID:27020307

  4. Axiom, Anguish, and Amazement: How Autistic Traits Modulate Emotional Mental Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gianluca; Dellantonio, Sara; Mulatti, Claudio; Job, Remo

    2016-01-01

    Individuals differ in their ability to feel their own and others’ internal states, with those that have more autistic and less empathic traits clustering at the clinical end of the spectrum. However, when we consider semantic competence, this group could compensate with a higher capacity to imagine the meaning of words referring to emotions. This is indeed what we found when we asked people with different levels of autistic and empathic traits to rate the degree of imageability of various kinds of words. But this was not the whole story. Individuals with marked autistic traits demonstrated outstanding ability to imagine theoretical concepts, i.e., concepts that are commonly grasped linguistically through their definitions. This distinctive characteristic was so pronounced that, using tree-based predictive models, it was possible to accurately predict participants’ inclination to manifest autistic traits, as well as their adherence to autistic profiles – including whether they fell above or below the diagnostic threshold – from their imageability ratings. We speculate that this quasi-perceptual ability to imagine theoretical concepts represents a specific cognitive pattern that, while hindering social interaction, may favor problem solving in abstract, non-socially related tasks. This would allow people with marked autistic traits to make use of perceptual, possibly visuo-spatial, information for “higher” cognitive processing. PMID:27303325

  5. Brief Report: Biochemical correlates of clinical impairment in high functioning autism and Asperger’s disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Weaver, Kurt E.; Liang, Olivia; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Amygdala dysfunction has been proposed as a critical contributor to social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigated biochemical abnormalities in the amygdala in 20 high functioning adults with autistic disorder or Asperger’s disorder and 19 typically developing adults matched on age and IQ. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure n-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine/phosphocreatine (Cre), choline/choline containing compounds (Cho), and Myoinosito...

  6. Use of contrastive stress in normal, aphasic, and autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaxe, C A

    1984-03-01

    Studies in child language have shown that contrastive stress appears to be an early developing device to mark the topic-comment distinction, and thus is important for the acquisition of pragmatic knowledge. This study examined the use of contrastive stress by autistic children with mean-length-of-utterance (MLU) scores between 1.9 and 4.1 morphemes. Normal and aphasic subjects at similar MLU levels served as contrast groups. The contrastive stress task required that the subjects verbally assess the counterfactual nature of a presupposition in a yes-no question. Toy manipulation was used to elicit the desired responses in a play situation. Listener judgment served as the basis for analyzing results. Although all subject groups were able to perform the task, differences were seen in the number of correct responses and the patterns of stress misassignment . PMID:6201678

  7. Deletion 2q37 syndrome: Cognitive-behavioral trajectories and autistic features related to breakpoint and deletion size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, Gene S; Falk, Rena E; Carey, John C; Imitola, Jaime; Sederberg, Maria; Caravalho, Karen S; South, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Subtelomeric deletions have been reported in ∼2.5% of individuals with developmental disabilities. Subtelomeric deletion 2q37 has been detected in many individuals diagnosed with intellectual disabilities (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previously, genotype-phenotype correspondences were examined for their relationship to breakpoints 37.1, 37.2, or 37.3. Our purpose was to ascertain whether there were phenotypic differences at these breakpoints, elucidate the cognitive-behavioral phenotype in del2q37, and examine the genotype-phenotype association in the deletion with respect to cognitive-behavioral profiles and ASD. We administered a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral battery to nine children diagnosed with del 2q37, ages 3.9-17.75 years. ID for five tested with the Stanford-Binet (4th Edition) (SBFE) ranged from severe to mild [IQ Range: 36-59]. Adaptive behavior scores from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) were much below adequate levels (DQ Range: floor value ["19"] to 55). Autism scores from the Child Autism Rating Scale (CARS) ranged from 22 [non-autistic] to 56 [extremely autistic]; 5/8 [63%] children received scores on the autism spectrum. Participants with the largest deletions, 10.1 and 9.5 Mb, attained the highest IQ and DQ scores while those with the smallest deletions, 7.9 and 6.6 Mb, made the lowest IQ and DQ scores. No association between deletion breakpoint and phenotype were found. Assessment of the various deleted regions suggested histone deacetylase 4 gene (HDAC4) was a likely candidate gene for ASD in our sample. However, two earlier reports found no association between HDAC4 haploinsufficiency and ASD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Asperger's disorder will be back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Luke Y

    2013-12-01

    This review focuses on identifying up-to-date number of publications that compared DSM-IV/ICD-10 Asperger's disorder (AspD) to Autistic Disorder/High-functioning Autism (AD/HFA). One hundred and twenty-eight publications were identified through an extensive search of major electronic databases and journals. Based on more than 90 clinical variables been investigated, 94 publications concluded that there were statistically significant or near significant level of quantitative and/or qualitative differences between AspD and AD/HFA groups; 4 publications found both similarities and differences between the two groups; 30 publications concluded with no differences between the two groups. Although DSM-5 ASD will eliminate Asperger's disorder. However, it is plausible to predict that the field of ASD would run full circle during the next decade or two and that AspD will be back in the next edition of DSM. PMID:23644916

  9. Discrepancy between WISC-III and WISC-IV Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum: What Does It Reveal about Autistic Cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Anne-Marie; Jelenic, Patricia; Soulières, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive profile and measured intellectual level vary according to assessment tools in children on the autism spectrum, much more so than in typically developing children. The recent inclusion of intellectual functioning in the diagnostic process for autism spectrum disorders leads to the crucial question on how to assess intelligence in autism, especially as some tests and subtests seem more sensitive to certain neurodevelopmental conditions. Our first aim was to examine the cognitive profile on the current version of the most widely used test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV), for a homogenous subgroup of children on the autism spectrum, i.e. corresponding to DSM-IV diagnosis of "autism". The second aim was to compare cognitive profiles obtained on the third edition versus 4th edition of WISC, in order to verify whether the WISC-IV yields a more distinctive cognitive profile in autistic children. The third aim was to examine the impact of the WISC-IV on the cognitive profile of another subgroup, children with Asperger's Syndrome. 51 autistic, 15 Asperger and 42 typically developing children completed the WISC-IV and were individually matched to children who completed the WISC-III. Divergent WISC-IV profiles were observed despite no significant intelligence quotient difference between groups. Autistic children scored significantly higher on the Perceptual Reasoning Index than on the Verbal Comprehension Index, a discrepancy that nearly tripled in comparison to WISC-III results. Asperger children scored higher on the VCI than on other indexes, with the lowest score found on the Processing Speed Index. WISC-IV cognitive profiles were consistent with, but more pronounced than WISC-III profiles. Cognitive profiles are a valuable diagnostic tool for differential diagnosis, keeping in mind that children on the autism spectrum might be more sensitive to the choice of subtests used to assess intelligence. PMID:26673881

  10. Discrepancy between WISC-III and WISC-IV Cognitive Profile in Autism Spectrum: What Does It Reveal about Autistic Cognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Nader

    Full Text Available The cognitive profile and measured intellectual level vary according to assessment tools in children on the autism spectrum, much more so than in typically developing children. The recent inclusion of intellectual functioning in the diagnostic process for autism spectrum disorders leads to the crucial question on how to assess intelligence in autism, especially as some tests and subtests seem more sensitive to certain neurodevelopmental conditions. Our first aim was to examine the cognitive profile on the current version of the most widely used test, the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV, for a homogenous subgroup of children on the autism spectrum, i.e. corresponding to DSM-IV diagnosis of "autism". The second aim was to compare cognitive profiles obtained on the third edition versus 4th edition of WISC, in order to verify whether the WISC-IV yields a more distinctive cognitive profile in autistic children. The third aim was to examine the impact of the WISC-IV on the cognitive profile of another subgroup, children with Asperger's Syndrome. 51 autistic, 15 Asperger and 42 typically developing children completed the WISC-IV and were individually matched to children who completed the WISC-III. Divergent WISC-IV profiles were observed despite no significant intelligence quotient difference between groups. Autistic children scored significantly higher on the Perceptual Reasoning Index than on the Verbal Comprehension Index, a discrepancy that nearly tripled in comparison to WISC-III results. Asperger children scored higher on the VCI than on other indexes, with the lowest score found on the Processing Speed Index. WISC-IV cognitive profiles were consistent with, but more pronounced than WISC-III profiles. Cognitive profiles are a valuable diagnostic tool for differential diagnosis, keeping in mind that children on the autism spectrum might be more sensitive to the choice of subtests used to assess intelligence.

  11. The interaction between early life epilepsy and autistic-like behavioral consequences: a role for the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia M Talos

    Full Text Available Early life seizures can result in chronic epilepsy, cognitive deficits and behavioral changes such as autism, and conversely epilepsy is common in autistic children. We hypothesized that during early brain development, seizures could alter regulators of synaptic development and underlie the interaction between epilepsy and autism. The mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR modulates protein translation and is dysregulated in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex, a disorder characterized by epilepsy and autism. We used a rodent model of acute hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures that results in long term increases in neuronal excitability, seizure susceptibility, and spontaneous seizures, to determine how seizures alter mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1 signaling. We hypothesized that seizures occurring at a developmental stage coinciding with a critical period of synaptogenesis will activate mTORC1, contributing to epileptic networks and autistic-like behavior in later life. Here we show that in the rat, baseline mTORC1 activation peaks during the first three postnatal weeks, and induction of seizures at postnatal day 10 results in further transient activation of its downstream targets phospho-4E-BP1 (Thr37/46, phospho-p70S6K (Thr389 and phospho-S6 (Ser235/236, as well as rapid induction of activity-dependent upstream signaling molecules, including BDNF, phospho-Akt (Thr308 and phospho-ERK (Thr202/Tyr204. Furthermore, treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin immediately before and after seizures reversed early increases in glutamatergic neurotransmission and seizure susceptibility and attenuated later life epilepsy and autistic-like behavior. Together, these findings suggest that in the developing brain the mTORC1 signaling pathway is involved in epileptogenesis and altered social behavior, and that it may be a target for development of novel therapies that eliminate the progressive effects of neonatal seizures.

  12. Comparison of the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition, in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondhuis, Sabrina Nicole; Mulick, James A.

    2013-01-01

    A review of hospital records was conducted for children evaluated for autism spectrum disorders who completed both the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th Edition (SB5). Participants were between 3 and 12 years of age. Diagnoses were autistic disorder (n = 26, 55%) and pervasive…

  13. Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Portugal: Prevalence, Clinical Characterization, and Medical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Guiomar; Ataide, Assuncao; Marques, Carla; Miguel, Teresa S.; Coutinho, Ana Margarida; Mota-Vieira, Luisa; Goncalves, Esmeralda; Lopes, Nazare Mendes; Rodrigues, Vitor; Carmona da Mota, Henrique; Vicente, Astrid Moura

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identify its clinical characterization, and medical conditions in a paediatric population in Portugal. A school survey was conducted in elementary schools, targeting 332 808 school-aged children in the mainland and 10 910 in the Azores islands.…

  14. Alternative/Complementary Approaches to Treatment of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Susan E.; Hyman, Susan L.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews common complementary or alternative medicine (CAM) treatments used to address symptoms of autistic spectrum disorders, including vitamin supplements, medications, antibiotics, antifungals, diet strategies, chelation/mercury detoxification, and nonbiologic treatments. Strategies that professionals may use in assessing the…

  15. [Differential diagnosis between Schizotypal Personality Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünver, Buket; Öner, Özgür; Yurtbaşı, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by social and interpersonal deficits marked by discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior. Inappropriate or constricted affect, reduced capacity for relationships, lack of close friends and reduced capacity for social life are the symptoms that overlap both schizotypal personality disorder and autism spectrum disorders. The making of differential diagnosis may be difficult since several symptoms are similar between these disorders. In this study, we discussed the differential diagnosis issues on the basis of an adolescent case. Odd appearance, magical thoughts, reference thoughts suggests Schizotypal Personality Disorder whereas lack of eye contact at 2 years old, a preference to be isolated and play alone and referral to a child psychiatrist at 4 years old suggest Autism Spectrum Disorders. Based on the results of psychological assessment, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) profile is compatible with autistic children's profiles. Based on Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the patient's anxiety, lack of close friends, constricted affect symptoms which take place in the category of interpersonal schizotypy seems to overlap with lack of communication of Autism Spectrum Disorders. This case report indicates that, separation of autism and schizophrenia, a very important historical breakthrough in autism research, may be blurred in cases with less typical clinical pictures representing autistic and schizophrenic "spectrum" diagnosis.

  16. Current and Past Research on Autistic Children and Their Families. Conducted by Division TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children). TEACCH Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopler, Eric

    This report summarizes research conducted by, or in collaboration with, the Division TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped CHildren) of the Department of Psychiatry in the University of North Carolina School of Medicine at Chapel Hill. The summaries contain bibliographic citations for published papers…

  17. Classification of autistic individuals and controls using cross-task characterization of fMRI activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Chanel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA has been applied successfully to task-based and resting-based fMRI recordings to investigate which neural markers distinguish individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD from controls. While most studies have focused on brain connectivity during resting state episodes and regions of interest approaches (ROI, a wealth of task-based fMRI datasets have been acquired in these populations in the last decade. This calls for techniques that can leverage information not only from a single dataset, but from several existing datasets that might share some common features and biomarkers. We propose a fully data-driven (voxel-based approach that we apply to two different fMRI experiments with social stimuli (faces and bodies. The method, based on Support Vector Machines (SVMs and Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE, is first trained for each experiment independently and each output is then combined to obtain a final classification output. Second, this RFE output is used to determine which voxels are most often selected for classification to generate maps of significant discriminative activity. Finally, to further explore the clinical validity of the approach, we correlate phenotypic information with obtained classifier scores. The results reveal good classification accuracy (range between 69% and 92.3%. Moreover, we were able to identify discriminative activity patterns pertaining to the social brain without relying on a priori ROI definitions. Finally, social motivation was the only dimension which correlated with classifier scores, suggesting that it is the main dimension captured by the classifiers. Altogether, we believe that the present RFE method proves to be efficient and may help identifying relevant biomarkers by taking advantage of acquired task-based fMRI datasets in psychiatric populations.

  18. Classification of autistic individuals and controls using cross-task characterization of fMRI activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanel, Guillaume; Pichon, Swann; Conty, Laurence; Berthoz, Sylvie; Chevallier, Coralie; Grèzes, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) has been applied successfully to task-based and resting-based fMRI recordings to investigate which neural markers distinguish individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) from controls. While most studies have focused on brain connectivity during resting state episodes and regions of interest approaches (ROI), a wealth of task-based fMRI datasets have been acquired in these populations in the last decade. This calls for techniques that can leverage information not only from a single dataset, but from several existing datasets that might share some common features and biomarkers. We propose a fully data-driven (voxel-based) approach that we apply to two different fMRI experiments with social stimuli (faces and bodies). The method, based on Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE), is first trained for each experiment independently and each output is then combined to obtain a final classification output. Second, this RFE output is used to determine which voxels are most often selected for classification to generate maps of significant discriminative activity. Finally, to further explore the clinical validity of the approach, we correlate phenotypic information with obtained classifier scores. The results reveal good classification accuracy (range between 69% and 92.3%). Moreover, we were able to identify discriminative activity patterns pertaining to the social brain without relying on a priori ROI definitions. Finally, social motivation was the only dimension which correlated with classifier scores, suggesting that it is the main dimension captured by the classifiers. Altogether, we believe that the present RFE method proves to be efficient and may help identifying relevant biomarkers by taking advantage of acquired task-based fMRI datasets in psychiatric populations.

  19. Diminished medial prefrontal activity behind autistic social judgments of incongruent information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu Watanabe

    Full Text Available Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD tend to make inadequate social judgments, particularly when the nonverbal and verbal emotional expressions of other people are incongruent. Although previous behavioral studies have suggested that ASD individuals have difficulty in using nonverbal cues when presented with incongruent verbal-nonverbal information, the neural mechanisms underlying this symptom of ASD remain unclear. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we compared brain activity in 15 non-medicated adult males with high-functioning ASD to that of 17 age-, parental-background-, socioeconomic-, and intelligence-quotient-matched typically-developed (TD male participants. Brain activity was measured while each participant made friend or foe judgments of realistic movies in which professional actors spoke with conflicting nonverbal facial expressions and voice prosody. We found that the ASD group made significantly less judgments primarily based on the nonverbal information than the TD group, and they exhibited significantly less brain activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex/ventral medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/vmPFC, and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC than the TD group. Among these five regions, the ACC/vmPFC and dmPFC were most involved in nonverbal-information-biased judgments in the TD group. Furthermore, the degree of decrease of the brain activity in these two brain regions predicted the severity of autistic communication deficits. The findings indicate that diminished activity in the ACC/vmPFC and dmPFC underlies the impaired abilities of individuals with ASD to use nonverbal content when making judgments regarding other people based on incongruent social information.

  20. PANDAS: an autoimmune model of mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura del Pilar Cadena Afanador

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, the National Institute of Mental Health defined the criteria of diagnosis for the pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS. Since then there has been investigating the genesis of the autoimmunity caused by this microorganism and its clinical implications, since it has been associated with the obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette’s disorder and Sydenham’s chorea and with minor evidence it has been related to of hyperactivity disorder with lack of attention, autistic disorder and anorexia nervosa. The present article is a review on the most important aspects that have been defined up to now in regards to the physiopatlogy, clinical presentation and management of the patients with PANDAS spectrum, since they are a group of diseases in which it will be possible to change the paradigm of treatment in Psychiatry, from being a symptomatic disease to an etiological one.

  1. Cultured lymphocytes from autistic children and non-autistic siblings up-regulate heat shock protein RNA in response to thimerosal challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephen J; Segal, Jeffrey; Aschner, Michael

    2006-09-01

    There are reports suggesting that some autistic children are unable to mount an adequate response following exposure to environmental toxins. This potential deficit, coupled with the similarity in clinical presentations of autism and some heavy metal toxicities, has led to the suggestion that heavy metal poisoning might play a role in the etiology of autism in uniquely susceptible individuals. Thimerosal, an anti-microbial preservative previously added routinely to childhood multi-dose vaccines, is composed of 49.6% ethyl mercury. Based on the levels of this toxin that children receive through routine immunization schedules in the first years of life, it has been postulated that thimerosal may be a potential triggering mechanism contributing to autism in susceptible individuals. One potential risk factor in these individuals may be an inability to adequately up-regulate metallothionein (MT) biosynthesis in response to presentation of a heavy metal challenge. To investigate this hypothesis, cultured lymphocytes (obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange, AGRE) from autistic children and non-autistic siblings were challenged with either 10 microM ethyl mercury, 150 microM zinc, or fresh media (control). Following the challenge, total RNA was extracted and used to query "whole genome" DNA microarrays. Cultured lymphocytes challenged with zinc responded with an impressive up-regulation of MT transcripts (at least nine different MTs were over-expressed) while cells challenged with thimerosal responded by up-regulating numerous heat shock protein transcripts, but not MTs. Although there were no apparent differences between autistic and non-autistic sibling responses in this very small sampling group, the differences in expression profiles between those cells treated with zinc versus thimerosal were dramatic. Determining cellular response, at the level of gene expression, has important implications for the understanding and treatment of conditions that result

  2. Autistic Children Exhibit Decreased Levels of Essential Fatty Acids in Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Brigandi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-6 (n-6 and omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA are essential nutrients for brain development and function. However, whether or not the levels of these fatty acids are altered in individuals with autism remains debatable. In this study, we compared the fatty acid contents between 121 autistic patients and 110 non-autistic, non-developmentally delayed controls, aged 3–17. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC membrane phospholipids showed that the percentage of total PUFA was lower in autistic patients than in controls; levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (AA and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were particularly decreased (p < 0.001. In addition, plasma levels of the pro-inflammatory AA metabolite prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were higher in a subset of the autistic participants (n = 20 compared to controls. Our study demonstrates an alteration in the PUFA profile and increased production of a PUFA-derived metabolite in autistic patients, supporting the hypothesis that abnormal lipid metabolism is implicated in autism.

  3. A Smart Teaching System for Autistic Children in Rural Area using MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balaji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available These The most challenging and stressful issue faced by schools and parents in efforts to provide appropriate education for autistic children .The purpose of this research work was to contribute to the knowledge and implementation of best practices for children with autism and normal children in rural area using manet. Autism is development disability that affects the normal functioning of brain. It means that children with autism think differently because brains work differently. They may have different talking, learning or playing ability. Many software systems are good enough for a class for normal children, but the autistic fail to understand the teaching methodology. Hence the autistic children face various challenges in combining with normal children in the same class. We implement the novel web based teaching system which takes care of the field of interest and taste among the autistic children of a class and helps the teacher to teach in a class in a effective way to understand the concept for normal and autistic children in rural area using manet .Every village will be connected to mobile access point, were MAP will connect the rural area with the central database server which is located in urban area to provide e-learning.

  4. Design, development, and clinical validation of therapeutic toys for autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kevin C; Tseng, Sung-Hui; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] One of the characteristics of autistic children is social interaction difficulties. Although therapeutic toys can promote social interaction, however its related research remains insufficient. The aim of the present study was to build a set of cooperative play toys that are suitable for autistic children. [Subjects and Methods] This study used an innovative product design and development approach as the basis for the creation of cooperative play toys. [Results] The present study has successfully developed cooperative play toys. Compared to the traditional game therapy for autism, cooperative play toy therapy can significantly improve the interactions between autistic children and their peers. [Conclusion] The most critical design theme of cooperative play toys focuses on captivating the interest of autistic children. Based on the needs of the individual cases, the design of the therapeutic toy set was specifically tailored, i.e., by reinforcing the sound and light effects to improve the attractiveness of the toys. In the future, different play modes can be combined with this toy set to further enhance the degree of interaction of autistic children and improve their quality of life and social skills. PMID:27512246

  5. [Social intelligence deficits in autistic children and adolescents--subjective theories of psychosocial health care professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krech, M; Probst, P

    1998-10-01

    The paper is concerned with personal theories of health care professionals about deficiencies in social intelligence of autistic persons. In the component-model of social intelligence means the ability of individuals or groups, to interact with each other in social situations. This contains social perception, social behavior as well as social conceptions and refers to emotional, cognitive and normative aspects. 33 interviewees, working as psychologists or teachers in kindergartens, schools or therapy institutions, are questioned by a half-standardized single interview concerning their beliefs about nonverbal social abilities, social perspective taking, and construction of a theory of mind in autistic persons. The major finding is: The impairments can be found in all aspects of social intelligence. Especially emotional handicaps, which are quoted by more than 80% of the interviewees, and low cognitive preconditions of mastering social stimuli, which are quoted by nearly all interviewees, are relevant. The subjective theories of the interviewees are in accordance to the models of parents as well as the models of the leading experts. The professional relationship to autistic persons and the practical experiences of the health care professionals lead to their specific personal theories of deficiencies in social intelligence of autistic people with wide consequences in respect to the professional contact with the autistic children and young adults. PMID:9847638

  6. The relationship between temperament and autistic traits in a non-clinical students sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Pisula

    Full Text Available Since temperament affects the development of social behaviours and interpersonal relations, the possible links between autistic traits and temperament are of particular interest. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationships between autistic traits and temperamental characteristics in the framework of the Regulative Temperament Theory by Strelau, and the Emotionality, Activity and Sociability theory by Buss and Plomin, with particular emphasis on gender differences. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ, Formal Characteristics of Behaviour--Temperament Inventory and Temperament Survey for Adults were administered. The participants were 593 university students, including 364 females and 229 males. Results showed positive correlations between autistic traits and Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration, Distress, Fear and Anger, and negative correlations with Activity, Briskness, Endurance and Sociability. The results of multiple regression analyses involving the Autism Spectrum Quotient score as a dependent measure were different for females and males. Results of exploratory PCA analysis showed that AQ score, Sociability and Activity loaded one factor (with AQ loading being opposite to two others. High AQ scorers demonstrated higher Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration, Distress and Anger, and lower Briskness, Endurance, Activity and Sociability as compared to norms for the general population. In this study we showed that temperament measures were able to identify items that correlated in parts with autistic traits, while other items were obverse. The relationships between temperament and autistic traits differ slightly between genders. We assume that with regard to the broader autism phenotype, temperaments might be helpful in characterizing healthy control samples.

  7. The relationship between temperament and autistic traits in a non-clinical students sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, Ewa; Kawa, Rafał; Danielewicz, Dorota; Pisula, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Since temperament affects the development of social behaviours and interpersonal relations, the possible links between autistic traits and temperament are of particular interest. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationships between autistic traits and temperamental characteristics in the framework of the Regulative Temperament Theory by Strelau, and the Emotionality, Activity and Sociability theory by Buss and Plomin, with particular emphasis on gender differences. The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Formal Characteristics of Behaviour--Temperament Inventory and Temperament Survey for Adults were administered. The participants were 593 university students, including 364 females and 229 males. Results showed positive correlations between autistic traits and Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration, Distress, Fear and Anger, and negative correlations with Activity, Briskness, Endurance and Sociability. The results of multiple regression analyses involving the Autism Spectrum Quotient score as a dependent measure were different for females and males. Results of exploratory PCA analysis showed that AQ score, Sociability and Activity loaded one factor (with AQ loading being opposite to two others). High AQ scorers demonstrated higher Emotional Reactivity, Perseveration, Distress and Anger, and lower Briskness, Endurance, Activity and Sociability as compared to norms for the general population. In this study we showed that temperament measures were able to identify items that correlated in parts with autistic traits, while other items were obverse. The relationships between temperament and autistic traits differ slightly between genders. We assume that with regard to the broader autism phenotype, temperaments might be helpful in characterizing healthy control samples.

  8. The longitudinal relation between childhood autistic traits and psychosexual problems in early adolescence : The Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Linda P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autistic traits are considered to be prone to develop psychosexual problems due to their limited social skills and insight. This study investigated the longitudinal relation between autistic traits in childhood (T1; age 10-12 years) and parent-reported psychosexual problems in early

  9. Young Autistic Children's Listening Preferences in Regard to Speech: A Possible Characterization of the Symptom of Social Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klin, Ami

    1991-01-01

    Twelve autistic children (ages 4-6) were given a choice between their mothers' speech and the noise of superimposed voices. In contrast to comparison groups of mentally retarded and normally developing children, the autistic children actively preferred the superimposed voices or showed a lack of preference for either audio segment. (Author/JDD)

  10. Do We Need Multiple Informants When Assessing Autistic Traits? The Degree of Report Bias on Offspring, Self, and Spouse Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möricke, Esmé; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the degree of report bias in assessing autistic traits. Both parents of 124 preschoolers completed the Social Communication Questionnaire and the Autism-spectrum Quotient. Acceptable agreement existed between mother and father reports of children's mean scores of autistic traits, but interrater reliability for rank-order…

  11. Effects of a Gluten-Free Diet on Rate of Achievement in Autistic Children in an Applied Behavioral Analysis Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Melissa; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study used both between-subjects and within-subjects analyses to examine the effects of a gluten-free diet on the academic achievement of autistic children. The between-subjects analysis included data from eight autistic children (ages 5 to 7) with four on a gluten-free diet and four serving as controls. The number of attempts needed before…

  12. Assessment of Hair Aluminum, Lead, and Mercury in a Sample of Autistic Egyptian Children: Environmental Risk Factors of Heavy Metals in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El Baz Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. The etiological factors involved in the etiology of autism remain elusive and controversial, but both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. The aim of this study was to assess the levels and possible environmental risk factors and sources of exposure to mercury, lead, and aluminum in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD as compared to their matched controls. Methods. One hundred ASD children were studied in comparison to 100 controls. All participants were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of mercury, lead, and aluminum through hair analysis which reflects past exposure. Results. The mean Levels of mercury, lead, and aluminum in hair of the autistic patients were significantly higher than controls. Mercury, lead, and aluminum levels were positively correlated with maternal fish consumptions, living nearby gasoline stations, and the usage of aluminum pans, respectively. Conclusion. Levels of mercury, lead, and aluminum in the hair of autistic children are higher than controls. Environmental exposure to these toxic heavy metals, at key times in development, may play a causal role in autism.

  13. Emotion recognition through static faces and moving bodies: a comparison between typically-developed adults and individuals with high level of autistic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana eActis-Grosso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether the type of stimulus (pictures of static faces vs. body motion contributes differently to the recognition of emotions. The performance (accuracy and response times of 25 Low Autistic Traits (LAT group young adults (21 males and 20 young adults (16 males with either High Autistic Traits (HAT group or with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder was compared in the recognition of four emotions (Happiness, Anger, Fear and Sadness either shown in static faces or conveyed by moving bodies (patch-light displays, PLDs. Overall, HAT individuals were as accurate as LAT ones in perceiving emotions both with faces and with PLDs. Moreover, they correctly described non-emotional actions depicted by PLDs, indicating that they perceived the motion conveyed by the PLDs per se. For LAT participants, happiness proved to be the easiest emotion to be recognized: in line with previous studies we found a happy face advantage for faces, which for the first time was also found for bodies (happy body advantage. Furthermore, LAT participants recognized sadness better by static faces and fear by PLDs. This advantage for motion kinematics in the recognition of fear was not present in HAT participants, suggesting that i emotion recognition is not generally impaired in HAT individuals, ii the cues exploited for emotion recognition by LAT and HAT groups are not always the same. These findings are discussed against the background of emotional processing in typically and atypically developed individuals.

  14. [Autism Spectrum Disorder in DSM-5 - concept, validity, and reliability, impact on clinical care and future research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M

    2014-05-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in DSM-5 comprises the former DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder and PDD-nos. The criteria for ASD in DSM-5 were considerably revised from those of ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR. The present article compares the diagnostic criteria, presents studies on the validity and reliability of ASD, and discusses open questions. It ends with a clinical and research perspective. PMID:24846867

  15. [Autism Spectrum Disorder and DSM-5: Spectrum or Cluster?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Xaver; Freiberger, Verena; Greulich, Heide; Blank, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Within the new DSM-5, the currently differentiated subgroups of "Autistic Disorder" (299.0), "Asperger's Disorder" (299.80) and "Pervasive Developmental Disorder" (299.80) are replaced by the more general "Autism Spectrum Disorder". With regard to a patient-oriented and expedient advising therapy planning, however, the issue of an empirically reproducible and clinically feasible differentiation into subgroups must still be raised. Based on two Autism-rating-scales (ASDS and FSK), an exploratory two-step cluster analysis was conducted with N=103 children (age: 5-18) seen in our social-pediatric health care centre to examine potentially autistic symptoms. In the two-cluster solution of both rating scales, mainly the problems in social communication grouped the children into a cluster "with communication problems" (51 % and 41 %), and a cluster "without communication problems". Within the three-cluster solution of the ASDS, sensory hypersensitivity, cleaving to routines and social-communicative problems generated an "autistic" subgroup (22%). The children of the second cluster ("communication problems", 35%) were only described by social-communicative problems, and the third group did not show any problems (38%). In the three-cluster solution of the FSK, the "autistic cluster" of the two-cluster solution differentiated in a subgroup with mainly social-communicative problems (cluster 1) and a second subgroup described by restrictive, repetitive behavior. The different cluster solutions will be discussed with a view to the new DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, for following studies a further specification of some of the ASDS and FSK items could be helpful. PMID:26289149

  16. Neurofeedback improves executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kouijzer, Mirjam,; De Moor, Jan,; Gerrits, Berrie,; Congedo, Marco; Van Schie, Hein,

    2009-01-01

    International audience Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children's heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation over sessions. Following treatment, children's executive capacities were found to have improved greatly relative to pre-treatment assessment on a range of executive function ...

  17. Brain stimulation used as biofeedback in neuronal activation of the temporal lobe area in autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Furtado da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study focused upon the functional capacity of mirror neurons in autistic children. 30 individuals, 10 carriers of the autistic syndrome (GCA, 10 with intellectual impairments (GDI, and 10 non-autistics (GCN had registered eletroencephalogram from the brain area theoretically related to mirror neurons. Data collection procedure occurred prior to brain stimulation and after the stimulation session. During the second session, participants had to alternately process figures evoking neutral, happy, and/or sorrowful feelings. Results proved that, for all groups, the stimulation process in fact produced additional activation in the neural area under study. The level of activation was related to the format of emotional stimuli and the likelihood of boosting such stimuli. Since the increase of activation occurred in a model similar to the one observed for the control group, we may suggest that the difficulty people with autism have at expressing emotions is not due to nonexistence of mirror neurons.

  18. Fatty acids and oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonello Lucio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine whether there is published evidence for increased oxidative stress in neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods A PubMed search was carried out using the MeSH search term 'oxidative stress' in conjunction with each of the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association in order to identify potential studies. Results There was published evidence of increased oxidative stress in the following DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categories: mental retardation; autistic disorder; Rett's disorder; attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; delirium; dementia; amnestic disorders; alcohol-related disorders; amphetamine (or amphetamine-like-related disorders; hallucinogen-related disorders; nicotine-related disorders; opioid-related disorders; schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders; mood disorders; anxiety disorders; sexual dysfunctions; eating disorders; and sleep disorders. Conclusion Most psychiatric disorders are associated with increased oxidative stress. Patients suffering from that subgroup of these psychiatric disorders in which there is increased lipid peroxidation might therefore benefit from fatty acid supplementation (preferably with the inclusion of an antioxidant-rich diet while patients suffering from all these psychiatric disorders might benefit from a change to a whole-food plant-based diet devoid of refined carbohydrate products.

  19. STX209 (Arbaclofen) for Autism Spectrum Disorders: An 8-Week Open-Label Study

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Craig A.; Veenstra-Vanderweele, Jeremy M.; Melmed, Raun D.; McCracken, James T.; Ginsberg, Lawrence D.; Sikich, Linmarie; Scahill, Lawrence; Cherubini, Maryann; Zarevics, Peter; Walton-Bowen, Karen; Carpenter, Randall L.; Wang, Paul P.; King, Bryan H.; Bear, Mark

    2013-01-01

    STX209 (arbaclofen), a selective GABA-B agonist, is hypothesized to modulate the balance of excitatory to inhibitory neurotransmission, and has shown preliminary evidence of benefit in fragile X syndrome. We evaluated its safety, tolerability, and efficacy in non-syndromic autism spectrum disorders, in an 8-week open-label trial enrolling 32 children and adolescents with either Autistic Disorder or Pervasive Developmental Disorder—Not Otherwise Specified, and a score ≥17 on the Aberrant Behav...

  20. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data do not help support DSM-5 autism spectrum disorder category

    OpenAIRE

    Pina Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Janssen, Joost; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aims to determine whether or not structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data support the DSM-5 proposal of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic category, and whether or not classical DSM-IV autistic disorder (AD) and Asperger syndrome (AS) categories should be subsumed into it. The most replicated sMRI findings in patients with ASD compared with healthy controls are increased total brain volume in early childhood and decreased corpus callosum volume. Regar...

  1. Broader Autism Phenotype in Iranian Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders vs. Normal Children

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Hadi Zarafshan; Salehe Ghasempour

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to compare the broader autism phenotype in Iranian parents of children with autism spectrum disorders and parents of typically developing children. Method Parents of children with ASD and parents of typically developing children were asked to complete the Persian version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). In the ASD group, families included 204 parents (96 fathers and 108 mothers) of children diagnosed as having autism (Autistic Disorder, or AD) (...

  2. Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Comorbidity and Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Weidle, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of the present thesis was to investigate important aspects of childhood obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) such as comorbidity and quality of life (QoL). Frequency and continuity of autistic symptoms from preschool age to later childhood in children with OCD were explored as a contribution to the ongoing nosological debate on whether there is an empirical base for summarizing conditions such as OCD, Tourette’s syndrome, eating disorders and autism spectrum diso...

  3. Online Training of Discrete‐Trials Teaching for Educating Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Thomson, Kendra; Boris, Ashley;

    2015-01-01

    with autism spectrum disor-ders to a confederate role-playing a child with autistic disorder. During training, participants studied a self-instructional manual using CAPSI to demonstrate mastery of study questions about DTT. Overall mean baseline accuracy was 54.9%, and improved to 84.7% in post......-training, a 30% improvement. These prelimi-nary results are suggestive that CAPSI is an effective educational tool for the delivery of the DTT self-instructional manual....

  4. Capturing the world of physical education through the eyes of pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Research Aims The potential benefits of physical education are universal for all children. However, facilitating such benefits in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) requires careful planning. This poster reports on a small-scale case study at one school in eastern England, exploring physical education through the eyes of children (n=5), aged 12-16, with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Methodology Photo-elicitation was adopted as the research tool to accord authority to the voice...

  5. Do Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Show a Shape Bias in Word Learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Tek, Saime; Jaffery, Gul; Fein, Deborah; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2008-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) acquire a sizeable lexicon. However, these children also seem to understand and/or store the meanings of words differently from typically developing children. One of the mechanisms that helps typically developing children learn novel words is the shape bias, in which the referent of a noun is mapped onto the shape of an object, rather than onto its color, texture, or size. We hypothesized that children with Autistic Disorder would show reduce...

  6. Convergent Validity of the Autism Spectrum Disorders-Diagnostic Adult (ASD-DA) with the Pervasive Developmental Disorder/Autism Subscale of the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belva, Brian C.; Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Kozlowski, Allison M.; Bamburg, Jay W.

    2012-01-01

    The "Autism Spectrum Disorders-Diagnosis for Adults" ("ASD-DA") is a standardized assessment used to measure autistic symptomatology in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). In order to further establish the validity of this measure, convergent validity of the "ASD-DA" was established by comparing "ASD-DA" total and subscales scores with the…

  7. A Comparison of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities with and without ASD on Parallel Measures of Challenging Behaviour: The Behavior Problems Inventory-01 (BPI-01) and Autism Spectrum Disorders-Behavior Problems for Intellectually Disabled Adults (ASD-BPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojahn, Johannes; Wilkins, Jonathan; Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Challenging behaviour may not be part of the diagnostic criteria for Autistic Disorder but they are frequently exhibited by children and adults with this condition. Levels of challenging behaviours are highest in individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and co-occurring intellectual disability (ID). The sample for this study consisted of…

  8. Motor Proficiency and Emotional/Behavioural Disturbance in Autism and Asperger's Disorder: Another Piece of the Neurological Puzzle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nicole; McGinley, Jennifer; Tonge, Bruce; Bradshaw, John; Saunders, Kerryn; Murphy, Anna; Rinehart, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The relationship of motor proficiency with emotional/behavioural disturbance, autistic symptoms and communication disturbance was investigated in children diagnosed with autism and Asperger's disorder (AD). The Movement Assessment Battery for Children was used as a measure of motor impairment, and the Developmental Behavioural Checklist was used…

  9. Perfusion impairments on brain SPECT in patients with infantile autism and nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders: comparison with MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroimaging findings of autism has been the subjects of continuing investigation. Because previous study had not demonstrated consistent and specific neuroimaging findings of autism and most studies comprised adults and school-aged children, we performed a retrospective review in search of common functional and structural abnormalities in pre-school aged autistic children using Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI and compared them with age-matched children with nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). 58 children between 3 and 8 years of age infantile autism (n=37) and non-autistic PDD (n=21) were performed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI. Diagnosis of autism and non-autistic PDD was based on the criteria of DSM-IV and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Of the 37 autistic patients, 32 revealed decreased perfusion of cerebellar hemisphere, followed by hypoperfusion of thalami (n=30), parietal cortex (n=16), temporal cortex (n=12). Of those 21 PDD patients, 14 patients showed hypoperfusion of the thalami and 10 patients showed temporal hypoperfusion. However, cerebellar hemispheric (n=8) and parietal (n=1) hypoperfusion was infrequently seen. All autistic and nonautistic PDD patients had normal MRI scan. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion on brain SPECT showed statistically significant correlation with CARS. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion is significantly frequently noted in autistic patients although they had normal MRI and SPECT may be useful and more sensitive modality in reflecting pathophysiology of autism as evidenced by previous MRI and postmortem studies. Thalamic and temporal hypoperfusion can be seen in both autistic and nonautistic patients and further studies are necessary to determine the significance of the thalamic hypoperfusion

  10. Perfusion impairments on brain SPECT in patients with infantile autism and nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders: comparison with MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Young Hoon; Lee, Jong Doo; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Jeon, Tae Joo; Shin, Yee Jin; Lee, Byung Hee; Shin, Hyung Cheol [College of Medecine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    Neuroimaging findings of autism has been the subjects of continuing investigation. Because previous study had not demonstrated consistent and specific neuroimaging findings of autism and most studies comprised adults and school-aged children, we performed a retrospective review in search of common functional and structural abnormalities in pre-school aged autistic children using Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI and compared them with age-matched children with nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). 58 children between 3 and 8 years of age infantile autism (n=37) and non-autistic PDD (n=21) were performed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI. Diagnosis of autism and non-autistic PDD was based on the criteria of DSM-IV and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Of the 37 autistic patients, 32 revealed decreased perfusion of cerebellar hemisphere, followed by hypoperfusion of thalami (n=30), parietal cortex (n=16), temporal cortex (n=12). Of those 21 PDD patients, 14 patients showed hypoperfusion of the thalami and 10 patients showed temporal hypoperfusion. However, cerebellar hemispheric (n=8) and parietal (n=1) hypoperfusion was infrequently seen. All autistic and nonautistic PDD patients had normal MRI scan. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion on brain SPECT showed statistically significant correlation with CARS. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion is significantly frequently noted in autistic patients although they had normal MRI and SPECT may be useful and more sensitive modality in reflecting pathophysiology of autism as evidenced by previous MRI and postmortem studies. Thalamic and temporal hypoperfusion can be seen in both autistic and nonautistic patients and further studies are necessary to determine the significance of the thalamic hypoperfusion.

  11. Catalytic autoantibodies against myelin basic protein (MBP) isolated from serum of autistic children impair in vitro models of synaptic plasticity in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gronow, Mario; Cuchacovich, Miguel; Francos, Rina; Cuchacovich, Stephanie; Blanco, Angel; Sandoval, Rodrigo; Gomez, Cristian Farias; Valenzuela, Javier A; Ray, Rupa; Pizzo, Salvatore V

    2015-10-15

    Autoantibodies from autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) patients react with multiple proteins expressed in the brain. One such autoantibody targets myelin basic protein (MBP). ASD patients have autoantibodies to MBP of both the IgG and IgA classes in high titers, but no autoantibodies of the IgM class. IgA autoantibodies act as serine proteinases and degrade MBP in vitro. They also induce a decrease in long-term potentiation in the hippocampi of rats either perfused with or previously inoculated with this IgA. Because this class of autoantibody causes myelin sheath destruction in multiple sclerosis (MS), we hypothesized a similar pathological role for them in ASD.

  12. Molecular cytogenetic characterisation of a mosaic add(12(p13.3 with an inv dup(3(q26.31 → qter detected in an autistic boy

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    Oliveira Guiomar

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inverted duplications (inv dup of a terminal chromosome region are a particular subset of rearrangements that often results in partial tetrasomy or partial trisomy when accompanied by a deleted chromosome. Associated mosaicism could be the consequence of a post-zygotic event or could result from the correction of a trisomic conception. Tetrasomies of distal segments of the chromosome 3q are rare genetic events and their phenotypic manifestations are diverse. To our knowledge, there are only 12 cases reported with partial 3q tetrasomy. Generally, individuals with this genomic imbalance present mild to severe developmental delay, facial dysmorphisms and skin pigmentary disorders. Results We present the results of the molecular cytogenetic characterization of an unbalanced mosaic karyotype consisting of mos 46,XY,add(12(p13.3 [56]/46,XY [44] in a previously described 11 years old autistic boy, re-evaluated at adult age. The employment of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and multicolor banding (MCB techniques identified the extra material on 12p to be derived from chromosome 3, defining the additional material on 12p as an inv dup(3(qter → q26.3::q26.3 → qter. Subsequently, array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH confirmed the breakpoint at 3q26.31, defining the extra material with a length of 24.92 Mb to be between 174.37 and 199.29 Mb. Conclusion This is the thirteenth reported case of inversion-duplication 3q, being the first one described as an inv dup translocated onto a non-homologous chromosome. The mosaic terminal inv dup(3q observed could be the result of two proposed alternative mechanisms. The most striking feature of this case is the autistic behavior of the proband, a characteristic not shared by any other patient with tetrasomy for 3q26.31 → 3qter. The present work further illustrates the advantages of the use of an integrative cytogenetic strategy, composed both by conventional and

  13. Examining the Relationship between Autistic Traits and College Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Dominic; Birmingham, Elina

    2016-01-01

    We examined the relationship between characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorder and college adjustment in a sample of neurotypical college students. Using the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire and the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire, we found that higher levels of autism spectrum disorder characteristics were…

  14. Factor Structure of Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Rutter, Michael; Thapar, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often co-occur. Factor analyses of ASD traits in children with and without ASD indicate the presence of social and restrictive-repetitive behaviour (RRB) factors. This study used exploratory factor analyses to determine the structure of ASD traits (assessed using…

  15. Marked elevation of adrenal steroids, especially androgens, in saliva of prepubertal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Hill, Martin; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Bieńkowski, Przemysław; Namysłowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2014-06-01

    Autism is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral manifestations, but its biomarkers are not well defined. A strong gender bias typifying autism (it is 4-5 times more prevalent in males) suggests involvement of steroid hormones in autism pathobiology. In order to evaluate the potential roles of such hormones in autism, we compared the salivary levels of 22 steroids in prepubertal autistic male and female children from two age groups (3-4 and 7-9 years old) with those in healthy controls. The steroids were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) revealed that autistic children had significantly higher salivary concentrations of many steroid hormones (both C21 and C19) than control children. These anomalies were more prominent in older autistic children and in boys. The levels of androgens (androstenediol, dehydroepiandrosterone, androsterone and their polar conjugates) were especially increased, indicative of precocious adrenarche and predictive of early puberty. The concentrations of the steroid precursor, pregnenolone, and of several pregnanolones were also higher in autistic than in healthy children, but cortisol levels were not different. Some steroids, whose levels are raised in autism (allopregnanolone, androsterone, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and their sulfate conjugates) are neuroactive and modulate GABA, glutamate, and opioid neurotransmission, affecting brain development and functioning. These steroids may contribute to autism pathobiology and symptoms such as elevated anxiety, sleep disturbances, sensory deficits, and stereotypies among others. We suggest that salivary levels of selected steroids may serve as biomarkers of autism pathology useful for monitoring the progress of therapy.

  16. Psycho-Social Characteristics of Children and Adolescents with Siblings on the Autistic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Defingou, Georgia; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Kouvava, Sofia; Polychronopoulou, Stavroula

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the psycho-social characteristics of typically developing children who have siblings with autism and their sibling relationship. Children's adjustment at school, their self-esteem and social relations, as well as their friends' attitudes towards their autistic siblings were examined. Participants were 22 siblings…

  17. The Rett Syndrome Complex: Communicative Functions in Relation to Developmental Level and Autistic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren; Ehlers, Stephan; Hagberg, Bengt; Gillberg, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Communicative functions, overall developmental level, and autistic features were studied in eight females (ages 11-36) with Rett Syndrome. Low levels of communicative abilities and overall functioning were demonstrated, and joint attention behaviors and expression of communicative intent were rare. Six subjects, however, showed clear examples of…

  18. Broader Autism Phenotype in Parents of Autistic Children: Reality or Myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeren, Anke M.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.

    2008-01-01

    The finding that relatives of individuals with autism show mild autistic traits is referred to as the broader autism phenotype (BAP). In the current study, 25 parents with a child with high-functioning autism and 25 parents with typically developed children were compared on: (1) the Block Design Test, (2) the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and (3)…

  19. Comparison between Mothers and Fathers in Coping with Autistic Children: A Multivariate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniel, Shlomo; Siman-Tov, Ayelet

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to compare the differences between how mothers and fathers cope with autistic children based on a multivariate model that describes the relationships between parental psychological resources, parental stress appraisal and parental adjustment. 176 parents who lived in Israel (88 mothers and 88 fathers) of…

  20. Sex and Discipline Differences in Empathising, Systemising and Autistic Symptomatology: Evidence from a Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Julia M.; Chiew, Kin Yung

    2006-01-01

    Baron-Cohen's [(2002) "Trends in Cognitive Sciences," 6, 248-255] "extreme male brain" theory of autism is investigated by examining the relationships between theory of mind, central coherence, empathising, systemising and autistic-like symptomatology in typical undergraduates. There were sex differences in the expected directions on all tasks.…