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Sample records for autism spectrum disorder

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental ... key findings. About Us Overview of CDC’s work. Autism: What's New New Data on Autism: Five Facts ...

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout a person's life. ... be known as Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorders. It is called a "spectrum" disorder because people ...

  3. AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (ASD)

    OpenAIRE

    Middha Akanksha; Kataria Sahil; Sandhu Premjeet; Kapoor Bhawna

    2011-01-01

    Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a serious neurological disorder affecting communication skills, social interactions, adaptability in an individual, and also causes dramatic changes in behavioral patterns. This condition typically lasts throughout one’s lifetime and affects both, children as well as adults. Research has shown a tenfold increase in autism cases over the past decade and still rising at an alarming pace. The origins of autism are not known even to modern science. Aut...

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-02

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.  Created: 4/2/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 4/2/2014.

  6. Stoppage in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Therese Koops; Hansen, Stefan Nygaard; Nielsen, Svend V;

    2015-01-01

    of bias in sibling recurrence risk estimation. This study investigated whether stoppage occurs in Danish families with a firstborn child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, and if stoppage was differential. We found that stoppage occurs moderately in Danish families affected by autism spectrum...... disorders, and that stoppage is differential. However, differential stoppage is a minor source of estimation bias in Danish sibling recurrence risk studies of autism spectrum disorders....

  7. [Autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Early infantile autism' as defined by Kanner has grown into a spectrum of autistic disorders. The recognition of Asperger's disorder and of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), has led to increased demand for appropriate diagnostic assessment of autism in adults. The e

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Salmanian, Maryam; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...

  10. Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; SOURANDER, ANDRE

    2013-01-01

    The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender,...

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Related Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Q: Do vaccines cause autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? A: Many studies that have ... whether there is a relationship between vaccines and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, the studies continue ...

  12. Neurofeedback in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtmann, Martin; Steiner, Sabina; Hohmann, Sarah; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bolte, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To review current studies on the effectiveness of neurofeedback as a method of treatment of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Studies were selected based on searches in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, and CINAHL using combinations of the following keywords: "Neurofeedback" OR "EEG Biofeedback" OR "Neurotherapy"…

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafodatskaya, Daria; Chung, Brian; Szatmari, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate…

  14. Developing Undergraduate Coursework in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Tracy Loye; Dimitriou, Francine; Turko, Kristine; McPartland, James

    2014-01-01

    With rates of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) continuing to rise alongside improvements in early identification and treatment, service providers are in great demand. Providing undergraduate students with opportunities for education and applied experiences with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can help fill a valuable niche in the autism community.…

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4:1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and 4 Iranian databases (IranPsych,IranMedex, Irandoc and Scientific Information Database (SID to find Iranian studies on  ASDs. The results of 39 investigations, comprising original, review and editorial articles; proceedings; and available dissertations were categorized by prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.ConclusionSeveral preliminary investigations have been done to evaluate the prevalence of ASDs, and risk factors and effective variables have been studied with regard to etiology. The diagnostic evaluation of ASDs, especially based on EEG, and several pharmacological and behavioral interventions for ASD have been implemented in Iran. Mental health, stress levels, and personality characteristics were examined in the parents of children with ASDs, which were focused on mothers.ReferencesFirst MB, Frances A, Pincus HA. DSM-IV-TR: Handbook of differential diagnosis. United States of America:American Psychiatric Publishing; 2002.Parker S, Zuckerman B, Augustyn M. Developmental and behavioral pediatrics, 2 th ed. United States of America:Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.Howlin P. Autism and Asperger syndrome, 2 th ed. United States of America: Routledge; 2005.Mohammadi MR, Akhondzadeh S. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Etiology and Pharmacotherapy. Curr Drug ther2007; 2: 97-103.Newschaffer CJ, Croen LA, Daniels J, Giarelli E, GretherJK, Levy SE, et al. The epidemiology of autism spectrumdisorders. Annu Rev Public Health

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a friend or colleague Request free mailed brochure Autismo Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... list of all NINDS Disorders Publicaciones en Español Autismo Prepared by: Office of Communications and Public Liaison ...

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In May 2013, a new version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the common manual health care providers ... use these terms to describe someone with ASD. Diagnostic and Statistical ... , 5th Edition. (2013). American Psychiatric Association: Washington, DC. [ ...

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Autism Spectrum Disorders What Are Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)? Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Fast Facts Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a group of developmental ...

  19. Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder

  20. [Recognition of autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, M.W.; Londen, L van; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder was diagnosed in three adults. The first patient, a married man aged 41, was referred to a psychiatrist with 'impending burn-out'. The second was a 32-year-old male student with schizophrenia and a depressive disorder who was referred to a centre for autism because a friend

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available objectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This articlereviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and 4 Iranian databases (IranPsych,IranMedex, Irandoc and Scientific Information Database (SID to find Iranian studies on ASDs. The results of 39 investigations, comprising original, reviewand editorial articles; proceedings; and available dissertations were categorized by prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.ConclusionSeveral preliminary investigations have been done to evaluate the prevalence of ASDs, and risk factors and effective variables have been studied with regard to etiology. The diagnostic evaluation of ASDs, especially based on EEG, and several pharmacological and behavioral interventions for ASD have been implemented in Iran. Mental health, stress levels, and personality characteristics were examined in the parents of children with ASDs, which were focused on mothers.

  2. A Comprehensive Book on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the book is to serve for clinical, practical, basic and scholarly practices. In twentyfive chapters it covers the most important topics related to Autism Spectrum Disorders in the efficient way and aims to be useful for health professionals in training or clinicians seeking an update. Different people with autism can have very different…

  3. Deaf Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Christen A.; Brice, Patrick J.; Lam, Kay H.; Hotto, Sue A.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies investigating the prevalence of autism have increased in recent years, within the United States and abroad. However, statistics as to how many of those children may also have a comorbid hearing loss is lacking. The prevalence of school-administrator reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (clinical diagnosis…

  4. Unbroken Mirror Neurons in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Teng; Decety, Jean; Yang, Chia-Yen; Liu, Ji-Lin; Cheng, Yawei

    2010-01-01

    Background: The "broken mirror" theory of autism, which proposes that a dysfunction of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is responsible for the core social and cognitive deficits in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), has received considerable attention despite weak empirical evidence. Methods: In this electroencephalographic…

  5. Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Strategies that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Clarissa

    2009-01-01

    Five types of autism are recognized under autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The author discusses the major characteristics associated with autism and offers some simple strategies for helping children with autism function in preschool settings.

  6. Emotion processing in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Philip, Ruth Clare Margaret

    2009-01-01

    With an estimated prevalence of ~1%, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is relatively common. Whilst accepted as a neurodevelopmental disorder, currently the diagnosis of autism is based on the observation of characteristic behaviour: deficits in language, communication and social skills in addition to unusual or restricted interests. Research in the condition has been approached with psychological and physiological methodology however a full understanding of the underlying neuropa...

  7. The neurology of autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jeste, SS

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review: Neurological comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are not only common, but they are also associated with more clinical severity. This review highlights the most recent literature on three of autism's most prevalent neurological comorbidities: motor impairment, sleep disorders and epilepsy. Recent findings: Motor impairment in ASDs manifests as both delays and deficits, with delays found in gross and fine motor domains and deficits found in praxis, coordination ...

  8. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Rossignol Daniel A; Bradstreet James J; Van Dyke Kyle; Schneider Cindy; Freedenfeld Stuart H; O’Hara Nancy; Cave Stephanie; Buckley Julie A; Mumper Elizabeth A; Frye Richard E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Traditionally, hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) is indicated in several clinical disorders include decompression sickness, healing of problem wounds and arterial gas embolism. However, some investigators have used HBOT to treat individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A number of individuals with ASD possess certain physiological abnormalities that HBOT might ameliorate, including cerebral hypoperfusion, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Studies...

  9. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Siblings of Indian Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ankur; Juneja, Monica; Mishra, Devendra

    2016-06-01

    This study determined the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in 201 siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders. Siblings were screened using Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers and Social Responsiveness Scale, parent version. Screen-positive siblings were assessed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) criteria. The risk of autism spectrum disorder in siblings was correlated with various familial and disease characteristics of the index case. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in siblings was 4.97%. There was a significant effect of the presence of aggressive behavior, externalizing problems and total problems in the proband, assessed using Childhood Behavior Checklist, and the young age of the father at conception on sibling risk of autism spectrum disorder. Results of our study are in line with previous studies reporting similar prevalence but have also brought up the association with behavioral problems as a possible risk factor. Siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder should be routinely screened, and genetic counseling for this increased risk should be explained to the family. PMID:26733506

  10. Channelopathy Pathogenesis in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Galina eSchmunk; J. Jay eGargus

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting bod...

  11. Channelopathy pathogenesis in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Schmunk, Galina; Gargus, J. Jay

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting bod...

  12. Autism spectrum disorder in adults : biological dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Manouilenko, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication and the presence of repetitive or stereotyped behaviors. Previous studies have demonstrated structural and functional abnormalities in different brain regions in ASD. Motor difficulties, unusual percept ion and minor physical anomalies have been reported but not systematically investigated in the adult population with ASD and n...

  13. Diagnosing autism spectrum disorders in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Niekerk, Maarten E. H.; Groen, Wouter; Vissers, Constance Th. W. M.; van Driel-de Jong, Dorine; Kan, Cees C.; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude

    2011-01-01

    Background: As autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have largely been neglected in old-age psychiatry, the objective of the present paper is to describe the diagnostic process in elderly patients. Methods: A systematic review of the literature on ASD in older age was undertaken and illustrated by a case

  14. Time Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Gregory L.; Happe, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    Duration judgment has not been comprehensively examined in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), despite reports of perceptual idiosyncrasies in these individuals. Time estimation, production, and reproduction were tested in 25 individuals with ASD and 25 controls matched group-wise on age and IQ. Individuals with ASD performed comparably to matched…

  15. School Nurses' Knowledge of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine school nurses' working knowledge of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current knowledge of school nurses was investigated by means of a mixed-method exploratory descriptive pilot study. Instrumentation included a scale that measured the knowledge of school nurses in regard to ASD, including medication…

  16. Genetic Testing for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sarah C.; Msall, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have unique developmental and behavioral phenotypes, and they have specific challenges with communication, social skills, and repetitive behaviors. At this time, no single etiology for ASD has been identified. However, evidence from family studies and linkage analyses suggests that genetic factors play…

  17. Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Amplified Pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Ciaran

    2015-05-01

    Among the core features of ASD, altered sensitivities in all modalities have been accorded increasing importance. Heightened sensitivity to pain and unusual expressions of and reaction to pain have not hitherto been widely recognised as a presenting feature of ASD in general paediatrics. Failure to recognise ASD as a common cause of pain can lead to late diagnosis, inappropriate treatment, distress, and further disability. Two cases are presented which illustrate the late presentation of Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asperger\\'s Syndrome subtype) with chronic unusual pain. Conclusion. Pain in autism can be atypical in its experience and expression and for this reason may go unrecognised by physicians treating chronic pain disorders.

  19. Acupuncture for Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Ming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There has been lack of reviews of evidence on efficacy, methodology, and/or safety of acupuncture in autism spectrum disorders. This paper examines the emerging evidence of the effects of acupuncture in the treatment of autistic children. Method. A literature review was completed via Medline and three Chinese search engines. A total of 31 studies were evaluated for acupuncture methodology, study design, treatment effects, and tolerability. Results. The acupoints used, the duration of needling, the frequency of treatment, the choice of stimulation, and the course of the treatment were highly variable amongst the studies. Behavioral and/or developmental improvements were reported in all acupuncture treatment studies. All studies reported general tolerability. Weakness of experimental designs was discussed. Conclusions. Vigorously controlled double-blinded clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in children with autism spectrum disorders.

  20. Recent update of autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung Koo

    2015-01-01

    In patients with a language developmental delay, it is necessary to make a differential diagnosis for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), specific language impairment, and mental retardation. It is important that pediatricians recognize the signs and symptoms of ASDs, as many patients with language developmental delays are ultimately diagnosed with ASDs. Pediatricians play an important role in the early recognition of ASDs, because they are usually the first point of contact for children with A...

  1. Computational Approach To Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Włodzisław Duch; Wiesław Nowak; Jaroslaw Meller; Grzegorz Osiński; Krzysztof Dobosz; Dariusz Mikołajewski; Grzegorz Marcin Wójcik

    2012-01-01

    Every year the prevalence of Autism Spectrum of Disorders (ASD) is rising. Is there a unifying mechanism of various ASD cases at the genetic, molecular, cellular or systems level? The hypothesis advanced in this paper is focused on neural dysfunctions that lead to problems with attention in autistic people. Simulations of attractor neural networks performing cognitive functions help to assess system long-term neurodynamics. The Fuzzy Symbolic Dynamics (FSD) technique is used for the visualiza...

  2. Reward system dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kohls, Gregor; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Nehrkorn, Barbara; Müller, Kristin; Fink, Gereon R.; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Schultz, Robert T.; Konrad, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that social deficits of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are related to reward circuitry dysfunction, very little is known about the neural reward mechanisms in ASD. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated brain activations in response to both social and monetary reward in a group of children with ASD, relative to matched controls. Participants with ASD showed the expected hypoactivation in the mesocorticolimbic circuitry in r...

  3. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut De Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G M; Bailey, Anthony J.; Bolton, Patrick F.; Carrington, Sarah; Daly, Eileen M.; Deoni, Sean C.; Happé, Francesca; Henty, Julian; Jezzard, Peter; Johnston, Patrick; Jones, Derek K.; Madden, Anya; Mullins, Diane; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Murphy, Declan G M; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Sadek, Susan A.; Spain, Debbie; Stewart, Rose; Williams, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism sp

  4. Metabolic Approaches to the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Theodore

    2000-01-01

    This review evaluates evidence for metabolic etiologies in autism spectrum disorders, as well as for the efficacy of dietary and vitamin treatments. The relationship between gastrointestinal abnormalities and autism spectrum disorders is also considered, and the need for more research on larger populations of individuals with autism is stressed.…

  5. Recent update of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Koo

    2015-01-01

    In patients with a language developmental delay, it is necessary to make a differential diagnosis for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), specific language impairment, and mental retardation. It is important that pediatricians recognize the signs and symptoms of ASDs, as many patients with language developmental delays are ultimately diagnosed with ASDs. Pediatricians play an important role in the early recognition of ASDs, because they are usually the first point of contact for children with ASDs. A revision of the diagnostic criteria of ASDs was proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) that was released in May 2013. The autism spectrum describes a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders in the fifth edition of the DSM. The new diagnostic criteria encompasses previous elements from the diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified. An additional change to the DSM includes synthesizing the section on social and communication deficits into one domain. In ASD patients, the appropriate behavioral therapies and rehabilitation treatments significantly affect the prognosis. Therefore, this makes early diagnosis and treatment very important. In conclusion, pediatricians need to be able to recognize the signs and symptoms of ASDs and be attentive to them in order to make an early diagnosis and provide treatment. PMID:25729393

  6. Channelopathy Pathogenesis in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina eSchmunk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting body of evidence implies a role of various ion channel gene defects (channelopathies in the pathogenesis of autism. Indeed, recent genome-wide association, and whole exome- and whole- genome resequencing studies linked polymorphisms and rare variants in calcium, sodium and potassium channels and their subunits with susceptibility to ASD, much as they do with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and animal models with these genetic variations recapitulate endophenotypes considered to be correlates of autistic behavior seen in patients. An ion flux across the membrane regulates a variety of cell functions, from generation of action potentials to gene expression and cell morphology, thus it is not surprising that channelopathies have profound effects on brain functions. In the present work, we summarize existing evidence for the role of ion channel gene defects in the pathogenesis of autism with a focus on calcium signaling and its downstream effects.

  7. Children with autism spectrum disorder have an exceptional explanatory drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M D; Subiaul, Francys

    2016-08-01

    An "explanatory drive" motivates children to explain ambiguity. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are interested in how systems work, but it is unknown whether they have an explanatory drive. We presented children with and without autism spectrum disorder unsolvable problems in a physical and in a social context and evaluated problem-solving and explanation-seeking responses. In the physical context (but not the social context), the children with autism spectrum disorder showed a stronger explanatory drive than controls. Importantly, the number of explanatory behaviors made by children with autism spectrum disorder in the social context was independent of social and communicative impairments. Children with autism spectrum disorder did not show an exceptional explanatory drive in the social domain. These results suggest that children with autism spectrum disorder have an explanatory drive and that the explanatory drive may be domain specific. PMID:26503988

  8. The complex genetics in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Rui; Wei, MengPing; Zhang, Chen

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a pervasive neurodevelopmental disease characterized by deficits in social interaction and nonverbal communication, as well as restricted interests and stereotypical behavior. Genetic changes/heritability is one of the major contributing factors, and hundreds to thousands of causative and susceptible genes, copy number variants (CNVs), linkage regions, and microRNAs have been associated with ASD which clearly indicates that ASD is a complex genetic disorder. Here, we will briefly summarize some of the high-confidence genetic changes in ASD and their possible roles in their pathogenesis. PMID:26335739

  9. Beta-2-Microglobulin in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Goines

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental diseases of unknown etiology. There are no biological markers for ASD and current diagnosis is based on behavioral criteria. Recent data has shown that MHC I, a compound involved in adaptive immune function, is also involved in neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity and behavior. It has been suggested that altered MHC I expression could play a part in neurodevelopmental diseases like ASD. To address this possibility, we measured plasma levels of beta-2-microglobulin (β2m, a molecule that associates with MHC I and is indicative of MHC I expression, in 36 children with autism, 28 typically developing controls and subjects with developmental disabilities (n=16 but not autism. The age range of our study population was 17-120 months. We found no statistically significant differences in plasma ß 2m levels between groups. Therefore, plasma levels of ß2m measured in early childhood in autism may not reflect changes in MHC class I in autism.

  10. Prenatal neurogenesis in autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Gaurav; Zarbalis, Konstantinos

    2016-03-01

    An ever-increasing body of literature describes compelling evidence that a subset of young children on the autism spectrum show abnormal cerebral growth trajectories. In these cases, normal cerebral size at birth is followed by a period of abnormal growth and starting in late childhood often by regression compared to unaffected controls. Recent work has demonstrated an abnormal increase in the number of neurons of the prefrontal cortex suggesting that cerebral size increase in autism is driven by excess neuronal production. In addition, some affected children display patches of abnormal laminar positioning of cortical projection neurons. As both cortical projection neuron numbers and their correct layering within the developing cortex requires the undisturbed proliferation of neural progenitors, it appears that neural progenitors lie in the center of the autism pathology associated with early brain overgrowth. Consequently, autism spectrum disorders associated with cerebral enlargement should be viewed as birth defects of an early embryonic origin with profound implications for their early diagnosis, preventive strategies, and therapeutic intervention.

  11. Social (pragmatic) communication disorders and autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, G; Norbury, C. F.

    2015-01-01

    Changes have been made to the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), and similar changes are likely in the WHO International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) due in 2017. In light of these changes, a new clinical disorder, social (pragmatic) communication disorder (SPCD), was added to the neurodevelopmental disorders section of DSM-5. This article describes the key features of ASD, ...

  12. Fractionation of Social Brain Circuits in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Milbury, Lydia A.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are developmental disorders characterized by impairments in social and communication abilities and repetitive behaviours. Converging neuroscientific evidence has suggested that the neuropathology of autism spectrum disorders is widely distributed, involving impaired connectivity throughout the brain. Here, we evaluate the…

  13. Otitis and autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Zambrano-Enriquez, Diana; de Anta, Laura; Zelmanova, Julie; De Dios Vega, Jose Luis; Lopez-Ibor, Juan Jose

    2010-01-01

    The case of a 5-year-old child diagnosed as having pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), autistic type, from age 1 is reported. After surgery of vegetation in middle ear for repetitive otitis, the child presented an improvement in autistic behaviours, previously expressed as impaired social interactions, qualitative abnormalities in communication, a marked delay in language development, echolalia, stereotypies and self-aggressive behaviours. The aim of this paper is to bring attention to oc...

  14. Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…

  15. No Evidence of Reaction Time Slowing in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F. Richard

    2016-01-01

    A total of 32 studies comprising 238 simple reaction time and choice reaction time conditions were examined in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (n?=?964) and controls (n?=?1032). A Brinley plot/multiple regression analysis was performed on mean reaction times, regressing autism spectrum disorder performance onto the control performance as…

  16. Risk Factors for Bullying among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Anderson, Connie M.; Law, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although children with disabilities have been found to be at an increased risk of bullying, there are limited studies investigating predictors of bullying involvement in children with autism spectrum disorders. The current study presents findings from 1221 parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who were selected from a…

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Natural Fit with DDD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Brenda Smith; Simpson, Richard L.; Babkie, Andrea M.

    2003-01-01

    This position statement from the Critical Issues Committee of the Developmental Disabilities Division of the Council for Exceptional Children focuses on clarifying the place of autism spectrum disorders within the field of developmental disabilities. The representation of concerns relating to autism spectrum disorders by the Developmental…

  18. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Have an Exceptional Explanatory Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M. D.; Subiaul, Francys

    2016-01-01

    An "explanatory drive" motivates children to explain ambiguity. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are interested in how systems work, but it is unknown whether they have an explanatory drive. We presented children with and without autism spectrum disorder unsolvable problems in a physical and in a social context and evaluated…

  19. Priorities for Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk Communication and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudell, Michael; Tabor, Holly K.; Dawson, Geraldine; Rossi, John; Newschaffer, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are an issue of increasing public health significance. The incidence of autism spectrum disorders has been increasing in recent years, and they are associated with significant personal and financial impacts for affected persons and their families. In recent years, a large number of scientific studies have been undertaken,…

  20. Molecular aspects of autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisik, Małgorzata Z.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism, also known as autism spectrum disorders (ASD, is etiologically and clinically heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disabilities. ASD affects 1% of child’s population. The sex difference is observed with 4:1 male to female ratio. This is descriptive diagnosis based on observation and analysis of behavior and cognitive functions. ASD does not fit the criteria of known patterns of inheritance. For the majority of patients polygenic model of inheritance with many interacting genes is the most probable. The etiology of ASD is poorly understood. It is estimated that a specific genetic etiology can be determined in up to 20% of individuals with ASD. Advances in microarray technology and next generation sequencing are revealing copy variant numbers (CNV and single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNP with important roles in synapse formation and function. For families where a specific etiology has been identified, the risk of recurrence in siblings generally depends on the etiologic diagnosis. For autism of unknown cause, the sibling risk varies across studies but is generally considered to range from 5 to 10 %.

  1. Gestational Age and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atladóttir, H Ó; Schendel, D.E.; Henriksen, T B;

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder. Several previous studies have identified pre-term birth as a risk factor for ASD but none has studied whether the association between gestational age and ASD has changed over time. This is a Danish population-based follow......-up study including live-born singletons born in Denmark between 1980 and 2009, identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry, a study population of 1,775,397 children. We used a Cox regression model combined with spline to study the risk for ASD by gestational age across three decades of birth cohorts. We...... included 19,020 children diagnosed with ASD. Across all birth year cohorts, we found that the risk of being diagnosed with ASD increased with lower gestational age (P-value: gestational weeks, we found a statistically significant higher risk estimates in birth cohort 1980 to 1989...

  2. Social (pragmatic) communication disorders and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Gillian; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2016-08-01

    Changes have been made to the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), and similar changes are likely in the WHO International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) due in 2017. In light of these changes, a new clinical disorder, social (pragmatic) communication disorder (SPCD), was added to the neurodevelopmental disorders section of DSM-5. This article describes the key features of ASD, SPCD and the draft ICD-11 approach to pragmatic language impairment, highlighting points of overlap between the disorders and criteria for differential diagnosis. PMID:26699538

  3. Enhancing Work Outcomes of Employees with Autism Spectrum Disorder through Leadership: Leadership for Employees with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alissa D.; Hunter, Samuel T.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this study was to identify leader behaviors that elicit successful engagement of employees with autism spectrum disorder, a population that is powerfully emerging into the workplace. The ultimate goal was to improve the quality of life of employees with autism spectrum disorder by facilitating an environment leading to their success.…

  4. Prevalence of treated autism spectrum disorders in Aruba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Balkom, Ingrid D. C.; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Vogtlander, Marrit F.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Susser, Ezra; Hoek, Hans W.

    2009-01-01

    To study autism outside of a narrow range of settings previously studied, and in a particularly distinctive setting in the Caribbean. The aim of the Aruba Autism Project was to determine the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in birth years 1990-1999 in Aruba. A record review study was c

  5. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD. PMID:26072341

  6. Visuomotor resonance in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eBecchio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available When we observe the actions performed by others, our motor system ‘resonates' along with that of the observed agent. Is a similar visuomotor resonant response observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD? Studies investigating action observation in ASD have yielded inconsistent findings. In this perspective article we examine behavioral and neuroscientific evidence in favor of visuomotor resonance in ASD, and consider the possible role of action-perception coupling in social cognition. We distinguish between different aspects of visuomotor resonance and conclude that while some aspects may be preserved in ASD, abnormalities exist in the way individuals with ASD convert visual information from observed actions into a program for motor execution. Such abnormalities, we surmise, may contribute to but also depend on the difficulties that individuals with ASD encounter during social interaction.

  7. Computational Approach To Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzisław Duch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year the prevalence of Autism Spectrum of Disorders (ASD is rising. Is there a unifying mechanism of various ASD cases at the genetic, molecular, cellular or systems level? The hypothesis advanced in this paper is focused on neural dysfunctions that lead to problems with attention in autistic people. Simulations of attractor neural networks performing cognitive functions help to assess system long-term neurodynamics. The Fuzzy Symbolic Dynamics (FSD technique is used for the visualization of attractors in the semantic layer of the neural model of reading. Large-scale simulations of brain structures characterized by a high order of complexity requires enormous computational power, especially if biologically motivated neuron models are used to investigate the influence of cellular structure dysfunctions on the network dynamics. Such simulations have to be implemented on computer clusters in a grid-based architectures

  8. Explicit versus implicit social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 carefully matched typically developing controls completed the Dewey Story Test. 'Explicit' (multiple-choice answering format) and 'implicit' (free interview) measures of social cognition were obtained. Autism spectrum disorder participants did not differ from controls regarding explicit social cognition performance. However, the autism spectrum disorder group performed more poorly than controls on implicit social cognition performance in terms of spontaneous perspective taking and social awareness. Findings suggest that social cognition alterations in autism spectrum disorder are primarily implicit in nature and that an apparent absence of social cognition difficulties on certain tests using rather explicit testing formats does not necessarily mean social cognition typicality in autism spectrum disorder.

  9. Frontal networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Marco; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Budisavljevic, Sanja; Howells, Henrietta; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Froudist-Walsh, Seán; D'Anna, Lucio; Thompson, Abigail; Sandrone, Stefano; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V; Wheelwright, Sally J; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Leemans, Alexander; Ecker, Christine; Consortium, Mrc Aims; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2016-02-01

    It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an 'atypical connectivity' involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a 'whole brain' non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tract-specific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a more detailed analysis of individual tracts identified by tract-based spatial statistics. Finally, within the autism spectrum disorder group, we studied the relationship between diffusion measures and autistic symptom severity. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed that autism spectrum disorder was associated with significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in regions that included frontal lobe pathways. Tractography analysis of these specific pathways showed increased mean and perpendicular diffusivity, and reduced number of streamlines in the anterior and long segments of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum and uncinate--predominantly in the left hemisphere. Abnormalities were also evident in the anterior portions of the corpus callosum connecting left and right frontal lobes. The degree of microstructural alteration of the arcuate and uncinate fasciculi was associated with severity of symptoms in language and social reciprocity in childhood. Our results indicated that autism spectrum disorder is a developmental condition associated with abnormal connectivity of the frontal lobes. Furthermore our findings showed that male adults with autism spectrum disorder have regional differences in brain anatomy, which correlate with specific aspects of autistic symptoms. Overall these

  10. Beery VMI performance in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ryan R; Bigler, Erin D; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly B D; Travers, Brittany G; Cariello, Annahir N; Anderson, Jeffrey S; Zielinski, Brandon A; Alexander, Andrew; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined the visuomotor integration (VMI) abilities of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An all-male sample consisting of 56 ASD participants (ages 3-23 years) and 36 typically developing (TD) participants (ages 4-26 years) completed the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (Beery VMI) as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. Participants were also administered standardized measures of intellectual functioning and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), which assesses autism and autism-like traits. The ASD group performed significantly lower on the Beery VMI and on all IQ measures compared to the TD group. VMI performance was significantly correlated with full scale IQ (FSIQ), performance IQ (PIQ), and verbal IQ (VIQ) in the TD group only. However, when FSIQ was taken into account, no significant Beery VMI differences between groups were observed. Only one TD participant scored 1.5 standard deviations (SDs) below the Beery VMI normative sample mean, in comparison to 21% of the ASD sample. As expected, the ASD group was rated as having significantly higher levels of social impairment on the SRS compared to the TD group across all major domains. However, level of functioning on the SRS was not associated with Berry VMI performance. These findings demonstrate that a substantial number of individuals with ASD experience difficulties compared to TD in performing VMI-related tasks, and that VMI is likely affected by general cognitive ability. The fact that lowered Beery VMI performance occurred only within a subset of individuals with ASD and did not correlate with SRS would indicate that visuomotor deficits are not a core feature of ASD, even though they present at a higher rate of impairment than observed in TD participants.

  11. Mood Disorders in Mothers of Children on the Autism Spectrum Are Associated with Higher Functioning Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Vasa, Roma A.; Connie Anderson; Marvin, Alison R.; Rebecca E. Rosenberg; J. Kiely Law; Julia Thorn; Geeta Sarphare; Law, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mood disorders occur more frequently in family members of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than in the general population. There may be associations between maternal mood disorder history patterns and specific ASD phenotypes. We therefore examined the relationship between maternal mood disorders and child autism spectrum disorders in 998 mother-child dyads enrolled in a national online autism registry and database. Mothers of children with ASD completed online questionnaires a...

  12. The Broader Autism Phenotype and Its Implications on the Etiology and Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Gerdts; Raphael Bernier

    2011-01-01

    The presence of autism-related traits has been well documented in undiagnosed family members of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The most common finding is mild impairments in social and communication skills that are similar to those shown by individuals with autism, but exhibited to a lesser degree. Termed the broader autism phenotype (BAP), these traits suggest a genetic liability for autism-related traits in families. Genetic influence in autism is strong, with identical tw...

  13. Schizophrenia Spectrum and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the differential severity of specific symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and child psychiatry outpatient referrals (controls). Each group was further subdivided into subgroups with and without co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).…

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorder: the Present Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, S.; Chatterjee, N

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a surge of awareness about autism among the public and professionals. Much revealing research is being done on this issue and the knowledge base has improved substantially and a set of professionals are specializing on the subject, focusing on its causative factors and management. Autism being a disorder stemming from early childhood and the prevalence rate rising alarmingly over the years, Pediatricians are expected to play a vital role in early detection and ea...

  15. Broader Autism Phenotype in Iranian Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders vs. Normal Children

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Hadi Zarafshan; Salehe Ghasempour

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to compare the broader autism phenotype in Iranian parents of children with autism spectrum disorders and parents of typically developing children. Method Parents of children with ASD and parents of typically developing children were asked to complete the Persian version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). In the ASD group, families included 204 parents (96 fathers and 108 mothers) of children diagnosed as having autism (Autistic Disorder, or AD) (...

  16. What Are the Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parent-mediated therapy Physical therapy Social skills training Speech-language therapy Other FAQs NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are the treatments for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? Skip sharing on social media ...

  17. Psychopharmacological interventions in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politte, Laura C; Henry, Charles A; McDougle, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    After participating in this educational activity, the physician should be better able to1. Prescribe the appropriate psychotropic medication to treat symptoms of ASD.2. Identify the side effects of the psychotropic medications used to treat ASD.Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by core deficits in social communication and language, and restrictive and repetitive behaviors that cause significant functional impairment and distress for affected individuals and their caregivers. The increasing prevalence of ASD, most recently estimated as 1 in 88 children, presents an ever-increasing burden on families, schools, medical systems, and society at large. Individuals with ASD commonly present for treatment of associated emotional and behavioral disturbances that include anxiety, symptoms of ADHD, compulsions and other repetitive behaviors, mood lability, irritability, aggression, and sleep disturbance. Psychotropic medications are widely utilized in alleviating these symptoms, though rigorous clinical trials in ASD are lacking for most areas of impairment. Strong evidence from randomized, placebo-controlled trials supports the use of atypical antipsychotics, particularly risperidone and aripiprazole, for managing severe irritability and aggression in ASD. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are commonly used to treat anxiety and compulsions, though reports of efficacy in the literature are mixed, and behavioral side effects in children are common. Minimal evidence supports the utility of anticonvulsants and traditional mood stabilizers in managing mood lability and aggression. Stimulant and nonstimulant ADHD medications can be effective for reducing hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity, though to a lesser degree than in ADHD populations without ASD and with greater risk of adverse effects. Psychopharmacological interventions in development for core symptoms of autism include those that target the glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter systems and the

  18. Event-based prospective memory performance in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Altgassen, Mareike; Schmitz-Hübsch, Maren; Kliegel, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate event-based prospective memory performance in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and to explore possible relations between laboratory-based prospective memory performance and everyday performance. Nineteen children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 matched neurotypical controls participated. The laboratory-based prospective memory test was embedded in a visuo-spatial working memory test and required participants to ...

  19. Special educational needs of students with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Khaustov A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Education of children with autism spectrum disorders is possible only if their special educational needs are taken into account. Special educational needs of children form the demand for special educational conditions. On the basis of the existing primary list of special educational needs in the approximate adapted basic general education program for students with autism spectrum disorders and with consideration of contemporary scientific data about particularities of their develo...

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; MacMullen, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a continuum of cognitive and social problems that vary considerably in both impact and presentation for each child affected. Although successful interventions have been developed that target specific skill deficits often exhibited by children with autism, many of those interventions are exclusively…

  1. Alexithymia in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmari, Peter; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Goldberg, Jeremy; Bennett, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Given the recent findings regarding the association between alexithymia and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and the accumulating evidence for the presence of the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) in relatives of individuals with ASD, we further explored the construct of alexithymia in parents of children with ASD as a potential part of the BAP. We…

  2. Chelation Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N.; O'Reilly, Mark; Kang, Soyeon; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Copeland, Daelynn; Attai, Shanna; Mulloy, Austin

    2013-01-01

    Chelation treatment is used to eliminate specific metals from the body, such as mercury. It has been hypothesized that mercury poisoning may be a factor in autism and data suggest that perhaps 7% of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have received chelation treatment. It would therefore seem timely to review studies investigating the…

  3. Sulforaphane treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Connors, Susan L; Macklin, Eric A; Smith, Kirby D; Fahey, Jed W; Talalay, Paul; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2014-10-28

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterized by both impaired communication and social interaction, and by stereotypic behavior, affects about 1 in 68, predominantly males. The medico-economic burdens of ASD are enormous, and no recognized treatment targets the core features of ASD. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial, young men (aged 13-27) with moderate to severe ASD received the phytochemical sulforaphane (n = 29)--derived from broccoli sprout extracts--or indistinguishable placebo (n = 15). The effects on behavior of daily oral doses of sulforaphane (50-150 µmol) for 18 wk, followed by 4 wk without treatment, were quantified by three widely accepted behavioral measures completed by parents/caregivers and physicians: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale (CGI-I). Initial scores for ABC and SRS were closely matched for participants assigned to placebo and sulforaphane. After 18 wk, participants receiving placebo experienced minimal change (social interaction, abnormal behavior, and verbal communication (P = 0.015-0.007). Upon discontinuation of sulforaphane, total scores on all scales rose toward pretreatment levels. Dietary sulforaphane, of recognized low toxicity, was selected for its capacity to reverse abnormalities that have been associated with ASD, including oxidative stress and lower antioxidant capacity, depressed glutathione synthesis, reduced mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuroinflammmation. PMID:25313065

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Part I: A Comparison of Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Shelley L.; Coons, Kelly D.; Hayes, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a long history of research on parents of children with disabilities, but to the authors' knowledge, no study has compared the stress of parents of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) to parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: Twenty-five parents of children with ASD and 25 parents of…

  5. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossignol Daniel A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditionally, hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT is indicated in several clinical disorders include decompression sickness, healing of problem wounds and arterial gas embolism. However, some investigators have used HBOT to treat individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. A number of individuals with ASD possess certain physiological abnormalities that HBOT might ameliorate, including cerebral hypoperfusion, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Studies of children with ASD have found positive changes in physiology and/or behavior from HBOT. For example, several studies have reported that HBOT improved cerebral perfusion, decreased markers of inflammation and did not worsen oxidative stress markers in children with ASD. Most studies of HBOT in children with ASD examined changes in behaviors and reported improvements in several behavioral domains although many of these studies were not controlled. Although the two trials employing a control group reported conflicting results, a recent systematic review noted several important distinctions between these trials. In the reviewed studies, HBOT had minimal adverse effects and was well tolerated. Studies which used a higher frequency of HBOT sessions (e.g., 10 sessions per week as opposed to 5 sessions per week generally reported more significant improvements. Many of the studies had limitations which may have contributed to inconsistent findings across studies, including the use of many different standardized and non-standardized instruments, making it difficult to directly compare the results of studies or to know if there are specific areas of behavior in which HBOT is most effective. The variability in results between studies could also have been due to certain subgroups of children with ASD responding differently to HBOT. Most of the reviewed studies relied on changes in behavioral measurements, which may lag behind physiological changes. Additional studies

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Daniel A; Bradstreet, James J; Van Dyke, Kyle; Schneider, Cindy; Freedenfeld, Stuart H; O'Hara, Nancy; Cave, Stephanie; Buckley, Julie A; Mumper, Elizabeth A; Frye, Richard E

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) is indicated in several clinical disorders include decompression sickness, healing of problem wounds and arterial gas embolism. However, some investigators have used HBOT to treat individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A number of individuals with ASD possess certain physiological abnormalities that HBOT might ameliorate, including cerebral hypoperfusion, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Studies of children with ASD have found positive changes in physiology and/or behavior from HBOT. For example, several studies have reported that HBOT improved cerebral perfusion, decreased markers of inflammation and did not worsen oxidative stress markers in children with ASD. Most studies of HBOT in children with ASD examined changes in behaviors and reported improvements in several behavioral domains although many of these studies were not controlled. Although the two trials employing a control group reported conflicting results, a recent systematic review noted several important distinctions between these trials. In the reviewed studies, HBOT had minimal adverse effects and was well tolerated. Studies which used a higher frequency of HBOT sessions (e.g., 10 sessions per week as opposed to 5 sessions per week) generally reported more significant improvements. Many of the studies had limitations which may have contributed to inconsistent findings across studies, including the use of many different standardized and non-standardized instruments, making it difficult to directly compare the results of studies or to know if there are specific areas of behavior in which HBOT is most effective. The variability in results between studies could also have been due to certain subgroups of children with ASD responding differently to HBOT. Most of the reviewed studies relied on changes in behavioral measurements, which may lag behind physiological changes. Additional studies enrolling children with ASD

  7. Anterior insular cortex regulation in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Caria, Andrea; De Falco, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by dramatic impairments of interpersonal behavior, communication, and empathy. Recent neuroimaging studies suggested that ASD are disorders characterized by widespread abnormalities involving distributed brain network, though clear evidence of differences in large-scale brain network interactions underlying the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of ASD are still lacking. Consistent findi...

  8. Tics and Tourette Syndrome in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Roberto; Vivanti, Giacomo

    2007-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are more frequently associated with tic disorders than expected by chance. Variable rates of comorbidity have been reported and common genetic and neurobiological factors are probably involved. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of tic disorders in a clinical sample (n = 105) of children and…

  9. Seizures and Epilepsy and Their Relationship to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Neal, Daniene

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious neurodevelopmental disorders which often co-occur with intellectual disabilities. A disorder which is strongly correlated with both of these disabilities are seizures and epilepsy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of available research on seizures and epilepsy in the ASD population…

  10. RELN mutations in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lammert, Dawn B.; Howell, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    RELN encodes a large, secreted glycoprotein integral to proper neuronal positioning during development and regulation of synaptic function postnatally. Rare, homozygous, null mutations lead to lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia, accompanied by developmental delay and epilepsy. Until recently, little was known about the frequency or consequences of heterozygous mutations. Several lines of evidence from multiple studies now implicate heterozygous mutations in RELN in autism spectrum dis...

  11. Is There Concordance in Attitudes and Beliefs between Parents and Scientists about Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Ruth L.; Harris, Mark J.; Ballan, Michelle S.; Fischbach, Gerald D.; Link, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    There is no reported investigation comparing concordance in attitudes and beliefs about autism spectrum disorder between parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and scientists who research autism spectrum disorder. To investigate the level of concordance between these groups on causes of autism, priorities of research, perceived stigma,…

  12. Gestural Communication in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Mother-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrogiuseppe, Marilina; Capirci, Olga; Cuva, Simone; Venuti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders display atypical development of gesture production, and gesture impairment is one of the determining factors of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Despite the obvious importance of this issue for children with autism spectrum disorder, the literature on gestures in autism is scarce and contradictory. The…

  13. Evidence Base Update for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tristram; Iadarola, Suzannah

    2015-01-01

    This evidence base update examines the level of empirical support for interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) younger than 5 years old. It focuses on research published since a previous review in this journal (Rogers & Vismara, 2008 ). We identified psychological or behavioral interventions that had been manualized and evaluated in either (a) experimental or quasi-experimental group studies or (b) systematic reviews of single-subject studies. We extracted data from all studies that met these criteria and were published after the previous review. Interventions were categorized across two dimensions. First, primary theoretical principles included applied behavior analysis (ABA), developmental social-pragmatic (DSP), or both. Second, practice elements included scope (comprehensive or focused), modality (individual intervention with the child, parent training, or classrooms), and intervention targets (e.g., spoken language or alternative and augmentative communication). We classified two interventions as well-established (individual, comprehensive ABA and teacher-implemented, focused ABA + DSP), 3 as probably efficacious (individual, focused ABA for augmentative and alternative communication; individual, focused ABA + DSP; and focused DSP parent training), and 5 as possibly efficacious (individual, comprehensive ABA + DSP; comprehensive ABA classrooms; focused ABA for spoken communication; focused ABA parent training; and teacher-implemented, focused DSP). The evidence base for ASD interventions has grown substantially since 2008. An increasing number of interventions have some empirical support; others are emerging as potentially efficacious. Priorities for future research include improving outcome measures, developing interventions for understudied ASD symptoms (e.g., repetitive behaviors), pinpointing mechanisms of action in interventions, and adapting interventions for implementation with fidelity by community providers. PMID:26430947

  14. Sulforaphane treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Connors, Susan L; Macklin, Eric A; Smith, Kirby D; Fahey, Jed W; Talalay, Paul; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2014-10-28

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterized by both impaired communication and social interaction, and by stereotypic behavior, affects about 1 in 68, predominantly males. The medico-economic burdens of ASD are enormous, and no recognized treatment targets the core features of ASD. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial, young men (aged 13-27) with moderate to severe ASD received the phytochemical sulforaphane (n = 29)--derived from broccoli sprout extracts--or indistinguishable placebo (n = 15). The effects on behavior of daily oral doses of sulforaphane (50-150 µmol) for 18 wk, followed by 4 wk without treatment, were quantified by three widely accepted behavioral measures completed by parents/caregivers and physicians: the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Clinical Global Impression Improvement Scale (CGI-I). Initial scores for ABC and SRS were closely matched for participants assigned to placebo and sulforaphane. After 18 wk, participants receiving placebo experienced minimal change (<3.3%), whereas those receiving sulforaphane showed substantial declines (improvement of behavior): 34% for ABC (P < 0.001, comparing treatments) and 17% for SRS scores (P = 0.017). On CGI-I, a significantly greater number of participants receiving sulforaphane had improvement in social interaction, abnormal behavior, and verbal communication (P = 0.015-0.007). Upon discontinuation of sulforaphane, total scores on all scales rose toward pretreatment levels. Dietary sulforaphane, of recognized low toxicity, was selected for its capacity to reverse abnormalities that have been associated with ASD, including oxidative stress and lower antioxidant capacity, depressed glutathione synthesis, reduced mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation, increased lipid peroxidation, and neuroinflammmation.

  15. Autism Spectrum Disorders Conference for educators, parents, and psychologist

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2006-01-01

    A conference designed to assist those who are supporting students from preschool through high school with autism spectrum disorders including Asperger's syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified PDD-NOS or atypical autism, will be held March 30 and 31, at the Southwest Virginia Higher Education Center in Abingdon, Va. Registration for the conference is $65 for both days and covers breaks, lunch, and materials.

  16. Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    White, Susan W.; Oswald, Donald; Ollendick, Thomas; Scahill, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety and poor stress management are common concerns in clinical samples of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Anxiety may worsen during adolescence, as young people face an increasingly complex social milieu and often become more aware of their differences and interpersonal difficulties. This review summarizes the state of research on the prevalence, phenomenology, and treatment of anxiety in youth with autism and related conditions such as Asperger’s disorder. Using search wor...

  17. Classroom Needs of Community College Students with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo, Ken; Shmulsky, Solvegi

    2012-01-01

    Community college students with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders can experience significant challenges from the social aspect of classroom learning and college life in comparison to their peers. This article explains unique challenges of postsecondary learners with Asperger's Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders. It also…

  18. The Association between Epilepsy and Autism Symptoms and Maladaptive Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscidi, Emma W.; Johnson, Ashley L.; Spence, Sarah J.; Buka, Stephen L.; Morrow, Eric M.; Triche, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but little is known about how seizures impact the autism phenotype. The association between epilepsy and autism symptoms and associated maladaptive behaviors was examined in 2,645 children with ASD, of whom 139 had epilepsy, from the Simons Simplex Collection. Children with ASD and…

  19. [Autism Spectrum Disorder and DSM-5: Spectrum or Cluster?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Xaver; Freiberger, Verena; Greulich, Heide; Blank, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Within the new DSM-5, the currently differentiated subgroups of "Autistic Disorder" (299.0), "Asperger's Disorder" (299.80) and "Pervasive Developmental Disorder" (299.80) are replaced by the more general "Autism Spectrum Disorder". With regard to a patient-oriented and expedient advising therapy planning, however, the issue of an empirically reproducible and clinically feasible differentiation into subgroups must still be raised. Based on two Autism-rating-scales (ASDS and FSK), an exploratory two-step cluster analysis was conducted with N=103 children (age: 5-18) seen in our social-pediatric health care centre to examine potentially autistic symptoms. In the two-cluster solution of both rating scales, mainly the problems in social communication grouped the children into a cluster "with communication problems" (51 % and 41 %), and a cluster "without communication problems". Within the three-cluster solution of the ASDS, sensory hypersensitivity, cleaving to routines and social-communicative problems generated an "autistic" subgroup (22%). The children of the second cluster ("communication problems", 35%) were only described by social-communicative problems, and the third group did not show any problems (38%). In the three-cluster solution of the FSK, the "autistic cluster" of the two-cluster solution differentiated in a subgroup with mainly social-communicative problems (cluster 1) and a second subgroup described by restrictive, repetitive behavior. The different cluster solutions will be discussed with a view to the new DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, for following studies a further specification of some of the ASDS and FSK items could be helpful. PMID:26289149

  20. Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippis, Melissa; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a diagnosis that includes significant social communication deficits/delays along with restricted patterns of interests and behaviors. The prevalence of this diagnosis has increased over the past few decades, and it is unclear whether this is solely attributable to the increased awareness of milder forms of the disorder among medical providers. The current treatment options for the core symptoms of autism are limited to psychosocial therapies, such as applied behavior analysis. Medications have been most effective in treating the associated behavioral symptoms of autism, though studies have examined potential benefits in some of the core symptoms of autism with certain medications, especially the repetitive behaviors often seen with this diagnosis. Risperidone and aripiprazole are currently the only medications FDA approved for symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders, targeting the irritability often seen with this diagnosis. Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder appear to be more susceptible to adverse effects with medications; therefore, initiation with low doses and titrating very slowly is recommended. Some complementary alternative treatments have been researched as possible treatments in autism, though evidence supporting many of these is very limited. PMID:27738378

  1. Cultural Basis of Social "Deficits" in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepa, Prithvi

    2014-01-01

    There is very little research that specifically looks at how autism spectrum disorders are perceived in various communities. This qualitative research was conducted with parents who had children on the autistic spectrum belonging to four different ethnic communities (White British, Somali, West African and South Asian--63 in total) and living in…

  2. Mirror system based therapy for autism spectrum disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei CHEN; Jing ZHANG; Jun DING

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the present theories and empirical research of autisms' cognitive research and mir-ror systems and introduces a new hypothesis about the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD): autistic mir-ror neuron dysfunction hypothesis. ASD subjects show obvious lack of the activation of the mirror system during the task of observation or emotional cognition. It is sig-nificant to investigate the mirror system for revealing the causes of autism and it is also helpful for developing new ways to diagnose or treat this disorder.

  3. Amniotic fluid MMP-9 and neurotrophins in autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Pearce, Brad D; Larsen, Nanna;

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that some developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), are caused by errors in brain plasticity. Given the important role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and neurotrophins (NTs) in neuroplasticity, amniotic fluid samples for 331 ASD cases and 698...

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Gender Dysphoric Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Annelou L. C.; Noens, Ilse L. J.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; Doreleijers, Theo A.

    2010-01-01

    Only case reports have described the co-occurrence of gender identity disorder (GID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined this co-occurrence using a systematic approach. Children and adolescents (115 boys and 89 girls, mean age 10.8, SD = 3.58) referred to a gender identity clinic received a standardized assessment during which…

  5. Intestinal inflammation in a murine model of autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Theije, Caroline G.M.; Koelink, Pim J.; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A.H.; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, S. Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a cluster of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication, social interest and stereotypical behaviour. Dysfunction of the intestinal tract is reported in patients with ASD and implicated in the development and severity of ASD symptoms.

  6. Sleep Disturbances and Correlates of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianchen; Hubbard, Julie A.; Fabes, Richard A.; Adam, James B.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined sleep patterns, sleep problems, and their correlates in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Subjects consisted of 167 ASD children, including 108 with autistic disorder, 27 with Asperger's syndrome, and 32 with other diagnoses of ASD. Mean age was 8.8 years (SD = 4.2), 86% were boys. Parents completed a…

  7. Chromosomal Abnormalities and Putative Susceptibility Genes in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Gilling

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a significant genetic component as shown by family and twin studies. However, only a few genes have repeatedly been shown to be involved in the development of ASDs. The aim of this study has been...

  8. Impaired representational gaze following in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congiu, Sara; Fadda, Roberta; Doneddu, Giuseppe; Striano, Tricia

    2016-10-01

    Using eye-tracking methodology, we compared spontaneous gaze following in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (mean age 5.8 years) to that of typically developing children (mean age 5.7 years). Participants saw videos in which the position of a hidden object was either perceptually visible or was only represented in another person's mind. The findings indicate that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder were significantly less accurate in gaze following and observed the attended object for less time than typically developing children only in the Representational Condition. These results show that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are responsive to gaze as a perceptual cue although they ignore its representational meaning. PMID:27348855

  9. AD/HD and autism spectrum disorders in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hofvander, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are early-onset, but often life-time impairing, neurodevelopmental disorders. They are highly overlapping and seem to carry considerable risks of negative outcomes, psychiatrically and psychosocially. Childhood hyperactivity is a known risk factor for early-onset conduct disorder (CD), but details concerning the associations between neurodevelopmental problems, aggression, and antisocial personal...

  10. Genetic Aspects of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights from Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Swati eBanerjee; Manzoor eBhat; Maeveen eRiordan

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that display a triad of core behavioral deficits including restricted interests, often accompanied by repetitive behavior, deficits in language and communication, and an inability to engage in reciprocal social interactions. ASD is among the most heritable disorders but is not a simple disorder with a singular pathology and has a rather complex etiology. It is interesting to note that perturbations in synaptic growth,...

  11. Animal models of autism spectrum disorders: Information for neurotoxicologists

    OpenAIRE

    Halladay, Alycia K.; Amaral, David; Aschner, Michael; Bolivar, Valerie J.; Bowman, Aaron; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Hyman, Susan L.; Keller, Flavio; Lein, Pamela; Pessah, Isaac; Restifo, Linda; Threadgill, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings derived from large-scale datasets and biobanks link multiple genes to autism spectrum disorders. Consequently, novel rodent mutants with deletions, truncations and in some cases, overexpression of these candidate genes have been developed and studied both behaviorally and biologically. At the Annual Neurotoxicology Meeting in Rochester, NY in October of 2008, a symposium of clinicians and basic scientists gathered to present the behavioral features of autism, as well as strate...

  12. Atypical Network Connectivity for Imitation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Patricia; Shen, Mark; Öttl, Birgit; Keehn, Brandon; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2010-01-01

    Imitation has been considered as one of the precursors for sociocommunicative development. Impairments of imitation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could be indicative of dysfunctional underlying neural processes. Neuroimaging studies have found reduced activation in areas associated with imitation, but a functional connectivity MRI network perspective of these regions in autism is unavailable. Functional and effective connectivity was examined in 14 male participants with ASD and 14 matche...

  13. Social Participation Among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in social activities among young adults who received special education services for autism (ASD group), compared to young adults who received special educ...

  14. Locomotion and Grasping impairment in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Fulceri; Annarita Contaldo; Ilaria Parrini; Calderoni Sara; Antonio Narzisi; Raffaella Tancredi; Fabio Apicella; Filippo Muratori

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate expressiveness of motor impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and its correlation with developmental and clinical features of ASD. Method: Thirty-five male preschoolers with ASD completed the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2; Folio and Fewell, 2000) and underwent a multidisciplinary assessment including medical examination, standardized assessment of cognitive abilities, administration of Autism_Diagnostic_Observation_Schedule (ADOS) and a pare...

  15. Food selectivity in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Zazpe, Itziar; Mari-Sanchis, Amelia; Llopis-González, Agustín; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2014-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by difficulties with reciprocal social interactions and restricted patterns of behavior and interest; one of these characteristic behaviors is food selectivity. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the literature published between 1970 and 2013 concerning this eating behavior. The articles identified were analyzed in terms of sample size, study design, and criteria for assessment and intervention, as well as the results, level of evidence and grade of recommendation. The main search was conducted in Medline, Cochrane Library, Scielo, ScienceDirect, and Embase). There is empirical evidence and an overall scientific consensus supporting an association between food selectivity and autism spectrum disorders.

  16. Patterns of autism spectrum symptomatology in individuals with Down syndrome without comorbid autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Channell, Marie Moore; Phillips, B. Allyson; Loveall, Susan J.; Conners, Frances A; Bussanich, Paige M.; Klinger, Laura Grofer

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevalence estimates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Down syndrome (DS) are highly varied. This variation is partly due to the difficulty of screening for and diagnosing comorbid ASD in individuals with a syndrome that carries its own set of social communicative and behavioral difficulties that are not well documented. The aim of this study was to identify the typical range of social communicative impairments observed in children, adolescents, and young adults with DS who do n...

  17. Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…

  18. Comparing Service Use and Costs among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders, Special Needs and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Barbara; Mosweu, Iris; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Charman, Tony; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Happé, Francesca; Byford, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a complex condition that requires specialised care. Knowledge of the costs of autism spectrum disorder, especially in comparison with other conditions, may be useful to galvanise policymakers and leverage investment in education and intervention to mitigate aspects of autism spectrum disorder that negatively impact…

  19. Preconceptional and Prenatal Supplementary Folic Acid and Multivitamin Intake and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Jasveer; Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen A.; Catov, Janet M.; Ritz, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether early folic acid supplementation during pregnancy prevents diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in offspring. Methods: Information on autism spectrum disorder diagnosis was obtained from the National Hospital Register and the Central Psychiatric Register. We estimated risk ratios for autism spectrum disorders for…

  20. Patterns of Autobiographical Memory in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Laura; Pring, Linda; Jukes, Kaylee; Goddard, Lorna

    2012-01-01

    Two studies are presented that explored the effects of experimental manipulations on the quality and accessibility of autobiographical memories in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relative to a typical comparison group matched for age, gender and IQ. Both studies found that the adults with ASD generated fewer specific memories than the…

  1. Bullying Experiences among Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Pepler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have investigated bullying experiences among children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however, preliminary research suggests that children with ASD are at greater risk for being bullied than typically developing peers. The aim of the current study was to build an understanding of bullying experiences among children with…

  2. Maternal Infection Requiring Hospitalization during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atladottir, Hjordis O.; Thorsen, Poul; Ostergaard, Lars; Schendel, Diana E.; Lemcke, Sanne; Abdallah, Morsi; Parner, Erik T.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal infection has been suggested to cause deficiencies in fetal neurodevelopment. In this study we included all children born in Denmark from 1980, through 2005. Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and maternal infection were obtained through nationwide registers. Data was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards…

  3. Neonatal chemokine levels and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob;

    2013-01-01

    A potential role of chemokines in the pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) has been previously suggested. In a recent study we examined levels of three inflammatory chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1a and RANTES) in samples of amniotic fluid of children diagnosed later in life with ASD...

  4. Neonatal levels of cytokines and risk of autism spectrum disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Mortensen, Erik L;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in neonatal dried blood samples (n-DBSS) retrieved from The Danish Newborn Screening Biobank of children developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) later in life and controls. Samples of 359 ASD cases and 741 controls were analyzed using Luminex...

  5. Desire for social interaction in children with autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deckers, A.; Roelofs, J.; Muris, P.E.H.M.; Rinck, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this experimental clinical study, a first attempt was made to examine the desire for social interaction in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children completed both an explicit measure (self-report) and an implicit measure (Face Turn Ap

  6. Defining Crisis in Families of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; Wingsiong, Aranda; Lunsky, Yona

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder often report higher levels of depression, anxiety, and mental health-related issues. The combination of stressors and family adjustment difficulties can cause distress which may develop into a crisis. Understanding crisis in the family is important to mental health practice since it can…

  7. Emotion Recognition in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusikko, Sanna; Haapsamo, Helena; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Hurtig, Tuula; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Jussila, Katja; Bolte, Sven; Moilanen, Irma

    2009-01-01

    We examined upper facial basic emotion recognition in 57 subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (M = 13.5 years) and 33 typically developing controls (M = 14.3 years) by using a standardized computer-aided measure (The Frankfurt Test and Training of Facial Affect Recognition, FEFA). The ASD group scored lower than controls on the total…

  8. Is Emotion Recognition Impaired in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Jessica L.; Robins, Richard W.; Schriber, Roberta A.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have argued that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) use an effortful "systematizing" process to recognize emotion expressions, whereas typically developing (TD) individuals use a more holistic process. If this is the case, individuals with ASDs should show slower and less efficient emotion recognition, particularly for…

  9. Attachment and Symbolic Play in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Inbal; Oppenheim, David; Koren-Karie, Nina; Dolev, Smadar; Yirmiya, Nurit

    2009-01-01

    The association between attachment and symbolic play was examined in a sample of 45 preschool age boys with autism spectrum disorders. Attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure, and the frequency, duration, diversity and complexity of child-initiated symbolic play was assessed from observations of mother-child interactions…

  10. Sexuality Education for Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullis, Christopher A.; Zangrillo, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    As people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) mature from adolescents into adults, social deficits may become more pronounced and apparent in new areas (e.g., social functioning and sexuality). Like neurotypicals, sexuality may be directly related to quality of life for people with ASD. Current practice for addressing sexuality in the ASD…

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Sibling Relationships: Research and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Julia F.

    2009-01-01

    Significant attention has been paid in the literature to sibling relationships and the effects of birth order, family size, and gender on such relationships. Although these are important areas to study, there is relatively little research on the effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on sibling relationships. The existent research identifies…

  12. Neurofeedback Improves Executive Functioning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Congedo, Marco; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children's heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation over sessions. Following treatment, children's…

  13. Polypharmacy Profiles and Predictors among Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Johanna K.; Balogh, Robert; Lunsky, Yona

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological interventions are frequently used to treat commonly associated mental health and behavioural issues in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite high rates of psychotropic drug use documented in children with ASD, very few studies have examined medication profiles, side effects, and rates of polypharmacy in…

  14. Improving Empathic Communication Skills in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Lynn Kern; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Navab, Anahita; Koegel, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    The literature suggests that many individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience challenges with recognizing and describing emotions in others, which may result in difficulties with the verbal expression of empathy during communication. Thus, there is a need for intervention techniques targeting this area. Using a multiple…

  15. Structural variation of chromosomes in autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, Christian R.; Noor, Abdul; Vincent, John B.; Lionel, Anath C.; Feuk, Lars; Skaug, Jennifer; Shago, Mary; Moessner, Rainald; Pinto, Dalila; Ren, Yan; Thiruvahindrapduram, Bhoorna; Fiebig, Andreas; Schreiber, Stefan; Friedman, Jan; Ketelaars, Cees E. J.; Vos, Yvonne J.; Ficicioglu, Can; Kirkpatrick, Susan; Nicolson, Rob; Sloman, Leon; Surnmers, Anne; Gibbons, Clare A.; Teebi, Ahmad; Chitayat, David; Weksberg, Rosanna; Thompson, Ann; Vardy, Cathy; Crosbie, Vicki; Luscombe, Sandra; Baatjes, Rebecca; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Roberts, Wendy; Fernandez, Bridget; Szatmari, Peter; Scherer, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    Structural variation (copy number variation [CNV] including deletion and duplication, translocation, inversion) of chromosomes has been identified in some individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the full etiologic role is unknown. We performed genome-wide assessment for structural abnor

  16. Symbolic Communication Forms in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Barbara A.; Armbrecht, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how early symbolic forms (and their associated communicative functions) are related to change in communication among a sample of 12 young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who produced two or fewer spoken words ("M" age = 28.75 months; 11 male, 1 female). Parents reported on children's…

  17. Resting-State Oscillatory Activity in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornew, Lauren; Roberts, Timothy P. L.; Blaskey, Lisa; Edgar, J. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Neural oscillatory anomalies in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggest an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance; however, the nature and clinical relevance of these anomalies are unclear. Whole-cortex magnetoencephalography data were collected while 50 children (27 with ASD, 23 controls) underwent an eyes-closed resting-state exam. A Fast Fourier…

  18. Reduced Chromatic Discrimination in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Anna; Sowden, Paul; Notman, Leslie; Gonzalez-Dixon, Melissa; West, Dorotea; Alexander, Iona; Loveday, Stephen; White, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Atypical perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is well documented (Dakin & Frith, 2005). However, relatively little is known about colour perception in ASD. Less accurate performance on certain colour tasks has led some to argue that chromatic discrimination is reduced in ASD relative to typical development (Franklin, Sowden, Burley,…

  19. Multisensory Speech Perception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woynaroski, Tiffany G.; Kwakye, Leslie D.; Foss-Feig, Jennifer H.; Stevenson, Ryan A.; Stone, Wendy L.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined unisensory and multisensory speech perception in 8-17 year old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and typically developing controls matched on chronological age, sex, and IQ. Consonant-vowel syllables were presented in visual only, auditory only, matched audiovisual, and mismatched audiovisual ("McGurk")…

  20. Audiovisual Processing in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongillo, Elizabeth A.; Irwin, Julia R.; Whalen, D. H.; Klaiman, Cheryl; Carter, Alice S.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    Fifteen children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and twenty-one children without ASD completed six perceptual tasks designed to characterize the nature of the audiovisual processing difficulties experienced by children with ASD. Children with ASD scored significantly lower than children without ASD on audiovisual tasks involving human faces…

  1. Group Therapy for Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConachie, Helen; McLaughlin, Eleanor; Grahame, Victoria; Taylor, Helen; Honey, Emma; Tavernor, Laura; Rodgers, Jacqui; Freeston, Mark; Hemm, Cahley; Steen, Nick; Le Couteur, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the acceptability and feasibility of adapted group therapy for anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder in a pilot randomised controlled trial. Method: A total of 32 children aged 9-13 years were randomised to immediate or delayed therapy using the "Exploring Feelings" manual (Attwood, 2004). Child and parent…

  2. DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptomology in Fictional Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jane E.; Cardon, Teresa A.; Algeo-Nichols, Dana

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, schools have seen an increasing number of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the current estimated average of children in the United States who are diagnosed with an ASD is one out of 68 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). One way for educators and elementary students to learn about ASD is through…

  3. Media Use among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Melissa H.; Orsmond, Gael I.; Coster, Wendy J.; Cohn, Ellen S.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) use media, and the factors associated with their media use. A total of 91 adolescents with ASD and their parents completed mail-based surveys. In all, 78% of the adolescents with ASD watched television (approximately 2 h/day), and 98% used computers (approximately 5 h/day) on…

  4. Social Participation among Young Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Sterzing, Paul R.; Anderson, Kristy A.

    2013-01-01

    Investigating social participation of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important given the increasing number of youth aging into young adulthood. Social participation is an indicator of life quality and overall functioning. Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2, we examined rates of participation in…

  5. Detecting autism spectrum disorders in the general practitioner's practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongerloo, M.A. van; Bor, H.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    It takes considerable time before Autism Spectrum Disorders are diagnosed. Validated diagnostic instruments are available, but not applicable to primary healthcare. By means of a case-control study we investigated whether there were differences in presented complaints and referral patterns between c

  6. Predicting Friendship Quality in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger, Nirit; Solomon, Marjorie; Rogers, Sally J.

    2010-01-01

    The role played by social relationship variables (attachment security; mother-child relationship qualities) and social-cognitive capacities (theory of mind) was examined in both observed friendship behaviors and in children's descriptions of friendships (age 8-12) with high functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) (n = 44) and…

  7. Attentional Shifts between Audition and Vision in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, Valeria; Esposito, Gianluca; Venuti, Paola; Arduino, Giuseppe Maurizio; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Previous evidence on neurotypical adults shows that the presentation of a stimulus allocates the attention to its modality, resulting in faster responses to a subsequent target presented in the same (vs. different) modality. People with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) often fail to detect a (visual or auditory) target in a stream of stimuli after…

  8. Driving Behaviors in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brian P.; Nicholls, Elizabeth G.; Patrick, Kristina E.; Brinckman, Danielle D.; Schultheis, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated driving history and driving behaviors between adults diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) as compared to non-ASD adult drivers. Seventy-eight licensed drivers with ASD and 94 non-ASD comparison participants completed the Driver Behavior Questionnaire. Drivers with ASD endorsed significantly lower ratings of…

  9. Neurocognitive Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinvall, Outi; Voutilainen, Arja; Kujala, Teija; Korkman, Marit

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of research studying comprehensive neurocognitive profiles of adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study compared the neurocognitive profiles of higher functioning adolescents with ASD (n = 30, mean age 13.5) with that of typically developing adolescents (n = 30; mean age 13.7). Adolescents…

  10. Language Acquisition in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Developmental Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; de Marchena, Ashley B.; Schuh, Jillian M.; Kelley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the complex literature on language acquisition in the autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because of the high degree of interest in ASD in the past decade, the field has been changing rapidly, with progress in both basic science and applied clinical areas. In addition, psycholinguistically-trained researchers have increasingly…

  11. Use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Lindsay M.; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The clinical, social and financial burden of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is staggering. We urgently need valid and reliable biomarkers for diagnosis and effective treatments targeting the often debilitating symptoms. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is beginning to be used by a number of centers worldwide and may represent a novel…

  12. Accessing and Selecting Word Meaning in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, L. M.; Clarke, P. J.; Snowling, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Comprehension difficulties are commonly reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but the causes of these difficulties are poorly understood. This study investigates how children with ASD access and select meanings of ambiguous words to test four hypotheses regarding the nature of their comprehension difficulties: semantic deficit,…

  13. Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Unusual sensory processing has been widely reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs); however, the majority of research in this area has focused on children. The present study assessed sensory processing in adults with ASD using the Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile (AASP), a 60-item self-report questionnaire assessing levels of sensory…

  14. Predictors of Handwriting in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinckx, Tinneke; Roeyers, Herbert; Van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    During writing, perceptual, motor, and cognitive processes interact. This study explored the predictive value of several factors on handwriting quality as well as on speed in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Our results showed that, in this population, age, gender, and visual-motor integration significantly predicted handwriting…

  15. School Participation of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira De Matos, Inês; Morgado, José

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the participation of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in mainstream schools. There are different benefits for ASD students to be educated in an inclusive environment (Gena, 2006; Whitaker, 2004). They challenge the school community by presenting difficulties in essential domains for school activities (Chamberlain,…

  16. Perception of Mirror Symmetry in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Christine M.; Bailey, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Gestalt grouping in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is selectively impaired for certain organization principles but for not others. Symmetry is a fundamental Gestalt principle characterizing many biological shapes. Sensitivity to symmetry was tested using the Picture Symmetry Test, which requires finding symmetry lines on pictures. Individuals…

  17. Developing Mirror Self Awareness in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Christine K.; Flattery, J. J., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    A teaching methodology and curriculum was designed to develop and increase positive self-awareness in students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Joint attention (JA) strategies were first utilized to directly teach students about reflected mirror images, and then subsequently, to indirectly teach students about their reflected image.…

  18. Gender Differences in Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…

  19. Severe Mood Problems in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonoff, Emily; Jones, Catherine R. G.; Pickles, Andrew; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Severe mood dysregulation and problems (SMP) in otherwise typically developing youth are recognized as an important mental health problem with a distinct set of clinical features, family history and neurocognitive characteristics. SMP in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have not previously been explored. Method: We…

  20. Antenatal Ultrasound and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Judith K.; Li, Sherian Xu; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Croen, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated antenatal ultrasound (U/S) exposure as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), comparing affected singleton children and control children born 1995-1999 and enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente health care system. Among children with ASD (n = 362) and controls (n = 393), 13% had no antenatal exposure to U/S examinations;…

  1. Motor Skills of Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as…

  2. The Cognitive Interview for Eyewitnesses with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, Katie L.; Bowler, Dermot M.

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive interview (CI) is one of the most widely accepted forms of interviewing techniques for eliciting the most detailed, yet accurate reports from witnesses. No research, however, has examined its effectiveness with witnesses with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-six adults with ASD and 26 matched typical adults viewed a video of an…

  3. Dream Content Analysis in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoust, Anne-Marie; Lusignan, Felix-Antoine; Braun, Claude M. J.; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Dream questionnaires were completed by 28 young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) participants. Seventy-nine typically developed individual served as the control group. In a subset of 17 persons with ASD and 11 controls matched for verbal IQ, dream narratives were obtained following REM sleep awakenings in a sleep laboratory.…

  4. Physical Aggression in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Kanne, Stephen M.; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression is a clinically significant problem for many children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, there have been few large-scale studies addressing this issue. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of physical aggression in a sample of 1584 children and adolescents with ASD enrolled in the Autism…

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Part II: A Qualitative Comparison of Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Shelley L.; Hayes, Stephanie A.; Coons, Kelly D.; Radford-Paz, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Researchers investigating the impact of parenting children with disabilities suggest that regardless of the specific diagnosis, parents experience increased levels of stress. However, particular disabilities may be associated with distinct stressors and strains. Method: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and…

  6. Easing the transition to secondary education for children with autism spectrum disorder: An evaluation of the Systemic Transition in Education Programme for Autism Spectrum Disorder (STEP-ASD)

    OpenAIRE

    Mandy, W.; Murin, M.; Baykaner, O.; Staunton, S.; Cobb, R.; Hellriegel, J.; Anderson, S.; SKUSE, D

    2015-01-01

    In mainstream education, the transition from primary to secondary school ('school transition') is difficult for children with autism spectrum disorder, being marked by high levels of emotional and behavioural difficulties. The Systemic Transition in Education Programme for Autism Spectrum Disorder (STEP-ASD) is a new, manualised school transition intervention. We investigated its feasibility and efficacy for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (N = 37; mean age = 11.47 years; mea...

  7. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults : the Use of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Meffert, Harma; Hein, Simone; Huizinga, Petra; Ketelaars, Cees; Pijnenborg, Marieke; Bartels, Arnold; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian; de Bildt, Annelies

    2011-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4 was investigated in an independent sample of high-functioning adult males with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to three specific diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, psychopathy, and typical development. ADOS module 4 proves to be a reli

  8. Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults: The Use of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Module 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A.; Meffert, Harma; Hein, Simone; Huizinga, Petra; Ketelaars, Cees; Pijnenborg, Marieke; Bartels, Arnold; Minderaa, Ruud; Keysers, Christian; de Bildt, Annelies

    2011-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) module 4 was investigated in an independent sample of high-functioning adult males with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to three specific diagnostic groups: schizophrenia, psychopathy, and typical development. ADOS module 4 proves to be a reliable instrument with good predictive value. It…

  9. Does sex influence the diagnostic evaluation of autism spectrum disorder in adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C Ellie; Murphy, Clodagh M; McAlonan, Grainne; Robertson, Dene M; Spain, Debbie; Hayward, Hannah; Woodhouse, Emma; Deeley, P Quinton; Gillan, Nicola; Ohlsen, J Chris; Zinkstok, Janneke; Stoencheva, Vladimira; Faulkner, Jessica; Yildiran, Hatice; Bell, Vaughan; Hammond, Neil; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan Gm

    2016-10-01

    It is unknown whether sex influences the diagnostic evaluation of autism spectrum disorder, or whether male and female adults within the spectrum have different symptom profiles. This study reports sex differences in clinical outcomes for 1244 adults (935 males and 309 females) referred for autism spectrum disorder assessment. Significantly, more males (72%) than females (66%) were diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder of any subtype (x(2) = 4.09; p = 0.04). In high-functioning autism spectrum disorder adults (IQ > 70; N = 827), there were no significant sex differences in severity of socio-communicative domain symptoms. Males had significantly more repetitive behaviours/restricted interests than females (p = 0.001, d = 0.3). A multivariate analysis of variance indicated a significant interaction between autism spectrum disorder subtype (full-autism spectrum disorder/partial-autism spectrum disorder) and sex: in full-autism spectrum disorder, males had more severe socio-communicative symptoms than females; for partial-autism spectrum disorder, the reverse was true. There were no sex differences in prevalence of co-morbid psychopathologies. Sex influenced diagnostic evaluation in a clinical sample of adults with suspected autism spectrum disorder. The sexes may present with different manifestations of the autism spectrum disorder phenotype and differences vary by diagnostic subtype. Understanding and awareness of adult female repetitive behaviours/restricted interests warrant attention and sex-specific diagnostic assessment tools may need to be considered.

  10. Assessment of Metabolic Parameters For Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananth N Rao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a brain development disorder that first appears during infancy or childhood, and generally follows a steady course without remission. Impairments result from maturation-related changes in various systems of the brain. Autism is one of the five pervasive developmental disorders (PDD, which are characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, and severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior. The reported incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs has increased markedly over the past decade. The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention has recently estimated the prevalence of ASDs in the United States at approximately 5.6 per 1000 (1 of 155 to 1 of 160 children. Several metabolic defects, such as phenylketonuria, are associated with autistic symptoms. In deciding upon the appropriate evaluation scheme a clinician must consider a host of different factors. The guidelines in this article have been developed to assist the clinician in the consideration of these factors.

  11. Investigating emotional impairments in adults with autism spectrum disorders and the broader autism phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Berthoz, Sylvie; Lalanne, Christophe; Crane, Laura; Hill, Elisabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the socio-affective atypicalities observed in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this study was to further explore emotional responsiveness in adults with ASD using well-validated self-reports of alexithymia and extend these with consideration of anhedonia, and to determine whether these features are part of a broader autism phenotype. Thirty-eight adults with ASD, 87 parents of ASD individuals and 47 typical controls completed the Autism...

  12. The broad autism phenotype predicts child functioning in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Parish-Morris, Julia; Hsin, Olivia; Bush, Jennifer C; Schultz, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Broad autism phenotype (BAP) is a milder expression of the social and communication impairments seen in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). While prior studies characterized the BAP in unaffected family members of probands with ASD, the relationship between parental BAP traits and proband symptomatology remains poorly understood. This study utilizes the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) in parents and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in children to examine this connecti...

  13. Potential Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Screening of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental condition, which is typically characterized by a triad of symptoms: impaired social communication, social reciprocity and repetitive stereotypic behavior. While the behavioral phenotype of ASD is well described, the search for reliable ‘autism biomarkers’ continues. CONTENT: Insulin growth factor (IGF is essential for the myelination of developing fetal neurons; this is in addition to the well-known links between IGF, maternal inflammation, infection and autism supporting IGF as a potential marker. Combining IGF data with data regarding levels of the known markers, serotonin and anti-myelin basic protein, in order to calculate an autism index, could provide a new diagnostic method for at-risk neonates. Disruptions to multiple pathophysiological systems, including redox, folate, methylation, tryptophan metabolism, and mitochondrial metabolism, have been well documented in autistic patients. Maternal infection and inflammation have known links with autism. Autoimmunity has therefore been a well-studied area of autism research. The potential of using autoantibodies as novel biomarkers for autism, in addition to providing insights into the neurodevelopmental processes that lead to autism. SUMMARY: The six proposed causes of autism involve both metabolic and immunologic dysfunctions and include: increased oxidative stress; decreased methionine metabolism and trans-sulfuration: aberrant free and bound metal burden; gastrointestinal (GI disturbances; immune/inflammation dysregulation; and autoimmune targeting. A newborn screening program for early-onset ASD should be capable of utilizing a combination of ASD-associated biomarkers representative of the six proposed causes of autism in order to identify newborns at risk. The biomarkers discussed in this article are useful to guide the selection, efficacy and sufficiency of biomedical interventions, which would likely

  14. Autism spectrum disorders in children and adolescents with Moebius sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Briegel, Wolfgang; Schimek, Martina; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Hofmann, Christina; Schwab, K. Otfried

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Moebius sequence is a rare congenital disorder usually defined as a combination of facial weakness with impairment of ocular abduction. A strong association of Moebius sequence with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been suggested in earlier studies with heterogenous age groups. The primary caregivers of all children and adolescents with Moebius sequence aged 6?17 years known to the German Moebius foundation were anonymously asked to complete two screening measures of A...

  15. Abnormalities of Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Monk, Christopher S.; Peltier, Scott J.; Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Weng, Shih-Jen; Carrasco, Melisa; Risi, Susan; Lord, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) impact social functioning and communication, and individuals with these disorders often have restrictive and repetitive behaviors. Accumulating data indicate that ASD is associated with alterations of neural circuitry. Functional MRI (FMRI) studies have focused on connectivity in the context of psychological tasks. However, even in the absence of a task, the brain exhibits a high degree of functional connectivity, known as intrinsic or resting connectivity. Not...

  16. Using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient to Discriminate Autism Spectrum Disorder from ADHD in Adult Patients With and Without Comorbid Substance Use Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.B. Sizoo; W. van den Brink; M. Gorissen-van Eenige; M.W. Koeter; P.J.M. van Wijngaarden-Cremers; R.J. van der Gaag

    2009-01-01

    It is unknown whether the Autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) can discriminate between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with or without comorbid Substance Use Disorder (SUD). ANOVA's were used to analyse the mean AQ (sub)scores of 129 adults with ASD o

  17. Using the Autism-spectrum quotient to discriminate Autism Spectrum Disorder from ADHD in adult patients with and without comorbid Substance Use Disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, B.B.; Brink, W. van den; Gorissen-van Eenige, M.E.E.; Koeter, M.W.; Wijngaarden-Cremers, P.J. van; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    It is unknown whether the Autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) can discriminate between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with or without comorbid Substance Use Disorder (SUD). ANOVA's were used to analyse the mean AQ (sub)scores of 129 adults with ASD o

  18. Examining playground engagement between elementary school children with and without autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jill; Shih, Wendy; Kretzmann, Mark; Kasari, Connie

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about the social behavior of children with and without autism spectrum disorder during recess. This study documented the naturally occurring recess engagement and peer interaction behaviors of children with and without autism spectrum disorder in inclusive school settings. Participants included 51 children with autism spectrum disorder and 51 classmates without autism spectrum disorder who served as peer models matched on gender, classroom, grade, age, and ethnicity. Using a timed-interval behavior-coding system, children with autism spectrum disorder spent approximately 30% of their recess time engaged in solitary activities, whereas their classmates only spent approximately 9% of recess unengaged. In addition, children with autism spectrum disorder spent about 40% of the recess period jointly engaged with peers in a reciprocal activity, conversation, or game as compared to 70% for matched classmates. These findings provide a context for which to interpret intervention outcomes and gains for children with autism spectrum disorder in inclusive settings. PMID:26341991

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is self-prescribed. Working With a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist Just about every child, with or without autism, ... foods he or she eats. A registered dietitian nutritionist can identify any nutritional risks based on how ...

  20. MTHFR Gene C677T Polymorphism in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Funda Sener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Autism is a subgroup of autism spectrum disorders, classified as a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder and symptoms occur in the first three years of life. The etiology of autism is largely unknown, but it has been accepted that genetic and environmental factors may both be responsible for the disease. Recent studies have revealed that the genes involved in the folate/homocysteine pathway may be risk factors for autistic children. In particular, C677T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene as a possible risk factor for autism is still controversial. We aimed to investigate the possible effect of C677T polymorphism in a Turkish cohort. Methods. Autism patients were diagnosed by child psychiatrists according to DSM-IV and DSM-V criteria. A total of 98 children diagnosed as autistic and 70 age and sex-matched children who are nonautistic were tested for C677T polymorphism. This polymorphism was studied by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods. Results. MTHFR 677T-allele frequency was found to be higher in autistic children compared with nonautistic children (29% versus 24%, but it was not found statistically significant. Conclusions. We conclude that other MTHFR polymorphisms such as A1298C or other folate/homocysteine pathway genes may be studied to show their possible role in autism.

  1. Autism spectrum disorder profile in neurofibromatosis type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shruti; Plasschaert, Ellen; Descheemaeker, Mie-Jef; Huson, Susan; Borghgraef, Martine; Vogels, Annick; Evans, D Gareth; Legius, Eric; Green, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant single-gene disorder, in which the co-occurrence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has attracted considerable research interest recently with prevalence estimates of 21-40%. However, detailed characterization of the ASD behavioral phenotype in NF1 is still lacking. This study characterized the phenotypic profile of ASD symptomatology presenting in 4-16 year old children with NF1 (n = 36) using evidence from parent-rated Social Responsiveness Scale and researcher autism diagnostic observation Scale-2. Compared to IQ-matched reference groups of children with autism and ASD, the NF1 profile shows overall similarity but improved eye contact, less repetitive behaviors and better language skills.

  2. Autism spectrum disorder profile in neurofibromatosis type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shruti; Plasschaert, Ellen; Descheemaeker, Mie-Jef; Huson, Susan; Borghgraef, Martine; Vogels, Annick; Evans, D Gareth; Legius, Eric; Green, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant single-gene disorder, in which the co-occurrence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has attracted considerable research interest recently with prevalence estimates of 21-40%. However, detailed characterization of the ASD behavioral phenotype in NF1 is still lacking. This study characterized the phenotypic profile of ASD symptomatology presenting in 4-16 year old children with NF1 (n = 36) using evidence from parent-rated Social Responsiveness Scale and researcher autism diagnostic observation Scale-2. Compared to IQ-matched reference groups of children with autism and ASD, the NF1 profile shows overall similarity but improved eye contact, less repetitive behaviors and better language skills. PMID:25475362

  3. Violations of Personal Space by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Daniel P.; Ralph Adolphs

    2014-01-01

    The ability to maintain an appropriate physical distance (i.e., interpersonal distance) from others is a critical aspect of social interaction and contributes importantly to real-life social functioning. In Study 1, using parent-report data that had been acquired on a large number of individuals (ages 4-18 years) for the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange and the Simons Simplex Collection, we found that those with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; n = 766) more often violated the space of others c...

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Chiari 1 Malformation Co-occurring in a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuagwu, Ferdnand C; Amalraj, Benedict; Noveloso, Bernard D; Aikoye, Salisu A; Bradley, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Very few studies have shown associations between autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and Chiari 1 malformation. Here, we report an 10-year-old male that presented after having seizures with a history of Chiari 1 malformation, autism spectrum disorder and ADHD with moderate mental retardation and speech delay. This case highlights the fact that autism spectrum disorder as biologically based neurodevelopmental disorder with altered brain growth may be associated with Chiari 1 malformation and ADHD. PMID:27050897

  5. Risk factors for bullying among children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Anderson, Connie M; Law, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Although children with disabilities have been found to be at an increased risk of bullying, there are limited studies investigating predictors of bullying involvement in children with autism spectrum disorders. The current study presents findings from 1221 parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who were selected from a national web-based registry. Parents completed a survey dedicated to the school and bullying experiences of their child, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify child and school risk factors for involvement as victim, bully, or bully-victim. Additional analyses examined the risk of bullying involvement based on the amount of time spent in general education classrooms. Children diagnosed with Asperger's disorder, attending a public school or a school with a general education population, were at the greatest risk of being victimized in the past month. Children with comorbid conditions and a high level of autistic traits were the most likely to be victims, bullies, and bully-victims. Finally, children in full inclusion classrooms were more likely to be victimized than those who spend the majority of their time in special education settings. Future research studies should be invested in finding appropriate supports for children with autism spectrum disorder placed in inclusive settings.

  6. Risk factors for bullying among children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Anderson, Connie M; Law, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Although children with disabilities have been found to be at an increased risk of bullying, there are limited studies investigating predictors of bullying involvement in children with autism spectrum disorders. The current study presents findings from 1221 parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who were selected from a national web-based registry. Parents completed a survey dedicated to the school and bullying experiences of their child, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify child and school risk factors for involvement as victim, bully, or bully-victim. Additional analyses examined the risk of bullying involvement based on the amount of time spent in general education classrooms. Children diagnosed with Asperger's disorder, attending a public school or a school with a general education population, were at the greatest risk of being victimized in the past month. Children with comorbid conditions and a high level of autistic traits were the most likely to be victims, bullies, and bully-victims. Finally, children in full inclusion classrooms were more likely to be victimized than those who spend the majority of their time in special education settings. Future research studies should be invested in finding appropriate supports for children with autism spectrum disorder placed in inclusive settings. PMID:23901152

  7. Comparison of Scores on the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale for Children with Low Functioning Autism, High Functioning Autism, Asperger's Disorder, ADHD, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Morrow, Jill D.; Yurich, Kirsten K. L.; Mahr, Fauzia; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Bouder, James N.; Petersen, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Reliability and validity for three autism instruments were compared for 190 children with low functioning autism (LFA), 190 children with high functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (HFA), 76 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 64 typical children. The instruments were the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder…

  8. Easing the Transition to Secondary Education for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Evaluation of the Systemic Transition in Education Programme for Autism Spectrum Disorder (STEP-ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Murin, Marianna; Baykaner, Ozlem; Staunton, Sara; Cobb, Robert; Hellriegel, Josselyn; Anderson, Seonaid; Skuse, David

    2016-01-01

    In mainstream education, the transition from primary to secondary school ("school transition") is difficult for children with autism spectrum disorder, being marked by high levels of emotional and behavioural difficulties. The Systemic Transition in Education Programme for Autism Spectrum Disorder (STEP-ASD) is a new, manualised school…

  9. Use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Oberman, Lindsay M.; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    The clinical, social and financial burden of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is staggering. We urgently need valid and reliable biomarkers for diagnosis and effective treatments targeting the often debilitating symptoms. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is beginning to be used by a number of centers worldwide and may represent a novel technique with both diagnostic and therapeutic potential. Here we critically review the current scientific evidence for the use of TMS in ASD. Though prel...

  10. Music therapy for people with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Geretsegger, Monika; Elefant, Cochavit; Mössler, Karin; Gold, Christian

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundThe central impairments of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affect social interaction and communication. Music therapy uses musical experiences and the relationships that develop through them to enable communication and expression, thus attempting to address some of the core problems of people with ASD. The present version of this review on music therapy for ASD is an update of the original Cochrane review published in 2006.ObjectivesTo assess the effects of music therapy ...

  11. Pupils with Autism spectrum disorders in primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Kopun, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The thesis includes the presentation of Asperger syndrome and strategies for teaching students with Asperger syndrome. It shows the survey on knowledge of Asperger syndrome among primary school teaches with experience and teachers with no experience in working with pupils with Asperger syndrome. It also includes the analysis of three interviews in which the characteristics of people with Asperger syndrome are presented. There are several autism spectrum disorders and the Asperger syndrome...

  12. The Impact of Neuroimmune Alterations in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gottfried, Carmem; Bambini-Junior, Victorio; Francis, Fiona; Riesgo, Rudimar; Savino, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves a complex interplay of both genetic and environmental risk factors, with immune alterations and synaptic connection deficiency in early life. In the past decade, studies of ASD have substantially increased, in both humans and animal models. Immunological imbalance (including autoimmunity) has been proposed as a major etiological component in ASD, taking into account increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines observed in postmortem brain from patient...

  13. Selected forms of therapy for individuals with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Dudzinska Ewa; Szymona Kinga; Pacian Anna; Kulik Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition of multiple origins. It is characterised by a range of behaviour patterns, in addition to disturbed social and emotional functioning. Of note, early therapy is conducive to better treatment results. A few recently discussed therapies have a particularly positive impact on children with ASD. Corbett et al. [2] proposed Sense Theatre. This involves instilling appropriate behaviours and communication patterns into the afflicted individual through act...

  14. Predicting Friendship Quality in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Typical Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bauminger, Nirit; Solomon, Marjorie; Rogers, Sally J.

    2009-01-01

    The role played by social relationship variables (attachment security; mother–child relationship qualities) and social-cognitive capacities (theory of mind) was examined in both observed friendship behaviors and in children’s descriptions of friendships (age 8–12) with high functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) (n = 44) and with typical development (TYP) (n = 38). Overall, half of the HFASD sample (54.45%) reported maternal attachment security, corroborating data from yo...

  15. Adaptation of educational tasks for children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Khaustov A.V.; Zagumennaya O.V.

    2016-01-01

    The second part of the article describes variations of adapted learning tasks of different levels for children with autism spectrum disorders who study in second grade according to adapted basic educational programs. The article presents examples of tasks for mathematics, Russian language, literary reading and environmental studies. The materials were developed and tested in the Center for psychological, medical and social help for children and adolescents of Moscow State Universi...

  16. Neurofeedback improves executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kouijzer, Mirjam,; De Moor, Jan,; Gerrits, Berrie,; Congedo, Marco; Van Schie, Hein,

    2009-01-01

    International audience Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children's heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation over sessions. Following treatment, children's executive capacities were found to have improved greatly relative to pre-treatment assessment on a range of executive function ...

  17. What does CNTNAP2 reveal about Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Peñagarikano, Olga; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by the presence of repetitive/restrictive behaviors and variable deficits in language and social behavior. Many genes predisposing an individual to ASD have been identified, and understanding the causal disease mechanism(s) is critical to be able to develop treatments. Neurobiological, genetic, and imaging data provide strong evidence for the CNTNAP2 gene as a risk factor for ASD and relat...

  18. Neural correlates of moral reasoning in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Karla; Pauly, Katharina D.; Gossen, Anna; Mevissen, Lea; Michel, Tanja M.; Ruben C. Gur; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2012-01-01

    In our study, we tried to clarify whether patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reveal different moral decision patterns as compared to healthy subjects and whether common social interaction difficulties in ASD are reflected in altered brain activation during different aspects of moral reasoning. 28 patients with high-functioning ASD and 28 healthy subjects matched for gender, age and education took part in an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Participants were...

  19. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging of autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDonald, Brenna C.; Anand, Amit; Saykin, Andrew J.; McDougle, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    The neurobiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has become increasingly understood since the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Initial observations of an above-average head circumference were supported by structural MRI studies that found evidence of increased total brain volume and early rapid brain overgrowth in affected individuals. Subsequent research revealed consistent abnormalities in cortical gray and white matter volume in ASDs. The structural integrity and orientation...

  20. Absence of contagious yawning in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Senju, Atsushi; Maeda, Makiko; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo

    2007-01-01

    This study is the first to report the disturbance of contagious yawning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-four children with ASD as well as 25 age-matched typically developing (TD) children observed video clips of either yawning or control mouth movements. Yawning video clips elicited more yawns in TD children than in children with ASD, but the frequency of yawns did not differ between groups when they observed control video clips. Moreover, TD children yawned more du...

  1. Parent Training Interventions for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Audrée Jeanne Beaudoin; Guillaume Sébire; Mélanie Couture

    2014-01-01

    Background. Now that early identification of toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is possible, efforts are being made to develop interventions for children under three years of age. Most studies on early intervention have focused on intensive and individual interventions. However, parent training interventions that help parents interact and communicate with their toddlers with ASD might be a good alternative to promote the development of their child’s sociocommunicative skills. Object...

  2. Reduced oblique effect in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    OpenAIRE

    Sysoeva, Olga V.; Maria A Davletshina; Elena V Orekhova; Ilja A Galuta; Tatiana Alexandrovna Stroganova

    2016-01-01

    People are very precise in the discrimination of a line orientation relative to the cardinal (verti-cal and horizontal) axes, while their orientation discrimination sensitivity along the oblique ax-es is less refined. This difference in discrimination sensitivity along cardinal and oblique axes is called the oblique effect. Given that the oblique effect is a basic feature of visual pro-cessing with an early developmental origin, its investigation in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD...

  3. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much ...

  4. Subject Pronoun Use by Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novogrodsky, Rama

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, storytelling and story retelling by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were analyzed to explore ambiguous third-person pronoun use in narratives. Twenty-three children diagnosed with ASD aged 6;1 to 14;3 and 17 typically-developing (TD) children aged 5;11 to 14;4 participated in the study. In the retelling task, no…

  5. The Cognitive Interview for Eyewitnesses with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maras, K. L.; Bowler, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive interview (CI) is one of the most widely accepted forms of interviewing techniques for eliciting the most detailed, yet accurate reports from witnesses. No research, however, has examined its effectiveness with witnesses with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-six adults with ASD and 26 matched typical adults viewed a video of an enacted crime, and were then interviewed with either a CI, or a structured interview (SI) without the CI mnemonics. Groups did not differ on the qu...

  6. Examining Playground Engagement between Elementary School Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jill; Shih, Wendy; Kretzmann, Mark; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the social behavior of children with and without autism spectrum disorder during recess. This study documented the naturally occurring recess engagement and peer interaction behaviors of children with and without autism spectrum disorder in inclusive school settings. Participants included 51 children with autism spectrum…

  7. Misinterpretation of Facial Expressions of Emotion in Verbal Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Facial emotion perception is significantly affected in autism spectrum disorder, yet little is known about how individuals with autism spectrum disorder misinterpret facial expressions that result in their difficulty in accurately recognizing emotion in faces. This study examined facial emotion perception in 45 verbal adults with autism spectrum…

  8. Mitochondrial disease in autism spectrum disorder patients: a cohort analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline R Weissman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous reports indicate an association between autism spectrum disorders (ASD and disorders of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. One study suggested that children with both diagnoses are clinically indistinguishable from children with idiopathic autism. There are, however, no detailed analyses of the clinical and laboratory findings in a large cohort of these children. Therefore, we undertook a comprehensive review of patients with ASD and a mitochondrial disorder. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reviewed medical records of 25 patients with a primary diagnosis of ASD by DSM-IV-TR criteria, later determined to have enzyme- or mutation-defined mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC dysfunction. Twenty-four of 25 patients had one or more major clinical abnormalities uncommon in idiopathic autism. Twenty-one patients had histories of significant non-neurological medical problems. Nineteen patients exhibited constitutional symptoms, especially excessive fatigability. Fifteen patients had abnormal neurological findings. Unusual developmental phenotypes included marked delay in early gross motor milestones (32% and unusual patterns of regression (40%. Levels of blood lactate, plasma alanine, and serum ALT and/or AST were increased at least once in 76%, 36%, and 52% of patients, respectively. The most common ETC disorders were deficiencies of complex I (64% and complex III (20%. Two patients had rare mtDNA mutations of likely pathogenicity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although all patients' initial diagnosis was idiopathic autism, careful clinical and biochemical assessment identified clinical findings that differentiated them from children with idiopathic autism. These and prior data suggest a disturbance of mitochondrial energy production as an underlying pathophysiological mechanism in a subset of individuals with autism.

  9. Opioid peptides and gastrointestinal symptoms in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane P. Lázaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are characterized by deficits in the individual’s ability to socialize, communicate, and use the imagination, in addition to stereotyped behaviors. These disorders have a heterogenous phenotype, both in relation to symptoms and regarding severity. Organic problems related to the gastrointestinal tract are often associated with ASD, including dysbiosis, inflammatory bowel disease, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, celiac disease, indigestion, malabsorption, food intolerance, and food allergies, leading to vitamin deficiencies and malnutrition. In an attempt to explain the pathophysiology involved in autism, a theory founded on opioid excess has been the focus of various investigations, since it partially explains the symptomatology of the disorder. Another hypothesis has been put forward whereby the probable triggers of ASDs would be related to the presence of bacteria in the bowel, oxidative stress, and intestinal permeability. The present update reviews these hypotheses.

  10. Transition from Pervasive Developmental Disorders to Autism Spectrum Disorder: Proposed Changes for the Upcoming DSM-5

    OpenAIRE

    Banu Tortamis Ozkaya

    2013-01-01

    American Psychiatry Assosiation has scheduled to release The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) in May 2013. According to the main changes being proposed about autism, there will be one unified Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5 classification. This unified diagnosis will eliminate the distinct diagnostic categories under Pervasive Developmental Disorders in the DSM-IV-TR, namely autistic disorder, asperger syndrome, pervasive development...

  11. Aggression in autism spectrum disorder: presentation and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick SE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarah E Fitzpatrick, Laura Srivorakiat, Logan K Wink, Ernest V Pedapati, Craig A Erickson Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent difficulties in social communication and social interaction, coupled with restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interest. Research indicates that aggression rates may be higher in individuals with ASD compared to those with other developmental disabilities. Aggression is associated with negative outcomes for children with ASD and their caregivers, including decreased quality of life, increased stress levels, and reduced availability of educational and social support. Therapeutic strategies including functional behavioral assessment, reinforcement strategies, and functional communication training may have a significant impact in reducing the frequency and intensity of aggressive behavior in individuals with ASD. Pharmacologic treatments, particularly the use of second-generation antipsychotics, may also be of some benefit in reducing aggression in individuals with ASD. With the ever-increasing rate of ASD diagnosis, development of effective therapeutic and pharmacologic methods for preventing and treating aggression are essential to improving outcomes in this disorder. Keywords: autism, autism spectrum disorder, aggression, treatment, antipsychotics, applied behavior analysis

  12. Gender dysphoria and autism spectrum disorder: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Miesen, Anna I R; Hurley, Hannah; De Vries, Annelou L C

    2016-01-01

    The current literature shows growing evidence of a link between gender dysphoria (GD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study reviews the available clinical and empirical data. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Scopus; utilizing different combinations of the following search terms: autism, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Asperger's disorder (AD), co-morbidity, gender dysphoria (GD), gender identity disorder (GID), transgenderism and transsexualism. In total, 25 articles and reports were selected and discussed. Information was grouped by found co-occurrence rates, underlying hypotheses and implications for diagnosis and treatment. GD and ASD were found to co-occur frequently - sometimes characterized by atypical presentation of GD, which makes a correct diagnosis and determination of treatment options for GD difficult. Despite these challenges there are several case reports describing gender affirming treatment of co-occurring GD in adolescents and adults with ASD. Various underlying hypotheses for the link between GD and ASD were suggested, but almost all of them lack evidence. PMID:26753812

  13. Autism spectrum symptoms in children with neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryland Hilde K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to assess symptoms associated with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD in children with neurological disorders as reported by parents and teachers on the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ, as well as the level of agreement between informants for each child. Methods The ASSQ was completed by parents and teachers of the 5781 children (11–13 years who participated in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study (BCS, an on-going longitudinal population-based study. Out of these children, 496 were reported to have a chronic illness, including 99 whom had a neurological disorder. The neurological disorder group included children both with and without intellectual disabilities. Results Children with neurological disorders obtained significantly higher parent and teacher reported ASSQ scores than did non-chronically ill children and those with other chronic illnesses (p Conclusions The ASSQ identifies a high rate of ASD symptoms in children with neurological disorders, and a large number of children screened in the positive range for ASD. Although a firm conclusion awaits further clinical studies, the present results suggest that health care professionals should be aware of potential ASD related problems in children with neurological disorders, and should consider inclusion of the ASSQ or similar screening instruments as part of their routine assessment of this group of children.

  14. Transition from Pervasive Developmental Disorders to Autism Spectrum Disorder: Proposed Changes for the Upcoming DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Tortamis Ozkaya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available American Psychiatry Assosiation has scheduled to release The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5 in May 2013. According to the main changes being proposed about autism, there will be one unified Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5 classification. This unified diagnosis will eliminate the distinct diagnostic categories under Pervasive Developmental Disorders in the DSM-IV-TR, namely autistic disorder, asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified, and childhood disintegrative disorder. Rett syndrome will be excluded from autism spectrum disorder due to its genetic basis. In addition, severity of symptoms will be measured among individuals with autism spectrum disorder based on the support level required due to the impairment in their lives. The basic rationale behind this revision is that it is better to conceptualize autism as a spectrum including various individuals whose symptoms in different developmental areas range from mild to severe. It is aimed to increase the specificity of autism diagnosis by using one single diagnostic category with its specified severity rather than differentiating several subtypes. The major concern raised over the DSM-5 proposal has been the possibility that some of the individuals who were diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder according to the DSM-IV-TR might not get a diagnosis in this new system. After the DSM-5 is released, clinical, legal, and educational rearrengements regarding the use of new autism spectrum disorder diagnostic criteria are expected to accelerate worldwide and in Turkey. This paper aims to review briefly the upcoming autism spectrum disorder diagnosis planned to appear in the DSM-5, the rationale of the proposed revision, main critics to the DSM-5 draft that has been publicized, and some of the regulations expected to occur in practice after the changes.

  15. Brief Report: Insistence on Sameness, Anxiety, and Social Motivation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Reina S.; Condy, Emma E.; Farley, Julee P.; Scarpa, Angela

    2016-01-01

    While the function of restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unclear, RRBs may function as anxiety reduction strategies (Joosten et al. "J Autism Dev Disord" 39(3):521-531, 2009. Moreover, anxiety in ASD is associated with low social motivation (Swain et al. "J Autism Dev Disord," 2015. The…

  16. Mood Disorders in Mothers of Children on the Autism Spectrum Are Associated with Higher Functioning Autism

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    Roma A. Vasa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders occur more frequently in family members of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD than in the general population. There may be associations between maternal mood disorder history patterns and specific ASD phenotypes. We therefore examined the relationship between maternal mood disorders and child autism spectrum disorders in 998 mother-child dyads enrolled in a national online autism registry and database. Mothers of children with ASD completed online questionnaires addressing their child’s ASD as well as their own mood disorder history. In multivariate logistic regression models of ASD diagnoses, the odds of an Asperger disorder versus autistic disorder diagnosis were higher among those children whose mothers had a lifetime history of bipolar disorder (OR 2.11, CI 1.20, 3.69 or depression (OR 1.62, CI 1.19, 2.19. Further, maternal mood disorder onset before first pregnancy was associated with higher odds (OR 2.35, CI 1.48, 3.73 of an Asperger versus autism diagnosis among this sample of children with ASD. These data suggest that differences in maternal mood disorder history may be associated with ASD phenotype in offspring.

  17. Mood Stabilizers in Children and Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified as to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All these categories are grouped together in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, classification under the category of Autism Spectrum Disorders.Behavioral disorders including irritability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and aggression are additional symptoms found in up to 20% of children and adolescents with ASD and require careful evaluation for appropriate treatment. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is defined by impaired attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, whereas ASD is defined by social dysfunction, communicative impairment, and restricted/repetitive behaviors. They should be distinctly evaluated in children and adolescents with ASD and intellectual disability in contrast to individuals without intellectual disability, because significant differences between these conditions exist. Mood disorders are also common in ASD and should be systematically investigated in this population of children and adolescents. Approximately 50% of children and adolescents with ASD receive medication for comorbid behavioral/ADHD and mood symptoms, mostly stimulants, antiepileptics and antipsychotics. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment including medications for ADHD-like symptoms have recently been provided and should be carefully considered. Antiepileptic drugs are commonly used in ASDs with epilepsy, because seizures are associated with ASD in 10% to 30% of young patients, and as mood stabilizers. Lithium is another option for children and adolescents with ASD who present with symptoms of a mood disorder, such as elevated moods/euphoria, mania, and paranoia, whether accompanied or not by irritability. Experimental treatments are under

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorders: Translating human deficits into mouse behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasciuto, E; Borrie, S C; Kanellopoulos, A K; Santos, A R; Cappuyns, E; D'Andrea, L; Pacini, L; Bagni, C

    2015-10-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders, with rising incidence but little effective therapeutic intervention available. Currently two main clinical features are described to diagnose ASDs: impaired social interaction and communication, and repetitive behaviors. Much work has focused on understanding underlying causes of ASD by generating animal models of the disease, in the hope of discovering signaling pathways and cellular targets for drug intervention. Here we review how ASD behavioral phenotypes can be modeled in the mouse, the most common animal model currently in use in this field, and discuss examples of genetic mouse models of ASD with behavioral features that recapitulate various symptoms of ASD. PMID:26220900

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Neuropathology of the Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Hampson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum contains the largest number of neurons and synapses of any structure in the central nervous system. The concept that the cerebellum is solely involved in fine motor function has become outdated; substantial evidence has accumulated linking the cerebellum with higher cognitive functions including language. Cerebellar deficits have been implicated in autism for more than two decades. The computational power of the cerebellum is essential for many, if not most of the processes that are perturbed in autism including language and communication, social interactions, stereotyped behavior, motor activity and motor coordination, and higher cognitive functions. The link between autism and cerebellar dysfunction should not be surprising to those who study its cellular, physiological, and functional properties. Postmortem studies have revealed neuropathological abnormalities in cerebellar cellular architecture while studies on mouse lines with cell loss or mutations in single genes restricted to cerebellar Purkinje cells have also strongly implicated this brain structure in contributing to the autistic phenotype. This connection has been further substantiated by studies investigating brain damage in humans restricted to the cerebellum. In this review, we summarize advances in research on idiopathic autism and three genetic forms of autism that highlight the key roles that the cerebellum plays in this spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and language of a child and using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria for their evaluation. In addition, the diagnosis may be made after evaluating the child using ...

  1. Parental Age and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Finnish National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampi, Katja M.; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Lehti, Venla; Helenius, Hans; Gissler, Mika; Brown, Alan S.; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to examine the associations between parental age and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were based on the FIPS-A (Finnish Prenatal Study of Autism and Autism Spectrum Disorders), a case-control study with a total of 4,713 cases with childhood autism (n = 1,132), Asperger's syndrome (n = 1,785) or other pervasive…

  2. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children Referred for Diagnostic Autism Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sonia A; Spinks-Franklin, Adiaha; Treadwell-Deering, Diane; Berry, Leandra; Sellers-Vinson, Sherry; Smith, Eboni; Proud, Monica; Voigt, Robert G

    2015-12-01

    Increased public awareness of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and routine screening in primary care have contributed to increased requests for diagnostic ASD evaluations. However, given the scarcity of subspecialty autism diagnostic resources, overreferral of children suspected of having ASD may be contributing to long waiting lists at tertiary care autism centers and delaying diagnosis for those children who truly have ASD. To determine whether children are being excessively referred to ASD-specific diagnostic clinics, our objective was to determine the prevalence of true ASD diagnoses in children referred for diagnostic ASD evaluation. Charts of all patients referred to a regional autism center between April 2011 and August 2012 for suspicion of a possible ASD were retrospectively reviewed and demographic and clinical diagnoses abstracted. Only 214 of 348 patients evaluated (61%) received an ASD diagnosis. Thus, concerns about autism are not confirmed by an ASD diagnosis in a significant number of children.

  3. Caregiver Perspectives about Assistive Technology Use with Their Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Teresa A.; Wilcox, M. Jeanne; Campbell, Philippa H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose was to examine how caregivers of infants and toddlers with autism spectrum disorder view their daily activities/routines and in what way, if any, assistive technology (AT) acts as a support. A total of 134 families who reported their child's disability as autism spectrum disorder/pervasive developmental disorder completed a survey…

  4. Vaccine-Related Beliefs and Practices of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, Alicia; Zeldin, Ari; Schuster, Erica; Barrett, Christopher; Lehrer, Danise

    2012-01-01

    Although the assertion of a link between vaccines and autism has been scientifically rejected, the theory continues to be popular and may influence the attitudes of parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. The authors sought to assess how often parents change or discontinue their child's vaccine schedule after autism spectrum disorder…

  5. Lead Excretion in Spanish Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Fuentes-Albero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Among epigenetic factors leading to increased prevalence of juvenile neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, exposure to metals, such as lead (Pb have led to conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of Pb in the urine of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD compared with typically developing children (TD age- and sex-matched, and to analyze any association between core symptoms of ASD, special diets, supplements intake or prescription drugs and the concentration of Pb. The study was performed in a group of children with ASD (n = 35, average age 7.4 ± 0.5 years and TD (n = 34, average age 7.7 ± 0.9 years. Measurement of lead in urine was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry; symptoms of ASD were analyzed by diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DMS-IV using the questionnary ADI-R. Careful clinical evaluation was also undertaken and statistical analysis was done taking into account any possible confounding factor.

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorder Scale Scores in Pediatric Mood and Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Goldwin, Michelle; Towbin, Kenneth A.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    A study compares the scores on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom scales in healthy children and in children with mood or anxiety disorders. It is observed that children with mood or anxiety disorders obtained higher scores on ASD symptom scales than healthy children.

  7. Brief Report: Autism Spectrum Disorder and Substance Use Disorder: A Review and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengit, Ashy C.; McKowen, James W.; O'Brien, Julie; Howe, Yamini J.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    There is limited literature available on the comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and substance use disorder (SUD). This paper reviews existing literature and exemplifies the challenges of treating this population with a case report of an adult male with ASD and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. This review and case study seeks to…

  8. Response Inhibition in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Compared to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kate; Madden, Anya K.; Bramham, Jessica; Russell, Ailsa J.

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hypothesised to involve core deficits in executive function. Previous studies have found evidence of a double dissociation between the disorders on specific executive functions (planning and response inhibition). To date most research has been conducted with…

  9. Enhanced visual temporal resolution in autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M Falter

    Full Text Available Cognitive functions that rely on accurate sequencing of events, such as action planning and execution, verbal and nonverbal communication, and social interaction rely on well-tuned coding of temporal event-structure. Visual temporal event-structure coding was tested in 17 high-functioning adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD and mental- and chronological-age matched typically-developing (TD individuals using a perceptual simultaneity paradigm. Visual simultaneity thresholds were lower in individuals with ASD compared to TD individuals, suggesting that autism may be characterised by increased parsing of temporal event-structure, with a decreased capability for integration over time. Lower perceptual simultaneity thresholds in ASD were also related to increased developmental communication difficulties. These results are linked to detail-focussed and local processing bias.

  10. Phonological and Visuospatial Working Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, P; Soriano, M F; Paredes, N

    2016-09-01

    We evaluated phonological and visuospatial working memory (WM) in autism spectrum disorders. Autistic children and typically developing children were compared. We used WM tasks that measured phonological and visuospatial WM up to the capacity limit of each children. Overall measures of WM did not show differences between autistic children and control children. However, when the recall of children was examined in detail, autistic children showed reduced phonological WM compared with control children. Moreover, phonological and visuospatial WM did not increase with the age of autistic children while a development of phonological and visuospatial WM with age was found in control children. The pattern of results is discussed in terms of previous studies about WM and autism. PMID:27314268

  11. Personal Space Regulation in Childhood Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessaroli, Erica; Santelli, Erica; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Frassinetti, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    People appropriately adjust the distance between themselves and others during social interaction, and they may feel discomfort and move away when another person intrudes on their personal space. In the present study, we investigated personal space in children with persistent difficulties in the domain of social behavior, such as children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and in children with typical development (TD). The stop-distance paradigm was used to derive estimates of interpersonal distance, before and after a brief interaction with an unfamiliar adult confederate. The results showed that ASD children felt comfortable at a greater distance compared to TD children. Moreover, personal space shrunk after interaction with the confederate in TD children, but it failed to do so in ASD children. These findings reveal that autism deeply affects the regulation of personal space, influencing both its size and flexibility. PMID:24086410

  12. Anxiety Symptoms in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder Attending Special Schools: Associations with Gender, Adaptive Functioning and Autism Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiati, Iliana; Ong, Clarissa; Lim, Xin Yi; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Ong, Amily Yi Lin; Patrycia, Ferninda; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Sung, Min; Poon, Kenneth K.; Howlin, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety-related problems are among the most frequently reported mental health difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. As most research has focused on clinical samples or high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder, less is known about the factors associated with anxiety in community samples across the ability range. This…

  13. Autism spectrum disorders: toward a gendered embodiment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Jordan-Young, Rebecca M

    2012-06-01

    One of the most consistent observations in the epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is the preponderance of male cases. A few hypotheses have been put forth which attempt to explain this divergence in terms of sex-linked biology, with limited success. Feminist epidemiologists suggest the importance of investigating specific mechanisms for male-female differences in health outcomes, which may include sex-linked biology and/or gender relations, as well as complex biosocial interactions. Neither domain has been systematically investigated for autism, and the possible role of gender has been particularly neglected. In this article, we posit hypotheses about how social processes based on perception of persons as male or female, particularly patterns of social and physical interaction in early development, may affect the observed occurrence and diagnosis of ASD. We gesture toward an embodiment model, incorporating hypotheses about initial biological vulnerabilities to autism--which may or may not be differentially distributed in relation to sex biology--and their interactions with gender relations, which are demonstrably different for male and female infants. Toward building such a model, we first review the epidemiology of ASD with an eye toward male-female differences, then present a theory of gender as a "pervasive developmental environment" with relevance for the excess burden of autism among males. Finally, we suggest research strategies to further investigate this issue.

  14. The relationship between sleep problems and autism spectrum disorders among preschool children with anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Dunsæd, Anne Martine Rafoss

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anxiety symptoms are among the most commonly observed and impairing symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition, parents of children with ASD frequently report that their children have sleep disturbances. The current study´s main hypothesis is that there is a significant relationship between ASD and anxiety in preschool children within the autism spectrum. Secondly, it is hypothesized that this relationship between ASD and anxiety are mediated by sleep pr...

  15. Integrated approach to yoga therapy and autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantha Radhakrishna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A specially designed Integrated Approach to Yoga Therapy module was applied to Autism Spectrum Disorders over a period of two academic years. Despite low numbers (six in each arm, consistency and magnitude of effects make the findings significant. Parental participation, allowing firm guidance to be given to each child, resulted in significant improvements in imitation and other skills, and in behavior at home and family relationships. We hypothesize that guided imitation of therapist body positions stimulated mirror neuron activation, resulting in improved sense of self.

  16. Diminished sensitivity of audiovisual temporal order in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselotte De Boer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined sensitivity of audiovisual temporal order in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD using an audiovisual Temporal Order Judgment (TOJ task. In order to assess domain-specific impairments, the stimuli varied in social complexity from simple flash/beeps to videos of a handclap or a speaking face. Compared to typically-developing controls, individuals with ASD were generally less sensitive in judgments of audiovisual temporal order (larger Just Noticeable Differences, JNDs, but there was no specific impairment with social stimuli. This suggests that people with ASD suffer from a more general impairment in audiovisual temporal processing.

  17. Diminished sensitivity of audiovisual temporal order in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer-Schellekens, Liselotte; Eussen, Mart; Vroomen, Jean

    2013-01-01

    We examined sensitivity of audiovisual temporal order in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using an audiovisual temporal order judgment (TOJ) task. In order to assess domain-specific impairments, the stimuli varied in social complexity from simple flash/beeps to videos of a handclap or a speaking face. Compared to typically-developing controls, individuals with ASD were generally less sensitive in judgments of audiovisual temporal order (larger just noticeable differences, JNDs), but there was no specific impairment with social stimuli. This suggests that people with ASD suffer from a more general impairment in audiovisual temporal processing.

  18. Limited Activity Monitoring in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Shic, Frederick; Bradshaw, Jessica; Klin, Ami; Scassellati, Brian; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking to examine how 20-month old toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (N=28), typical development (TD) (N=34), and non-autistic developmental delays (DD) (N=16) monitored the activities occurring in a context of an adult-child play interaction. Toddlers with ASD, in comparison to control groups, showed less attention to the activities of others and focused more on background objects (e.g. toys). In addition, while all groups spent the same time overall looking ...

  19. Sexuality and gender role in autism spectrum disorder: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, Susanne; Eriksson, Jonna M

    2014-01-01

    The 'extreme male brain theory of autism' describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness) was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder.

  20. Sexuality and gender role in autism spectrum disorder: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bejerot

    Full Text Available The 'extreme male brain theory of autism' describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder.

  1. Sleep and gastrointestinal disturbances in autism spectrum disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukowski, Mark; Wasilewska, Jolanta; Lebensztejn, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1 in 68 children, commonly presents with comorbid conditions which include sleep disorders. Sleep disorders reported in ASD include, among others, increased bedtime resistance, insomnia, parasomnia, sleep disordered breathing, morning rise problems, and daytime sleepiness. Polysomnography studies show that children with ASD have altered sleep architecture including shorter total sleep time and longer sleep latency than typically developing peers. Sleep-related problems have been shown to affect overall autism scores, social skills decits, stereotypic behavior, and cognitive performance. Additionally, problematic sleep in children with ASD has been associated with higher levels of parental stress. Underlying causes specically related to sleep disorders are not fully known. Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are commonly associated with sleep problems in these patients. Children with ASD and GI symptoms have been found to have a higher prevalence of sleep disturbances compared with typically developing peers who do not have GI symptoms. Treatment approaches to children with sleep disorders are varied and range from lifestyle modications and behavioral interventions to drug therapies and surgical interventions. Physicians should take into account GI disorders as possible underlying causes of sleep-related problems in children with ASD. Therapeutic interventions should begin with less invasive methods before progressing to more invasive options such as pharmacotherapy and should be based on medical indications in order to provide effective care while minimizing potential adverse health effects. Evidence-based studies concerning GI and sleep disorders in children with ASD are limited and further studies are warranted. PMID:26384115

  2. The Evolving Diagnostic and Genetic Landscapes of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziats, Mark N; Rennert, Owen M

    2016-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental syndromes defined by impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, restricted social interaction, and the presence of stereotyped patterns of behavior. The prevalence of ASD is rising, and the diagnostic criteria and clinical perspectives on the disorder continue to evolve in parallel. Although the majority of individuals with ASD will not have an identifiable genetic cause, almost 25% of cases have identifiable causative DNA variants. The rapidly improving ability to identify genetic mutations because of advances in next generation sequencing, coupled with previous epidemiological studies demonstrating high heritability of ASD, have led to many recent attempts to identify causative genetic mutations underlying the ASD phenotype. However, although hundreds of mutations have been identified to date, they are either rare variants affecting only a handful of ASD patients, or are common variants in the general population conferring only a small risk for ASD. Furthermore, the genes implicated thus far are heterogeneous in their structure and function, hampering attempts to understand shared molecular mechanisms among all ASD patients; an understanding that is crucial for the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. However, new work is beginning to suggest that the heterogeneous set of genes implicated in ASD may ultimately converge on a few common pathways. In this review, we discuss the parallel evolution of our diagnostic and genetic understanding of autism spectrum disorders, and highlight recent attempts to infer common biology underlying this complicated syndrome.

  3. [Differential diagnosis between Schizotypal Personality Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorders: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünver, Buket; Öner, Özgür; Yurtbaşı, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Schizotypal personality disorder is characterized by social and interpersonal deficits marked by discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior. Inappropriate or constricted affect, reduced capacity for relationships, lack of close friends and reduced capacity for social life are the symptoms that overlap both schizotypal personality disorder and autism spectrum disorders. The making of differential diagnosis may be difficult since several symptoms are similar between these disorders. In this study, we discussed the differential diagnosis issues on the basis of an adolescent case. Odd appearance, magical thoughts, reference thoughts suggests Schizotypal Personality Disorder whereas lack of eye contact at 2 years old, a preference to be isolated and play alone and referral to a child psychiatrist at 4 years old suggest Autism Spectrum Disorders. Based on the results of psychological assessment, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) profile is compatible with autistic children's profiles. Based on Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, the patient's anxiety, lack of close friends, constricted affect symptoms which take place in the category of interpersonal schizotypy seems to overlap with lack of communication of Autism Spectrum Disorders. This case report indicates that, separation of autism and schizophrenia, a very important historical breakthrough in autism research, may be blurred in cases with less typical clinical pictures representing autistic and schizophrenic "spectrum" diagnosis.

  4. Aggression in autism spectrum disorder: presentation and treatment options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Sarah E; Srivorakiat, Laura; Wink, Logan K; Pedapati, Ernest V; Erickson, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent difficulties in social communication and social interaction, coupled with restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interest. Research indicates that aggression rates may be higher in individuals with ASD compared to those with other developmental disabilities. Aggression is associated with negative outcomes for children with ASD and their caregivers, including decreased quality of life, increased stress levels, and reduced availability of educational and social support. Therapeutic strategies including functional behavioral assessment, reinforcement strategies, and functional communication training may have a significant impact in reducing the frequency and intensity of aggressive behavior in individuals with ASD. Pharmacologic treatments, particularly the use of second-generation antipsychotics, may also be of some benefit in reducing aggression in individuals with ASD. With the ever-increasing rate of ASD diagnosis, development of effective therapeutic and pharmacologic methods for preventing and treating aggression are essential to improving outcomes in this disorder. PMID:27382295

  5. Aggression in autism spectrum disorder: presentation and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Sarah E; Srivorakiat, Laura; Wink, Logan K; Pedapati, Ernest V; Erickson, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent difficulties in social communication and social interaction, coupled with restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interest. Research indicates that aggression rates may be higher in individuals with ASD compared to those with other developmental disabilities. Aggression is associated with negative outcomes for children with ASD and their caregivers, including decreased quality of life, increased stress levels, and reduced availability of educational and social support. Therapeutic strategies including functional behavioral assessment, reinforcement strategies, and functional communication training may have a significant impact in reducing the frequency and intensity of aggressive behavior in individuals with ASD. Pharmacologic treatments, particularly the use of second-generation antipsychotics, may also be of some benefit in reducing aggression in individuals with ASD. With the ever-increasing rate of ASD diagnosis, development of effective therapeutic and pharmacologic methods for preventing and treating aggression are essential to improving outcomes in this disorder. PMID:27382295

  6. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the revised Home Situations Questionnaire for autism spectrum disorder: The Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Monali; Aman, Michael G; Lecavalier, Luc; Smith, Tristram; Johnson, Cynthia; Swiezy, Naomi; McCracken, James T; King, Bryan; McDougle, Christopher J; Bearss, Karen; Deng, Yanhong; Scahill, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Previously, we adapted the Home Situations Questionnaire to measure behavioral non-compliance in everyday settings in children with pervasive developmental disorders. In this study, we further revised this instrument for use in autism spectrum disorder and examined its psychometric properties (referred to as the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder). To cover a broader range of situations and improve reliability, we prepared seven new items describing situations in which children with autism spectrum disorder might display non-compliance. Parents completed ratings of 242 children with autism spectrum disorder with accompanying disruptive behaviors (ages 4-14 years) participating in one of two randomized clinical trials. Results from an exploratory factor analysis indicated that the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder consists of two 12-item factors: Socially Inflexible (α = 0.84) and Demand Specific (α = 0.89). One-to-two-week test-retest reliability was statistically significant for all scored items and also for subscale totals. The pattern of correspondence between the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder and parent-rated problem behavior, clinician-rated repetitive behavior, adaptive behavior, and IQ provided evidence for concurrent and divergent validity of the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder. Overall, the results suggest that the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder is an adequate measure for assessing non-compliance in a variety of situations in this population, and use of its two subscales will likely provide a more refined interpretation of ratings. PMID:26187059

  7. Multimodal Brain Imaging in Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Promise of Twin Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevel, Katell; Fransson, Peter; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Current evidence suggests the phenotype of autism spectrum disorder to be driven by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors impacting onto brain maturation, synaptic function, and cortical networks. However, findings are heterogeneous, and the exact neurobiological pathways of autism spectrum disorder still remain poorly…

  8. Motor Proficiency and Physical Fitness in Adolescent Males with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    This study compared components of motor proficiency and physical fitness in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorders, and assessed the associations between the two measures within each group. A total of 62 adolescent males with ("n" = 31) and without ("n" = 31) autism spectrum disorders aged 10-17 years completed…

  9. Phenotypic Differences in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder Born Preterm and at Term Gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Katherine; Wink, Logan K.; Pottenger, Amy; McDougle, Christopher J.; Erickson, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the phenotype of males and females with autism spectrum disorder born preterm versus those born at term. Descriptive statistical analyses identified differences between male and female autism spectrum disorder subjects born preterm compared to term for several phenotypic characteristics and…

  10. Validity of the Autism Spectrum Disorder-Comorbid for Children (ASD-CC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; LoVullo, Santino V.; Rivet, Tessa T.; Boisjoli, Jessica A.

    2009-01-01

    A limited number of studies currently exist focusing on comorbid psychopathology of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Due to the heterogeneity of ASD symptoms, communication deficits, and impairments in intellectual functioning, assessing symptoms of psychopathology is complicated. The "Autism Spectrum Disorders-Comorbidity for…

  11. Relationship between Social Competence and Sensory Processing in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Claudia; Graver, Kathleen; LaVesser, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the relationship between social competence and sensory processing in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders. Methodology: Children, ages 6-10 (N = 36), with high functioning autism spectrum disorders were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Sensory Profile (SP). A bivariate…

  12. Sex Differences in Pre-Diagnosis Concerns for Children Later Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Rachel M.; Young, Robyn L.; Weber, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of intellectual impairment, girls are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder significantly less and later than boys. This study explored potential reasons for why autism spectrum disorder may be more difficult to identify in girls, based on carer concerns during the pre-diagnosis period. Carers of 92 boys and 60 girls diagnosed…

  13. Using Qualitative Methods to Guide Scale Development for Anxiety in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearss, Karen; Taylor, Christopher A.; Aman, Michael G.; Whittemore, Robin; Lecavalier, Luc; Miller, Judith; Pritchett, Jill; Green, Bryson; Scahill, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is common in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Despite this common co-occurrence, studies targeting anxiety in this population are hindered by the under-developed state of measures in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Content validity (the extent to which an instrument measures the domain of interest) and an instrument's relevance to…

  14. Attentional Allocation of Autism Spectrum Disorder Individuals: Searching for a Face-in-the-Crowd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David J.; Reidy, John; Heavey, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    A study is reported which tests the proposition that faces capture the attention of those with autism spectrum disorders less than a typical population. A visual search task based on the Face-in-the-Crowd paradigm was used to examine the attentional allocation of autism spectrum disorder adults for faces. Participants were required to search for…

  15. Parental Romantic Expectations and Parent-Child Sexuality Communication in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Laura G.; Himle, Michael B.; Strassberg, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, parental romantic expectations, and parental provision of sexuality and relationship education in an online sample of 190 parents of youth 12-18 years of age with a parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Regression analyses were conducted…

  16. Adolescent boys with an autism spectrum disorder and their experience of sexuality : An interpretative phenomenological analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewinter, J.; van Parys, H.; Vermeiren, R.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explored how adolescent boys with autism spectrum disorder experience their sexuality. Previous research has demonstrated that sexuality is a developmental task for boys with autism spectrum disorder, as it is for their peers. Case studies have suggested a relation between aut

  17. "MYmind": Mindfulness Training for Youngsters with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Esther I.; Blom, René; Smit, Franka M. A.; van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the dramatic increase in autism spectrum disorder in youth and the extremely high costs, hardly any evidence-based interventions are available. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of mindfulness training for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, combined with Mindful Parenting training. Method: A total of 23…

  18. MYmind: mindfulness training for youngsters with autism spectrum disorders and their parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.I. de Bruin; R. Blom; F.M.A. Smit; F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the dramatic increase in autism spectrum disorder in youth and the extremely high costs, hardly any evidence-based interventions are available. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of mindfulness training for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, combined with Min

  19. Measuring Social Communication Behaviors as a Treatment Endpoint in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Evdokia; Jones, Nancy; Huerta, Marisela; Halladay, Alycia K.; Wang, Paul; Scahill, Lawrence; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Kasari, Connie; Lord, Cathy; Choi, Dennis; Sullivan, Katherine; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Social communication impairments are a core deficit in autism spectrum disorder. Social communication deficit is also an early indicator of autism spectrum disorder and a factor in long-term outcomes. Thus, this symptom domain represents a critical treatment target. Identifying reliable and valid outcome measures for social communication across a…

  20. Loneliness, Friendship, and Well-Being in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relations among loneliness, friendship, and emotional functioning in adults "(N" = 108) with autism spectrum disorders. Participants completed self-report measures of symptoms of autism spectrum disorders, loneliness, number and nature of friendships, depression, anxiety, life satisfaction, and self-esteem. The…

  1. Music Therapy Promotes Self-Determination in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadberry, Anita L.; Harrison, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Self-determination leads to a higher quality of life, yet many individuals with autism spectrum disorder struggle with the component skills necessary for self-determination. Music therapy is one method of treatment for persons with autism spectrum disorder and has the ability to improve or develop skills in communication, self-awareness,…

  2. Use of Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Erica; Beranová, Štepánka; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Briciet Lauritsen, Marlene; Budisteanu, Magdalena; Buitelaar, Jan; Canal-Bedia, Ricardo; Felhosi, Gabriella; Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Freitag, Christine; Fuentes, Joaquin; Gallagher, Louise; Garcia Primo, Patricia; Gliga, Fotinica; Gomot, Marie; Green, Jonathan; Heimann, Mikael; Jónsdóttir, Sigridur Loa; Kaale, Anett; Kawa, Rafal; Kylliainen, Anneli; Lemcke, Sanne; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Marschik, Peter B; McConachie, Helen; Moilanen, Irma; Muratori, Filippo; Narzisi, Antonio; Noterdaeme, Michele; Oliveira, Guiomar; Oosterling, Iris; Pijl, Mirjam; Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Poustka, Luise; Roeyers, Herbert; Rogé, Bernadette; Sinzig, Judith; Vicente, Astrid; Warreyn, Petra; Charman, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about use of early interventions for autism spectrum disorder in Europe. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder aged 7?years or younger (N?=?1680) were recruited through parent organisations in 18 European countries and completed an online survey about the interventions their child received. There was considerable…

  3. Maltreatment and Depression in Adolescent Sexual Offenders with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jessica Bleil; Hughes, Tammy L.; Sutton, Lawrence R.; Marshall, Stephanie N.; Crothers, Laura M.; Lehman, Cathryn; Paserba, Dave; Talkington, Vanessa; Taormina, Rochelle; Huang, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported presence and severity of abuse, neglect, and depressive symptoms for 43 adolescents adjudicated delinquent due to a sexual offense. Twenty-seven of the adolescent sexual offenders were also diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, and 16 did not carry an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Both groups…

  4. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Do Not Develop Phrase Speech in the Preschool Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrelgen, Fritjof; Fernell, Elisabeth; Eriksson, Mats; Hedvall, Asa; Persson, Clara; Sjölin, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Kjellmer, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    There is uncertainty about the proportion of children with autism spectrum disorders who do not develop phrase speech during the preschool years. The main purpose of this study was to examine this ratio in a population-based community sample of children. The cohort consisted of 165 children (141 boys, 24 girls) with autism spectrum disorders aged…

  5. Immunization Uptake in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwaik, Ghassan Abu; Roberts, Wendy; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bryson, Susan; Smith, Isabel M.; Szatmari, Peter; Modi, Bonnie M.; Tanel, Nadia; Brian, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental concerns persist that immunization increases the risk of autism spectrum disorder, resulting in the potential for reduced uptake by parents of younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder ("younger sibs"). Objective: To compare immunization uptake by parents for their younger child relative to their…

  6. Deficits in Metacognitive Monitoring in Mathematics Assessments in Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawemeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Antoniadou, Konstantina; Hollinworth, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Children and adults with autism spectrum disorder have been found to have deficits in metacognition that could impact upon their learning. This study explored metacognitive monitoring in 28 (23 males and 5 females) participants with autism spectrum disorder and 56 (16 males and 40 females) typically developing controls who were being educated at…

  7. Parental Mediation of Television Viewing and Videogaming of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Melissa H.; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder spend considerable time in media activities. Parents play an important role in shaping adolescents' responses to media. This study explored the mediation strategies that parents of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder used to manage television and video game use, factors associated with their use of…

  8. Direct Observation of Peer-Related Social Interaction: Outcomes for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Brian A.; Conroy, Maureen A.; Asmus, Jennifer; McKenney, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Deficits in social relatedness with same-age peers are a defining characteristic of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and are likely to manifest themselves during social interactions with typically developing peers in classroom settings. Researchers have documented that children with Autism Spectrum Disorders engage in low rates of…

  9. Maternal Exposure to Intimate Partner Abuse before Birth Is Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Lyall, Kristen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine whether maternal (a) physical harm from intimate partner abuse during pregnancy or (b) sexual, emotional, or physical abuse before birth increased risk of autism spectrum disorder. We calculated risk ratios for autism spectrum disorder associated with abuse in a population-based cohort of women and their children (54,512…

  10. Resources and Services for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Their Families in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zheng; Giannotti, Tierney; Reichow, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Although there is growing recognition of the global impact of autism spectrum disorders, much less is known about the condition outside of North America and Western Europe. In this study, we surveyed 49 parents who had a child with an autism spectrum disorder in China and about their experiences with diagnosis, intervention, and resource support.…

  11. Holistic Processing of Faces as Measured by the Thatcher Illusion Is Intact in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Laura; Brady, Nuala; Fitzgerald, Michael; Gallagher, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Impaired face perception in autism spectrum disorders is thought to reflect a perceptual style characterized by componential rather than configural processing of faces. This study investigated face processing in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders using the Thatcher illusion, a perceptual phenomenon exhibiting "inversion effects"…

  12. Sex Differences in Co-Occurring Conditions of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Maria E.; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Yarger, Heather A.; Zimmerman, Andrew; Makia, Barraw; Lee, Li-Ching

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated differences in co-occurring diagnoses made in females compared to males with autism spectrum disorders in 913 children (746 males and 167 females) living in the United States with a current autism spectrum disorder diagnosis identified via caregiver-reported data from the National Survey of Children's Health 2007. The…

  13. The Needs of College Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Many colleges and universities have seen increases in students identified as having autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or Asperger's syndrome (AS). The purpose of this study was to analyze the needs of college students with autism spectrum disorders. The study implemented a naturalistic inquiry design incorporating three data collection formats. A…

  14. Delineating the Profile of Autism Spectrum Disorder Characteristics in Cornelia de Lange and Fragile X Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Nelson, Lisa; Richards, Caroline; Hall, Scott

    2013-01-01

    An atypical presentation of autism spectrum disorder is noted in Cornelia de Lange and Fragile X syndromes, but there are few detailed empirical descriptions. Participants in this study were individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (n = 130, M age = 17.19), Fragile X syndrome (n = 182, M age = 16.94), and autism spectrum disorder (n = 142, M…

  15. Video Game Access, Parental Rules, and Problem Behavior: A Study of Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R.; Mazurek, Micah O.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental correlates of problem behavior among individuals with autism spectrum disorder remain relatively understudied. The current study examined the contribution of in-room (i.e. bedroom) access to a video game console as one potential correlate of problem behavior among a sample of 169 boys with autism spectrum disorder (ranging from 8 to…

  16. Oral Health among Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rennan Y; Yiu, Cynthia K. Y.; King, Nigel M.; Wong, Virginia C. N.; McGrath, Colman P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess and compare the oral health status of preschool children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Methods: A random sample of 347 preschool children with autism spectrum disorder was recruited from 19 Special Child Care Centres in Hong Kong. An age- and gender-matched sample was recruited from mainstream preschools as the control…

  17. Characterizing Caregiver Responses to Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Gulsrud, Amanda; Shih, Wendy; Hovsepyan, Lilit; Kasari, Connie

    2016-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder. This descriptive study documented the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors in 85 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder as they interacted with their caregiver in a play interaction. For each child restricted and repetitive behavior, a caregiver…

  18. Parental romantic expectations and parent-child sexuality communication in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Laura G; Himle, Michael B; Strassberg, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, parental romantic expectations, and parental provision of sexuality and relationship education in an online sample of 190 parents of youth 12-18 years of age with a parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Regression analyses were conducted separately for youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported average or above IQ and youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported below average IQ. For youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported average or above IQ, autism spectrum disorder severity predicted parental romantic expectations, but not parental provision of sexuality and relationship education. For youth with autism spectrum disorder + parent-reported below average IQ, parental romantic expectations mediated the relationship between autism spectrum disorder severity and parent provision of sexuality and relationship education. This supports the importance of carefully considering intellectual functioning in autism spectrum disorder sexuality research and suggests that acknowledging and addressing parent expectations may be important for parent-focused sexuality and relationship education interventions. PMID:26408632

  19. Learning Curve Analyses in Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Are Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Truly Visual Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdodi, Laszlo; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee; Schmitt, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Visual and auditory verbal learning using a selective reminding format was studied in a mixed clinical sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 42), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 83), velocardiofacial syndrome (n = 17) and neurotypicals (n = 38) using the Test of Memory and Learning to (1) more thoroughly…

  20. Motor, Emotional, and Cognitive Empathy in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bons, Danielle; van den Broek, Egon; Scheepers, Floor; Herpers, Pierre; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear which aspects of empathy are shared and which are uniquely affected in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD) as are the neurobiological correlates of these empathy impairments. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the overlap and specificity of motor, emotional, and cognitive aspects of empathy in…

  1. Brief Report: Prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ellen; Cerban, Bettina M.; Slater, Chelsea M.; Caccamo, Laura M.; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Currently, both the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 preclude the diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cases that present with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This criterion will be removed in the upcoming DSM-V, but the relationship between ASD and ADHD, and in particular the prevalence of ADHD among the ASD population, remains…

  2. Examining Shared and Unique Aspects of Social Anxiety Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Bray, Bethany C.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are fairly common psychiatric conditions that impair the functioning of otherwise healthy young adults. Given that the two conditions frequently co-occur, measurement of the characteristics unique to each condition is critical. This study evaluated the structure and construct…

  3. A Rorschach investigation of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adulthood:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Crucitti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in the areas of communication, socialization and behavior. Current diagnostic criteria have been modified in a restrictive sense, thus the possibility that individuals with milder impairments may not reach the diagnostic threshold is concrete. Furthermore, heterogeneity in phenotypic expression and the high rate of comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders would make even more difficult the diagnostic classification in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The present study was a Rorschach investigation aimed to identify specific psychopathological elements to properly orient the diagnosis of ASD in adulthood. Results have shown that the examined subjects were characterized by pragmatism, documented by the presence of details and little details, falls in formal thinking, thought inflexibility, lack of answers with human content, and the prevalence of particular phenomena (denial, perseveration. Data obtained in the study showed a specific pattern of psychopathological signs in adults with ASD, thus suggesting the importance of projective methods for a better understanding of the clinical features of avoidance behaviors and relationships.

  4. Genetic Aspects of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights from Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati eBanerjee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that display a triad of core behavioral deficits including restricted interests, often accompanied by repetitive behavior, deficits in language and communication, and an inability to engage in reciprocal social interactions. ASD is among the most heritable disorders but is not a simple disorder with a singular pathology and has a rather complex etiology. It is interesting to note that perturbations in synaptic growth, development and stability underlie a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including ASD, schizophrenia, epilepsy and intellectual disability. Biological characterization of an increasing repertoire of synaptic mutants in various model organisms indicates synaptic dysfunction as causal in the pathophysiology of ASD. Our understanding of the genes and genetic pathways that contribute towards the formation, stabilization and maintenance of functional synapses coupled with an in-depth phenotypic analysis of the cellular and behavioral characteristics is therefore essential to unraveling the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this review, we discuss the genetic aspects of ASD emphasizing on the well conserved set of genes and genetic pathways implicated in this disorder, many of which contribute to synapse assembly and maintenance across species. We also review how fundamental research using animal models is providing key insights into the various facets of human ASD.

  5. Toward an immune-mediated subtype of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougle, Christopher J; Landino, Samantha M; Vahabzadeh, Arshya; O'Rourke, Julia; Zurcher, Nicole R; Finger, Beate C; Palumbo, Michelle L; Helt, Jessica; Mullett, Jennifer E; Hooker, Jacob M; Carlezon, William A

    2015-08-18

    A role for immunological involvement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has long been hypothesized. This review includes four sections describing (1) evidence for a relationship between familial autoimmune disorders and ASD; (2) results from post-mortem and neuroimaging studies that investigated aspects of neuroinflammation in ASD; (3) findings from animal model work in ASD involving inflammatory processes; and (4) outcomes from trials of anti-inflammatory/immune-modulating drugs in ASD that have appeared in the literature. Following each section, ideas are provided for future research, suggesting paths forward in the continuing effort to define the role of immune factors and inflammation in the pathophysiology of a subtype of ASD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. PMID:25445995

  6. Intellectual Profiles in the Autism Spectrum and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouga, Susana; Café, Cátia; Almeida, Joana; Marques, Carla; Duque, Frederico; Oliveira, Guiomar

    2016-09-01

    The influence of specific autism spectrum disorder (ASD) deficits in Intelligence Quotients (IQ), Indexes and subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III was investigated in 445 school-aged children: ASD (N = 224) and other neurodevelopmental disorders (N = 221), matched by Full-Scale IQ and chronological age. ASD have lower scores in the VIQ than PIQ. The core distinctive scores between groups are Processing Speed Index and "Comprehension" and "Coding" subtests with lower results in ASD. ASD group with normal/high IQ showed highest score on "Similarities" subtest whereas the lower IQ group performed better on "Object Assembly". The results replicated our previous work on adaptive behaviour, showing that adaptive functioning is positively correlated with intellectual profile, especially with the Communication domain in ASD. PMID:27312715

  7. Cortical interneuron dysfunction in epilepsy associated with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, John

    2016-02-01

    Autism and epilepsy are two associated disorders that are highly prevalent, share common developmental origins, and demonstrate substantial heritability. In this review, cross-disciplinary data in a rapidly evolving field that bridges neurology and psychiatry are synthesized to identify shared biologic mechanisms. The relationship between these debilitating, lifelong conditions is examined at the clinical, genetic, and neurophysiologic levels in humans and in animal models. Scopus and PubMed searches were used to identify relevant literature. Clinical observations have prompted speculation about the interdependence of autism and epilepsy, but causal relationships have proved difficult to determine. Despite their heritability, the genetic basis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and epilepsy has remained largely elusive until the advent of next-generation sequencing. This approach has revealed that mutations that are either causal or confer an increased disease risk are found in numerous different genes, any one of which accounts for only a small percentage of cases. Conversely, even cases with identical clinical phenotypes can be genetically heterogeneous. Candidate gene identification has facilitated the development of mouse genetic models, which in parallel with human studies have implicated shared brain regions and circuits that mediate disease expression. Diverse genetic causes of ASD and epilepsy converge on cortical interneuron circuits as one important mediator of both disorders. Cortical interneurons are among the most diverse cell types in the brain and their unique chemical and electrical coupling exert a powerful inhibitory influence on excitatory neurons via the release of the neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These multifaceted approaches have validated theories derived from the field of developmental neurobiology, which propose that the neurologic and neuropsychiatric manifestations are caused by an altered ratio of excitation to

  8. Atypical sulcal anatomy in young children with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Auzias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder is associated with an altered early brain development. However, the specific cortical structure abnormalities underlying this disorder remain largely unknown. Nonetheless, atypical cortical folding provides lingering evidence of early disruptions in neurodevelopmental processes and identifying changes in the geometry of cortical sulci is of primary interest for characterizing these structural abnormalities in autism and their evolution over the first stages of brain development. Here, we applied state-of-the-art sulcus-based morphometry methods to a large highly-selective cohort of 73 young male children of age spanning from 18 to 108 months. Moreover, such large cohort was selected through extensive behavioral assessments and stringent inclusion criteria for the group of 59 children with autism. After manual labeling of 59 different sulci in each hemisphere, we computed multiple shape descriptors for each single sulcus element, hereby separating the folding measurement into distinct factors such as the length and depth of the sulcus. We demonstrated that the central, intraparietal and frontal medial sulci showed a significant and consistent pattern of abnormalities across our different geometrical indices. We also found that autistic and control children exhibited strikingly different relationships between age and structural changes in brain morphology. Lastly, the different measures of sulcus shapes were correlated with the CARS and ADOS scores that are specific to the autistic pathology and indices of symptom severity. Inherently, these structural abnormalities are confined to regions that are functionally relevant with respect to cognitive disorders in ASD. In contrast to those previously reported in adults, it is very unlikely that these abnormalities originate from general compensatory mechanisms unrelated to the primary pathology. Rather, they most probably reflect an early disruption on developmental trajectory

  9. The Construct Validity of Anxiety Disorders in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Renno, Patricia Ann

    2013-01-01

    The literature indicates that children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are at a heightened risk for developing anxiety disorders. Between 11% and 84% of individuals with ASD are also diagnosed with a co-occurring anxiety disorder (Muris, 1998; de Bruin et al., 2007; Green et al., 2000; Simonoff et al., 2008; Sukhodolsky et al., 2007). Despite the high frequency of co-occurrence, little research has investigated the validity of the DSM-IV Anxiety Disorder classification system in the ASD ...

  10. Examining executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and typical development

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, Blythe A.; Constantine, Laura J.; Hendren, Robert; Rocke, David; Ozonoff, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Executive functioning (EF) is an overarching term that refers to neuropsychological processes that enable physical, cognitive, and emotional self-control. Deficits in EF are often present in neurodevelopmental disorders, but the specificity of EF deficits and direct comparison across disorders is rare. The current study investigated EF in 7 to 12 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typical development using a comprehensive...

  11. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Medication Use in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Tara R.; Viskochil, Joseph; Farley, Megan; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William M.; Morgan, Jubel; Bilder, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychotropic medication use among adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ascertained as children during a 1980's statewide Utah autism prevalence study (n = 129). Seventy-three individuals (56.6%) met criteria for a current psychiatric disorder; 89…

  12. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with autism spectrum disorders from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Tsai, Wen-Che; Fang, Jye-Siung; Su, Ying-Cheng; Chou, Miao-Chun; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2013-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by verbal communication impairments, social reciprocity deficits, and the presence of restricted interests and stereotyped behaviors. Genetic factors contribute to the incidence of ASD evidently. However, the genetic spectrum of ASD is highly heterogeneous. Chromosomal abnormalities contribute significantly to the genetic deficits of syndromic and non-syndromic ASD. In this study, we conducted karyotyping analysis in a sample of 500 patients (447 males, 53 females) with ASD from Taiwan, the largest cohort in Asia, to the best of our knowledge. We found three patients having sex chromosome aneuploidy, including two cases of 47, XXY and one case of 47, XYY. In addition, we detected a novel reciprocal chromosomal translocation between long arms of chromosomes 4 and 14, designated t(4;14)(q31.3;q24.1), in a patient with Asperger's disorder. This translocation was inherited from his unaffected father, suggesting it might not be pathogenic or it needs further hits to become pathogenic. In line with other studies, our study revealed that subjects with sex chromosomal aneuploidy are liable to neurodevelopmental disorders, including ASD, and conventional karyotyping analysis is still a useful tool in detecting chromosomal translocation in patients with ASD, given that array-based comparative genomic hybridization technology can provide better resolution in detecting copy number variations of genomic DNA.

  13. Chromosomal abnormalities in patients with autism spectrum disorders from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Tsai, Wen-Che; Fang, Jye-Siung; Su, Ying-Cheng; Chou, Miao-Chun; Liu, Shih-Kai; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Wu, Yu-Yu; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2013-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by verbal communication impairments, social reciprocity deficits, and the presence of restricted interests and stereotyped behaviors. Genetic factors contribute to the incidence of ASD evidently. However, the genetic spectrum of ASD is highly heterogeneous. Chromosomal abnormalities contribute significantly to the genetic deficits of syndromic and non-syndromic ASD. In this study, we conducted karyotyping analysis in a sample of 500 patients (447 males, 53 females) with ASD from Taiwan, the largest cohort in Asia, to the best of our knowledge. We found three patients having sex chromosome aneuploidy, including two cases of 47, XXY and one case of 47, XYY. In addition, we detected a novel reciprocal chromosomal translocation between long arms of chromosomes 4 and 14, designated t(4;14)(q31.3;q24.1), in a patient with Asperger's disorder. This translocation was inherited from his unaffected father, suggesting it might not be pathogenic or it needs further hits to become pathogenic. In line with other studies, our study revealed that subjects with sex chromosomal aneuploidy are liable to neurodevelopmental disorders, including ASD, and conventional karyotyping analysis is still a useful tool in detecting chromosomal translocation in patients with ASD, given that array-based comparative genomic hybridization technology can provide better resolution in detecting copy number variations of genomic DNA. PMID:24132905

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Blind Children: Very High Prevalence, Potentially Better Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jure, Rubin; Pogonza, Ramón; Rapin, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders affected 19 of 38 unselected children at a school for the blind in Cordoba, Argentina. Autism was linked to total congenital blindness, not blindness' etiology, acquired or incomplete blindness, sex, overt brain damage, or socioeconomic status. Autism "recovery," had occurred in 4 verbal children. Congenital…

  15. Prevalence, Diagnosis, Treatment and Research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Singapore and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neik, Tina Ting Xiang; Lee, Lay Wah; Low, Hui Min; Chia, Noel Kok Hwee; Chua, Arnold Chee Keong

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of autism is increasing globally. While most of the published works are done in the Western and European countries, the trend in autism research is shifting towards the Asian continent recently. In this review, we aimed to highlight the current prevalence, diagnosis, treatment and research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in…

  16. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  17. Long-Term Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatre, Dimpi; Bapat, Deepa; Udani, Vrajesh

    2016-01-01

    We investigated long-term outcomes in children with diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders based on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS score). Information about outcomes such as speech, friendships and activities of daily living (ADLs) was collected through telephone-based interviews. Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2 and Vineland Social Maturity…

  18. Maternal Immune-Mediated Conditions, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Kristen; Ashwood, Paul; Van de Water, Judy; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2014-01-01

    The maternal immune system may play a role in offspring neurodevelopment. We examined whether maternal autoimmune disease, asthma, and allergy were associated with child autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and developmental delay without autism (DD) using 560 ASD cases, 391 typically developing controls, and 168 DD cases from the CHildhood Autism Risk…

  19. A novel approach of homozygous haplotype sharing identifies candidate genes in autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casey, Jillian P.; Magalhaes, Tiago; Conroy, Judith M.; Regan, Regina; Shah, Naisha; Anney, Richard; Shields, Denis C.; Abrahams, Brett S.; Almeida, Joana; Bacchelli, Elena; Bailey, Anthony J.; Baird, Gillian; Battaglia, Agatino; Berney, Tom; Bolshakova, Nadia; Bolton, Patrick F.; Bourgeron, Thomas; Brennan, Sean; Cali, Phil; Correia, Catarina; Corsello, Christina; Coutanche, Marc; Dawson, Geraldine; de Jonge, Maretha; Delorme, Richard; Duketis, Eftichia; Duque, Frederico; Estes, Annette; Farrar, Penny; Fernandez, Bridget A.; Folstein, Susan E.; Foley, Suzanne; Fombonne, Eric; Freitag, Christine M.; Gilbert, John; Gillberg, Christopher; Glessner, Joseph T.; Green, Jonathan; Guter, Stephen J.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Holt, Richard; Hughes, Gillian; Hus, Vanessa; Igliozzi, Roberta; Kim, Cecilia; Klauck, Sabine M.; Kolevzon, Alexander; Lamb, Janine A.; Leboyer, Marion; Le Couteur, Ann; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Lord, Catherine; Lund, Sabata C.; Maestrini, Elena; Mantoulan, Carine; Marshall, Christian R.; McConachie, Helen; McDougle, Christopher J.; McGrath, Jane; McMahon, William M.; Merikangas, Alison; Miller, Judith; Minopoli, Fiorella; Mirza, Ghazala K.; Munson, Jeff; Nelson, Stanley F.; Nygren, Gudrun; Oliveira, Guiomar; Pagnamenta, Alistair T.; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Parr, Jeremy R.; Parrini, Barbara; Pickles, Andrew; Pinto, Dalila; Piven, Joseph; Posey, David J.; Poustka, Annemarie; Poustka, Fritz; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Roge, Bernadette; Rutter, Michael L.; Sequeira, Ana F.; Soorya, Latha; Sousa, Ines; Sykes, Nuala; Stoppioni, Vera; Tancredi, Raffaella; Tauber, Maite; Thompson, Ann P.; Thomson, Susanne; Tsiantis, John; Van Engeland, Herman; Vincent, John B.; Volkmar, Fred; Vorstman, Jacob A. S.; Wallace, Simon; Wang, Kai; Wassink, Thomas H.; White, Kathy; Wing, Kirsty; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Yaspan, Brian L.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Betancur, Catalina; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Cantor, Rita M.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hallmayer, Joachim; Monaco, Anthony P.; Nurnberger, John I.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Sutcliffe, James S.; Szatmari, Peter; Vieland, Veronica J.; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Green, Andrew; Gill, Michael; Gallagher, Louise; Vicente, Astrid; Ennis, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable disorder of complex and heterogeneous aetiology. It is primarily characterized by altered cognitive ability including impaired language and communication skills and fundamental deficits in social reciprocity. Despite some notable successes in neur

  20. Subclinical autism spectrum symptoms in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arildskov, Trine Wigh; Højgaard, David R M A; Skarphedinsson, Gudmundur; Thomsen, Per Hove; Ivarsson, Tord; Weidle, Bernhard; Melin, Karin Holmgren; Hybel, Katja A

    2016-07-01

    The literature on subclinical autism spectrum (ASD) symptoms in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is scarce, and it remains unclear whether ASD symptoms are related to OCD severity. The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of ASD symptoms and age and sex differences in children and adolescents with OCD, and to explore the relation between ASD symptoms and OCD severity. This is the largest study of ASD symptoms in an OCD population to date, and the first directly aimed at elucidating sex and age differences in this matter. The study used baseline data from the Nordic Long-term OCD Treatment Study in which parents of 257 children and adolescents with OCD aged 7-17 completed the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire. OCD severity was assessed with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Pediatric OCD patients were found to exhibit elevated rates of ASD symptoms compared to a norm group of school-age children. ASD symptoms were concentrated in a subgroup with a prevalence of 10-17 %. This subgroup was characterized by a male preponderance with a sex ratio of approximately 2.6:1, while children versus adolescents with OCD exhibited similar rates. Autism-specific social and communication difficulties were not related to OCD severity, while restricted repetitive behavior was positively related to OCD severity. The results indicate that clinicians need to be aware of ASD symptoms in children and adolescents with OCD since one out of ten exhibits such symptoms at a clinical sub-threshold. PMID:26518580

  1. Characterizing the function of Neurobeachin, a candidate gene for autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tuand, Krizia

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder. It belongs to a group of pervasive developmental disorders with a prevalence of 0,7%. Autism spectrum disorders are diagnosed purely on clinical grounds by impairment in social interactions and communication and repetitive, stereotyped patterns of behaviour and interests. Twin and family studies indicate a strong genetic contribution to the aetiology of autism, although environmental causes are not excluded. Recently we have identified ...

  2. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Predict Symptom Severity of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yun; Chen, Rong; Ke, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Lu; Chu, Kangkang; Lu, Zuhong; Herskovits, Edward H.

    2012-01-01

    Autism is widely believed to be a heterogeneous disorder; diagnosis is currently based solely on clinical criteria, although genetic, as well as environmental, influences are thought to be prominent factors in the etiology of most forms of autism. Our goal is to determine whether a predictive model based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)…

  3. Knowledge of Autism and Attitudes of Children towards Their Partially Integrated Peers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavropoulou, Sophia; Sideridis, Georgios D.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to measure the effects of contact with integrated students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on the knowledge, attitudes and empathy of children (n = 224) from grades 4-6. A comparison group of children (n = 251) who had no contact with classmates with ASD was also included. All participants completed self-report instruments.…

  4. New approaches to investigating social gestures in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishida Kenneth T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The combination of economic games and human neuroimaging presents the possibility of using economic probes to identify biomarkers for quantitative features of healthy and diseased cognition. These probes span a range of important cognitive functions, but one new use is in the domain of reciprocating social exchange with other humans - a capacity perturbed in a number of psychopathologies. We summarize the use of a reciprocating exchange game to elicit neural and behavioral signatures for subjects diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Furthermore, we outline early efforts to capture features of social exchange in computational models and use these to identify quantitative behavioral differences between subjects with ASD and matched controls. Lastly, we summarize a number of subsequent studies inspired by the modeling results, which suggest new neural and behavioral signatures that could be used to characterize subtle deficits in information processing during interactions with other humans.

  5. Behavioral treatments in autism spectrum disorder: what do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismara, Laurie A; Rogers, Sally J

    2010-01-01

    Although there are a large and growing number of scientifically questionable treatments available for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intervention programs applying the scientific teaching principles of applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been identified as the treatment of choice. The following article provides a selective review of ABA intervention approaches, some of which are designed as comprehensive programs that aim to address all developmental areas of need, whereas others are skills based or directed toward a more circumscribed, specific set of goals. However, both types of approaches have been shown to be effective in improving communication, social skills, and management of problem behavior for children with ASD. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to critical areas of research that have yet to be fully explored. PMID:20192785

  6. Atypical perception of affective prosody in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Line; Skewes, Joshua; Hørlyck, Lone; Vuust, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by impairments in language and social–emotional cognition. Yet, findings of emotion recognition from affective prosody in individuals with ASD are inconsistent. This study investigated emotion recognition and neural processing of affective prosody in high-functioning adults with ASD relative to neurotypical (NT) adults. Individuals with ASD showed mostly typical brain activation of the fronto-temporal and subcortical brain regions in response to affective prosody. Yet, the ASD group showed a trend towards increased activation of the right caudate during processing of affective prosody and rated the emotional intensity lower than NT individuals. This is likely associated with increased attentional task demands in this group, which might contribute to social–emotional impairments. PMID:25379450

  7. Improving Empathic Communication Skills in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern Koegel, Lynn; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Navab, Anahita; Koegel, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    The literature suggests that many individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience challenges with recognizing and describing emotions in others, which may result in difficulties with the verbal expression of empathy during communication. Thus, there is a need for intervention techniques targeting this area. Using a multiple baseline across participants design, this study examined the effectiveness of a video-feedback intervention with a visual framework component to improve verbal empathetic statements and questions during conversation for adults with ASD. Following intervention, all participants improved in verbal expression of empathetic statements and empathetic questions during conversation with generalization and maintenance of gains. Furthermore, supplemental assessments indicated that each participant improved in their general level of empathy and confidence in communication skills.

  8. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascia Brondino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM represents a popular therapeutic option for patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data regarding the efficacy of CAM in ASD. The aim of the present systematic review is to investigate trials of CAM in ASD. Material and Methods. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Agricola, and Food Science Source. Results. Our literature search identified 2687 clinical publications. After the title/abstract screening, 139 publications were obtained for detailed evaluation. After detailed evaluation 67 studies were included, from hand search of references we retrieved 13 additional studies for a total of 80. Conclusion. There is no conclusive evidence supporting the efficacy of CAM therapies in ASD. Promising results are reported for music therapy, sensory integration therapy, acupuncture, and massage.

  9. Patterns of EEG Activity in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukova M.A.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews most recent findings on neural activity in children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Most of the studies demonstrate decreased connectivity in cortical regions, excitatory/inhibitory imbalance and atypical processing of language in people with ASD. It is argued that difficulties in semantic integration are connected to selective insensitivity to language, which is manifested in atypical N400 ERP component. In the article we analyze the data suggesting a strong relationship between ASD and epilepsy and argue that the comorbidity is more prevalent among individuals who have cognitive dysfunction. The EEG profile of people with ASD suggests U-shaped alterations with excess in high- and low-frequency EEG bands. We critically analyze the “broken mirror” hypothesis of ASD and demonstrate findings which challenge this theory.

  10. Educating Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Organizational Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsonova E.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data of applied socio-psychological research devoted to the study of difficulties encountered by educational institutions when teaching children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The research involved analysis of theoretical issues and practical experience on the subject; a survey of administrative and teaching staff; an exploration of organizational problems related to the education of children with ASD, in particular, the need for methodological support in teachers providing such education. The findings of the research indicated the following problems in educational institutions teaching children with ASD: 1 Education models for children with ASD require personnel and economic support; 2 teachers are not provided with special training necessary for working with children with ASD and for developing adapted teaching programmes; 3 institutions lack methodological and didactic support necessary for working with children with ASD; 4 there’s no communication between educational and medical institutions concerning the assistance to children with ASD and their families

  11. Impairments of Social Motor Synchrony Evident in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Paula; Frazier, Jean A.; Cochran, David M.; Mitchell, Teresa; Coleman, Caitlin; Schmidt, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Social interactions typically involve movements of the body that become synchronized over time and both intentional and spontaneous interactional synchrony have been found to be an essential part of successful human interaction. However, our understanding of the importance of temporal dimensions of social motor synchrony in social dysfunction is limited. Here, we used a pendulum coordination paradigm to assess dynamic, process-oriented measures of social motor synchrony in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our data indicate that adolescents with ASD demonstrate less synchronization in both spontaneous and intentional interpersonal coordination. Coupled oscillator modeling suggests that ASD participants assembled a synchronization dynamic with a weaker coupling strength, which corresponds to a lower sensitivity and decreased attention to the movements of the other person, but do not demonstrate evidence of a delay in information transmission. The implication of these findings for isolating an ASD-specific social synchronization deficit that could serve as an objective, bio-behavioral marker is discussed.

  12. The Takete-Maluma phenomenon in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, Valeria; Esposito, Gianluca; Venuti, Paola; Arduino, Giuseppe Maurizio; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that people tend to preferentially associate phonemes like /m/, /l/, /n/ to curvilinear shapes and phonemes like /t/, /z/, /r/, /k/ to rectilinear shapes. Here we evaluated the performance of children/adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and neurotypical controls in this audiovisual congruency phenomenon. Pairs of visual patterns (curvilinear vs rectilinear) were presented to a group of ASD participants (low- or high-functioning) and a group of age-matched neurotypical controls. Participants were asked to associate each item to non-meaningful phoneme clusters. ASD participants showed a lower proportion of expected association responses than the controls. Within the ASD group the performance varied as a function of the severity of the symptomatology. These data suggest that children/adolescents with ASD show, although at different degrees as a function of the severity of the ASD, lower phonetic-iconic congruency response patterns than neurotypical controls, pointing to poorer multisensory integration capabilities. PMID:23700961

  13. Can children with autism spectrum disorders "hear" a speaking face?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Julia R; Tornatore, Lauren A; Brancazio, Lawrence; Whalen, D H

    2011-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking methodology to assess audiovisual speech perception in 26 children ranging in age from 5 to 15 years, half with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and half with typical development. Given the characteristic reduction in gaze to the faces of others in children with ASD, it was hypothesized that they would show reduced influence of visual information on heard speech. Responses were compared on a set of auditory, visual, and audiovisual speech perception tasks. Even when fixated on the face of the speaker, children with ASD were less visually influenced than typical development controls. This indicates fundamental differences in the processing of audiovisual speech in children with ASD, which may contribute to their language and communication impairments.

  14. Correctional Management and Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michna, Isabella; Trestman, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Over the past two decades, the recognition and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has grown. One result is the parallel recognition of a substantial prevalence of individuals with ASD who, because of life-long social and emotional deficits, have become involved with the criminal justice system (CJS). It is generally acknowledged that many CJS professionals who encounter individuals with ASD are ill equipped to treat or advocate for them. Currently, there is no universal training on ASD for CJS professionals, nor are there service standards for individuals with ASD during incarceration, to support their community re-entry and reduce recidivism. In this article, we review the background and context for management and treatment during incarceration for individuals with ASD. PMID:27236182

  15. Atypical perception of affective prosody in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Gebauer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is characterized by impairments in language and social–emotional cognition. Yet, findings of emotion recognition from affective prosody in individuals with ASD are inconsistent. This study investigated emotion recognition and neural processing of affective prosody in high-functioning adults with ASD relative to neurotypical (NT adults. Individuals with ASD showed mostly typical brain activation of the fronto-temporal and subcortical brain regions in response to affective prosody. Yet, the ASD group showed a trend towards increased activation of the right caudate during processing of affective prosody and rated the emotional intensity lower than NT individuals. This is likely associated with increased attentional task demands in this group, which might contribute to social–emotional impairments.

  16. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondino, Natascia; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Rocchetti, Matteo; Provenzani, Umberto; Barale, Francesco; Politi, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) represents a popular therapeutic option for patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data regarding the efficacy of CAM in ASD. The aim of the present systematic review is to investigate trials of CAM in ASD. Material and Methods. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Agricola, and Food Science Source. Results. Our literature search identified 2687 clinical publications. After the title/abstract screening, 139 publications were obtained for detailed evaluation. After detailed evaluation 67 studies were included, from hand search of references we retrieved 13 additional studies for a total of 80. Conclusion. There is no conclusive evidence supporting the efficacy of CAM therapies in ASD. Promising results are reported for music therapy, sensory integration therapy, acupuncture, and massage. PMID:26064157

  17. Music therapy for people with autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Elefant, Cochavit; Mössler, Karin;

    2014-01-01

    Background The central impairments of people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affect social interaction and communication. Music therapy uses musical experiences and the relationships that develop through them to enable communication and expression, thus attempting to address some of the core...... problems of people with ASD. The present version of this review on music therapy for ASD is an update of the original Cochrane review published in 2006. Objectives To assess the effects of music therapy for individuals with ASD. Search methods We searched the following databases in July 2013: CENTRAL, Ovid...... MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, ASSIA, Sociological Abstracts, and Dissertation Abstracts International. We also checked the reference lists of relevant studies and contacted investigators in person. Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials...

  18. Interactive social neuroscience to study autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, Max J; Naples, Adam J; McPartland, James C

    2015-03-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate difficulty with social interactions and relationships, but the neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties remain largely unknown. While social difficulties in ASD are most apparent in the context of interactions with other people, most neuroscience research investigating ASD have provided limited insight into the complex dynamics of these interactions. The development of novel, innovative "interactive social neuroscience" methods to study the brain in contexts with two interacting humans is a necessary advance for ASD research. Studies applying an interactive neuroscience approach to study two brains engaging with one another have revealed significant differences in neural processes during interaction compared to observation in brain regions that are implicated in the neuropathology of ASD. Interactive social neuroscience methods are crucial in clarifying the mechanisms underlying the social and communication deficits that characterize ASD.

  19. Is fever a predictive factor in the autism spectrum disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megremi, Amalia S F

    2013-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display such a marked increase in recent decades that researchers speak of "epidemic outbreak" of the disease. Although the diagnostic framework has been expanded and thus more disorders now fall within the autistic spectrum, no one disputes the increased incidence of autism in modern societies, making it a major public health problem. On the other hand, heterogeneity is a major feature of the disorder, both in terms of the etiopathogenesis as well as to the phenotypic expression, natural history and evolution. Consequently, there is considerable research interest in determining factors which are etiopathogenetically, prognostically, preventively or/and therapeutically associated with the disorder. Literature data indicate that probably there are differences in susceptibility to various infections between normal and autistic children. In addition, some autistic children show improvement in the characteristics of their autistic behavior during febrile incident and repression of fever (through antipyretics) might be associated with the onset of autistic disorder. Since fever has been associated with mental illness since the time of Hippocrates already and the presence of fever is associated with a favorable outcome in various pathologic conditions, it is assumed that there are probably two subgroups of autistic children: those who have the possibility to develop acute febrile incidents and those who develop acute incidents without fever. If this is the case, it is important to know whether there are differences between the two subgroups in various biological markers (cytokines/chemokines, autoantibodies), neuroimaging findings, personal and family history of these children (use of drugs, vaccinations, history of autoimmunity, etc.) and, if the first subgroup consists of autistic people of higher functionality and better outcome, or not. If such a classification is real, is there a possibility for the fever to be used as a predictor of

  20. The role of epigenetic change in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuk Jin eLoke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by problems with social communication, social interaction and repetitive or restricted behaviours. ASD is comorbid with other disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, Rett syndrome and Fragile X syndrome. Neither the genetic nor the environmental components have been characterised well enough to aid diagnosis or treatment of non-syndromic ASD. However, genome-wide association studies have amassed evidence suggesting involvement of hundreds of genes and a variety of associated genetic pathways. Recently, investigators have turned to epigenetics, a prime mediator of environmental effects on genomes and phenotype, to characterise changes in ASD that constitute a molecular level on top of DNA sequence. Though in their infancy, such studies have the potential to increase our understanding of the aetiology of ASD and may assist in the development of biomarkers for its prediction, diagnosis, prognosis and eventually in its prevention and intervention. This review focuses on the first few epigenome-wide association studies of ASD and discusses future directions.

  1. Using qualitative methods to guide scale development for anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearss, Karen; Taylor, Christopher A; Aman, Michael G; Whittemore, Robin; Lecavalier, Luc; Miller, Judith; Pritchett, Jill; Green, Bryson; Scahill, Lawrence

    2016-08-01

    Anxiety is common in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Despite this common co-occurrence, studies targeting anxiety in this population are hindered by the under-developed state of measures in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Content validity (the extent to which an instrument measures the domain of interest) and an instrument's relevance to the patient population are key components of measurement development. This article describes the application of qualitative research methods in the initial development of a parent-rated instrument of anxiety symptoms in youth with autism spectrum disorder. Overall, 48 parents of 45 children (aged 3-17 years) with autism spectrum disorder and at least mild anxiety participated in one of six focus groups at two sites (three groups per site). Systematic coding of the focus group transcripts identified broad themes reflecting the situations and events that trigger anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder, the behavioral manifestations of anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder, the parent and the child's own response to anxiety, and broad behavioral patterns that could be associated with anxiety. From the focus group data, investigators generated 52 candidate items for a parent-rating of anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorder. This report provides a detailed description of these early steps in developing a patient-oriented outcome measure. PMID:26395234

  2. Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Kindregan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has become clear that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have difficulty with gross motor function and coordination, factors which influence gait. Knowledge of gait abnormalities may be useful for assessment and treatment planning. This paper reviews the literature assessing gait deviations in children with ASD. Five online databases were searched using keywords “gait” and “autism,” and 11 studies were found which examined gait in childhood ASD. Children with ASD tend to augment their walking stability with a reduced stride length, increased step width and therefore wider base of support, and increased time in the stance phase. Children with ASD have reduced range of motion at the ankle and knee during gait, with increased hip flexion. Decreased peak hip flexor and ankle plantar flexor moments in children with ASD may imply weakness around these joints, which is further exhibited by a reduction in ground reaction forces at toe-off in children with ASD. Children with ASD have altered gait patterns to healthy controls, widened base of support, and reduced range of motion. Several studies refer to cerebellar and basal ganglia involvement as the patterns described suggest alterations in those areas of the brain. Further research should compare children with ASD to other clinical groups to improve assessment and treatment planning.

  3. Violations of personal space by individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Kennedy

    Full Text Available The ability to maintain an appropriate physical distance (i.e., interpersonal distance from others is a critical aspect of social interaction and contributes importantly to real-life social functioning. In Study 1, using parent-report data that had been acquired on a large number of individuals (ages 4-18 years for the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange and the Simons Simplex Collection, we found that those with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; n = 766 more often violated the space of others compared to their unaffected siblings (n = 766. This abnormality held equally across ASD diagnostic categories, and correlated with clinical measures of communication and social functioning. In Study 2, laboratory experiments in a sample of high-functioning adults with ASD demonstrated an altered relationship between interpersonal distance and personal space, and documented a complete absence of personal space in 3 individuals with ASD. Furthermore, anecdotal self-report from several participants confirmed that violations of social distancing conventions continue to occur in real-world interactions through adulthood. We suggest that atypical social distancing behavior offers a practical and sensitive measure of social dysfunction in ASD, and one whose psychological and neurological substrates should be further investigated.

  4. Violations of personal space by individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Daniel P; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The ability to maintain an appropriate physical distance (i.e., interpersonal distance) from others is a critical aspect of social interaction and contributes importantly to real-life social functioning. In Study 1, using parent-report data that had been acquired on a large number of individuals (ages 4-18 years) for the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange and the Simons Simplex Collection, we found that those with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; n = 766) more often violated the space of others compared to their unaffected siblings (n = 766). This abnormality held equally across ASD diagnostic categories, and correlated with clinical measures of communication and social functioning. In Study 2, laboratory experiments in a sample of high-functioning adults with ASD demonstrated an altered relationship between interpersonal distance and personal space, and documented a complete absence of personal space in 3 individuals with ASD. Furthermore, anecdotal self-report from several participants confirmed that violations of social distancing conventions continue to occur in real-world interactions through adulthood. We suggest that atypical social distancing behavior offers a practical and sensitive measure of social dysfunction in ASD, and one whose psychological and neurological substrates should be further investigated. PMID:25100326

  5. Locomotion and Grasping impairment in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Fulceri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate expressiveness of motor impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD and its correlation with developmental and clinical features of ASD. Method: Thirty-five male preschoolers with ASD completed the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2; Folio and Fewell, 2000 and underwent a multidisciplinary assessment including medical examination, standardized assessment of cognitive abilities, administration of Autism_Diagnostic_Observation_Schedule (ADOS and a parent interview about adaptive skills. Results: Results revealed a substantial impairment in locomotion and grasping skills. Both fine and gross motor skills were significantly correlated with non verbal IQ and adaptive behaviours (p<0.01 but not with chronological age or ADOS scores. Children with weaker motor skills have greater cognitive and adaptive behaviours deficits. Conclusions: Motor development in ASD can be detected at preschool age and locomotion and grasping skills are substantially the most impaired area. These findings support the need to assess motor skills in preschoolers with ASD in addition to other developmental skill areas. Along with the increasingly acknowledged importance of motor skills for subsequent social, cognitive, and communicative development our findings support the need to consider motor intervention as a key area in therapeutic program to improve outcome in preschoolers with ASD.

  6. Alexithymia in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmari, Peter; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Goldberg, Jeremy; Bennett, Terry

    2008-11-01

    Given the recent findings regarding the association between alexithymia and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and the accumulating evidence for the presence of the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) in relatives of individuals with ASD, we further explored the construct of alexithymia in parents of children with ASD as a potential part of the BAP. We hypothesized that (a) parents of children with ASD will demonstrate higher impairment in their emotion processing when compared to controls, and (b) high impairment in emotion processing in parents will be associated with severity of symptoms in children with ASD. Psychometric and diagnostic data were collected on 188 children with a diagnosis of ASD. The Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was completed by 439 parents of children with ASD and a control group of 45 parents of children with Prader Willi syndrome (PW). Results show that ASD parents score higher than controls on the TAS-20 total score. Within the ASD group, children of fathers with high alexithymia score higher on repetitive behaviour symptoms compared to children of fathers with low alexithymia. The alexithymia trait appears to be one of the many building blocks that make up the BAP. PMID:18473159

  7. European clinical network: autism spectrum disorder assessments and patient characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwood, Karen L; Buitelaar, Jan; Murphy, Declan; Spooren, Will; Charman, Tony

    2015-08-01

    The United Nations and World Health Organisation have identified autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as an important public health issue across global mental health services. Although a range of tools exist to identify and quantify ASD symptoms, there is a lack of information about which ASD measures are used in different services worldwide. This paper presents data from a large survey of measures used for patient characterisation in major ASD research and clinical centres across Europe collected between June 2013 and January 2014. The objective was to map the use of different instruments used to characterise ASD, comorbid psychopathology and cognitive and adaptive ability for patient diagnostic and characterisation purposes across Europe. Sixty-six clinical research sites diagnosing 14,844 patients per year contributed data. The majority of sites use the well-established Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI) instruments, though the proportion of sites in Western Europe using the ADI was almost double the rate in Eastern Europe. Approximately half the sites also used the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), although use of the SRS was over three times higher in Western Europe compared with Eastern Europe. The use of free/open access measures was lower than commercially available tools across all regions. There are clinical and scientific benefits in encouraging further convergence of clinical characterisation measures across ASD research and clinical centres in Europe to facilitate large-scale data sharing and collaboration, including clinical trials of novel medications and psychological interventions. PMID:25471824

  8. Mindfulness-Based Therapy in Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, Annelies A.; van Ham, Nadia C.; Nyklicek, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that depression and anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric concern in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) has been found effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptoms, however research in autism is limited. Therefore, we examined the effects of a modified MBT protocol (MBT-AS) in…

  9. Early Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in China: A Family Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xueyun; Long, Toby; Chen, Lianjun; Fang, Junming

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were first reported in China in 1982. Since then, autism and other related disorders have been recognized by both the public and professionals. The importance of early intervention for children with ASD is becoming more accepted throughout China. A survey was designed to investigate the status of early intervention…

  10. The Expression of Caspases Is Enhanced in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Autism Spectrum Disorder Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalco, Dario; Sapone, Anna; Giordano, Catia; Cirillo, Alessandra; de Novellis, Vito; de Magistris, Laura; Rossi, Francesco; Fasano, Alessio; Maione, Sabatino; Antonucci, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are heterogeneous complex neuro-developmental disorders characterized by dysfunctions in social interaction and communication skills. Their pathogenesis has been linked to interactions between genes and environmental factors. Consistent with the evidence of certain similarities between immune cells and…

  11. Assessment of Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondhuis, Sabrina N.; Aman, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common comorbid conditions in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), although assessment presents unique challenges. Many symptoms of anxiety appear to overlap with common presentations of autism. Furthermore, deficits in language and cognitive functioning make it difficult for such…

  12. Epilepsy Among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiranta, Elina; Sourander, Andre; Suominen, Auli; Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Brown, Alan S.; Sillanpää, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The present population-based study examines associations between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The cohort includes register data of 4,705 children born between 1987 and 2005 and diagnosed as cases of childhood autism, Asperger's syndrome or pervasive developmental disorders--not otherwise specified. Each case was matched to…

  13. Emotion Regulation and Emotional Distress in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Foundations and Considerations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often associated with emotional distress and psychiatric comorbidities. Atypical emotion regulation (ER) may underlie these accompanying features. This special issue of the "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders" presents a series of mechanistic and applied papers on ER and emotional experiences…

  14. Sleep Disruption as a Correlate to Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been well documented, but less is known about the effects of sleep problems on day-time cognitive and adaptive performance in this population. Children diagnosed with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (N = 335) from 1 to 10 years of age…

  15. Overactive Pattern Separation Memory Associated with Negative Emotionality in Adults Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, M.; Stephenson, K. G.; Nielson, C. A.; Maisel, M.; Top, D. N.; Kirwan, C. B.

    2015-01-01

    Bowler et al. ("Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders" 44(9):2355-2362. doi:10.1007/s10803-014-2105-y, 2014) have suggested that a specific memory impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) arises from hippocampal failure to consolidate multiple related pieces of information. Twenty-four adults diagnosed with ASD and matched…

  16. Olfactory functions are not associated with autism severity in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudova I

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Iva Dudova, Michal HrdlickaDepartment of Child Psychiatry, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech RepublicBackground: Changes in olfactory functions have been found in many neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between olfactory functions (odor-detection thresholds, odor identification, and odor preference and autism severity and sensory-related behavior in children and adolescents with ASD.Subjects and methods: Our sample consisted of 35 high-functioning patients with ASD (mean age 10.8±3.6 years, 31 boys. Olfactory testing (threshold and identification used the Sniffin' Sticks test. Odor pleasantness was assessed on a 5-point scale using the Identification part of the Sniffin’ Sticks test. The severity of autistic psychopathology was measured using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS.Results: Using Spearman’s correlation, we found no significant correlations between autism severity (as expressed by total CARS score and odor-detection thresholds (R=0.144, P=0.409, odor identification (R=0.07, P=0.966, or odor pleasantness (R=-0.046, P=0.794. There was also no significant relationship between CARS item 9 (“Taste, smell, and touch response and use” and odor-detection thresholds (R=0.170, P=0.330, odor identification (R=0.282, P=0.100, or odor pleasantness (R=0.017, P=0.923.Conclusion: We did not find any significant relationship between the severity of autistic psychopathology and olfactory functions.Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, psychopathology, Sniffin’ Sticks, odor threshold, odor identification, odor pleasantness

  17. Three-item Direct Observation Screen (TIDOS) for autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Oner, Pinar; Oner, Ozgur; Munir, Kerim

    2013-01-01

    We compared ratings on the Three-Item Direct Observation Screen test for autism spectrum disorders completed by pediatric residents with the Social Communication Questionnaire parent reports as an augmentative tool for improving autism spectrum disorder screening performance. We examined three groups of children (18–60 months) comparable in age (18–24 month, 24–36 month, 36–60 preschool subgroups) and gender distribution: n = 86 with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ...

  18. Investigation of SLC6A4 gene expression in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Funda Şener; Keziban Korkmaz; Didem Behice Öztop; Gökmen Zararsız; Yusuf Özkul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Autism is defined as a complex neurodevelopmental disorder. Genetics plays a major role in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The role of the serotonin in the development of autism has been widely investigated. SLC6A4 gene (SERT or 5-HT) has an important role reuptaking of serotonin. Because of this, our study examined the expression level of SLC6A4 gene in autism patients. Methods: Thirty-four patients (26 male, 8 female) who diagnosed as autism firstly according ...

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Epilepsy: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Shafali Spurling; Tuchman, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy commonly co-occur. In this review, we consider some unresolved questions regarding the temporal relationship, causal mechanisms, and clinical stratification of this comorbidity, highlighting throughout the interplay between autism spectrum disorder, epilepsy, and intellectual disability. We present data on the clinical characterization of children with autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy, discussing distinctive phenotypes in children with this comorbidity. Although some distinctive clinical features emerge, this comorbidity also informs convergent pathways in genetic variants that cause synaptic dysfunction. We then move beyond diagnostic categorization and consider the extent to which electrophysiology as a quantitative biomarker may help guide efforts in clinical stratification and outcome prediction. Epilepsy, and atypical electrophysiological patterns, in autism spectrum disorder may inform the definition of biologically meaningful subgroups within the spectrum that, in turn, can shed light on potential targets for intervention.

  20. Consequences of Cannabinoid and Monoaminergic System Disruption in a Mouse Model of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Onaivi, E. S.; Benno, R; Halpern, T; Mehanovic, M; Schanz, N; Sanders, C.; Yan, X.; Ishiguro, H; Liu, Q-R; Berzal, A.L; Viveros, M. P.; Ali, S.F

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are heterogenous neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impairment in social, communication skills and stereotype behaviors. While autism may be uniquely human, there are behavioral characteristics in ASDs that can be mimicked using animal models. We used the BTBR T+tf/J mice that have been shown to exhibit autism-like behavioral phenotypes to 1). Evaluate cannabinoid-induced behavioral changes using forced swim test (FST) and spontaneous wheel running ...

  1. Imparting Communication and Learning Skills forChildren with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Amaresh Tippanna Nayak; Dr (Mrs). Rabia Khanam

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction which affects the child below three years. Autism is a mental disorder, which reduces the learning abilities. As such, the thinking, learning, memory and reasoning capacity of such children is very low. The child with autism spectrum disorder should be given special attention during their early school days. During their early school days, the teachers and parents should v...

  2. Brief Report: Do the Nature of Communication Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders Relate to the Broader Autism Phenotype in Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lauren J.; Maybery, Murray T.; Wray, John; Ravine, David; Hunt, Anna; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive empirical evidence indicates that the lesser variant of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) involves a communication impairment that is similar to, but milder than, the deficit in clinical ASD. This research explored the relationship between the broader autism phenotype (BAP) among parents, an index of genetic liability for ASD, and proband…

  3. The Autism Mental Status Exam: Sensitivity and Specificity Using DSM-5 Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Verbally Fluent Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodberg, David; Weinger, Paige M.; Halpern, Danielle; Parides, Michael; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    The phenotypic heterogeneity of adults suspected of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires a standardized diagnostic approach that is feasible in all clinical settings. The autism mental status exam (AMSE) is an eight-item observational assessment that structures the observation and documentation of social, communicative and behavioral signs and…

  4. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms moderate cognition and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Sokoloff, Jennifer L.; Shook, Devon A.; James, Joette D.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that over 30% of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) meet diagnostic criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and another 20% of children with ASD exhibit subthreshold clinical ADHD symptoms. Presence of ADHD symptoms in the context of ASD could have a variety of effects on cognition, autistic traits, and adaptive/maladaptive behaviors including: exacerbating core ASD impairments; adding unique impairments specific to ADHD; producing new...

  5. Action perception is intact in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, James P; Williams, Justin H G; Neri, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Autistic traits span a wide spectrum of behavioral departures from typical function. Despite the heterogeneous nature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there have been attempts at formulating unified theoretical accounts of the associated impairments in social cognition. A class of prominent theories capitalizes on the link between social interaction and visual perception: effective interaction with others often relies on discrimination of subtle nonverbal cues. It has been proposed that individuals with ASD may rely on poorer perceptual representations of other people's actions as returned by dysfunctional visual circuitry and that this, in turn, may lead to less effective interpretation of those actions for social behavior. It remains unclear whether such perceptual deficits exist in ASD: the evidence currently available is limited to specific aspects of action recognition, and the reported deficits are often attributable to cognitive factors that may not be strictly visual (e.g., attention). We present results from an exhaustive set of measurements spanning the entire action processing hierarchy, from motion detection to action interpretation, designed to factor out effects that are not selectively relevant to this function. Our results demonstrate that the ASD perceptual system returns functionally intact signals for interpreting other people's actions adequately; these signals can be accessed effectively when autistic individuals are prompted and motivated to do so under controlled conditions. However, they may fail to exploit them adequately during real-life social interactions. PMID:25653346

  6. Conductance of single microRNAs chains related to the autism spectrum disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J. I. N.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Fulco, U. L.; Mauriz, P. W.; Sarmento, R. G.; Caetano, E. W. S.; Freire, V. N.

    2014-09-01

    The charge transport properties of single-stranded microRNAs (miRNAs) chains associated to autism disorder were investigated. The computations were performed within a tight-binding model, together with a transfer matrix technique, with ionization energies and hopping parameters obtained by quantum chemistry method. Current-voltage (I× V) curves of twelve miRNA chains related to the autism spectrum disorders were calculated and analysed. We have obtained both semiconductor and insulator behavior, and a relationship between the current intensity and the autism-related miRNA bases sequencies, suggesting that a kind of electronic biosensor can be developed to distinguish different profiles of autism disorders.

  7. Reduced Predictable Information in Brain Signals in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eGomez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a common developmental disorder characterized by communication difficulties and impaired social interaction. Recent results suggest altered brain dynamics as a potential cause of symptoms in ASD. Here, we aim to describe potential information-processing consequences of these alterations by measuring active information storage (AIS – a key quantity in the theory of distributed computation in biological networks. AIS is defined as the mutual information between the semi-infinite past of a process and its next state. It measures the amount of stored information that is used for computation of the next time step of a process. AIS is high for rich but predictable dynamics. We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG signals in 13 ASD patients and 14 matched control subjects in a visual task. After a beamformer source analysis, twelve task-relevant sources were obtained. For these sources, stationary baseline activity was analyzed using AIS. Our results showed a decrease of AIS values in the hippocampus of ASD patients in comparison with controls, meaning that brain signals in ASD were either less predictable, reduced in their dynamic richness or both. Our study suggests the usefulness of AIS to detect an abnormal type of dynamics in ASD. The observed changes in AIS are compatible with Bayesian theories of reduced use or precision of priors in ASD.

  8. A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, Russell L

    2008-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of related neurodevelopmental disorders that have been increasing in incidence since the 1980s. Despite a considerable amount of data being collected from cases, a central mechanism has not been offered. A careful review of ASD cases discloses a number of events that adhere to an immunoexcitotoxic mechanism. This mechanism explains the link between excessive vaccination, use of aluminum and ethylmercury as vaccine adjuvants, food allergies, gut dysbiosis, and abnormal formation of the developing brain. It has now been shown that chronic microglial activation is present in autistic brains from age 5 years to age 44 years. A considerable amount of evidence, both experimental and clinical, indicates that repeated microglial activation can initiate priming of the microglia and that subsequent stimulation can produce an exaggerated microglial response that can be prolonged. It is also known that one phenotypic form of microglia activation can result in an outpouring of neurotoxic levels of the excitotoxins, glutamate and quinolinic acid. Studies have shown that careful control of brain glutamate levels is essential to brain pathway development and that excesses can result in arrest of neural migration, as well as dendritic and synaptic loss. It has also been shown that certain cytokines, such as TNF-alpha, can, via its receptor, interact with glutamate receptors to enhance the neurotoxic reaction. To describe this interaction I have coined the term immunoexcitotoxicity, which is described in this article.

  9. Reduced Personal Space in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Asada

    Full Text Available Maintaining an appropriate distance from others is important for establishing effective communication and good interpersonal relations. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a developmental disorder associated with social difficulties, and it is thus worth examining whether individuals with ASD maintain typical or atypical degrees of social distance. Any atypicality of social distancing may impact daily social interactions. We measured the preferred distances when individuals with ASD and typically developing (TD individuals approached other people (a male experimenter and objects (a coat rack with clothes or when other people approached them. Individuals with ASD showed reduced interpersonal distances compared to TD individuals. The same tendency was found when participants judged their preferred distance from objects. In addition, when being approached by other people, both individuals with ASD and TD individuals maintained larger interpersonal distances when there was eye contact, compared to no eye contact. These results suggest that individuals with ASD have a relatively small personal space, and that this atypicality exists not only for persons but also for objects.

  10. EEG complexity as a biomarker for autism spectrum disorder risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tierney Adrienne

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex neurodevelopmental disorders may be characterized by subtle brain function signatures early in life before behavioral symptoms are apparent. Such endophenotypes may be measurable biomarkers for later cognitive impairments. The nonlinear complexity of electroencephalography (EEG signals is believed to contain information about the architecture of the neural networks in the brain on many scales. Early detection of abnormalities in EEG signals may be an early biomarker for developmental cognitive disorders. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that the modified multiscale entropy (mMSE computed on the basis of resting state EEG data can be used as a biomarker of normal brain development and distinguish typically developing children from a group of infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD, defined on the basis of an older sibling with ASD. Methods Using mMSE as a feature vector, a multiclass support vector machine algorithm was used to classify typically developing and high-risk groups. Classification was computed separately within each age group from 6 to 24 months. Results Multiscale entropy appears to go through a different developmental trajectory in infants at high risk for autism (HRA than it does in typically developing controls. Differences appear to be greatest at ages 9 to 12 months. Using several machine learning algorithms with mMSE as a feature vector, infants were classified with over 80% accuracy into control and HRA groups at age 9 months. Classification accuracy for boys was close to 100% at age 9 months and remains high (70% to 90% at ages 12 and 18 months. For girls, classification accuracy was highest at age 6 months, but declines thereafter. Conclusions This proof-of-principle study suggests that mMSE computed from resting state EEG signals may be a useful biomarker for early detection of risk for ASD and abnormalities in cognitive development in infants. To our knowledge, this is

  11. Effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment for children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Didden, H.C.M.; Mulders, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of low intensity behavioral treatment (LIBT) supplementing regular treatment in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) standardized tests of cognition, adaptive behavior, interpersonal relations, play, language, characterist

  12. More consistent, yet less sensitive : Interval timing in autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falter, Christine M.; Noreika, Valdas; Wearden, John H.; Bailey, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Even though phenomenological observations and anecdotal reports suggest atypical time processing in individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), very few psychophysical studies have investigated interval timing, and the obtained results are contradictory. The present study aimed to clarify wh

  13. Is voice a marker for autism spectrum disorder? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Lambrechts, Anna; Bang, Dan;

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) tend to show distinctive, atypical acoustic patterns of speech. These behaviours affect social interactions and social development and could represent a non-invasive marker for ASD. We systematically reviewed the literature quantifying acoustic...

  14. In utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk for autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidaya, Nicole B; Lee, Brian K; Burstyn, Igor;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether there is an association between increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) used during pregnancy. This study used Denmark's health and population registers to obtain information regarding prescription drugs, ASD d...

  15. Increased functional connectivity between subcortical and cortical resting-state networks in autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerliani, L.; Mennes, M.J.J.; Thomas, R.M.; Di Martino, A.; Thioux, M.; Keysers, C.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit severe difficulties in social interaction, motor coordination, behavioral flexibility, and atypical sensory processing, with considerable interindividual variability. This heterogeneous set of symptoms recently led to investigating

  16. Increased Functional Connectivity Between Subcortical and Cortical Resting-State Networks in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerliani, Leonardo; Mennes, Maarten; Thomas, Rajat M.; Di Martino, Adriana; Thioux, Marc; Keysers, Christian

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit severe difficulties in social interaction, motor coordination, behavioral flexibility, and atypical sensory processing, with considerable interindividual variability. This heterogeneous set of symptoms recently led to investigating t

  17. Increased Functional Connectivity Between Subcortical and Cortical Resting-State Networks in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerliani, Leonardo; Mennes, Maarten; Thomas, Rajat M; Di Martino, Adriana; Thioux, Marc; Keysers, C.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit severe difficulties in social interaction, motor coordination, behavioral flexibility, and atypical sensory processing, with considerable interindividual variability. This heterogeneous set of symptoms recently led to investigating

  18. The experience of use of the sand art-therapy with children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kotlovanova O.V.; Malinina E.V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of effective work to use sand art-therapy for treatment of behavior problems in children with autism spectrum disorder. The article describes the session plan, children's behavior in dynamics and intermediate results of work with children with autism spectrum disorders in the framework of this program. The influence of the sand art-therapy on the children's behavior was analyzed. The clinical case of sessions with the boy K. was described. The overwhelmingly p...

  19. When the Child is Suspected to Have Autism Spectrum Disorder: Recommendation for Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Borodina L.G.; Soldatenkova E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Experts in the area of treatment and intervention for autism spectrum disorders provide parents with recommenda¬tions for situations when their children are suspected to have autism or have been diagnosed. These recommenda¬tions are universal and are appropriate for raising a child with any spectrum disorder. Following these recommenda¬tions will allow parents to comprehend the situation with the child’s development, access approaches, that are used by professionals, and will help them to not...

  20. Mental Health Services for Individuals with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lake, Johanna K.; Andrea Perry; Yona Lunsky

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who do not have an intellectual impairment or disability (ID), described here as individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD), represent a complex and underserved psychiatric population. While there is an emerging literature on the mental health needs of children with ASD with normal intelligence, we know less about these issues in adults. Of the few studies of adolescents and adults with HFASD completed to da...

  1. Abnormal autonomic and associated brain activities during rest in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Eilam-Stock, Tehila; Xu, Pengfei; Cao, Miao; Gu, Xiaosi; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha; Park, Yunsoo; Siller, Michael; He, Yong; Hof, Patrick R.; Fan, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are associated with social and emotional deficits, the aetiology of which are not well understood. A growing consensus is that the autonomic nervous system serves a key role in emotional processes, by providing physiological signals essential to subjective states. We hypothesized that altered autonomic processing is related to the socio-emotional deficits in autism spectrum disorders. Here, we investigated the relationship between non-specific skin conductance respon...

  2. Medicaid 1915(c) Home- and Community-Based Services waivers for children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velott, Diana L; Agbese, Edeanya; Mandell, David; Stein, Bradley D; Dick, Andrew W; Yu, Hao; Leslie, Douglas L

    2016-05-01

    This research aims to describe the characteristics of 1915(c) Home- and Community-Based Services waivers for children with autism spectrum disorder across states and over time. While increasingly popular, little is known about these Medicaid waivers. Understanding the characteristics of these programs is important to clinicians and policymakers in designing programs to meet the needs of this vulnerable population and to set the stage for evaluating changes that occur with the implementation of health-care reform. Home- and Community-Based Services waiver applications that included children with autism spectrum disorder as a target population were collected from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services website, state websites, and state administrators. A data extraction tool was used to document waiver inclusions and restrictions, estimated service provision and institutional costs, and the inclusion of four core autism spectrum disorder services: respite, caregiver support and training, personal care, and evidence-based treatments. Investigators identified 50 current or former waivers across 29 states that explicitly included children with autism spectrum disorder in their target populations. Waivers differed substantially across states in the type and breadth of autism spectrum disorder coverage provided. Specifically, waivers varied in the populations they targeted, estimated cost of services, cost control methods employed, and services offered to children with autism spectrum disorder. Home- and Community-Based Services waivers for children with autism spectrum disorder are very complex and are not consistent across states or over time. Further efforts are needed to examine the characteristics of programs that are associated with improved access to care and clinical outcomes to maximize the benefits to individuals with autism spectrum disorder and their families. PMID:26088059

  3. Association of ADHD, Tics, and Anxiety with Dopamine Transporter ("DAT1") Genotype in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Hatchwell, Eli

    2008-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with high rates of psychiatric disturbance to include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), tic disorder, and anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) functional polymorphism located in the…

  4. Deficits in metacognitive monitoring in mathematics assessments in learners with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawemeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Antoniadou, Konstantina; Hollinworth, Melissa

    2016-05-01

    Children and adults with autism spectrum disorder have been found to have deficits in metacognition that could impact upon their learning. This study explored metacognitive monitoring in 28 (23 males and 5 females) participants with autism spectrum disorder and 56 (16 males and 40 females) typically developing controls who were being educated at the same level. Participants were asked a series of mathematics questions. Based upon previous research, after each question they were asked two metacognitive questions: (1) whether they thought they had got the answer correct or not (or 'don't know') and (2) whether they meant to get the answer correct or not (or 'don't know'). Participants with autism spectrum disorder were significantly more likely than the typically developing group to erroneously think that they had got an incorrect answer correct. Having made an error, those with autism spectrum disorder were also significantly more likely to report that they had meant to make the error. Different patterns in the types of errors made were also identified between the two groups. Deficits in metacognition were identified for the autism spectrum disorder group in the learning of mathematics. This is consistent with metacognitive research from different contexts and the implications for supporting learning in autism spectrum disorder are discussed.

  5. Deficits in metacognitive monitoring in mathematics assessments in learners with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawemeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Antoniadou, Konstantina; Hollinworth, Melissa

    2016-05-01

    Children and adults with autism spectrum disorder have been found to have deficits in metacognition that could impact upon their learning. This study explored metacognitive monitoring in 28 (23 males and 5 females) participants with autism spectrum disorder and 56 (16 males and 40 females) typically developing controls who were being educated at the same level. Participants were asked a series of mathematics questions. Based upon previous research, after each question they were asked two metacognitive questions: (1) whether they thought they had got the answer correct or not (or 'don't know') and (2) whether they meant to get the answer correct or not (or 'don't know'). Participants with autism spectrum disorder were significantly more likely than the typically developing group to erroneously think that they had got an incorrect answer correct. Having made an error, those with autism spectrum disorder were also significantly more likely to report that they had meant to make the error. Different patterns in the types of errors made were also identified between the two groups. Deficits in metacognition were identified for the autism spectrum disorder group in the learning of mathematics. This is consistent with metacognitive research from different contexts and the implications for supporting learning in autism spectrum disorder are discussed. PMID:26101449

  6. Improving Social Competence in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders through a Combined-Strategy Group Intervention: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    This applied dissertation investigated whether a combined-strategy group intervention improved social competence among children with autism spectrum disorders. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders exhibit deficits in social behaviors that may negatively impact all aspects of their lives. Social competence for individuals with autism spectrum…

  7. GABAergic signaling as therapeutic target for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada eCellot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, early in postnatal life exerts a depolarizing and excitatory action. This depends on accumulation of chloride inside the cell via the cation-chloride importer NKCC1, being the expression of the chloride exporter KCC2 very low at birth. The developmentally regulated expression of KCC2 results in extrusion of chloride with age and a shift of GABA from the depolarizing to the hyperpolarizing direction. The depolarizing action of GABA leads to intracellular calcium rise through voltage-dependent calcium channels and/or NMDA receptors. GABA-mediated calcium signals regulate a variety of developmental processes from cell proliferation migration, differentiation, synapse maturation and neuronal wiring. Therefore, it is not surprising that some forms of neuro-developmental disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs are associated with alterations of GABAergic signaling and impairment of the excitatory/inhibitory balance in selective neuronal circuits. In this review we will discuss how changes of GABAA-mediated neurotransmission affect several forms of ASDs including the Fragile X, the Angelman and Rett syndromes. Then, we will describe various animal models of ASDs with GABAergic dysfunctions, highlighting their behavioral deficits and the possibility to rescue them by targeting selective components of the GABAergic synapse. In particular, we will discuss how in some cases, reverting the polarity of GABA responses from the depolarizing to the hyperpolarizing direction with the diuretic bumetanide, a selective blocker of NKCC1, may have beneficial effects on ASDs, thus opening new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of these devastating disorders.

  8. Neuropathological Mechanisms of Seizures in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Richard E; Casanova, Manuel F; Fatemi, S Hossein; Folsom, Timothy D; Reutiman, Teri J; Brown, Gregory L; Edelson, Stephen M; Slattery, John C; Adams, James B

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript reviews biological abnormalities shared by autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and epilepsy. Two neuropathological findings are shared by ASD and epilepsy: abnormalities in minicolumn architecture and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission. The peripheral neuropil, which is the region that contains the inhibition circuits of the minicolumns, has been found to be decreased in the post-mortem ASD brain. ASD and epilepsy are associated with inhibitory GABA neurotransmission abnormalities including reduced GABAA and GABAB subunit expression. These abnormalities can elevate the excitation-to-inhibition balance, resulting in hyperexcitablity of the cortex and, in turn, increase the risk of seizures. Medical abnormalities associated with both epilepsy and ASD are discussed. These include specific genetic syndromes, specific metabolic disorders including disorders of energy metabolism and GABA and glutamate neurotransmission, mineral and vitamin deficiencies, heavy metal exposures and immune dysfunction. Many of these medical abnormalities can result in an elevation of the excitatory-to-inhibitory balance. Fragile X is linked to dysfunction of the mGluR5 receptor and Fragile X, Angelman and Rett syndromes are linked to a reduction in GABAA receptor expression. Defects in energy metabolism can reduce GABA interneuron function. Both pyridoxine dependent seizures and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency cause GABA deficiencies while urea cycle defects and phenylketonuria cause abnormalities in glutamate neurotransmission. Mineral deficiencies can cause glutamate and GABA neurotransmission abnormalities and heavy metals can cause mitochondrial dysfunction which disrupts GABA metabolism. Thus, both ASD and epilepsy are associated with similar abnormalities that may alter the excitatory-to-inhibitory balance of the cortex. These parallels may explain the high prevalence of epilepsy in ASD and the elevated prevalence of ASD features in individuals with

  9. Neuropathological mechanisms of seizures in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Eugene Frye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript reviews biological abnormalities shared by autism spectrum disorder (ASD and epilepsy. Two neuropathological findings are shared by ASD and epilepsy: abnormalities in minicolumn architecture and -aminobutyric acid (GABA. The peripheral neuropil, which is the region that contains the inhibition circuits of the minicolumns, has been found to be decreased in the post-mortem ASD brain. ASD and epilepsy are associated with inhibitory GABA neurotransmission abnormalities including reduced GABAA and GABAB subunit expression. These abnormalities can elevate the excitation-to-inhibition balance, resulting in hyperexcitablity of the cortex and, in turn, increases the risk of seizures. Medical abnormalities associated with both epilepsy and ASD are discussed. These include specific genetic syndromes, specific metabolic disorders including disorders of energy metabolism and GABA and glutamate neurotransmission, mineral and vitamin deficiencies, heavy metal exposures and immune dysfunction. Many of these medical abnormalities can result in an elevation of the excitatory-inhibitory balance. Fragile X is linked to dysfunction of the mGluR5 receptor and Fragile X, Angelman and Rett syndromes are linked to a reduction in GABAA receptor expression. Defects in energy metabolism can reduce GABA interneuron function. Both pyridoxine dependent seizures and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency cause GABA deficiencies while urea cycle defects and phenylketonuria cause abnormalities in glutamate neurotransmission. Mineral deficiencies can cause glutamate and GABA neurotransmission abnormalities and heavy metals can cause mitochondrial dysfunction which disrupts GABA metabolism. Thus, both ASD and epilepsy are associated with similar abnormalities that may alter the excitatory-to-inhibitory balance of the cortex. These parallels may explain the high prevalence of epilepsy in ASD and the elevated prevalence of ASD features in individuals with

  10. A brief history of autism, the autism/vaccine hypothesis and a review of the genetic basis of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Jerome; Hoyme, H Eugene; Crotwell, Patricia L

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a common spectrum of developmental disabilities, sharing deficits in social interactions, communication and restricted interests or repetitive behaviors with difficult transitions. In this article, we review the history of the identification and classification of autism and the origin of the now widely-debunked autism/vaccine hypothesis. The differences between syndromal (complex) and non-syndromal (essential) autism are described and illustrated with case descriptions where appropriate. Finally, the evidence that autism is fundamentally a genetic disease is discussed, including family studies, the role of DNA copy number variation and known single gene mutations.

  11. Predictive Validity of Self-Report Questionnaires in the Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizoo, Bram B.; Horwitz, E. H.; Teunisse, J. P.; Kan, C. C.; Vissers, C. T. W. M.; Forceville, E. J. M.; Van Voorst, A. J. P.; Geurts, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    While various screening instruments for autism spectrum disorders are widely used in diagnostic assessments, their psychometric properties have not been simultaneously evaluated in the outpatient setting where these instruments are used most. In this study, we tested the Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised and two short versions of the…

  12. Predictive validity of self-report questionnaires in the assessment of autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.B. Sizoo; E.H. Horwitz; J.P. Teunisse; C.C. Kan; C.T.W.M. Vissers; E.J.M. Forceville; A.J.P. van Voorst; H.M. Geurts

    2015-01-01

    While various screening instruments for autism spectrum disorders are widely used in diagnostic assessments, their psychometric properties have not been simultaneously evaluated in the outpatient setting where these instruments are used most. In this study, we tested the Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagno

  13. The Real-World Effectiveness of Early Teaching Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Osborne, Lisa A.; Corness, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of 3 early teaching interventions (applied behavior analysis [ABA], special nursery placement, and portage) for children with autism spectrum disorder was studied in a community-based sample over 10 months. Measures of autism severity as well as intellectual, educational, and adaptive behavioral function were administered. In…

  14. Hearing Loss and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): Information for New First Parents and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Amsa N.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are lifelong conditions that affect children's social and communication skills. Dual diagnoses pose additional challenges mainly because of the difficulties that come with making accurate decisions. It is intriguing to note that children with hearing impairments are more likely to have autism as opposed to members of the…

  15. Self-Management for Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Lee A.

    2008-01-01

    Supporting children with autism spectrum disorders in the general education classroom presents a unique challenge to the teachers and schools that serve them. This article addresses the utility of self-management as a proactive strategy for increasing the task engagement and compliant behavior of high-functioning students with autism. The author…

  16. Understanding One's Own Emotions in Cognitively-Able Preadolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Itzchak, Esther; Abutbul, Shira; Bela, Hadas; Shai, Tom; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2016-01-01

    There are still no straightforward answers as to whether understanding one's own emotions is impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluated the perception of one's own different emotions, based on the relevant section of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule Module 3 test. Forty boys, aged 8-11 years, 20 diagnosed with ASD…

  17. Sexuality in a Community Based Sample of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Laura; Schalomon, P. Melike; Smith, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the sexual attitudes and behaviours of individuals with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) living in community settings. A total of 82 (55 female and 17 male) adults with autism were contrasted with 282 members of the general population on their responses to an online survey of sexual knowledge and…

  18. Validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaat, Aaron J.; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) is a widely used measure in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) treatment studies. We conducted confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the ABC in 1,893 children evaluated as part of the Autism Treatment Network. The root mean square error of approximation was .086 for the standard item assignment, and in…

  19. Measuring Anxiety as a Treatment Endpoint in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecavalier, Luc; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Halladay, Alycia K.; Jones, Nancy E.; Aman, Michael G.; Cook, Edwin H.; Handen, Benjamin L.; King, Bryan H.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Hallett, Victoria; Sullivan, Katherine Anne; Grondhuis, Sabrina; Bishop, Somer L.; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Dawson, Geraldine; Scahill, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high rate of anxiety in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), measuring anxiety in ASD is fraught with uncertainty. This is due, in part, to incomplete consensus on the manifestations of anxiety in this population. Autism Speaks assembled a panel of experts to conduct a systematic review of available measures for anxiety in…

  20. MMR-Vaccine and Regression in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Negative Results Presented from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Tokio; Kurosawa, Michiko; Inaba, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) is a cause of regressive autism. As MMR was used in Japan only between 1989 and 1993, this time period affords a natural experiment to examine this hypothesis. Data on 904 patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were analyzed. During the period of MMR usage no…

  1. Parental Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress following a Child's Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Laura Baylot; Zanksas, Steve; Meindl, James N.; Parra, Gilbert R.; Cogdal, Pam; Powell, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are well documented in parents of children diagnosed with chronic disabilities and life-threatening illnesses. The occurrence of PTSS in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (autism) has not been directly linked but instead only mentioned without data supporting the claim. This research was a…

  2. Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Accessed and Preferred Parental Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Susan Tinker

    2013-01-01

    Rates of autism are rising at an alarming rate; one child out of every 88 live births will have an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A child with an ASD displays significant deficits in social skills, communication, and behavior, often resulting in high parental stress levels. Parents usually experience increased stress caring for a child with…

  3. Weight Status in Iranian Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Investigation of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Ziaee, Vahid; Mirfazeli, Fatemeh Sadat; Setoodeh, Mohammad S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the weight status of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Iranian pupils and further to investigate the most likely associated factors such as demographics, autism severity and medications. The survey was designed to provide a random sample of 113 children and adolescents (boys =…

  4. Using Individualized Reinforcers and Hierarchical Exposure to Increase Food Flexibility in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Robert L.; Bharoocha, Amber A.; Ribnick, Courtney B.; Ribnick, Ryan C.; Bucio, Mario O.; Fredeen, Rosy M.; Koegel, Lynn Kern

    2012-01-01

    Inflexibility is a major characteristic of autism. In the present study we addressed inflexible mealtime behaviors and collected longitudinal data across 48 foods for 3 children, ages 6.4-7.8 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, for up to 22 weeks. Participants exhibited severe challenges with adherence to an extremely restricted…

  5. Predicting Improvement in Social-Communication Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Retrospective Treatment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O.; Kanne, Stephen M.; Miles, Judith H.

    2012-01-01

    Data from 1433 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) participating in the Simons Simplex Collection were examined to (1) investigate change in social-communication symptoms, and (2) examine predictors of improvement, particularly community-based treatments. Measures included the "Autism Diagnostic Interview--Revised"…

  6. Brief Report: Arrested Development of Audiovisual Speech Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Siemann, Justin K.; Woynaroski, Tiffany G.; Schneider, Brittany C.; Eberly, Haley E.; Camarata, Stephen M.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Atypical communicative abilities are a core marker of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A number of studies have shown that, in addition to auditory comprehension differences, individuals with autism frequently show atypical responses to audiovisual speech, suggesting a multisensory contribution to these communicative differences from their…

  7. Pharmacological Modulation of GABA Function in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review of Human Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondino, Natascia; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Panisi, Cristina; Damiani, Stefano; Barale, Francesco; Politi, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are an emerging health problem worldwide, but little is known about their pathogenesis. It has been hypothesized that autism may result from an imbalance between excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic pathways. Commonly used medications such as valproate, acamprosate, and arbaclofen may act on the GABAergic…

  8. A Community-Based Early Intervention Program for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Pamela Rosenthal; Campbell, Michelle; Hoffman, Renee Thibodeau; Self, Kayli

    2016-01-01

    This study examined Pathways Early Autism Intervention, a community-based, parent-mediated, intensive behavioral and developmental intervention program for children with autism spectrum disorders that could be used as a model for state-funded early intervention programs. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, across-participants design was used.…

  9. Imaging Evidence for Disturbances in Multiple Learning and Memory Systems in Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Suzanne; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article is to review neuroimaging studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) that examine declarative, socio-emotional, and procedural learning and memory systems. Method: We conducted a search of PubMed from 1996 to 2010 using the terms "autism,""learning,""memory," and "neuroimaging." We limited our review to studies…

  10. Pitch Discrimination and Melodic Memory in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanutz, Sandy; Wapnick, Joel; Burack, Jacob A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pitch perception is enhanced among persons with autism. We extended this finding to memory for pitch and melody among school-aged children. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate pitch memory in musically untrained children with autism spectrum disorders, aged 7-13 years, and to compare it to that of age- and…

  11. Longitudinal Comparison between Male and Female Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postorino, Valentina; Fatta, Laura Maria; De Peppo, Lavinia; Giovagnoli, Giulia; Armando, Marco; Vicari, Stefano; Mazzone, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have highlighted a strong male bias in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), however few studies have examined gender differences in autism symptoms, and available findings are inconsistent. The aim of the present study is to investigate the longitudinal gender differences in developmental profiles of 30 female and 30 male…

  12. Addressing the Sexuality and Sex Education of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda; Caterino, Linda C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for sexuality education for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. It provides a brief overview of autism and Asperger's Syndrome as well as a summary of the existing literature regarding the sexuality of this population. The existing research suggests that there is a high frequency of sexual behaviors among…

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorders in the DSM-V: Better or Worse than the DSM-IV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith; Gillberg, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V-committee has recently published proposed diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorders. We examine these criteria in some detail. We believe that the DSM-committee has overlooked a number of important issues, including social imagination, diagnosis in infancy and adulthood, and the possibility that girls and women with autism may…

  14. Exploring Perceptual Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: From Target Detection to Dynamic Perceptual Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Louisa; McGonigle-Chalmers, Maggie

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual processing in autism is associated with both "strengths" and "weaknesses" but within a literature that varies widely in terms of the assessments used. We report data from 12 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 12 age and IQ matched neurotypical controls tested on a set of tasks using the same stimuli…

  15. Motor Impairment in Sibling Pairs Concordant and Discordant for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Claudia List; Zhang, Yi; Whilte, Megan R.; Klohr, Cheryl L.; Constantino, John

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Although motor impairment is frequently observed in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the manner in which these impairments aggregate in families affected by autism is unknown. We used a standardized measure of motor proficiency to objectively examine quantitative variation in motor proficiency in sibling pairs concordant and…

  16. Measuring Developmental Progress of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder on School Entry Using Parent Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, Tony; Howlin, Patricia; Berry, Bryony; Prince, Emily

    2004-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are diagnosed in the preschool years, and their educational progress must be monitored. Parent questionnaire data can augment psychometric assessments and individual planning at low cost. One hundred and twenty-five parents of UK children who entered dedicated autism primary…

  17. Does Compare-Contrast Text Structure Help Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder Comprehend Science Text?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, Christina R.; Williamson, Pamela S.

    2013-01-01

    Using a single-subject reversal design, this study evaluated the use of a compare-contrast strategy on the ability of students with autism spectrum disorder to comprehend science text. Three middle school students with high-functioning autism and their teacher participated in this study. A content analysis comparing the number of meaning units in…

  18. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results of an 18-Month Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Bahorik, Amber L.; Litschge, Maralee Y.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with autism experience significant impairments in social and non-social information processing for which few treatments have been developed. This study conducted an 18-month uncontrolled trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET), a comprehensive cognitive rehabilitation intervention, in 14 verbal adults with autism spectrum disorder to…

  19. The Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire: Mothers versus Fathers of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Ifat; Yirmiya, Nurit; Milshtein, Shahaf; Ebstein, Richard P.; Levi, Shlomit

    2012-01-01

    Parents of individuals with autism were examined using the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ; Hurley et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord" 37:1679-1690, 2007) assessing BAP-related personality and language characteristics. The BAPQ was administered to parents as a self-report and as an informant (spouse)-based measure. Results indicated the…

  20. The Contribution of Mosaic Variants to Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Donald; Pevsner, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    De novo mutation is highly implicated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the contribution of post-zygotic mutation to ASD is poorly characterized. We performed both exome sequencing of paired samples and analysis of de novo variants from whole-exome sequencing of 2,388 families. While we find little evidence for tissue-specific mosaic mutation, multi-tissue post-zygotic mutation (i.e. mosaicism) is frequent, with detectable mosaic variation comprising 5.4% of all de novo mutations. We identify three mosaic missense and likely-gene disrupting mutations in genes previously implicated in ASD (KMT2C, NCKAP1, and MYH10) in probands but none in siblings. We find a strong ascertainment bias for mosaic mutations in probands relative to their unaffected siblings (p = 0.003). We build a model of de novo variation incorporating mosaic variants and errors in classification of mosaic status and from this model we estimate that 33% of mosaic mutations in probands contribute to 5.1% of simplex ASD diagnoses (95% credible interval 1.3% to 8.9%). Our results indicate a contributory role for multi-tissue mosaic mutation in some individuals with an ASD diagnosis. PMID:27632392

  1. Impairments of Social Motor Synchrony Evident in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Paula; Frazier, Jean A; Cochran, David M; Mitchell, Teresa; Coleman, Caitlin; Schmidt, R C

    2016-01-01

    Social interactions typically involve movements of the body that become synchronized over time and both intentional and spontaneous interactional synchrony have been found to be an essential part of successful human interaction. However, our understanding of the importance of temporal dimensions of social motor synchrony in social dysfunction is limited. Here, we used a pendulum coordination paradigm to assess dynamic, process-oriented measures of social motor synchrony in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our data indicate that adolescents with ASD demonstrate less synchronization in both spontaneous and intentional interpersonal coordination. Coupled oscillator modeling suggests that ASD participants assembled a synchronization dynamic with a weaker coupling strength, which corresponds to a lower sensitivity and decreased attention to the movements of the other person, but do not demonstrate evidence of a delay in information transmission. The implication of these findings for isolating an ASD-specific social synchronization deficit that could serve as an objective, bio-behavioral marker is discussed. PMID:27630599

  2. Impairments of Social Motor Synchrony Evident in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Paula; Frazier, Jean A.; Cochran, David M.; Mitchell, Teresa; Coleman, Caitlin; Schmidt, R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Social interactions typically involve movements of the body that become synchronized over time and both intentional and spontaneous interactional synchrony have been found to be an essential part of successful human interaction. However, our understanding of the importance of temporal dimensions of social motor synchrony in social dysfunction is limited. Here, we used a pendulum coordination paradigm to assess dynamic, process-oriented measures of social motor synchrony in adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our data indicate that adolescents with ASD demonstrate less synchronization in both spontaneous and intentional interpersonal coordination. Coupled oscillator modeling suggests that ASD participants assembled a synchronization dynamic with a weaker coupling strength, which corresponds to a lower sensitivity and decreased attention to the movements of the other person, but do not demonstrate evidence of a delay in information transmission. The implication of these findings for isolating an ASD-specific social synchronization deficit that could serve as an objective, bio-behavioral marker is discussed. PMID:27630599

  3. Motor skills of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Meghann; MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine

    2013-03-01

    With increased interest in the early diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), more attention has been called to the motor skills of very young children with ASD. This study describes the gross and fine motor skills of a cross-sectional group of 162 children with ASD between the ages of 12 and 36 months, as well as a subset of 58 children followed longitudinally. Gross motor and fine motor age equivalent scores were obtained for all children. A 'motor difference' variable was calculated for each child's gross and fine motor skills by taking the absolute difference of the children's age equivalent motor score and their respective chronological age. In Study 1 (the cross-sectional analysis), ANCOVA (co-varied for nonverbal problem solving) revealed significant group differences in the gross motor and fine motor age difference variables. Post-hoc analysis revealed that gross motor and fine motor differences became significantly greater with each 6-month period of chronological age. In Study 2, 58 children were measured twice, an average of 12 months apart. Results indicate that the gross motor and fine motor difference scores significantly increased between the first and second measurements. The importance of addressing motor development in early intervention treatments is discussed.

  4. Chemicals, Nutrition, and Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Morisaki, Naho; Honda, Yukiko; Sampei, Makiko; Tani, Yukako

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests that exposure to chemicals may impact the development of ASD. Therefore, we reviewed literature on the following chemicals, nutrient to investigate their association with ASD: (1) smoke/tobacco, (2) alcohol, (3) air pollution, (4) pesticides, (5) endocrine-disrupting chemicals, (6) heavy metals, (7) micronutrients, (8) fatty acid, and (9) parental obesity as a proxy of accumulation of specific chemicals or nutritional status. Several chemical exposures such as air pollution (e.g., particular matter 2.5), pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, mercury, and nutrition deficiency such as folic acid, vitamin D, or fatty acid may possibly be associated with an increased risk of ASD, whereas other traditional risk factors such as smoking/tobacco, alcohol, or polychlorinated biphenyls are less likely to be associated with ASD. Further research is needed to accumulate evidence on the association between chemical exposure and nutrient deficiencies and ASD in various doses and populations. PMID:27147957

  5. Atypical Time Course of Object Recognition in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplette, Laurent; Wicker, Bruno; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    In neurotypical observers, it is widely believed that the visual system samples the world in a coarse-to-fine fashion. Past studies on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have identified atypical responses to fine visual information but did not investigate the time course of the sampling of information at different levels of granularity (i.e. Spatial Frequencies, SF). Here, we examined this question during an object recognition task in ASD and neurotypical observers using a novel experimental paradigm. Our results confirm and characterize with unprecedented precision a coarse-to-fine sampling of SF information in neurotypical observers. In ASD observers, we discovered a different pattern of SF sampling across time: in the first 80 ms, high SFs lead ASD observers to a higher accuracy than neurotypical observers, and these SFs are sampled differently across time in the two subject groups. Our results might be related to the absence of a mandatory precedence of global information, and to top-down processing abnormalities in ASD. PMID:27752088

  6. Approach to resolving mechanism of epilepsy in autism spectrum disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electroencephalography (EEG) abnormality is highly frequent in the autism spectrum disorders (ASD), where epilepsy is also highly complicated relative to general population. Authors have found that the abnormal EEG is evoked mainly from the forehead area. For the purpose to resolve the mechanism of epilepsy, the present study was performed on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 1H- MR spectroscopy (MRS) images in ASD patients. In the former, 167 MBq of 123I-iomazenil was intravenously injected to 24 patients (5-21 years old, M/F 21/3) and SPECT was done 3 hrs later, of which findings suggested the lowered activity of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in the frontal lobe. The latter 1H-MRS was performed in 44 patients (2-17 years old, M/F 36/8) and 10 controls of the same generation with GE Signa Vhi 3T with the region of interest (ROI) of the left frontal lobe. MEGA-PRESS and stimulated-echo acquisition mode (STEAM) methods were applied for GABA and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) measurements, respectively, with LC Model for their levels. The GABA level was found lower in the lobe than control. Results above suggested the presence of a certain functional abnormality in GABA system in ASD. (R.T.)

  7. Alterations of GABAergic Signaling in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Pizzarelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs comprise a heterogeneous group of pathological conditions, mainly of genetic origin, characterized by stereotyped behavior, marked impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication, social skills, and cognition. Interestingly, in a small number of cases, ASDs are associated with single mutations in genes encoding for neuroligin-neurexin families. These are adhesion molecules which, by regulating transsynaptic signaling, contribute to maintain a proper excitatory/inhibitory (E/I balance at the network level. Furthermore, GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in adult life, at late embryonic/early postnatal stages has been shown to depolarize and excite targeted cell through an outwardly directed flux of chloride. The depolarizing action of GABA and associated calcium influx regulate a variety of developmental processes from cell migration and differentiation to synapse formation. Here, we summarize recent data concerning the functional role of GABA in building up and refining neuronal circuits early in development and the molecular mechanisms regulating the E/I balance. A dysfunction of the GABAergic signaling early in development leads to a severe E/I unbalance in neuronal circuits, a condition that may account for some of the behavioral deficits observed in ASD patients.

  8. Environmental factors in the development of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, L A; Hughes, B W; Sriskanda, A N; Guest, J R; Gibson, A D; Johnson-Williams, L; Pace, D G; Bagasra, O

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heterogeneous developmental conditions characterized by deficits in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and obsessive/stereotyped patterns of behavior and repetitive movements. Social interaction impairments are the most characteristic deficits in ASD. There is also evidence of impoverished language and empathy, a profound inability to use standard nonverbal behaviors (eye contact, affective expression) to regulate social interactions with others, difficulties in showing empathy, failure to share enjoyment, interests and achievements with others, and a lack of social and emotional reciprocity. In developed countries, it is now reported that 1%-1.5% of children have ASD, and in the US 2015 CDC reports that approximately one in 45 children suffer from ASD. Despite the intense research focus on ASD in the last decade, the underlying etiology remains unknown. Genetic research involving twins and family studies strongly supports a significant contribution of environmental factors in addition to genetic factors in ASD etiology. A comprehensive literature search has implicated several environmental factors associated with the development of ASD. These include pesticides, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls, solvents, air pollutants, fragrances, glyphosate and heavy metals, especially aluminum used in vaccines as adjuvant. Importantly, the majority of these toxicants are some of the most common ingredients in cosmetics and herbicides to which almost all of us are regularly exposed to in the form of fragrances, face makeup, cologne, air fresheners, food flavors, detergents, insecticides and herbicides. In this review we describe various scientific data to show the role of environmental factors in ASD.

  9. [Diagnosis and Therapeutic Interventions in Autism Spectrum Disorders in Adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, K; Gawronski, A; Vogeley, K

    2016-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by disturbed social interaction and communication as well as stereotyped or repetitive behaviors and interests. Although adults with ASD often acquire complex compensatory strategies that help them master social situations in a rule-based fashion, they still show impairments in intuitive processing of social signals and especially nonverbal communication in complex everyday situations. This constitutes a particular challenge for the psychotherapy of ASD. Psychotherapists are required to explicitly inform and act as an agent of the non-autistic world to enable patients to acquire the ability to take different perspectives. The overall aim of cognitive behavioral therapy interventions addressing ASD in adulthood is to extend the patients' behavioral repertoire to improve their quality of life. Thus, besides psychoeducation on ASD and its frequently associated comorbidities, psychotherapy for adults with ASD should focus on the training and development of social-communicative skills. Furthermore, dealing with stress in everyday situations is an important aspect of psychotherapy of these patients. PMID:27607072

  10. Environmental factors in the development of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, L A; Hughes, B W; Sriskanda, A N; Guest, J R; Gibson, A D; Johnson-Williams, L; Pace, D G; Bagasra, O

    2016-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are highly heterogeneous developmental conditions characterized by deficits in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and obsessive/stereotyped patterns of behavior and repetitive movements. Social interaction impairments are the most characteristic deficits in ASD. There is also evidence of impoverished language and empathy, a profound inability to use standard nonverbal behaviors (eye contact, affective expression) to regulate social interactions with others, difficulties in showing empathy, failure to share enjoyment, interests and achievements with others, and a lack of social and emotional reciprocity. In developed countries, it is now reported that 1%-1.5% of children have ASD, and in the US 2015 CDC reports that approximately one in 45 children suffer from ASD. Despite the intense research focus on ASD in the last decade, the underlying etiology remains unknown. Genetic research involving twins and family studies strongly supports a significant contribution of environmental factors in addition to genetic factors in ASD etiology. A comprehensive literature search has implicated several environmental factors associated with the development of ASD. These include pesticides, phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls, solvents, air pollutants, fragrances, glyphosate and heavy metals, especially aluminum used in vaccines as adjuvant. Importantly, the majority of these toxicants are some of the most common ingredients in cosmetics and herbicides to which almost all of us are regularly exposed to in the form of fragrances, face makeup, cologne, air fresheners, food flavors, detergents, insecticides and herbicides. In this review we describe various scientific data to show the role of environmental factors in ASD. PMID:26826339

  11. A Mechanistic Link between Olfaction and Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenkrantz, Liron; Zachor, Ditza; Heller, Iris; Plotkin, Anton; Weissbrod, Aharon; Snitz, Kobi; Secundo, Lavi; Sobel, Noam

    2015-07-20

    Internal action models (IAMs) are brain templates for sensory-motor coordination underlying diverse behaviors. An emerging theory suggests that impaired IAMs are a common theme in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, whether impaired IAMs occur across sensory systems and how they relate to the major phenotype of ASD, namely impaired social communication, remains unclear. Olfaction relies on an IAM known as the sniff response, where sniff magnitude is automatically modulated to account for odor valence. To test the failed IAM theory in olfaction, we precisely measured the non-verbal non-task-dependent sniff response concurrent with pleasant and unpleasant odors in 36 children--18 with ASD and 18 matched typically developing (TD) controls. We found that whereas TD children generated a typical adult-like sniff response within 305 ms of odor onset, ASD children had a profoundly altered sniff response, sniffing equally regardless of odor valance. This difference persisted despite equal reported odor perception and allowed for 81% correct ASD classification based on the sniff response alone (binomial, p 0.18), impairment. These results uncover a novel ASD marker implying a mechanistic link between the underpinnings of olfaction and ASD and directly linking an impaired IAM with impaired social abilities.

  12. Increased putamen volume in adults with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru eSato

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia (BG abnormalities are implicated in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. However, studies measuring the volume of the entire BG in individuals with ASD have reported discrepant findings, and no study conducted volume measurement of the entire substructures of the BG (the caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, and globus pallidus in individuals with ASD. We delineated the BG substructures and measured their volumes in 29 adults with ASD without intellectual disabilities and 29 age- and gender-matched typically developed adult controls. We acquired T1-weighted anatomical images and performed semi-automated delineation and volume measurements of the above-mentioned subregions. Total cerebral volumes, sex, and ages were partialed out. Compared with controls, the putamen was significantly larger in the ASD group. The increased volume of the putamen found in high-functioning adults with ASD suggests that structural or histological abnormalities of the putamen may underlie the pathologies of ASD such as repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and impaired social interactions.

  13. Chemicals, nutrition, and autism spectrum disorder: a mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo eFujiwara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD suggests that exposure to chemicals may impact the development of ASD. Therefore, we reviewed literature on the following chemicals, nutrient to investigate their association with ASD: 1 smoke/tobacco, 2 alcohol, 3 air pollution, 4 pesticides, 5 endocrine-disrupting chemicals, 6 heavy metals, 7 micronutrients, 8 fatty acid, and 9 parental obesity as a proxy of accumulation of specific chemicals or nutritional status. Several chemical exposures such as air pollution (e.g., particular matter 2.5, pesticides, bisphenol A, phthalates, mercury, and nutrition deficiency such as folic acid, vitamin D, or fatty acid may possibly be associated with an increased risk of ASD, whereas other traditional risk factors such as smoking/tobacco, alcohol, or polychlorinated biphenyls are less likely to be associated with ASD. Further research is needed to accumulate evidence on the association between chemical exposure and nutrient deficiencies and ASD in various doses and populations.

  14. Emotional language processing in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina eLartseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In his first description of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, Kanner emphasized emotional impairments by characterizing children with ASD as indifferent to other people, self-absorbed, emotionally cold, distanced, and retracted. Thereafter, emotional impairments became regarded as part of the social impairments of ASD, and research mostly focused on understanding how individuals with ASD recognize visual expressions of emotions from faces and body postures. However, it still remains unclear how emotions are processed outside of the visual domain. This systematic review aims to fill this gap by focusing on impairments of emotional language processing in ASD.We systematically searched PubMed for papers published between 1990 and 2013 using standardized search terms. Studies show that people with ASD are able to correctly classify emotional language stimuli as emotionally positive or negative. However, processing of emotional language stimuli in ASD is associated with atypical patterns of attention and memory performance, as well as abnormal physiological and neural activity. Particularly, younger children with ASD have difficulties in acquiring and developing emotional concepts, and avoid using these in discourse. These emotional language impairments were not consistently associated with age, IQ, or level of development of language skills.We discuss how emotional language impairments fit with existing cognitive theories of ASD, such as central coherence, executive dysfunction, and weak Theory of Mind. We conclude that emotional impairments in ASD may be broader than just a mere consequence of social impairments, and should receive more attention in future research.

  15. Investigating emotional impairments in adults with autism spectrum disorders and the broader autism phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoz, Sylvie; Lalanne, Christophe; Crane, Laura; Hill, Elisabeth L

    2013-08-15

    There is an increasing interest in the socio-affective atypicalities observed in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aim of this study was to further explore emotional responsiveness in adults with ASD using well-validated self-reports of alexithymia and to determine whether anhedonic features are part of a broader autism phenotype (BAP). Participants comprised 38 adults with ASD, 87 parents of ASD individuals and 47 typical controls. All participants completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, as well as the Chapman Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales. The ASD group differed from controls and parents on most measures, with the exception of physical and social anhedonia, relative to parents. Parents differed from controls on social anhedonia, and a higher proportion of parents were classed as alexithymic, relative to controls. Cluster analysis revealed that some parents share more similarities with ASD participants than with controls. The results suggest that socio-affective impairments characteristic of ASD are part of the BAP. PMID:23747233

  16. Broader Autism Phenotype in Iranian Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders vs. Normal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the broader autism phenotype in Iranian parents of children with autism spectrum disorders and parents of typically developing children.Method: Parents of children with ASD and parents of typically developing children were asked to complete the Persian version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ. In the ASD group, families included 204 parents (96 fathers and 108 mothers of children diagnosed as having autism (Autistic Disorder, or AD (n=124, Asperger Syndrome (AS or High Functioning Autism (HFA (n=48 and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS (n=32 by psychiatrists based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4thedition (DSM-IV-TR criteria. In the control group, 210 (108 fathers and 102 mothers parents of typically developing children. Parents of typically developing children were selected from four primary schools. Based on family reports, their children did not have any psychiatric problems. Total AQ score and each of the 5 subscales were analyzed using two-way ANOVAs with sex and group as factors.Results: The mean age of ASD fathers was 40.6 years (SD=5.96; range 31-54, and of ASD mothers was 34.7 years (SD=4.55; range 28-45. The mean age of control fathers was 37 years (SD=4.6; range 29-45 and of control mothers was 34.11 years (SD=4.86; range 28-45. Group differences were found in age (p‹0/001. On total AQ, a main effect for group and sex was found. ASD parents scored higher than controls (F(1,410=77.876, P‹0/001 and males scored higher than females (F(1,410=23.324, P‹0/001. Also, Group by Sex interaction was significant (F(1,410=4.986, P‹0/05. Results of MANOVA analysis displayed significant differences between ASD's subgroups on total AQ and subscales scores (F (15, 1121 = 13.924, p<0.0005; Wilk's Lambda= 0.624, partial =0.145. Pairwise comparisons between ASD's subgroups and Normal group showed that mean scores for the

  17. Autism spectrum traits in children with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels; J.J. Wood

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine ASD traits in children with clinical anxiety in early development, as well as current manifestations. Parents of 42 children with an anxiety disorder (but no known diagnosis of ASD) and 42 typically developing children were interviewed using the Autism Diagnostic

  18. Autism Spectrum Traits in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine ASD traits in children with clinical anxiety in early development, as well as current manifestations. Parents of 42 children with an anxiety disorder (but no known diagnosis of ASD) and 42 typically developing children were interviewed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R). They also completed…

  19. 78 FR 31568 - Proposed Collection; 60-day Comment Request: Autism Spectrum Disorder Research Portfolio Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Spectrum Disorder Research Portfolio Analysis SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3506(c... Research Coordination, NIMH, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Blvd., MSC 9663, Room 6184, Bethesda... days of the date of this publication. Proposed Collection: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)...

  20. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Chiara; Nuti, Francesca; Hayek, Joussef; De Felice, Claudio; Chelli, Mario; Rovero, Paolo; Latini, Giuseppe; Papini, Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    ASDs (autism spectrum disorders) are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders, still poorly understood, steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory. Extensive research has been so far unable to explain the aetiology of this condition, whereas a growing body of evidence suggests the involvement of environmental factors. Phthalates, given their extensive use and their persistence, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They are EDs (endocrine disruptors) suspected to interfere with neurodevelopment. Therefore they represent interesting candidate risk factors for ASD pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of the primary and secondary metabolites of DEHP [di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate] in children with ASD. A total of 48 children with ASD (male: 36, female: 12; mean age: 11±5 years) and age- and sex-comparable 45 HCs (healthy controls; male: 25, female: 20; mean age: 12±5 years) were enrolled. A diagnostic methodology, based on the determination of urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites by HPLC-ESI-MS (HPLC electrospray ionization MS), was applied to urine spot samples. MEHP [mono-(2-ethylhexenyl) 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate], 6-OH-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-6-hydroxyhexyl) 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate], 5-OH-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate] and 5-oxo-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate] were measured and compared with unequivocally characterized, pure synthetic compounds (>98%) taken as standard. In ASD patients, significant increase in 5-OH-MEHP (52.1%, median 0.18) and 5-oxo-MEHP (46.0%, median 0.096) urinary concentrations were detected, with a significant positive correlation between 5-OH-MEHP and 5-oxo-MEHP (rs = 0.668, P<0.0001). The fully oxidized form 5-oxo-MEHP showed 91.1% specificity in identifying patients with ASDs. Our findings demonstrate for the first time an association between phthalates exposure and ASDs, thus suggesting a previously unrecognized role for these

  1. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate and autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Latini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ASDs (autism spectrum disorders are a complex group of neurodevelopment disorders, still poorly understood, steadily rising in frequency and treatment refractory. Extensive research has been so far unable to explain the aetiology of this condition, whereas a growing body of evidence suggests the involvement of environmental factors. Phthalates, given their extensive use and their persistence, are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. They are EDs (endocrine disruptors suspected to interfere with neurodevelopment. Therefore they represent interesting candidate risk factors for ASD pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of the primary and secondary metabolites of DEHP [di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate] in children with ASD. A total of 48 children with ASD (male: 36, female: 12; mean age: 11±5 years and age- and sex-comparable 45 HCs (healthy controls; male: 25, female: 20; mean age: 12±5 years were enrolled. A diagnostic methodology, based on the determination of urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites by HPLC-ESI-MS (HPLC electrospray ionization MS, was applied to urine spot samples. MEHP [mono-(2-ethylhexenyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate], 6-OH-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-6-hydroxyhexyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate], 5-OH-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate] and 5-oxo-MEHP [mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl 1,2-benzenedicarboxylate] were measured and compared with unequivocally characterized, pure synthetic compounds (>98% taken as standard. In ASD patients, significant increase in 5-OH-MEHP (52.1%, median 0.18 and 5-oxo-MEHP (46.0%, median 0.096 urinary concentrations were detected, with a significant positive correlation between 5-OH-MEHP and 5-oxo-MEHP (rs = 0.668, P<0.0001. The fully oxidized form 5-oxo-MEHP showed 91.1% specificity in identifying patients with ASDs. Our findings demonstrate for the first time an association between phthalates exposure and ASDs, thus suggesting a previously unrecognized role for

  2. Autism Spectrum Traits in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bögels, Susan M.; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine ASD traits in children with clinical anxiety in early development, as well as current manifestations. Parents of 42 children with an anxiety disorder (but no known diagnosis of ASD) and 42 typically developing children were interviewed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R). They also completed questionnaires that assessed child anxiety (SCARED-71) and children’s ASD symptoms. Results revealed that children with anxiety disorders had higher scores t...

  3. Exploring the Agreement between Questionnaire Information and DSM-IV Diagnoses of Comorbid Psychopathology in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjevik, Elen; Sandstad, Berit; Andreassen, Ole A.; Myhre, Anne M.; Sponheim, Eili

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are often comorbid with other psychiatric symptoms and disorders. However, identifying psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorders is challenging. We explored how a questionnaire, the Child Behavior Check List, agreed with a "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth…

  4. Structural variation of chromosomes in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Christian R; Noor, Abdul; Vincent, John B; Lionel, Anath C; Feuk, Lars; Skaug, Jennifer; Shago, Mary; Moessner, Rainald; Pinto, Dalila; Ren, Yan; Thiruvahindrapduram, Bhooma; Fiebig, Andreas; Schreiber, Stefan; Friedman, Jan; Ketelaars, Cees E J; Vos, Yvonne J; Ficicioglu, Can; Kirkpatrick, Susan; Nicolson, Rob; Sloman, Leon; Summers, Anne; Gibbons, Clare A; Teebi, Ahmad; Chitayat, David; Weksberg, Rosanna; Thompson, Ann; Vardy, Cathy; Crosbie, Vicki; Luscombe, Sandra; Baatjes, Rebecca; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Roberts, Wendy; Fernandez, Bridget; Szatmari, Peter; Scherer, Stephen W

    2008-02-01

    Structural variation (copy number variation [CNV] including deletion and duplication, translocation, inversion) of chromosomes has been identified in some individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the full etiologic role is unknown. We performed genome-wide assessment for structural abnormalities in 427 unrelated ASD cases via single-nucleotide polymorphism microarrays and karyotyping. With microarrays, we discovered 277 unbalanced CNVs in 44% of ASD families not present in 500 controls (and re-examined in another 1152 controls). Karyotyping detected additional balanced changes. Although most variants were inherited, we found a total of 27 cases with de novo alterations, and in three (11%) of these individuals, two or more new variants were observed. De novo CNVs were found in approximately 7% and approximately 2% of idiopathic families having one child, or two or more ASD siblings, respectively. We also detected 13 loci with recurrent/overlapping CNV in unrelated cases, and at these sites, deletions and duplications affecting the same gene(s) in different individuals and sometimes in asymptomatic carriers were also found. Notwithstanding complexities, our results further implicate the SHANK3-NLGN4-NRXN1 postsynaptic density genes and also identify novel loci at DPP6-DPP10-PCDH9 (synapse complex), ANKRD11, DPYD, PTCHD1, 15q24, among others, for a role in ASD susceptibility. Our most compelling result discovered CNV at 16p11.2 (p = 0.002) (with characteristics of a genomic disorder) at approximately 1% frequency. Some of the ASD regions were also common to mental retardation loci. Structural variants were found in sufficiently high frequency influencing ASD to suggest that cytogenetic and microarray analyses be considered in routine clinical workup.

  5. Aggression in children with autism spectrum disorders and a clinic-referred comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive and the Aggression subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist were rated for 414 children with autism spectrum disorder (autistic disorder, 69%; pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 24%; Asperger's disorder, 7%) and 243 clinic-referred children without autism spectrum disorder, aged 1-21 years (mean age about 7 years). Participants were not selected for aggressive behavior. Relative to the comparison group, children with autism spectrum disorder were reported to have less aggression and were more likely to be rated as reactive rather than proactive. Among all subjects, sex was not associated with aggression; higher IQ/adaptive behavior and older age were associated with more sophisticated types of aggression, while lower scores on IQ, adaptive behavior, and communication measures were associated with more physical aggression. The interaction between demographic variables and diagnosis was significant only for age: younger but not older children with autism spectrum disorder showed less aggression than clinic-referred controls.

  6. [The projection of autism spectrum disorders in adult life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, K

    2012-06-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) consist a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that are usually diagnosed in early childhood but they persist throughout life, although significant changes can happen. The prevalence of the ASDs is estimated to be 1-1.2%. Subjects with the more severe form of the disorder that are usually characterised by the absence of a communicative language and learning difficulties of various severity, are often referred as persons with lower functioning. In the other end of the spectrum we can find subjects with less severe symptomatology, communicative language and at least of normal intelligence that are referred as high functioning autistic people or -in case of an absence of a language delay- as suffering from Asperger syndrome. The lower functioning adults can be referred to an adult psychiatrist mainly due to their behavioral problems and disruptive behaviors. Their inability to express their difficulties, due to their language restrictions and empathy deficits, can lead these people to behavioural deviances (often self- or hetero-destructive) that challenge their personal environment ending up in the pursuit of psychiatric help. In most cases, although not always justified, psychotropic medications will be prescribed in an attempt to control their maladaptive behaviors. Special attention should be paid to the catatonic exacerbation of ASD, which can be exhibited after adolescence. The catatonic features presented shouldn't be perceived as a possible comorbidity with another disorder, such as schizophrenia, but rather as an extreme form anxiety within the context of an ASD. High Functioning adults with ASDs are more difficult to be detected, but they may also need psychiatric consultation. These subjects may have never been diagnosed with an ASD, but they could have in their history a variety of diagnostic categorizations. Their accurate diagnosis could be further hampered in cases where they are exhibiting remarkable abilities

  7. Easing the transition to secondary education for children with autism spectrum disorder: An evaluation of the Systemic Transition in Education Programme for Autism Spectrum Disorder (STEP-ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Murin, Marianna; Baykaner, Ozlem; Staunton, Sara; Cobb, Robert; Hellriegel, Josselyn; Anderson, Seonaid; Skuse, David

    2016-07-01

    In mainstream education, the transition from primary to secondary school ('school transition') is difficult for children with autism spectrum disorder, being marked by high levels of emotional and behavioural difficulties. The Systemic Transition in Education Programme for Autism Spectrum Disorder (STEP-ASD) is a new, manualised school transition intervention. We investigated its feasibility and efficacy for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (N = 37; mean age = 11.47 years; mean IQ = 85.24) using an unblinded, non-randomised, controlled design. Teachers found the intervention feasible and acceptable. Children receiving STEP-ASD (n = 17) showed a large (Cohen's d = 0.88) reduction in school-reported emotional and behavioural difficulties, whereas controls (n = 20) showed a slight increase (d = -0.1) (p = 0.010). These encouraging findings suggest the value of STEP-ASD as a low-intensity intervention for reducing problem behaviours and distress in children with autism spectrum disorder as they transition to mainstream secondary school.

  8. Narrowly versus Broadly Defined Autism Spectrum Disorders: Differences in Pre-and Perinatal Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Janne C.; Rommelse, Nanda; Vink, Lianne; Schrieken, Margo; Oosterling, Iris J.; Gaag, Rutger J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the differential contribution of pre-and perinatal risks in narrowly versus broadly defined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and across core symptom domains, IQ and co-morbid problems. Children with a DSM-IV diagnosis of autistic disorder (AD) (n = 121) or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)…

  9. Melatonin in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Daniel A.; Frye, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate melatonin-related findings in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorders, not otherwise specified. Method: Comprehensive searches were conducted in the PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, EMBASE, Scopus, and ERIC…

  10. Hoarding in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Anxiety: Incidence, Clinical Correlates, and Behavioral Treatment Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Eric A.; Nadeau, Joshua M.; Johnco, Carly; Timpano, Kiara; McBride, Nicole; Mutch, P. Jane; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the nature and correlates of hoarding among youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Forty children with ASD and a comorbid anxiety disorder were administered a battery of clinician-administered measures assessing presence of psychiatric disorders and anxiety severity. Parents completed questionnaires related to child…

  11. Anxiety and Quality of Life: Clinically Anxious Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Dirksen, Carmen D.

    2012-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorders (referred to as the ASD…

  12. Plasma level of transforming growth factor β 1 in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Tarek Mohamed El Gohary; Nahal Abd El Aziz; Mohamed Darweesh; Ebtihal Shukery Sadaa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by pervasive abnormalities in social interaction and communication, and repetitive and restricted behavioral patterns and interests. ASD include autistic disorder, Asperger’s disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specific and childhood disintegrative disorders. Objectives: To detect plasma level of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβl) in children with ASD and to fi...

  13. The socio-emotional responses to ostracism of 4-6 years children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sham, Oi-tao, Tiffany; 沈愛道

    2014-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have social-communication deficits and are often targets of bullying or ostracism. However, in the past, little has been done to examine these children’s response to negative social interactions. This study investigated how children with Autism Spectrum Disorder detect and respond to ostracism. Thirty 4-6 years old children with Autism Spectrum Disorder were either included or excluded via an online ball-tossing game. Participant’s detection, feel...

  14. Sexuality and Gender Role in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bejerot, Susanne; Eriksson, Jonna M.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘extreme male brain theory of autism’ describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum d...

  15. The role of photos in social media interactions of adult Arabs with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mashat, Alaa; Wald, Mike; Parsons, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) face difficulties in everyday life with their communication and interaction skills. Due to preferences for visual stimuli, photos have been used to support communication and to teach interaction and social skills. In Arab countries, adults on the autism spectrum experience the same difficulties in addition to dealing with other issues, such as stigma within society, a lack of services, cultural rules and the inability to sufficiently bene...

  16. Food selectivity in children with and without an autism spectrum disorder: investigation of diagnosis and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beighley, Jennifer S; Matson, Johnny L; Rieske, Robert D; Adams, Hilary L

    2013-10-01

    Feeding problems are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), with food selectivity being the most frequently reported. Selectivity based on type and/or texture of food is of concern in those with ASD. Variations in symptom presentation of food selectivity in children with different autism spectrum diagnoses across childhood have not often been investigated. Parent-report of food selectivity was examined in 525 children age 2-18 years diagnosed with autistic disorder, PDD-NOS, Asperger's disorder, atypical development, and typical development using information garnered from the Autism Spectrum Disorder-Comorbidity for Children (ASD-CC), a tool to assess emotional issues and comorbid psychopathology. Individuals with an ASD were reported to have significantly more food selectivity than both the atypically developing group and the typically developing group. In addition, the ASD groups, when looked at together, showed a decrease in food selectivity across childhood with significant decrease in the Asperger's disorder group. PMID:23948127

  17. Increased frequency of the autism broader phenotype in mothers transmitting etiological CNVs to sons affected by Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    OpenAIRE

    Asif, M.; Conceição, I.C.; Kwiatkowska, K.; Rasga, C.; Café, Cátia; Sousa, L.; Oliveira, G; Couto, M.F.; Vicente, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a frequent and complex neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by impairments in social communication and repetitive behaviors and with a high male to female ratio: ~4:1. Genetic factors, including rare Copy Number Variants (CNVs), have a substantial impact in ASD risk 1, and are associated with specific...

  18. Treatments for Biomedical Abnormalities Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Eugene Frye

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies point to the effectiveness of novel treatments that address physiological abnormalities associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. This is significant because safe and effective treatments for ASD remain limited. These physiological abnormalities as well as studies addressing treatments of these abnormalities are reviewed in this article. Treatments commonly used to treat mitochondrial disease have been found to improve both core and associated ASD symptoms. Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have investigated L-carnitine and a multivitamin containing B vitamins, antioxidants, vitamin E, and coenzyme Q10 while non-blinded studies have investigated ubiquinol. Controlled and uncontrolled studies using folinic acid, a reduced form of folate, have reported marked improvements in core and associated ASD symptoms in some children with ASD and folate related pathways abnormities. Treatments that could address redox metabolism abnormalities include methylcobalamin with and without folinic acid in open-label studies and vitamin C and N-acetyl-L-cysteine in double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. These studies have reported improved core and associated symptoms with these treatments. Lastly, both open-label and double-blind, placebo-controlled studies have reported improvement in core and associated ASD symptoms with tetrahydrobiopterin. Overall, these treatments were generally well tolerated without significant adverse effects for most children, although we review the reported adverse effects in detail. This review provides evidence for potential safe and effective treatments for core and associated symptoms of ASD that target underlying known physiological abnormalities associated with ASD. Further research is needed to define subgroups of children with ASD in which these treatments may be most effective as well as confirm their efficacy in double-blind, placebo-controlled, large-scale multicenter studies.

  19. White matter correlates of sensory processing in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Pryweller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been characterized by atypical socio-communicative behavior, sensorimotor impairment and abnormal neurodevelopmental trajectories. DTI has been used to determine the presence and nature of abnormality in white matter integrity that may contribute to the behavioral phenomena that characterize ASD. Although atypical patterns of sensory responding in ASD are well documented in the behavioral literature, much less is known about the neural networks associated with aberrant sensory processing. To address the roles of basic sensory, sensory association and early attentional processes in sensory responsiveness in ASD, our investigation focused on five white matter fiber tracts known to be involved in these various stages of sensory processing: superior corona radiata, centrum semiovale, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, posterior limb of the internal capsule, and splenium. We acquired high angular resolution diffusion images from 32 children with ASD and 26 typically developing children between the ages of 5 and 8. We also administered sensory assessments to examine brain-behavior relationships between white matter integrity and sensory variables. Our findings suggest a modulatory role of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and splenium in atypical sensorimotor and early attention processes in ASD. Increased tactile defensiveness was found to be related to reduced fractional anisotropy in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, which may reflect an aberrant connection between limbic structures in the temporal lobe and the inferior parietal cortex. Our findings also corroborate the modulatory role of the splenium in attentional orienting, but suggest the possibility of a more diffuse or separable network for social orienting in ASD. Future investigation should consider the use of whole brain analyses for a more robust assessment of white matter microstructure.

  20. Selected forms of therapy for individuals with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudzinska Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a condition of multiple origins. It is characterised by a range of behaviour patterns, in addition to disturbed social and emotional functioning. Of note, early therapy is conducive to better treatment results. A few recently discussed therapies have a particularly positive impact on children with ASD. Corbett et al. [2] proposed Sense Theatre. This involves instilling appropriate behaviours and communication patterns into the afflicted individual through acting. Role-playing and other similar techniques also offer an opportunity for children with ASD to improve their areas of empathy and social cooperation. With regard to bio-feedback-related techniques, Friedrich et al. [3] was noted for developing the Brain-computer method, a system of game interface connected to an external device. The method targets the mirror neuron system (MNS in order to enhance cognitive, emotional and behavioural functions through neurofeedback. An approach put forward by Solomon et al. [10] is called ‘Play and Language for Autistic Youngsters (PLAY Project Home Consultation’. Herein, volunteers visit patients’ homes on a regular basis to engage the children in play and games, after which they discuss with parents, the issues that came up. The PLAY reduces guardians’ stress levels and improves children’s skills. A pharmacological method is that of administering sulphoraphane [9], which reduces damaging effects. As others claim [8,1,7], other dietary approaches prove efficient as well. In summation, an early intervention and the employment of a multimodal treatment approach can be of importance for enhancing the life of ASD-affected children.

  1. Air Pollution and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Causal or Confounded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Roberts, Andrea L

    2015-12-01

    In the last decade, several studies have examined the association between perinatal exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These studies have largely been consistent, with associations seen with different aspects of air pollution, including hazardous air toxics, ozone, particulate, and traffic-related pollution. Confounding by socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence are of particular concern, as these can be related to ASD case ascertainment and other potential causal risk factors for ASD. While all studies take steps to address this concern, residual confounding is difficult to rule out. Two recent studies of air pollution and ASD, however, present findings that strongly argue against residual confounding, especially for factors that do not vary over relatively short time intervals. These two studies, conducted in communities around the USA, found a specific association with air pollution exposure during the 3rd, but not the 1st, trimester, when both trimesters were modeled simultaneously. In this review, we discuss confounding possibilities and then explain-with the aid of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs)-why an association that is specific to a particular time window, when multiple exposure windows are simultaneously assessed, argues against residual confounding by (even unmeasured) non-time-varying factors. In addition, we discuss why examining ambient air pollution concentration as a proxy for personal exposure helps avoid confounding by personal behavior differences, and the implications of measurement error in using ambient concentrations as a proxy for personal exposures. Given the general consistency of findings across studies and the exposure-window-specific associations recently reported, the overall evidence for a causal association between air pollution and ASD is increasingly compelling.

  2. Sibling Experiences: Living with Young Persons with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Beth; Tanner, Brianna Smith; Mandleco, Barbara; Dyches, Tina T; Freeborn, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Like other young people, those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have an impact on siblings in both positive and negative ways. Research indicates positive attributes include maturity and responsibility; positive self-concept; less quarrelling and competition; admiration for the person with ASD; and satisfactory sibling relationships. Negative attributes include fear of frightening or violent behavior, decreased sibling intimacy, and social and emotional difficulties. However, most research relies on information from parents/teachers, rather than from siblings. Therefore, this qualitative descriptive study explored experiences of 11 brothers and 11 sisters living with a young person with ASD through audiorecorded semi-structured interviews. Analysis revealed the overall theme was contradiction. Participants recognized difficulties (decreased parental attention, extra responsibility, bothersome behaviors, communication difficulties) and positive aspects (became empathetic, loved and appreciated the child, realized the experience was life-changing) of living with a young person with ASD. Younger siblings frequently reflected on childhood experiences, wished they could play together, and mentioned what the young person could do. Adolescent siblings learned life lessons from the experience, talked about life changes when ASD was diagnosed, and seemed introspective and protective toward the young person with ASD. Male siblings often wished they played more often while growing up with the young person, and frequently mentioned the child/adolescent's aggressive behaviors; female siblings focused on relationship and communication difficulties of the young person ASD. Interventions to help siblings provide positive behavioral support, engage in developmentally appropriate play, and communicate reciprocally are warranted. Nurses can help parents understand siblings' perceptions and can encourage parents to support siblings. PMID:27254975

  3. Air Pollution and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Causal or Confounded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Roberts, Andrea L

    2015-12-01

    In the last decade, several studies have examined the association between perinatal exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These studies have largely been consistent, with associations seen with different aspects of air pollution, including hazardous air toxics, ozone, particulate, and traffic-related pollution. Confounding by socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence are of particular concern, as these can be related to ASD case ascertainment and other potential causal risk factors for ASD. While all studies take steps to address this concern, residual confounding is difficult to rule out. Two recent studies of air pollution and ASD, however, present findings that strongly argue against residual confounding, especially for factors that do not vary over relatively short time intervals. These two studies, conducted in communities around the USA, found a specific association with air pollution exposure during the 3rd, but not the 1st, trimester, when both trimesters were modeled simultaneously. In this review, we discuss confounding possibilities and then explain-with the aid of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs)-why an association that is specific to a particular time window, when multiple exposure windows are simultaneously assessed, argues against residual confounding by (even unmeasured) non-time-varying factors. In addition, we discuss why examining ambient air pollution concentration as a proxy for personal exposure helps avoid confounding by personal behavior differences, and the implications of measurement error in using ambient concentrations as a proxy for personal exposures. Given the general consistency of findings across studies and the exposure-window-specific associations recently reported, the overall evidence for a causal association between air pollution and ASD is increasingly compelling. PMID:26399256

  4. Characterizing the daily life, needs, and priorities of adults with autism spectrum disorder from Interactive Autism Network data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotham, Katherine; Marvin, Alison R; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Warren, Zachary; Anderson, Connie M; Law, Paul A; Law, Jessica K; Lipkin, Paul H

    2015-10-01

    Using online survey data from a large sample of adults with autism spectrum disorder and legal guardians, we first report outcomes across a variety of contexts for participants with a wide range of functioning, and second, summarize these stakeholders' priorities for future research. The sample included n = 255 self-reporting adults with autism spectrum disorder aged 18-71 years (M = 38.5 years, standard deviation = 13.1 years) and n = 143 adults with autism spectrum disorder aged 18-58 years (M = 25.0 years, standard deviation = 8.2 years) whose information was provided by legal guardians. Although the self-reporting subsample had much higher rates of employment, marriage/partnership, and independent living than are typically seen in autism spectrum disorder outcome studies, they remained underemployed and had strikingly high rates of comorbid disorders. Data on both descriptive outcomes and rated priorities converged across subsamples to indicate the need for more adult research on life skills, treatments, co-occurring conditions, and vocational and educational opportunities. Stakeholders also placed priority on improving public services, health care access, and above all, public acceptance of adults with autism spectrum disorder. Findings must be interpreted in light of the self-reporting subsample's significant proportion of females and of later-diagnosed individuals. This study underscores the need for lifespan research; initiatives will benefit from incorporating information from the unique perspectives of adults with autism spectrum disorder and their families.

  5. A comprehensive understanding of executive impairments in children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Man-kuen, Sonia; 陳文娟

    2014-01-01

    Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neuro-developmental disorder characterized by a triad of impairments in social interaction, communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviors. For children with autism especially those with high functioning (HFA), it is common to discover from clinical observation and from care-givers’ report that there are uneven performance in their cognitive profile and also executive difficulties. In recent years, there were enormous amount of researc...

  6. Understanding social competence in autism spectrum disorders: The development of a standardized measure.

    OpenAIRE

    Yager, Jodi Alison

    2012-01-01

    Autism and its related disorders are commonly described as lying along a continuum that ranges in severity and are collectively referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Despite the fact that all individuals with ASD meet the social impairment diagnostic criteria outlined in the DSM-IV-TR, they do not all present with the same social difficulties. The variability in the expression and severity of social competence is particularly evident among the group of individuals with “high functi...

  7. Equine assisted therapy for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jakše, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Equine assisted therapy is presented as one of possible approaches when helping individuals with special needs. This work includes explanation of basic conceptions from the fields of equine assisted therapy and autism spectrum disorders. Motives for inclusion individuals with autism spetrcum disorders to this form of therapy are presented. Study was planned based on presented findings and carried out during school year 2009/2010. The purpose of this study is to ascertain possible effects of e...

  8. Neural Bases for Impaired Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkham, Amy E.; Hopfinger, Joseph B.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Piven, Joseph; Penn, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia and autism both feature significant impairments in social cognition and social functioning, but the specificity and mechanisms of these deficits remain unknown. Recent research suggests that social cognitive deficits in both disorders may arise from dysfunctions in the neural systems that underlie social cognition. We explored the neural activation of discrete brain regions implicated in social cognitive and face processing in schizophrenia subgroups and autism spectrum disorder...

  9. Social Phenotypes of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Williams Syndrome: Similarities and Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Kosuke eAsada; Shoji eItakura

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS) both are neurodevelopmental disorders, each with a unique social phenotypic pattern. This review article aims to define the similarities and differences between the social phenotypes of ASD and WS. We review studies that have examined individuals with WS using diagnostic assessments such as the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), cross-syndrome direct comparison studies, and studies that have individually examined either di...

  10. An Investigation of Comorbid Psychological Disorders, Sleep Problems, Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Epilepsy in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Arlene; Leader, Geraldine; Healy, Olive

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated comorbidity in eighty-nine children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Ireland. Comorbidity is the presence of one or more disorders in addition to a primary disorder. The prevalence of comorbid psychological disorders, behaviours associated with comorbid psychopathology, epilepsy, gastrointestinal…

  11. Investigating the Cross-Cultural Validity of "DSM-5" Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from Finnish and UK Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Charman, Tony; Puura, Kaija; Skuse, David

    2014-01-01

    The recent "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition" ("DSM-5") reformulation of autism spectrum disorder has received empirical support from North American and UK samples. Autism spectrum disorder is an increasingly global diagnosis, and research is needed to discover how well it generalises beyond…

  12. Creating an Inclusive Society… How Close Are We in Relation to Autism Spectrum Disorder? A General Population Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillenburger, Karola; McKerr, Lyn; Jordan, Julie Ann; Devine, Paula; Keenan, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder are increasingly educated in mainstream classrooms in the United Kingdom (Wilkinson & Twist, "Autism and Educational Assessment: UK Policy and Practice." NFER, Slough, 2010), and some employers are now specifically seeking out staff on the autism spectrum. Does that mean that we are…

  13. Self-Reported Autism Symptoms in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Somer L.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2012-01-01

    Scores on the autism spectrum quotient (AQ) were examined in 65 adults with ASD. Maternal reports of symptoms were collected simultaneously using the autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R) and the Vineland Screener. A slightly revised AQ administration procedure was used to accommodate adults with below average IQ. AQ scores were lower than…

  14. Parents' first concerns about toddlers with autism spectrum disorder: effect of sibling status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Lauren; Knoch, Kelley; Vibert, Bethany; Fein, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of autism spectrum disorders may appear as early as 6 months, but parent concern, which can precipitate evaluation, often lags significantly. The presence of typical or atypical older siblings can change parents' sensitivity to departures from typical development. This study investigated type and age of parent's first concerns in toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, prior to diagnosis. Participants had (1) at least one older sibling with autism spectrum disorder (Sibs-ASD); (2) only typically developing older siblings (Sibs-TD), or (3) were only/oldest (No-Sibs). Specific autism spectrum disorder diagnoses and symptom severity were similar among groups. Developmentally, No-Sibs showed the largest delays, followed by Sibs-TD, followed by Sibs-ASD. Mean age of first concern was 16 months for No-Sibs, 14 months for Sibs-TD, and 10 months for Sibs-ASD. Age of first concern differed significantly by group, even after controlling for mother's age and education. Concern about language was prevalent in all groups. Thus, the presence of an older child with typical or, especially, atypical development was associated with earlier concerns for the affected child, despite milder developmental delays. These findings underscore the importance of encouraging parents to report concerns to pediatricians, routine standardized screening for autism spectrum disorder, and the need for pediatrician vigilance, especially for only or oldest children.

  15. Influence of Autism Traits and Executive Functioning on Quality of Life in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Marieke; Geurts, Hilde

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) often experience a low Quality of Life (QoL). We studied if IQ, early language development, current autism traits, and daily Executive Functions (EFs) are related to QoL in children (aged 8-12 years) with ASD (N = 120) and typically developing (TD) children (N = 76). Children with ASD showed a lower…

  16. A review of executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Craig,1 Francesco Margari,2 Anna R Legrottaglie,1 Roberto Palumbi,1 Concetta de Giambattista,1 Lucia Margari1 1Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, 2Psychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy Abstract: Executive dysfunction has been shown to be a promising endophenotype in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. This article reviewed 26 studies that examined executive function comparing ASD and/or ADHD children. In light of findings from this review, the ASD + ADHD group appears to share impairment in both flexibility and planning with the ASD group, while it shares the response inhibition deficit with the ADHD group. Conversely, deficit in attention, working memory, preparatory processes, fluency, and concept formation does not appear to be distinctive in discriminating from ASD, ADHD, or ASD + ADHD group. On the basis of neurocognitive endophenotype, the common co-occurrence of executive function deficits seems to reflect an additive comorbidity, rather than a separate condition with distinct impairments. Keywords: executive function, autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ASD + ADHD, neurocognitive endophenotype

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Modification Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moree, Brittany N.; Davis, Thompson E., III

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety disorders have been found to be highly comorbid with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Even so, the identification and dissemination of empirically supported treatments for anxiety in adults or children who have ASD has lagged behind the larger evidence-based trend. This review examines the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a…

  18. Sex Differences in Internalizing Problems during Adolescence in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Tasha M.; Winter-Messiers, Mary Ann; Gibson, Brandon; Schmidt, Alexandra M.; Herr, Cynthia M.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that the double hit conferred by sex and diagnosis increases the risk for internalizing disorders in adolescent females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In a sample of 32 adolescents with ASD and 32 controls, we examined the effects of sex, diagnostic factors, and developmental stages on depression and anxiety. A 3-way…

  19. Cross-sensory gating in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder: EEG evidence for impaired brain connectivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnée, Maurice J C M; Oranje, Bob; van Engeland, Herman;

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia are both neurodevelopmental disorders that have extensively been associated with impairments in functional brain connectivity. Using a cross-sensory P50 suppression paradigm, this study investigated low-level audiovisual interactions on cortical EEG...

  20. Cardiac Reactivity and Stimulant Use in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Comorbid ADHD Versus ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bink, M.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I. L.; van Boxtel, G. J. M.; Denissen, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, previous studies are not conclusive whether psychophysiological correlates, like cardiac reactivity, are different for ASD with comorbid ADHD (ASD+) compared to ADHD. Therefore, the current study…

  1. Brief Report: Emotion Regulation and Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Lisa; Souders, Margaret; Bradstreet, Lauren; DeLussey, Christine; Herrington, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) may be an important transdiagnostic factor for understanding mental and behavioral health given its association with several psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is limited research on ER in ASD, particularly using biomarkers such as respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). The aim of…

  2. Temporal Discounting of Monetary Rewards in Children and Adolescents with ADHD and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demurie, Ellen; Roeyers, Herbert; Baeyens, Dieter; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    It has been difficult to differentiate attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in terms of some aspects of their cognitive profile. While both show deficits in executive functions, it has been suggested that they may differ in their response to monetary reward. For instance, children with ADHD prefer…

  3. The Effect of Communication Deficits on Anxiety Symptoms in Infants and Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Moree, Brittany N.; Dempsey, Timothy; Hess, Julie A.; Jenkins, Whitney S.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are life-long developmental disorders characterized by impairments in the development of reciprocal social and communication skills, abnormal language development, and a restricted repertoire of behaviors and interests. While it has been known for some time that children with ASD can evince elevated rates of…

  4. Cutoff Scores for the Autism Spectrum Disorder--Comorbid for Children (ASD-CC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorson, Ryan T.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2012-01-01

    Once considered rare, Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are increasingly becoming viewed as common disorders. Additionally, recent studies suggest that comorbid psychopathology within ASD is more common than previously thought. Though these deficits exist, specific instruments to diagnose psychopathology in this population are not available. In this…

  5. Assessing Early Communication Skills at 12 Months: A Retrospective Study of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Nathaniel Robert; Eadie, Patricia Ann; Prior, Margot Ruth; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early identification of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is currently limited by the absence of reliable biological markers for the disorder, as well as the reliability of screening and assessment tools for children aged between 6 and 18 months. Ongoing research has demonstrated the importance of early social communication skills in…

  6. Validity of "DSM-IV" Syndromes in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecavalier, Luc; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Devincent, Carla J.; Houts, Carrie R.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Behavior and emotional problems are often present in very young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) but their nosology has been the object of scant empirical attention. The objective of this study was to assess the construct validity of select "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM)"--defined syndromes (ADHD, ODD,…

  7. Visual, Motor, and Visual-Motor Integration Difficulties in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) affect 1 in every 88 U.S. children. ASDs have been described as neurological and developmental disorders impacting visual, motor, and visual-motor integration (VMI) abilities that affect academic achievement (CDC, 2010). Forty-five participants (22 ASD and 23 Typically Developing [TD]) 8 to 14 years old completed…

  8. The Use of Innovative Computer Technology for Teaching Social Communication to Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Allison L.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2011-01-01

    For individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the use of technology to provide intervention, particularly targeting the core social-communication deficits of the disorder, is promising. This literature review will examine studies that have used innovative technology, such as interactive computer programs and virtual reality, to deliver…

  9. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data Do Not Help Support DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Villero, Sonia; Boada, Leticia; Fraguas, David; Janssen, Joost; Mayoral, Maria; Llorente, Cloe; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review aims to determine whether or not structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data support the DSM-5 proposal of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic category, and whether or not classical DSM-IV autistic disorder (AD) and Asperger syndrome (AS) categories should be subsumed into it. The most replicated sMRI findings…

  10. Lived Experiences from the Perspective of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePape, Anne-Marie; Lindsay, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) includes deficits in social communication and repetitive behavior. Secondhand accounts from parents suggest that ASD affects many aspects of life. However, little is known about this disorder from first-person perspective. This meta-synthesis examines children, adolescents, and adults with ASD to understand their…

  11. Parents-Perceived and Self-Perceived Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez, María Olga Escandell; Sánchez, José Juan Castro; del Sol, María; Sevilla, Fortea

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by a series of deficits in social interaction and communication and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behavior patterns. In addition, a high percentage of ADS is associated with anxiety disorders. The goal of this study is to assess the perception of anxiety in a group of children and…

  12. Anxiety and quality of life: clinically anxious children with and without autism spectrum disorders compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels; C.D. Dirksen

    2012-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid

  13. Mechanisms of Anxiety Related Attentional Biases in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Tamara; Cornish, Kim; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have high levels of anxiety. It is unclear whether they exhibit threat-related attentional biases commensurate with anxiety disorders as manifest in non-ASD populations, such as facilitated attention toward, and difficulties disengaging engaging from, threatening stimuli. Ninety children, 45 cognitively…

  14. Factor Structure for Autism Spectrum Disorders with Toddlers Using DSM-IV and DSM-5 Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.

    2014-01-01

    With the publication of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition", autism spectrum disorders are defined by two symptom clusters (social communication and restricted/repetitive behaviors) instead of the current three clusters. The current study examined the structure of the Baby and Infant Screen for…

  15. Plasma level of transforming growth factor β 1 in children with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Mohamed El Gohary

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: There may be an important role for the immune system in autism spectrum disorders that may have profound implications for diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. A negative correlation was found between severities of ASD and TGFβ1 plasma level.

  16. Clinical and Laboratory Data in a Sample of Greek Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververi, Athina; Vargiami, Efthymia; Papadopoulou, Vassiliki; Tryfonas, Dimitrios; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe clinical and laboratory data, as well as comorbid disorders in Greek children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were retrospectively collected for 222 children aged 1.5-9 years. The mean age at diagnosis was 43.7 [plus or minus] 17.6 months. Significantly earlier diagnoses were noted in children…

  17. Educators, parents, psychologists to attend Autism Spectrum Disorders Conference March 10-11

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2005-01-01

    A conference designed to assist those who are supporting students from preschool through high school with autism spectrum disorders including Asperger's Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) will be held March 10-11 at the Southwest Virginia Higher Education Center in Abingdon, Va.

  18. [Autism spectrum disorder and genes for synaptic proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Emiko

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and restricted interests. It is generally accepted that ASD is caused by abnormalities in the structure or functions of the brain. Recent genome-wide analyses have identified copy number variations (CNVs) of neuronal genes in the genomes of ASD patients. CNV is a commonly observed phenomenon in human beings. During the first cell division of meiosis, irregular crossing over between homologous chromosomes results in loss or duplication of a segment. From 2007 to 2010, several groups performed a large-scale virtual screening of CNVs in ASD genomes. Genes affected by CNV, de novo CNVs, and rare CNVs were more prevalent in ASD. The results highlighted the CNVs of many neuronal genes associated with ASD. A fraction of these genes was previously identified in ASD but some were newly identified in each study. The CNVs implicated in ASD include neuronal genes belonging to 4 classes. These genes encode (1) neural adhesion molecules, including cadherins, neuroligin, and neurexin; (2) scaffold proteins such as SHANK3; (3) protein kinases and other intracellular signaling molecules; and (4) proteins that regulate protein syntheses. In general, these proteins play a role in synapse of glutamatergic neurons. The CNVs detected in the ASD patient genomes of imply a link between the synaptic proteins and pathological characteristics of ASD. Altered protein dosage by the CNVs may alter the functional quality of ASD patient's synapses, and may consequently affect their development of language and communication skills. There are 2 types of ASD, one is sporadic and, the other is familial. According to some reports, de novo CNVs are more frequently observed in sporadic-type ASD. However, it is generally understood that a combination of particular CNVs and other possible mutations underlie the pathology of ASD regardless of ASD type. The major symptoms of ASD are often curable with

  19. Social and monetary reward processing in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmonte Sonja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social motivation theory suggests that deficits in social reward processing underlie social impairments in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. However, the extent to which abnormalities in reward processing generalize to other classes of stimuli remains unresolved. The aim of the current study was to examine if reward processing abnormalities in ASD are specific to social stimuli or can be generalized to other classes of reward. Additionally, we sought to examine the results in the light of behavioral impairments in ASD. Methods Participants performed adapted versions of the social and monetary incentive delay tasks. Data from 21 unmedicated right-handed male participants with ASD and 21 age- and IQ-matched controls were analyzed using a factorial design to examine the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD response during the anticipation and receipt of both reward types. Results Behaviorally, the ASD group showed less of a reduction in reaction time (RT for rewarded compared to unrewarded trials than the control group. In terms of the fMRI results, there were no significant group differences in reward circuitry during reward anticipation. During the receipt of rewards, there was a significant interaction between group and reward type in the left dorsal striatum (DS. The ASD group showed reduced activity in the DS compared to controls for social rewards but not monetary rewards and decreased activation for social rewards compared to monetary rewards. Controls showed no significant difference between the two reward types. Increased activation in the DS during social reward processing was associated with faster response times for rewarded trials, compared to unrewarded trials, in both groups. This is in line with behavioral results indicating that the ASD group showed less of a reduction in RT for rewarded compared to unrewarded trials. Additionally, de-activation to social rewards was associated with increased repetitive behavior in

  20. Offending Profiles of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Study of All Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder Examined by the Forensic Psychiatric Service in Norway between 2000 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helverschou, Sissel Berge; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Steindal, Kari; Søndanaa, Erik; Nilsson, Britta; Nøttestad, Jim Aage

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the characteristics of adults with autism spectrum disorder who have undergone a forensic examination and explored any relationships between the diagnosis and the offence. The reports described 41 men and 7 women. The autism spectrum disorder was diagnosed late (mean age: 25.3?years), and 22 of the 48 cases were diagnosed with…

  1. Complementary and alternative medicine for autism spectrum disorders: rationale, safety and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O

    2013-09-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is widely used for children with autism spectrum disorder, despite uncertainty regarding efficacy. This review describes complementary and alternative practices commonly used among this population, the rationale for the use of each practice, as well as the side-effect profile and evidence for efficacy. The existing evidence base indicates that melatonin can be recommended as a treatment for sleeping disturbances associated with autism spectrum disorder, while secretin can be rejected as an efficacious treatment for broader autistic symptoms. There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on the efficacy of modified diets, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, immune therapy, and vitamin and fatty acid supplementation. There is a clear need for methodologically rigorous studies to provide evidence-based guidance to families and clinicians regarding complementary and alternative practices for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. PMID:23682728

  2. Impact of employee benefits on families with children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekaran, Sangeeth; Choueiri, Roula; Neumeyer, Ann; Ajari, Ogheneochuko; Shui, Amy; Kuhlthau, Karen

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study are to evaluate the employee benefits parents of children with autism spectrum disorders have, how benefits are used, work change, and job satisfaction. We conducted a cross-sectional mailed survey study of 435 families with children with autism spectrum disorders residing in the United States. We received 161 surveys for a response rate of 37%. Families reported using the following benefits: 39% paid family leave, 19% unpaid family leave, 91% flexible work arrangements, and 86% telecommuting. Of respondents, 43% reported stopping work, cutting down on hours worked, or changing jobs because of their child's condition. Having paid family leave was a positive predictor for job satisfaction. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders have an interest and need for alternative work arrangements. PMID:26341992

  3. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmar, Fred; Siegel, Matthew; Woodbury-Smith, Marc; King, Bryan; McCracken, James; State, Matthew

    2014-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by patterns of delay and deviance in the development of social, communicative, and cognitive skills that arise in the first years of life. Although frequently associated with intellectual disability, this condition is distinctive in its course, impact, and treatment. Autism spectrum disorder has a wide range of syndrome expression and its management presents particular challenges for clinicians. Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder can present for clinical care at any point in development. The multiple developmental and behavioral problems associated with this condition necessitate multidisciplinary care, coordination of services, and advocacy for individuals and their families. Early, sustained intervention and the use of multiple treatment modalities are indicated. PMID:24472258

  4. Onset of Maternal Psychiatric Disorders after the Birth of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder have more psychiatric disorders after the birth of their child. This might be because they have more psychiatric disorders before the birth, or the increase could be related to the burden of caring for their child. Aims: We aimed to calculate the incidence of a psychiatric diagnosis in…

  5. Association between Severity of Behavioral Phenotype and Comorbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Patricia A.; Landa, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association," 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity…

  6. Coexisting Disorders and Problems in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Höglund Carlsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To analyze cooccurring disorders and problems in a representative group of 198 preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD who had had interventions at a specialized habilitation center. Methods. Parents and children were seen by a research team. Data were based on parental interviews, pediatric assessments, and tests of the child. Information on autistic symptoms, general cognitive function, speech and language, motor function, epilepsy, vision, hearing, activity level, behavior, and sleep was collected. Results. Three ASD categories were used: (1 autistic disorder (AD, (2 autistic-like condition (ALC or Asperger syndrome, and (3 one group with autistic symptoms/traits but not entirely all its criteria met for ASD. Children with autism had a mean of 3.2 coexisting disorders or problems, the ALC/Asperger group had a mean of 1.6, and children with autistic traits had a mean of 1.6. The most common disorder/problems in the total group pertained to language problems (78%, intellectual disability (ID (49%, below average motor function (37%, and severe hyperactivity/ADHD (33%. Conclusions. The results accord with the concept of early symptomatic syndromes eliciting neurodevelopmental clinical examination (ESSENCE, and highlight the need of considering ASD in a broad perspective taking also other cooccurring developmental disorders into account.

  7. Neural Precursors of Language in Infants at High Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Laura Ann

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction and communication. Abnormal language development is a pervasive symptom of this disorder, though research has repeatedly shown that children with ASD who develop stronger language abilities have more positive outcomes. One strategy for improving the language, and thus life experiences, of children with ASD, is to get children at risk for the disorder into effective and appropriat...

  8. High-Resolution Chromosome Ideogram Representation of Currently Recognized Genes for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlin G. Butler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, autism-related research has focused on the identification of various genes and disturbed pathways causing the genetically heterogeneous group of autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The list of autism-related genes has significantly increased due to better awareness with advances in genetic technology and expanding searchable genomic databases. We compiled a master list of known and clinically relevant autism spectrum disorder genes identified with supporting evidence from peer-reviewed medical literature sources by searching key words related to autism and genetics and from authoritative autism-related public access websites, such as the Simons Foundation Autism Research Institute autism genomic database dedicated to gene discovery and characterization. Our list consists of 792 genes arranged in alphabetical order in tabular form with gene symbols placed on high-resolution human chromosome ideograms, thereby enabling clinical and laboratory geneticists and genetic counsellors to access convenient visual images of the location and distribution of ASD genes. Meaningful correlations of the observed phenotype in patients with suspected/confirmed ASD gene(s at the chromosome region or breakpoint band site can be made to inform diagnosis and gene-based personalized care and provide genetic counselling for families.

  9. A comprehensive review of the 1H-MRS metabolite spectrum in autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha eFord

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies of neuropsychiatric behaviour biomarkers across spectrum disorders are typically based on diagnosis, thus failing to account for the heterogeneity of multi-dimensional spectrum disorders such as autism (ASD. Control group trait phenotypes are also seldom reported. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS measures the abundance of neurochemicals such as neurotransmitters and metabolites and hence can probe disorder phenotypes at clinical and sub-clinical levels. This detailed review summarises and critiques the current 1H-MRS research in ASD. The literature reports reduced N-acetylaspartate (NAA, glutamate and glutamine (Glx, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, creatine and choline, and increased glutamate for children with ASD. Adult studies are few and results are inconclusive. Overall, the literature has several limitations arising from differences in 1H-MRS methodology and sample demographics. We argue that more consistent methods and greater emphasis on phenotype studies will advance understanding of underlying cortical metabolite disturbance in ASD, and the detection, diagnosis and treatment of ASD and other multi-dimensional psychiatric disorders.

  10. Social skills group training for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Choque Olsson, Nora

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to examine the efficacy and effectiveness of social skills group training (SSGT) in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) and psychiatric comorbidity. Prior to the trial, a systematic review was conducted on the effectiveness of randomized controlled trial (RCT) of SSGT. In addition, evaluation of two tools (Developmental Disabilities Children’s Global Assessment Scale [DD-CGAS] and the OSU Autism C...

  11. Association of social and cognitive impairment and biomarkers in autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Alabdali, Altaf; AL-Ayadhi, Laila; El-Ansary, Afaf

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The neurological basis for autism is still not fully understood, and the role of the interaction between neuro-inflammation and neurotransmission impairment needs to be clearer. This study aims to test the possible association between impaired levels of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin, and interferon-γ-induced protein-16 (IFI16) and the severity of social and cognitive dysfunctions in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Materials and methods GA...

  12. Empathic Responding in Toddlers at Risk for an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Nicole M.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Empathy deficits represent an important social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but little is known about the early development of empathy prior to diagnosis. This study examined empathic responding to parental distress in toddlers at risk for an ASD. Children later diagnosed with an ASD engaged in less empathic responding at 24 and 30 months than children with no later diagnosis. Lower empathic responding was associated with higher autism symptomatology at 30 ...

  13. Mothers' experiences of their child's diagnosis with an autism spectrum disorder / Melinda Wiese

    OpenAIRE

    Wiese, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    Autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a multifaceted neurological condition that impairs social interaction, communication and behaviour. The current increase in the prevalence of ASD is alarming. A large population of parents is left searching for answers regarding their child’s developmental delays. Once their child has been diagnosed, they have to deal with the challenge of raising such a child. Parenting a child with ASD is particularly challenging for mothers as it has been reporte...

  14. The sensory experiences of adults with autism spectrum disorder: a qualitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Ashley E.; Simmons, David R.

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that individuals with autism spectrum disorder report unusual experiences with sensory stimuli compared with typically developing individuals. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the nature of such experiences. A focus group was conducted with six adults with a diagnosis of autism or Asperger syndrome. Data were coded and analysed using an inductive, qualitative thematic analysis. Four main themes encompassing both positive and negative sensory exper...

  15. Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders - Importance Of Early Developmental And Behavioural Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders have impairment in reciprocal social interaction and impairment in communication skills. They also have repetitive behaviours and preoccupation with stereotyped patterns of behaviours. The most important therapy is early individualized intensive behavioural intervention. Intensive behavioural interventions should be provided to all young children at the onset of symptoms. If not, they will have lifelong difficulties in communication and social interaction. Parent mediated behavioural interventions are effective in the management of young children with autism spectrum disorders. Children with autistic symptoms who receive earlier referrals to specialists and obtain intensive behavioural intervention achieve optimal outcomes.

  16. The experience of use of the sand art-therapy with children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotlovanova O.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of effective work to use sand art-therapy for treatment of behavior problems in children with autism spectrum disorder. The article describes the session plan, children's behavior in dynamics and intermediate results of work with children with autism spectrum disorders in the framework of this program. The influence of the sand art-therapy on the children's behavior was analyzed. The clinical case of sessions with the boy K. was described. The overwhelmingly positive influence of such sessions was determined.

  17. Amniotic fluid chemokines and autism spectrum disorders: An exploratory study utilizing a Danish Historic Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna Brink; Grove, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of chemokines have been reported in plasma and brain tissue of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to examine chemokine levels in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of individuals diagnosed with ASD and their controls.......Elevated levels of chemokines have been reported in plasma and brain tissue of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to examine chemokine levels in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of individuals diagnosed with ASD and their controls....

  18. When the Child is Suspected to Have Autism Spectrum Disorder: Recommendation for Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borodina L.G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experts in the area of treatment and intervention for autism spectrum disorders provide parents with recommenda¬tions for situations when their children are suspected to have autism or have been diagnosed. These recommenda¬tions are universal and are appropriate for raising a child with any spectrum disorder. Following these recommenda¬tions will allow parents to comprehend the situation with the child’s development, access approaches, that are used by professionals, and will help them to not waste precious time on finding primary information after the diagnosis.

  19. Adults with autism spectrum disorder as behavior technicians for young children with autism: Outcomes of a behavioral skills training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, Dorothea C; Hawkins, Lynn; Hillman, Conrad; Shireman, Molly; Nissen, Melissa A

    2015-01-01

    Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), who were interested in working as behavior technicians for young children with autism, participated in 2 experiments. Participants included 5 adults with Asperger syndrome or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 19 to 23 years old, and 11 children with autism, 3 to 7 years old. In Experiment 1, training of the adults focused on the implementation of mand training via incidental teaching. Experiment 2 focused on teaching participants to use discrete-trial training (DTT) with children who exhibited problem behavior. Both experiments showed that behavioral skills training was effective for teaching the adult participants the behavioral procedures needed to teach children with autism. In addition, the children acquired skills as a result of training. Results of Experiment 2 further demonstrated that the DTT skills generalized across untrained targets and children. Social validity ratings suggested that some participants' teaching was indistinguishable from that of individuals without ASD.

  20. A Virtual Joy-Stick Study of Emotional Responses and Social Motivation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwanguk; Rosenthal, M. Zachary; Gwaltney, Mary; Jarrold, William; Hatt, Naomi; McIntyre, Nancy; Swain, Lindsay; Solomon, Marjorie; Mundy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A new virtual reality task was employed which uses preference for interpersonal distance to social stimuli to examine social motivation and emotion perception in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Nineteen high function children with higher functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD) and 23 age, gender, and IQ matched children with typical…