WorldWideScience

Sample records for autism speaks presents

  1. The Use of Grammatical Morphemes by Mandarin-Speaking Children with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Crain, Stephen; Gao, Liqun; Tang, Ye; Jia, Meixiang

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the production of grammatical morphemes by Mandarin-speaking children with high functioning autism. Previous research found that a subgroup of English-speaking children with autism exhibit deficits in the use of grammatical morphemes that mark tense. In order to see whether this impairment in grammatical morphology…

  2. Grammatical Abilities of Greek-Speaking Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Arhonto; Marinis, Theodoros; Kotsopoulou, Angeliki; Francis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates pronoun reference and verbs with nonactive morphology in high-functioning Greek-speaking children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). It is motivated by problems with reflexive pronouns demonstrated by English-speaking children with ASD and the fact that reflexivity is also expressed via nonactive (reflexive) verbs in…

  3. Pretend play, deferred imitation and parent-child interaction in speaking and non-speaking children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Tjus, Tomas

    2013-02-01

    This study investigates spontaneous pretend play during a parent-child free play observation, and deferred imitation observed in an experimental setting in speaking and non-speaking children with autism in comparison to children with typical development. Both groups of children with autism showed a reduced level of deferred imitation compared to the typically developing group, but only the non-speaking children with autism spent significantly less time in pretend play compared to children with typical development. Deferred imitation was related to parents' verbal interaction in both groups. An analysis of the parent-child interaction revealed that parents of children with autism used less synchronized comments compared to parents of typically developing children. Parents of the speaking group with autism used more synchronized than unsynchronized comments, while parents of the non-speaking group used the same amount of synchronized and unsynchronized comments. These findings are discussed in terms of how the developmental level affects behavior and interaction in autism. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  4. Deferred Imitation and Social Communication in Speaking and Nonspeaking Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Gillberg, Christopher; Smith, Lars; Tjus, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Deferred imitation and early social communication skills were compared among speaking and nonspeaking children with autism and children developing typically. Overall, the children with autism showed a lower frequency on measures of deferred imitation and social communication compared with typically developing children. Deferred imitation was…

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Beach Center Family Quality of Life in French-Speaking Families with a Preschool-Aged Child Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Mélina; Mercier, Céline; Mestari, Zakaria; Terroux, Amélie; Mello, Catherine; Bégin, Jean

    2017-01-01

    The Beach Center Family Quality of Life Scale (Beach Center FQOL) is used to evaluate and develop family-centered intervention services. However, its use with families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in non-English speaking populations requires further investigation. The present study sought to assess the psychometric…

  6. A PRESENTATION OF A CASE OF A CHILD SUFFERING FROM AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna LAZAROVSKA

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The autism is the most common out from the group of pathological conditions called pervasive developmental disorders (PDD. It affects three crucial parts of development: verbal and nonverbal communication, social interaction, and the creative, or the imaginative game. It affects all the races, ethnicity and socio-economic spheres.The first signs of autism are 80% usually noticeable by the third year of the child’s development. The autism affects boys three to four times more than it does to girls with an equal level of intelligence.Around 75% are of low level of intelligence, whereas 10% of them can demonstrate high level of intelligence in specific areas, such as mathematics.Even if the reasons for speaking and language problems in autism are not known, most of the experts believe that the difficulties are caused by different conditions, present in the prenatal, natal, and the postnatal time period affecting the brain development.

  7. Presentation of Depression in Autism and Asperger Syndrome: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mary E.; Barnard, Louise; Pearson, Joanne; Hasan, Reem; O'Brien, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Depression is common in autism and Asperger syndrome, but despite this, there has been little research into this issue. This review considers the current literature on the prevalence, presentation, treatment and assessment of depression in autism and Asperger syndrome. There are diagnostic difficulties when considering depression in autism and…

  8. Fearless Public Speaking: Oral Presentation Activities for the Elementary Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Janet S.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Riley, Jeanetta G.

    2007-01-01

    Nausea, sweating, weak knees, and a dry mouth are all symptoms associated with the fear of standing in front of an audience. Considering the anxiety that public speaking produces, students of any age are facing a significant challenge when they speak in front of a group. While speaking is considered to be an integral part of language arts, it…

  9. Social attention in a virtual public speaking task in higher functioning children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrold, William; Mundy, Peter; Gwaltney, Mary; Bailenson, Jeremy; Hatt, Naomi; McIntyre, Nancy; Kim, Kwanguk; Solomon, Marjorie; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain, Lindsay

    2013-10-01

    Impairments in social attention play a major role in autism, but little is known about their role in development after preschool. In this study, a public speaking task was used to study social attention, its moderators, and its association with classroom learning in elementary and secondary students with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). Thirty-seven students with HFASD and 54 age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched peers without symptoms of ASD were assessed in a virtual classroom public speaking paradigm. This paradigm assessed the ability to attend to nine avatar peers seated at a table, while simultaneously answering self-referenced questions. Students with HFASD looked less frequently to avatar peers in the classroom while talking. However, social attention was moderated in the HFASD sample such that students with lower IQ, and/or more symptoms of social anxiety, and/or more attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattentive symptoms, displayed more atypical social attention. Group differences were more pronounced when the classroom contained social avatars versus nonsocial targets. Moreover, measures of social attention rather than nonsocial attention were significantly associated with parent report and objective measures of learning in the classroom. The data in this study support the hypothesis of the Social Attention Model of ASD that social attention disturbance remains part of the school-aged phenotype of autism that is related to syndrome-specific problems in social learning. More research of this kind would likely contribute to advances in the understanding of the development of the spectrum of autism and educational intervention approaches for affected school-aged children. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Speak Up: Increasing Conversational Volume in a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, Leigh; Wine, Byron

    2017-12-01

    Deficits in social interactions are a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder. This study examined one relatively uncommon aspect of social interactions that has not received much attention from the literature: appropriate conversational volume. Conversational speech volume was measured using a commercially available application, and a package intervention was developed that consisted of feedback from the voice measuring application, signaling from a wrist bracelet, and differential reinforcement. The intervention was evaluated in an ABAB design and speaking at conversational volume was significantly increased when the intervention was in place and in probe conditions.

  11. Speaking

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, James

    2011-01-01

    Make yourself understood in business. This brand new self-study book is the perfect way for business people who spend a lot of time on the phone or in meetings and want to improve their spoken English, getting their message across effectively. The focus is on the key language required to speak English accurately in business. 'Collins English for Business' is a new series of self-study skills books which focus on the language you really need to do business in English - wherever you are in the world. Each title includes tips on how to communicate effectively and how to communicate inter-culturally. Other titles in the series: Listening and Writing. * Powered by COBUILD - using the real language of business English * Contents: Twenty 4-page units cover the key areas, such as Networking and Small Talk, Telephoning, Telephone and Video Conferencing, Presentations and Interviews. * Each unit contains: - Exercises focused on vocabulary or key structures - Grammar tips - Key phrases * Audio CD: dialogues are recorded...

  12. Production of mental state terms in narratives of Mandarin-speaking children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Wen-Hui; Torng, Pao-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the ability of Mandarin-speaking children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to use mental state terms in narratives. The narrative data are from 16 children with ASD and 16 typically developing children, matched on language and cognitive abilities. The narratives were elicited using Frog, where are you? Participants' use of lexical expressions referring to emotion, cognition, desire and perception was examined. The 'deer episode' of the story was chosen to analyse children's ability to talk about misrepresentation. The results reveal that the two groups of children performed comparably in basic narrative measures, overall use of mental state terms and references to the misrepresentation. The outcomes underscore the importance of examining different types of mental state terms separately. These findings are discussed in relation to linguistic and cognitive factors in mental-state attribution.

  13. Seeing to hear? Patterns of gaze to speaking faces in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eIrwin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Using eye-tracking methodology, gaze to a speaking face was compared in a group of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and those with typical development (TD. Patterns of gaze were observed under three conditions: audiovisual (AV speech in auditory noise, visual only speech and an AV non-face, non-speech control. Children with ASD looked less to the face of the speaker and fixated less on the speakers’ mouth than TD controls. No differences in gaze were reported for the non-face, non-speech control task. Since the mouth holds much of the articulatory information available on the face, these findings suggest that children with ASD may have reduced access to critical linguistic information. This reduced access to visible articulatory information could be a contributor to the communication and language problems exhibited by children with ASD.

  14. SpeakEasy: Online Support for Oral Presentation Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Monica; Storey, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Describes the development of an online course that aims to help tertiary students improve their English oral presentation skills. The course aims to allow learners to prepare their presentations out of class and then practice these skills in class with peer and teacher feedback. (Author/VWL)

  15. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATION IN IMPROVING STUDENTS’ SPEAKING SKILLS (STUDENT NURSE OF UNIMUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodi Mulyadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to improve students speaking skills using multimedia presentation. The study focuses on the relationship between students' preferences regarding PowerPoint and their speaking skills in the accounting classroom learning process. The study was conducted using classroom action research in undergraduate program of nursing at Semarang Muhammadiyah University in the academic year 2012/2013. The data was collected from a questionnaire, observation note of performance, pre-test and posttest. The study was conducted with cycle model through the steps of planning, conducting, observation, and reflection. The results of this study show a significant relationship between students' preferences regarding PowerPoint Multimedia related to their speaking skills as shown in their improvement of post test, rubric of speaking evaluation and positive responses of students. Students can make an attractive presentation using power point in English. The questionnaire shows that more than 75% students felt easy to understand the materials and comfortable to speak in English. Consequently, it was suggested that teaching learning process using multimedia presentation is recommended into learning process to improve students' speaking skills in English language classroom.

  16. Autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggernaes, Bodil

    2018-01-01

    The concept of autism has changed across time, from the Bleulerian concept, which defined it as one of several symptoms of dementia praecox, to the present-day concept representing a pervasive development disorder. The present theoretical contribution to this special issue of EJN on autism...... introduces new theoretical ideas and discusses them in light of selected prior theories, clinical examples, and recent empirical evidence. The overall aim is to identify some present challenges of diagnostic practice and autism research and to suggest new pathways that may help direct future research. Future...... research must agree on the definitions of core concepts such as autism and psychosis. A possible redefinition of the concept of autism may be a condition in which the rationale of an individual's behaviour differs qualitatively from that of the social environment due to characteristic cognitive impairments...

  17. Presentation Trainer: a toolkit for learning non-verbal public speaking skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Jan; Börner, Dirk; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Specht, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents and outlines the demonstration of Presentation Trainer, a prototype that works as a public speaking instructor. It tracks and analyses the body posture, movements and voice of the user in order to give in- structional feedback on non-verbal communication skills. Besides exploring

  18. Autism in Phenylketonuria Patients: From Clinical Presentation to Molecular Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemir, Sameh; Halayem, Soumeyya; Azzouz, Hatem; Siala, Hajer; Ferchichi, Maherzia; Guedria, Asma; Bedoui, Amel; Abdelhak, Sonia; Messaoud, Taieb; Tebib, Neji; Belhaj, Ahlem; Kaabachi, Naziha

    2016-06-01

    Autism has been reported in untreated patients with phenylketonuria. The authors aimed to explore autism in 15 Tunisian and 4 Algerian phenylketonuria patients, and report their clinical, biochemical and molecular peculiarities. The Childhood Autism Rating Scale and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised were used for the diagnosis of autism. Five exons of phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (7, 6, 10, 11, and 5) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and directly sequenced. Among these patients, 15 were suffering from autism at the time of evaluation. Six mutations were identified: p.E280K, p.G352Vfs, IVS10nt11, p.I224T, p.R261Q, and p.R252W. There was no correlation between autism and mutations affecting the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene, but the age of diet onset was the determining factor in autistic symptoms' evolution. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. President Nixon speaks at Hickam AFB prior to presenting Medal of Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon speaks at Hickam Air Force Base prior to presenting the nation's highest civilian award to the Apollo 13 crew. Receiving the Presidential Medal of Freedom were Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (next to the Chief Executive), commander; John L. Swigert Jr. (left), command module pilot; and Fred W. Haise Jr., lunar module pilot.

  20. The Effect of Pecha Kucha Presentations on Students' English Public Speaking Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the Pecha Kucha presentation format on English as foreign language learners' public speaking anxiety. The participants were 49 students in the English Translation and Interpretation Department of a state university in Turkey. A pre- and post-test experimental research design was used in…

  1. DEVELOPING ESL/EFL LEARNERS’ PUBLIC SPEAKING SKILLS THROUGH PECHA KUCHA PRESENTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo A. Mabuan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century workplace, there has been an increasing demand for graduates to possess communicative competence particularly in speaking. Anchored on the 21st Century Learning Framework (Partnership for 21st Century Skills or P21, 2006 and the TPACK Framework (Koehler & Mishra, 2009, this study reports findings on the pedagogical viability of utilizing Pecha Kucha 20x20 Presentations in developing students’ competence and confidence while presenting in the language classroom. Research participants include 43 English as Second Language (ESL learners taking Speech Communication classes in a private university in Manila, the Philippines during the second semester of the academic year 2016-2017. Research data from students’ reflections, interviews, survey, and focus group discussion (FGD suggest that despite some format and technological limitations, delivering Pecha Kucha presentations may help students develop their English speaking and oral presentation skills, build their confidence in speaking before an audience, and practice their English macro skills such as listening and reading. In the light of these findings, pedagogical implications are provided for ESL (English as a second language and EFL (English as a foreign language teachers, communication educators, and researchers.

  2. Interpretation of Logical Words in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Uncovering Knowledge of Semantics and Pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi Esther; Su, Lin-Yan

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the interpretation of the logical words 'some' and 'every…or…' in 4-15-year-old high-functioning Mandarin-speaking children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD performed similarly to typical controls in demonstrating semantic knowledge of simple sentences with 'some', and they had delayed knowledge of the complex sentences with 'every…or…'. Interestingly, the children with ASD had pragmatic knowledge of the scalar implicatures of these logical words, parallel to those of the typical controls. Taken together, the interpretation of logical words may be a relative strength in children with ASD. It is possible that some aspects of semantics and pragmatics may be selectively spared in ASD, due to the contribution the language faculty makes to language acquisition in the ASD population.

  3. Public speaking: creating presentations that are awe inspiring not yawn producing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVan, Marsheila; Baum, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Many physicians want to be good platform speakers; however, few of us have the background and training necessary to be an outstanding public speaker. Yes, we all have slide decks and PowerPoint programs provided to us so that we can turn our backs to the audience and read the verbiage on the slides. But does that technique generate useful information to the audience? Or if speaking to a lay audience, does that kind of talk make the audience members get out their cell phones and call the office to make an appointment in our practice? Probably not. This article will provide suggestions that will enhance your speaking and presentation skills. This, in turn, will make you a darling of the pharma industry and encourage potential patients in your audience to become patients in your practice.

  4. Syntax and morphology in Danish-speaking children with autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Cecilia; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Jørgensen, Meta

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined delays in syntax and morphology, and vocabulary, in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children ages 4–6 years with ASD (n = 21) and typical development (n = 21), matched on nonverbal mental age, completed five language tasks. The ASD group had significant delays in both...

  5. Syntax and Morphology in Danish-Speaking Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynskov, Cecilia; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Jørgensen, Meta; Lemcke, Sanne; Bohn, Ocke-Schwen; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined delays in syntax and morphology, and vocabulary, in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children ages 4-6 years with ASD (n = 21) and typical development (n = 21), matched on nonverbal mental age, completed five language tasks. The ASD group had significant delays in both syntax and morphology, and vocabulary measures, with…

  6. Correlates of adaptive behavior profiles in a large cohort of children with autism: The autism speaks Autism Treatment Network registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Manina; Bennett, Amanda; Shui, Amy M

    2017-11-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder have deficits in adaptive functioning. This study examines the adaptive behavior, its association with cognitive ability, gender, age, and symptom severity in children with autism spectrum disorder. Using data from Autism Treatment Network registry, the adaptive behavior profiles were examined in 2538 school-aged children (between 5 and 17 years, mean: 8.8 years, standard deviation: 3.0) who had an overall intelligence quotient and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale scores available. The children were grouped according to their intelligence quotient (low intelligence quotient 85), age (5-10 and 11-17 years), and gender for the analyses. Significantly lower Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale scores were found in borderline and average intelligence quotient groups when compared to mean intelligence quotient, while an opposite pattern was seen in the low intelligence quotient group, with better adaptive behavior scores than mean intelligence quotient. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale standard scores were positively correlated with intelligence quotient and poorly associated with autism spectrum disorder severity. Younger children had significantly higher Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale scores. Adjusted comparisons by gender were not significant. Adaptive behavior profiles in the intelligence quotient categories are discussed. This study confirms a positive relationship between adaptive behavior and intellectual function in autism and indicates that children with higher intelligence quotient and older age are specifically impaired, with lower adaptive behavior, highlighting the need for assessment and targeted intervention in these groups. Future directions for research are discussed.

  7. Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Autism KidsHealth / For Teens / Autism What's in this article? ... With Autism? Print en español Autismo What Is Autism? Autism (also called "autism spectrum disorder") is a ...

  8. Speak Up: Increasing Conversational Volume in a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Edgerton, Leigh; Wine, Byron

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in social interactions are a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder. This study examined one relatively uncommon aspect of social interactions that has not received much attention from the literature: appropriate conversational volume. Conversational speech volume was measured using a commercially available application, and a package intervention was developed that consisted of feedback from the voice measuring application, signaling from a wrist bracelet, and differential reinforcemen...

  9. Can children with autism spectrum disorders “hear” a speaking face?

    OpenAIRE

    Irwin, Julia R.; Tornatore, Lauren A.; Brancazio, Lawrence; Whalen, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    This study used eye-tracking methodology to assess audiovisual (AV) speech perception in 26 children ranging in age from 5-15 years, half with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and half with typical development (TD). Given the characteristic reduction in gaze to the faces of others in children with ASD, it was hypothesized that they would show reduced influence of visual information on heard speech. Responses were compared on a set of auditory, visual and audiovisual speech perception tasks. Ev...

  10. SOLVING THE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING PROBLEM IN DELIVERING ENGLISH PRESENTATION THROUGH 3-P TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadif Ulfia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Solving the Students’ Speaking Problem in Delivering English Presentation Through 3-P Technique. The aims of this study were to (1 identify whether and to what extent 3-P Technique can improve the students’ speaking competence in delivering presentation;(2 describe the teaching and learning when 3-P technique is implemented in English class. This research was conducted at the eleventh grades of MAN 1 Bojonegoro. The subjects of the research were the teacher and the students in the academic year 2016/2017. This study applied 3 cycle action research. In collecting the data, the researcher used observations through field notes, video recording, questionnaire and interview. To analyze the quantitative data, the researcher applied descriptive statistics. Besides, to analyze qualitative data, the researcher applied constant comparative method as suggested by Garner. The findings shows that: (1 3-P Technique can improve students’ speaking competence in delivering presentation in terms of students achievement, fluency, pronunciation, ability to express their opinions, arguments, and ideas using appropriate vocabulary and grammatical form, using appropriate body language, voice control, gesture, and eye contact; and (2 3-P technique can improve classroom situation in terms of increasing students’ motivation and participation, creating live teaching atmosphere, and increasing teacher motivation. Key words: Speaking, 3 P technique, Action research Abstrak: Memecahkan Masalah Keterampilan Berbicara Siswa dalam Menyampaikan Presentasi Berbahasa Inggris Melalui Teknik 3-P. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk (1 mengidentifikasi dan mengetahui sejauh mana teknik 3-P dapat meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara para siswa dalam menyampaikan sebuah presentasi; (2 mendeskripsikan kegiatan pembelajaran dalam penerapan teknik 3-P dalam pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada kelas sebelas MAN 1 Bojonegoro. Subyek  penelitian ini

  11. Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jeremy

    2010-01-07

    Evidence for the efficacy of treatments for autism has improved in recent years. In this systematic review the evidence for both drug and non-drug treatments is appraised and clinical guidance is provided for their use. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of early intensive multidisciplinary intervention programmes in children with autism? What are the effects of dietary interventions in children with autism? What are the effects of drug treatments in children with autism? What are the effects of non-drug treatments in children with autism? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2009 (Clinical evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 30 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: applied behavioural analysis; auditory integration training; Autism Preschool Programme; casein-free diet; chelation; Child's Talk programme; cognitive behavioural therapy; digestive enzymes; EarlyBird programme; facilitated communication; Floortime therapy; gluten-free diet; immunoglobulins; melatonin; memantine; methylphenidate; More Than Words programme; music therapy; olanzapine; omega-3 fish oil; picture exchange communication system; Portage scheme; probiotics; relationship development interventions; risperidone; secretin; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); sensory integration training; social stories; social skills training; Son-Rise programme; TEACCH

  12. Presentation of the treatment of a child with autism by ABA method

    OpenAIRE

    Pleterski, Mirjam

    2011-01-01

    This diploma work gives the definition of autism spectrum disorders, presentation of theoretical principles of applied behavioral analysis, its basic principles and procedures and the presentation of the two-month treatment of a child with autism based on applied behavioral analysis by presenting an overall assessment of the child's functioning, course design, implementation and evaluation of treatment. The purpose of the diploma is to present the characteristics of functioning of a child wit...

  13. Vocalization of Emotional and Social Expressions in Korean-Speaking Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Those with Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Sook; Shin, Yee Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Lee, Gui Jong; Ryu, Jeong; Son, Oweol; Cho, Sook Whan

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the development of socializing and emotional expressions through vocalizations and joint attention (JA) behaviors in Korean-speaking children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), compared to those with developmental delay (DD). Video samples were collected from 28 toddlers with ASD and 18 age-matched toddlers with DD, and vocalizations were each coded in detail for the purpose of this retrospective research. In addition to some statistical analysis, Computerized Language Analysis was conducted to obtain the final results. Although they produced a higher number of vocalizations than the DD group, the ASD group did not engage in emotional or social interactions with their caretakers, whereas the DD group did. The children with ASD used more atypical vocalizations and socially unengaged vocalizations than the children with DD did. JA using vocalizations in the ASD group, in particular, was largely dyadic, with triadic types occurring at a significantly lower frequency than those in the DD group. Results from this study indicate the importance of assessing early vocalizations in toddlers with ASD, suggesting that some common symptoms of ASD, such as lack of typical, emotional, and social functions in early vocalizations, could be used to develop screening and intervention programs related to ASD. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  14. Do high functioning persons with autism present superior spatial abilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, M-J; Mottron, L; Rainville, C; Chouinard, S

    2004-01-01

    This series of experiments was aimed at assessing spatial abilities in high functioning individuals with autism (HFA), using a human-size labyrinth. In the context of recent findings that the performance of individuals with HFA was superior to typically developing individuals in several non-social cognitive operations, it was expected that the HFA group would outperform a typically developing comparison group matched on full-scale IQ. Results showed that individuals with autism performed all spatial tasks at a level at least equivalent to the typically developing comparison group. No differences between groups were found in route and survey tasks. Superior performance for individuals with HFA was found in tasks involving maps, in the form of superior accuracy in graphic cued recall of a path, and shorter learning times in a map learning task. We propose that a superior ability to detect [Human Perception and Performance 27 (3) (2001) 719], match [Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 34 (1993) 1351] and reproduce [Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 40 (5) (1999) 743] simple visual elements yields superior performance in tasks relying on the detection and graphic reproduction of the visual elements composing a map. Enhanced discrimination, detection, and memory for visually simple patterns in autism may account for the superior performance of persons with autism on visuo-spatial tasks that heavily involve pattern recognition, either in the form of recognizing and memorizing landmarks or in detecting the similarity between map and landscape features. At a neuro-anatomical level, these findings suggest an intact dorso-lateral pathway, and enhanced performance in non social tasks relying on the infero-temporal pathway.

  15. Webinar Presentation: Air Pollution and Autism Spectrum Disorder: What Do We Know and What Is Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Air Pollution and Autism Spectrum Disorder: What Do We Know and What Is Next?, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Brain Health held on Aug. 12, 2015.

  16. Aggression in autism spectrum disorder: presentation and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick SE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarah E Fitzpatrick, Laura Srivorakiat, Logan K Wink, Ernest V Pedapati, Craig A Erickson Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA Abstract: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent difficulties in social communication and social interaction, coupled with restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior or interest. Research indicates that aggression rates may be higher in individuals with ASD compared to those with other developmental disabilities. Aggression is associated with negative outcomes for children with ASD and their caregivers, including decreased quality of life, increased stress levels, and reduced availability of educational and social support. Therapeutic strategies including functional behavioral assessment, reinforcement strategies, and functional communication training may have a significant impact in reducing the frequency and intensity of aggressive behavior in individuals with ASD. Pharmacologic treatments, particularly the use of second-generation antipsychotics, may also be of some benefit in reducing aggression in individuals with ASD. With the ever-increasing rate of ASD diagnosis, development of effective therapeutic and pharmacologic methods for preventing and treating aggression are essential to improving outcomes in this disorder. Keywords: autism, autism spectrum disorder, aggression, treatment, antipsychotics, applied behavior analysis

  17. A late-diagnosed phenylketonuria case presenting with autism spectrum disorder in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlum, Betül; Anlar, Banu; Kalkanoğlu-Sivri, H Serap; Karlı-Oğuz, Kader; Özusta, Şeniz; Ünal, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Phenylketonuria is one of the most prevalent autosomal recessive hereditary disorders in Turkey. If untreated, it results in severe brain damage and can also be associated with autism in certain patients. We present a three-year old boy who exhibited the symptoms of autism and was subsequently diagnosed with phenylketonuria. This case illustrates that because the majority of autism cases are idiopathic, an occasional patient with a metabolic disorder might be overlooked especially in the era of newborn screening. We also discuss the possible pathogenetic processes leading to autistic symptoms in phenylketonuria, and wish to draw attention to the possibility of cases missed in the screening program because of less than 100% coverage or insufficient food intake before blood sampling. Clinicians should keep in mind the possibility of treatable disorders in children with autism even when such disorders appear unlikely.

  18. Audiovisual speech perception at various presentation levels in Mandarin-speaking adults with cochlear implants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Liu

    Full Text Available (1 To evaluate the recognition of words, phonemes and lexical tones in audiovisual (AV and auditory-only (AO modes in Mandarin-speaking adults with cochlear implants (CIs; (2 to understand the effect of presentation levels on AV speech perception; (3 to learn the effect of hearing experience on AV speech perception.Thirteen deaf adults (age = 29.1±13.5 years; 8 male, 5 female who had used CIs for >6 months and 10 normal-hearing (NH adults participated in this study. Seven of them were prelingually deaf, and 6 postlingually deaf. The Mandarin Monosyllablic Word Recognition Test was used to assess recognition of words, phonemes and lexical tones in AV and AO conditions at 3 presentation levels: speech detection threshold (SDT, speech recognition threshold (SRT and 10 dB SL (re:SRT.The prelingual group had better phoneme recognition in the AV mode than in the AO mode at SDT and SRT (both p = 0.016, and so did the NH group at SDT (p = 0.004. Mode difference was not noted in the postlingual group. None of the groups had significantly different tone recognition in the 2 modes. The prelingual and postlingual groups had significantly better phoneme and tone recognition than the NH one at SDT in the AO mode (p = 0.016 and p = 0.002 for phonemes; p = 0.001 and p<0.001 for tones but were outperformed by the NH group at 10 dB SL (re:SRT in both modes (both p<0.001 for phonemes; p<0.001 and p = 0.002 for tones. The recognition scores had a significant correlation with group with age and sex controlled (p<0.001.Visual input may help prelingually deaf implantees to recognize phonemes but may not augment Mandarin tone recognition. The effect of presentation level seems minimal on CI users' AV perception. This indicates special considerations in developing audiological assessment protocols and rehabilitation strategies for implantees who speak tonal languages.

  19. Excess of non-verbal cases of autism spectrum disorders presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Excess of non-verbal cases of autism spectrum disorders presenting to orthodox clinical practice in Africa – a trend possibly resulting from late diagnosis and intervention. ... Six articles included content relating to age of the child at first presentation to orthodox clinical practice and symptoms at presentation related to

  20. Childhood catatonia, autism and psychosis past and present: is there an ‘iron triangle’?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, E.; Wachtel, L. E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the possibility that autism, catatonia and psychoses in children are different manifestations of a single underlying form of brain pathology – a kind of ‘Iron Triangle’ of symptomatology – rather than three separate illnesses. Method Systematic evaluation of historical case literature on autism to determine if catatonic and psychotic symptoms accompanied the diagnosis, as is found in some challenging present-day cases. Results It is clear from the historical literature that by the 1920s all three diagnoses in the Iron Triangle – catatonia, autism and childhood schizophrenia – were being routinely applied to children and adolescents. Furthermore, it is apparent that children diagnosed with one of these conditions often qualified for the other two as well. Although conventional thinking today regards these diagnoses as separate entities, the presence of catatonia in a variety of conditions is being increasingly recognized, and there is also growing evidence of connections between childhood-onset psychoses and autism. Conclusion Recognition of a mixed form of catatonia, autism and psychosis has important implications for both diagnosis and treatment. None of the separate diagnoses provides an accurate picture in these complex cases, and when given single diagnoses such as ‘schizophrenia’, the standard treatment options may prove markedly ineffective. PMID:23350770

  1. Childhood catatonia, autism and psychosis past and present: is there an 'iron triangle'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, E; Wachtel, L E

    2013-07-01

    To explore the possibility that autism, catatonia and psychoses in children are different manifestations of a single underlying form of brain pathology - a kind of 'Iron Triangle' of symptomatology - rather than three separate illnesses. Systematic evaluation of historical case literature on autism to determine if catatonic and psychotic symptoms accompanied the diagnosis, as is found in some challenging present-day cases. It is clear from the historical literature that by the 1920s all three diagnoses in the Iron Triangle - catatonia, autism and childhood schizophrenia - were being routinely applied to children and adolescents. Furthermore, it is apparent that children diagnosed with one of these conditions often qualified for the other two as well. Although conventional thinking today regards these diagnoses as separate entities, the presence of catatonia in a variety of conditions is being increasingly recognized, and there is also growing evidence of connections between childhood-onset psychoses and autism. Recognition of a mixed form of catatonia, autism and psychosis has important implications for both diagnosis and treatment. None of the separate diagnoses provides an accurate picture in these complex cases, and when given single diagnoses such as 'schizophrenia', the standard treatment options may prove markedly ineffective. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Oral Presentation vs. Free Discussion: Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners’ Speaking Proficiency and Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Sotoudehnama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Speaking is a significant skill that many foreign language learners are trying to master. In this study, the effectiveness of two different speaking activities, i.e. oral presentation vs. free discussion, was investigated from quantitative and qualitative points of view. To achieve this purpose, 44 intermediate learners from a language institute in Tehran participated in the study. Half of the participants experienced oral presentation while the other half (22 in two other classes experienced free discussion for eight sessions. The two activities were exchanged between the two groups after the end of the quantitative phase of the study for eight more sessions. The results of an independent samples t-test performed on the scores ofthe speaking section of a sample Preliminary English Test (PET, 2012 after the first phase of the study (the first 8 sessions indicated that the learners who experienced oral presentation significantly outperformed the learners who experienced free discussion though both activities proved to be significantly useful. Furthermore, the results of the interview with 10 participants from each activity through purposeful sampling, after the second phase of the study (the second 8 sessions through thematic analysis indicated that both free discussion and oral presentation activities had some merits and demerits. Based on the results it can be advisable to include the two activities as complementary.   چکیده: مهارت گفتاری مهارتی مهم به شمار می­رود که زبان­آموزان تلاش بر فراگیری آن دارند. پژوهش حاضر به بررسی کمی وکیفی کارآمدی دو نوع فعالیت گفتاریِ ارائه شفاهی و بحث آزاد در مهارت گفتاری زبان­آموزان پرداخته است. به این منظور چهل و چهار نفر از زبان­آموزان سطح متوسط در یکی از موسسات زبان تهران

  3. Self-Presentation and the Role of Perspective Taking and Social Motivation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, Anke M; Banerjee, Robin; Koot, Hans M; Begeer, Sander

    We compared self-presentation abilities of 132 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to those of 41 typically developing (TD) peers, and examined the potential link with their social motivation and perspective taking. Participants introduced themselves to an interviewer in a

  4. Brief Report: Self-Presentation of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeer, Sander; Banerjee, Robin; Lunenburg, Patty; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Stegge, Hedy; Rieffe, Carolien

    2008-01-01

    The self-presentational behaviour of 43 6- to 12-year-old children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) and normal intelligence and 43 matched comparisons was investigated. Children were prompted to describe themselves twice, first in a baseline condition and then in a condition where they were asked to convince others to select…

  5. Self-Presentation and the Role of Perspective Taking and Social Motivation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeren, Anke M.; Banerjee, Robin; Koot, Hans M.; Begeer, Sander

    2016-01-01

    We compared self-presentation abilities of 132 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to those of 41 typically developing (TD) peers, and examined the potential link with their social motivation and perspective taking. Participants introduced themselves to an interviewer in a baseline condition (without incentive) and a…

  6. Self-presentation and the role of perspective taking and social motivation in autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, A.M.; Banerjee, Robin; Koot, Hans M.; Begeer, Sander

    2016-01-01

    We compared self-presentation abilities of 132 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to those of 41 typically developing (TD) peers, and examined the potential link with their social motivation and perspective taking. Participants introduced themselves to an interviewer in a

  7. The Use of Teaching British Parliamentary Debate through Android Application, Video, and Powerpoint Presentation to Improve the Students’ Speaking Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Agung Wijaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The researcher conducted the study to increase the students’ speaking skills through Android application, video, and PowerPoint Presentation in teaching British Parliamentary Debate. This study answers two questions (1 How is the implementation of teaching British Parliamentary Debate through Android application, video, and PowerPoint Presentation at English Debate Club in SMK N2? (2 To what extent is the improvement of teaching British Parliamentary Debate through Android application, video, and PowerPoint Presentation at English Debate Club in SMK N2 to improve the students’ speaking skills?. The research design of this study was Classroom Action Research. It had three cycles. Each cycle consisted of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. From the study, the researcher could conclude that the implementation of the study improved gradually from cycle 1, cycle 2, and cycle 3. The improvement of the study was showed when the researcher conducted cycle 3. The result of the t-test of cycle 3 was 2.56. Before the impact has not seen by the researcher in the cycle 1 and cycle 2, the result of the t-test of cycle 1 and 2 was 1. The passing grade was 72, and the target of the passing grade was 85%. The result of the post-test of cycle 3 was 90.91% from students. They passed the passing grade. The passing grade of cycle 3 was over the target, so the researcher stopped the study. Thus, instruments proved that it could improve the students’ speaking skills.

  8. Getting used to academic public speaking: global self-esteem predicts habituation in blood pressure response to repeated thesis presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Grebner, Simone

    2012-06-01

    Global self-esteem was tested to predict quicker cardiovascular adaptation during stressful oral thesis presentation and faster habituation from the first to the second and third thesis presentations. Nineteen graduate students initially rated their global self-esteem and afterwards orally presented their theses proposals in 20-min presentations to their thesis supervisor and peers. A second and third presentation of the revised thesis concepts took place at 4-weeks intervals. Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate were assessed repeatedly during the presentations. Post-talk self ratings of stressfulness indicated presentations to be a strong public speaking stressor. One hundred and thirty-eight measurements of systolic (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) showed a significant adaptation (decrease) during presentations. There was an overall mean level decrease from the first to the second, and the second to the third presentations in HR, but not in SBP and DBP. However, habituation in SBP and DBP across three presentations was significantly faster (p < .05) in those participants who initially reported higher levels of global self-esteem. Higher global self-esteem did not foster adaptation within the presentations. Self-esteem is discussed as an important individual resource that allows successful coping with recurring evaluative threats.

  9. Presentation of self and symptoms in primary care consultations involving patients from non-English speaking backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Celia; Sarangi, Srikant; Moss, Becky

    2004-01-01

    This paper draws on the PLEDGE research project (Patients with Limited English and Doctors in General Practice) 1 The Patients with Limited English and Doctors in General Practice (PLEDGE) project was funded by Sir Siegmund Warburg's Voluntary Settlement (2001-2003). The research team was: Celia Roberts, Roger Jones, Becky Moss, Srikant Sarangi and Val Wass. which has a database of 232 video-recorded interactions from GP surgeries in South East London. We focus on the opening episodes-the first opportunity the patient has to report on why they have come to see the doctor-to explore some of the contrasts in self presentation and the interactional work that doctors do when faced with the unexpected. Patients who speak a local London or standard variety of English present three aspects: a description of symptoms, the context in which they occurred, and an affective or epistemic stance. These 'micro discourse routines' are accomplished interactionally through the design of figure/ground relationships, framing and metacommunication and presentation of the 'moral self'. Although some patients from non-English speaking backgrounds use broadly similar 'micro discourse routines', the majority configure the relationship between medically salient facts, adequate contextual information and the stance which conveys the 'moral self' in different and apparently less 'orderly' ways. So openings often become protracted and harder work interactionally for both sides. While conversation analytic studies and communication skills textbooks represent the medical consultations as orderly, we suggest that such apparent orderliness must, at least, be partly the result of ironing out linguistic and cultural diversity. Interactional sociolinguistic analysis is used to shed light on the design of these routines and to provide analytic frameworks for doctors in reflecting on their own practice in ways which challenge patient-centred models.

  10. Self-Presentation and the Role of Perspective Taking and Social Motivation in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeren, Anke M; Banerjee, Robin; Koot, Hans M; Begeer, Sander

    2016-02-01

    We compared self-presentation abilities of 132 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to those of 41 typically developing (TD) peers, and examined the potential link with their social motivation and perspective taking. Participants introduced themselves to an interviewer in a baseline condition (without incentive) and a self-promotion condition (with incentive). Children with ASD (6-12 years) were just as likely as or even more likely than TD children to highlight personal characteristics that would increase their chances of obtaining the incentive. Thus, they were strategic in their self-presentation. However, adolescents with ASD (12-19 years) were less strategic than TD adolescents as well as children with ASD. We discuss the role of social motivation and perspective taking in children's self-presentation.

  11. Reincarnation Type Presentations of Children with High-Functioning Autism in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandradasa, Miyuru; Champika, Layani

    2018-03-01

    Autism is characterised by impaired social communication and restricted repetitive behaviours. However, language and intelligence are spared in high-functioning individuals. The symptomatology is complex and culturally diverse. Buddhists and Hindus believe in rebirth and reincarnation type presentations in children are frequently seen among these populations. Here we describe three children from Sri Lanka claiming memories of their past lives and later diagnosed to have high-functioning autism. The first, a seven-year-old Buddhist believes he was killed by terrorists as a soldier in his previous life and attributed his birthmark to be an injury which caused death. The second, a five-year-old Catholic girl suffering from asthma claiming she died of breathing difficulties in her previous life where she was a Buddhist grandmother. The third, an eight-year-old academically superior child claims he was a monk in his previous life and demands parents to allow him to enter the priesthood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. iPad-presented social stories for young children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeer, Julianne; Beamish, Wendi; Milford, Todd; Lang, Wayne

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of iPad-presented social stories in increasing the on-task behaviour of three young children with autism. A single-subject with multiple baseline across participants design was employed with three 4-year-old children to assess intervention effectiveness during structured table top activities. Observational data were digitally recorded, scored, graphed, and interpreted using 10-second interval measures over 5-min periods across baseline, intervention, and withdrawal phases. The combination of the social story together with the iPad proved to be an effective intervention for one of the three child participants. These findings confirm that the intervention may be effective with some children, but not others. Overall, this study builds on existing research that supports social stories as a promising practice. Further research into the use of iPad-presented social stories, particularly for children of varying ages, abilities, and learning styles is recommended.

  13. [Comorbidities with autism spectrum disorders - present state of research and future outlook].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinzig, Judith; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2011-03-01

    Numerous somatic and psychopathological disorders occur parallel with autism spectrum disorders. It is presently being discussed whether other co-occurring psychopathological symptoms should constitute a categorical comorbid disorder on their own right and be diagnosed as such; or whether they should be understood as part of the autistic disorder itself. Based on the situation with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the current state of research and our own research results are used as examples to demonstrate which prerequisites must be fulfilled for a comorbid disorder. Furthermore, based on neurobiological findings from the areas of molecular biology, neuropsychology, and imaging we show which requirements emerge for the aetiology, early detection, pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment, course of illness, and the categorical classification approach.

  14. MMR-Vaccine and Regression in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Negative Results Presented from Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Tokio; Kurosawa, Michiko; Inaba, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) is a cause of regressive autism. As MMR was used in Japan only between 1989 and 1993, this time period affords a natural experiment to examine this hypothesis. Data on 904 patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were analyzed. During the period of MMR usage no…

  15. The possible therapeutic benefits of utilizing motion gaming systems on pediatric patients presenting autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Stephen A; Merritte, Kristin

    2013-09-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder that affects a growing number of children in the United States each year. It is characterized by substantive differences in brain structure and function that lead to long-term cognitive and social deficits. These differences, combined with the increasing prevalence of autism in children, warrant the need for development of innovative, cost-effective and widely available alternative and complementary therapies. Motion gaming has the potential to be highly efficacious as a therapeutic technique to aid in developing memory, facial recognition, motor skills and social integration in the pediatric autistic population. This paper outlines the major deficits in the brains of individuals with autism and describes how the use of motion gaming could capitalize on the individual strengths of each patient, leading to improvements in a variety of deficits.

  16. Present situation and prospect of medical knowledge based systems in German-speaking countries: results of an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreckelsen, Cord; Spitzer, K; Honekamp, W

    2012-01-01

    After a decrease of interest in classical medical expert systems, the publication activity concerning the medical application of Artificial Intelligence and the interest in medical decision support have markedly increased. Nonetheless, no systematic exploratory study has yet been carried out, which directly considers the actual fields of applications, exemplary approaches, obstacles, challenges, and future prospect as seen by pioneering users and developers in a given region. This paper reports the results of an online survey designed to fill this gap with the "Knowledge Based Systems" working group of the German Society for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology (GMDS) in 2010. The survey was based on an online questionnaire (5 single and multiple choice questions, 8 Likert-scaled items, 7 free text questions) consented to by the working group. The answers were analyzed by descriptive statistics and a qualitative analysis (bottom-up coding). All academic institutions of Medical Informatics in the German-speaking countries and contributors reporting KBS-related projects at the relevant scientific conferences and in a journal specialized in the field were invited to participate. The survey reached a response rate of 33.4%. The results show a gap between the reported obstacles of medical KBS (mainly low acceptance and rare use in clinical practice) and their future prospect as stated by the participants. Problems previously discussed in the literature like low acceptance, integration, and sustainability of KBS projects were confirmed. The current situation was characterized by naming exemplary existing systems and specifying promising fields of application. The field of KBS in medicine is more diversified and has evolved beyond expectations in the German-speaking countries.

  17. Discourse production of mandarin-speaking children with high-functioning autism: The effect of mental and action verbs' semantic-pragmatic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yiqi; Jia, Zhongheng; Liu, Shunhua; Liang, Dandan

    2017-11-01

    The present study investigated the syntactic and pragmatic performance of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) during a discourse production task with mental verbs. Children with HFA and typically developing (TD) children were matched by chronological age, verbal IQ (VIQ) and full-scale IQ (FIQ). We found that children with HFA tended to select a nominal object given a mental verb with either a nominal or clausal object. They committed few syntactic errors but generated syntactic stereotypes with mental verbs. However, this behavior was not observed with action verbs. Thus, children with HFA were specifically impaired in the argument structures of mental verbs. In pragmatic performance, children with HFA produced significantly fewer clauses or sentences with lower syntactic complexity for mental verbs than TD controls. This result might be due to the semantic-pragmatic impairment of children with HFA in the use of mental verbs. This study concludes that children with HFA were able to acquire the syntactic frames of mental verbs but were nevertheless impaired in the acquisition of pragmatic information inherent in those verbs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Developing the Students’ English Speaking Ability Through Impromptu Speaking Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumettu, A.; Runtuwene, T. L.

    2018-01-01

    Having multi -purposes, English mastery has becomea necessary for us.Of the four language skills, speaking skill should get the first priority in English teaching and speaking skills development cannot be separated from listening.One communicative way of developing speaking skill is impromptu speaking,a method sudden speaking which depends only on experience and insight by applying spontaneity or improvisation. It is delivered based on the need of the moment of speaking using simple language.This research aims to know (1). Why impromptu speaking is necessary in teaching speaking? (2). How can impromptu speaking develop the students’ speaking skills.The method of this research is qualitative method and the techniques of data collection are: observation,interview and documentation. The results of data analysis using Correlation shows a strong relation between the students’ speaking ability and impromptu speaking method (r = 0.80).The research show that by using impromptu speaking method, the students are trained to interact faster naturally and spontaneously and enrich their vocabulary and general science to support speaking development through interview, speech, presentation, discussion and storytelling.

  19. Scientists must speak

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walters, D. Eric; Walters, Gale Climenson

    2011-01-01

    .... Scientists Must Speak: Bringing Presentations to Life helps readers do just that. At some point in their careers, the majority of scientists have to stand up in front of an inquisitive audience or board and present information...

  20. Impaired detection and differentiation of briefly presented facial emotions in adults with high-functioning autism and asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, R; Schulze, L; Hellweg, R; Koehne, S; Roepke, S

    2018-02-19

    Although deficits in the recognition of emotional facial expressions are considered a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterization of abnormalities in the differentiation of emotional expressions (e.g., sad vs. angry) has been rather inconsistent, especially in adults without intellectual impairments who may compensate for their deficits. In addition, previous research neglected the ability to detect emotional expressions (e.g., angry vs. neutral). The present study used a backward masking paradigm to investigate, a) the detection of emotional expressions, and b) the differentiation of emotional expressions in adults diagnosed with high functioning autism or Asperger syndrome (n = 23) compared to neurotypical controls (n = 25). Compensatory strategies were prevented by shortening the stimulus presentation time (33, 67, and 100 ms). In general, participants with ASD were significantly less accurate in detecting and differentiating emotional expressions compared to the control group. In the emotion differentiation task, individuals with ASD profited significantly less from an increase in presentation time. These results reinforce theoretical models that individuals with ASD have deficits in emotion recognition under time constraints. Furthermore, first evidence was provided that emotion detection and emotion differentiation are impaired in ASD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-referenced memory, social cognition, and symptom presentation in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Heather A; Zahka, Nicole E; Kojkowski, Nicole M; Inge, Anne P; Schwartz, Caley B; Hileman, Camilla M; Coman, Drew C; Mundy, Peter C

    2009-07-01

    We examined performance on a self-referenced memory (SRM) task for higher-functioning children with autism (HFA) and a matched comparison group. SRM performance was examined in relation to symptom severity and social cognitive tests of mentalizing. Sixty-two children (31 HFA, 31 comparison; 8-16 years) completed a SRM task in which they read a list of words and decided whether the word described something about them, something about Harry Potter, or contained a certain number of letters. They then identified words that were familiar from a longer list. Dependent measures were memory performance (d') in each of the three encoding conditions as well as a self-memory bias score (d' self-d' other). Children completed The Strange Stories Task and The Children's Eyes Test as measures of social cognition. Parents completed the SCQ and ASSQ as measures of symptom severity. Children in the comparison sample showed the standard SRM effect in which they recognized significantly more self-referenced words relative to words in the other-referenced and letter conditions. In contrast, HFA children showed comparable rates of recognition for self- and other-referenced words. For all children, SRM performance improved with age and enhanced SRM performance was related to lower levels of social problems. These associations were not accounted for by performance on the mentalizing tasks. Children with HFA did not show the standard enhanced processing of self- vs. other-relevant information. Individual differences in the tendency to preferentially process self-relevant information may be associated with social cognitive processes that serve to modify the expression of social symptoms in children with autism.

  2. New Speak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2008-01-01

      En ny form for samfundsvidenskabeligt set uklart sprogbrug anvendes stadig oftere i organisation og politik. Ord som "sammenhængskraft", "myndighedsbetjening" og "kvalitetsløft" kritiseres ofte og kaldes varm luft eller new speak. Jeg vil hævde, at ordene i new speak rummer et dobbelt perspektiv......, uddannelse, militær etc.). Derfor er der gået varm luft og new speak i politisk og organisatorisk sprogbrug. Hvor funktionssystemer internt betjener sig af binært kodet kommunikation, må meddelelser mellem funktionssystemer nemlig afstå fra den klare veldefinerede tale.  ...

  3. Chromosomal microarray analysis of consecutive individuals with autism spectrum disorders or learning disability presenting for genetic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jennifer L; Hovanes, Karine; Dasouki, Majed; Manzardo, Ann M; Butler, Merlin G

    2014-02-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis is now commonly used in clinical practice to identify copy number variants (CNVs) in the human genome. We report our experience with the use of the 105 K and 180K oligonucleotide microarrays in 215 consecutive patients referred with either autism or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or developmental delay/learning disability for genetic services at the University of Kansas Medical Center during the past 4 years (2009-2012). Of the 215 patients [140 males and 75 females (male/female ratio=1.87); 65 with ASD and 150 with learning disability], abnormal microarray results were seen in 45 individuals (21%) with a total of 49 CNVs. Of these findings, 32 represented a known diagnostic CNV contributing to the clinical presentation and 17 represented non-diagnostic CNVs (variants of unknown significance). Thirteen patients with ASD had a total of 14 CNVs, 6 CNVs recognized as diagnostic and 8 as non-diagnostic. The most common chromosome involved in the ASD group was chromosome 15. For those with a learning disability, 32 patients had a total of 35 CNVs. Twenty-six of the 35 CNVs were classified as a known diagnostic CNV, usually a deletion (n=20). Nine CNVs were classified as an unknown non-diagnostic CNV, usually a duplication (n=8). For the learning disability subgroup, chromosomes 2 and 22 were most involved. Thirteen out of 65 patients (20%) with ASD had a CNV compared with 32 out of 150 patients (21%) with a learning disability. The frequency of chromosomal microarray abnormalities compared by subject group or gender was not statistically different. A higher percentage of individuals with a learning disability had clinical findings of seizures, dysmorphic features and microcephaly, but not statistically significant. While both groups contained more males than females, a significantly higher percentage of males were present in the ASD group. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The uses of mental health telephone counselling services for Chinese speaking people in New Zealand: demographics, presenting problems, outcome and evaluation of the calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Dong, Christine

    2016-09-09

    This study aimed to investigate the call profiles of a Chinese-speaking mental health counselling helpline service in New Zealand (Chinese Lifeline provided by Lifeline Aotearoa) and to evaluate the calls and explore the possible factors influencing the outcome of the calls. A random sample of 151 answered calls was involved. Descriptive analysis with appropriate statistical tests was used to analyse the client profile and outcome data. The majority of the calls were made by female callers, aged between 21-60 both single and married. Top three presenting problems were: 1) mental health issues (82.1%); 2) family/partner relationship issues (47.0%) and 3) communication and related difficulties (45.0%). The majority of the calls (65%) ended after a clear decision in overcoming the issues made by the caller, with the help from the counsellor. Discussing mental health issues, grief and loss issues, and communication and related difficulties were shown to have influenced length of calls (p<0.05). Caller's age, frequency of calls, discussing relationship problems with family/partner, and physical problems were shown to have influenced the helpline counsellors' satisfaction of the helpfulness of the calls (p<0.05). The service receives calls from callers with a wide range of demographics and a large variety of presenting issues. This study identified several important factors which influenced counsellors' satisfaction of the calls and the length of the calls.

  5. Speak Up! Public Speaking for Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Felkar, Sarah; Mallette, Michelle; Meunier, Shanna

    2010-01-01

    Learn about public speaking for libraries in a session that is fun, friendly and not intimidating (as public speaking often can be). The speakers will discuss how public speaking is often an important part of working in a library.

  6. Speaking Effectively: A Guide for Air Force Speakers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kline, John

    1989-01-01

    Speaking Effectively presents techniques on how to speak successfully. It takes a "how-to" approach to effective speaking in the Air Force and presents proven techniques as concisely and completely as possible...

  7. Speaking Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Geoff

    Speaking Code begins by invoking the “Hello World” convention used by programmers when learning a new language, helping to establish the interplay of text and code that runs through the book. Interweaving the voice of critical writing from the humanities with the tradition of computing and softwa...... expression in the public realm. The book’s line of argument defends language against its invasion by economics, arguing that speech continues to underscore the human condition, however paradoxical this may seem in an era of pervasive computing....

  8. Slowing down presentation of facial movements and vocal sounds enhances facial expression recognition and induces facial-vocal imitation in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Carole; Lainé, France; Rodriguez, Mélissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on CD-Rom, under audio or silent conditions, and under dynamic visual conditions (slowly, very slowly, at normal speed) plus a static control. Overall, children with autism showed lower performance in expression recognition and more induced facial-vocal imitation than controls. In the autistic group, facial expression recognition and induced facial-vocal imitation were significantly enhanced in slow conditions. Findings may give new perspectives for understanding and intervention for verbal and emotional perceptive and communicative impairments in autistic populations.

  9. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Attend Typically to Faces and Objects Presented within Their Picture Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Smith, K.; Riby, D. M.; Hancock, P. J. B.; Doherty-Sneddon, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may require interventions for communication difficulties. One type of intervention is picture communication symbols which are proposed to improve comprehension of linguistic input for children with ASD. However, atypical attention to faces and objects is widely reported across the autism…

  10. The Influence of Presentation Modality on the Social Comprehension of Naturalistic Scenes in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedek, Haley M.; Pantelis, Peter C.; Kennedy, Daniel P.

    2018-01-01

    The comprehension of dynamically unfolding social situations is made possible by the seamless integration of multimodal information merged with rich intuitions about the thoughts and behaviors of others. We examined how high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder and neurotypical controls made a complex social judgment (i.e. rating the…

  11. Autism Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ... more Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ...

  12. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000465.htm Tracheostomy tube - speaking To use the sharing features on ... are even speaking devices that can help you. Tracheostomy Tubes and Speaking Air passing through vocal cords ( ...

  13. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) attend typically to faces and objects presented within their picture communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Smith, K; Riby, D M; Hancock, P J B; Doherty-Sneddon, G

    2014-05-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may require interventions for communication difficulties. One type of intervention is picture communication symbols which are proposed to improve comprehension of linguistic input for children with ASD. However, atypical attention to faces and objects is widely reported across the autism spectrum for several types of stimuli. In this study we used eye-tracking methodology to explore fixation duration and time taken to fixate on the object and face areas within picture communication symbols. Twenty-one children with ASD were compared with typically developing matched groups. Children with ASD were shown to have similar fixation patterns on face and object areas compared with typically developing matched groups. It is proposed that children with ASD attend to the images in a manner that does not differentiate them from typically developing individuals. Therefore children with and without autism have the same opportunity to encode the available information. We discuss what this may imply for interventions using picture symbols. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSIDD.

  14. Autism: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Donate Home What is Autism? What is Autism? ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Diagnosis Home / What is Autism? / Diagnosis Expand Medical ...

  15. Multicultural issues in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyches, Tina Taylor; Wilder, Lynn K; Sudweeks, Richard R; Obiakor, Festus E; Algozzine, Bob

    2004-04-01

    The professional literature provides ample evidence that individuals with autism exhibit a myriad of unusual social, communication, and behavioral patterns of interactions that present challenges to their families and service providers. However, there is a dearth of quality works on multicultural issues regarding autistic spectrum disorders. In this article, we explore issues surrounding autism and multiculturalism, with the intent not to provide answers but to raise questions for further examination. We focus our discussions on two primary issues: autism within cultural groups and multicultural family adaptation based on the framework of pluralistic societies in which some cultural groups are a minority within the dominant culture. We found differences in prevalence rates across races for autism and little information regarding how multicultural families adapt to raising a child with autism. Further, students with multicultural backgrounds and autism are challenged on at least four dimensions: communication, social skills, behavioral repertoires, and culture. Future research in these areas is clearly warranted.

  16. Association of Rigid-Compulsive Behavior with Functional Constipation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Sarah; Ferguson, Bradley J.; Lee, Evon Batey; Peters, Brittany; Williams, Kent C.; McDonnell, Erin; Macklin, Eric A.; Levitt, Pat; Margolis, Kara Gross; Beversdorf, David Q.; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Based upon checklist data from the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network, we hypothesized that functional constipation (FC) would be associated with rigid-compulsive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III to assess FC symptoms in 108 children with ASD. As…

  17. Relationship between Subtypes of Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Sleep Disturbance in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundley, Rachel J.; Shui, Amy; Malow, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the association of two types of restricted and repetitive behaviors, repetitive sensory motor (RSM) and insistence on sameness (IS), with sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included 532 children (aged 2-17) who participated in the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network research registry.…

  18. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The presented materials consist of presentations of international workshop which held in Warsaw from 4 to 5 October 2007. Main subject of the meeting was progress in manufacturing as well as research program development for neutron detector which is planned to be placed at GANIL laboratory and will be used in nuclear spectroscopy research

  19. Metaphorically Speaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2009-01-01

    up particular gendered subject positions. The Danish financial sector is one in which the traditional male occupation of top-managerial positions is being challenged by an increasing number of women. The purpose of this article is to present an analysis of how in the pursuit of a career, men...... and women in the financial sector metaphorically and discursively construct career possibilities and constraints as well as to assess the extent to which this may influence their chances of obtaining a managerial position. The data for the analysis consist of three sets of focus group data obtained...

  20. Speak, Move, Play and Learn with Children on the Autism Spectrum: Activities to Boost Communication Skills, Sensory Integration and Coordination Using Simple Ideas from Speech and Language Pathology and Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Lois Jean; Gonzalez, America X.; Zawadzki, Maciej; Presley, Corinda

    2012-01-01

    This practical resource is brimming with ideas and guidance for using simple ideas from speech and language pathology and occupational therapy to boost communication, sensory integration, and coordination skills in children on the autism spectrum. Suitable for use in the classroom, at home, and in community settings, it is packed with…

  1. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The PARIS meeting held in Cracow, Poland from 14 to 15 May 2007. The main subjects discussed during this meeting were the status of international project dedicated to gamma spectroscopy research. The scientific research program includes investigations of giant dipole resonance, probe of hot nuclei induced in heavy reactions, Jacobi shape transitions, isospin mixing and nuclear multifragmentation. The mentioned programme needs Rand D development such as new scintillations materials as lanthanum chlorides and bromides as well as new photo detection sensors as avalanche photodiodes - such subjects are also subjects of discussion. Additionally results of computerized simulations of scintillation detectors properties by means of GEANT- 4 code are presented

  2. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and

  3. THE AUTOMATIZATION OF SPEAKING SKILLS IN THE PROCESS OF BUILDING AN ACADEMIC ENGLISH PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE IN SPEAKING OF PROSPECTIVE MARKETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аndriana Onufriv

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of automatization of speaking skills in the process of building an academic English professional competence in speaking of prospective marketers is highlighted. The essence of an academic English professional competence in speaking of prospective marketers has been analyzed. The structure of an academic English professional competence in speaking of prospective marketers (abilities, skills, knowledge, communicative aptitudes has been studies. Building of speaking skills is based on the acquisition of declarative and procedural knowledge. The presentation is suggested as a leading tool of building an academic English professional competence in speaking of prospective marketers. The ways of automatization of speaking operations in the process of building an academic English professional competence in speaking of prospective marketers has been grounded. It has been established that automatization of speaking operations in the process of building an academic English professional competence  in speaking of prospective marketers occur by the means of developing phonetic, grammar and lexical speaking skills. The automatization   of speaking skills is reached by performing certain exercises and tasks. These assignments are receptive, reproductive ones (by a criterion of leading kind of speaking; warming, stereotype-situational and variant-situational ones (by a criterion of the stages of developing skills; simulative and communicative ones (by a criterion of communication. The most widespread exercise and tasks for developing speaking skills, defined by a criterion of communication, are   non-communicative, simulative and communicative ones.

  4. Expression of schizophrenia in black Xhosa-speaking and white English-speaking South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensink, K; Robertson, B A; Ben-Arie, O; Hodson, P; Tredoux, C

    1998-07-01

    To investigate whether schizophrenia manifests itself differently in Xhosa-speaking South Africans, compared with English-speaking white South Africans. A comparative study of the presentation of schizophrenia in two groups of patients. A sample of 63 patients (43 Xhosa-speaking and 20 English-speaking) admitted to a large psychiatric hospital for the first time with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The Present State Examination (PSE) was used to confirm the clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia. The Relatives' Rating of Symptoms and Social Behaviour (KAS-R) was used to obtain information on the behavioural and emotional expression of schizophrenia. A significantly higher prevalence of aggressive and disruptive behaviour was reported by relatives of Xhosa-speaking patients with schizophrenia of recent onset compared with English-speaking patients. The PSE elicited significantly more delusions of persecution, sexual and fantastic delusions, self-neglect and irritability in the Xhosa-speaking patients. Significant differences in the presentation of schizophrenia, but not its core symptoms, were identified in Xhosa-speaking blacks and English-speaking whites.

  5. How autism became autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the meaning of the word ‘autism’ experienced a radical shift in the early 1960s in Britain which was contemporaneous with a growth in epidemiological and statistical studies in child psychiatry. The first part of the article explores how ‘autism’ was used as a category to describe hallucinations and unconscious fantasy life in infants through the work of significant child psychologists and psychoanalysts such as Jean Piaget, Lauretta Bender, Leo Kanner and Elwyn James Anthony. Theories of autism were then associated both with schizophrenia in adults and with psychoanalytic styles of reasoning. The closure of institutions for ‘mental defectives’ and the growth in speech therapy services in the 1960s and 1970s encouraged new models for understanding autism in infants and children. The second half of the article explores how researchers such as Victor Lotter and Michael Rutter used the category of autism to reconceptualize psychological development in infants and children via epidemiological studies. These historical changes have influenced the form and function of later research into autism and related conditions. PMID:24014081

  6. Dynamic Speaking Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kent; Sabet, Mehran

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an attempt to adopt dynamic assessment (DA) methods in classroom speaking assessments. The study reported in this article focused on four particular applications of dynamic speaking assessment (DSA). The first, "mediated assistance" (MA), involves interaction between an assistor and a learner to reveal problems in…

  7. The Speaking Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagoort, P.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    How does intention to speak become the action of speaking? It involves the generation of a preverbal message that is tailored to the requirements of a particular language, and through a series of steps, the message is transformed into a linear sequence of speech sounds (1, 2). These steps include

  8. Autism Children’s App using PECS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nareena Soomro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since autistic children suffers from learning disabilities and communication barriers, this research aim to design, develop and evaluate an Android based mobile application (app providing better learning environment with inclusion of graphical representation in a cost effective manner. This research evaluate various supporting technologies and finds Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS to be better choice for integrating with the app. Evaluation results reveal that the inclusion of PECS helped the children suffering from Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD to better communicate with others. The study included autistic children who do not speak, who are unintelligible and who are minimally effective communicators with their present communication system. The evolution results showed encouraging impacts of the Autism App in supporting autistic children to adapt to normal life and improve the standard of their life.

  9. Autism across Cultures: Rethinking Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the autism prevalence rate has been very closely monitored in the United States, the same has not been observed in many other countries. This may be attributed to the fact that each culture views and defines autism differently. Using field notes and semi-structured interviews with family members with an individual with autism, teachers,…

  10. Auditory prediction during speaking and listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Marc; Shiller, Douglas M

    2018-02-02

    In the present EEG study, the role of auditory prediction in speech was explored through the comparison of auditory cortical responses during active speaking and passive listening to the same acoustic speech signals. Two manipulations of sensory prediction accuracy were used during the speaking task: (1) a real-time change in vowel F1 feedback (reducing prediction accuracy relative to unaltered feedback) and (2) presenting a stable auditory target rather than a visual cue to speak (enhancing auditory prediction accuracy during baseline productions, and potentially enhancing the perturbing effect of altered feedback). While subjects compensated for the F1 manipulation, no difference between the auditory-cue and visual-cue conditions were found. Under visually-cued conditions, reduced N1/P2 amplitude was observed during speaking vs. listening, reflecting a motor-to-sensory prediction. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between the magnitude of behavioral compensatory F1 response and the magnitude of this speaking induced suppression (SIS) for P2 during the altered auditory feedback phase, where a stronger compensatory decrease in F1 was associated with a stronger the SIS effect. Finally, under the auditory-cued condition, an auditory repetition-suppression effect was observed in N1/P2 amplitude during the listening task but not active speaking, suggesting that auditory predictive processes during speaking and passive listening are functionally distinct. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. What is this thing called autism? A critical analysis of the tenacious search for autism's essence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Berend

    2012-01-01

    Currently, autism is a widespread and diverse neurodevelopmental disorder that includes both severely impaired and institutionalized patients and the fairly geeky but brilliant university professor. Despite its heterogeneity, autism is often presented as a distinct nosological entity with a unifying

  12. Sleep Disorders, Epilepsy, and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe the clinical data linking autism with sleep and epilepsy and to discuss the impact of treating sleep disorders in children with autism either with or without coexisting epileptic seizures. Studies are presented to support the view that sleep is abnormal in individuals with autistic spectrum…

  13. Infantilizing Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jennifer L; Harp, Bev; Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2011-01-01

    When members of the public envision the disability of autism, they most likely envision a child, rather than an adult. In this empirically based essay, three authors, one of whom is an autistic self-advocate, analyzed the role played by parents, charitable organizations, the popular media, and the news industry in infantilizing autism. Parents portrayed the face of autism to be that of a child 95% of the time on the homepages of regional and local support organizations. Nine of the top 12 autism charitable organizations restricted descriptions of autism to child-referential discourse. Characters depicted as autistic were children in 90% of fictional books and 68% of narrative films and television programs. The news industry featured autistic children four times as often as they featured autistic adults in contemporary news articles. The cyclical interaction between parent-driven autism societies, autism fundraising charities, popular media, and contemporary news silences adult self-advocates by denying their very existence. Society's overwhelming proclivity for depicting autism as a disability of childhood poses a formidable barrier to the dignity and well-being of autistic people of all ages.

  14. Autism through the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Donate Home What is Autism? What is Autism? ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Autism through the Lifespan Home / Living with Autism / ...

  15. Cultural Adaptation and Translation of Outreach Materials on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinker, Roy R.; Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Ahmann, Chloe; Beidas, Rinad S.; Lagman, Adrienne; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to connect with families and influence treatment trajectories, outreach materials should address cultural perceptions of the condition, its causes, and post-diagnostic care. This paper describes the cultural adaptation and translation of the Autism Speaks First 100 Days Kit into Korean for the purpose of improving autism spectrum disorder…

  16. Measuring Anxiety as a Treatment Endpoint in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecavalier, Luc; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Halladay, Alycia K.; Jones, Nancy E.; Aman, Michael G.; Cook, Edwin H.; Handen, Benjamin L.; King, Bryan H.; Pearson, Deborah A.; Hallett, Victoria; Sullivan, Katherine Anne; Grondhuis, Sabrina; Bishop, Somer L.; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Dawson, Geraldine; Scahill, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high rate of anxiety in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), measuring anxiety in ASD is fraught with uncertainty. This is due, in part, to incomplete consensus on the manifestations of anxiety in this population. Autism Speaks assembled a panel of experts to conduct a systematic review of available measures for anxiety in…

  17. Text-speak processing impairs tactile location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James; Helton, William; Russell, Paul; Neumann, Ewald

    2012-09-01

    Dual task experiments have highlighted that driving while having a conversation on a cell phone can have negative impacts on driving (Strayer & Drews, 2007). It has also been noted that this negative impact is greater when reading a text-message (Lee, 2007). Commonly used in text-messaging are shortening devices collectively known as text-speak (e.g.,Ys I wll ttyl 2nite, Yes I will talk to you later tonight). To the authors' knowledge, there has been no investigation into the potential negative impacts of reading text-speak on concurrent performance on other tasks. Forty participants read a correctly spelled story and a story presented in text-speak while concurrently monitoring for a vibration around their waist. Slower reaction times and fewer correct vibration detections occurred while reading text-speak than while reading a correctly spelled story. The results suggest that reading text-speak imposes greater cognitive load than reading correctly spelled text. These findings suggest that the negative impact of text messaging on driving may be compounded by the messages being in text-speak, instead of orthographically correct text. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Public Speaking: Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufen, Phyllis M.

    There is a simple but effective process for developing public speakers in elementary and junior high schools. After discussing the importance of effective speaking, the teacher puts a topic sentence, on favorite desserts for example, on the board or overhead projector and students think of their favorite desserts and some related words and…

  19. My Hesitation to Speak English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Naruha

    2015-01-01

    Even though English was the author's favorite subject, she was not good at speaking in English, and always tried to avoid it. However, it did not matter because she did not have to speak to demonstrate her English ability. After entering university, her lack of confidence in speaking English became a major issue, and other students face the same…

  20. Speak Up Speak Out Coalition Survey Results | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive planning is a visionary planning process that integrates community values and land use policy. The Mayor of Duluth, Minnesota, directed the inclusion of two new values into the City’s comprehensive planning process to direct the community’s future, process: health and fairness. In order to understand the meanings of health and fairness that residents of the city hold, the Community Planning Department included questions in a city-wide survey of planning priorities. As a community organization reviewed the survey results that would inform the new directives, they realized that overburdened communities were underrepresented in the survey responses. To address this deficiency, the community organization asked the City of Duluth if they could conduct a survey of the underrepresented voices to ensure their input was included in the process. The Health in All Policies Coalition contacted the USEPA Office of Research and Development in Duluth, MN at the advice of the Planning Department. The support USEPA provided ensured that the Coalition could make recommendations to the City of Duluth based on systematically collected and analyzed data. This presentation will share the results of the survey. This presentation of the Speak Up Speak Out survey data represents support for local decision-making, technical assistance and data analysis. The data were collected and analyzed through advice and consultation with USEPA Office of Research and Development, an

  1. SYMPTOM PRESENTATIONS AND CLASSIFICATION OF AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: APPLICATION TO THE DIAGNOSTIC CLASSIFICATION OF MENTAL HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS OF INFANCY AND EARLY CHILDHOOD (DC:0-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Timothy; Giserman Kiss, Ivy; Carter, Alice S

    2016-09-01

    Over the past 5 years, a great deal of information about the early course of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has emerged from longitudinal prospective studies of infants at high risk for developing ASD based on a previously diagnosed older sibling. The current article describes early ASD symptom presentations and outlines the rationale for defining a new disorder, Early Atypical Autism Spectrum Disorder (EA-ASD) to accompany ASD in the new revision of the ZERO TO THREE Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC:0-5) (in press) alternative diagnostic classification manual. EA-ASD is designed to identify children who are 9 to 36 months of age presenting with a minimum of (a) two social-communication symptoms and (b) one repetitive and restricted behavior symptom as well as (c) evidence of impairment, with the intention of providing these children with appropriately tailored services and improving the likelihood of optimizing their development. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  2. The use of the Autism-spectrum Quotient in differentiating high functioning adults with autism, adults with schizophrenia and a neurotypical adult control group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Saskia G.M.; Spek, Annelies A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared 21 high functioning individuals with autism, 21 individuals with schizophrenia and 21 healthy individuals in self-reported features of autism, as measured by the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ). The individuals with autism reported impairment on all AQ subscales, compared to

  3. Sex Differences and Within-Family Associations in the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusek, Jessica; Losh, Molly; Martin, Gary E.

    2014-01-01

    While there is a strong sex bias in the presentation of autism, it is unknown whether this bias is also present in subclinical manifestations of autism among relatives, or the broad autism phenotype. This study examined this question and investigated patterns of co-occurrence of broad autism phenotype traits within families of individuals with…

  4. Teaching Speaking Through Debate Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Suranto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : Teaching Speaking Through Debate Technique. Speaking is one of the basic competence from the other fourth basic competence (listening, speaking, reading and writing. Speaking ability should be mastered by every students, in order to achieve that competence students should be given the right technique to study sepaking. The successfull of the students speaking can be seen from their ability to express idea, thought and feeling through speaking. The objective of this Action Research is to improve students’s oral communication skill through the debate technique. This study was conducted at MA Ma’arif Nu 5 Sekampung Lampung Timur from March to April 2014. The research data were taken from students in the eleventh class, with 28 students and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The research findings indicate that there are improvements in students’ english speaking skill through the debate technique. By analyzing data qualitatively and quantitatively from the end of the first cycle to the second cycle and it was found that the students’ English speaking skill increased 20,9% over the standard that has been determined by the researcher that is 65%. The researcher concludes that the students’ english speaking skill can be improve through the debate technique in learning process.   Key words : action research, debate technique, english speaking skill

  5. Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and…

  6. Expression of schizophrenia in black Xhosa-speaking and white ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To inv:estigate whether schizophrenia manifests itself differently in Xhosa-speaking South Africans, compared with English-speaking white South Africans. Design. A comparative study ·of the presentation of schizophrenia in two groups of patients. Settings and subjects. A sample of 63 patients (43 Xhosaspeaking ...

  7. Anger in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Parent's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Betty P. V.; Stephenson, Jennifer; Carter, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Anger related behaviours such as aggression are known to be an area of difficulty for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A national internet forum for parents of children with ASD was selected out of other similar forums from six English speaking countries. Information about the angry episodes of 121 children with ASD as described by…

  8. Children with autism spectrum disorder show pronoun reversals in interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overweg, Jessica; Hartman, C.A.; Hendriks, Petra

    Pronoun reversals, saying you when meaning I, in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are generally viewed as manifesting in early development and speech production only. This study investigates pronoun reversals in later development (age 6–12) in interpretation in 48 Dutch-speaking children

  9. Speaking to Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    surrounding refugees and migrancy in Australia and Europe (since this is what we are invited to do by the organisers), and how the deconstruction of such discourses might lead to more constructive ways of speaking through nation, might offer a way. I think Stan Grant’s book, Talking to My Country, through its...... combination of incisive criticism and insistence on constructive nation-(re)building offers an interesting launching pad. I am hoping to use Grant’s nation-rebuilding project to suggest ways that could open up similar spaces in equally exclusivist, the-nation-is-white-places in Europe. I am aware Grant has...

  10. Teachers' Potpourri: Public Speaking For Consciousness III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangervere, Robert J.

    1971-01-01

    The author discusses the interests and attitudes of present day students. The III's, students of consciousness III, reject the entire concept of academic rewards. Their interest in public speaking classes is not to learn to win others over but rather as a means to improve communication. (MS)

  11. Social demographic change and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kayuet; Zerubavel, Noam; Bearman, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Parental age at child's birth--which has increased for U.S. children in the 1992-2000 birth cohorts--is strongly associated with an increased risk of autism. By turning a social demographic lens on the historical patterning of concordance among twin pairs, we identify a central mechanism for this association: de novo mutations, which are deletions, insertions, and duplications of DNA in the germ cells that are not present in the parents' DNA. Along the way, we show that a demographic eye on the rising prevalence of autism leads to three major discoveries. First, the estimated heritability of autism has been dramatically overstated. Second, heritability estimates can change over remarkably short periods of time because of increases in germ cell mutations. Third, social demographic change can yield genetic changes that, at the population level, combine to contribute to the increased prevalence of autism.

  12. Reduced Cortisol Output during Public Speaking Stress in Ostracized Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, Ulrike; Ruhweza, Jennifer; Deinzer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Ostracism (being excluded or ignored) is experienced as unpleasant and distressing. In previous studies, an immediate pre-stress experience of ostracism induced by Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game, was found to inhibit cortisol reactivity to public speaking stress in female students. The present study examines whether the effect will persist when a 15-min time gap between the Cyberball experience and subsequent psychological stress is introduced. N = 84 women were randomly assigned to Cyberball ostracism vs. inclusion. 15 min after playing Cyberball, all women were subjected to public speaking stress. Salivary cortisol and mood were repeatedly assessed during the course of the experiment. These are the main findings of the study: Repeated measures ANCOVA revealed that public speaking stress resulted in a significant increase of cortisol in both groups (inclusion vs. ostracism). However, cortisol levels were significantly lower in the ostracism group. In earlier studies when Cyberball was played immediately before public speaking stress, the cortisol response to public speaking was completely suppressed in ostracized women. By introducing a waiting period between Cyberball and public speaking stress in the present study, the main effect of an ostracism induced reduction of cortisol remained, although both groups showed an increase of cortisol as a response to public speaking. These results again suggest that the experience of ostracism might inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, thereby confirming previous results. The formerly observed total suppression of HPA axis responsiveness to public speaking, however, seems to be a rather short-term effect.

  13. Teachers Perspectives of the Sexuality of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyva, Efrosini

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience sexuality issues, but there are very few studies looking at sexuality and autism. The present study aims to examine teachers' perceptions of sexual behaviors of 56 children with low functioning autism (LFA) and 20 children with high functioning autism (HFA) or Asperger Syndrome (AS).…

  14. A Twin Study of Heritable and Shared Environmental Contributions to Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Thompson, Lee; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Law, Paul; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Eng, Charis; Morris, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined genetic and shared environment contributions to quantitatively-measured autism symptoms and categorically-defined autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants included 568 twins from the Interactive Autism Network. Autism symptoms were obtained using the Social Communication Questionnaire and Social Responsiveness…

  15. Contextual Autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2009-01-01

    This project deals with the notion of ghost anthropologically and artistic. The contextual autism of ghosting reveals itself as a sensation of in-betweeness in art as well as in everyday life. The ghost is not easily defined; as Jacques Derrida states in Spectres of Marx (1993/1994) about...

  16. Attitudes to Improving Speaking Skills by Guided Individual Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskienė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Students’ perceptions of difficulties in speaking on professional issues are in the focus of the present article. It is generally assumed that the skill of speaking a foreign language is very difficult to master, while speaking on professional topics involves such difficulties as the usage of specific vocabulary and ability to deal with listeners’ oncoming arguments. The aims of the current research are to investigate learners’ attitudes to the level of difficulty in speaking activi - ties on a subject matter at university and apply an innovative approach to improving their speaking skills. The methodology applied was focused on guided individual learning (GIL, with gradually increasing amount of spontaneity in public talks on the subject matter, starting with prepared short talks on an ESP issue leading to group discussions; moving on to Power Point presentations, involving spontaneous deviations from the subject and followed by question time; further, adding some complex subject matter, such as a discussion on a problematic professional subject suggested by learning materials; and, eventually, speaking impromptu on an issue, with a high level of control of one’s speaking skills. The research method of the learners’ attitudes employed the survey on learner attitudes to four different speaking activities in the classroom, which included short talks, Power Point Presentations, discussions and speaking impromptu. The questionnaire was administered to students of two different specializations by the end of the semester. The respondents were students who studied Psychology and Social Work at the Faculty of Social Policy, at Mykolas Romeris University in Vilnius, Lithuania. The respondents were asked to indicate the degree of difficulty they had with the various speaking activities on the Likert’s scale ranging from “very difficult” (1 to “very easy” (5. The results indicated that perceptions of difficulties to developing speaking

  17. Thinking Critically, Speaking Famously, and Writing Effortlessly: An Alternative Performative Public Speaking Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Dacia

    2005-01-01

    Although the concepts of style and delivery occupy a significant portion of any public speaking class, students often fail to make use of stylistic devices or delivery techniques while writing and presenting their speeches. This activity invites students to critically analyze a public speech and then present the critique using their own voice…

  18. Brief Report: Physiognomic Perception in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ryuji

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a Japanese adolescent with autism who strongly perceived inanimate things (Kanji characters) as real persons. Physiognomic perception is investigated as a characteristic mode of autism, and its effects are discussed. It is concluded that the poor cognitive-language ability of some autistic people may shape…

  19. Beyond Pragmatics: Morphosyntactic Development in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Bennetto, Loisa; Dadlani, Mamta B.

    2007-01-01

    Language acquisition research in autism has traditionally focused on high-level pragmatic deficits. Few studies have examined grammatical abilities in autism, with mixed findings. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by providing a detailed investigation of syntactic and higher-level discourse abilities in verbal children with…

  20. Two Boys with 47, XXY and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhar, S. L.; Manning-Courtney, P.

    2007-01-01

    Two children with autism and Klinefelter syndrome (KS) (47, XXY) are presented. Both qualify for the diagnosis of autism based on DSM-IV with severely delayed and disordered language, difficulties with social interaction, and a restricted range of interests and activities. Both also have abnormal EEGs, and one patient has had what appear to be…

  1. Students’ Motivation in Speaking English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas Darul Ihsan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the English teacher in the classroom, there will be some problems or conditions need to be accomplished. Teacher will see some of the students are very motivated, motivated or even feeling ignored in studying English. The learners who have contacted with English will find that some features are quite easy and extremely difficult. One of the more complicated problems of second or foreign languages learning and  teaching has been to define and apply the construct of motivation in the classroom. Motivation is a concept without physical reality, we cannot see motivation; we see effort, interest, attitude and desire. For speaking, it is important first to give competence and then performance. Competence is more likely to the extent a communicator is motivated to be so. Motivation is the extent to which a communicator is drawn towards or pushed away from communicating competently in a given context then performed. This is a descriptive  quantitative research. The data obtained from the questionnaire distributed and analyzed to get the result.  The date taken from the students of Muhammadiyah 1 Senior High School Gresik in Easy-Speaking course. The researcher wanted to know the students’ motivation in practicing speaking English in Easy-Speaking course. The results show that 1 the learners effort in practicing speaking English is 56.1 %. 2 The learners’ interest in practicing speaking English is 49.7 %. 3 The learners’ attitude towards practicing speaking English is 59.9 %. 4 The learners’ desire in practicing speaking English is 71.43 %. Then, some suggestions are made: 1 Using media is very important both to increase the learners’ motivation and to give a big opportunity to learners to explore their idea. 2 Giving more variations techniques in teaching and learning process in order do not monotonous. 3 Giving prizes, encouraging and giving extra points for learners who can express their idea by speaking English well. 4 Creating

  2. [Autism and pain - a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Amandine; Rattaz, Cécile; Pry, René; Baghdadli, Amaria

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present article was to assess the available literature concerning pain and autism. First, authors summarized the published articles on pain reactivity in people with autism. Second, the hypotheses envisaged to explain the presence of expressive particularities in people with autism spectrum disorders were reviewed; these included endogenous opioid excess theory, sensorial abnormalities and sociocommunicative deficit. Finally, the present review dealt with the tools available to assess and manage pain in people with autism. In conclusion, the authors revealed the need for more research to obtain more consensual data and provided some recommendations in this domain that were under exploited by the scientific community. From a clinical point of view, more knowledge about pain in people with autism should enable the development of specific assessment tools and, consequently, better pain management in daily care.

  3. Autisme et Douleur – Analyse Bibliographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Dubois

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article was to assess the available literature concerning pain and autism. First, authors summarized the published articles on pain reactivity in people with autism. Second, the hypotheses envisaged to explain the presence of expressive particularities in people with autism spectrum disorders were reviewed; these included endogenous opioid excess theory, sensorial abnormalities and sociocommunicative deficit. Finally, the present review dealt with the tools available to assess and manage pain in people with autism. In conclusion, the authors revealed the need for more research to obtain more consensual data and provided some recommendations in this domain that were underexploited by the scientific community. From a clinical point of view, more knowledge about pain in people with autism should enable the development of specific assessment tools and, consequently, better pain management in daily care.

  4. Speak Up: Anesthesia and Sedation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The drugs can stay in your body for up to 24 hours. Remember, it is important to ... the instructions provided after the procedure. Do: • Speak up if you have any questions • Ask for written ...

  5. Historical Perspectives on Teaching Speaking

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalovska, Nina

    2018-01-01

    There may be many different reasons for learning a foreign language, but for most language learners developing good speaking skills is essential. Communicative language teaching approaches that have been in vogue since the 1970s emphasize the importance of developing learners' communicative ability. Even though there have been other methods and approaches that tried to develop learners' speaking skills, their underlying principles or the techniques they used prevented them from producing flue...

  6. A Meta-Analysis of Single Case Research Studies on Aided Augmentative and Alternative Communication Systems with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Earles-Vollrath, Theresa L.; Heath, Amy K.; Parker, Richard I.; Rispoli, Mandy J.; Duran, Jaime B.

    2012-01-01

    Many individuals with autism cannot speak or cannot speak intelligibly. A variety of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) approaches have been investigated. Most of the research on these approaches has been single-case research, with small numbers of participants. The purpose of this investigation was to meta-analyze the single…

  7. Gastrointestinal issues in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Elaine Y

    2014-01-01

    While autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by communication impairments, social abnormalities, and stereotypic behaviors, several medical comorbidities are observed in autistic individuals. Of these, gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities are of particular interest given their reported prevalence and correlation with the severity of core autism-related behavioral abnormalities. This review discusses the GI pathologies seen in ASD individuals and the association of particular GI conditions with known genetic and environmental risk factors for autism. It further addresses how GI abnormalities can affect the neuropathological and behavioral features of ASD, as well as the development of autism-related endophenotypes such as immune dysregulation, hyperserotonemia, and metabolic dysfunction. Finally, it presents emerging evidence for a gut-brain connection in autism, wherein GI dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis or severity of ASD symptoms.

  8. Brain imaging and autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilbovicius, M.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  9. Brain imaging and autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilbovicius, M. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), INSERM CEA 0205, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Autism is a neuro-developmental disorder with a range of clinical presentations, from mild to severe, referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The most common clinical ASD sign is social interaction impairment, which is associated with verbal and non-verbal communication deficits and stereotyped and obsessive behaviors. Thanks to recent brain imaging studies, scientists are getting a better idea of the neural circuits involved in ASD. Indeed, functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single positron emission tomograph y (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have opened a new perspective to study normal and pathological brain functions. Three independent studies have found anatomical and rest functional temporal abnormalities. These anomalies are localized in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally which are critical for perception of key social stimuli. In addition, functional studies have shown hypo-activation of most areas implicated in social perception (face and voice perception) and social cognition (theory of mind). These data suggest an abnormal functioning of the social brain network. The understanding of such crucial abnormal mechanism may drive the elaboration of new and more adequate social re-educative strategies in autism. (author)

  10. [Autism spectrum syndrome replaces Asperger syndrome and autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, Susanne; Nordin, Viviann

    2014-09-23

    Autism spectrum disorder describes a behaviourally defined impairment in social interaction and communication, along with the presence of restricted interests and repetitive behaviours. Although the etiology is mostly unknown, it is evident that biological factors affect the brain and result in the autistic clinical presentation. Assessment for diagnosing autism spectrum disorder should be comprehensive in order to cover all sorts of problems related to the disorder. Knowledge and experience from working with neurological and psychiatric disorders are a prerequisite for quality in the examination. Up to now, there is no cure for autism spectrum disorder, but support and adaptations in education are nevertheless important for obtaining sufficient life quality for the patients and the family.

  11. Functional neuroimaging and childhood autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boddaert, Nathalie [Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris (France); Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DRM, DSV, CEA, Orsay (France); Zilbovicius, Monica [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DRM, DSV, CEA, Orsay (France); INSERM, Tours (France)

    2002-01-01

    Childhood autism is now widely viewed as being of developmental neurobiological origin. Yet, localised structural and functional brain correlates of autism have to be established. Structural brain-imaging studies performed in autistic patients have reported abnormalities such as increased total brain volume and cerebellar abnormalities. However, none of these abnormalities fully account for the full range of autistic symptoms. Functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have added a new perspective to the study of normal and pathological brain functions. In autism, functional studies have been performed at rest or during activation. However, first-generation functional imaging devices were not sensitive enough to detect any consistent dysfunction. Recently, with improved technology, two independent groups have reported bilateral hypoperfusion of the temporal lobes in autistic children. In addition, activation studies, using perceptive and cognitive paradigms, have shown an abnormal pattern of cortical activation in autistic patients. These results suggest that different connections between particular cortical regions could exist in autism. The purpose of this review is to present the main results of rest and activation studies performed in autism. (orig.)

  12. Biological Motion Perception in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Cusack

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Typically developing adults can readily recognize human actions, even when conveyed to them via point-like markers placed on the body of the actor (Johansson, 1973. Previous research has suggested that children affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD are not equally sensitive to this type of visual information (Blake et al, 2003, but it remains unknown why ASD would impact the ability to perceive biological motion. We present evidence which looks at how adolescents and adults with autism are affected by specific factors which are important in biological motion perception, such as (eg, inter-agent synchronicity, upright/inverted, etc.

  13. Can You Tell Me Something about Yourself?: Self-Presentation in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder in Hypothetical and Real Life Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeren, Anke M.; Begeer, Sander; Banerjee, Robin; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Koot, Hans M.

    2010-01-01

    The self-presentation skills of children and adolescents with high-functioning autistic spectrum disorder (HFASD) and typically developing (TD) controls were compared, in response to both hypothetical and real life situations. In both situations, 26 HFASD and 26 TD participants were prompted to describe themselves twice, first in a baseline…

  14. Kids' Quest: Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Have Information For… Parents / Educators What is autism and how do I recognize a kid who might be diagnosed as having an autism spectrum disorder? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  15. Configuring the autism epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Christensen, Fie Lund Lindegaard

    2017-01-01

    is skewed in favour of boys, and girls with autism tend to be diagnosed much later than boys. Building and further developing the notion of ‘configuration’ of epidemics, this article explores the configuration of autism in Denmark, with a particular focus on the health system and social support to families...... with children diagnosed with autism, seen from a parental perspective. The article points to diagnostic dynamics that contribute to explaining why girls with autism are not diagnosed as easily as boys. We unfold these dynamics through the analysis of a case of a Danish family with autism.......Autism has been described as an epidemic, but this claim is contested and may point to an awareness epidemic, i.e. changes in the definition of what autism is and more attention being invested in diagnosis leading to a rise in registered cases. The sex ratio of children diagnosed with autism...

  16. The Pathophysiology of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Compart, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism has been classically defined by its behavioral symptoms. Traditional medical research has focused on genetic or intrinsic brain-based causes of autism. While both of these are important, additional research has focused on the underlying disordered biochemistry seen in many individuals with autism. Many of these biomedical factors are amenable to treatment. This article will review the main pathophysiologic factors seen in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

  17. Public Speaking: Managing Challenging People and Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Neil; Boughton, Leonarda

    2016-01-01

    Every public speaker has encountered, or most likely will encounter, a difficult member of the audience who disrupts their presentation. This is a source of anxiety and discomfort, not only for the presenter, but for the audience as well. Learning how to manage the disruptive audience member is an art form, just like being a good public speaker. A professional speaker knows how to handle this disruption without making the audience uncomfortable and without embarrassing the disruptor. This article discusses ways to manage the disruptive audience member and will help those of you who do public speaking to tactfully and professionally disengage someone who is ruining your program.

  18. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Speaking Up About Patient Safety Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Aline; Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Schwappach, David D L

    2017-08-28

    Speaking up about safety concerns by staff is important to prevent medical errors. Knowledge about healthcare workers' speaking up behaviors and perceived speaking up climate is useful for healthcare organizations (HCOs) to identify areas for improvement. The aim of this study was to develop a short questionnaire allowing HCOs to assess different aspects of speaking up among healthcare staff. Healthcare workers (n = 523) from 2 Swiss hospitals completed a questionnaire covering various aspects of speak up-related behaviors and climate. Psychometric testing included descriptive statistics, correlations, reliabilities (Cronbach α), principal component analysis, and t tests for assessing differences in hierarchical groups. Principal component analysis confirmed the structure of 3 speaking up behavior-related scales, that is, frequency of perceived concerns (concern scale, α = 0.73), withholding voice (silence scale, α = 0.76), and speaking up (speak up scale, α = 0.85). Concerning speak up climate, principal component analysis revealed 3 scales (psychological safety, α = 0.84; encouraging environment, α = 0.74; resignation, α = 0.73). The final survey instrument also included items covering speaking up barriers and a vignette to assess simulated behavior. A higher hierarchical level was mostly associated with a more positive speak up-related behavior and climate. Patient safety concerns, speaking up, and withholding voice were frequently reported. With this questionnaire, we present a tool to systematically assess and evaluate important aspects of speaking up in HCOs. This allows for identifying areas for improvement, and because it is a short survey, to monitor changes in speaking up-for example, before and after an improvement project.

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that can cause ... of CDC’s work. Autism: What's New Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Data Community Report Press Release Learn the Signs. ...

  20. Autism and Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Gregory; Pearson, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    In this article a short overview is given of the relationship between autism and learning disability. Autism exists with any level of intelligence, but many individuals with autism suffer also from learning disability. Although both disorders show overlap in some behaviours they are different in many aspects. Are they distinct syndromes which…

  1. Does Rubella Cause Autism: A 2015 Reappraisal?

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Jill

    2016-01-01

    In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today’s world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen; yet, ...

  2. Hispanic Immigrant Mothers of Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: How Do They Understand and Cope With Autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijalba, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to understand the experiences of raising a child with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in a group of Hispanic immigrant mothers. The following 3 aspects were explored: (a) the families' social environments, (b) cultural beliefs on development and autism, and (c) perceptions of bilingualism influencing language choices. In-depth 3-part phenomenological interviews and thematic analyses were conducted with 22 Hispanic immigrant mothers of preschool children with ASD. A total of 3 thematic categories emerged: stigmatization and social isolation, preconceptions about developmental milestones and autism, and mothers' reluctance to speak Spanish with their children. A lack of awareness about autism influenced social isolation, and autism was viewed as temporary and associated with fear or sadness. The mothers believed that exposure to 2 languages would increase their children's language difficulties. Hispanic immigrant mothers raising children with autism were often challenged by immigration status, economic hardship, and advice against using Spanish with their children. Professional training and parent education are needed to facilitate early identification of ASD. Immigrant families should be encouraged to communicate in the home language with their children. Information about ASD should be disseminated through community outreach, home-school connections, and pediatricians, who remain pivotal in informing Hispanic immigrant families.

  3. Aminoglycoside antibiotics and autism: a speculative hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manev Hari

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, it has been suspected that there is a relationship between therapy with some antibiotics and the onset of autism; but even more curious, some children benefited transiently from a subsequent treatment with a different antibiotic. Here, we speculate how aminoglycoside antibiotics might be associated with autism. Presentation We hypothesize that aminoglycoside antibiotics could a trigger the autism syndrome in susceptible infants by causing the stop codon readthrough, i.e., a misreading of the genetic code of a hypothetical critical gene, and/or b improve autism symptoms by correcting the premature stop codon mutation in a hypothetical polymorphic gene linked to autism. Testing Investigate, retrospectively, whether a link exists between aminoglycoside use (which is not extensive in children and the onset of autism symptoms (hypothesis "a", or between amino glycoside use and improvement of these symptoms (hypothesis "b". Whereas a prospective study to test hypothesis "a" is not ethically justifiable, a study could be designed to test hypothesis "b". Implications It should be stressed that at this stage no direct evidence supports our speculative hypothesis and that its main purpose is to initiate development of new ideas that, eventually, would improve our understanding of the pathobiology of autism.

  4. Identifying Autism through Empathizing and Systemizing Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi van der Zee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Baron-Cohen’s Empathizing-Systemizing theory plays a central role in this study due to its success in interpreting the core impairments and strengths in autism. The theory states that low empathizing skills are responsible for the social difficulties in autism, and that high levels of systemizing are accountable for the restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior in autism. We therefore hypothesized that there is a significant discrepancy between a child’s empathizing and systemizing abilities when autism is present. We developed Dutch versions of the questionnaires that are associated with the theory: the Autism Quotient questionnaire, the Empathizing Quotient questionnaire and the Systemizing Quotient questionnaire. As hypothesized, the scores of children with autism on the Empathizing Quotient questionnaire and on the Systemizing Quotient questionnaire (EQ-SQ Child_NL show a significant difference. Furthermore, the EQ-SQ Child_NL predicts the score of children in general on the Dutch version of the Autism Quotient questionnaire (AQ Child_NL.

  5. Perception of Melodic Contour and Intonation in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from Mandarin Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Liu, Fang; Wan, Xuan; Jiang, Cunmei

    2015-01-01

    Tone language experience benefits pitch processing in music and speech for typically developing individuals. No known studies have examined pitch processing in individuals with autism who speak a tone language. This study investigated discrimination and identification of melodic contour and speech intonation in a group of Mandarin-speaking…

  6. The Interface of Syntax with Pragmatics and Prosody in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Arhonto; Marinis, Theodoros; Francis, Kostantinos

    2016-01-01

    In order to study problems of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with morphosyntax, we investigated twenty high-functioning Greek-speaking children (mean age: 6;11) and twenty age- and language-matched typically developing children on environments that allow or forbid object clitics or their corresponding noun phrase. Children with…

  7. Improvement of Speaking Ability through Interrelated Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Guoqiang

    2009-01-01

    How to improve students' ability of speaking English? That is the key point we are concerned about. This paper discusses the possibility and necessity of improving students' ability by combining the four skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing.

  8. Beyond pragmatics: morphosyntactic development in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Bennetto, Loisa; Dadlani, Mamta B

    2007-07-01

    Language acquisition research in autism has traditionally focused on high-level pragmatic deficits. Few studies have examined grammatical abilities in autism, with mixed findings. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by providing a detailed investigation of syntactic and higher-level discourse abilities in verbal children with autism, age 5 years. Findings indicate clear language difficulties that go beyond what would be expected based on developmental level; specifically, syntactic delays, impairments in discourse management and increased production of non-meaningful words (jargon). The present study indicates a highly specific pattern of language impairments, and importantly, syntactic delays, in a group of children with autism carefully matched on lexical level and non-verbal mental age with children with developmental delays and typical development.

  9. Does Rubella Cause Autism: A 2015 Reappraisal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Jill

    2016-01-01

    In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today’s world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen; yet, autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects, and to a lesser extent visual changes. Autistic children commonly have hyperactivity and spasticity, as do CRS children. Both autistic and CRS individuals may develop type 1 diabetes as young adults. Neuropathology of CRS infants may reveal cerebral vasculitis with narrowed lumens and cerebral necrosis. Neuroradiological findings of children with CRS show calcifications, periventricular leukomalacia, and dilated perivascular spaces. Neuroradiology of autism has also demonstrated hyperintensities, leukomalacia, and prominent perivascular spaces. PET studies of autistic individuals exhibit decreased perfusion to areas of the brain similarly affected by rubella. In both autism and CRS, certain changes in the brain have implicated the immune system. Several children with autism lack antibodies to rubella, as do children with CRS. These numerous similarities increase the probability of an association between rubella virus and autism. Rubella and autism cross many ethnicities in many countries. Contrary to current belief, rubella has not been eradicated and globally affects up to 5% of pregnant women. Susceptibility continues as vaccines are not given worldwide and are not fully protective. Rubella might still cause autism, even in vaccinated populations. PMID:26869906

  10. Does Rubella Cause Autism: A 2015 Reappraisal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Jill

    2016-01-01

    In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today's world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen; yet, autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects, and to a lesser extent visual changes. Autistic children commonly have hyperactivity and spasticity, as do CRS children. Both autistic and CRS individuals may develop type 1 diabetes as young adults. Neuropathology of CRS infants may reveal cerebral vasculitis with narrowed lumens and cerebral necrosis. Neuroradiological findings of children with CRS show calcifications, periventricular leukomalacia, and dilated perivascular spaces. Neuroradiology of autism has also demonstrated hyperintensities, leukomalacia, and prominent perivascular spaces. PET studies of autistic individuals exhibit decreased perfusion to areas of the brain similarly affected by rubella. In both autism and CRS, certain changes in the brain have implicated the immune system. Several children with autism lack antibodies to rubella, as do children with CRS. These numerous similarities increase the probability of an association between rubella virus and autism. Rubella and autism cross many ethnicities in many countries. Contrary to current belief, rubella has not been eradicated and globally affects up to 5% of pregnant women. Susceptibility continues as vaccines are not given worldwide and are not fully protective. Rubella might still cause autism, even in vaccinated populations.

  11. [Autism: exploring historical psychiatric and psychological concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbier, E; Haack, K; Herpertz, S C

    2008-08-01

    Autism today is a widely used term, yet what is understood by autism has changed considerably since first being introduced in scientific discourse almost 100 years ago. Autism is one example for the influence of the psychoanalytic school of Sigmund Freud on scientific psychiatry at the beginning of the 20th century. In particular psychoanalysis had an impact on Eugen Bleuler's concept of schizophrenia. The Swiss psychiatrist did not only acknowledge and follow a biological, but also a psychological approach to psychiatry and thus opened up his subject to psychoanalytic thoughts. This paper provides insights into the term's conceptual history--or, more specifically and precisely--sheds light on the expansion of the term's scope, which has gotten to be used for more and more symptoms and phenomena. When Bleuler first presented the term autism, he used it to refer to a classical schizophrenic symptom. Since, however, Bleuler was not very specific and exclusive in his definition, the term was soon used for other phenomena as well, such as to describe a schizoid symptom in the sense of today's schizoid personality disorder (schizoid autism). The concepts of autistic hebephrenia and depressive autism are further examples how the term was used and give insight into how the contents behind the term changed, got less and less specific and widened its scope. Due to its growing vagueness its suitability and usability as a psychopathological term decreased. This process further was strengthened when the word autism got more and more widely used in colloquial language for different aspects of day-to-day routine and thinking. Thus in psychiatry today, autism is exclusively used in connection with the so-called autism spectrum disorders, but has, as other formerly exclusively technical terms, different and rather unspecific meanings in everyday communication.

  12. Does rubella cause autism: a 2015 reappraisal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill eHutton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS, 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today’s world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen, yet autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects and to a lesser extent visual changes. Autistic children commonly have hyperactivity and spasticity, as do CRS children. Both autistic and CRS individuals may develop type 1 diabetes as young adults. Neuropathology of CRS infants may reveal cerebral vasculitis with narrowed lumens and cerebral necrosis. Neuroradiologic findings of children with CRS show calcifications, periventricular leukomalacia, and dilated perivascular spaces. Neuroradiology of autism has also demonstrated hyperintensities, leukomalacia and prominent perivascular spaces. PET studies of autistic individuals exhibit decreased perfusion to areas of the brain similarly affected by rubella. In both autism and CRS, certain changes in the brain have implicated the immune system. Several children with autism lack antibodies to rubella, as do children with CRS. These numerous similarities increase the probability of an association between rubella virus and autism.Rubella and autism cross many ethnicities in many countries. Contrary to current belief, rubella has not been eradicated and globally affects up to 5% of pregnant women. Susceptibility continues as vaccines are not given worldwide and are not fully protective. Rubella might still cause autism, even in vaccinated populations.

  13. Sexuality of persons with autism: Approaches to sexuality education

    OpenAIRE

    Banković, Slobodan; Đorđević, Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Surveys conducted over the past two decades have resulted in a more complete understanding of the sexual behavior of persons with autism, but also the need to issue more attention. Although a large number of people with autism express sexual interest and various forms of sexual behavior, they are not always expressed in a socially acceptable way. The paper presents some approaches to sexuality education of persons with autism, as well as review the specific sexual behaviors that may be releva...

  14. Specifies of teaching swimming to children with autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Baštová, Miroslava

    2017-01-01

    Title: Specifics of teaching swimming to children with autism spectrum disorder. Objectives: Creation and implementation of the concept of preparatory and basic swimming lessons for children with autism spectrum disorder. Evaluation of information on continuing education and the achieved level of swimming skills and swimming locomotion observed in children with autism spectrum disorder. Presentation and qualitative assessment of the four case studies and subsequent design of guidelines for sw...

  15. Speech task effects on acoustic measure of fundamental frequency in Cantonese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Estella P-M; Lam, Nina L-N

    2015-12-01

    Speaking fundamental frequency (F0) is a voice measure frequently used to document changes in vocal performance over time. Knowing the intra-subject variability of speaking F0 has implications on its clinical usefulness. The present study examined the speaking F0 elicited from three speech tasks in Cantonese-speaking children. The study also compared the variability of speaking F0 elicited from different speech tasks. Fifty-six vocally healthy Cantonese-speaking children (31 boys and 25 girls) aged between 7.0 and 10.11 years participated. For each child, speaking F0 was elicited using speech tasks at three linguistic levels (sustained vowel /a/ prolongation, reading aloud a sentence and passage). Two types of variability, within-session (trial-to-trial) and across-session (test-retest) variability, were compared across speech tasks. Significant differences in mean speaking F0 values were found between speech tasks. Mean speaking F0 value elicited from sustained vowel phonations was significantly higher than those elicited from the connected speech tasks. The variability of speaking F0 was higher in sustained vowel prolongation than that in connected speech. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Board Game on Speaking Ability of Low-proficiency ESL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Mei Fung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ESL learners often experience anxiety and feel uncomfortable when speaking in the target language. This paper examines the anxiety level of polytechnic students when speaking English and the effects of board game on their speaking performance. The participants were selected from two intact classes which were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups comprising 30 students each. Data were obtained from pre- and post-treatment speaking tests and questionnaire. The questionnaire measuring anxiety factors was adapted from Yaikhong and Usaha (2012 and Woodrow (2006. The board game “What Say You” employed during the treatment was a speaking activity which required players to speak on a topic within a given time frame. The experimental group played the board games over six sessions. The results from the experimental and control groups showed significant difference in the pre- and post-treatment speaking test scores. However, the speaking performance of the experimental group revealed significantly higher scores. Students who were initially hesitant and passive were more willing to speak and were able to present and justify their ideas more confidently as compared to the control group after the treatment. The findings reveal that the board game is a useful tool to engage learners’ participation in class and to enhance the speaking ability of low-proficiency ESL learners.

  17. I Can Speak French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational French in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  18. Interactive visual supports for children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Gillian R.; Hirano, Sen; Marcu, Gabriela; Monibi, Mohamad; Nguyen, David H.; Yeganyan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Interventions to support children with autism often include the use of visual supports, which are cognitive tools to enable learning and the production of language. Although visual supports are effective in helping to diminish many of the challenges of autism, they are difficult and time-consuming to create, distribute, and use. In this paper, we present the results of a qualitative study focused on uncovering design guidelines for interactive visual supports that would address the many chall...

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Speaking Strategies Employed by Second ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NEW

    terms of the provision speaking activities and strategy training in teaching learning process of speaking .... appropriate to conduct this study while they .... J. Educ. & Sc. Vol. 10 No 2, March, 2015 84 asked individually to avoid bias and influence of one another so that every interviewee can speak of his/her own experience.

  20. Topical Knowledge in L2 Speaking Assessment: Comparing Independent and Integrated Speaking Test Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan; Plakans, Lia

    2018-01-01

    Integrated speaking test tasks (integrated tasks) provide reading and/or listening input to serve as the basis for test-takers to formulate their oral responses. This study examined the influence of topical knowledge on integrated speaking test performance and compared independent speaking test performance and integrated speaking test performance…

  1. Rotating Poster Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagares, Manuel; Reisenleutner, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Oral presentations are a common practice in foreign language classes, often used to assess students' speaking skills. Usually, the presentations are delivered by students in front of the class, often with PowerPoint slides or Prezi as support. However, frequently the audience does not engage with the presentation and thus, the benefits of this…

  2. Two French-Speaking Cases of Foreign Accent Syndrome: An Acoustic-Phonetic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Johanna-Pascale; Macoir, Joel; Martel-Sauvageau, Vincent; Boudreault, Carol-Ann

    2012-01-01

    Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) is an acquired neurologic disorder in which an individual suddenly and unintentionally speaks with an accent which is perceived as being different from his/her usual accent. This study presents an acoustic-phonetic description of two Quebec French-speaking cases. The first speaker presents a perceived accent shift to…

  3. Autism in Angelman Syndrome: An Exploration of Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Ostergaard, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to explore the comorbidity between Angelman syndrome and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Identification of autism in children with Angelman syndrome presents a diagnostic challenge. In the present study, 16 children with Angelman syndrome, all with a 15q11-13 deletion, were examined for ASDs. Thirteen children with Angelman syndrome…

  4. SPEAKING LEARNING ACTIVITIES YANG DIGUNAKAN DALAM BELAJAR SPEAKING 1 MAHASISWA TBI STAIN PAMEKASAN

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Basri

    2015-01-01

    Speaking is important language skill in language learning process. The success of study English reflects to a mastery of speaking skill. In order to, to choose appropriate learning activities will help the students comprehend the speaking skill well. There are effective steps of learning activity to facilitate the students to study speaking; memory, cognitive, and compensation learning activities. The combination of learning activity can facilitate the speaking learning process that is not on...

  5. Speaking of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    At the 1989 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) General Conference, the Japanese Government pledged an extra-budgetary contribution for a three-year enhanced public information programme. On this basis the programme was developed centering on a series of two-day regional media seminars. It was determined that these seminars were to be informative and educational, and provide balanced, honest background material on the subject of nuclear energy. The speakers chosen were a mix of IAEA and outside experts from around the world. About 500 participants from 20 countries took part over the initial three years of the programme. This document contains a selection of speeches and topics that, is believed, captured the essence of the information presented during the regional seminars

  6. Back to basics: speak up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    Being able to identify problems and bring them to the attention of OR team colleagues is crucial for the safety of both patients and perioperative team members; however, being able to do this means being comfortable with speaking up under circumstances that may be difficult. Disruptive or intimidating coworker behavior also makes speaking up difficult, but it is important to address in the interest of providing safe, effective care to patients. To remedy this, health care workers should create awareness of the problem and motivate others to take action; establish a culture of respect; set expectations to help eliminate disrespectful behavior; and create a learning environment that eliminates hierarchical structures, fosters professionalism, demonstrates respect, and enforces a zero tolerance policy. Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Autism spectrum disorder - Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  8. Morphosyntactic Development of Bangla-Speaking Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Asifa; Stokes, Stephanie; Klee, Thomas; Fletcher, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the morphosyntactic development, specifically verb morphology, of typically-developing Bangla-speaking children between the ages of two and four. Three verb forms were studied: the Present Simple, the Present Progressive and the Past Progressive. The study was motivated by the observations that reliable language-specific…

  9. Public speaking in virtual reality : Audience design and speaker experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, N.

    2016-01-01

    Whether we are talking about our research at a conference, making a speech at a friend’s wedding, or presenting a proposal in a businessmeeting,we have to speak in public from time to time. How well we deliver a presentation affects the way people think about us and our message. To deliver a

  10. Using Public Speaking Tasks in English Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberri-Shea, Gina

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide suggestions for using public speaking tasks in English language teaching (ELT) and to highlight some of their many advantages. For the purpose of this article, the author will focus on two types of these tasks: student presentations and debates. Student presentations may consist of either individual or…

  11. Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…

  12. Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: Can We Differentiate Their Cognitive Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) can be differentiated from each other and from typically developing children on their cognitive profiles. The present study included a total of 45 participants: children with autism (high-functioning autism or Asperger's…

  13. Recognition of Schematic Facial Displays of Emotion in Parents of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Mark T.; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Barbati, Giulia; Intelligente, Fabio; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2006-01-01

    Performance on an emotional labeling task in response to schematic facial patterns representing five basic emotions without the concurrent presentation of a verbal category was investigated in 40 parents of children with autism and 40 matched controls. "Autism fathers" performed worse than "autism mothers," who performed worse than controls in…

  14. Youth Views of Experiences and Benefits of Public Speaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Silliman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-eight youth participants, ages 9-17, involved in a public speaking event reported that preparation and presentation of a 5-12 minute demonstration or illustrated talk improved confidence, knowledge of a selected topic and skills in communicating, goal setting, organizing, working with others, and doing research. Positive benefits were reported from first-year as well as multi-year participants. Most youth surveyed indicated that they participated by choice and received adequate assistance in preparation for speaking. Similar results were found for a smaller group (N = 20 involved in a non-competitive performing arts event. A randomly-selected group (N = 37 interviewed about the extended effects of public speaking revealed that the experience helped them in school presentations, community leadership, and more in-depth involvement in specific topic areas. Implications of results for youth programming and engaging wider audiences of youth are discussed.

  15. Comparison of urinary oxidative biomarkers in Iranian children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Akram; Rashedi, Vahid; Rezaei, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder usually presents in early childhood and thought to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Individuals with autism vary widely in abilities, intelligence, and behaviors. It is common for children with autism to exhibit eating disorders and some have preferences for soft and sweetened food making them susceptible to caries. Furthermore, a wide spectrum of medical and behavioral symptoms exhibited by children with autism makes routine dental care very difficult. Intellectual disability is evident in approximately 70% of individuals with autism and most psychiatric disorders, including autism, are associated with increased oxidative stress. 29 subjects diagnosed with autism, in the age group of 6 to 12 years, were a part of the study. Furturemore, 24 normal healthy siblings of same age group were taken as the control group. The present study aimed to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers such as urinary total antioxidant concentration (TAC), catalase activity (CAT) and total thiol molecules (TTM). The results showed the autism group have significantly higher CAT activity and concomitant lower TAC and TTM concentration in comparison with control group. The results are discussed in relation to an increased vulnerability to oxidative damage, which may contribute to the development and clinical manifestation of symptoms of autism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorder and intact executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, R; Ansermet, F; Massoni, F; Petrone, L; Onofri, E; Ricci, P; Archer, T; Ricci, S

    2016-01-01

    Earliest notions concerning autism (Autism Spectrum Disorders, ASD) describe the disturbance in executive functioning. Despite altered definition, executive functioning, expressed as higher cognitive skills required complex behaviors linked to the prefrontal cortex, are defective in autism. Specific difficulties in children presenting autism or verbal disabilities at executive functioning levels have been identified. Nevertheless, the developmental deficit of executive functioning in autism is highly diversified with huge individual variation and may even be absent. The aim of the present study to examine the current standing of intact executive functioning intact in ASD. Analysis of ASD populations, whether high-functioning, Asperger's or autism Broad Phenotype, studied over a range of executive functions including response inhibition, planning, cognitive flexibility, cognitive inhibition, and alerting networks indicates an absence of damage/impairment compared to the typically-developed normal control subjects. These findings of intact executive functioning in ASD subjects provide a strong foundation on which to construct applications for growth environments and the rehabilitation of autistic subjects.

  17. PEER SUGGESTIVE FEEDBACK IN ENGLISH SPEAKING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Widyaningrum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Students learn English in Speaking Class should get enjoyable learning atmosphere in order to help them improve their speaking skill. Teacher‘s role as facilitator contributes in reducing students‘ anxiety when they have chance to speak. Nunan (1995 and Richards (2008 argue that speaking is an important skill in language learning whether it is as EFL or ESL that enable language learners to communicate not only in expressing view point but also in giving responses in their communication. This classroom study supports the idea to give positive suggestion as students‘ feedback given by their peers. Each student has their own chance to review and to be reviewed so that they can perform better in speaking class. This study is conducted in order to improve students‘ speaking skill in speaking class.

  18. Autism in flux: a history of the concept from Leo Kanner to DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeff, Berend

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, I argue that a new relation between past and present - a supposed historical continuity in the meaning of autism - is created by the histories written by the discipline itself. In histories of autism written by 'practitioner-historians', a sense of scientific progress and an essentialist understanding of autism legitimize and reinforce current understandings and research directions in the field of autism. Conceptual discontinuities and earlier complexities and disputes concerning classifying and delineating autism are usually left out of the positivist narrative of autism. In an alternative history of the concept of autism, I demonstrate that there have been major shifts in the type of symptoms, signs and impairments that were - and are - thought to be essential and specific for autism.

  19. INTEGRATING ACTIVE LEARNING IN A COLLEGE SPEAKING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryla Rochmahwati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active learning strategies provide a wide variety of activities which can be integrated in a College EFL Class especially on Speaking 1 Course at Ponorogo Islamic State College. They provide many benefits, such as giving the students’ chances to apply various ways in order to comprehend the material. Also, they emphasize the significance of the learner’s involvement in the learning process. Active Learning strategies are considered appropriate to give students the same amount of chance in practicing their speaking skill and to pay attention in creating a learning situation. Some active learning strategies including the advantages and their application procedures are intended to help learners achieve the objective of Speaking1 course are presented in the article. Lecturers may, however, find that some just do not fit their style of teaching or that others would work well in their speaking class or with modifications. On the other hand, there are some obstacles that occur during theimplementation of active learning, namely disinterested students and time pressures. Keywords: active learning, speaking

  20. Current status of knowledge on public-speaking anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pull, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the current knowledge on public-speaking anxiety, that is, the fear of speaking in front of others. This article summarizes the findings from previous review articles and describes new research findings on basic science aspects, prevalence rates, classification, and treatment that have been published between August 2008 and August 2011. Recent findings highlight the major aspects of psychological and physiological reactivity to public speaking in individuals who are afraid to speak in front of others, confirm high prevalence rates of the disorder, contribute to identifying the disorder as a possibly distinct subtype of social anxiety disorder (SAD), and give support to the efficacy of treatment programs using virtual reality exposure and Internet-based self-help. Public-speaking anxiety is a highly prevalent disorder, leading to excessive psychological and physiological reactivity. It is present in a majority of individuals with SAD and there is substantial evidence that it may be a distinct subtype of SAD. It is amenable to treatment including, in particular, new technologies such as exposure to virtual environments and the use of cognitive-behavioral self-help programs delivered on the Internet.

  1. Brief virtual reality therapy for public speaking anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sandra R; Kemmerling, Robert L; North, Max M

    2002-12-01

    The primary goal of this research program was to investigate the effectiveness of virtual reality therapy (VRT) in reducing public speaking anxiety of university students. The prevalence and impact of public speaking anxiety as a type of Social Phobia are discussed. Studies of VRT as an emerging treatment for psychological problems are reviewed. In the present study, eight students completed VRT individual treatment and post-testing, and six students in a Wait-List control group completed post-testing. Assessment measures included four self-report inventories, self-report of Subjective Units of Discomfort during exposure to VRT and physiological measurements of heart rate during speaking tasks. Four weekly individual exposure treatment sessions of approximately 15 min each were conducted by the author serving as therapist. Results on self-report and physiological measures appear to indicate that four virtual reality treatment sessions were effective in reducing public speaking anxiety in university students, corroborating earlier studies of VRT's effectiveness as a psychotherapeutic modality. Future research directions are discussed, primarily the need for research on younger populations, to assess the effectiveness of VRT for earlier intervention with public speaking anxiety.

  2. Epilepsy in patients with autism: links, risks and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besag FMC

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Frank MC Besag Neurodevelopmental Team, East London Foundation NHS Trust, Family Consultation Clinic, Bedford, UK Abstract: Autism is more common in people with epilepsy, approximately 20%, and epilepsy is more common in people with autism with reported rates of approximately 20%. However, these figures are likely to be affected by the current broader criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD, which have contributed to an increased prevalence of autism, with the result that the rate for ASD in epilepsy is likely to be higher and the figure for epilepsy in ASD is likely to be lower. Some evidence suggests that there are two peaks of epilepsy onset in autism, in infancy and adolescence. The rate of autism in epilepsy is much higher in those with intellectual disability. In conditions such as the Landau–Kleffner syndrome and nonconvulsive status epilepticus, the epilepsy itself may present with autistic features. There is no plausible mechanism for autism causing epilepsy, however. The co-occurrence of autism and epilepsy is almost certainly the result of underlying factors predisposing to both conditions, including both genetic and environmental factors. Conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and sleep disorders are common in both epilepsy and autism. Epilepsy is generally not a contraindication to treating these conditions with suitable medication, but it is important to take account of relevant drug interactions. One of the greatest challenges in autism is to determine why early childhood regression occurs in perhaps 25%. Further research should focus on finding the cause for such regression. Whether epilepsy plays a role in the regression of a subgroup of children with autism who lose skills remains to be determined. Keywords: epilepsy, autism, regression, genetics, environment, Landau-Kleffner, CSWS 

  3. Relationship between EFL Learners’ Autonomy and Speaking Strategies They Use in Conversation Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Salehi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted at Parsayan Language Institute in Isfahan, Iran. The students in pre- intermediate and intermediate classes were examined to investigate the relationship between degrees of learner autonomy, use of strategies for coping with speaking problems and the learners’ success in their speaking classes. To determine the degree of correlation among degree of learner autonomy, use of strategies for coping with speaking problems, and success in speaking classes, a validated questionnaire was distributed among 50 participants. The participants were required to self-report the strategies they use when they have problems during speaking English and to report their degree of learner autonomy as an English language learner by choosing one of the items on the questionnaire. The analysis of the obtained results showed that learners with low speaking grades were weaker in comparison with learners with high speaking grades during the use of strategies for coping with speaking problems on the whole. Similarly, learners with low speaking grades reported themselves as less autonomous when compared to high proficiency learners of English, although the difference was not significant between the group of learners in average speaking grade and high grade level. The first desirable endpoint should be some kind of modification on the curriculum of language teaching in terms of development of learner autonomy. More chances for developing autonomy should be offered to the students so that they would get used to it and be more successful in communication skills. Keywords: Learner Autonomy, Strategies for Coping with Speaking Problems in English, Speaking Classes

  4. Capitalizing on Speaking Skill of EFL Learners for the Language Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzia Hasan Siddiqui

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at grabbing the attention of EFL /ESL teachers, trainers, and administrators towards the importance of teaching speaking skill to enhance overall language proficiency of EFL learners. Comprehensive research done in the field of applied linguistics and English Language Teaching (ELT establishes a positive correlation of speaking skill with the overall language proficiency. Despite this obvious significance of speaking skill in language learning process, it has not gained sufficient attention in the ELT or the assessments in Oman.  Relying on the available literature on the importance of the speaking skill and its effective role in enhancing other language macro skills (listening, reading, and writing, this exploratory research analyzes the currents status of speaking skill in ELT and assessments at the General Foundation Programme (GFP in Oman. As many GFP’s have IELTS (International English Language Testing System  exam as their programme exit examination, the study begins with measuring the correlation of speaking skill grades with other macro skill in order to accentuate the positive impact of speaking skill on other language skills. Secondly, it presents the statistics of time devoted to teaching and weights that speaking skill hold in the GFP in Oman. Finally, the study suggests the ways to optimize speaking skill opportunities to create successful literacy experience among adult EFL learners.

  5. Relationship between EFL Learners' Autonomy and Speaking Strategies They Use in Conversation Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hadi; Ebrahimi, Marziyeh; Sattar, Susan; Shojaee, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted at Parsayan Language Institute in Isfahan, Iran. The students in pre-intermediate and intermediate classes were examined to investigate the relationship between degrees of learner autonomy, use of strategies for coping with speaking problems and the learners' success in their speaking classes. To determine the…

  6. Acculturation profiles of Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium and their socio-economic adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoryev, Dmitry; van de Vijver, Fons

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the relationship of acculturation profiles of Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium, the duration of their stay, and their socio-economic adaptation. The data came from a socio-psychological survey of 132 Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium (first

  7. Acculturation Profiles of Russian-Speaking Immigrants in Belgium and Their Socio-Economic Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, Dmitry; van de Vijver, Fons

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the relationship of acculturation profiles of Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium, the duration of their stay, and their socio-economic adaptation. The data came from a socio-psychological survey of 132 Russian-speaking immigrants in Belgium (first generation) and were processed using latent…

  8. Dysarthria Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury: Speaking Rate and Emphatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.T.; Kent, R.D.; Duffy, J.R.; Thomas, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Prosodic abnormality is common in the dysarthria associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and adjustments of speaking rate and emphatic stress are often used as steps in treating the speech disorder in patients with TBI-induced dysarthria. However, studies to date do not present a clear and detailed picture of how speaking rate and emphatic…

  9. A Measure of EFL Public Speaking Class Anxiety: Scale Development and Preliminary Validation and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaikhong, Kriangkrai; Usaha, Siriluck

    2012-01-01

    The present study contributes to developing a Public Speaking Class Anxiety Scale (PSCAS) to measure anxiety in the EFL public speaking class in the Thai context. Items were adopted from previous scales: Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) by Horwitz et al. (1986); Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA-24) and Personal…

  10. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Have an Exceptional Explanatory Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M. D.; Subiaul, Francys

    2016-01-01

    An "explanatory drive" motivates children to explain ambiguity. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders are interested in how systems work, but it is unknown whether they have an explanatory drive. We presented children with and without autism spectrum disorder unsolvable problems in a physical and in a social context and evaluated…

  11. Parental Perceptions and Child Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Jolynn L.; Houser, Linda; Cullen, Jennifer A.

    2018-01-01

    Emotional and behavioral difficulties in children with autism often present problems for families seeking appropriate treatment interventions. Using data from the 2011 Survey of Pathways to Diagnosis and Services, ordinal logistic regression models were used to examine the association between parental perceptions about autism and their reports of…

  12. Kafka and Autism: The Undisclosed Logic Behind Kafka's Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuger, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the hypothesis is presented that Franz Kafka was a person with autism. This is done by analyzing and discussing his biography, letters, diaries and major works. Kafka's autism is an integral diagnosis which encompasses both his personal life and his work. This interpretation is contrary to other interpretations from the past which in…

  13. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; MacMullen, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a continuum of cognitive and social problems that vary considerably in both impact and presentation for each child affected. Although successful interventions have been developed that target specific skill deficits often exhibited by children with autism, many of those interventions are exclusively…

  14. The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST): Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanna G.; Allison, Carrie; Scott, Fiona J.; Bolton, Patrick F.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol

    2008-01-01

    The Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST) (formally known as the Childhood Asperger Screening Test) identifies autism spectrum conditions by measuring social and communication skills. The present study explored the sex distribution of scores. The CAST was distributed to 11,635 children aged 4-9 years in Cambridgeshire primary schools (UK). 3,370…

  15. Predictors of Autism Enrollment in Public School Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Katelyn; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Smith, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    With a number of disparities present in the diagnosis and treatment of children with autism spectrum disorders, the education system plays a crucial role in the provision of both these service elements. Based on school and federal census data, this article examines one state's public school autism enrollment and possible predictors of enrollment…

  16. Coexistence of 9p Deletion Syndrome and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günes, Serkan; Ekinci, Özalp; Ekinci, Nuran; Toros, Fevziye

    2017-01-01

    Deletion or duplication of the short arm of chromosome 9 may lead to a variety of clinical conditions including craniofacial and limb abnormalities, skeletal malformations, mental retardation, and autism spectrum disorder. Here, we present a case report of 5-year-old boy with 9p deletion syndrome and autism spectrum disorder.

  17. Autism in adult and juvenile delinquents : A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, A. X.; Vermeiren, R. R. J. M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Here we present an overview of the literature on autism in adult and juvenile delinquents. We analyzed both the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in groups of delinquents and the prevalence of offending in people with ASD. There is a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders

  18. Children with Autism: Sleep Problems and Mothers' Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.; Lopez-Wagner, Muriel C.; Hodge, Danelle; Nam, Cindy Y.; Botts, Betsy H.

    2008-01-01

    Parenting a child with autism has been associated with maternal stress. The present investigation examined children's sleep difficulties and severity of autism along with mothers' sleep problems in relation to stress levels reported by mothers ( N = 72). Mothers' reports of their children's sleep problems were related to mothers' reports of their…

  19. Inclusion of non-English-speaking patients in research: A single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Rachel; Halpin, Erin; Staffa, Steven J; Benson, Lindsey; DiNardo, James A; Nasr, Viviane G

    2018-03-30

    Considering the recent increase in medical care provided to patients from foreign countries and the diversity of languages spoken by families living within the United States, it is important to determine whether non-English-speaking patients have access to participate in clinical research from which they may benefit. We aimed to determine the number of non-English-speaking patients presenting to Boston Children's Hospital for medical care between 2011 and 2016, the number of clinical research protocols active within the Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine approved to enroll non-English-speaking patients, as well as the number of both non-English- and English-speaking patients approached and enrolled in these studies. Furthermore, we attempted to determine barriers that may have prevented non-English-speaking patients from inclusion in clinical research. We conducted a retrospective review of various data sources during a 5-year period. Data included the number of non-English-speaking patients presenting to Boston Children's Hospital for care as well as the number of English- and non-English-speaking patients approached for studies at the Department of Anesthesiology each year. Additionally, we reviewed data from the IRB which included the justification that research teams provided when opting to exclude non-English-speaking participants. In addition, we attempted to determine the barriers that may have prevented these patients from inclusion in research protocols. We found that the number of non-English-speaking patients presenting to Boston Children's Hospital increased over time. However, the number of studies approved to enroll non-English-speaking patients within the Department of Anesthesiology and the rate of enrollment of these patients did not increase at the same rate. In order to increase the number of non-English-speaking patients approached to participate in research, we must improve cultural awareness and provide investigators

  20. Autism Symptomatology in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome: A Cross Sectional Developmental Trajectories Comparison with Nonsyndromic Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Angela John; McDuffie, Andrea; Kover, Sara T.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Although males with fragile X syndrome (FXS) are frequently described as demonstrating autism symptomatology, there is much debate regarding whether the behavioral symptoms representing the core domains of autism are the result of the same or different underlying neurological/psychological mechanisms. The present study used a cross-sectional…

  1. Early Lexical Development in Spanish-Speaking Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Maldonado, Donna; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The development of a new parent report instrument, Inventario del Desarollo de Habilidades Communicativas, is reported and 5 studies carried out with the instrument for 328 children aged 8 months to 2 years/7 months are presented. Among the findings are similar trajectories of development for Spanish- and English-speaking children and for children…

  2. Speaking Self-Assessment: Mismatches between Learners' and Teachers' Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaii, Esmat; Taghaddomi, Shahin; Pashmforoosh, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Perceptual (mis)matches between teachers and learners are said to affect learning success or failure. Self-assessment, as a formative assessment tool, may, inter alia, be considered a means to minimize such mismatches. Therefore, the present study investigated the extent to which learners' assessment of their own speaking performance, before and…

  3. Speaking up, being heard: registered nurses' perceptions of workplace communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garon, Maryanne

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore nurses' perceptions of their own ability to speak up and be heard in the workplace. Nurses are central to patient care and patient safety in hospitals. Their ability to speak up and be heard greatly impacts their own work satisfaction, team work as well as patient safety. The present study utilized a qualitative approach, consisting of focus group interviews of 33 registered nurses (RNs), in staff or management positions from a variety of healthcare settings in California, USA. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Findings were organized into three categories: influences on speaking up, transmission and reception of a message and outcomes or results. The present study supported the importance of the manager in setting the culture of open communication. It is anticipated that findings from the present study may increase understandings of nurse views of communication within healthcare settings. The study highlights the importance of nurse managers in creating the communication culture that will allow nurses to speak up and be heard. These open communication cultures lead to better patient care, increased safety and better staff satisfaction. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Riddle Appreciation and Reading Comprehension in Cantonese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ivy N. Y.; To, Carol K. S.; Weekes, Brendan S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Inference-making skills are necessary for reading comprehension. Training in riddle appreciation is an effective way to improve reading comprehension among English-speaking children. However, it is not clear whether these methods generalize to other writing systems. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between…

  5. Compensation Strategies: Tracking Movement in EFL Learners' Speaking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei, Alireza; Negin Taji, Tania

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the compensation strategies used by Iranian elementary EFL learners across the speaking skill. The participants of this study were a sample of 120 EFL elementary male and female learners whose ages ranged between 11 and 25 at a language institute in Rostam, Iran. The main participants were homogenized through…

  6. A Model of Anxious Arousal for Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amber N.; Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.

    2009-01-01

    With the goal of identifying the characteristics or traits students bring to the classroom that predispose them to panic when faced with the threat of presenting in front of an audience, this study introduced a subtype of public-speaking state anxiety--anxious arousal. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which trait anxiety and…

  7. Repint of "Reframing autism as a behavioral syndrome and not a specific mental disorder: Implications of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, S; Cohen, D; Anderson, G M; Botbol, M; Canitano, R; Coulon, N; Roubertoux, P L

    2018-06-01

    Clinical and molecular genetics have advanced current knowledge on genetic disorders associated with autism. A review of diverse genetic disorders associated with autism is presented and for the first time discussed extensively with regard to possible common underlying mechanisms leading to a similar cognitive-behavioral phenotype of autism. The possible role of interactions between genetic and environmental factors, including epigenetic mechanisms, is in particular examined. Finally, the pertinence of distinguishing non-syndromic autism (isolated autism) from syndromic autism (autism associated with genetic disorders) will be reconsidered. Given the high genetic and etiological heterogeneity of autism, autism can be viewed as a behavioral syndrome related to known genetic disorders (syndromic autism) or currently unknown disorders (apparent non-syndromic autism), rather than a specific categorical mental disorder. It highlights the need to study autism phenotype and developmental trajectory through a multidimensional, non-categorical approach with multivariate analyses within autism spectrum disorder but also across mental disorders, and to conduct systematically clinical genetic examination searching for genetic disorders in all individuals (children but also adults) with autism. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Reframing autism as a behavioral syndrome and not a specific mental disorder: Implications of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, S; Cohen, D; Coulon, N; Anderson, G M; Botbol, M; Canitano, R; Roubertoux, P L

    2017-01-30

    Clinical and molecular genetics have advanced current knowledge on genetic disorders associated with autism. A review of diverse genetic disorders associated with autism is presented and for the first time discussed extensively with regard to possible common underlying mechanisms leading to a similar cognitive-behavioral phenotype of autism. The possible role of interactions between genetic and environmental factors, including epigenetic mechanisms, is in particular examined. Finally, the pertinence of distinguishing non-syndromic autism (isolated autism) from syndromic autism (autism associated with genetic disorders) will be reconsidered. Given the high genetic and etiological heterogeneity of autism, autism can be viewed as a behavioral syndrome related to known genetic disorders (syndromic autism) or currently unknown disorders (apparent non-syndromic autism), rather than a specific categorical mental disorder. It highlights the need to study autism phenotype and developmental trajectory through a multidimensional, non-categorical approach with multivariate analyses within autism spectrum disorder but also across mental disorders, and to conduct systematically clinical genetic examination searching for genetic disorders in all individuals (children but also adults) with autism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Communicative Language Teaching: Changing Students’ Speaking Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Bayu Saputra

    2015-04-01

    This article points out the results of the study attempting to solve the speaking problem faced by students in one of the Higher School of Teacher Training and Education (STKIP in Central Lampung. For the purpose of the topic, 30 fellow students were selected as the subject. Research method was Classroom Action Research with Kemmis and Taggart model. It was conducted for about four cycles. According to the results of speaking test, findings showed that using Communicative Language Teaching (CLT had positive meaningful effect on improving students’ speaking skill. To sum up, CLT is an effective method to teach speaking to the subject.

  10. Students’ Learning Strategies for Developing Speaking Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan A. Gani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to study the learning strategies used by both low and high performance speaking students in developing their speaking skills as well as the differences between the learning strategies used by both groups of learners. The reason for conducting this research was the fact that the competency of many students in speaking English was still considered unsatisfactory in Banda Aceh. We postulated that one aspect involved in the process of developing speaking skills was the learning strategies used by the learners. In this study, the data was collected through field research by means of documents, questionnaires, and interviews. The result of this study indicated that high performance speaking students had better balance in using all kinds of learning strategies (memory, cognitive, compensatory, metacognitive, affective, and social for enhancing their speaking skills; the same could not be found with low performance speaking students. Besides, the high performance students employed more learning strategies consciously and appropriately compared to the low performance students. Based on the research results, it is suggested that students should be trained to be more aware of their own speaking learning strategies. They should use appropriate language learning strategies more consciously, purposefully, and frequently to be more successful in developing their speaking skills.

  11. Autism and Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilker, Paul; Yergeau, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a profoundly rhetorical phenomenon. And all--parents, educators, caregivers, policymakers, the public, and autistic people themselves--would be significantly empowered to understand and respond to it as such. In the continuing absence of stable scientific or medical knowledge about autism, one needs to shine a bright and insistent light…

  12. Autism and attachment security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Anna Hinderika

    2006-01-01

    Autisme en veilige gehechtheid Men heeft lang gedacht dat kinderen met autisme, door hun problemen in sociale interacties en communicatie, niet in staat zijn om een emotionele band te ontwikkelen met hun ouders, met andere woorden zich te hechten aan hun ouders. Empirisch onderzoek heeft echter

  13. Psychophysiological perspectives on autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, Marco Rudolf

    2002-01-01

    Autism is a severe developmental neuropsychiatric disorder, with an onset in the first three years of life. It essentially affects aspects of behaviour which are generally regarded as 'human'. Core characteristics of autism are abnormalities in language, communication and soical interaction,

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Amplified Pain.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Ciaran

    2015-05-01

    Among the core features of ASD, altered sensitivities in all modalities have been accorded increasing importance. Heightened sensitivity to pain and unusual expressions of and reaction to pain have not hitherto been widely recognised as a presenting feature of ASD in general paediatrics. Failure to recognise ASD as a common cause of pain can lead to late diagnosis, inappropriate treatment, distress, and further disability. Two cases are presented which illustrate the late presentation of Autism Spectrum Disorder (Asperger\\'s Syndrome subtype) with chronic unusual pain. Conclusion. Pain in autism can be atypical in its experience and expression and for this reason may go unrecognised by physicians treating chronic pain disorders.

  15. Autism-like behavior in the BTBR mouse model of autism is improved by propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yulong; Wang, Lian; Xiao, Rui; Li, Xin; He, Xie; Gao, Junwei; Xu, Haiwei; Fan, Xiaotang

    2017-05-15

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that is characterized by symptoms of impaired social interactions, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. Recent studies in humans and animal-models suggest that reduced GABAergic neurotransmission in the brain may underlie autism-related behavioral symptoms. It has been shown that propofol, a commonly used anesthetic, facilitates γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission. The present study investigated whether propofol improved autistic phenotypes in BTBR T + Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice, a model of idiopathic autism. We found that i.p. injection of propofol in BTBR mice significantly improved aspects of social approach and repetitive behaviors without affecting reciprocal social interactions and without any detrimental effects in C57BL/6J mice. The ability of propofol to improve autistic phenotypes in BTBR mice through GABAergic neurotransmission suggests a potential pharmacological target for interventions to treat symptoms of autism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Speaking of Science: Stepping out of the Stereotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Just because we are scientists and engineers, does not mean that our presentations must be dry and boring. Step out of the stereotype! Success in your career depends not only upon the rigor of your research, but also hinges on your ability to communicate with your peers and with the public. According to many somewhat dubious internet polls, public speaking is the number one human fear. And yet public speaking is defined as speaking to more than four people at any given time. Hence, you are a public speaker more than you may realize. Given this seemingly natural fear, it is not surprising that delivering a presentation at large, or even small, science gatherings can be frightening, overwhelming, and intimidating, but it can also be extremely gratifying. On very few occasions do we, as scientists and engineers, reach out to dozens or hundreds of our colleagues in a single event. Make the most of your moment on stage, wherever that stage may be.If you would like to improve your public speaking skills, please join me for a session on making your presentation interesting and effective, while also reducing your stress and actually enjoying the experience. Participants will leave the workshop with a greater skill set to develop and deliver presentations. The workshop is interactive and builds on the collective experience of the audience and the instructor. "The problem with most bad presentations I see is not the speaking, the slides, the visuals, or any of the other things people obsess about. Instead, it's the lack of thinking." Scott Berkun, 2010

  17. Speaking of Science: stepping out of the stereotype (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Just because we are scientists and engineers, does not mean that our presentations must be dry and boring. Step out of the stereotype! Success in your career depends not only upon the rigor of your research, but also hinges on your ability to communicate with your peers and with the public. According to many somewhat dubious internet polls, public speaking is the number one human fear. And yet public speaking is defined as speaking to more than four people at any given time. Hence, you are a public speaker more than you may realize. Given this seemingly natural fear, it is not surprising that delivering a presentation at large, or even small, science gatherings can be frightening, overwhelming, and intimidating, but it can also be extremely rewarding and gratifying. On very few occasions do we, as scientists and engineers, get to reach out to dozens or hundreds of our colleagues in a single session. Make the most of your moment on stage, wherever that stage may be. If you would like to improve your public speaking skills, please join me for a session on making your presentations interesting and effective, while also reducing your stress and actually enjoying the experience. Participants will leave the workshop with a greater skill set to develop and deliver presentations. The workshop is interactive and builds on the collective experience of the audience and the instructor. 'The problem with most bad presentations I see is not the speaking, the slides, the visuals, or any of the other things people obsess about. Instead, it's the lack of thinking.' Scott Berkun, Confessions of a Public Speaker, 2010

  18. [Autism spectrum disorder and suicidality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, G; Contejean, Y; Doyen, C

    2015-09-01

    Most studies on suicide exclude subjects with autism spectrum disorders, yet there is a risk group. The purpose of this article is to present the data in the literature regarding the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of suicidality in subjects with autism spectrum disorders and to identify the factors that promote the transition to action. This review was carried out using the data set collected in Medline PubMed, items with "autism spectrum disorder", "pervasive developmental disorder", "Asperger's syndrome", "suicide", "suicide attempt", and "suicide behavior". In all subjects from our research on PubMed, 21.3% of subjects with autism spectrum disorder reported suicidal ideation, have attempted suicide or died by suicide (115 out of 539 subjects) and 7.7% of subjects supported for suicidal thoughts or attempted suicide exhibited an autism spectrum disorder (62 out of 806 subjects), all ages combined. Suicidal ideation and morbid preoccupation are particularly common in adolescents and young adults. Suicide attempts are accompanied by a willingness for death and can lead to suicide. They are more common in high-functioning autism and Asperger subjects. The methods used are often violent and potentially lethal or fatal in two cases published. Suicide risk depends on many factors that highlight the vulnerability of these subjects, following autistic and developmental symptoms. Vulnerability complicating the diagnosis of comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders are major factors associated with suicidality. Vulnerability but also directly related to suicidality, since the origin of physical and sexual abuse and victimization by peers assigning them the role of "scapegoat" are both responsible for acting out. Given the diversity of factors involved in the risk of suicide in this population, this does not validate "a" program of intervention, but the intervention of "customized programs". Their implementation should be as early as possible in order to treat

  19. Sensory correlations in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Janet K; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Grannemann, Bruce D; Garver, Carolyn R; Johnson, Danny G; Andrews, Alonzo A; Savla, Jayshree S; Mehta, Jyutika A; Schroeder, Jennifer L

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between auditory, visual, touch, and oral sensory dysfunction in autism and their relationship to multisensory dysfunction and severity of autism. The Sensory Profile was completed on 104 persons with a diagnosis of autism, 3 to 56 years of age. Analysis showed a significant correlation between the different processing modalities using total scores. Analysis also showed a significant correlation between processing modalities for both high and low thresholds, with the exception that auditory high threshold processing did not correlate with oral low threshold or touch low threshold processing. Examination of the different age groups suggests that sensory disturbance correlates with severity of autism in children, but not in adolescents and adults. Evidence from this study suggests that: all the main modalities and multisensory processing appear to be affected; sensory processing dysfunction in autism is global in nature; and sensory processing problems need to be considered part of the disorder.

  20. Linguistic and Cognitive Abilities in Children with Specific Language Impairment as Compared to Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Jeannette

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the question as to whether and how the linguistic and other cognitive abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) differ from those of children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA). To this end, 27 Dutch-speaking elementary-school-age children with SLI, 27 age-matched children with HFA, and a control group…

  1. Linguistic and other cognitive abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment as compared to children with High-Functioning Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaeffer, J.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the question as to whether and how the linguistic and other cognitive abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) differ from those of children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA). To this end, 27 Dutch-speaking elementary-school-age children with SLI, 27

  2. An Aggregate Study of Single-Case Research Involving Aided AAC: Participant Characteristics of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Earles-Vollrath, Theresa L.; Mason, Rose A.; Rispoli, Mandy J.; Heath, Amy K.; Parker, Richard I.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who cannot speak at all or not intelligibly are frequently taught to use aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The majority of the research on the use of AAC with individuals with ASD has been single-case research studies. This investigation involved a meta-analysis of the…

  3. Article choice in children with High Functioning Autism (HFA) and in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaeffer, J.; van Witteloostuijn, M.; de Haan, D.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on the choice between a definite and an indefinite article by children with High Functioning Autism (HFA) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). We carried out an elicited production task with 16 Dutch-speaking non-grammatically impaired children with HFA aged 6-13,

  4. Gender identity and sexual orientation in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rita; Stokes, Mark A

    2017-09-01

    Clinical impressions indicate that there is an overrepresentation of gender-dysphoria within the autism spectrum disorder. However, little is presently known about the demographics of gender-identity issues in autism spectrum disorder. Based upon what little is known, we hypothesized that there would be an increased prevalence of gender-dysphoria among those with autism spectrum disorder compared to a typically developing population. We surveyed gender-dysphoria with the Gender-Identity/Gender-Dysphoria Questionnaire among 90 males and 219 females with autism spectrum disorder and compared these rates to those of 103 males and 158 females without autism spectrum disorder. When compared to typically developing individuals, autistic individuals reported a higher number of gender-dysphoric traits. Rates of gender-dysphoria in the group with autism spectrum disorder were significantly higher than reported in the wider population. Mediation analysis found that the relationship between autistic traits and sexual orientation was mediated by gender-dysphoric traits. Results suggest that autism spectrum disorder presents a unique experience to the formation and consolidation of gender identity, and for some autistic individuals, their sexual orientation relates to their gender experience. It is important that clinicians working with autism spectrum disorder are aware of the gender-diversity in this population so that the necessary support for healthy socio-sexual functioning and mental well-being is provided.

  5. SpeakApps 2: Speaking Practice in a Foreign Language through ICT Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Christine; Nic Giolla Mhichíl, Mairéad; Jager, Sake; Prizel-Kania, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    SpeakApps 2 is a project with support of the Lifelong Learning Programme, Accompanying Measures. It follows up on the work and results reached during the KA2 project "SpeakApps: Oral production and interaction in a foreign language through ICT tools". The overarching aim of SpeakApps 2 is to further enhance Europeans' language learning…

  6. A neuroimaging study in childhood autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. I. Mullick

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood autism is now widely viewed as being of developmental neurological origin. Abnormality in neuroimaging is reported in autism.Objectives: To delineate the proportion of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and electro encephalography (EEG abnormality among the children with Autism and to assess any association of MRI and EEG changes with co morbid mental illness.Methods: It was a cross sectional descriptive study done at a child and adolescent consultation centre, Dhaka. The study was Carried out from January 2009 to December 2009. Both boys and girls were included in the study. A total of 42 children with childhood autism aged between two and 12 years partici­pated in this study. Diagnosis of autism was based on ICD-10(DCR criteria. Results: Abnormalities were found to be 35.7% in MRI and 42.9% in EEG. EEG abnormalities were found in the form of defuse slow waves activities, generalized faster activities, epileptogenic discharge and mixed discharge. The abnormalities in MRI was found in the form of diffuse cortical atrophic changes, focal cortical atrophy in frontal and temporal cortex with widening of major sulci, prominent ventricles, periventricular degeneration and abnormal basal ganglia. EEG changes were significantly associated with increased number of co-morbid illness (mental retardation, epilepsy and others. Conclusion: A number of abnom1alities that observed in the present study indicative of relations between structural and physiological dysfunctions and childhood autism. Further exploratory and in-depth researches are certainly required in this field. Intervention of autism needs to address co morbidities for better outcome.

  7. Pragmatic Activities for the Speaking Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Being able to speak naturally and appropriately with others in a variety of situations is an important goal for many English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. Because the skill of speaking invariably involves interaction with people and using language to reach objectives (e.g., ordering food, making friends, asking for favors), it is crucial…

  8. Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Carol A.; Ross, Amparo

    The project titled "Evaluating the non-English Speaking Handicapped" was established to research existing evaluation instruments in language other than English, validate the tests as well as additional translations where needed, and develop a procedural manual for distribution to utilize in evaluating non-English speaking handicapped students. The…

  9. STUDENTS’ ANXIETIES IN SPEAKING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyuzar Rahman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research discussed the anxieties the students of semester 3, English Department, IAIN STS Jambi faced during the speaking class. The result of the research indicated that the causes of the students’ anxieties were the lack of grammar mastery, pronunciation problem, lack of vocabulary, unconfident feeling, fear of making mistakes and feared of being laughed by other students. But the dominant factors found were the lack of grammar, the lack of good pronunciation, and lack of vocabulary mastery. The lecturer had taken part to overcome these problems by giving them motivation not to give up easily, how to cope with vocabulary problems, and how to prepare well before coming into the class.

  10. Alexithymia, not autism, predicts poor recognition of emotional facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Richard; Brewer, Rebecca; Shah, Punit; Bird, Geoffrey

    2013-05-01

    Despite considerable research into whether face perception is impaired in autistic individuals, clear answers have proved elusive. In the present study, we sought to determine whether co-occurring alexithymia (characterized by difficulties interpreting emotional states) may be responsible for face-perception deficits previously attributed to autism. Two experiments were conducted using psychophysical procedures to determine the relative contributions of alexithymia and autism to identity and expression recognition. Experiment 1 showed that alexithymia correlates strongly with the precision of expression attributions, whereas autism severity was unrelated to expression-recognition ability. Experiment 2 confirmed that alexithymia is not associated with impaired ability to detect expression variation; instead, results suggested that alexithymia is associated with difficulties interpreting intact sensory descriptions. Neither alexithymia nor autism was associated with biased or imprecise identity attributions. These findings accord with the hypothesis that the emotional symptoms of autism are in fact due to co-occurring alexithymia and that existing diagnostic criteria may need to be revised.

  11. Recent advances in animal model experimentation in autism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tania, Mousumi; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Xia, Kun

    2014-10-01

    Autism, a lifelong neuro-developmental disorder is a uniquely human condition. Animal models are not the perfect tools for the full understanding of human development and behavior, but they can be an important place to start. This review focused on the recent updates of animal model research in autism. We have reviewed the publications over the last three decades, which are related to animal model study in autism. Animal models are important because they allow researchers to study the underlying neurobiology in a way that is not possible in humans. Improving the availability of better animal models will help the field to increase the development of medicines that can relieve disabling symptoms. Results from the therapeutic approaches are encouraging remarkably, since some behavioral alterations could be reversed even when treatment was performed on adult mice. Finding an animal model system with similar behavioral tendencies as humans is thus vital for understanding the brain mechanisms, supporting social motivation and attention, and the manner in which these mechanisms break down in autism. The ongoing studies should therefore increase the understanding of the biological alterations associated with autism as well as the development of knowledge-based treatments therapy for those struggling with autism. In this review, we have presented recent advances in research based on animal models of autism, raising hope for understanding the disease biology for potential therapeutic intervention to improve the quality of life of autism individuals.

  12. SPEAKING LEARNING ACTIVITIES YANG DIGUNAKAN DALAM BELAJAR SPEAKING 1 MAHASISWA TBI STAIN PAMEKASAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Basri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Speaking is important language skill in language learning process. The success of study English reflects to a mastery of speaking skill. In order to, to choose appropriate learning activities will help the students comprehend the speaking skill well. There are effective steps of learning activity to facilitate the students to study speaking; memory, cognitive, and compensation learning activities. The combination of learning activity can facilitate the speaking learning process that is not only finding the meaning, but also comprehend the purpose and the use, and can be used in daily communication.

  13. Preclinical Testing of Novel Oxytocin Receptor Activators in Models of Autism Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    embedded in each doorway. The choice test had two 10-min phases. The first phase was habituation e the test mouse was first placed in the middle chamber...is in line with one clinical study in adults with autism or Asperger’s syndrome (Hollander et al., 2003), an important caveat is possible effects on...AR1002312P2, and AR1002312P3) and the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (P30 HD03110). Brian L. Teng was funded by an Autism Speaks

  14. Implementing Kwl Strategy to Improve the Students’ English Speaking Skill

    OpenAIRE

    Mantra, Ida Bagus Nyoman

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to attempt at improving Speaking skill through Know, Want, and Learned (KWL) strategy to the students of English Study Program, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Mahasaraswati Denpasar. The present classroom action study was basically triggered by the fact that the subjects under study still faced problem in speaking skill. The present classroom action study made use of pre-test and post-test research design with descriptive and quantitative analysis. ...

  15. Riddle appreciation and reading comprehension in Cantonese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ivy N Y; To, Carol K S; Weekes, Brendan S

    2013-10-01

    Inference-making skills are necessary for reading comprehension. Training in riddle appreciation is an effective way to improve reading comprehension among English-speaking children. However, it is not clear whether these methods generalize to other writing systems. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between inference-making skills, as measured by riddle appreciation ability, and reading comprehension performance in typically developing Cantonese-speaking children in the 4th grade. Forty Cantonese-speaking children between the ages of 9;1 (years;months) and 11;0 were given tests of riddle appreciation ability and reading comprehension. Chinese character reading and auditory comprehension abilities were also assessed using tests that had been standardized in Hong Kong. Regression analyses revealed that riddle appreciation ability explained a significant amount of variance in reading comprehension after variance due to character reading skills and auditory comprehension skills were first considered. Orthographic, lexical, morphological, and syntactic riddles were also significantly correlated with reading comprehension. Riddle appreciation ability predicts reading comprehension in Cantonese-speaking 4th-grade children. Therefore, training Cantonese speakers in riddle appreciation should improve their reading comprehension.

  16. Retention in mental health care of Portuguese-speaking patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Marta; Cook, Benjamin; Mulvaney-Day, Norah; Alegría, Margarita; Kinrys, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    We compared service outcomes of dedicated language and cultural competency services in adequacy of care, ER, and inpatient care among Portuguese-speaking patients in ethnic- and non-ethnic-specific behavioral health clinics. We assessed adequacy of mental health care, and use of inpatient emergency department among Portuguese-speaking patients, comparing individuals receiving care from a culturally and linguistically competent mental health care setting (the Portuguese Mental Health Program [PMHP]) with usual mental health care in a community health care system in the USA. Propensity score matching was used to balance patients in treatment and control groups on gender, marital status, age, diagnosis of mental disorder, and insurance status. We used de-identified, longitudinal, administrative data of 854 Portuguese-speaking patients receiving care from the PMHP and 541 Portuguese-speaking patients receiving usual care from 2005–2008. Adequate treatment was defined as receipt of at least eight outpatient psychotherapy visits, or at least four outpatient visits of which one was a psychopharmacological visit. PMHP patients were more likely to receive adequate care. No differences were found in rates of ER use or inpatient mental health care. The present study suggests increased quality of care for patients that have contact with a clinic that dedicates resources specifically to a minority/immigrant group. Advantages of this setting include greater linguistic and cultural concordance among providers and patients. Further research is warranted to better understand the mechanisms by which culturally appropriate mental health care settings benefit minority/immigrant patients. PMID:23427258

  17. Public Perception of Autism - Determinants of attitudes towards adults and children with ASD and their intention to volunteer

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Autistic spectrum disorder is a common developmental disorder. However, adults and children with autism are often subject to stigma. The present study sought to measure the public’s attitude towards individuals with autism, in particular whether age, awareness of an individual’s diagnosis, knowledge of autism and participants’ personal autistic traits affected emotional attitudes towards autistic individuals. We assessed the effect of exposure to autism on knowledge of the condition and evalu...

  18. Satisfaction With Communication in Primary Care for Spanish-Speaking and English-Speaking Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Kori B; Skinner, Asheley C; Yin, H Shonna; Rothman, Russell L; Sanders, Lee M; Delamater, Alan; Perrin, Eliana M

    Effective communication with primary care physicians is important yet incompletely understood for Spanish-speaking parents. We predicted lower satisfaction among Spanish-speaking compared to English-speaking Latino and non-Latino parents. Cross-sectional analysis at 2-month well visits within the Greenlight study at 4 pediatric resident clinics. Parents reported satisfaction with 14 physician communication items using the validated Communication Assessment Tool (CAT). High satisfaction was defined as "excellent" on each CAT item. Mean estimations compared satisfaction for communication items among Spanish- and English-speaking Latinos and non-Latinos. We used generalized linear regression modeling, adjusted for parent age, education, income, and clinic site. Among Spanish-speaking parents, we compared visits conducted in Spanish with and without an interpreter, and in English. Compared to English-speaking Latino (n = 127) and non-Latino parents (n = 432), fewer Spanish-speaking parents (n = 303) reported satisfaction with 14 communication items. No significant differences were found between English-speaking Latinos and non-Latinos. Greatest differences were found in the use of a greeting that made the parent comfortable (59.4% of Spanish-speaking Latinos endorsing "excellent" vs 77.5% English-speaking Latinos, P English-speaking Latinos, P < .01). After adjusting for parent age, education, income, and study site, Spanish-speaking Latinos were still less likely to report high satisfaction with these communication items. Satisfaction was not different among Spanish-speaking parents when the physician spoke Spanish versus used an interpreter. Satisfaction with physician communication was associated with language but not ethnicity. Spanish-speaking parents less frequently report satisfaction with communication, and innovative solutions to enhance communication quality are needed. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  19. Sexual Orientation in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R; Stokes, M A

    2018-01-01

    Clinical impressions suggest a different sexual profile between individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Little is presently known about the demographics of sexual orientation in ASD. Sexual Orientation was surveyed using the Sell Scale of Sexual Orientation in an international online sample of individuals with ASD (N = 309, M = 90, F= 219), aged (M = 32.30 years, SD = 11.93) and this was compared to sexual orientation of typically-developing individuals (N = 310, M = 84, F= 226), aged (M = 29.82 years, SD = 11.85). Findings suggested that sexual orientation was contingent on diagnosis (N = 570, χ 2 (9) =104.05, P Autism Res 2018, 11: 133-141. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Research suggests that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) report increased homosexuality, bisexuality, and asexuality, but decreased heterosexuality. It is important to increase awareness about increased non-heterosexuality in ASD among autistic populations, medical professionals and care-takers, so as to provide specialized care, if needed and increase support and inclusion for non-heterosexual autistic individuals. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Separate components of emotional go/no-go performance relate to autism versus attention symptoms in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerys, Benjamin E; Kenworthy, Lauren; Jankowski, Kathryn F; Strang, John; Wallace, Gregory L

    2013-09-01

    The present investigation examined whether higher functioning children with autism would demonstrate impaired response inhibition performance in an emotional go/no-go task, and whether severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism symptoms correlated with performance. Forty-four children (21 meeting criteria for autism; 23 typically developing controls [TDCs]) completed an emotional go/no-go task in which an emotional facial expression (angry, fearful, happy, or sad) was the go stimulus and a neutral facial expression was the no-go stimulus, and vice versa. The autism group was faster than the TDC group on all emotional go trials. Moreover, the children in the autism group who had the fastest reaction times on emotional go trials were rated as having the greatest number of symptoms (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule Social + Communication score), even after accounting for the association with ADHD symptoms. The autism group also made more impulsive responses (i.e., lower d', more false alarms) than the TDC group on all trials. As d' decreased or false alarms increased, so did ADHD symptoms. Hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were significantly correlated with false alarms, but inattention symptoms were not. There was not a significant relationship between no-go false alarms and autism symptoms; even after partialing out associations with autism symptoms, the significant correlation between ADHD symptoms and no-go false alarms remained. The present findings support a comorbidity model that argues for shared and independent risk factors, because ADHD and autism symptoms related to independent aspects of emotional go/no-go performance.

  1. AUTISM. Unraveling a pathway to autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burbach, J Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with shared symptoms in the area of communication and language, restricted interests, and stereotyped and social behaviors. Causes lie in perturbations of brain development, which can be manifold, but genetic

  2. Spontaneity of communication in individuals with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Carter, Mark

    2008-04-01

    This article provides an examination of issues related to spontaneity of communication in children with autism. Deficits relating to spontaneity or initiation are frequently reported in individuals with autism, particularly in relation to communication and social behavior. Nevertheless, spontaneity is not necessarily clearly conceptualized or measured. Several approaches to conceptualization of communicative spontaneity are examined with a particular focus on the continuum model and how it might be practically applied. A range of possible explanations for deficits in spontaneity of communication in children with autism is subsequently explored, including external factors (highly structured teaching programs, failure to systematically instruct for spontaneity) and intrinsic characteristics (intellectual disability, stimulus overselectivity, weak central coherence). Possible implications for future research are presented.

  3. [The medical French-speaking world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouazé, André

    2002-01-01

    Medicine has always been and remains the most solid base of the French-speaking world which was born in Africa and Indochina with the admirable action of "colonial" military physicians, the implantation of the Pasteur Institutes and the emergence of resulting overseas medical schools. Obviously, we are referring to the French-speaking medical world. Since the first International Conference of the Deans of French-Speaking Medical Schools in Abidjan in 1981, today medical schools from 40 French-speaking countries participate. The conference undertakes co-operative medical school initiatives in a multi-lateral spirit, comprised by concrete, practical actions to assist universities in developing countries strive for excellence. These actions, which are conducted with the help of both institutional (AUF, MAE, WHO, UNESCO) and private partners mainly concentrate on promoting medical education of medicine, the evaluation of medical schools, the development of scientific and technical information and training teachers in the methodology of scientific clinical research and in public health. For the future, the Conference has three important objectives, to assist in training researchers and consequently in the development of research centres in emerging countries, to promote continuing medical education in rural areas far from medical schools by taking advantage of modern computer technology, and finally to open horizons toward other communities which speak other languages, and first of all, towards non French-speaking countries who live in a French-speaking environment.

  4. Learning about Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Autism Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the guidelines health care providers use to diagnose different mental health conditions, was released. The DSM-5 made significant changes to how autism is classified ...

  6. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  7. [Autism and neuropsychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruyère, Nelly; Sonie, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    In neuropsychology, the deficiencies associated with autism are generally classed into three areas: social cognition, executive functioning and central coherence. Autistic people however have singular capacities, notably with regard to their perceptual processing focused on details.

  8. Autism genetic database (AGD): a comprehensive database including autism susceptibility gene-CNVs integrated with known noncoding RNAs and fragile sites

    OpenAIRE

    Talebizadeh Zohreh; Matuszek Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Autism is a highly heritable complex neurodevelopmental disorder, therefore identifying its genetic basis has been challenging. To date, numerous susceptibility genes and chromosomal abnormalities have been reported in association with autism, but most discoveries either fail to be replicated or account for a small effect. Thus, in most cases the underlying causative genetic mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present work, the Autism Genetic Database (AGD) was dev...

  9. The Pathogenesis of Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy John Watts

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is well known as a complex developmental disorder with a seemingly confusing and uncertain pathogenesis. The definitive mechanisms that promote autism are poorly understood and mostly unknown, yet available theories do appear to focus on the disruption of normal cerebral development and its subsequent implications on the functional brain unit. This mini-review aims solely to discuss and evaluate the most prominent current theories regarding the pathogenesis of autism. The main conclusion is that although there is not a clear pathway of mechanisms directed towards a simple pathogenesis and an established link to autism on the symptomatic level; there are however several important theories (neural connectivity, neural migration, excitatory-inhibitory neural activity, dendritic morphology, neuroimmune; calcium signalling and mirror neurone which appear to offer an explanation to how autism develops. It seems probable that autism's neurodevelopmental defect is ‘multi-domain’ in origin (rather than a single anomaly and is hence distributed across numerous levels of study (genetic, immunopathogenic, etc.. A more definitive understanding of the pathogenesis could facilitate the development of better treatments for this complex psychiatric disorder.

  10. Signs and Symptoms of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Mitochondrial Disease FAQs Data & Statistics New Data on Autism Research & Tracking ADDM Community Report CADDRE SEED Frequently ...

  11. Occupational Therapy's Role with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Occupational Therapy’s Role with Autism Autism is a lifelong condition associated with a varied course from early childhood through adulthood. Occupational therapy practitioners are distinctly qualified to ...

  12. Comprehensive Management of Autism: Current Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Shenoy, Manjiri Deshpande; Indla, Vishal; Reddy, Harish

    2017-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and restricted repetitive behavior. The goals of treatment are to target core behaviors, improve social interactions and communication, and reduce disruptive behavior. The present paper discusses the role of applied behavioral analysis and pharmacotherapy.

  13. Feedback in online course for non-native English-speaking students

    CERN Document Server

    Olesova, Larisa

    2013-01-01

    Feedback in Online Course for Non-Native English-Speaking Students is an investigation of the effectiveness of audio and text feedback provided in English in an online course for non-native English-speaking students. The study presents results showing how audio and text feedback can impact on non-native English-speaking students' higher-order learning as they participate in an asynchronous online course. It also discusses the results of how students perceive both types of the feedback provided. In addition, the study examines how the impact and perceptions differ when the instructor giving the

  14. Using effort to measure reward value of faces in children with autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Ewing

    Full Text Available According to one influential account, face processing atypicalities in autism reflect reduced reward value of faces, which results in limited attention to faces during development and a consequent failure to acquire face expertise. Surprisingly, however, there is a paucity of work directly investigating the reward value of faces for individuals with autism and the evidence for diminished face rewards in this population remains equivocal. In the current study, we measured how hard children with autism would work to view faces, using an effortful key-press sequence, and whether they were sensitive to the differential reward value of attractive and unattractive faces. Contrary to expectations, cognitively able children with autism did not differ from typically developing children of similar age and ability in their willingness to work to view faces. Moreover, the effort expended was strongly positively correlated with facial attractiveness ratings in both groups of children. There was also no evidence of atypical reward values for other, less social categories (cars and inverted faces in the children with autism. These results speak against the possibility that face recognition difficulties in autism are explained by atypical reward value of faces.

  15. Re-examining the cognitive phenotype in autism: a study with young Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yan Grace

    2013-12-01

    Deficits consistently found in autism include an impaired "theory of mind", weak central coherence, and deficits in executive function. The current study examined whether this traditional cluster of symptoms existed in a group of Chinese-speaking children with autism. Sixteen high-functioning, non-retarded children with autism were matched to 16 typically developing (TD) children on gender, non-verbal IQ and age. Non-verbal IQ's of all participants were measured using the Raven Progressive Matrices. Each participant was tested individually on measures of "theory of mind", central coherence and executive function. Results indicated that most, but not all, participants with autism performed significantly poorer on two standard measures of first-order "theory of mind," although there was no significant difference on two other measures of that domain. As expected, they performed significantly worse on executive function tasks. However, the hypothesis of weak central coherence in autism was not substantiated. There was no evidence that these three cognitive impairments co-existed in individuals with autism. More likely, each of these deficits appears singly or in pair instead of forming a cluster. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Word Order Acquisition in Persian Speaking Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Jalilevand

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: Despite the fact that the spoken-Persian language has no strict word order, Persian-speaking children tend to use other logically possible orders of subject (S, verb (V, and object (O lesser than the SOV structure.

  17. TEACHING SPEAKING BY ROLE-PLAY ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadilah Fadilah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The students often find some problems in practising English speaking. The problem frequently found is that their native language causes them difficult to use the foreign language. Other reason is because of motivation lack to practice the second language in daily conversation. They are also too shy and afraid to take part in the conversation. Many factors can cause the problem of the students’ speaking skills namely the students’ interest, the material, and the media among others including the technique in teaching English. There are many ways that can be done by the students to develop their ability in speaking English. The appropriate technique used by the English teacher also supports their interested in practising their speaking. One of the techniques that can be applied is role play.

  18. Strabismus in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Melvin; Edelson, Stephen M.; Rimland, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Two studies of strabismus ("crossed eyes") in children with autism are reported. A clinical optometric evaluation of 34 individuals with autism, ages 7 to 19 years, found a strabismus rate of 50% and a parent survey of 7,640 families of children with autism found an incidence of 18% (compared to 2-4% in the general population). (Author/DB)

  19. SAP SE: Autism at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisano, Gary P.; Austin, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    This case describes SAP's 'Autism at Work' program, which integrates people with autism into the company's workforce. The company has a stated objective of making 1% o its workforce people with autism by 2020. SAP's rationale for the program is based on the belief that 'neurodiversity' contributes...

  20. Green Space and Childhood Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autism, a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders typically identified in early childhood, affects more than 3 million people in the U.S. To date, the cause of autism is unclear. It is believed that autism results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors incl...

  1. Autism Overview: What We Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is one of many federal agencies working to understand autism. The NICHD supports and conducts research on what causes autism, how many people have autism, how best to treat…

  2. Random Number Generation in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark A.; Moss, Simon A.; Bradshaw, John L.; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2002-01-01

    This study explored the ability of 14 individuals with autism to generate a unique series of digits. Individuals with autism were more likely to repeat previous digits than comparison individuals, suggesting they may exhibit a shortfall in response inhibition. Results support the executive dysfunction theory of autism. (Contains references.)…

  3. An exploration of sensory and movement differences from the perspective of individuals with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi eRobledo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Parents, teachers, and people who themselves experience sensory and movement differences have consistently reported disturbances of sensation and movement associated with autism. Our review of the literature has revealed both historical and recent references to and research about sensory and movement difference characteristics and symptoms for individuals with autism. What is notably infrequent in this literature, however, is research that highlights the perspective of the individual with autism. If we wish to truly understand the experience of sensory and movement differences for individuals with autism, we must explore their experiences and perspectives. This study presents a qualitative analysis of more than 40 hours in-depth inquiry into the lives of five individuals with the autism label. Data were sorted into six categories: perception, action, posture, emotion, communication, and cognition. The insights into sensory and movement differences and autism offered by these individuals was illuminating. We found that the data strongly supported the presence of disruption of organization and regulation of sensory and movement differences in the lived experience of these participants with autism. The present data suggests that in autism this disruption of organization and regulation is amplified in terms of quantity, quality, intensity, and may affect everyday life. These data contribute to a more expansive view of autism that incorporates the possibility that autism is a disorder that affects motor planning, behavior, communication, the sensory motor system, and the dynamic interaction of all of these.

  4. Vocal Loading in Speaking a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Kati; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether speaking a foreign language affects the subjective notions of vocal fatigue, and whether acoustic measurements reveal a higher vocal loading. The speech samples of 20 native Finnish-speaking and 23 native English-speaking subjects were recorded in Finnish and in English. From the speech samples, fundamental frequency, equivalent sound level, total duration of voiced speech, speech rate, alpha ratio and L1-L0 level difference were analyzed. Vocal doses were calculated. According to subjective notions, the voice gets tired more quickly when speaking a foreign language. The mean fundamental frequency increased but the speech rate and total duration of voiced speech decreased significantly when speaking a foreign language. Thus, the vocal doses decreased. The subjective sensations of increased vocal fatigue may be due to increased mental stress rather than to higher vocal loading. However, a trend that speaking a foreign language may involve more loading was found in L1-L0 level difference and in the doses normalized to time dose. Longer speech samples should be studied. Voice quality-based indicators of vocal loading are worth testing in addition to the measures based on the amount of voicing in speech. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Self-assessment: an alternative method of assessing speaking skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterini Chalkia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on self-assessment as an alternative method of assessing the speaking skills of a group of sixth graders of a Greek State Primary School. The paper consists of two parts. In the first part, traditional and alternative assessment approaches are compared and a literature review on self-assessment is presented. In the second part the methodology and the findings of the study are presented. The study was carried out by means of a questionnaire and observation notes. This was done in order to draw conclusions on the benefits of self-assessment, the difficulties students faced while carrying out self-assessment as well as to reveal the extent to which students improved their speaking skills after being involved in self-assessment. The findings revealed that the students were positive towards self-assessment. Although self-assessment was of limited duration, it turned out to be a worthwhile activity as it fostered motivation and sensitized the students to take a more active role in the learning process. It also enabled them to notice their strengths and weaknesses and improve their speaking skills. The study also revealed the practical difficulties the students faced in carrying out their self-assessment. Finally, the study concludes with recommendations for further research into this specific assessment method.

  6. Childhood autism in a 13 year old boy with oculocutaneous albinism: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bakare, Muideen O; Ikegwuonu, Nkeiruka N

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Hypomelanotic skin disorders like tuberous sclerosis and hypomelanosis of Ito that present with multiple systemic manifestations have been reported in association with childhood autism. Oculocutaneous albinism is another hypomelanotic skin disorder that rarely presents with multiple systemic manifestations. It is infrequently reported in association with childhood autism when compared to tuberous sclerosis and hypomelanosis of Ito. Case presentation This article reports ...

  7. Reliable & Valid Testing of Productive Vocabulary: Speaking Vocabulary Test (SVT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Stephen A.

    This study investigated the testing of speaking vocabulary in English as a Second Language (ESL) at a university in Hawaii. A Speaking Vocabulary Test (SVT) was developed and piloted with college students. Test-takers (n=37) were divided into three groups: native English-speaking freshmen and sophomores; non-native English-speaking freshmen,…

  8. Behavioural and cognitive sex/gender differences in autism spectrum condition and typically developing males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Laura; Mandy, William; Petrides, K V

    2017-08-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included in meta-analyses of sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition symptoms (social/communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviours and interests) and intelligence quotient. A total of 20 studies were included in a qualitative review of sex/gender differences in additional autism spectrum condition symptoms. For core traits and intelligence quotient, sex/gender differences were comparable in autism spectrum conditions and typical samples. Some additional autism spectrum condition symptoms displayed different patterns of sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions and typically developing groups, including measures of executive function, empathising and systemising traits, internalising and externalising problems and play behaviours. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions display typical sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition traits, suggesting that diagnostic criteria based on these symptoms should take into account typical sex/gender differences. However, awareness of associated autism spectrum condition symptoms should include the possibility of different male and female phenotypes, to ensure those who do not fit the 'typical' autism spectrum condition presentation are not missed.

  9. O. Ivar lovaas: pioneer of applied behavior analysis and intervention for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tristram; Eikeseth, Svein

    2011-03-01

    O. Ivar Lovaas (1927-2010) devoted nearly half a century to ground-breaking research and practice aimed at improving the lives of children with autism and their families. In the 1960s, he pioneered applied behavior analytic (ABA) interventions to decrease severe challenging behaviors and establish communicative language. Later, he sought to improve outcomes by emphasizing early intervention for preschoolers with autism, provided in family homes with active parental participation. His studies indicated that many children who received early intensive ABA made dramatic gains in development. Lovaas also disseminated ABA widely through intervention manuals, educational films, and public speaking. Moreover, as an enthusiastic teacher and devoted mentor, he inspired many students and colleagues to enter the field of ABA and autism intervention.

  10. Preference for language of instruction of an English language learner with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Jeannie M; White, Pamela J; Fragale, Christina; Chan, Jeffrey Michael

    2016-06-01

    To use a preference assessment to identify the preferred language of instruction (English or Spanish) for a child with autism living in a Spanish-speaking home and receiving school services in English only. We used a concurrent chains method to evaluate the participant's preference for English or Spanish instruction. Colored microswitches represented English instruction, Spanish instruction and no instruction (control). Switch presses resulted in instruction and reinforcement in either English or Spanish, or no instruction and no reinforcement. After session 10, switches were reprogrammed to control for color bias. The participant chose Spanish instruction most frequently. The participant preferred to receive instruction in Spanish. These data support previous research indicating the importance of child preference when individualizing educational programs for children with autism and that language of instruction is an important variable when working with children with autism who experience multiple languages across home and school.

  11. The genetics of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhle, Rebecca; Trentacoste, Stephanie V; Rapin, Isabelle

    2004-05-01

    Autism is a complex, behaviorally defined, static disorder of the immature brain that is of great concern to the practicing pediatrician because of an astonishing 556% reported increase in pediatric prevalence between 1991 and 1997, to a prevalence higher than that of spina bifida, cancer, or Down syndrome. This jump is probably attributable to heightened awareness and changing diagnostic criteria rather than to new environmental influences. Autism is not a disease but a syndrome with multiple nongenetic and genetic causes. By autism (the autistic spectrum disorders [ASDs]), we mean the wide spectrum of developmental disorders characterized by impairments in 3 behavioral domains: 1) social interaction; 2) language, communication, and imaginative play; and 3) range of interests and activities. Autism corresponds in this article to pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision. Except for Rett syndrome--attributable in most affected individuals to mutations of the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene--the other PDD subtypes (autistic disorder, Asperger disorder, disintegrative disorder, and PDD Not Otherwise Specified [PDD-NOS]) are not linked to any particular genetic or nongenetic cause. Review of 2 major textbooks on autism and of papers published between 1961 and 2003 yields convincing evidence for multiple interacting genetic factors as the main causative determinants of autism. Epidemiologic studies indicate that environmental factors such as toxic exposures, teratogens, perinatal insults, and prenatal infections such as rubella and cytomegalovirus account for few cases. These studies fail to confirm that immunizations with the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine are responsible for the surge in autism. Epilepsy, the medical condition most highly associated with autism, has equally complex genetic/nongenetic (but mostly unknown

  12. Bilingualism as Conceptualized and Bilingualism as Lived: A Critical Examination of the Monolingual Socialization of a Child with Autism in a Bilingual Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Betty

    2016-01-01

    This is an ethnographic and discourse analytic case study of a bilingual, minority-language family of a six-year-old child with autism whose family members were committed to speaking English with him. Drawing on "family language policy," the study examines the tensions between the family members' stated beliefs, management efforts, and…

  13. The Zen Scavenger Hunt: Constructing and Presenting Persuasive Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Persuasion; Persuasive Speaking. Objectives: Students will demonstrate the ability to apply persuasive concepts in constructing persuasive messages creatively, and students will present and analyze their persuasive messages.

  14. Development of a virtual speaking simulator using Image Based Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J M; Kim, H; Oh, M J; Ku, J H; Jang, D P; Kim, I Y; Kim, S I

    2002-01-01

    The fear of speaking is often cited as the world's most common social phobia. The rapid growth of computer technology has enabled the use of virtual reality (VR) for the treatment of the fear of public speaking. There are two techniques for building virtual environments for the treatment of this fear: a model-based and a movie-based method. Both methods have the weakness that they are unrealistic and not controllable individually. To understand these disadvantages, this paper presents a virtual environment produced with Image Based Rendering (IBR) and a chroma-key simultaneously. IBR enables the creation of realistic virtual environments where the images are stitched panoramically with the photos taken from a digital camera. And the use of chroma-keys puts virtual audience members under individual control in the environment. In addition, real time capture technique is used in constructing the virtual environments enabling spoken interaction between the subject and a therapist or another subject.

  15. Characteristics of autism spectrum disorder in anorexia nervosa: A naturalistic study in an inpatient treatment programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchanturia, Kate; Adamson, James; Leppanen, Jenni; Westwood, Heather

    2017-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated links between anorexia nervosa and autism spectrum disorder however, few studies have examined the possible impact of symptoms of autism spectrum disorder on clinical outcomes in anorexia nervosa. The aim of this study was to examine the association between symptoms of autism spectrum disorder and eating disorders, and other psychopathology during the course of inpatient treatment in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Participants with anorexia nervosa (n = 171) completed questionnaires exploring eating disorder psychopathology, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and everyday functioning at both admission and discharge. Characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorder were assessed using the Autism Spectrum Quotient, short version. Autism spectrum disorder symptoms were significantly positively correlated with eating disorder psychopathology, work and social functioning, and symptoms of depression and anxiety, but not with body mass index. Autism Spectrum Quotient, short version scores remained relatively stable from admission to discharge but there was a small, significant reduction in scores. There was no interaction between time and Autism Spectrum Quotient, short version scores on clinical symptom change. In anorexia nervosa, autism spectrum disorder symptoms appear to be associated with a more severe clinical presentation on admission to inpatient care. Autism spectrum disorder symptoms as assessed by self-report measures may be exacerbated by other mental health psychopathology, which warrants further investigation.

  16. Locus ceruleus neurons in people with autism contain no histochemically-detectable mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamphlett, Roger; Kum Jew, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to environmental mercury has been proposed to play a part in autism. Mercury is selectively taken up by the human locus ceruleus, a region of the brain that has been implicated in autism. We therefore looked for the presence of mercury in the locus ceruleus of people who had autism, using the histochemical technique of autometallography which can detect nanogram amounts of mercury in tissues. In addition, we sought evidence of damage to locus ceruleus neurons in autism by immunostaining for hyperphosphorylated tau. No mercury was found in any neurons of the locus ceruleus of 6 individuals with autism (5 male, 1 female, age range 16-48 years). Mercury was present in locus ceruleus neurons in 7 of 11 (64%) age-matched control individuals who did not have autism, which is significantly more than in individuals with autism. No increase in numbers of locus ceruleus neurons containing hyperphosphorylated tau was detected in people with autism. In conclusion, most people with autism have not been exposed early in life to quantities of mercury large enough to be found later in adult locus ceruleus neurons. Human locus ceruleus neurons are sensitive indicators of mercury exposure, and mercury appears to remain in these neurons indefinitely, so these findings do not support the hypothesis that mercury neurotoxicity plays a role in autism.

  17. PROVIDING DENTAL CARE FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana MURARU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the increasing prevalence of autism spectrum disorders, it is realistic to assume that dental professionals are likely to treat individuals with this diagnosis. Understanding the complexities of this disorder and its behavioral manifestations is indispensable for dentists. The present article presents several characteristics of autism spectrum disorder that impact dental interventions, along with medical and behavioral alternatives to better manage the dental problems of children with autism spectrum disorder. A multidisciplinary approach and family support are important for planning a dental intervention for these patients in order to avoid anxiety. Knowledge on autism, the dentist-patient relationship and the individual preparation for dental interventions is useful for constructing a controllable medical experience

  18. STUDY ABOUT THE INCIDENCE OF HEARING-SPEAKING DISORDERS IN A POPULATION WITH MENTAL DEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Mihaela Tomulescu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the incidence of hearing-speaking disorders in a population with mental deficiency. We studied 596 children interned in Neurology and Psychiatry Clinical Hospital of Oradea during the 1999 - 2001 period. In 596 children, 393 presented different types of mental deficiency. The most frequent disorders observed are hearing loss or deafness, deaf-mutism, mutism and speaking retardation. Also, we related an increased frequency in rural area and in group of children with severe mental deficiency.

  19. Public speaking for the healthcare professional: Part I--Preparing for the program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Neil

    2011-01-01

    It is true that most doctors do not enjoy public speaking. Most physicians, although good with one-on-one conversations with patients, are out of their comfort zone when it comes to speaking in front of other physicians, colleagues, and even lay persons. This three-part article will discuss the preparation, the presentation, and what you need to do after the program is over in order to become an effective public speaker.

  20. GENETIC ASPECTS OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas LAKOSKI

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first paper on the syndrome of autism, Kanner described it as innate and inborn. He drew attention to the abnormalities in infancy without evidence of prior normal development and the intellectual, non emotional qualities shown by many of the parents and grandparents. Subsequently, the supposed lack of parental warmth led many clinicians to abandon the notions of constitutional deficit in the child and instead to postulate a psychogenic origin etiology was likely, genetic factors probably did not play a major role. Attention was draw to the low rate of autism in siblings, the lack of chromosome anomalies, and the similarities with syndromes associated with known brain trauma. Although the rate of autism in siblings was indeed low, it was much higher than in the general population rate providing a strong pointer to the genetic factors. The recognition that this was so, associated with the parallel finding of apparently high familiar loading for language delay, stimulated the first, systematic, twin study of autism, which suggested a strong genetic component. Subsequent research has produced findings in the same direction, although many questions remain unanswered. In this paper the evidence that has accumulated on genetic influences on autism is summarized and the remained dilemmas on this field are discussed.

  1. I Help, Therefore, I Learn: Service Learning on Web 2.0 in an EFL Speaking Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Chih; Yang, Fang-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The present study integrates service learning into English as a Foreign Language (EFL) speaking class using Web 2.0 tools--YouTube and Facebook--as platforms. Fourteen undergraduate students participated in the study. The purpose of the service-learning project was to link service learning with oral communication training in an EFL speaking class…

  2. Examining the Relationship between Emergent Literacy Skills and Invented Spelling in Prekindergarten Spanish-Speaking Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Meghan; Bingham, Gary; Patton-Terry, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine associations among English and Spanish emergent literacy skills of prekindergarten (pre-K) Spanish-speaking dual language learners in relation to their English invented spelling. Study participants included 141 Spanish-speaking 4-year-old children enrolled in state-funded pre-K programs in a large…

  3. The Teaching of Listening as an Integral Part of an Oral Activity: An Examination of Public-Speaking Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W. Clifton; Cox, E. Sam

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a content analysis of 10 current public-speaking textbooks to determine the nature and extent to which they teach listening in an integrated approach with public speaking as an oral activity. Lewis and Nichols (1965) predicted that listening would increasingly be taught especially in an integrated approach with…

  4. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and autism: a comprehensive comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsello, Christina; Kennedy, Daniel P.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The corpus callosum, with its ∼200 million axons, remains enigmatic in its contribution to cognition and behaviour. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a congenital condition in which the corpus callosum fails to develop; such individuals exhibit localized deficits in non-literal language comprehension, humour, theory of mind and social reasoning. These findings together with parent reports suggest that behavioural and cognitive impairments in subjects with callosal agenesis may overlap with the profile of autism spectrum disorders, particularly with respect to impairments in social interaction and communication. To provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis, we directly compared a group of 26 adults with callosal agenesis to a group of 28 adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder but no neurological abnormality. All participants had full-scale intelligence quotient scores >78 and groups were matched on age, handedness, and gender ratio. Using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule together with current clinical presentation to assess autistic symptomatology, we found that 8/26 (about a third) of agenesis subjects presented with autism. However, more formal diagnosis additionally involving recollective parent-report measures regarding childhood behaviour showed that only 3/22 met complete formal criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (parent reports were unavailable for four subjects). We found no relationship between intelligence quotient and autism symptomatology in callosal agenesis, nor evidence that the presence of any residual corpus callosum differentiated those who exhibited current autism spectrum symptoms from those who did not. Relative to the autism spectrum comparison group, parent ratings of childhood behaviour indicated children with agenesis were less likely to meet diagnostic criteria for autism, even for those who met autism spectrum criteria as adults, and even though there was no group difference in parent report of current

  5. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and autism: a comprehensive comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lynn K; Corsello, Christina; Kennedy, Daniel P; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-06-01

    The corpus callosum, with its ∼200 million axons, remains enigmatic in its contribution to cognition and behaviour. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a congenital condition in which the corpus callosum fails to develop; such individuals exhibit localized deficits in non-literal language comprehension, humour, theory of mind and social reasoning. These findings together with parent reports suggest that behavioural and cognitive impairments in subjects with callosal agenesis may overlap with the profile of autism spectrum disorders, particularly with respect to impairments in social interaction and communication. To provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis, we directly compared a group of 26 adults with callosal agenesis to a group of 28 adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder but no neurological abnormality. All participants had full-scale intelligence quotient scores >78 and groups were matched on age, handedness, and gender ratio. Using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule together with current clinical presentation to assess autistic symptomatology, we found that 8/26 (about a third) of agenesis subjects presented with autism. However, more formal diagnosis additionally involving recollective parent-report measures regarding childhood behaviour showed that only 3/22 met complete formal criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (parent reports were unavailable for four subjects). We found no relationship between intelligence quotient and autism symptomatology in callosal agenesis, nor evidence that the presence of any residual corpus callosum differentiated those who exhibited current autism spectrum symptoms from those who did not. Relative to the autism spectrum comparison group, parent ratings of childhood behaviour indicated children with agenesis were less likely to meet diagnostic criteria for autism, even for those who met autism spectrum criteria as adults, and even though there was no group difference in parent report of current

  6. Characteristic Symptoms and Adaptive Behaviors of Children with Autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, N. K.; Haq, A.; Aslam, N.; Anjum, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the characteristic symptoms and adaptive behaviors of children with autism, as well as the distribution of autism severity groups across gender. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Special Education Schools of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, from September 2011 to January 2012. Methodology: Thirty nine children of either gender, aged 3 - 16 years and enrolled in special education schools, fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria of autism. Among those, were identified as meeting the criteria of autism. The childhood autism rating scale-2 (CARS-2) was used to study the characteristics and severity of symptoms of autism. Later, adaptive behavior scale (school edition: 2) ABS-S: 2, was administered on children (n=21) to formulate the level of adaptive functioning. Results: There were 15 boys and 8 girls with mean age of 10.6 +- 2.97 years. They showed marked impairment in verbal communication (mean=3.17 +- 0.90) followed by relating to people (mean=2.75 +- 0.83) and general impression (mean=2.73 +- 0.7). Most of the children showed average to below average adaptive behaviors on number and time (n=19, 90.5%), independent functioning (n=17, 81.0%), self direction (n=17, 81.0%), physical development (n=13, 61.9%), responsibility (n=12, 57.1%) and socialization (n=13, 61.9%) as well as poor to very poor adaptive behaviors on prevocational skill (n=15, 71.4%), language development (n=13, 61.9%) and economic development (n=13, 61.9%). The frequency of boys with autism was more towards moderate to severely impaired spectrum, without gender differences in any symptom associated with autism. Conclusion: Comprehension of the presentation of characteristic symptoms of children with autism will be helpful in devising the indigenous intervention plans that are congruent with the level of adaptive functioning. (author)

  7. Now Presenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Despite all the speaking that students do in class, they don't speak all that well. We sit through mediocre book reports and think, "Oh well, that's just how kids speak." We post a video to YouTube with students speaking poorly and kid ourselves by saying, "Hey, that's authentic speech!" Daily, we accept oral…

  8. Stroke Knowledge in Spanish-speaking populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Maximiliano A; Ameriso, Sebastián F; Willey, Joshua Z

    2015-01-01

    Background Spanish is the second most spoken language in the world. Spanish-speaking populations (SSP) have heterogeneous cultural backgrounds, racial and ethnical origins, economic status, and access to health care systems. There are no published reviews about stroke knowledge in SSP. We reviewed the existing literature addressing stroke knowledge among SSP and propose future directions for research. Summary We identified 18 suitable studies by searching PubMed, Lilacs, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane and Scielo databases, and looking at reference lists of eligible articles. We also included 2 conference abstracts. Data related to stroke knowledge from studies of Spanish-speakers was analyzed. Key messages Little is known about stroke knowledge in SSP, especially in Latin America. Information is poor even among subjects at risk, stroke patients, stroke survivors, and health care providers. “Ictus”, the word used for stroke in Spanish, is largely unrecognized among subjects at risk. Furthermore, access to medical care and presence of neurologists are suboptimal in many regions. There are several potential issues to solve regarding stroke knowledge and stroke care in SSP. Programs to educate the general population and non-neurologists medical providers in stroke and telemedicine may be suitable options to improve the present situation. PMID:25871697

  9. Identifying autism from neural representations of social interactions: neurocognitive markers of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Adam Just

    Full Text Available Autism is a psychiatric/neurological condition in which alterations in social interaction (among other symptoms are diagnosed by behavioral psychiatric methods. The main goal of this study was to determine how the neural representations and meanings of social concepts (such as to insult are altered in autism. A second goal was to determine whether these alterations can serve as neurocognitive markers of autism. The approach is based on previous advances in fMRI analysis methods that permit (a the identification of a concept, such as the thought of a physical object, from its fMRI pattern, and (b the ability to assess the semantic content of a concept from its fMRI pattern. These factor analysis and machine learning methods were applied to the fMRI activation patterns of 17 adults with high-functioning autism and matched controls, scanned while thinking about 16 social interactions. One prominent neural representation factor that emerged (manifested mainly in posterior midline regions was related to self-representation, but this factor was present only for the control participants, and was near-absent in the autism group. Moreover, machine learning algorithms classified individuals as autistic or control with 97% accuracy from their fMRI neurocognitive markers. The findings suggest that psychiatric alterations of thought can begin to be biologically understood by assessing the form and content of the altered thought's underlying brain activation patterns.

  10. Identifying autism from neural representations of social interactions: neurocognitive markers of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Marcel Adam; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Buchweitz, Augusto; Keller, Timothy A; Mitchell, Tom M

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a psychiatric/neurological condition in which alterations in social interaction (among other symptoms) are diagnosed by behavioral psychiatric methods. The main goal of this study was to determine how the neural representations and meanings of social concepts (such as to insult) are altered in autism. A second goal was to determine whether these alterations can serve as neurocognitive markers of autism. The approach is based on previous advances in fMRI analysis methods that permit (a) the identification of a concept, such as the thought of a physical object, from its fMRI pattern, and (b) the ability to assess the semantic content of a concept from its fMRI pattern. These factor analysis and machine learning methods were applied to the fMRI activation patterns of 17 adults with high-functioning autism and matched controls, scanned while thinking about 16 social interactions. One prominent neural representation factor that emerged (manifested mainly in posterior midline regions) was related to self-representation, but this factor was present only for the control participants, and was near-absent in the autism group. Moreover, machine learning algorithms classified individuals as autistic or control with 97% accuracy from their fMRI neurocognitive markers. The findings suggest that psychiatric alterations of thought can begin to be biologically understood by assessing the form and content of the altered thought's underlying brain activation patterns.

  11. Sexuality and Gender Role in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bejerot, Susanne; Eriksson, Jonna M.

    2014-01-01

    The 'extreme male brain theory of autism' describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum d...

  12. Mealtime behaviour and food choice of children with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Loviška, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Presented study is oriented on identification of problems in mealtime behaviour and food choice of children with autism spectrum disorders. Presence of these problems and extent of food selectivity is compared with a control group of children without autism. Development and validisation of diagnostic tools, which measure these phenomenons is a part of the study. It was found that autistic children display much more problematic mealtime behaviour and refuse more food than children without autism.

  13. Studying the Behaviour of Model of Mirror Neuron System in Case of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Shikha Anirban; Mohammad Hanif Ali

    2012-01-01

    Several experiment done by the researchers conducted that autism is caused by the dysfunctional mirror neuron system and the dysfunctions of mirror neuron system is proportional to the symptom severity of autism. In the present work those experiments were studied as well as studying a model of mirror neuron system called MNS2 developed by a research group. This research examined the behavior of the model in case of autism and compared the result with those studies conducting dysfunctions of m...

  14. Validation of Proposed "DSM-5" Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Speer, Leslie; Embacher, Rebecca; Law, Paul; Constantino, John; Findling, Robert L.; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Eng, Charis

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of proposed "DSM-5" criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: We analyzed symptoms from 14,744 siblings (8,911 ASD and 5,863 non-ASD) included in a national registry, the Interactive Autism Network. Youth 2 through 18 years of age were included if at least one…

  15. Event-based prospective memory performance in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Altgassen, Mareike; Schmitz-H?bsch, Maren; Kliegel, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate event-based prospective memory performance in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and to explore possible relations between laboratory-based prospective memory performance and everyday performance. Nineteen children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 matched neurotypical controls participated. The laboratory-based prospective memory test was embedded in a visuo-spatial working memory test and required participants to ...

  16. Mortality in Autism: A Prospective Longitudinal Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva; Sundh, Valter; Gillberg, I. Carina

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to establish the mortality rate in a representative group of individuals (n = 120) born in the years 1962-1984, diagnosed with autism/atypical autism in childhood and followed up at young adult age (greater than or equal to 18 years of age), and examine the risk factors and causes of death. The study group,…

  17. Development of Vocabulary in Spanish-Speaking and Cantonese-Speaking English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikoshi, Yuuko

    2014-01-01

    This study examines vocabulary growth rates in first and second languages for Spanish-speaking and Cantonese-speaking English language learners from kindergarten through second grade. Growth-modeling results show a within-language effect of concepts about print on vocabulary. Language exposure also had an effect on English vocabulary: earlier…

  18. The Perception of Binus University Chinese Speaking Teachers Towards The Speaking Test Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetty Yetty

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In relation to teaching and learning language, speaking always becomes an important skill. Speaking lesson has been designed as the main course in foreign language teaching and teachers have to master the teaching method in class, and he must be able to design a standard speaking test to assess student capability in speaking. In this article, the writer uses the theory of standard speaking test design, and combines it with the result of interview with three speaking teachers of the Chinese Department, BINUS University. This is to analyze the speaking test design and content. The result of the analysis shows that the important parts in speaking test design are reading, questions and answers, and the narration. It is used to assess student’s expression, communication, and the level of phonetic abilities For the test content, the three teachers think  that the material must be studied before and it is also possible to use small part from other materials outside the textbook.  

  19. Visual perceptual abilities of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mun Yee; Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports an investigation of Chinese-speaking and English-speaking children's general visual perceptual abilities. The Developmental Test of Visual Perception was administered to 41 native Chinese-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 4 mo. in Hong Kong and 35 English-speaking children of mean age 5 yr. 2 mo. in Melbourne. Of interest were the two interrelated components of visual perceptual abilities, namely, motor-reduced visual perceptual and visual-motor integration perceptual abilities, which require either verbal or motoric responses in completing visual tasks. Chinese-speaking children significantly outperformed the English-speaking children on general visual perceptual abilities. When comparing the results of each of the two different components, the Chinese-speaking students' performance on visual-motor integration was far better than that of their counterparts (ES = 2.70), while the two groups of students performed similarly on motor-reduced visual perceptual abilities. Cultural factors such as written language format may be contributing to the enhanced performance of Chinese-speaking children's visual-motor integration abilities, but there may be validity questions in the Chinese version.

  20. Strategies of Learning Speaking Skill by Indonesian Learners of English and Their Contribution to Speaking Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistar, Junaidi; Umamah, Atik

    2014-01-01

    This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the attempts to reveal: (1) the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2) the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners'…

  1. STRATEGIES OF LEARNING SPEAKING SKILL BY INDONESIAN LEARNERS OF ENGLISH AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO SPEAKING PROFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUNAIDI MISTAR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper was a subset report of a research project on skill-based English learning strategies by Indonesian EFL learners. It focusses on the at- tempts to reveal: (1 the differences in the use of strategies of learning speaking skill by male and female learners, and (2 the contribution of strategies of learning speaking skill on the learners’ speaking proficiency. The data from 595 second year senior high school students from eleven schools in East Java, Indonesia were collected using a 70 item questionnaire of Oral Communication Learning Strategy (OCLS and a 10 item self-assessment of speaking proficiency. The statistical analysis revealed that gender provided significant effects on the intensity of use of six types of strategies of learning speaking skill – interactional-maintenance, self-evaluation, fluency-oriented, time gaining, compensation, and interpersonal strategies – with female learners reporting higher intensity of use. A further analysis found that four strategy types – interactional-maintenance, self-improvement, compensation, and memory strategies – greatly contribute to the speaking proficiency. These findings imply that strategies-based instruction, covering the four most influential strategies, needs to be integrated explicitly in the speaking class to help learners, particularly male learners, cope with problems in learning speaking skill.

  2. Neuroimaging of autism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeven, Judith S.; Cock, Paul de; Lagae, Lieven; Sunaert, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies done by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided important insights into the neurobiological basis for autism. The aim of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding brain abnormalities in autism. Results of structural MRI studies dealing with total brain volume, the volume of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala and the area of the corpus callosum are summarised. In the past 5 years also new MRI applications as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging brought considerable new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms of autism. Dysfunctional activation in key areas of verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction, and executive functions are revised. Finally, we also discuss white matter alterations in important communication pathways in the brain of autistic patients. (orig.)

  3. Neuroimaging of autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeven, Judith S.; Cock, Paul de; Lagae, Lieven [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Pediatrics, Leuven (Belgium); Sunaert, Stefan [University Hospitals of the Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-01-15

    Neuroimaging studies done by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have provided important insights into the neurobiological basis for autism. The aim of this article is to review the current state of knowledge regarding brain abnormalities in autism. Results of structural MRI studies dealing with total brain volume, the volume of the cerebellum, caudate nucleus, thalamus, amygdala and the area of the corpus callosum are summarised. In the past 5 years also new MRI applications as functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging brought considerable new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms of autism. Dysfunctional activation in key areas of verbal and non-verbal communication, social interaction, and executive functions are revised. Finally, we also discuss white matter alterations in important communication pathways in the brain of autistic patients. (orig.)

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

  5. ETIOLOGY OF AUTISM

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    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is good evidence that autism is a multifactorial disorder, an adequate understanding of the genetic and nongenetic causes has yet to be achieved. With empirical research findings review is made to evidence on possible causal influences. Much the strongest evidence concerns the importance of susceptibility genes, but such genes have yet to be identified. Specific somatic conditions (tuberous sclerosis and the fragile X syndrome account for a small proportion of cases. Over recent decades there has been a major rise in the rate of diagnosed autism. The main explanation for this rise is to be found in better ascertainment and a broadening of the diagnostic concept. Progress on the elucidation of the causes of autism will be crucially dependent on the combination of epidemiology with more basic science laboratory studies.

  6. The neuropsychology of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé, F; Frith, U

    1996-08-01

    In this review, we aim to bring together major trends in autism research at three levels: biology, behaviour and cognition. We propose that cognitive theories are vital in neuropsychology, which seeks to make connections between brain abnormality and behavioural symptoms. Research at each of the three levels is incomplete, but important advances have been made. At the biological level, there is strong evidence for genetic factors, although the mechanism is, as yet, unknown. At the behavioural level, diagnosis and education are becoming more coherent and less controversial, although the possibility of autism subtypes has provoked new debate. At the cognitive level, three major theories are proving fruitful (mentalizing impairment, executive dysfunction and weak central coherence), although the relation and overlap between these is uncertain. Rapidly advancing technology and methodology (e.g. brain imaging, gene mapping), as tools of cognitive theory, may help to make autism one of the first developmental disorders to be understood at the neuropsychological level.

  7. Autism and Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, E R

    1998-08-01

    Autism is a severe developmental disability believed to have multiple etiologies. This paper outlines the possibility of a subacute, chronic tetanus infection of the intestinal tract as the underlying cause for symptoms of autism observed in some individuals. A significant percentage of individuals with autism have a history of extensive antibiotic use. Oral antibiotics significantly disrupt protective intestinal microbiota, creating a favorable environment for colonization by opportunistic pathogens. Clostridium tetani is an ubiquitous anaerobic bacillus that produces a potent neurotoxin. Intestinal colonization by C. tetani, and subsequent neurotoxin release, have been demonstrated in laboratory animals which were fed vegetative cells. The vagus nerve is capable of transporting tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) and provides a route of ascent from the intestinal tract to the CNS. This route bypasses TeNT's normal preferential binding sites in the spinal cord, and therefore the symptoms of a typical tetanus infection are not evident. Once in the brain, TeNT disrupts the release of neurotransmitters by the proteolytic cleavage of synaptobrevin, a synaptic vesicle membrane protein. This inhibition of neurotransmitter release would explain a wide variety of behavioral deficits apparent in autism. Lab animals injected in the brain with TeNT have exhibited many of these behaviors. Some children with autism have also shown a significant reduction in stereotyped behaviors when treated with antimicrobials effective against intestinal clostridia. When viewed as sequelae to a subacute, chronic tetanus infection, many of the puzzling abnormalities of autism have a logical basis. A review of atypical tetanus cases, and strategies to test the validity of this paper's hypothesis, are included.

  8. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... only after another family member has been diagnosed. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fragile X Syndrome Fragile X syndrome is ... known single gene cause of ASD What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behavioral diagnosis. ...

  9. Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Autism Spectrum Disorder Therapies for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Consumer Summary September 23, 2014 Download PDF 692. ... Web page Understanding Your Child's Condition What is autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? ASD includes a range of behavioral symptoms. ...

  10. Ubiquinol Improves Symptoms in Children with Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gvozdjakova, Anna; Kucharska, Jarmila; Ostatnikova, Daniela; Babinska, Katarina; Nakladal, Dalibor; Crane, Fred L.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Autism is a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with manifestation within 3 years after birth. Manifestations of autism include behavior problems (hyperactivity, toys destruction, self-harm, and agression) and sleep and eating disorders. Etiology of autism is poorly understood.

  11. It looks like autism: caution in diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, David M; Miller, Karen; Stein, Martin T

    2010-04-01

    CASE 1: At 3 years of age, Billy was seen by his pediatrician for a well child visit. Spontaneous speech was limited during the visit. He did not interact with the pediatrician and attempts to play with Billy resulted in oppositional behavior. About 3 months after the visit, Billy's parents requested a developmental evaluation; he was diagnosed with autism by means of an observational measure and a parent interview. Billy was born full term after an uncomplicated labor, delivery and postnatal period. Motor milestones were normal. His parents recalled that he used his finger to point to an object prior to using words. He spoke several single words by his first birthday and used phrases before age 2 years. Billy was described as often having difficulty with transitions, but he is happy and outgoing in familiar situations. At 3 years old, when he started preschool, Billy did not speak to either the teacher or other children. This pattern of refusal to speak persists. His parents report that he talks to them and one uncle using complete sentences with clear speech. Billy prefers to repeat activities and is reluctant to try activities. He frequently plays with the same toy cars placing them in a neat line and becomes upset if things are not done in the same way. An uncle has Asperger syndrome. CASE 2: Juan, a 3 year old Mexican-American boy, was referred by his preschool teacher because "he does not interact with other children or use language at an age-appropriate level." He prefers to play alone, resists participation in group activities at preschool, and does not share as well as other students according to his teacher. Expressive language with speech is rarely seen in preschool. In contrast, at home he plays interactively, shares toys with his older brother and speaks in short, clear sentences. In preschool, English is spoken exclusively. At home, Spanish is the primary language. Prenatal and birth histories were uneventful. Motor and social milestones were achieved

  12. The Link between Autism and Skills Such as Engineering, Maths, Physics and Computing: A Reply to Jarrold and Routh, Autism, 1998, 2 (3):281-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2001-01-01

    This article expands on findings from a study that found grandfathers and grandfathers of children with autism were over represented in the field of engineering. It presents additional evidence that engineers are still over represented, even when one takes into account an over representation of professionals among fathers of children autism.…

  13. Assessment of Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondhuis, Sabrina N.; Aman, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common comorbid conditions in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), although assessment presents unique challenges. Many symptoms of anxiety appear to overlap with common presentations of autism. Furthermore, deficits in language and cognitive functioning make it difficult for such…

  14. Precursors to the Development of Anxiety Disorders in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    neurophysiological, and observational measures. Initial findings indicate that children with ASD who have clinically significant sensory are at increased risk for...presented at the 2016 North Carolina Psychological Association Undergraduate Research Conference, by Ms. Logan Beyer in a poster entitled “Updated...Durham, NC: Duke Center for Autism and Brain Development Clinical Seminar. (Presenter: Carpenter) 10 Carpenter KLH (2016). Anxiety and Autism

  15. Behavioral Benefits of Camel Milk in Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y; Halepoto, Dost Muhammad; Al-Dress, Abdul M; Mitwali, Yasmine; Zainah, Rana

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the possible therapeutic effects of camel milk on behavioral characteristics as an interventional strategy in autistic children. Double-blind, Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT). Autism Research and Treatment Center, Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2012 to May 2013. Changes in behavioral characteristics in 65 (boys=60, girls=5) children with autism (aged from 2 to 12 years) were assessed. The behavioral symptoms were evaluated by Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) before and after the 2 weeks of camel milk therapy. Significant differences were detected on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) by CARS, SRS and ATEC scales, following 2 weeks of camel milk consumption, but not in the placebo group. The present study demonstrates that camel milk could be very promising therapeutic intervention in ASD. Further wide scale studies are strongly recommended.

  16. Case study: cross-gender preoccupations with two male children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P G; Allard, A M; Sears, L

    1996-12-01

    Persons with autism frequently exhibit circumscribed interests and unusual preoccupations. In this case study, two young males with autism are presented who have preoccupations with feminine gender-stereotyped activities and objects. These types of preoccupations in children with autism have not been reported in the literature, but may be more prevalent than realized due to parental underreporting given the negative stigma associated with feminine interests in young boys. The development of gender identity in young children with autism has rarely been addressed in the literature. It seems unlikely that these two cases can be categorized as gender identity disorders. Understanding these preoccupations in the context of autism rather than focusing on the gender identity issues has important implications for treatment. These cases point to the need for further study of the complex interplay of environmental and neurobiologic factors affecting gender identity roles and preoccupations in autism.

  17. Autism in patients with propionic acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witters, Peter; Debbold, Eric; Crivelly, Kea; Vande Kerckhove, Kristel; Corthouts, Karen; Debbold, Brett; Andersson, Hans; Vannieuwenborg, Lena; Geuens, Sam; Baumgartner, Matthias; Kozicz, Tamas; Settles, Lisa; Morava, Eva

    2016-12-01

    Certain inborn errors of metabolism have been suggested to increase the risk of autistic behavior. In an animal model, propionic acid ingestion triggered abnormal behavior resembling autism. So far only a few cases were reported with propionic acidemia and autistic features. From a series of twelve consecutively diagnosed cases with propionic acidemia, we report on eight patients with autistic features. The patients were followed 2-4 times a year and underwent regular clinical, dietary and laboratory investigations. Psychological evaluation was performed every second to fourth year. All patients were compliant with the standard diet and carnitine supplementation. None of the patients had frequent metabolic decompensations. From the metabolic factors known to impact neuropsychological outcome we detected chronically decreased valine levels and altered valine to leucine ratios in five out of the eight patients. Recurrent lactic acid elevations were present in six out of the eight patients. Five of the eight patients were diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder, four of them had pathogenic variants in PCCB. Disorder according to DSM-IV and/or DSM-5 criteria. One of the patients diagnosed with propionic acidemia by newborn screening had the most significant behavioral features and another was diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder prior to propionic acidemia. We hypothesize that chronic suboptimal intracellular metabolic balance may be responsible for the increased risk for autistic features in propionic acidemia. We propose that patients diagnosed with propionic acidemia should be screened for Autism Spectrum Disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Models of intervention in children with autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, F; Ros-Cervera, G; Millá, M G; Etchepareborda, M C; Abad, L; Téllez de Meneses, M

    2010-03-03

    Autism spectrum disorders make up a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that globally affect different higher brain functions in the individual, such as intelligence, the capacity to use language and social interaction. Today, although there is still no curative treatment for autism, there are a number of non pharmacological interventions that can modify the poor prognosis that is generally associated to this type of disorders. To briefly review the different approaches to the neuro rehabilitation of patients suffering from autism spectrum disorders, which are usually known as methods of intervention. From the categorical point of view, three types of methods of intervention can be distinguished, depending on whether the orientation is psychodynamic, biomedical or psycho educational. It is difficult to compare the results of the different methods of intervention, but researchers have identified several common elements that they should have if they are to be effective. At present, the psycho educational methods are preferred, since they are the only ones that, to date, have proved to be effective in research studies. Early intervention by diagnostic and early care centres, with the use of mixed models of psycho educational intervention that nevertheless also include an important percentage of behavioural elements, has proved to be capable of modifying the course of patients with autism spectrum disorders and is currently the most suitable approach.

  19. Sexuality of persons with autism: Approaches to sexuality education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banković Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys conducted over the past two decades have resulted in a more complete understanding of the sexual behavior of persons with autism, but also the need to issue more attention. Although a large number of people with autism express sexual interest and various forms of sexual behavior, they are not always expressed in a socially acceptable way. The paper presents some approaches to sexuality education of persons with autism, as well as review the specific sexual behaviors that may be relevant to the design and implementation of appropriate programs of sexual education for this population. In terms of current processes of deinstitutionalization and inclusion in the wider community, formal sex education is a prerequisite for improving the quality of life of people with autism and their full social acceptance.

  20. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much attention was focused on individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised that were useful to evaluate the aggressive behavior. We have not found any association between aggressive behavior (other-aggression and self-aggression) and the absence of language or low IQ in children with ASD. Thus, the degree of severity of autism is probably the most important risk factor for this behavior.

  1. Vaccination as a cause of autism-myths and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Despite significant progress in the study of the epidemiology and genetics of autism, the etiology and patho-physiology of this condition is far from being elucidated and no curative treatment currently exists. Although solid scientific research continues, in an attempt to find explanations and solutions, a number of nonscientific and pure myths about autism have emerged. Myths that vaccines or mercury are associated with autism have been amplified by misguided scientists; frustrated, but effective parent groups; and politicians. Preventing the protection provided by vaccination or administration of mercury-chelating agents may cause real damage to autistic individuals and to innocent bystanders who as a result may be exposed to resurgent diseases that had already been "extinguished. " That such myths flourish is a consequence of the authority of scientific evidence obtained by scientific methodology losing ground to alternative truths and alternative science. This article presents a narrative of the origin of the myths around autism.

  2. Narrative production in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijper, Sanne J M; Hartman, Catharina A; Bogaerds-Hazenberg, Suzanne T M; Hendriks, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on the similarities and differences in language production between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, we investigated whether Theory of Mind (ToM), working memory, and response inhibition are associated with language production. Narratives, produced by 106 Dutch-speaking children (36 with ASD, 34 with ADHD, and 36 typically developing) aged 6 to 12 during ADOS assessment, were examined on several linguistic measures: verbal productivity, speech fluency, syntactic complexity, lexical semantics, and discourse pragmatics. Children were tested on ToM, working memory, and response inhibition and parents filled in the Children's Communication Checklist (CCC-2). Gold-standard diagnostic measures (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schema [ADOS], Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised [ADI-R], and the Parent Interview for Child Symptoms [PICS]) were administered to all children to confirm diagnosis. Regarding similarities, both clinical groups showed impairments in narrative performance relative to typically developing children. These were confirmed by the CCC-2. These impairments were not only present on pragmatic measures, such as the inability to produce a narrative in a coherent and cohesive way, but also on syntactic complexity and their production of repetitions. As for differences, children with ADHD but not children with ASD showed problems in their choice of referring expressions and speech fluency. ToM and working memory performance but not response inhibition were associated with many narrative skills, suggesting that these cognitive mechanisms explain some of the impairments in language production. We conclude that children with ASD and children with ADHD manifest multiple and diverse language production problems, which may partly relate to their problems in ToM and working memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO THE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of English in Indonesia has developed quickly in all of the fields. It is affected by many things in many ways. The need of English has also increased quickly in many parts of Indonesian life. To face it, teaching English at young ages or studentseems like the solution. Speaking is one of the skills that should be tough to the student. To get effective learning, it's useful to know what are factors contributing to the student speaking development. This research showed that there are some contributing factors to the students’ speaking development. Those factors are Teacher, Daily Practice, Listening to English Music, Family Support, Watching English Video and Movie, Motivation to Learn, Classroom Environment, Learning Material. Such as a good teacher would provide good learning. Support of the family would also give an effective outcome for the student's development. So, the factors should be known to get a better outcome for the students

  4. Autism spectrum disorder - childhood disintegrative disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the larger developmental disorder category of autism spectrum disorder . ... American Psychiatric Association. Autism spectrum disorder. ... VA: American Psychiatric Publishing: 2013;50-59. Raviola GJ, ...

  5. The Relationship between Early Learning Rates and Treatment Outcome for Children with Autism Receiving Intensive Home-Based Applied Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Mary Jane; Delmolino, Lara

    2006-01-01

    The present study suggests that initial learning rates of young children with autism receiving early, intensive, home-based behavioral intervention are moderately correlated with outcome variables after four years of treatment. 20 children with autism who had Childhood Autism Rating Scale scores between 37.5 and 58 and Vineland Adaptive Behavior…

  6. Visual impairment and traits of autism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesińska, Magdalena; Kapias, Joanna; Nowakowska-Domagała, Katarzyna; Kocur, Józef

    2017-04-30

    Visual impairment present from birth or from an early childhood may lead to psychosocial and emotional disorders. 11-40% of children in the group with visual impairment show traits of autism. The aim of this paper was to present the selected examples of how visual impairment in children is related to the occurrence of autism and to describe the available tools for diagnosing autism in children with visual impairment. So far the relation between visual impairment in children and autism has not been sufficiently confirmed. Psychiatric and psychological diagnosis of children with visual impairment has some difficulties in differentiating between "blindism" and traits typical for autism resulting from a lack of standardized diagnostic tools used to diagnosing children with visual impairment. Another difficulty in diagnosing autism in children with visual impairment is the coexistence of other disabilities in case of most children with vision impairment. Additionally, apart from difficulties in diagnosing autistic disorders in children with eye dysfunctions there is also a question of what tools should be used in therapy and rehabilitation of patients.

  7. Executive function in individuals with subthreshold autism traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Shawn E; Kanne, Stephen M; Reiersen, Angela M

    2010-09-01

    Recent research has documented increased psychosocial difficulties in individuals who report higher-than-typical autistic traits but without an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis. Less is known, however, regarding the cognitive profile of individuals with subthreshold autism symptomatology. The objective of the present study was to provide additional insight into this issue and examine whether young adults who report higher degrees of autism traits also report experiencing increased difficulties with executive control. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function was utilized to evaluate behavioral aspects of executive functioning in 66 and 28 individuals who endorsed high and low subthreshold levels of autism symptomatology, respectively. After accounting for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptomatology at both the group and individual participant levels, we found that autism traits continued to explain a significant amount of variance in participants' overall level of executive function (Global Executive Composite) as well as within most individual executive domains. Interestingly, the high and low trait groups did not differ on the inhibitory control and organization of materials scales, areas of functioning that appears to be largely spared in individuals with ASD as well. Findings from the present study are consistent with past research linking ASD and executive control impairment. In addition, ASD and ADHD traits were associated with unique contributions to the executive control profile of individuals with subthreshold autism symptomatology. This finding underscores the importance of accounting for ADHD symptomatology in studying ASD. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Public speaking in virtual reality: Audience design and speaker experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, N.

    2016-01-01

    Whether we are talking about our research at a conference, making a speech at a friend’s wedding, or presenting a proposal in a businessmeeting,we have to speak in public from time to time. How well we deliver a presentation affects the way people think about us and our message. To deliver a well-received speech, preparation is necessary. Among various speech preparation activities, practicing with an audience is regarded as an effective way for enhancing speech performance. However, it is of...

  9. Diagnosis of Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The identification and assessment process for children with autism and autistic spectrum disorder is reviewed by a developmental pediatrician, speech and language therapist, and consultant in pediatric disability at Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospitals, and Great Ormond Street Children’s Hospital, London, UK.

  10. Autism, oxytocin and interoception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocki, E; Friston, Karl

    2014-11-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by profound social and verbal communication deficits, stereotypical motor behaviors, restricted interests, and cognitive abnormalities. Autism affects approximately 1% of children in developing countries. Given this prevalence, identifying risk factors and therapeutic interventions are pressing objectives—objectives that rest on neurobiologically grounded and psychologically informed theories about the underlying pathophysiology. In this article, we review the evidence that autism could result from a dysfunctional oxytocin system early in life. As a mediator of successful procreation, not only in the reproductive system, but also in the brain, oxytocin plays a crucial role in sculpting socio-sexual behavior. Formulated within a (Bayesian) predictive coding framework, we propose that oxytocin encodes the saliency or precision of interoceptive signals and enables the neuronal plasticity necessary for acquiring a generative model of the emotional and social 'self.' An aberrant oxytocin system in infancy could therefore help explain the marked deficits in language and social communication—as well as the sensory, autonomic, motor, behavioral, and cognitive abnormalities—seen in autism. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-02

    This podcast discusses autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a developmental disability that causes problems with social, communication, and behavioral skills. CDC estimates that one in 68 children has been identified as having ASD.  Created: 4/2/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 4/2/2014.

  12. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-Baz

    2015-06-19

    Jun 19, 2015 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism. Farida El-Baz a. , Mohamed Saad Zaghloul a. , Ezzat El Sobky a. ,. Reham M Elhossiny a,. *, Heba Salah a. , Neveen Ezy Abdelaziz b a Pediatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt b Children with Special ...

  13. Autism and Mitochondrial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as defined by the revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM IVTR criteria (American Psychiatric Association [2000] Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing) as impairment before the age of 3 in language development and socialization with the development of repetitive behaviors, appears…

  14. Epigenetics and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbadiwe, Tafari; Millis, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    This review identifies mechanisms for altering DNA-histone interactions of cell chromatin to upregulate or downregulate gene expression that could serve as epigenetic targets for therapeutic interventions in autism. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) can phosphorylate histone H3 at T6. Aided by protein kinase C β 1, the DNMT lysine-specific demethylase-1 prevents demethylation of H3 at K4. During androgen-receptor-(AR-) dependent gene activation, this sequence may produce AR-dependent gene overactivation which may partly explain the male predominance of autism. AR-dependent gene overactivation in conjunction with a DNMT mechanism for methylating oxytocin receptors could produce high arousal inputs to the amygdala resulting in aberrant socialization, a prime characteristic of autism. Dysregulation of histone methyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs) associated with low activity of methyl CpG binding protein-2 at cytosine-guanine sites in genes may reduce the capacity for condensing chromatin and silencing genes in frontal cortex, a site characterized by decreased cortical interconnectivity in autistic subjects. HDAC1 inhibition can overactivate mRNA transcription, a putative mechanism for the increased number of cerebral cortical columns and local frontal cortex hyperactivity in autistic individuals. These epigenetic mechanisms underlying male predominance, aberrant social interaction, and low functioning frontal cortex may be novel targets for autism prevention and treatment strategies.

  15. Epigenetics and Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafari Mbadiwe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review identifies mechanisms for altering DNA-histone interactions of cell chromatin to upregulate or downregulate gene expression that could serve as epigenetic targets for therapeutic interventions in autism. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs can phosphorylate histone H3 at T6. Aided by protein kinase Cβ1, the DNMT lysine-specific demethylase-1 prevents demethylation of H3 at K4. During androgen-receptor-(AR- dependent gene activation, this sequence may produce AR-dependent gene overactivation which may partly explain the male predominance of autism. AR-dependent gene overactivation in conjunction with a DNMT mechanism for methylating oxytocin receptors could produce high arousal inputs to the amygdala resulting in aberrant socialization, a prime characteristic of autism. Dysregulation of histone methyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs associated with low activity of methyl CpG binding protein-2 at cytosine-guanine sites in genes may reduce the capacity for condensing chromatin and silencing genes in frontal cortex, a site characterized by decreased cortical interconnectivity in autistic subjects. HDAC1 inhibition can overactivate mRNA transcription, a putative mechanism for the increased number of cerebral cortical columns and local frontal cortex hyperactivity in autistic individuals. These epigenetic mechanisms underlying male predominance, aberrant social interaction, and low functioning frontal cortex may be novel targets for autism prevention and treatment strategies.

  16. Autism and art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ioan

    2010-01-01

    The link between mild forms of autism and artistic creativity is suggested by a number of individual cases. Here those of a well-known composer, Béla Bártok, and a famous visual artist, Andy Warhol, are considered. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The Application of X.Class Teacher Program to Enhance Students’ Listening and Speaking Skills in Al Baha University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsadig Mohamed Khalifa Gawi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the implementation of technological aids in improving foreign language education by investigating the impact of using X. Class Teacher's Program on teaching listening and speaking skills of Al Baha University Students. It aims at improving students' listening and speaking skills through the use of the above mentioned program. A multi-method approach will be adopted to enable researchers to extract information from different perspectives. This approach will involve tests and classroom practice and observation. The participants of the study will be a sample of students from the recently enrolled beginners in listening and speaking skills courses in the College of Arts and Science in Almandaq.  SPSS mechanism will be used to analyze the data to verify the hypothesis that X. Class Teacher helps in improving students listening and speaking skills. The study recommended that X.Class Teacher Program is the best way to develop listening and speaking skills.

  18. Psychiatric symptoms masking pituitary adenoma in Spanish speaking immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Lara, Maria A; Buchert, Stephanie; Skotzko, Christine; Clemow, Lynn P

    2003-01-01

    Barriers to clear communication, such as culture, language, and other aspects of self-presentation may have an important impact on the doctor-patient relationship. When not addressed, cultural and linguistic issues can result in unreliable clinical histories, noncompliance with medical treatment, misinterpretation of data, poor continuity of care, less preventive screening, miscommunication, and inadequate analgesia. Lack of access to competent interpreters and failure to take a full history may result in inaccurate assessment of presenting complaints leading to a delay in initiating necessary treatment. In addition, the presence of psychiatric symptoms can interfere with the medical diagnostic process, leading sometimes to premature closure of the differential diagnosis and attributing all presenting complaints to psychiatric illness. When both language barriers and psychotic symptoms present together, the risk of inaccurate diagnosis is multiplied. We report two Spanish-speaking patients with primary central nervous system tumors who had delayed diagnosis and treatment due to triage personnel focusing on presenting psychiatric complaints without attention to co-morbid medical symptoms. In each case, the patients initially presented to non-Spanish-speaking medical providers who did not have access to trained interpreter services. Physician attention to primary psychiatric symptoms led to referral for psychiatric care, delaying treatment for obvious neuro-endocrinologic problems.

  19. Stoppage in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Therese Koops; Hansen, Stefan Nygaard; Nielsen, Svend V

    2015-01-01

    of bias in sibling recurrence risk estimation. This study investigated whether stoppage occurs in Danish families with a firstborn child diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders, and if stoppage was differential. We found that stoppage occurs moderately in Danish families affected by autism spectrum...... disorders, and that stoppage is differential. However, differential stoppage is a minor source of estimation bias in Danish sibling recurrence risk studies of autism spectrum disorders....

  20. Social orienting of children with autism to facial expressions and speech: a study with a wearable eye-tracker in naturalistic settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrelli, Silvia; Jermann, Patrick; Noris, Basilio; Ansermet, François; Hentsch, François; Nadel, Jacqueline; Billard, Aude

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates attention orienting to social stimuli in children with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) during dyadic social interactions taking place in real-life settings. We study the effect of social cues that differ in complexity and distinguish between social cues produced by facial expressions of emotion and those produced during speech. We record the children's gazes using a head-mounted eye-tracking device and report on a detailed and quantitative analysis of the motion of the gaze in response to the social cues. The study encompasses a group of children with ASC from 2 to 11-years old (n = 14) and a group of typically developing (TD) children (n = 17) between 3 and 6-years old. While the two groups orient overtly to facial expressions, children with ASC do so to a lesser extent. Children with ASC differ importantly from TD children in the way they respond to speech cues, displaying little overt shifting of attention to speaking faces. When children with ASC orient to facial expressions, they show reaction times and first fixation lengths similar to those presented by TD children. However, children with ASC orient to speaking faces slower than TD children. These results support the hypothesis that individuals affected by ASC have difficulties processing complex social sounds and detecting intermodal correspondence between facial and vocal information. It also corroborates evidence that people with ASC show reduced overt attention toward social stimuli. PMID:24312064

  1. Sexuality and gender role in autism spectrum disorder: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, Susanne; Eriksson, Jonna M

    2014-01-01

    The 'extreme male brain theory of autism' describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness) was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder.

  2. Sexuality and gender role in autism spectrum disorder: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bejerot

    Full Text Available The 'extreme male brain theory of autism' describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder.

  3. Autism as early neurodevelopmental disorder: evidence for an sAPPα-mediated anabolic pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debomoy K Lahiri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by social skills and communication deficits and interfering repetitive behavior. Intellectual disability often accompanies autism. In addition to behavioral deficits, autism is characterized by neuropathology and brain overgrowth. Increased intracranial volume often accompanies this brain growth. We have found that the Alzheimer’s disease (AD associated amyloid-β precursor protein (APP, especially its neuroprotective processing product, secreted APP α (sAPPα, is elevated in persons with autism. This has led to the anabolic hypothesis of autism etiology, in which neuronal overgrowth in the brain results in interneuronal misconnections that may underlie multiple autism symptoms. We review the contribution of research in brain volume and of APP to the anabolic hypothesis, and relate APP to other proteins and pathways that have already been directly associated with autism, such as fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, Ras small GTPase/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (Ras/ERK, and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR. We also present additional evidence of MRI intracranial measurements in favor of the anabolic hypothesis. Finally, since it appears that APP’s involvement in autism is part of a multi-partner network, we extend this concept into the inherently interactive realm of epigenetics. We speculate that the underlying molecular abnormalities that influence APP’s contribution to autism are epigenetic markers overlaid onto potentially vulnerable gene sequences due to environmental influence.

  4. Autism as early neurodevelopmental disorder: evidence for an sAPPα-mediated anabolic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Debomoy K; Sokol, Deborah K; Erickson, Craig; Ray, Balmiki; Ho, Chang Y; Maloney, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by social skills and communication deficits and interfering repetitive behavior. Intellectual disability often accompanies autism. In addition to behavioral deficits, autism is characterized by neuropathology and brain overgrowth. Increased intracranial volume often accompanies this brain growth. We have found that the Alzheimer's disease (AD) associated amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), especially its neuroprotective processing product, secreted APP α, is elevated in persons with autism. This has led to the "anabolic hypothesis" of autism etiology, in which neuronal overgrowth in the brain results in interneuronal misconnections that may underlie multiple autism symptoms. We review the contribution of research in brain volume and of APP to the anabolic hypothesis, and relate APP to other proteins and pathways that have already been directly associated with autism, such as fragile X mental retardation protein, Ras small GTPase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin. We also present additional evidence of magnetic resonance imaging intracranial measurements in favor of the anabolic hypothesis. Finally, since it appears that APP's involvement in autism is part of a multi-partner network, we extend this concept into the inherently interactive realm of epigenetics. We speculate that the underlying molecular abnormalities that influence APP's contribution to autism are epigenetic markers overlaid onto potentially vulnerable gene sequences due to environmental influence.

  5. What is known about autism: genes, brain, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Susan L; Tsatsanis, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    candidate gene studies are largely unreplicated, with the possible exceptions of the GABRB3 and serotonin transporter genes. No single region of the brain or pathophysiological mechanism has yet been identified as being associated with autism. Postmortem findings, animal models, and neuroimaging studies have focused on the cerebellum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and especially the amygdala. The cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit may also be influential in autism. There is evidence that overall brain size is increased in some individuals with autism. Presently there are no drugs that produce major improvements in the core social or pragmatic language deficits in autism, although several have limited effects on associated behavioral features. The application of new techniques in autism research is being proposed, including the investigation of abnormal regulation of gene expression, proteomics, and the use of MRI and postmortem analysis of the brain.

  6. Speaking and Listening in Content Area Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Oral language development facilitates print literacy. In this article, we focus on the ways in which teachers can ensure students' speaking and listening skills are developed. We provide a review of some time-tests classroom routines as well as some that can be enhanced with technology.

  7. Spanish-Speaking Migrants in Seattle, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Sergio; Loomis, Ralph A.

    The urban-associated adjustment problems of Spanish speaking migrants to Seattle, Washington were examined. A sample of 100 migrant household heads were interviewed to learn why they had moved to Seattle, to gain insights into the adjustment process, and to search for ways to facilitate their accommodation to an urban life style. All of the…

  8. Pair Negotiation When Developing English Speaking Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez Suárez, Ingrid Liliana; Gómez Sará, Mary Mily; Medina Mosquera, Sindy Lorena

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes what characterizes the negotiations of seventh graders at a public school in Bogotá when working in pairs to develop speaking tasks in EFL classes. The inquiry is a descriptive case study that follows the qualitative paradigm. As a result of analyzing the data, we obtained four consecutive steps that characterize students'…

  9. Speaking of Science and for Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 12. Speaking of Science and for Science. G Baskaran. Article-in-a-Box Volume 7 Issue 12 December 2002 pp 47-47. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/12/0047-0047 ...

  10. People who speak up must be celebrated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Helene

    2017-05-17

    From my own experience and conversations with other NHS whistleblowers, I am acutely aware of the fear that can consume you before and after raising concerns. Many health service staff believe they will lose their job, or at the very least be prevented from progressing in their career if they speak out.

  11. Speaking-Related Dyspnea in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoit, Jeannette D.; Lansing, Robert W.; Perona, Kristen E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To reveal the qualities and intensity of speaking-related dyspnea in healthy adults under conditions of high ventilatory drive, in which the behavioral and metabolic control of breathing must compete. Method: Eleven adults read aloud while breathing different levels of inspired carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]). After the highest level,…

  12. Gifted Education in German-Speaking Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun; Harder, Bettina; Balestrini, Daniel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The authors first briefly describe how the concepts of talents and giftedness found in German-speaking Europe have evolved in the school system and in general over the past two centuries, and how the variety of gifted-education efforts found within and beyond schools as well as counseling efforts attest to these changes. They then discuss four…

  13. Sanskrit Grammarians and the 'Speaking Subjectivity'

    OpenAIRE

    Aussant, Emilie

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Starting from the grammatical terminology, I give in this paper a panorama of the speaking subjectivity manifestationsaccording to Sanskrit grammatical texts, from the Aṣṭādhyāyī of Pāṇini to the Paramalaghumañjūṣā of Nāgeśa.

  14. Correcting abnormal speaking through communication partners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The listed characteristics are called speech disorders. Abnormal speaking attracts some penalties to the speaker. The penalties are usually very disturbing to the speaker that undertaking some therapeutic measures becomes inevitable. Communication partners strategy is a speech correction approach which makes use of ...

  15. The Rwandan teachers' and learners' perceived speaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    There is also dearth of studies on attitude to balanced, organic or holistic bilingualism (Baker, 1992). It is against this background that this article explores the learners' and teachers' perceived speaking proficiency in both English and Kinyarwanda after the 2008-2011 consecutive language policy shifts in the Rwandan ...

  16. The Rwandan teachers' and learners' perceived speaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    Interpreted within the lens of language preference model and integrative theories of communication competence, the main finding is that both .... In addition to the learners' and teachers' self-assessment of their perceived speaking proficiency from a holistic and integrative ...... and practice of sociolinguistics (pp.23–36).

  17. [Genetics and epigenetics in autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Atsuo; Masaki, Shiego; Aoki, Eiko

    2006-11-01

    Autism is a behaviorally defined syndrome characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and restricted, stereotyped interests and behaviors. Several lines of evidence support the contention that genetic factors are a large component to autism etiology. However, in spite of vigorous genetic studies, no single causative or susceptibility gene common in autism has been identified. Thus multiple susceptibility genes in interaction are considered to account for the disorder. Furthermore, environmental risk factors can accelerate the autism development of. Recent advances in understanding the epigenetic regulation may shed light on the interaction among multiple genetic factors and environmental factors.

  18. Nonverbal Communication, Music Therapy, and Autism: A Review of Literature and Case Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a review of nonverbal literature relating to therapy, music, autism, and music therapy. Included is a case study of a woman with autism who was nonverbal. The case highlights and analyzes behaviors contextually. Interpretations of communication through the music therapy, musical interactions, and the rapport that developed…

  19. Delineating the Profile of Autism Spectrum Disorder Characteristics in Cornelia de Lange and Fragile X Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joanna; Oliver, Chris; Nelson, Lisa; Richards, Caroline; Hall, Scott

    2013-01-01

    An atypical presentation of autism spectrum disorder is noted in Cornelia de Lange and Fragile X syndromes, but there are few detailed empirical descriptions. Participants in this study were individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (n = 130, M age = 17.19), Fragile X syndrome (n = 182, M age = 16.94), and autism spectrum disorder (n = 142, M…

  20. Awareness of single and multiple emotions in high-functioning childeren with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieffe, C.J.; Meerum Terwogt, M.; Kotronopoulo, K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined emotional awareness in children with autism. Twenty-two high functioning children with autism (mean age 10 years and 2 months) and 22 typically developing children, matched for age and gender, were presented with the four basic emotions (happiness, anger, sadness and fear) in

  1. Brief Report: Treating Stuttering in an Adult with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundage, Shelley B.; Whelan, Cory J.; Burgess, Cathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Stuttering and autism can co-occur and when they do it presents a significant communication challenge. This study examined the effectiveness of a modified version of the fluency rules program (FRP; Runyan and Runyan, Stuttering and related disorders of fluency, in 2007) to reduce stuttering frequency in a man with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).…

  2. Brief Report: Avoidance Extinction as Treatment for Compulsive and Ritual Behavior in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jason J.; Hupp, Susan C.; Symons, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment options for maladaptive repetitive behaviors associated with autism are limited. This is particularly so for ritual and compulsive forms of repetitive behavior, which commonly interfere with adaptive activities and may cause distress to individuals with autism and their families. The present study assessed an avoidance extinction…

  3. Autism and Schizophrenia in High Functioning Adults: Behavioral Differences and Overlap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, Annelies A.; Wouters, Saskia G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with the autistic disorder and 21 individuals with…

  4. Use of Superheroes Social Skills with Middle School-Age Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ashley N.; Radley, Keith C.; Helbig, Kate A.

    2018-01-01

    The current study evaluated use of the Superheroes Social Skills program as a means of increasing social skill accuracy in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Participants included four Caucasian male students that were eligible for special education services within the autism category. Social skills training was presented twice weekly for…

  5. Using Individualized Reinforcers and Hierarchical Exposure to Increase Food Flexibility in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegel, Robert L.; Bharoocha, Amber A.; Ribnick, Courtney B.; Ribnick, Ryan C.; Bucio, Mario O.; Fredeen, Rosy M.; Koegel, Lynn Kern

    2012-01-01

    Inflexibility is a major characteristic of autism. In the present study we addressed inflexible mealtime behaviors and collected longitudinal data across 48 foods for 3 children, ages 6.4-7.8 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, for up to 22 weeks. Participants exhibited severe challenges with adherence to an extremely restricted…

  6. Parent-Reported Differences between School-Aged Girls and Boys on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Rebecca; Hodge, Antoinette; Bruck, Susan; Costley, Debra; Klieve, Helen

    2017-01-01

    More boys than girls are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder; however, there are conflicting findings about whether they differ in their presentation. This study involved a survey of parents of school-aged children on the autism spectrum (171 parents of girls and 163 parents of boys) that was distributed via social media. The surveys provided…

  7. Autism and Schizophrenia in high functioning adults: Behavioral differences and overlap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, Annelies A; Wouters, Saskia G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated a genetical overlap between autism and schizophrenia. However, at a behavioral level it remains unclear which features can validly distinguish adults with autism from an adult schizophrenia group. To this end, the present study compared 21 individuals with

  8. Using iPads to Teach Communication Skills of Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Joy F.; Leonard, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using an iPad to assist students with autism in learning communication skills. Three, 10 years old learners diagnosed with autism who present little or no functional speech, participated in the study. A multiple baseline design with AB phases across academic and social settings was used.…

  9. Working with Families Living with Autism: Potential Contributions of Marriage and Family Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Jason; Amatea, Ellen S.; Echevarria-Doan, Silvia; Tannen, Tina

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces marriage and family therapists (MFT) to some of the common issues faced by families that have a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). First, autism is defined and common myths surrounding it are discussed. Next, relational challenges are presented that families report experiencing during early childhood through the…

  10. Association between Maternal Obesity and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Min; Ou, Jian-Jun; Liu, Li; Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Jing-Ping; Tang, Si-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    As the link between maternal obesity and risk of autism among offspring is unclear, the present study assessed this association. A systematic search of an electronic database was performed to identify observational studies that examined the association between maternal obesity and autism. The outcome measures were odds ratios comparing offspring…

  11. Are Males and Females with Autism Spectrum Disorder More Similar than We Thought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussey, Joanna L.; Ginn, Nicole C.; Klinger, Laura G.

    2017-01-01

    Differences in behavioral and cognitive profiles have been suggested to potentially impact the presentation of social and communication symptoms in females with autism spectrum disorder. This study examined gender differences in age of diagnosis, cognitive profiles, social communication symptomatology, and autism spectrum disorder symptom severity…

  12. Epilepsy Among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiranta, Elina; Sourander, Andre; Suominen, Auli; Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Brown, Alan S.; Sillanpää, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The present population-based study examines associations between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The cohort includes register data of 4,705 children born between 1987 and 2005 and diagnosed as cases of childhood autism, Asperger's syndrome or pervasive developmental disorders--not otherwise specified. Each case was matched to four…

  13. Magnetised Intragastric Foreign Body Collection and Autism: An Advice for Carers and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Farhan; Davies, Laura; Iftikhar, S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    The pica phenomenon, where non-edible substances are repeatedly consumed, has been linked with developmental and behavioural disorders, particularly autism. The clinical presentation of foreign body ingestion in patients with autism is discussed, and recommendations for caregivers are provided based on the available literature. An 18-year-old man…

  14. Motivation, Interest, and Attention: Re-Defining Learning in the Autism Spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequia, Jenna

    2011-01-01

    In "The Passionate Mind: How People with Autism Learn", Wendy Lawson presents readers with various cognitive theories of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this book, Lawson makes reference to the medical and social models of disability, urging readers to consider disability from a social rather than a medical or deficit-driven perspective. Each…

  15. Speak Up: Help Avoid Mistakes in Your Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you do not understand something on the form – speak up. For your safety, the staff may ask ... travel. www.jointcommission.org The goal of the Speak Up ™ program is to help patients become more ...

  16. Disrupted behaviour in grammatical morphology in French speakers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Normand, Marie-Thérèse; Blanc, Romuald; Caldani, Simona; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique

    2018-01-18

    Mixed and inconsistent findings have been reported across languages concerning grammatical morphology in speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Some researchers argue for a selective sparing of grammar whereas others claim to have identified grammatical deficits. The present study aimed to investigate this issue in 26 participants with ASD speaking European French who were matched on age, gender and SES to 26 participants with typical development (TD). The groups were compared regarding their productivity and accuracy of syntactic and agreement categories using the French MOR part-of-speech tagger available from the CHILDES. The groups significantly differed in productivity with respect to nouns, adjectives, determiners, prepositions and gender markers. Error analysis revealed that ASD speakers exhibited a disrupted behaviour in grammatical morphology. They made gender, tense and preposition errors and they omitted determiners and pronouns in nominal and verbal contexts. ASD speakers may have a reduced sensitivity to perceiving and processing the distributional structure of syntactic categories when producing grammatical morphemes and agreement categories. The theoretical and cross-linguistic implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Speaking up in case management, part II: implementing speaking up behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banja, John D; Craig, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Case managers will occasionally witness colleagues from their own or other healthcare disciplines providing care in ways that frankly deviate from or violate standards of care, rules, regulations, policies, and procedures. This article discusses the case manager's ethical obligation to speak up in such instances, as well as lists strategies and techniques that facilitate and enhance professional communications around "speaking up." All case management work environments. When healthcare professionals practice in ways that deviate from established policies, procedures, rules, regulations, and standards of care, they jeopardize the safety and welfare of their clients and, often, their employing institutions. Unfortunately, professionals often remain silent about such errors and deviations for fear that they might suffer retaliation if they speak up or because they do not anticipate a constructive or positive organizational response. Nevertheless, organizations and employees who recognize the value of speaking up can use a variety of strategies described in this article that enable speaking up to become a professional and organizational reality. Because they practice in the midst of multidisciplinary care, case managers have a marked opportunity to witness any number of practice standards being ignored or violated. Case managers need to develop communication skills and organizational savvy regarding how to approach and remedy such situations, especially when deviations from standards of care have become routine or "normalized." Critical elements in speaking up include cultivating a method to discern the moral perils of remaining silent, learning communication techniques to conduct emotionally challenging conversations, and building organizational leadership that recognizes the value of speaking up and supports safe harbors for employees who speak up appropriately.

  18. Can the Five Factor Model of Personality Account for the Variability of Autism Symptom Expression? Multivariate Approaches to Behavioral Phenotyping in Adult Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Benjamin C; Wood, Jeffrey J; Kapp, Steven K

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to: determine the extent to which the five factor model of personality (FFM) accounts for variability in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptomatology in adults, examine differences in average FFM personality traits of adults with and without ASD and identify distinct behavioral phenotypes within ASD. Adults (N = 828; nASD = 364) completed an online survey with an autism trait questionnaire and an FFM personality questionnaire. FFM facets accounted for 70 % of variance in autism trait scores. Neuroticism positively correlated with autism symptom severity, while extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness negatively correlated with autism symptom severity. Four FFM subtypes emerged within adults with ASD, with three subtypes characterized by high neuroticism and none characterized by lower-than-average neuroticism.

  19. Autism cornered: network analyses reveal mechanisms of autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Auffray, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Despite a wealth of behavioral, cognitive, biological, and genetic studies, the causes of autism have remained largely unknown. In their recent work, Snyder and colleagues (Li et?al, 2014) use a systems biology approach and shed light on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying autism, thus opening novel avenues for understanding the disease and developing potential treatments.

  20. Increasing Autism Prevalence in Metropolitan New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahorodny, Walter; Shenouda, Josephine; Howell, Sandra; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Peng, Bo; Mehta, Uday

    2014-01-01

    High baseline autism spectrum disorder prevalence estimates in New Jersey led to a follow-up surveillance. The objectives were to determine autism spectrum disorder prevalence in the year 2006 in New Jersey and to identify changes in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder or in the characteristics of the children with autism spectrum disorder,…

  1. Implementing Speech Community Strategy to Enhance Students’ English Speaking Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Huriyah Huriyah

    2015-01-01

    Implementing speech community strategy to enhance students English speaking ability. This classroom action research describes how the implementation of speech community strategy increases the students’ English speaking ability. The research stages consist of planning, implementing, observing, evaluating and reflecting. The study indicates that the providing of speech community can increase English speaking ability at students of SMA Sekar Kemuning Islamic Boarding School Cirebon

  2. Multilingualism in Brussels: "I'd Rather Speak English"

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Paul; Toebosch, AnneMarie

    2008-01-01

    Language is both a divisive and a unifying force in Brussels. Historically predominantly Dutch-speaking, surrounded by the officially Dutch-speaking federal state of Flanders, located in a majority Dutch-speaking nation-state, and with the majority of its Belgian citizens Francophone, Brussels has officially been bilingual Dutch-French since 1962.…

  3. Adaptation and Assessment of a Public Speaking Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberri-Shea, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Prominent spoken language assessments such as the Oral Proficiency Interview and the Test of Spoken English have been primarily concerned with speaking ability as it relates to conversation. This paper looks at an additional aspect of spoken language ability, namely public speaking. This study used an adapted form of a public speaking rating scale…

  4. Incorporating TED Talk Assignments into a Public-Speaking Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Pamela A.

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Introduction to public speaking, advanced public speaking, hybrid/survey introduction to communication. Objectives: At the end of this activity, students will be able to (1) explain the elements of a speaking outline and discover these elements in real-world speech examples, (2) recreate outline formats effectively in their personal…

  5. Speaking Anxiety in English Conversation Classrooms among Thai Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkakoson, Songyut

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on a part of a larger research project concerning the conceptualisation of English language speaking-in-class anxiety, attitudes to speaking English in class and self-ratings of English-speaking ability, and perceived sources of this situation-specific anxiety. Methodology: The participants in this study were 282 Thai…

  6. Childhood autism in a 13 year old boy with oculocutaneous albinism: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Muideen O; Ikegwuonu, Nkeiruka N

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Hypomelanotic skin disorders like tuberous sclerosis and hypomelanosis of Ito that present with multiple systemic manifestations have been reported in association with childhood autism. Oculocutaneous albinism is another hypomelanotic skin disorder that rarely presents with multiple systemic manifestations. It is infrequently reported in association with childhood autism when compared to tuberous sclerosis and hypomelanosis of Ito. Case presentation This article reports a case of co-morbid childhood autism and oculocutaneous albinism in a 13-year old boy from Nigeria in Sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion The observation in this case report and in two previous reports which documented association between oculocutaneous albinism and childhood autism both in the affected individuals and families of individuals with childhood autism, raises the question of a possible genetic and clinical association between oculocutaneous albinism and childhood autism. More family and genetic studies into the relationship between oculocutaneous albinism and childhood autism is desirable. This may provide useful clues into the etiology, prevention and management of childhood autism as well as oculocutaneous albinism. PMID:18294379

  7. Childhood autism in a 13 year old boy with oculocutaneous albinism: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakare Muideen O

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hypomelanotic skin disorders like tuberous sclerosis and hypomelanosis of Ito that present with multiple systemic manifestations have been reported in association with childhood autism. Oculocutaneous albinism is another hypomelanotic skin disorder that rarely presents with multiple systemic manifestations. It is infrequently reported in association with childhood autism when compared to tuberous sclerosis and hypomelanosis of Ito. Case presentation This article reports a case of co-morbid childhood autism and oculocutaneous albinism in a 13-year old boy from Nigeria in Sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion The observation in this case report and in two previous reports which documented association between oculocutaneous albinism and childhood autism both in the affected individuals and families of individuals with childhood autism, raises the question of a possible genetic and clinical association between oculocutaneous albinism and childhood autism. More family and genetic studies into the relationship between oculocutaneous albinism and childhood autism is desirable. This may provide useful clues into the etiology, prevention and management of childhood autism as well as oculocutaneous albinism.

  8. Use of secretin in the treatment of childhood autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Barbara; Czaja, Mariusz; Kozielska, Ewa; Mazur, Elzbieta; Korzon, Maria

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents current views concerning childhood autism. The authors present the concepts of etiology of this disorder, emphasizing the role of negative psychical stimuli in early childhood and the role of mother's contact with the child. Organic factors, including genetic background, developmental abnormalities of the nervous system, teratogenic factors and perinatal traumas are also taken into consideration. The role of metabolic factors and enterohormones, particularly those belonging to the secretin group and their effect on the function of the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system is emphasized. We discuss signs which may be indicative of first symptoms of autism in different age groups. A typical symptom of autism is no development of speech, observed from infancy, taking the form of complete mutism at later stages. It has been emphasized that most pathologic symptoms result from altered perception of external stimuli, which arouse fear and anxiety. Autistic patients may suffer from gastrointestinal tract disturbances such as abdominal pains and diarrhea. Methods used hitherto in the therapy of childhood autism, mainly by psychologists and psychiatrists, as well as some attempts of pharmacological treatment, are presented. The structure and function of secretin, as well as its effects on the motor and secretory function of the stomach and the exocrine function of the pancreas are discussed. The role of secretin in diagnostic tests, among others in the diagnosis of gastrinoma, is emphasized. We also present the history of the application of secretin in the therapy of childhood autism.

  9. Autism – environmental risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka 1

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of infantile autism due to developmental brain disorders has been permanently increasing in many parts of the world. Autism is characterized by impairments of communication and reciprocal social interaction and by restricted repetitive behaviours or interests. The causes of these disorders are not yet known. Experimental studies and clinical observation suggest that genetic and environmental factors could converge to result in neurotoxic mechanisms. These may lead to the development of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD. Several recent studies have indicated that perinatal exposure to environmental toxins may be the risk factor for ASD, among them: polybrominated diphenyl, esters, phthalates, bisphenol A, tetrabrombisphenol A, solvents, pesticides, and heavy metals. They can easily pass the placental and blood brain barriers and affect brain development.

  10. Mercury, Vaccines, and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jeffrey P.

    2008-01-01

    The controversy regarding the once widely used mercury-containing preservative thimerosal in childhood vaccines has raised many historical questions that have not been adequately explored. Why was this preservative incorporated in the first place? Was there any real evidence that it caused harm? And how did thimerosal become linked in the public mind to the “autism epidemic”? I examine the origins of the thimerosal controversy and their legacy for the debate that has followed. More specifically, I explore the parallel histories of three factors that converged to create the crisis: vaccine preservatives, mercury poisoning, and autism. An understanding of this history provides important lessons for physicians and policymakers seeking to preserve the public’s trust in the nation’s vaccine system. PMID:18172138

  11. Autisme-spektrum forstyrrelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Kathrine Bang

    2014-01-01

    praksis kombineret med stigende krav til sociale færdigheder og fleksibilitet. Autisme kan findes i forskellige grader og er fire gange hyppigere hos drenge end hos piger. Udenlandske studier har vist en højere forekomst af ASF hos familier med høj socioøkonomisk status, men det er uvist, om denne...... sammenhæng blot er udtryk for en ulige adgang til sundhedssystemet. I Danmark er der ikke tegn på større social skævhed i relation til denne diagnose. Der findes ingen medicinsk behandling for autisme, men en tidlig erkendelse af problemerne og efterfølgende støtte kan formodentlig forbedre livsforløbet....

  12. Concerns and considerations among caregivers of a child with autism in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheir Nadir M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism impacts the lives of the family looking after a child with the condition in different ways, and forces family members to modify their daily lives to suit their reality. To our knowledge, no previous research investigated concern and considerations of parents/caregivers of children with autism in Qatar or the Arabic speaking Middle Eastern region. Methods Caregivers of a child who was between the age of 3 to17 years old at the time of the study and who was diagnosed with ASD (Autistic Group or AG were recruited from the two main developmental pediatric and children rehabilitation clinics in Qatar. The control group (non-autism group, or NAG was represented by caregivers of a non-autistic child between the age of 3 to 17 years old at the time of the study and who were visiting a family clinic of a primary health care facility for routine medical check-up. Data collected from both groups included related to the child (e.g. the child’s date of birth, his/her relation to the caregiver, number of siblings, number of hours of sleep in a day, number of hours spent watching television or videos prior to age 3, time spent indoors prior to age 3, absenteeism from school, and use of a nanny to care for the child and to the caregiver (education level, profession, level of consanguinity using the phylogram method. In addition to these questions, caregivers in the AG were asked specific questions around maternal concern and considerations in respect to the future of their children and the specialized services they receive. Results Children in the autism group spent more time indoors, watching television, or sleeping than children in the non-autism group. Only around 40% of caregivers in the autism group said they would encourage their child to get married and become a parent when s/he grows up. A number of caregivers of children with autism frequently utilize specialized rehabilitation services; others did express their needs for

  13. Epigenetics and Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Mbadiwe, Tafari; Millis, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    This review identifies mechanisms for altering DNA-histone interactions of cell chromatin to upregulate or downregulate gene expression that could serve as epigenetic targets for therapeutic interventions in autism. DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) can phosphorylate histone H3 at T6. Aided by protein kinase C ? 1, the DNMT lysine-specific demethylase-1 prevents demethylation of H3 at K4. During androgen-receptor-(AR-) dependent gene activation, this sequence may produce AR-dependent gene overac...

  14. [Autism spectrum disorders in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.C.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Gaag, R.J. van der

    2008-01-01

    Early infantile autism' as defined by Kanner has grown into a spectrum of autistic disorders. The recognition of Asperger's disorder and of pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), has led to increased demand for appropriate diagnostic assessment of autism in adults. The

  15. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Corporeal reflexivity and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Elinor

    2015-06-01

    Ethnographic video recordings of high functioning children with autism or Aspergers Syndrome in everyday social encounters evidence their first person perspectives. High quality visual and audio data allow detailed analysis of children's bodies and talk as loci of reflexivity. Corporeal reflexivity involves displays of awareness of one's body as an experiencing subject and a physical object accessible to the gaze of others. Gaze, demeanor, actions, and sotto voce commentaries on unfolding situations indicate a range of moment-by-moment reflexive responses to social situations. Autism is associated with neurologically based motor problems (e.g. delayed action-goal coordination, clumsiness) and highly repetitive movements to self-soothe. These behaviors can provoke derision among classmates at school. Focusing on a 9-year-old girl's encounters with peers on the playground, this study documents precisely how autistic children can become enmeshed as unwitting objects of stigma and how they reflect upon their social rejection as it transpires. Children with autism spectrum disorders in laboratory settings manifest diminished understandings of social emotions such as embarrassment, as part of a more general impairment in social perspective-taking. Video ethnography, however, takes us further, into discovering autistic children's subjective sense of vulnerability to the gaze of classmates.

  17. Understanding Autism in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Ballerini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person’s being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The “condition of possibility” of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as “loss” and “void.” I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this “void.”

  18. Understanding autism in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person's being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The "condition of possibility" of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as "loss" and "void." I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this "void."

  19. Online Speaking Strategy Assessment for Improving Speaking Ability in the Area of Language for Specific Purposes: The Case of Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaiboonnugulkij, Malinee; Prapphal, Kanchana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in strategies used in an online language for specific purposes (LSP) speaking test in tourism with two proficiency groups of students, and to investigate the strategies that should be used for low-proficiency students to improve their LSP speaking ability. The Web-based Speaking Test in…

  20. Autism: Collaborative Perspektives in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imanuel Hitipeuw

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism is the continuum of impairments. Children with autism show intellectual, social, emotional, and language or communication disorder. Collaboration is an important aspect in delivering education/intervention for children. Professionals have to have knowledge and skill related to autism and have to team up with parent in dealing with the disorder. The unique profile of the individual with autism calls for emphasis in the areas of communication skills, social-emotional, behavioral, and sensory regulation, and communication. Pre-identification of the children may help teachers and parents to make decisions whether the child needs a referral or not. In this case, Indonesia needs to make more political will in order to implement autism education in various setting to address immediate needs of the children before the problem becomes more complicated

  1. STUDENTS’ SELF ESTEEM IN SPEAKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Rosyida MR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of principle of communicative competence is the students know how to uselanguage according to the setting and the participants. Actually, to be able to speaktarget language, the students ar not only expected to have a great ability in grammar,vocabulary, or writing, but how brave they express their idea and use target languageto others. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate students’ self esteem to theirspeaking ability This study was carried out at Hadist major at the fourth semester ofIAIN Raden Intan Lampung. The researcher used questionnaire, test, and interview.The data collected were analyzed quantitatively, and described to know clearly theprocess which was occurred during the research. The results indicate that students’self esteem influence their speaking ability.Key Words: speaking, self esteem, communicative competence

  2. "Excuse me:" teaching interns to speak up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Paul; Byrne, Dara; O'Dea, Angela; McVeigh, Terri P; Kerin, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    A consistent finding in health care is that interns (junior physicians) are unwilling to "speak up" to attendings or consultants (senior physicians), which involves the related behaviors of challenging or questioning the actions of attendings, seeking guidance about one's own performance, and reporting one's errors. Training designed to encourage interns to speak up was designed, conducted, and evaluated at University Hospital Galway, an academic teaching hospital affiliated with the National University of Ireland, Galway, in January 2012-March 2012 and November 2012-January 2013. Training, which was based on the Crew Resource Management model, was constructed around filmed stories of attending physicians describing situations in which, when they were interns, their communication and assertiveness skills were challenged, and their reflections on what they could have done better. A total of 110 interns attended the training. The feedback from participants was positive. There was a significant increase in knowledge as a result of the training, and some evidence to support a shift in attitudes in the desirable direction relating to the need to speak up to seniors. No effect of the training was found on behavior. The willingness to share examples of poor performance is an important part of building a good safety culture. Listening to the stories ofattendings describing and reflecting on a situation in which they struggled is a powerful teaching method for training interns in the communication and assertiveness skills that are critical to their job. However, a sustained change in attitudes and behavior to speaking up will require a reinforcement of learning with deliberate practice to develop the skills introduced through the training program.

  3. Nurses must speak louder on climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Could nurses use their political influence more effectively? From social media to tweeting, why do nurses stay quiet when they could harness their political power? Writing in Primary Health Care, professor of nursing Mary Chiarella argues that nurses, considered one of the most ethical groups of voters, have influence to speak out about the dangers of global warming on people's health. Ms Chiarella encourages nurses to engage professionally to save the planet.

  4. 'Speak out' - issues in participatory materials development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zannie Bock

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the development of a beginner English course called 'Speak Out' for adults in Adult Basic Education and Training classes in the early 1990s. The course uses an innovative roleplay methodology which builds on the experiences and language knowledge of the adult learners. It was conceptualised and developed within a participatory approach to adult learning and materials development. The article explores the tension between the ideals of the participatory approach and the constraints exerted by contextual and other factors. The article begins with an introduction of the context within which the materials were conceptualised, then offers a brief overview of the participatory approach, and then considers the following aspects of the 'Speak Out' course: the language learning methodology, issues of teacher competence and development, and lastly, the materials development process itself. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van 'n beginnerskursus vir Engels, getitel 'Speak Out'. Dit is ontwerp vir volwassenes in klasse binne 'n Volwasse Basiese Onderrig en Opleiding-program in die vroee 1990s. Die kursus maak gebruik van innoverende rolspel as 'n metode wat spesifiek aansluit by die ervarings en taalkennis van volwasse leerders. Dit is gekonseptualiseer en ontwikkel as deel van 'n deelnemende benadering tot die opleiding van volwassenes en die ontwikkeling van hulpmiddels. Die artikel ondersoek die spanning tussen die ideale van 'n deelnemende benadering en die beperkinge wat opgele word deur kontekstuele en ander faktore. Die inleiding van die artikel gee 'n uiteensetting van die konteks waarbinne die hulpmiddels gekonseptualiseer is. Dan volg 'n kort oorsig oor die deelnemende benadering, en die volgende aspekte van die 'Speak Out'-kursus word oorweeg: die metodologie van taalaanleer, kwessies rondom onderwysers se vaardighede en ontwikkeling, en laastens, die proses van hulpmiddel-ontwikkeling self.

  5. A computational perspective on autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Ari; Patterson, Jaclyn Sky; Angelaki, Dora E

    2015-07-28

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests as a heterogeneous set of social, cognitive, motor, and perceptual symptoms. This system-wide pervasiveness suggests that, rather than narrowly impacting individual systems such as affection or vision, autism may broadly alter neural computation. Here, we propose that alterations in nonlinear, canonical computations occurring throughout the brain may underlie the behavioral characteristics of autism. One such computation, called divisive normalization, balances a neuron's net excitation with inhibition reflecting the overall activity of the neuronal population. Through neural network simulations, we investigate how alterations in divisive normalization may give rise to autism symptomatology. Our findings show that a reduction in the amount of inhibition that occurs through divisive normalization can account for perceptual consequences of autism, consistent with the hypothesis of an increased ratio of neural excitation to inhibition (E/I) in the disorder. These results thus establish a bridge between an E/I imbalance and behavioral data on autism that is currently absent. Interestingly, our findings implicate the context-dependent, neuronal milieu as a key factor in autism symptomatology, with autism reflecting a less "social" neuronal population. Through a broader discussion of perceptual data, we further examine how altered divisive normalization may contribute to a wide array of the disorder's behavioral consequences. These analyses show how a computational framework can provide insights into the neural basis of autism and facilitate the generation of falsifiable hypotheses. A computational perspective on autism may help resolve debates within the field and aid in identifying physiological pathways to target in the treatment of the disorder.

  6. Genetic research in autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Elise B.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Hyman, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review The recent explosion of genetic findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research has improved knowledge of the disorder's underlying biology and etiologic architecture. This review introduces concepts and results from recent genetic studies and discusses the manner in which those findings can influence the trajectory of ASD research. Recent findings Large consortium studies have associated ASDs with many types of genetic risk factors, including common polygenic risk, de novo single nucleotide variants, copy number variants, and rare inherited variants. In aggregate, these results confirm the heterogeneity and complexity of ASDs. The rare variant findings in particular point to genes and pathways that begin to bridge the gap between behavior and biology. Summary Genetic studies have the potential to identify the biological underpinnings of ASDs and other neuropsychiatric disorders. The data they generate are already being used to examine disease pathways and pathogenesis. The results also speak to ASD heterogeneity and, in the future, may be used to stratify research studies and treatment trials. PMID:26371945

  7. The Effect of a High School Speech Course on Public Speaking Anxiety for Students in a College-Level Public Speaking Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen Hill

    2012-01-01

    Literature suggested public speaking is American's most feared activity. Additionally, the public speaking curriculum was removed from the K-12 school system after 2001. This study aimed to examine the effect of previous public speaking instruction, public speaking extra-curricular activity, gender, and self-esteem on public speaking anxiety…

  8. Human experimental anxiety: actual public speaking induces more intense physiological responses than simulated public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Gorayeb, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    a) To perform a systematic and meta-analytic review to verify whether the Simulated Public Speaking Task (SPST) leads to a greater increase in self-rated anxiety than in physiological correlates of anxiety; and b) to compare the results obtained with the SPST with an actual public speaking task involving healthy volunteers. a) The PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were searched for studies involving the SPST prior to 2012. Eleven publications were eligible and provided data from 143 healthy volunteers for meta-analysis; b) 48 university students without somatic or psychiatric disorders were divided into three experimental groups of 16 subjects to undergo one of the following: SPST, real-world public speaking task (real-world), and control situation (control). The meta-analysis showed that the SPST induced a significant increase in the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS) anxiety factor, but no significant increases in systolic blood pressure or heart rate. The empirical study showed that the real-world public speaking task increased heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure significantly more than the control and SPST conditions. These results suggest that real public speaking might be better than SPST in inducing experimental anxiety.

  9. An investigation of the 'female camouflage effect' in autism using a computerized ADOS-2 and a test of sex/gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynkiewicz, Agnieszka; Schuller, Björn; Marchi, Erik; Piana, Stefano; Camurri, Antonio; Lassalle, Amandine; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    comparable level in girls with autism. High-functioning females with autism might present better on non-verbal (gestures) mode of communication than boys with autism. It may camouflage other diagnostic features. It poses risk of under-diagnosis or not receiving the appropriate diagnosis for this population. Further research is required to examine this phenomenon so appropriate gender revisions to the diagnostic assessments might be implemented.

  10. Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum): Validation of a questionnaire investigating subthreshold autism spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, L; Gesi, C; Massimetti, E; Cremone, I M; Barbuti, M; Maccariello, G; Moroni, I; Barlati, S; Castellini, G; Luciano, M; Bossini, L; Rocchetti, M; Signorelli, M; Aguglia, E; Fagiolini, A; Politi, P; Ricca, V; Vita, A; Carmassi, C; Maj, M

    2017-02-01

    Increasing literature has shown the usefulness of a dimensional approach to autism. The present study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum), a new questionnaire specifically tailored to assess subthreshold forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adulthood. 102 adults endorsing at least one DSM-5 symptom criterion for ASD (ASDc), 143 adults diagnosed with a feeding and eating disorder (FED), and 160 subjects with no mental disorders (CTL), were recruited from 7 Italian University Departments of Psychiatry and administered the following: SCID-5, Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale 14-item version (RAADS-14), and AdAS Spectrum. The AdAS Spectrum demonstrated excellent internal consistency for the total score (Kuder-Richardson's coefficient=.964) as well as for five out of seven domains (all coefficients>.80) and sound test-retest reliability (ICC=.976). The total and domain AdAS Spectrum scores showed a moderate to strong (>.50) positive correlation with one another and with the AQ and RAADS-14 total scores. ASDc subjects reported significantly higher AdAS Spectrum total scores than both FED (pAdAS Spectrum scores from CTL subjects to ASD patients, across FED 0 , ASD 1 , FED 1 was shown. The AdAS Spectrum showed excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability and strong convergent validity with alternative dimensional measures of ASD. The questionnaire performed differently among the three diagnostic groups and enlightened some significant effects of gender in the expression of autistic traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Olfactory functions are not associated with autism severity in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudova I

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Iva Dudova, Michal HrdlickaDepartment of Child Psychiatry, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech RepublicBackground: Changes in olfactory functions have been found in many neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between olfactory functions (odor-detection thresholds, odor identification, and odor preference and autism severity and sensory-related behavior in children and adolescents with ASD.Subjects and methods: Our sample consisted of 35 high-functioning patients with ASD (mean age 10.8±3.6 years, 31 boys. Olfactory testing (threshold and identification used the Sniffin' Sticks test. Odor pleasantness was assessed on a 5-point scale using the Identification part of the Sniffin’ Sticks test. The severity of autistic psychopathology was measured using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS.Results: Using Spearman’s correlation, we found no significant correlations between autism severity (as expressed by total CARS score and odor-detection thresholds (R=0.144, P=0.409, odor identification (R=0.07, P=0.966, or odor pleasantness (R=-0.046, P=0.794. There was also no significant relationship between CARS item 9 (“Taste, smell, and touch response and use” and odor-detection thresholds (R=0.170, P=0.330, odor identification (R=0.282, P=0.100, or odor pleasantness (R=0.017, P=0.923.Conclusion: We did not find any significant relationship between the severity of autistic psychopathology and olfactory functions.Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, psychopathology, Sniffin’ Sticks, odor threshold, odor identification, odor pleasantness

  12. Selvadministreret ventrikelsondeernaering hos et barn med infantil autisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrborg, J

    1991-01-01

    An example of self-administered gastric tube nutrition in a boy aged 15 years with infantile autism is presented. The boy would neither eat nor drink in the normal manner since the age of eight years and has gradually administered tube-feeding himself. This patient does not fulfill the internatio......An example of self-administered gastric tube nutrition in a boy aged 15 years with infantile autism is presented. The boy would neither eat nor drink in the normal manner since the age of eight years and has gradually administered tube-feeding himself. This patient does not fulfill...

  13. The McGurk effect in children with autism and Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebko, James M; Schroeder, Jessica H; Weiss, Jonathan A

    2014-02-01

    Children with autism may have difficulties in audiovisual speech perception, which has been linked to speech perception and language development. However, little has been done to examine children with Asperger syndrome as a group on tasks assessing audiovisual speech perception, despite this group's often greater language skills. Samples of children with autism, Asperger syndrome, and Down syndrome, as well as a typically developing sample, were presented with an auditory-only condition, a speech-reading condition, and an audiovisual condition designed to elicit the McGurk effect. Children with autism demonstrated unimodal performance at the same level as the other groups, yet showed a lower rate of the McGurk effect compared with the Asperger, Down and typical samples. These results suggest that children with autism may have unique intermodal speech perception difficulties linked to their representations of speech sounds. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Behavioral problems and parenting style among Taiwanese children with autism and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chou, Miao-Churn; Lee, Ju-Chin; Wong, Ching-Ching; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chen, Ming-Fang; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Wu, Yu-Yu

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the behavioral problems and parenting style among children with autism and their siblings in an ethnic Chinese population. A total of 151 children with DSM-IV autistic disorder, aged 3-12, 134 siblings without autism, and 113 normally developing controls were recruited. Both parents reported their parenting styles and psychological status and mothers also reported children's behavioral problems. Children with autism had significantly more severe behavioral problems and obtained less affection and more overprotection and authoritarian controlling from their parents than the other two groups. Compared to the controls, unaffected siblings showed some behavioral problems, and obtained less maternal care. Withdrawal and attention, social, and thought problems were the most associated behavioral syndromes to distinguish children with autism from those without. In addition to children with autism, who have a wide range of behavioral problems and impaired parent-child interactions, their siblings may be at risk for such problems.

  15. Meta-analysis of Big Five personality traits in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Rodgers, Jonathan D; Cunningham, Sara A; Lopata, Christopher; Thomeer, Marcus L

    2018-04-01

    The present meta-analysis synthesizes the emerging literature on the relationship of Big Five personality traits to autism spectrum disorder. Studies were included if they (1) either (a) measured autism spectrum disorder characteristics using a metric that yielded a single score quantification of the magnitude of autism spectrum disorder characteristics and/or (b) studied individuals with an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis compared to individuals without an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and (2) measured Big Five traits in the same sample or samples. Fourteen reviewed studies include both correlational analyses and group comparisons. Eighteen effect sizes per Big Five trait were used to calculate two overall effect sizes per trait. Meta-analytic effects were calculated using random effects models. Twelve effects (per trait) from nine studies reporting correlations yielded a negative association between each Big Five personality trait and autism spectrum disorder characteristics (Fisher's z ranged from -.21 (conscientiousness) to -.50 (extraversion)). Six group contrasts (per trait) from six studies comparing individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder to neurotypical individuals were also substantial (Hedges' g ranged from -.88 (conscientiousness) to -1.42 (extraversion)). The potential impact of personality on important life outcomes and new directions for future research on personality in autism spectrum disorder are discussed in light of results.

  16. Channelopathy Pathogenesis in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina eSchmunk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a syndrome that affects normal brain development and is characterized by impaired social interaction as well as verbal and non-verbal communication and by repetitive, stereotypic behavior. ASD is a complex disorder arising from a combination of multiple genetic and environmental factors that are independent from racial, ethnic and socioeconomical status. The high heritability of ASD suggests a strong genetic basis for the disorder. Furthermore, a mounting body of evidence implies a role of various ion channel gene defects (channelopathies in the pathogenesis of autism. Indeed, recent genome-wide association, and whole exome- and whole- genome resequencing studies linked polymorphisms and rare variants in calcium, sodium and potassium channels and their subunits with susceptibility to ASD, much as they do with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and animal models with these genetic variations recapitulate endophenotypes considered to be correlates of autistic behavior seen in patients. An ion flux across the membrane regulates a variety of cell functions, from generation of action potentials to gene expression and cell morphology, thus it is not surprising that channelopathies have profound effects on brain functions. In the present work, we summarize existing evidence for the role of ion channel gene defects in the pathogenesis of autism with a focus on calcium signaling and its downstream effects.

  17. Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender, date of birth, place of birth, and residence in Finland. Controls were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Parents were identified through the Finnish Medical Birth Register and Finnish Central Population Register. Parental psychiatric diagnoses from inpatient care were collected from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess whether parents’ psychiatric disorders predicted ASD after controlling for parents’ age, smoking during pregnancy and weight for gestational age. In summary, parental schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders were associated with the risk of ASD regardless of the subgroup. PDD-NOS was associated with all parental psychiatric disorders investigated. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings. These results may facilitate the investigation of shared genetic and familial factors between ASD and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:23391634

  18. Social cognition in autism: Face tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Guerreschi, Michele; Tagliavento, Lucia; Gitti, Filippo; Sokolov, Alexander N; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Fazzi, Elisa

    2017-05-26

    Faces convey valuable information for social cognition, effective interpersonal interaction, and non-verbal communication. Face perception is believed to be atypical in autism, but the origin of this deficit is controversial. Dominant featural face encoding is suggested to be responsible for face tuning scarcity. Here we used a recently developed Face-n-Food paradigm for studying face tuning in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The key benefit of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face processing. In a spontaneous recognition task, adolescents with autism and typically developing matched controls were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). The set of images was shown in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Thresholds for recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face in ASD individuals were substantially higher than in typically developing controls: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which controls easily recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This outcome not only lends support to atypical face tuning, but provides novel insights into the origin of face encoding deficits in autism.

  19. Re-Thinking Anxiety: Using Inoculation Messages to Reduce and Reinterpret Public Speaking Fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ben; Compton, Josh; Thornton, Ashleigh L; Dimmock, James A

    2017-01-01

    Inoculation theory offers a framework for protecting individuals against challenges to an existing attitude, belief, or state. Despite the prevalence and damaging effects of public speaking anxiety, inoculation strategies have yet to be used to help individuals remain calm before and during public speaking. We aimed to test the effectiveness of an inoculation message for reducing the onset of public speaking anxiety, and helping presenters interpret their speech-related anxiety more positively. Participants (Mage = 20.14, SD = 2.72) received either an inoculation (n = 102) or control (n = 128) message prior to engaging a public speaking task and reported a range of anxiety-related perceptions. Accounting for personality characteristics and perceptions of task importance, and relative to control participants, those who received the inoculation message reported significantly lower pre-task anxiety, and following the task, reported that they had experienced lower somatic anxiety, and that the inoculation message had caused them to view their nerves in a less debilitating light. Inoculation messages may be an effective strategy for helping participants reframe and reduce their apprehension about public speaking, and investigating their efficacy in other stress-inducing contexts may be worthwhile.

  20. Attentional Shifts between Audition and Vision in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, Valeria; Esposito, Gianluca; Venuti, Paola; Arduino, Giuseppe Maurizio; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Previous evidence on neurotypical adults shows that the presentation of a stimulus allocates the attention to its modality, resulting in faster responses to a subsequent target presented in the same (vs. different) modality. People with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) often fail to detect a (visual or auditory) target in a stream of stimuli after…

  1. VIEWS, OPINIONS, AND EXPERIENCES FOR TREATMENT OF PEOPLE WITH AUTISM IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina IVANOVSKA-TROSHANSKA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available According to law people with autism have equal rights as everyone else, from early age, to visit institutions which provide acquiring knowledge, skills, and experiences for enhancing their quality of life and reaching higher level of independence. Due to their specific development visiting any institution would mean treatment that should help them to sustain communication, interaction, emotional reaction, attitude and flexibility in thinking. There are many reasons which provoke deeper thinking and more careful approach about treatment of people with autism. One of those reasons is the constant increase in the number of people with autism, large number of new treatments and their efficiency, the need for education for children with autism in different environments, limited conditions in institutions which children with autism attend such as material as well as professional, poor coordination of institutions for detection, diagnosis and treatment of children with autism.The underlying aim of this study was to determine the views and opinions of parents of children with autism and special educators and rehabilitators who work with those children as well as to present experiences in treating children and adults with autism.The theoretical part of the study defines autism, its etiology, the diagnostic methods, characteristics of children and adults with autism, and the main attention was given to different types of treatments of children and adults with autism in different periods of life and their application in several other countries.The study included a group of 60 special educators and rehabilitators from 7 institutions which work directly with children and adults with autism, 31 parents from families which have a child or adult with autism and 9 specialists who influence or are part of the treatment of children and adults with autism in Republic of Macedonia.The analysis and interpretation of the results show that the beginnings of treating

  2. A profile of the belief in Jesus and salvation among the Afrikaans speaking Christian youth

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    Hendrik J.C. Pieterse

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the results of a large-scale empirical-theolo-gical research project on “Religion and Human Rights among South African Youth.” Using the extensive database of this project, the article focuses on the results on the images of Jesus and the belief in salvation of Grade 11 learners. The results present a profile of the pluralistic and diverse scale of nuances in the belief structures of Christian teenagers. The results of the English-speaking private school learners are placed alongside the results of the Afrikaans speaking public school learners in order to obtain a more prolific picture of the belief of the Afrikaans speaking youth. The effect their belief in salvation has on their views regarding human rights is also examined. The results challenge the preacher to think dialectically and hermeneutically in a new age and context.

  3. Recognition of Emotion from Facial Expressions with Direct or Averted Eye Gaze and Varying Expression Intensities in Children with Autism Disorder and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Dina; Davidson, Denise; Camras, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Eye gaze direction and expression intensity effects on emotion recognition in children with autism disorder and typically developing children were investigated. Children with autism disorder and typically developing children identified happy and angry expressions equally well. Children with autism disorder, however, were less accurate in identifying fear expressions across intensities and eye gaze directions. Children with autism disorder rated expressions with direct eyes, and 50% expressions, as more intense than typically developing children. A trend was also found for sad expressions, as children with autism disorder were less accurate in recognizing sadness at 100% intensity with direct eyes than typically developing children. Although the present research showed that children with autism disorder are sensitive to eye gaze direction, impairments in the recognition of fear, and possibly sadness, exist. Furthermore, children with autism disorder and typically developing children perceive the intensity of emotional expressions differently. PMID:24804098

  4. Recognition of Emotion from Facial Expressions with Direct or Averted Eye Gaze and Varying Expression Intensities in Children with Autism Disorder and Typically Developing Children

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    Dina Tell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye gaze direction and expression intensity effects on emotion recognition in children with autism disorder and typically developing children were investigated. Children with autism disorder and typically developing children identified happy and angry expressions equally well. Children with autism disorder, however, were less accurate in identifying fear expressions across intensities and eye gaze directions. Children with autism disorder rated expressions with direct eyes, and 50% expressions, as more intense than typically developing children. A trend was also found for sad expressions, as children with autism disorder were less accurate in recognizing sadness at 100% intensity with direct eyes than typically developing children. Although the present research showed that children with autism disorder are sensitive to eye gaze direction, impairments in the recognition of fear, and possibly sadness, exist. Furthermore, children with autism disorder and typically developing children perceive the intensity of emotional expressions differently.

  5. Mismatch negativity in children with dyslexia speaking Indian languages

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    Maruthy Sandeep

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies in the past have found that phonological processing is abnormal in children with dyslexia. Phonological processing depends on the phonological rules of the language learnt. Western languages do not have a good phoneme to grapheme correspondence while many of the Indian languages do have it. Also phonological rules of western languages are different from that of Indian languages. Thus it would be erroneous to generalize the results of phonological processing obtained on children speaking western languages to those speaking Indian languages. Hence the present study was aimed to investigate the auditory processing in children with dyslexia who spoke and studied Indian languages. Methods Standard group comparison design was used in the study. The study was conducted on fifteen children with dyslexia and fifteen control children. Mismatch negativity was elicited for speech and tonal stimuli. Results obtained on the clinical group were compared with that of control group using mixed design Analysis of variance. Children in both the groups were native speakers of Kannada (a south Indian language. Results A subgroup of children showed abnormalities in the processing of speech and/or tonal stimuli. Speech elicited mismatch negativity showed greater abnormalities than that of tonal stimuli. Though higher for spectral contrasts, processing deficits were also shown for durational contrasts. Conclusion Inspite of having different phonological rules and good phoneme-grapheme correspondence in Indian languages, children with dyslexia do have deficits in processing both spectral and durational cues.

  6. [The Polish adaptation of the public speaking anxiety questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodkiewicz, Jan; Miniszewska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was the Polish adaptation of the shortened Public Speaking Anxiety Questionnaire GFER by Spitznagel and co-workers. GFER is a self-assessment method which consists of 16 statements and is designed to assess emotions, physiological reactions, and thoughts that appear in a situation of public speaking. GFER was used to examine 320 students from Lodz's universities. The State/Trait Anxiety Inventory - STAI by Spielberger, The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale by Zigmunt and Snaith and TCI by Cloninger were also used. The Polish version of GFER is a reliable and valid tool. The factor structure is similar to the original structure. As a result of the conducted analyses, there was obtained the 9-item version of the tool, which has a 2-factor structure - factor I: emotional and physiological reactions, factor II: worrying. The results obtained with GFER present a statistically significant correlation with other measures of anxiety and with the dimension of temperament: harm avoidance. The obtained results indicate that GFER may be used in both scientific research and therapeutic practice.

  7. Effects of the Differences between Native and Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers on Students' Attitudes and Motivation toward Learning English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, Tae-Il

    2017-01-01

    This study presents findings on three research agendas: (1) the difference between native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) and non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) in students' attitudes toward and motivation for learning English, (2) the moderating effect of the type of class (i.e., English Conversation vs. Practical English) on the…

  8. Micro and Macro Content Analysis of English Textbook Entitled "Mosaic One Listening and Speaking (Student's Book)" in the Light of Communicative Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mashaqba, Nisreen Juma'a Hamed

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which the listening and speaking lessons which are presented in textbook entitled "Mosaic One Listening and speaking (Student's Book)" are characterized with appropriateness and meaningfulness in light of communicative competence and meet the Principles and features of…

  9. A Marketing Approach Towards the Sufficiency of Ready-Made Garments to Satisfy the Needs of Children With Autism

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    Mehmet Akalın

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a term of which we have been aware recently in our country through visual and printed media and which we have seen examples around us. Together with opening Dependent and Independent Education Centres for Children with Autism, children with autism have found the opportunity to receive education in line with their needs. With individual education programs developed by the teacher suitable for the development of the child with autism, they can acquire skills in various development areas. Dressing skill, which is one of the main skills necessary for every individual, is a mandatory skill that children with autism need to acquire to satisfy their own needs. In the first three parts of the study a conceptual frame was given and the definition, history, types, characteristics, and behaviour problems of children with autism were presented, and clothing comfort and other concepts were explained. In the fourth part, method, material, research approach, sample and population, numerals, limitations, data collection technique and data analysis technique were explained and the results were presented in tables. The study was carried out to reveal dressing problems children with autism encounter and to determine to what extent the clothes made by ready-made clothing sector satisfy the needs of children with autism and it was found that children with autism have difficulties in using ready-made clothes.

  10. Theoretical aspects of autism: causes--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Helen V

    2011-01-01

    Autism, a member of the pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs), has been increasing dramatically since its description by Leo Kanner in 1943. First estimated to occur in 4 to 5 per 10,000 children, the incidence of autism is now 1 per 110 in the United States, and 1 per 64 in the United Kingdom, with similar incidences throughout the world. Searching information from 1943 to the present in PubMed and Ovid Medline databases, this review summarizes results that correlate the timing of changes in incidence with environmental changes. Autism could result from more than one cause, with different manifestations in different individuals that share common symptoms. Documented causes of autism include genetic mutations and/or deletions, viral infections, and encephalitis following vaccination. Therefore, autism is the result of genetic defects and/or inflammation of the brain. The inflammation could be caused by a defective placenta, immature blood-brain barrier, the immune response of the mother to infection while pregnant, a premature birth, encephalitis in the child after birth, or a toxic environment.

  11. Effect of epilepsy on autism symptoms in Angelman syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Kristin A; Howlin, Patricia; Retterstøl, Lars; Kanavin, Øivind J; Heiberg, Arvid; Nærland, Terje

    2018-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and epilepsy often co-occur; however, the extent to which the association between autism symptoms and epilepsy is due to shared aetiology or to the direct effects of seizures is a topic of ongoing debate. Angelman syndrome (AS) is presented as a suitable disease model to explore this association. Data from medical records and questionnaires were used to examine the association between age of epilepsy onset, autism symptoms, genetic aberration and communication level. Forty-eight participants had genetically verified AS (median age 14.5 years; range 1-57 years). A measure of autism symptoms (the Social Communication Questionnaire; SCQ) was completed for 38 individuals aged ≥ 4 years. Genetic cause was subgrouped into deletion and other genetic aberrations of the 15q11-q13 area. The number of signs used to communicate (syndrome such as Angelman syndrome may be used to study the relation between epilepsy and autism symptomatology.

  12. Communication Deficits and the Motor System: Exploring Patterns of Associations in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, M; Shui, A M; Nowinski, L A; Golas, S B; Ferrone, C; O'Rourke, J A; McDougle, C J

    2017-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have notable difficulties in motor, speech and language domains. The connection between motor skills (oral-motor, manual-motor) and speech and language deficits reported in other developmental disorders raises important questions about a potential relationship between motor skills and speech-language deficits in ASD. To this end, we examined data from children with ASD (n = 1781), 2-17 years of age, enrolled in the Autism Speaks-Autism Treatment Network (AS-ATN) registry who completed a multidisciplinary evaluation that included diagnostic, physical, cognitive and behavioral assessments as part of a routine standard of care protocol. After adjusting for age, non-verbal IQ, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) medication use, and muscle tone, separate multiple linear regression analyses revealed significant positive associations of fine motor skills (FM) with both expressive language (EL) and receptive language (RL) skills in an impaired FM subgroup; in contrast, the impaired gross motor (GM) subgroup showed no association with EL but a significant negative association with RL. Similar analyses between motor skills and interpersonal relationships across the sample found both GM skills and FM skills to be associated with social interactions. These results suggest potential differences in the contributions of fine versus gross motor skills to autistic profiles and may provide another lens with which to view communication differences across the autism spectrum for use in treatment interventions.

  13. Sleep Difficulties and Medications in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Registry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Beth A; Katz, Terry; Reynolds, Ann M; Shui, Amy; Carno, Margaret; Connolly, Heidi V; Coury, Daniel; Bennett, Amanda E

    2016-02-01

    Sleep difficulties are common in children with autism spectrum disorders, with wide-ranging effects on the child's daytime behavior. We reviewed data within our Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network Registry to determine the prevalence of sleep difficulties and patterns of medication use. Data from 1518 children ages 4 to 10 years were analyzed to determine the number of children documented to have sleep difficulties by parent-completed questionnaires and clinician-completed forms and how these findings related to the use of sleep medications. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire total score was ≥41 (associated with clinically significant sleep problems in past research) in 71% of children. The prevalence of sleep diagnoses was less frequent (30% of children aged 4-10 years; P sleep were prescribed in 46% of 4- to 10-year-olds given a sleep diagnosis. The most common medication used for sleep was melatonin followed by α-agonists, with a variety of other medications taken for sleep (anticonvulsants, antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines). Children taking medications for sleep had worse daytime behavior and pediatric quality of life than children not taking sleep medications. Parent concerns about sleep may not be reflected in the information gathered during a clinic visit, supporting the need to develop screening practice pathways for sleep in autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, many medications taken for sleep have adverse effects, supporting the need for evidence-based interventions in this population. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Management of constipation in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Glenn T; Williams, Kent; Kooros, Koorosh; Kaul, Ajay; Panzer, Rebecca; Coury, Daniel L; Fuchs, George

    2012-11-01

    To develop a practical, readily applied algorithm for primary health care providers to identify, evaluate, and manage constipation in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The Gastroenterology Committee of the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network (ATN), a multisite consortium of centers dedicated to improving standards of medical care for children with ASDs, guided the development of the constipation algorithm through expert opinion and literature review. The algorithm was finalized based on results of field testing by nongastrointestinal, ATN autism medical specialists at 4 ATN sites. A systematic review and grading of the literature pertaining to constipation and children with ASDs was also performed. Consensus among the ATN Gastroenterology Committee identified that in children with ASDs, (1) subtle or atypical symptoms might indicate the presence of constipation; (2) screening, identification, and treatment through a deliberate approach for underlying causes of constipation is appropriate; (3) diagnostic-therapeutic intervention can be provided when constipation is documented; and (4) careful follow-up after any intervention be performed to evaluate effectiveness and tolerance of the therapy. Literature review revealed limited evidence for the clinical evaluation or treatment strategies of children with ASD and constipation. Constipation and its underlying etiology have the potential to be effectively identified and managed using a systematic approach. Lack of evidence on this topic in the literature emphasizes the need for research.

  15. From neuronal to human communication disorders: A novel approach to autism

    OpenAIRE

    Gepner, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we draw the first lines of a novel gene-to-behaviour approach to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This approach is presented from behaviours and upstream to genes. We first present again our threefold -clinical, experimental and theoretical- approach to autism, the so-called E-Motion mis-sight and other temporospatial processing disorders. According to our view, subjects with ASD present from the beginning of their life different degrees of disability in ...

  16. Equine assisted therapy for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jakše, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Equine assisted therapy is presented as one of possible approaches when helping individuals with special needs. This work includes explanation of basic conceptions from the fields of equine assisted therapy and autism spectrum disorders. Motives for inclusion individuals with autism spetrcum disorders to this form of therapy are presented. Study was planned based on presented findings and carried out during school year 2009/2010. The purpose of this study is to ascertain possible effects of e...

  17. The Implementation of Group Investigation to Improve the Students’ Speaking Skill

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    Iswardati Iswardati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to find out how group investigation improves the student’s speaking skill of the second grade students of SMA 2 Samarinda, how group investigation improves the student’s participation in speaking of second grade students of SMA 2 Samarinda, and what the obstacles are in the implementation of Group Investigation. The classroom action research was employed in this study and was done in two cycles. Each cycle consisted of four stages: (1 planning, (2 action, (3 observation, and (4 reflection. Each cycle took three meetings. The instruments used to collect the data were observation, checklist, field-note, and speaking test. After the implementation of Group Investigation through two cycles, the researcher concluded: First, Group Investigation improves the students’ speaking ability by (a increasing the students’ pronunciation, grammatical, vocabulary, and fluency, (b by reducing the students’ reluctance to speak, worry of making mistakes, and afraid of being laughed at by other students. Second, Group Investigation improves the students’ participation in speaking (a the students learnt how to investigate a certain problem and to solve the problem using English, (b how to share, (c how to discuss, (d how to give their ideas, (e how to accept other opinions, and (f how to present their ideas. Third, the obstacles in the implementation of Group Investigation are: (a The students were noisy, (b Some students spent too short in the presentation, (c Some students had difficulties in expressing their arguments and suggestion related to the topics, and (d Few students dominated the group investigation.

  18. Peran Public Speaking dalam Kegiatan Open Mic (Studi tentang Peran Public Speaking terhadap Kemampuan Comic dalam Kegiatan Open Mic Komunitas Stand Up Indo Kota Medan)

    OpenAIRE

    Rovis, Disa Yumna

    2016-01-01

    This study, entitled "The Role of Public Speaking on Open Mic Activity". The aim of the research is knowing the public speaking proses and the use of public speaking on the ability of comic on open mic activity. Public speaking theory is used for this research. Descriptive qualitative method is used in this research by nonparticipant observation tecnique through interviewing the comic. Based on this research, open mic activity uses the specific elements of public speaking. They are, the speak...

  19. Broader Autism Phenotype in Iranian Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders vs. Normal Children

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    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the broader autism phenotype in Iranian parents of children with autism spectrum disorders and parents of typically developing children.Method: Parents of children with ASD and parents of typically developing children were asked to complete the Persian version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ. In the ASD group, families included 204 parents (96 fathers and 108 mothers of children diagnosed as having autism (Autistic Disorder, or AD (n=124, Asperger Syndrome (AS or High Functioning Autism (HFA (n=48 and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS (n=32 by psychiatrists based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4thedition (DSM-IV-TR criteria. In the control group, 210 (108 fathers and 102 mothers parents of typically developing children. Parents of typically developing children were selected from four primary schools. Based on family reports, their children did not have any psychiatric problems. Total AQ score and each of the 5 subscales were analyzed using two-way ANOVAs with sex and group as factors.Results: The mean age of ASD fathers was 40.6 years (SD=5.96; range 31-54, and of ASD mothers was 34.7 years (SD=4.55; range 28-45. The mean age of control fathers was 37 years (SD=4.6; range 29-45 and of control mothers was 34.11 years (SD=4.86; range 28-45. Group differences were found in age (p‹0/001. On total AQ, a main effect for group and sex was found. ASD parents scored higher than controls (F(1,410=77.876, P‹0/001 and males scored higher than females (F(1,410=23.324, P‹0/001. Also, Group by Sex interaction was significant (F(1,410=4.986, P‹0/05. Results of MANOVA analysis displayed significant differences between ASD's subgroups on total AQ and subscales scores (F (15, 1121 = 13.924, p<0.0005; Wilk's Lambda= 0.624, partial =0.145. Pairwise comparisons between ASD's subgroups and Normal group showed that mean scores for the

  20. Autism and dyslexia: a spectrum of cognitive styles as defined by minicolumnar morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emily L; Casanova, Manuel F

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuum of cognitive styles amongst humans, defined by differences in minicolumnar numbers/width and arcuate/commissural white matter connectivities. Specifically, it is the connectivity within and between modular cortical circuits that defines conditions such as autism and developmental dyslexia. In autism, a model of local hyperconnectivity and long-range hypoconnectivity explains many of the behavioral and cognitive traits present in the condition, while the inverse arrangement of local hypoconnectivity and long-range hyperconnectivity in dyslexia sheds light on that condition as well. We propose that the cognitive styles present in autism and developmental dyslexia typify the extremes of a minicolumnar spectrum in humans.

  1. Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety: A Study of Chinese Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates Chinese Language Speaking Anxiety and its associated factors among college-level students who learn Chinese as a foreign language (CFL in the U.S. Although the Speaking Anxiety scores of the participants were not high on average, but frequency analyses showed that quite a number of learners experienced high levels of anxiety when speaking Chinese. The results of ANOVA analyses indicated that gender had a significant effect on Speaking Anxiety, but proficiency level and the elective-required status did not. Correlation and multiple regression results showed that perceived difficulty level of the Chinese language, self-perceived language learning ability, and self-perceived achievement in Chinese classes were significant predictors of Speaking Anxiety and altogether accounted for 21.4% of the variance in Speaking Anxiety.

  2. PELATIHAN PUBLIC SPEAKING KADER PKK KELURAHAN TANDANG KECAMATAN TEMBALANG SEMARANG

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    Tarcisia Sri Suwarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many people do not understand the importance of public speaking technique. The most frequent phenomenon of public speaking is in PKK (Family Welfare Guidance as one of the organization within our closest community. Therefore, there should be a training of public speaking skills for PKK cadres of RW VI, Tandang Village, Tembalang Subdistrict, Semarang. It is expected to explore the potency of PKK cadres to improve their confidence and bravery to speak up in public. After training, it is also expected that the PKK cadres can continuously implement all of the training materials. Thus, these cadres can sharpen their ability to do public speaking in front of?é?á forum which can produce other achievements that can improve the quality of PKK cadres. It can result on the increasing of their role and involvement in every governmental or non governmental activity or program. Keywords: public speaking, PKK cadres, technique performance, giving information

  3. [Autism and epigenetics. A model of explanation for the understanding of the genesis in autism spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arberas, Claudia; Ruggieri, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by impairment of social integration and language development and restricted interests. Autism spectrum disorders manifest during childhood and may have a varying clinical expression over the years related to different therapeutic approaches, behavior-modifying drugs, and environmental factors, among others. So far, the genetic alterations identified are not sufficient to explain the genesis of all these processes, as many of the mutations found are also present in unaffected individuals. Findings on the underlying biological and pathophysiological mechanisms of entities strongly associated with autism spectrum disorders, such as Rett, fragile X, Angelman, and fetal alcohol syndromes, point to the role of epigenetic changes in disorders of neurodevelopment. Epigenetic phenomena are normal biological processes necessary for cell and thus human life, especially related to embryonic development. Different phenomena that affect epigenetic processes (changes that change operation or expression of a gene, without modifying the DNA structure) have also been shown to be important in the genesis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Alterations in the epigenetic mechanism may be reversible, which may explain the variation in the autism phenotype over time. Here we analyze the normal epigenetic mechanisms, autism spectrum disorders, their association with specific entities associated with altered epigenetic mechanisms, and possible therapeutic approaches targeting these alterations.

  4. The stigma of autism in china: an analysis of newspaper portrayals of autism between 2003 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Bie, Bijie

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a highly stigmatized developmental disability in many societies, and the media are major contributors to such stigma. Presented here is the first systematic analysis of Chinese newspapers' coverage of autism for stigma-causing content. More specifically, this analysis examines the age of autistic people reported, the image of autistic people, and the use of stigma cues (in terms of peril, mark, and shame) and challenge cues (in terms of personification, hope, and fight) in five leading newspapers in China between 2003 and 2012. It finds that while the reportage of autism increases over time, which might contribute to the public's heightened awareness of the condition, such reportage is often biased. The most common stereotypes about autism in Chinese newspapers are autistic people as children, as patients, or as savants. The most often-used challenge cues are personification and hope, but their uses significantly decrease in percentage from 2003 to 2012. The most often used stigma cues are peril and mark. The use of the shame cue is relatively less frequent, but it increases significantly over the 10-year period. Theoretically, this article provides an application of stigma communication theory in a non-Western context. Practically, it not only contributes to the current knowledge about media representation of autism in China, but also suggests that it is important for media agencies and health care professionals to promote media guidelines and train health journalists for reporting disability issues in a nonstigmatizing way.

  5. A Classroom-Based Assessment Method to Test Speaking Skills in English for Specific Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberola Colomar, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    This article presents and analyses a classroom-based assessment method to test students' speaking skills in a variety of professional settings in tourism. The assessment system has been implemented in the Communication in English for Tourism course, as part of the Tourism Management degree programme, at Florida Universitaria (affiliated to the…

  6. Perception of Speech Features by French-Speaking Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Sophie; Serniclaes, Willy; Bertoncini, Josiane; Cole, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigates the perception of phonological features in French-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs) compared with normal-hearing (NH) children matched for listening age. Method: Scores for discrimination and identification of minimal pairs for all features defining consonants (e.g., place, voicing, manner,…

  7. The Use of Retelling Stories Technique in Developing English Speaking Ability of Grade 9 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praneetponkrang, Sasitorn; Phaiboonnugulkij, Malinee

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to advocate retelling stories technique for developing speaking ability of grade 9 students in Thailand. Morrow's theory (1981) and other scholars in retelling stories technique are presented. This technique is integrated in the lesson plans following Morrow's framework. Narrative text of short stories which refer to daily life…

  8. Design and Implementation of an Intelligent Virtual Environment for Improving Speaking and Listening Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Kaveh; Nahvi, Ali; Ahmadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an intelligent architecture, called intelligent virtual environment for language learning, with embedded pedagogical agents for improving listening and speaking skills of non-native English language learners. The proposed architecture integrates virtual environments into the Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language…

  9. Speech Analysis of Bengali Speaking Children with Repaired Cleft Lip & Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Madhushree; Kumar, Suman; Chatterjee, Indranil; Maheshwari, Neha

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims at analyzing speech samples of four Bengali speaking children with repaired cleft palates with a view to differentiate between the misarticulations arising out of a deficit in linguistic skills and structural or motoric limitations. Spontaneous speech samples were collected and subjected to a number of linguistic analyses…

  10. Short-Term Study Abroad: Perspectives on Speaking Gains and Language Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Todd A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that study abroad has a positive effect on second language (L2) learning outcomes for students who spend at least a semester abroad. It is unclear, however, whether a short-term experience also has a measurable impact on L2 development. The present study examines the relationship between speaking proficiency gains made…

  11. Speaking, Writing, and Explicit-Rule Knowledge: Toward an Understanding of How They Interrelate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra-Pruim, Pennylyn

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between writing performance and speaking performance in German as a foreign language learners through quantitative analysis of the variance and correlation among oral, written, and explicit rule abilities as evidenced in present-tense verbal morphology and syntax. Subjects performed an explicit rule grammar test and a…

  12. Enhancing Students' Speaking Skills through Peer Team Teaching: A Student Centered Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani, V. Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    The present paper attempts to establish that peer team teaching of a prescribed English lesson of 1st year B.Tech course by the students will provide more opportunities to enhance their public speaking skills. This kind of classroom activity will also help them to develop their vocabulary, reading skills, team working skills, etc. It is assumed…

  13. Prosody teaching matters in developing speaking skills for Farsi-English interpreter trainees : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenkimaleki, M.; V.J., van Heuven

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of explicit teaching of prosody on developing speaking skills for Farsi-English interpreter trainees. Two groups of student interpreters were formed. All were native speakers of Farsi who studied English translation and interpreting at the BA level at

  14. Speaking Conflict: Ideological Barriers to Bilingual Policy Implementation in Civil War Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christina P.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a holistic view of ideological barriers to bilingual policy implementation in Sri Lanka, a conflict-ridden postcolonial nation-state. I examine Sinhalese youth and adults' Tamil as a second language (TSL) learning and speaking practices across three contexts: a multilingual school, a program for government servants, and an…

  15. Improving Speaking and Listening Skills. New Directions for College Learning Assistance, Number 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Rebecca B., Ed.

    Providing insight into how learning assistance practitioners can effect positive change in the ability of their students to speak and to listen, this book presents the experiences of communication professionals who have succeeded in improving students' skills. The first five chapters describe a variety of instructional methods useful in teaching…

  16. Do Chinese- and English-Speaking Preschoolers Think Differently about Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yao; Farrar, M. Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Metalinguistic awareness is the ability to identify, reflect upon, and manipulate linguistic units. It plays a critical role in reading development. The present study investigated Chinese- and English-speaking preschoolers' metalinguistic awareness development and the role of cognitive and linguistic abilities in its development. Forty-two…

  17. Depression is greater in non-English speaking hospital outpatients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graco, Marnie; Berlowitz, David John; Fourlanos, Spiros; Sundram, Suresh

    2009-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the prevalence of depression and anxiety in English (ES) and non-English speaking (NES) hospital outpatients with type 2 diabetes. Overall, depression and/or anxiety were present in 31% of patients. The prevalence of depression was significantly higher in NES than ES patients (p=0.03).

  18. Early Verb Learning in 20-Month-Old Japanese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima-Takane, Yuriko; Ariyama, Junko; Kobayashi, Tessei; Katerelos, Marina; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children's representations of morphosyntactic information are abstract enough to guide early verb learning. Using an infant-controlled habituation paradigm with a switch design, Japanese-speaking children aged 1 ; 8 were habituated to two different events in which an object was engaging in an action. Each…

  19. A Preliminary Investigation of Continuous and Intermittent Exposures in the Treatment of Public Speaking Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Richard W.; Waller, Stacey A.; Spates, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    It is often argued that exposure-based treatments for anxiety disorders are only effective if the exposures are presented continuously until a marked decrement in anxiety is achieved (e.g. Foa & Kozak, 1986). However, the data supporting this conclusion is limited. This study compared two treatments for public speaking anxiety: one requiring…

  20. Autism spectrum disorder profile in neurofibromatosis type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shruti; Plasschaert, Ellen; Descheemaeker, Mie-Jef; Huson, Susan; Borghgraef, Martine; Vogels, Annick; Evans, D Gareth; Legius, Eric; Green, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant single-gene disorder, in which the co-occurrence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has attracted considerable research interest recently with prevalence estimates of 21-40%. However, detailed characterization of the ASD behavioral phenotype in NF1 is still lacking. This study characterized the phenotypic profile of ASD symptomatology presenting in 4-16 year old children with NF1 (n = 36) using evidence from parent-rated Social Responsiveness Scale and researcher autism diagnostic observation Scale-2. Compared to IQ-matched reference groups of children with autism and ASD, the NF1 profile shows overall similarity but improved eye contact, less repetitive behaviors and better language skills.

  1. Conducting research with minimally verbal participants with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Plesa Skwerer, Daniela; Joseph, Robert M; Brukilacchio, Brianna; Decker, Jessica; Eggleston, Brady; Meyer, Steven; Yoder, Anne

    2017-10-01

    A growing number of research groups are now including older minimally verbal individuals with autism spectrum disorder in their studies to encompass the full range of heterogeneity in the population. There are numerous barriers that prevent researchers from collecting high-quality data from these individuals, in part because of the challenging behaviors with which they present alongside their very limited means for communication. In this article, we summarize the practices that we have developed, based on applied behavioral analysis techniques, and have used in our ongoing research on behavioral, eye-tracking, and electrophysiological studies of minimally verbal children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. Our goal is to provide the field with useful guidelines that will promote the inclusion of the entire spectrum of individuals with autism spectrum disorder in future research investigations.

  2. Event-based prospective memory performance in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altgassen, Mareike; Schmitz-Hübsch, Maren; Kliegel, Matthias

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate event-based prospective memory performance in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and to explore possible relations between laboratory-based prospective memory performance and everyday performance. Nineteen children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 matched neurotypical controls participated. The laboratory-based prospective memory test was embedded in a visuo-spatial working memory test and required participants to remember to respond to a cue-event. Everyday planning performance was assessed with proxy ratings. Although parents of the autism group rated their children's everyday performance as significantly poorer than controls' parents, no group differences were found in event-based prospective memory. Nevertheless, individual differences in laboratory-based and everyday performances were related. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Visual influences on speech perception in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarocci, Grace; Rombough, Adrienne; Yager, Jodi; Weeks, Daniel J; Chua, Romeo

    2010-07-01

    The bimodal perception of speech sounds was examined in children with autism as compared to mental age-matched typically developing (TD) children. A computer task was employed wherein only the mouth region of the face was displayed and children reported what they heard or saw when presented with consonant-vowel sounds in unimodal auditory condition, unimodal visual condition, and a bimodal condition. Children with autism showed less visual influence and more auditory influence on their bimodal speech perception as compared to their TD peers, largely due to significantly worse performance in the unimodal visual condition (lip reading). Children with autism may not benefit to the same extent as TD children from visual cues such as lip reading that typically support the processing of speech sounds. The disadvantage in lip reading may be detrimental when auditory input is degraded, for example in school settings, whereby speakers are communicating in frequently noisy environments.

  4. Misconceptions and miscommunication among Spanish-speaking and English-speaking women with pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieslander, Cecilia K; Alas, Alexandriah; Dunivan, Gena C; Sevilla, Claudia; Cichowski, Sara; Maliski, Sally; Eilber, Karyn; Rogers, Rebecca G; Anger, Jennifer T

    2015-04-01

    Limited data exist on women's experience with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) symptoms. We aimed to describe factors that prevent disease understanding among Spanish-speaking and English-speaking women. Women with POP were recruited from female urology and urogynecology clinics in Los Angeles, California, and Albuquerque, New Mexico. Eight focus groups were conducted, four in Spanish and four in English. Topics addressed patients' emotional responses when noticing their prolapse, how they sought support, what verbal and written information was given, and their overall feelings of the process. Additionally, patients were asked about their experience with their treating physician. All interview transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory qualitative methods. Qualitative analysis yielded two preliminary themes. First, women had misconceptions about what POP is as well as its causes and treatments. Second, there was a great deal of miscommunication between patient and physician which led to decreased understanding about the diagnosis and treatment options. This included the fact that women were often overwhelmed with information which they did not understand. The concept emerged that there is a strong need for better methods to achieve disease and treatment understanding for women with POP. Our findings emphasize that women with POP have considerable misconceptions about their disease. In addition, there is miscommunication during the patient-physician interaction that leads to further confusion among Spanish-speaking and English-speaking women. Spending more time explaining the diagnosis of POP, rather than focusing solely on treatment options, may reduce miscommunication and increase patient understanding.

  5. To Speak or Not to Speak: Promoting the Dartmouth Model at a Small Private College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, William F.

    The paper reviews the selection and use of the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model at Western Maryland College. The purpose was to produce a student who could read, understand, speak, and write French easily enough to make a foreign language major attractive and less formidable. The program proposed a three-semester sequence of intensive French…

  6. Cultural Speak: Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and Experiential Learning in a Public Speaking Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Janet; Tobler, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the efficacy of modifications made to a higher education Latina/o public speaking course to enhance student growth and understanding. The changes included the addition of a service-learning component and the incorporation of culturally relevant pedagogy. Selected research, particularly related to college students, on…

  7. 'You are labelled by your children's disability' - A community-based, participatory study of stigma among Somali parents of children with autism living in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Lucy Ellen; Fox, Fiona; Aabe, Nura; Turner, Katrina; Rai, Dheeraj; Redwood, Sabi

    2017-03-02

    Social stigma is commonly experienced by parents of children with autism. Our aim was to understand the nature of stigma experienced by Somali parents of children with autism in the United Kingdom (UK), and to consider how they coped with or resisted such stigma. We used a community-based participatory research approach, collaborating with a community organisation of Somali parents. In-depth interviews with simultaneous translation were conducted with 15 Somali parents of children with autism living in Bristol, UK, in 2015. Parents were sampled purposively to capture diversity in children's age, severity of autism and time since diagnosis. Directed thematic analysis used Link and Phelan's model of stigma. Of the 15 participants, 12 were mothers (mean age 36). The 17 children with autism they cared for were 4-13 years' old, and five were girls. Two main themes with sub-themes were identified: the nature of stigma (labelling and stereotyping; separation; emotional reactions, discrimination and power), and coping and resistance (the power of language; faith as a resource; learning, peer support and community relationships). Children with autism were labelled and stereotyped (e.g. as 'sick', 'naughty', 'different') and parents blamed for not controlling them, leading to social rejection and isolation. Stigma was associated with a poor understanding of autism, a lack of vocabulary related to autism in the Somali community, and prejudice against mental illness and disability. There was evidence of enacted and felt stigma and examples of discrimination. Finding their own language to describe their child's condition and drawing on faith, learning and peer support were important resources in resisting stigma. Findings inform support for this community, highlighting the need to raise awareness of autism, enable parents to speak openly, and ensure appropriate professional services and interventions are available.

  8. IMPLEMENTING SPEECH COMMUNITY STRATEGY TO ENHANCE STUDENTS’ ENGLISH SPEAKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huriyah Huriyah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementing speech community strategy to enhance students English speaking ability. This classroom action research describes how the implementation of speech community strategy increases the students’ English speaking ability. The research stages consist of planning, implementing, observing, evaluating and reflecting. The study indicates that the providing of speech community can increase English speaking ability at students of SMA Sekar Kemuning Islamic Boarding School Cirebon

  9. Autism and the Good Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele; Krause-Jensen, Katrine; Ashcroft, Richard

    2016-01-01

    that, as it stands, the current approach to the study of well-being is for the most part unable to answer these questions. In particular, much effort is needed in order to improve the epistemology of well-being, especially so if we wish this epistemology to be ‘autism-sensitive.’ Towards the end...... of the paper, we sketch a new, autism-sensitive approach and apply it in order to begin answering our initial questions....

  10. The autism-epilepsy connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levisohn, Paul M

    2007-01-01

    The high prevalence of epilepsy in children with autism supports a neurobiologic etiology for autism. It remains unclear whether seizures and epileptiform activity on the EEG are causative or comorbid. It is also uncertain if focal epileptiform EEG abnormalities may be associated with stable cognitive impairment. Even less clear is whether these EEG abnormalities can result in the combination of language and social dysfunction seen in autistic spectrum disorders.

  11. Joining a discourse community: How graduate students learn to speak like astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleisis, Audra

    Almost half of all graduate students leave their doctoral programs without finishing. Who leaves, taking which skills and strengths with them, is still poorly understood, however, because it is hard to measure exactly what graduate students learn in their doctoral programs. Since the expertise required of a PhD holder is highly dependent on discipline, the development of a better understanding of graduate education and attrition requires studying the process at the departmental level. This is a qualitative study of the cultural values and norms of academic astronomy, as transmitted through the socialization of graduate students in to giving talks, asking questions, and participating in departmental speaking events. This study also looks at the conflicts that arise when implicit cultural norms, which are practiced but remain unacknowledged, are inconsistent with the official, explicit values and norms for speaking in astronomy. Doctoral students and faculty members in a single astronomy department, at a large western university, filled out a short survey about the stakes involved in astronomy speaking events. A subset of these individuals was interviewed in- depth about the goals of, and their experiences with, five departmental speaking events: Coffee Hour, Journal Club, research talks, Thesis defense talks, and Colloquia. These interviewees were: (1) graduate students who had given a verbal presentation at one of these events, and (2) graduate students and faculty members who were in the audience at a graduate student's presentation. The desired outcomes which were expressed for these speaking events included: (1) lively, informal discussion among all participants, (2) increasing graduate student verbal participation in these events as they "learn to speak like astronomers," and (3) the utility of these events in helping graduate students learn and practice their speaking and reasoning skills related to astronomy research. In practice these goals were not achieved

  12. Speaking With One Voice: Army Relations With Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellis, Ronnie

    2003-01-01

    .... By formally incorporating its strategic communications efforts with Congressional liaison offices, the Army will not only speak with one voice on appropriations and authorization issues, but it will...

  13. Speaking and writing strategies for the TOEFL IBT

    CERN Document Server

    Stirling, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive Prep for the TOEFL Increase your TOEFLʼ iBT score by increasing your speaking and writing scores. How? By using the strategy called argument mapping. Why argument mapping? Because the TOEFLʼ iBT speaking and writing sections are all argument-based tasks. That means if you want high speaking and writing scores, you must know how to map out (develop and deliver) spoken and written arguments, quickly and proficiently. With argument mapping, you will be able to do just that. Best of all, you can apply argument mapping to all six speaking tasks and both writing tasks. That means you w

  14. Using Mobile Phone to Overcome Students’ Anxiety in Speaking English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machmud Karmila

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to discover whether the use of mobile phone can minimize students’ anxiety in speaking English and in turn will improve their speaking skill. Anxiety has become a major problem for students when asked to speak in a speaking class. Using quasi experimental method, the data of this research was collected through questionnaire of foreign language anxiety classroom scale, and oral test for speaking ability. Factorial design 2 x2 using ANOVA is used to analyze the data of this research. The result has shown: (1 the score of students’ learning achievement in speaking English who were taught by using mobile phone application was higher than the students’ who were taught by using conventional teaching. It means that the use of mobile phone application results in better influence towards students’ speaking ability; (2 The learning achievement of the students with high anxiety in speaking English who were taught by using mobile phone application was higher than the high-anxiety students who were taught by conventional teaching; (3 The learning achievement in speaking English of low anxiety students who were taught by using mobile phone application was higher than low anxiety students’ who were taught by conventional teaching.

  15. More consistent, yet less sensitive : Interval timing in autism spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falter, Christine M.; Noreika, Valdas; Wearden, John H.; Bailey, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Even though phenomenological observations and anecdotal reports suggest atypical time processing in individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), very few psychophysical studies have investigated interval timing, and the obtained results are contradictory. The present study aimed to clarify

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorder Reclassified: A Second Look at the 1980s Utah/UCLA Autism Epidemiologic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Judith S.; Farley, Megan; Coon, Hilary; Pinborough-Zimmerman, Judith; Jenson, William; Rice, Catherine E.; Fombonne, Eric; Pingree, Carmen B.; Ritvo, Edward; Ritvo, Riva-Ariella; McMahon, William M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to re-examine diagnostic data from a state-wide autism prevalence study (n = 489) conducted in the 1980s to investigate the impact of broader diagnostic criteria on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) case status. Sixty-four (59 %) of the 108 originally “Diagnosed Not Autistic” met the current ASD case definition. The average IQ estimate in the newly identified group (IQ = 35.58; SD = 23.01) was significantly lower than in the original group (IQ = 56.19 SD = 21.21; t = 5.75; p autism with intellectual disability. The current analysis puts this historic work into context and highlights differences in ascertainment between epidemiological studies performed decades ago and those of today. PMID:22696195

  17. Comprehensive synthesis of early intensive behavioral interventions for young children with autism based on the UCLA young autism project model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichow, Brian; Wolery, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A 3-part comprehensive synthesis of the early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism based on the University of California at Los Angeles Young Autism Project method (Lovaas in Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3-9, 1987) is presented. The three components of the synthesis were: (a) descriptive analyses, (b) effect size analyses, and (c) a meta-analysis. The findings suggest EIBI is an effective treatment, on average, for children with autism. The conditions under which this finding applies and the limitations and cautions that must be taken when interpreting the results are discussed within the contextual findings of the moderator analyses conducted in the meta-analysis.

  18. The clinician's guide to autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, John W; Allen, Korrie

    2014-02-01

    On the basis of the most recent epidemiologic research, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects approximately 1% to 2% of all children. (1)(2) On the basis of some research evidence and consensus, the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers isa helpful tool to screen for autism in children between ages 16 and 30 months. (11) The Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, changes to a 2-symptom category from a 3-symptom category in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition(DSM-5): deficits in social communication and social interaction are combined with repetitive and restrictive behaviors, and more criteria are required per category. The DSM-5 subsumes all the previous diagnoses of autism (classic autism, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) into just ASDs. On the basis of moderate to strong evidence, the use of applied behavioral analysis and intensive behavioral programs has a beneficial effect on language and the core deficits of children with autism. (16) Currently, minimal or no evidence is available to endorse most complementary and alternative medicine therapies used by parents, such as dietary changes (gluten free), vitamins, chelation, and hyperbaric oxygen. (16) On the basis of consensus and some studies, pediatric clinicians should improve their capacity to provide children with ASD a medical home that is accessible and provides family-centered, continuous, comprehensive and coordinated, compassionate, and culturally sensitive care. (20)

  19. Meconium exposure and autism risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K M; Xing, G; Walker, C K

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to determine whether fetal meconium passage is associated with autism. This retrospective birth cohort analysis of 9 945 896 children born in California 1991 to 2008 linked discharge diagnosis and procedure codes for prenatal stressors, meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) with autism diagnoses for 47 277 children through 2012. We assessed the relative risk of autism by meconium status using logistic regression, adjusting for demographic and clinical features. Children exposed to meconium (MSAF and MAS) were more likely to be diagnosed with autism in comparison with unexposed children (0.60% and 0.52%, vs 0.47%, respectively). In adjusted analyses, there was a small increase in autism risk associated with MSAF exposure (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12 to 1.25), and a marginal association that failed to achieve significance between MAS and autism (aRR 1.08, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.20). Resuscitation of neonates with respiratory compromise from in utero meconium exposure may mitigate long-term neurodevelopmental damage.

  20. Biomarkers for Autism and for Gastrointestinal and Sleep Problems in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0889 TITLE: Biomarkers for Autism and for Gastrointestinal and Sleep Problems in Autism PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...29Sep2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER AR093240 Biomarkers for Autism and for Gastrointestinal and Sleep Problems in Autism 5b. GRANT NUMBER...and daytime excretions of melatonin sulfate were not significantly different between typically developing (TD) toddlers and toddlers with autism

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Mitochondrial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... with a mitochondrial disease: may also have an autism spectrum disorder, may have some of the symptoms/signs of ...

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Related Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Q: Do vaccines cause autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? A: Many studies that have looked at whether there is a relationship between vaccines and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To date, the studies continue to show ...

  3. A comparison of central coherence skills between adolescents with an intellectual disability with and without comorbid autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lang, NDJ; Bouma, A; Sytema, S; Kraijer, DW; Minderaa, RB; Van Lang, J.D.; Kraijer, S.W

    2006-01-01

    Central coherence theory hypothesizes individuals with autism process information in a detail-focused fashion. The present study examined whether adolescents with an intellectual disability and comorbid autism spectrum disorder showed a weaker central coherence than age- and IQ-matched controls. The

  4. Intervention Effects on Spoken-Language Outcomes for Children with Autism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, L. H.; Kaiser, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although spoken-language deficits are not core to an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis, many children with ASD do present with delays in this area. Previous meta-analyses have assessed the effects of intervention on reducing autism symptomatology, but have not determined if intervention improves spoken language. This analysis…

  5. Sensory Processing in Low-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Distinct Sensory Profiles and Their Relationships with Behavioral Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Corentin; Longuépée, Lucie; Bouvard, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Sensory processing abnormalities are relatively universal in individuals with autism spectrum disorder, and can be very disabling. Surprisingly, very few studies have investigated these abnormalities in low-functioning adults with autism. The goals of the present study were (a) to characterize distinct profiles of sensory dysfunction, and (b) to…

  6. Parent and Health Care Provider Perspectives Related to Disclosure of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Pediatric Emergency Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskat, Barbara; Greenblatt, Andrea; Nicholas, David B.; Ratnapalan, Savithiri; Cohen-Silver, Justine; Newton, Amanda S.; Craig, William R.; Kilmer, Christopher; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2016-01-01

    Children and youth with autism spectrum disorder presenting in emergency departments face potential cognitive, sensory, and behavioral challenges, and it is crucial for providers to be aware of their unique needs. However, disclosure of a child's autism spectrum disorder can be complex for parental caregivers and is not well understood. This…

  7. "I'm Really Glad This Is Developmental": Autism and Social Comparisons--An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huws, Jaci C.; Jones, Robert S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present qualitative study comprised interviews with nine young people with autism (aged 16-21 years) about their perceptions of autism. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, three underlying themes were illuminated, and all these formed the superordinate theme Making Comparisons: (a) Changes over time: "I'm really glad this…

  8. Coping with Challenging Behaviours of Children with Autism: Effectiveness of Brief Training Workshop for Frontline Staff in Special Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, C. Y. M.; Mak, W. W. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The present study examined the effectiveness of three staff training elements: psychoeducation (PE) on autism, introduction of functional behavioural analysis (FBA) and emotional management (EM), on the reaction of challenging behaviours for frontline staff towards children with autism in Hong Kong special education settings. Methods:…

  9. Disparity in Autism Spectrum Disorder Prevalence among Taiwan National Health Insurance Enrollees: Age, Gender and Urbanization Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Chiang, Po-Huang; Lin, Lam-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to characterize the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Taiwan while examining the effects of age, gender, and urbanization on ASD occurrence. A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze data from 895,639 random health insurance claimants who claimed medical services in the year 2007. Autism was defined…

  10. Change in Autism Symptoms and Maladaptive Behaviors in Adolescence and Adulthood: The Role of Positive Family Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) into adulthood. Several characteristics of individuals with ASD predict long-term outcomes, and the family environment may also play a role. The present study uses a prospective, longitudinal design to describe and predict trajectories of autism symptoms and…

  11. Still Stressed but Feeling Better: Well-Being in Autism Spectrum Disorder Families as Children Become Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Pilar; Sarriá, Encarnación

    2015-01-01

    The transition to adulthood and adulthood itself have been identified as times of stress for parents of individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Longitudinal studies, however, show improvements in the well-being of mothers of adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorder. This article presents a cross-sectional study of 102 Spanish…

  12. Comparing Video Modeling and Graduated Guidance Together and Video Modeling Alone for Teaching Role Playing Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmanoglu, Nurgul; Yanardag, Mehmet; Batu, E. Sema

    2014-01-01

    Teaching play skills is important for children with autism. The purpose of the present study was to compare effectiveness and efficiency of providing video modeling and graduated guidance together and video modeling alone for teaching role playing skills to children with autism. The study was conducted with four students. The study was conducted…

  13. Upbringing and education of children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Čížkovská, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    The theme of this thesis is upbringing and education of children with autism. The text is divided into five parts. The first chapter is primarily devoted to the diagnosis. There are introduced the types of autism spectrum disorders and disorders, which can be associated with autism. Furthermore, I describe the typical symptoms of autism in social interaction, communication, imagination, and more. The following chapter deals with possible treatments and therapies and various educational method...

  14. Biological sex affects the neurobiology of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Suckling, John; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Ecker, Christine; Deoni, Sean C L; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M; Bullmore, Edward T; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2013-09-01

    In autism, heterogeneity is the rule rather than the exception. One obvious source of heterogeneity is biological sex. Since autism was first recognized, males with autism have disproportionately skewed research. Females with autism have thus been relatively overlooked, and have generally been assumed to have the same underlying neurobiology as males with autism. Growing evidence, however, suggests that this is an oversimplification that risks obscuring the biological base of autism. This study seeks to answer two questions about how autism is modulated by biological sex at the level of the brain: (i) is the neuroanatomy of autism different in males and females? and (ii) does the neuroanatomy of autism fit predictions from the 'extreme male brain' theory of autism, in males and/or in females? Neuroanatomical features derived from voxel-based morphometry were compared in a sample of equal-sized high-functioning male and female adults with and without autism (n = 120, n = 30/group). The first question was investigated using a 2 × 2 factorial design, and by spatial overlap analyses of the neuroanatomy of autism in males and females. The second question was tested through spatial overlap analyses of specific patterns predicted by the extreme male brain theory. We found that the neuroanatomy of autism differed between adult males and females, evidenced by minimal spatial overlap (not different from that occurred under random condition) in both grey and white matter, and substantially large white matter regions showing significant sex × diagnosis interactions in the 2 × 2 factorial design. These suggest that autism manifests differently by biological sex. Furthermore, atypical brain areas in females with autism substantially and non-randomly (P neurobiology of autism.

  15. Employment of people with autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Andrlová, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with adult people with Autism Spectrum Disorders, especially Asperger's Syndrome and High Functioning Autism, in connection with their employment in the Czech Republic. The goal of this thesis is to find out the labour opportunities and the support for these people. The thesis consists of a theoretical part and a case study. Introductory chapter describes Autism in general and defines all of Autism Spectrum Disorders. The second chapter is already focused on adults a...

  16. Sensory Processing in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Laura; Goddard, Lorna; Pring, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Unusual sensory processing has been widely reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs); however, the majority of research in this area has focused on children. The present study assessed sensory processing in adults with ASD using the Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile (AASP), a 60-item self-report questionnaire assessing levels of sensory…

  17. Biofeedback-Based, Videogame Balance Training in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Brittany G.; Mason, Andrea H.; Mrotek, Leigh Ann; Ellertson, Anthony; Dean, Douglas C., III; Engel, Courtney; Gomez, Andres; Dadalko, Olga I.; McLaughlin, Kristine

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of a visual-based biofeedback training on improving balance challenges in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty-nine youth with ASD (7-17 years) completed an intensive 6-week biofeedback-based videogame balance training. Participants exhibited training-related balance improvements that significantly…

  18. Theory of Mind, linguistic recursion and autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyanskaya, Irina; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Braüner, Torben

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we give the motivation for and discuss the design of an experiment investigating whether the acquisition of linguistic recur-sion helps children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) develop second-order false belief skills. We first present the relevant psycho-logical concepts (in...

  19. Self-Monitoring of Gaze in High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Nadel, Jacqueline; Martin, Jean-Claude; Simonin, Jerome; Bailleul, Pauline; Wang, Yun; Gepner, Daniel; Le Barillier, Florence; Constant, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Atypical visual behaviour has been recently proposed to account for much of social misunderstanding in autism. Using an eye-tracking system and a gaze-contingent lens display, the present study explores self-monitoring of eye motion in two conditions: free visual exploration and guided exploration via blurring the visual field except for the focal…

  20. Sensory Integration and the Perceptual Experience of Persons with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarocci, Grace; McDonald, John

    2006-01-01

    Research studies on sensory issues in autism, including those based on questionnaires, autobiographical accounts, retrospective video observations and early experimental approaches are reviewed in terms of their strengths and limitations. We present a cognitive neuroscience theoretical perspective on multisensory integration and propose that this…