WorldWideScience

Sample records for autism research findings

  1. Immunological findings in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohly, Hari Har Parshad; Panja, Asit

    2005-01-01

    elevated in autistic brains. In measles virus infection, it has been postulated that there is immune suppression by inhibiting T-cell proliferation and maturation and downregulation MHC class II expression. Cytokine alteration of TNF-alpha is increased in autistic populations. Toll-like-receptors are also involved in autistic development. High NO levels are associated with autism. Maternal antibodies may trigger autism as a mechanism of autoimmunity. MMR vaccination may increase risk for autism via an autoimmune mechanism in autism. MMR antibodies are significantly higher in autistic children as compared to normal children, supporting a role of MMR in autism. Autoantibodies (IgG isotype) to neuron-axon filament protein (NAFP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) are significantly increased in autistic patients (Singh et al., 1997). Increase in Th2 may explain the increased autoimmunity, such as the findings of antibodies to MBP and neuronal axonal filaments in the brain. There is further evidence that there are other participants in the autoimmune phenomenon. (Kozlovskaia et al., 2000). The possibility of its involvement in autism cannot be ruled out. Further investigations at immunological, cellular, molecular, and genetic levels will allow researchers to continue to unravel the immunopathogenic mechanisms' associated with autistic processes in the developing brain. This may open up new avenues for prevention and/or cure of this devastating neurodevelopmental disorder.

  2. Changing Concepts and Findings on Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    New research findings provide major challenges regarding our understanding of the concept of autism. These are critically discussed in relation to research relevant to classification, genetics, environmental risk factors, gene-environment interplay, animal models, biomarkers, clinical features, neuropathology, pharmacotherapy, behavioral…

  3. Virginia Tech Center for Autism Research

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Tech Center for Autism Research

    2012-01-01

    These slides serve as a welcome for the Autism Research Conference held at Virginia Tech on August 15 2012. The slides describe symptoms and prevalence of autism spectrum disorders, list goals for the proposed Center for Autism Research, and list the speakers and agenda for the conference.

  4. National Database for Autism Research (NDAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — National Database for Autism Research (NDAR) is an extensible, scalable informatics platform for austism spectrum disorder-relevant data at all levels of biological...

  5. Virginia Tech Center for Autism Research - Susan White perspective

    OpenAIRE

    White, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights of the autism research of Susan White, Psychology professor and the co-director of the VT Autism clinic, are explained. Topics include anxiety, treatment development, ASD in adults, and biomarker pursuit. Fit of research of the clinic to the Center for Autism Research is explained, with potential for leadership in technology applications, environmental considerations, and interdisciplinary work.

  6. Autism Research and Services for Young Children: History, Progress and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Travis

    2013-01-01

    For three decades after Leo Kanner's first clinical description, research progress in understanding and treating autism was minimal but since the late 1960s the growth of autism discoveries has been exponential, with a remarkable number of new findings published over the past two decades, in particular. These advances were made possible first by…

  7. Autism research and services for young children: history, progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Travis

    2013-03-01

    For three decades after Leo Kanner's first clinical description, research progress in understanding and treating autism was minimal but since the late 1960s the growth of autism discoveries has been exponential, with a remarkable number of new findings published over the past two decades, in particular. These advances were made possible first by the discovery and dissemination of early intensive behavioural intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism that created the impetus for earlier accurate diagnosis. Other factors influencing the rapid growth in autism research were the first accepted diagnostic test for autism, the Autism Diagnostic Interview and Observation Schedule (ADI and ADOS). Developments in brain imaging and genetic technology combined to create a fuller understanding of the heterogeneity of autism, its multiple aetiologies, very early onset and course, and strategies for treatment. For a significant proportion of children with autism, it appears EIBI may be capable of promoting brain connectivity in specific cerebral areas, which is one of autism's underlying challenges. Disagreements about the most appropriate early intervention approach between developmental and behavioural psychologists have been unproductive and not contributed to advancing the field. Naturalistic behavioural and structured discrete trial methods are being integrated with developmental strategies with promising outcomes. Over these past 30 years, young people with autism have gone from receiving essentially no proactive treatment, resulting in lives languishing in institutions, to today, when half of children receiving EIBI treatment subsequently participate in regular classrooms alongside their peers. The future has entirely changed for young people with autism. Autism has become an eminently treatable condition. The time is overdue to set aside philosophical quarrels regarding theories of child development and apply what we know for the benefit of children with autism

  8. Autism in Angelman syndrome: implications for autism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S U; Beaudet, A L; Madduri, N; Bacino, C A

    2004-12-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe mental retardation, ataxia, and a happy/sociable disposition. Maternally, but not paternally, derived defects, such as duplications, within the AS critical region result in autistic symptomatology, suggesting that the UBE3A gene might be implicated in the causation of autism. This study examined the prevalence of autism in AS in 19 children representing three known molecular classes of AS. Children were studied over the course of 1 year. Forty-two percent of this population, eight of 19 children, met criteria for autism according to the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Parents of children who were diagnosed with autism according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria as well as the ADOS - Generic, Module 1 (ADOS-G) were administered the Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised (ADI-R). Data from the ADI-R were convergent with data from the ADOS-G in all cases. Children with comorbid autism and AS scored lower on measures of language, adaptive behavior, and cognition, and demonstrated a slower rate of improvement over the course of the study. Furthermore, they demonstrated deficits in communication and socialization that mirror those observed in children with idiopathic autism. The study highlights the phenotypic overlap between autism and AS and increases the probability that dysregulation of UBE3A may play a role in the causation of autism.

  9. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy might improve certain pathophysiological findings in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Daniel A

    2007-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder currently affecting as many as 1 out of 166 children in the United States. Numerous studies of autistic individuals have revealed evidence of cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation and gastrointestinal inflammation, immune dysregulation, oxidative stress, relative mitochondrial dysfunction, neurotransmitter abnormalities, impaired detoxification of toxins, dysbiosis, and impaired production of porphyrins. Many of these findings have been correlated with core autistic symptoms. For example, cerebral hypoperfusion in autistic children has been correlated with repetitive, self-stimulatory and stereotypical behaviors, and impairments in communication, sensory perception, and social interaction. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) might be able to improve each of these problems in autistic individuals. Specifically, HBOT has been used with clinical success in several cerebral hypoperfusion conditions and can compensate for decreased blood flow by increasing the oxygen content of plasma and body tissues. HBOT has been reported to possess strong anti-inflammatory properties and has been shown to improve immune function. There is evidence that oxidative stress can be reduced with HBOT through the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. HBOT can also increase the function and production of mitochondria and improve neurotransmitter abnormalities. In addition, HBOT upregulates enzymes that can help with detoxification problems specifically found in autistic children. Dysbiosis is common in autistic children and HBOT can improve this. Impaired production of porphyrins in autistic children might affect the production of heme, and HBOT might help overcome the effects of this problem. Finally, HBOT has been shown to mobilize stem cells from the bone marrow to the systemic circulation. Recent studies in humans have shown that stem cells can enter the brain and form new neurons, astrocytes, and microglia. It is expected that amelioration of

  10. New Interview and Observation Measures of the Broader Autism Phenotype: Description of Strategy and Reliability Findings for the Interview Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jeremy R; De Jonge, Maretha V; Wallace, Simon; Pickles, Andrew; Rutter, Michael L; Le Couteur, Ann S; van Engeland, Herman; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; McConachie, Helen; Roge, Bernadette; Mantoulan, Carine; Pedersen, Lennart; Isager, Torben; Poustka, Fritz; Bolte, Sven; Bolton, Patrick; Weisblatt, Emma; Green, Jonathan; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Baird, Gillian; Bailey, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Clinical genetic studies confirm the broader autism phenotype (BAP) in some relatives of individuals with autism, but there are few standardized assessment measures. We developed three BAP measures (informant interview, self-report interview, and impression of interviewee observational scale) and describe the development strategy and findings from the interviews. International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium data were collected from families containing at least two individuals with autism. Comparison of the informant and self-report interviews was restricted to samples in which the interviews were undertaken by different researchers from that site (251 UK informants, 119 from the Netherlands). Researchers produced vignettes that were rated blind by others. Retest reliability was assessed in 45 participants. Agreement between live scoring and vignette ratings was very high. Retest stability for the interviews was high. Factor analysis indicated a first factor comprising social-communication items and rigidity (but not other repetitive domain items), and a second factor comprised mainly of reading and spelling impairments. Whole scale Cronbach's alphas were high for both interviews. The correlation between interviews for factor 1 was moderate (adult items 0.50; childhood items 0.43); Kappa values for between-interview agreement on individual items were mainly low. The correlations between individual items and total score were moderate. The inclusion of several factor 2 items lowered the overall Cronbach's alpha for the total set. Both interview measures showed good reliability and substantial stability over time, but the findings were better for factor 1 than factor 2. We recommend factor 1 scores be used for characterising the BAP. Autism Res 2015, 8: 522–533. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25959701

  11. An Examination of the State of Imitation Research in Children with Autism: Issues of Definition and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevlever, Melina; Gillis, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that children with autism are impaired in their ability to imitate others. However, diverse methodologies, contradictory findings, and varying theoretical explanations continue to exist in the literature despite decades of research. A comprehensive account of imitation in children with autism is hampered by the lack…

  12. National Database for Autism Research (NDAR): Big Data Opportunities for Health Services Research and Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payakachat, Nalin; Tilford, J Mick; Ungar, Wendy J

    2016-02-01

    The National Database for Autism Research (NDAR) is a US National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded research data repository created by integrating heterogeneous datasets through data sharing agreements between autism researchers and the NIH. To date, NDAR is considered the largest neuroscience and genomic data repository for autism research. In addition to biomedical data, NDAR contains a large collection of clinical and behavioral assessments and health outcomes from novel interventions. Importantly, NDAR has a global unique patient identifier that can be linked to aggregated individual-level data for hypothesis generation and testing, and for replicating research findings. As such, NDAR promotes collaboration and maximizes public investment in the original data collection. As screening and diagnostic technologies as well as interventions for children with autism are expensive, health services research (HSR) and health technology assessment (HTA) are needed to generate more evidence to facilitate implementation when warranted. This article describes NDAR and explains its value to health services researchers and decision scientists interested in autism and other mental health conditions. We provide a description of the scope and structure of NDAR and illustrate how data are likely to grow over time and become available for HSR and HTA. PMID:26446859

  13. National Database for Autism Research (NDAR): Big Data Opportunities for Health Services Research and Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payakachat, Nalin; Tilford, J Mick; Ungar, Wendy J

    2016-02-01

    The National Database for Autism Research (NDAR) is a US National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded research data repository created by integrating heterogeneous datasets through data sharing agreements between autism researchers and the NIH. To date, NDAR is considered the largest neuroscience and genomic data repository for autism research. In addition to biomedical data, NDAR contains a large collection of clinical and behavioral assessments and health outcomes from novel interventions. Importantly, NDAR has a global unique patient identifier that can be linked to aggregated individual-level data for hypothesis generation and testing, and for replicating research findings. As such, NDAR promotes collaboration and maximizes public investment in the original data collection. As screening and diagnostic technologies as well as interventions for children with autism are expensive, health services research (HSR) and health technology assessment (HTA) are needed to generate more evidence to facilitate implementation when warranted. This article describes NDAR and explains its value to health services researchers and decision scientists interested in autism and other mental health conditions. We provide a description of the scope and structure of NDAR and illustrate how data are likely to grow over time and become available for HSR and HTA.

  14. Modernization of the Autism Research Ideas and Development of Support Services for People with Autism in Russia: From a Regional Initiative to Globalization of Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chereneva E.A.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the experience of the development of ideas of regional initia- tives, autism research, and the formation and development of the academic system aiming to help people with autism in Russia and abroad. The authors propose a model of autism research and the formation of a professional training system for specialists working with children and adults with autism.

  15. Rhythm, movement, and autism: Using rhythmic rehabilitation research as a model for autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blythe eLaGasse

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been increased focus on movement and sensory abnormalities in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. This has come from research demonstrating cortical and cerebellar difference in autism, with suggestion of early cerebellar dysfunction. As evidence for an extended profile of ASD grows, there are vast implications for treatment and therapy for individuals with autism. Persons with autism are often provided behavioral or cognitive strategies for navigating their environment; however, these strategies do not consider differences in motor functioning. One accommodation that has not yet been explored in the literature is the use of auditory rhythmic cueing to improve motor functioning in ASD. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential impact of auditory rhythmic cueing for motor functioning in persons with ASD. To this effect, we review research on rhythm in motor rehabilitation, draw parallels to motor dysfunction in ASD, and propose a rationale for how rhythmic input can improve sensorimotor functioning, thereby allowing individuals with autism to demonstrate their full cognitive, behavioral, social, and communicative potential.

  16. Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for problems with things like attention, hyperactivity, and sleep) Many other types of therapy (including diet, music, and art therapies) can help people with autism spectrum disorder. Teens with autism ...

  17. Family-Focused Autism Spectrum Disorder Research: A Review of the Utility of Family Systems Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Magee, Christopher A.; Caputi, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A family member with an autism spectrum disorder presents pervasive and bidirectional influences on the entire family system, suggesting a need for family-focused autism spectrum disorder research. While there has been increasing interest in this research area, family-focused autism spectrum disorder research can still be considered relatively…

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Sibling Relationships: Research and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Julia F.

    2009-01-01

    Significant attention has been paid in the literature to sibling relationships and the effects of birth order, family size, and gender on such relationships. Although these are important areas to study, there is relatively little research on the effects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) on sibling relationships. The existent research identifies…

  19. Trends in Autism Research: A Systematic Journal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Heidi J.; Berkeley, Sheri; Evmenova, Anya S.; Park, Kristy L.

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a lifelong disability for which prevalence rates continue to increase. Persons with ASD vary widely in both severity of disability and services required. Therefore it is important to identify trends in research and evaluate progress in the field. The current study uses a journal analysis to evaluate research over…

  20. Prevalence, Diagnosis, Treatment and Research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Singapore and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neik, Tina Ting Xiang; Lee, Lay Wah; Low, Hui Min; Chia, Noel Kok Hwee; Chua, Arnold Chee Keong

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of autism is increasing globally. While most of the published works are done in the Western and European countries, the trend in autism research is shifting towards the Asian continent recently. In this review, we aimed to highlight the current prevalence, diagnosis, treatment and research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in…

  1. Developmental regression in autism: research and conceptual questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lampreia

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of developmental regression in autism has gained importance and a growing number of studies have been conducted in recent years. It is a major issue indicating that there is not a unique form of autism onset. However the phenomenon itself and the concept of regression have been the subject of some debate: there is no consensus on the existence of regression, as there is no consensus on its definition. The aim of this paper is to review the research literature in this area and to introduce some conceptual questions about its existence and its definition.

  2. Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Depression Dissociative Disorders Eating Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Schizoaffective ...

  3. A Review of Research into Stakeholder Perspectives on Inclusion of Students with Autism in Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jacqueline; Simpson, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students with autism are being educated in mainstream schools. However, outcomes for students with autism are poor when compared to typical students and students with other developmental disabilities. In order to better understand facilitators and barriers to success at school for students with autism, research into the…

  4. A Trend Analysis of Participant and Setting Characteristics in Autism Intervention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosland, Kimberly A.; Clarke, Shelley; Dunlap, Glen

    2013-01-01

    The current trend analysis was conducted to empirically document the characteristics of individuals with autism who participated in intervention research published between 1995 and 2009 in three journals ("Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis," "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders," and "Focus on Autism and Other…

  5. Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia Scientists uncovered a mechanism behind genetic variations previously linked to schizophrenia. The findings may lead to new clinical approaches. ...

  6. Why Autism Must Be Taken Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Lynn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Although accumulated evidence has demonstrated that autism is found with many varied brain dysfunctions, researchers have tried to find a single brain dysfunction that would provide neurobiological validity for autism. However, unitary models of autism brain dysfunction have not adequately addressed conflicting evidence, and efforts to find a…

  7. Views on researcher-community engagement in autism research in the United Kingdom: A mixed-methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Pellicano; Adam Dinsmore; Tony Charman

    2014-01-01

    There has been a substantial increase in research activity on autism during the past decade. Research into effective ways of responding to the immediate needs of autistic people is, however, less advanced, as are efforts at translating basic science research into service provision. Involving community members in research is one potential way of reducing this gap. This study therefore investigated the views of community involvement in autism research both from the perspectives of autism resear...

  8. The Gut Microbiome: A New Frontier in Autism Research

    OpenAIRE

    Mulle, Jennifer G.; Sharp, William G; Cubells, Joseph F.

    2013-01-01

    The human gut harbors a complex community of microbes that profoundly influence many aspects of growth and development, including development of the nervous system. Advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing methods have led to rapidly expanding knowledge about this gut microbiome. Here, we review fundamental emerging data on the human gut microbiome, with a focus on potential interactions between the microbiome and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and consider research on atypical patterns of...

  9. Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from an infection, were assessed by measuring C-reactive protein in the mother’s blood. This finding may help to identify preventive strategies. Nutrition According to NIEHS-funded research, prenatal vitamins ...

  10. 77 FR 66622 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request: National Database for Autism Research (NDAR) Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Database for Autism Research (NDAR) Data Access Request SUMMARY: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1... control number. Proposed Collection: Title: National Database for Autism Research (NDAR) Data Access... organization or corporations with approved assurance from the DHHS Office of Human Research Protections...

  11. 77 FR 69627 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... Physiology, Department of Pediatrics and Physiology, UK, engaged in research misconduct in research supported... Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), NIH, grant R56 DK063025, and National Center for Research...

  12. Inter-Method Discrepancies in Brain Volume Estimation May Drive Inconsistent Findings in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuwal, Gajendra J.; Baum, Stefi A.; Cahill, Nathan D.; Dougherty, Chase C.; Evans, Eli; Evans, David W.; Moore, Gregory J.; Michael, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies applying automatic preprocessing methods on Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) report inconsistent neuroanatomical abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In this study we investigate inter-method differences as a possible cause behind these inconsistent findings. In particular, we focus on the estimation of the following brain volumes: gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and total intra cranial volume (TIV). T1-weighted sMRIs of 417 ASD subjects and 459 typically developing controls (TDC) from the ABIDE dataset were estimated using three popular preprocessing methods: SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer (FS). Brain volumes estimated by the three methods were correlated but had significant inter-method differences; except TIVSPM vs. TIVFS, all inter-method differences were significant. ASD vs. TDC group differences in all brain volume estimates were dependent on the method used. SPM showed that TIV, GM, and CSF volumes of ASD were larger than TDC with statistical significance, whereas FS and FSL did not show significant differences in any of the volumes; in some cases, the direction of the differences were opposite to SPM. When methods were compared with each other, they showed differential biases for autism, and several biases were larger than ASD vs. TDC differences of the respective methods. After manual inspection, we found inter-method segmentation mismatches in the cerebellum, sub-cortical structures, and inter-sulcal CSF. In addition, to validate automated TIV estimates we performed manual segmentation on a subset of subjects. Results indicate that SPM estimates are closest to manual segmentation, followed by FS while FSL estimates were significantly lower. In summary, we show that ASD vs. TDC brain volume differences are method dependent and that these inter-method discrepancies can contribute to inconsistent neuroimaging findings in general. We suggest cross-validation across methods and emphasize the

  13. Assessing the influence of researcher-partner involvement on the process and outcomes of participatory research in autism spectrum disorder and neurodevelopmental disorders: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2014-10-01

    Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify and characterize published participatory research partnerships between researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders and examine the influence of participatory research partnerships on the research process and reported study outcomes. A search of databases and review of gray literature identified seven studies that described participatory research partnerships between academic researchers and individuals with autism spectrum disorder or other neurodevelopmental disorders. A comparative analysis of the studies revealed two key themes: (1) variations in the participatory research design and (2) limitations during the reporting of the depth of the partner's involvement. Both themes potentially limit the application and generalizability of the findings. The results of the review are discussed in relation to the use of evaluative frameworks for such participatory research studies to determine the potential benefits of participatory research partnerships within the neurodevelopmental and autism spectrum disorder populations.

  14. Reading Research: Notable Findings and Urgent Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nila Banton

    This paper discusses some of the findings and needs of reading research. The areas of research study mentioned include word boundaries, letter names, preschool reading, teacher questioning, critical reading and Negro dialects. Researchers cited include Dolores Durkin, Frank Guszak, Jay Samuels, Guy Bond, A. Sterl Artley, Edward Fry, and Robert…

  15. Multimodal Brain Imaging in Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Promise of Twin Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevel, Katell; Fransson, Peter; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Current evidence suggests the phenotype of autism spectrum disorder to be driven by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors impacting onto brain maturation, synaptic function, and cortical networks. However, findings are heterogeneous, and the exact neurobiological pathways of autism spectrum disorder still remain poorly…

  16. This Just In… The Latest Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues This Just In… The Latest Research Findings Past Issues / ... Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Understanding and Controlling ...

  17. Perfusion impairments on brain SPECT in patients with infantile autism and nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders: comparison with MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroimaging findings of autism has been the subjects of continuing investigation. Because previous study had not demonstrated consistent and specific neuroimaging findings of autism and most studies comprised adults and school-aged children, we performed a retrospective review in search of common functional and structural abnormalities in pre-school aged autistic children using Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI and compared them with age-matched children with nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). 58 children between 3 and 8 years of age infantile autism (n=37) and non-autistic PDD (n=21) were performed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI. Diagnosis of autism and non-autistic PDD was based on the criteria of DSM-IV and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Of the 37 autistic patients, 32 revealed decreased perfusion of cerebellar hemisphere, followed by hypoperfusion of thalami (n=30), parietal cortex (n=16), temporal cortex (n=12). Of those 21 PDD patients, 14 patients showed hypoperfusion of the thalami and 10 patients showed temporal hypoperfusion. However, cerebellar hemispheric (n=8) and parietal (n=1) hypoperfusion was infrequently seen. All autistic and nonautistic PDD patients had normal MRI scan. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion on brain SPECT showed statistically significant correlation with CARS. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion is significantly frequently noted in autistic patients although they had normal MRI and SPECT may be useful and more sensitive modality in reflecting pathophysiology of autism as evidenced by previous MRI and postmortem studies. Thalamic and temporal hypoperfusion can be seen in both autistic and nonautistic patients and further studies are necessary to determine the significance of the thalamic hypoperfusion

  18. Perfusion impairments on brain SPECT in patients with infantile autism and nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders: comparison with MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Young Hoon; Lee, Jong Doo; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Jeon, Tae Joo; Shin, Yee Jin; Lee, Byung Hee; Shin, Hyung Cheol [College of Medecine, Soonchunhyang Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    Neuroimaging findings of autism has been the subjects of continuing investigation. Because previous study had not demonstrated consistent and specific neuroimaging findings of autism and most studies comprised adults and school-aged children, we performed a retrospective review in search of common functional and structural abnormalities in pre-school aged autistic children using Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI and compared them with age-matched children with nonautistic pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). 58 children between 3 and 8 years of age infantile autism (n=37) and non-autistic PDD (n=21) were performed Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT and MRI. Diagnosis of autism and non-autistic PDD was based on the criteria of DSM-IV and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS). Of the 37 autistic patients, 32 revealed decreased perfusion of cerebellar hemisphere, followed by hypoperfusion of thalami (n=30), parietal cortex (n=16), temporal cortex (n=12). Of those 21 PDD patients, 14 patients showed hypoperfusion of the thalami and 10 patients showed temporal hypoperfusion. However, cerebellar hemispheric (n=8) and parietal (n=1) hypoperfusion was infrequently seen. All autistic and nonautistic PDD patients had normal MRI scan. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion on brain SPECT showed statistically significant correlation with CARS. Cerebellar hemispheric and parietal hypoperfusion is significantly frequently noted in autistic patients although they had normal MRI and SPECT may be useful and more sensitive modality in reflecting pathophysiology of autism as evidenced by previous MRI and postmortem studies. Thalamic and temporal hypoperfusion can be seen in both autistic and nonautistic patients and further studies are necessary to determine the significance of the thalamic hypoperfusion.

  19. Searching for Music's Potential: A Critical Examination of Research on Music Therapy with Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accordino, Robert; Comer, Ronald; Heller, Wendy B.

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a literature review on music therapy for individuals with autism because of the frequent use of music therapy for those with autism and recent research on the musical abilities of this population. To accomplish this narrative review, articles were searched from relevant databases, reference lists from articles, and book…

  20. 77 FR 22320 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... results of a pilot experiment in which he claimed to have injected retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells obtained from Rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells (ECS) into a strain of rats (RCS) that develops retinal... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the...

  1. 77 FR 40059 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... prior work in Korea with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to confirm the generation, differentiation, and verification of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The false data were included in: a... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the...

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental ... key findings. About Us Overview of CDC’s work. Autism: What's New New Data on Autism: Five Facts ...

  3. Induced Labor Won't Raise Autism Risk in Kids, Research Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... autism and induced labor using medication, such as oxytocin, the researchers noted. Labor induction is sometimes recommended ... delivery, such as Pitocin [the brand name for oxytocin]," Halladay said. "These medications are medically necessary when ...

  4. Autism and Dyslexia: A Glance Over 25 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Uta

    2013-11-01

    AUTISM AND DYSLEXIA ARE WRONGLY CLASSIFIED AS CHILDHOOD DISORDERS: They are lifelong and therefore have to be studied in adults as well as in children. Individual variability is enormous, and, as a result, behavioral diagnosis remains problematic. The study of the underlying cognitive abilities in autism and dyslexia has acted as a gateway for the emergence of developmental cognitive neuroscience. PMID:25076978

  5. Autism and Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document defines and discusses autism and how genes play a role in the condition. Answers to the following questions are covered: (1) What are genes? (2) What is autism? (3) What causes autism? (4) Why study genes to learn about autism? (5) How do researchers look for the genes involved in autism? (screen the whole genome; conduct cytogenetic…

  6. Global Autism: Autism, Autism Etiology, Perceptions, Epistemology, Prevalence and Action

    OpenAIRE

    Ganaie S.A; Bashir A

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a Neuro-Developmental Disorder affecting socialization and communication with stereotype behaviors. The research Scientists all over world found that genetic and environmental factors are causes of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Over the past decade, worldwide Autism, advanced rehabilitation services and research estimates of increase between 50% to over 2000% in cases of Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnoses. The rise in diagnoses of Autism Spectrum Disorder impacts us all....

  7. A comparison of neuroimaging findings in childhood onset schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Andrea Baribeau

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD and childhood onset schizophrenia (COS are pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders associated with significant morbidity. Both conditions are thought to share an underlying genetic architecture. A comparison of neuroimaging findings across ASD and COS with a focus on altered neurodevelopmental trajectories can shed light on potential clinical biomarkers and may highlight an underlying etiopathogenesis. Methods: A comprehensive review of the medical literature was conducted to summarize neuroimaging data with respect to both conditions in terms of structural imaging (including volumetric analysis, cortical thickness and morphology, and region of interest studies, white matter analysis (include volumetric analysis and diffusion tensor imaging and functional connectivity. Results: In ASD, a pattern of early brain overgrowth in the first few years of life is followed by dysmaturation in adolescence. Functional analyses have suggested impaired long-range connectivity as well as increased local and/or subcortical connectivity in this condition. In COS, deficits in cerebral volume, cortical thickness, and white matter maturation seem most pronounced in childhood and adolescence, and may level off in adulthood. Deficits in local connectivity, with increased long-range connectivity have been proposed, in keeping with exaggerated cortical thinning.Conclusions: The neuroimaging literature supports a neurodevelopmental origin of both ASD and COS and provides evidence for dynamic changes in both conditions that vary across space and time in the developing brain. Looking forward, imaging studies which capture the early post natal period, which are longitudinal and prospective, and which maximize the signal to noise ratio across heterogeneous conditions will be required to translate research findings into a clinical environment.

  8. Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism. Preliminary Findings in Behavioral, Cognitive, and Neurophysiological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; van Schie, Hein T.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of neurofeedback treatment were investigated in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Sixty percent of the participants in the treatment group successfully reduced excessive theta power during neurofeedback treatment. Reduction of theta power was confirmed by pre- and post-QEEG measures. Parents of participants in the…

  9. Psychiatric comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders: findings from a Danish Historic Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Grove, Jakob;

    2011-01-01

    Several psychiatric comorbidities are common among patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), which may worsen the clinical outcome and add to the substantial costs of care. The aim of this report is to estimate the psychiatric comorbidity rates within ASD utilizing a Danish Historic Birth...

  10. Preliminary Findings of a Telehealth Approach to Parent Training in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vismara, Laurie A.; McCormick, Carolyn; Young, Gregory S.; Nadhan, Anna; Monlux, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    Telehealth or online communication technologies may lessen the gap between intervention requirements for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and the available resources to provide these services. This study used a video conferencing and self-guided website to provide parent training in the homes of children with ASD. The first eight…

  11. Supporting Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Lessons from Six Decades of International Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kenneth K.

    2012-01-01

    Research focusing on the intervention and support of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has grown exponentially but this increase research has not been mirrored for adults with ASD. With the aims of informing intervention planning, improving quality of life, and areas for future research, 18 peer-reviewed research articles reporting the…

  12. Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... compulsive behaviors, and mood swings. While there's little research to support the use of non-traditional or alternative therapies — such as diet modification, supplements, music, art, and animal therapies — some families have reported significant benefits from them. Before Age 3 Before age 3, ...

  13. CLINICAL RESEARCH ON ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT OF APHASIS IN AUTISM CHILDREN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Quan-ming; JIN Rui

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of acupuncture therapy for aphasis in autism children. Methods: Thirty cases of autism children were divided into acupuncture group (n=20) and medication group (n=10). Intelligence quotient(IQ) and Social adaptive developmental quotient(ADQ) were used to assess the therapeutic effect. Results: After treatment, IQ values increased slightly in medication group and considerably in acupuncture group (P<0.001), and the difference between pre-treatment and post-treatment of acupuncture group was significantly bigger than that of control group (P<0.01). ADQ of two groups increased at different degrees, and that of acupuncture and the difference between post- and pre-treatment of acupuncture group were significantly bigger than those of control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Acupuncture treatment is effective in improving autism children's speaking ability. raising IQ and ADQ.

  14. Russian research capabilities: Findings of site visits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, D.W.

    1994-02-01

    In June 1993, a proposal was presented to the International Environmental Institute (IEI) in Kennewick, Washington, to establish cooperation and coordination to further pursue the interests of the United States of America and the Republic of Russia in the application and promotion of environmental technology; characterization, treatment, handling, isolation, and disposal of hazardous and radioactive materials; conversion of defense sites to other purposes; and technology transfer, cooperative programs, joint technology development and contractual research. In response to this proposal, IEI and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) jointly provided funding to send Dr. Dennis W. Wester on a fact-finding mission to Novosibirsk, Moscow, and St. Petersburg, Russia. The trip covered a period of eight weeks, six of which were spent in Novosibirsk and adjoining or related cities and one of which was spent in each of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The general objectives of the trip were to establish a basis for cooperation between IEI and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) for future coordination of mutual interests and objectives such as technology acquisition, development, demonstration, application, and commercialization; use of capabilities and assets developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the RAS; and expediting of cooperative agreements, personnel exchanges, joint ventures and other contractual relationships. The particular objectives of this trip were to evaluate the capabilities of the RAS to satisfy the technology needs associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site and similar sites in the U.S. and to evaluate the expediency of establishing an IEI presence in Russia.

  15. Intensive Behavioural Intervention for Young Children with Autism: A Research-Based Service Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Diane W.; Gale, Catherine M.; Eikeseth, Svein

    2009-01-01

    Outcome research has shown that early and intensive behavioural intervention (ABA) may improve intellectual, language and adaptive functioning in children with autism. However, research has also indicated that not all ABA provisions are equally effective. Therefore, it may be beneficial to describe the key variables that are common to programmes…

  16. 78 FR 31568 - Proposed Collection; 60-day Comment Request: Autism Spectrum Disorder Research Portfolio Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Spectrum Disorder Research Portfolio Analysis SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3506(c... Research Coordination, NIMH, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive Blvd., MSC 9663, Room 6184, Bethesda... days of the date of this publication. Proposed Collection: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)...

  17. Convergent Findings of Altered Functional and Structural Brain Connectivity in Individuals with High Functioning Autism: A Multimodal MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sophia; Keeser, Daniel; Samson, Andrea C; Kirsch, Valerie; Blautzik, Janusch; Grothe, Michel; Erat, Okan; Hegenloh, Michael; Coates, Ute; Reiser, Maximilian F; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Meindl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue changes in autism spectrum disorders seem to be rather subtle and widespread than anatomically distinct. Therefore a multimodal, whole brain imaging technique appears to be an appropriate approach to investigate whether alterations in white and gray matter integrity relate to consistent changes in functional resting state connectivity in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA). We applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to assess differences in brain structure and function between 12 individuals with HFA (mean age 35.5, SD 11.4, 9 male) and 12 healthy controls (mean age 33.3, SD 9.0, 8 male). Psychological measures of empathy and emotionality were obtained and correlated with the most significant DTI, VBM and fcMRI findings. We found three regions of convergent structural and functional differences between HFA participants and controls. The right temporo-parietal junction area and the left frontal lobe showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values along with decreased functional connectivity and a trend towards decreased gray matter volume. The bilateral superior temporal gyrus displayed significantly decreased functional connectivity that was accompanied by the strongest trend of gray matter volume decrease in the temporal lobe of HFA individuals. FA decrease in the right temporo-parietal region was correlated with psychological measurements of decreased emotionality. In conclusion, our results indicate common sites of structural and functional alterations in higher order association cortex areas and may therefore provide multimodal imaging support to the long-standing hypothesis of autism as a disorder of impaired higher-order multisensory integration.

  18. Convergent Findings of Altered Functional and Structural Brain Connectivity in Individuals with High Functioning Autism: A Multimodal MRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Mueller

    Full Text Available Brain tissue changes in autism spectrum disorders seem to be rather subtle and widespread than anatomically distinct. Therefore a multimodal, whole brain imaging technique appears to be an appropriate approach to investigate whether alterations in white and gray matter integrity relate to consistent changes in functional resting state connectivity in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA. We applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, voxel-based morphometry (VBM and resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI to assess differences in brain structure and function between 12 individuals with HFA (mean age 35.5, SD 11.4, 9 male and 12 healthy controls (mean age 33.3, SD 9.0, 8 male. Psychological measures of empathy and emotionality were obtained and correlated with the most significant DTI, VBM and fcMRI findings. We found three regions of convergent structural and functional differences between HFA participants and controls. The right temporo-parietal junction area and the left frontal lobe showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA values along with decreased functional connectivity and a trend towards decreased gray matter volume. The bilateral superior temporal gyrus displayed significantly decreased functional connectivity that was accompanied by the strongest trend of gray matter volume decrease in the temporal lobe of HFA individuals. FA decrease in the right temporo-parietal region was correlated with psychological measurements of decreased emotionality. In conclusion, our results indicate common sites of structural and functional alterations in higher order association cortex areas and may therefore provide multimodal imaging support to the long-standing hypothesis of autism as a disorder of impaired higher-order multisensory integration.

  19. The integrity of lexical acquisition mechanisms in autism spectrum disorders: A research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Sudha; Luyster, Rhiannon J

    2016-08-01

    Research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has rapidly expanded in recent years, yielding important developments in both theory and practice. While we have gained important insights into how children with ASD differ from typically developing (TD) children in terms of phenotypic features, less has been learned about if and how development in ASD differs from typical development in terms of underlying mechanisms of change. This article aims to provide a review of processes subserving lexical development in ASD, with the goal of identifying contributing factors to the heterogeneity of language outcomes in ASD. The focus is on available evidence of the integrity or disruption of these mechanisms in ASD, as well as their significance for vocabulary development; topics include early speech perception and preference, speech segmentation, word learning, and category formation. Significant gaps in the literature are identified and future directions are suggested. Autism Res 2016, 9: 810-828. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The integrity of lexical acquisition mechanisms in autism spectrum disorders: A research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, Sudha; Luyster, Rhiannon J

    2016-08-01

    Research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has rapidly expanded in recent years, yielding important developments in both theory and practice. While we have gained important insights into how children with ASD differ from typically developing (TD) children in terms of phenotypic features, less has been learned about if and how development in ASD differs from typical development in terms of underlying mechanisms of change. This article aims to provide a review of processes subserving lexical development in ASD, with the goal of identifying contributing factors to the heterogeneity of language outcomes in ASD. The focus is on available evidence of the integrity or disruption of these mechanisms in ASD, as well as their significance for vocabulary development; topics include early speech perception and preference, speech segmentation, word learning, and category formation. Significant gaps in the literature are identified and future directions are suggested. Autism Res 2016, 9: 810-828. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26688218

  1. 78 FR 67363 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Professor of Surgery and Pathology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, WU, engaged in research... records, including anesthesia records, progress, notes, treatment records, and clinical laboratory...

  2. 77 FR 52034 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... Cell Biology, Joslin, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of... of blood stem cell niches.'' Nature 463:495-500, 2010. Mayack, S.R., & Wagers, A.J. ``Osteolineage niche cells initiate hemotopoietic stem cell mobilization.'' Blood 112:519-531, 2008. As a result...

  3. 77 FR 76491 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ..., Department of Oral Medicine, Infection, and Immunity, HSDM, engaged in research misconduct in research... Medicine: Based on the report of an investigation conducted by the Harvard School of Medicine (HSM) and Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM), the admission of the Respondent, and additional...

  4. 76 FR 23600 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... any PHS advisory committee, board, and/or peer review committee, or as a consultant. FOR FURTHER... Office of Research Integrity (ORI) in its oversight review, the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) found that Junghee J. Shin, PhD, former graduate student, NYMC, engaged in research misconduct in...

  5. 78 FR 21125 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ..., Division of Hematology, UW, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Cancer... sequencing was also reported in CA89135-03. 2. Falsely reported a two-fold increase in apoptosis of human..., by falsely labeling lanes to support the hypothesis that accelerated apoptosis in mutant NE...

  6. The relationship development assessment - research version: preliminary validation of a clinical tool and coding schemes to measure parent-child interaction in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Fionnuala; Guerin, Suzanne; Hobson, Jessica A; Gutstein, Steven E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this project was to replicate and extend findings from two recent studies on parent-child relatedness in autism (Beurkens, Hobson, & Hobson, 2013; Hobson, Tarver, Beurkens, & Hobson, 2013, under review) by adapting an observational assessment and coding schemes of parent-child relatedness for the clinical context and examining their validity and reliability. The coding schemes focussed on three aspects of relatedness: joint attentional focus (Adamson, Bakeman, & Deckner, 2004), the capacity to co-regulate an interaction and the capacity to share emotional experiences. The participants were 40 children (20 with autism, 20 without autism) aged 6-14, and their parents. Parent-child dyads took part in the observational assessment and were coded on these schemes. Comparisons were made with standardised measures of autism severity (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS: Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 2001; Social Responsiveness Scale, SRS: Constantino & Gruber, 2005), relationship quality (Parent Child Relationship Inventory, PCRI: Gerard, 1994) and quality of parent-child interaction (Dyadic Coding Scales, DCS: Humber & Moss, 2005). Inter-rater reliability was very good and, as predicted, codes both diverged from the measure of parent-child relationship and converged with a separate measure of parent-child interaction quality. A detailed profile review revealed nuanced areas of group and individual differences which may be specific to verbally-able school-age children. The results support the utility of the Relationship Development Assessment - Research Version for clinical practice. PMID:24366957

  7. Brief Report: Telephone Administration of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised--Reliability and Suitability for Use in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-King, Jessica; Cohen, Ira L.; Penning, Henderika; Holden, Jeanette J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised is one of the "gold standard" diagnostic tools for autism spectrum disorders. It is traditionally administered face-to-face. Cost and geographical concerns constrain the employment of the ADI-R for large-scale research projects. The telephone interview is a reasonable alternative, but has not yet been…

  8. 77 FR 54917 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... study failed to provide support for the initial hypothesis. This research was never written up for... identifiable by natural markings along with chest and leg tattoos and ear notches.'' In fact, only 50% of...

  9. 77 FR 5254 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... Integrity (ORI) during its oversight review, ORI found that Ms. Calleen S. Zach, former Research Assistant... any PHS advisory committee, board, and/or peer review committee, or as a consultant. FOR...

  10. 78 FR 77467 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... ISU found that Dr. Dong-Pyou Han, former Research Assistant Professor, Department of Biomedical..., and/or peer review committee, or as a consultant. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Director, Office...

  11. 75 FR 53303 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... research misconduct by fabricating ] and falsifying data in Figure 3 of a paper published in Endocrinology... determination.'' Endocrinology 147(12):5524-5541; hereafter referred to as the ``Endocrinology...

  12. 76 FR 23599 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... and switched the labels on four (4) cell culture dishes for cells used in the same type of experiments... tampered with laboratory research materials by adding ethanol to his colleague's cell culture media,...

  13. Preliminary findings of similarities and differences in the signed and spoken language of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Aaron

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 30% of hearing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not acquire expressive language, and those who do often show impairments related to their social deficits, using language instrumentally rather than socially, with a poor understanding of pragmatics and a tendency toward repetitive content. Linguistic abnormalities can be clinically useful as diagnostic markers of ASD and as targets for intervention. Studies have begun to document how ASD manifests in children who are deaf for whom signed languages are the primary means of communication. Though the underlying disorder is presumed to be the same in children who are deaf and children who hear, the structures of signed and spoken languages differ in key ways. This article describes similarities and differences between the signed and spoken language acquisition of children on the spectrum. Similarities include echolalia, pronoun avoidance, neologisms, and the existence of minimally verbal children. Possible areas of divergence include pronoun reversal, palm reversal, and facial grammar. PMID:25321855

  14. Strategies for Disseminating Information on Biomedical Research on Autism to Hispanic Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajonchere, Clara M.; Wheeler, Barbara Y.; Valente, Thomas W.; Kreutzer, Cary; Munson, Aron; Narayanan, Shrikanth; Kazemzadeh, Abe; Cruz, Roxana; Martinez, Irene; Schrager, Sheree M.; Schweitzer, Lisa; Chklovski, Tara; Hwang, Darryl

    2016-01-01

    Low income Hispanic families experience multiple barriers to accessing evidence-based information on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study utilized a mixed-strategy intervention to create access to information in published bio-medical research articles on ASD by distilling the content into parent-friendly English- and Spanish-language ASD…

  15. Contemporary Outcome Research and Programming Guidelines for Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsatsanis, Katharine D.; Foley, Christine; Donehower, Claire

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an extraordinary surge of interest in achieving a greater understanding of the needs of children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism, and with this increase in attention, research has provided a range of directions with respect to treatment guidelines. However, there is also a need for…

  16. Economic Analyses of Families: Existing Research Findings

    OpenAIRE

    David Johnson; Guyonne Kalb

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a literature review on economics of the family. In particular, where decisions of families related to marriage, fertility, labour supply and home production are concerned. First an overview of the theory on these issues is given, followed by a selection of empirical studies. Finally, the review highlights some areas of interest for future research in Australia.

  17. 75 FR 77641 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... taken final action in the following case: Sagar S. Mungekar, PhD, New York University School of Medicine... Medicine (NYUSOM) and the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) found that Sagar S. Mungekar, PhD, former MD... concurrently submit a plan for supervision of his duties to ORI for approval; the supervisory plan must...

  18. 78 FR 5454 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... phospholipase A2 IIA is Up-regulated by TNF- and IL-1 / after Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rat.'' Brain... films. The research studied the effect of cerebral ischemia on phospholipid homeostasis in an... the Western blot data demonstrating sPLA 2 expression in a time course after ischemia in Figure 1B...

  19. Carlink II: Research Approach and Early Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan

    2004-01-01

    CarLink II is a commuter-based carsharing pilot project administered by the Institute of Transportation Studies at the University of California, Davis (ITS-Davis) in conjunction with Caltrans, American Honda Motor Company, and Caltrain. Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways (PATH) researchers are conducting the evaluation. Launched in Summer 2001, CarLink II continues the investigation of commuter-based carsharing that was originally explored in the 1998 CarLink longitudinal survey (Shah...

  20. Mesial Temporal Lobe and Memory Function in Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Exploration of Volumetric Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trontel, Haley G.; Duffield, Tyler C.; Bigler, Erin D.; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Froehlich, Alyson; Prigge, Molly B.D.; Travers, Brittany G.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Zielinski, Brandon A.; Alexander, Andrew; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to perform significantly below typical developing individuals on standardized measures of memory, even when not significantly different on measures of IQ. The current study sought to examine within ASD whether anatomical correlates of memory performance differed between those with average-to-above-average IQ (AIQ Group) compared to those with low average to borderline ability (LIQ group) as well as in relations to typically-developing comparisons (TDC). Using automated volumetric analyses, we examined regional volume of classic memory areas including the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala in an all-male sample AIQ (n = 38) and LIQ (n = 18) individuals with ASD along with 30 typically-developing comparisons (TDC). Memory performance was assessed using the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL) compared among the groups and then correlated with regional brain volumes. Analyses revealed group differences on almost all facets of memory and learning as assessed by the various subtests of the TOMAL. The three groups did not differ on any ROI memory-related brain volumes. However, significant size-memory function interactions were observed. Negative correlations were found between the volume of the amygdala and composite, verbal, and delayed memory indices for the LIQ ASD group indicating larger volume related to poorer performance. Implications for general memory functioning and dysfunctional neural connectivity in ASD are discussed. PMID:25749302

  1. Parent Management Training Program Developed by “Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Psychosocial Interventions (RUPP Autism Network” for Education of Family with Children in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Arslan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Parent management training programme was prepared by Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Psychosocial Interventions (RUPP Autism Network based on ABA (Applied Behavior Analysis. The programme aims to prevent or decrease the problem behavior and to bring the children with autism in positive behaviors by educating their families. The controlled randomized clinical research of RUPP has determined that Parent Managament Training (PMT have provided meaningful improvements on childrens’ function and family relationships. The group of children on which risperidone and PMT have implemented together had statistically meaningful improvements such as increase in adaptive skills and decrease in the aggressive behaviors when compared with the children who used only risperidone. There is no such programme in Turkey for the families with children in pervasive developmet disorder. This paper aims to introduce and show the potentials of the PMT programme that has been developed by RUPP Autism Network.

  2. The Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism (Autism CRC) Conceptual Model to Promote Mental Health for Adolescents with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shochet, Ian M; Saggers, Beth R; Carrington, Suzanne B; Orr, Jayne A; Wurfl, Astrid M; Duncan, Bonnie M; Smith, Coral L

    2016-06-01

    Despite an increased risk of mental health problems in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is limited research on effective prevention approaches for this population. Funded by the Cooperative Research Centre for Living with Autism, a theoretically and empirically supported school-based preventative model has been developed to alter the negative trajectory and promote wellbeing and positive mental health in adolescents with ASD. This conceptual paper provides the rationale, theoretical, empirical and methodological framework of a multilayered intervention targeting the school, parents and adolescents on the spectrum. Two important interrelated protective factors have been identified in community adolescent samples, namely the sense of belonging (connectedness) to school and the capacity for self and affect regulation in the face of stress (i.e. resilience). We describe how a confluence of theories from social psychology, developmental psychology and family systems theory, along with empirical evidence (including emerging neurobiological evidence), supports the interrelationships between these protective factors and many indices of wellbeing. However, the characteristics of ASD (including social and communication difficulties, and frequently difficulties with changes and transitions, and diminished optimism and self-esteem) impair access to these vital protective factors. The paper describes how evidence-based interventions at the school level for promoting inclusive schools (using the Index for Inclusion) and interventions for adolescents and parents to promote resilience and belonging [using the Resourceful Adolescent Program (RAP)] are adapted and integrated for adolescents with ASD. This multisite proof-of-concept study will confirm whether this multilevel school-based intervention is promising, feasible and sustainable. PMID:27072681

  3. GENETIC ASPECTS OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastas LAKOSKI

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first paper on the syndrome of autism, Kanner described it as innate and inborn. He drew attention to the abnormalities in infancy without evidence of prior normal development and the intellectual, non emotional qualities shown by many of the parents and grandparents. Subsequently, the supposed lack of parental warmth led many clinicians to abandon the notions of constitutional deficit in the child and instead to postulate a psychogenic origin etiology was likely, genetic factors probably did not play a major role. Attention was draw to the low rate of autism in siblings, the lack of chromosome anomalies, and the similarities with syndromes associated with known brain trauma. Although the rate of autism in siblings was indeed low, it was much higher than in the general population rate providing a strong pointer to the genetic factors. The recognition that this was so, associated with the parallel finding of apparently high familiar loading for language delay, stimulated the first, systematic, twin study of autism, which suggested a strong genetic component. Subsequent research has produced findings in the same direction, although many questions remain unanswered. In this paper the evidence that has accumulated on genetic influences on autism is summarized and the remained dilemmas on this field are discussed.

  4. Autism Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Autism? What is Autism? Symptoms Diagnosis Causes Asperger’s Syndrome Facts and Statistics Living with Autism Living with ... is Autism? What is Autism? Symptoms Diagnosis Causes Asperger’s Syndrome Facts and Statistics Living with Autism Living with ...

  5. New Interview and Observation Measures of the Broader Autism Phenotype : Description of Strategy and Reliability Findings for the Interview Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parr, Jeremy R.; De Jonge, Maretha V.; Wallace, Simon; Pickles, Andrew; Rutter, Michael L.; Le Couteur, Ann S.; van Engeland, Herman; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; Mcconachie, Helen; Roge, Bernadette; Mantoulan, Carine; Pedersen, Lennart; Isager, Torben; Poustka, Fritz; Bolte, Sven; Bolton, Patrick; Weisblatt, Emma; Green, Jonathan; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Baird, Gillian; Bailey, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical genetic studies confirm the broader autism phenotype (BAP) in some relatives of individuals with autism, but there are few standardized assessment measures. We developed three BAP measures (informant interview, self-report interview, and impression of interviewee observational scale) and de

  6. How autism became autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that the meaning of the word ‘autism’ experienced a radical shift in the early 1960s in Britain which was contemporaneous with a growth in epidemiological and statistical studies in child psychiatry. The first part of the article explores how ‘autism’ was used as a category to describe hallucinations and unconscious fantasy life in infants through the work of significant child psychologists and psychoanalysts such as Jean Piaget, Lauretta Bender, Leo Kanner and Elwyn James Anthony. Theories of autism were then associated both with schizophrenia in adults and with psychoanalytic styles of reasoning. The closure of institutions for ‘mental defectives’ and the growth in speech therapy services in the 1960s and 1970s encouraged new models for understanding autism in infants and children. The second half of the article explores how researchers such as Victor Lotter and Michael Rutter used the category of autism to reconceptualize psychological development in infants and children via epidemiological studies. These historical changes have influenced the form and function of later research into autism and related conditions. PMID:24014081

  7. Television Advertising and Children: Issues, Research and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esserman, June F., Ed.

    This volume consists of 10 papers dealing with issues, research and research findings regarding the effects of television advertising on children. The first paper critically examines recent research literature which bears on policy questions related to the effects of television advertising on children. Findings from a study designed to examine…

  8. A Review on the Cognitive Neuroscience of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Koyama, Alain

    2005-01-01

    With increased recognition in the media, heightened prevalence, and advances in research technologies, investigation into the causes of autism has broadened in recent years. Studies at the molecular, structural, and behavioral levels have resulted in significant findings, linking autism to qualitative differences in neurological function and an alteration of early development. Familial aggregation of autism demonstrate a strong genetic factor, although genetics can not completely account for ...

  9. Learning about Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics 101 Genomic Medicine and Health Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics ... have idiopathic autism. Exposure during pregnancy to rubella (German ... for new environmental causes of secondary autism has centered primarily ...

  10. Perfusion impairments in infantile autism on technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer brain single-photon emission tomography: comparison with findings on magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neuro-anatomical substrate of autism has been the subject of detailed investigation. Because previous studies have not demonstrated consistent and specific neuro-imaging findings in autism and most such studies have been performed in adults and school-aged children, we performed a retrospective review in young children in search of common functional and anatomical abnormalities with brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) and correlative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The patient population was composed of 23 children aged 28-92 months (mean: 54 months) who met the diagnostic criteria of autism as defined in the DSM-IV and CARS. Brain SPET was performed after intravenous injection of 185-370 MBq of 99mTc-ECD using a brain-dedicated annular crystal gamma camera. MRI was performed in all patients, including T1, T2 axial and T1 sagittal sequences. SPET data were assessed visually. Twenty patients had abnormal SPET scans revealing focal areas of decreased perfusion. Decreased perfusion of the cerebellar hemisphere (20/23), thalami (19/23), basal ganglia (5/23) and posterior parietal (10/23) and temporal (7/23) areas were noted on brain SPET. By contrast all patients had normal MRI findings without evidence of abnormalities of the cerebellar vermis, cerebellar hemisphere, thalami, basal ganglia or parietotemporal cortex. In conclusion, extensive perfusion impairments involving the cerebellum, thalami and parietal cortex were found in this study. SPET may be more sensitive in reflecting the pathophysiology of autism than MRI. However, further studies are necessary to determine the significance of thalamic and parietal perfusion impairment in autism. (orig.)

  11. Perfusion impairments in infantile autism on technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer brain single-photon emission tomography: comparison with findings on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Y.H.; Lee, J.D.; Yoon, P.H.; Kim, D.I. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.B.; Shin, Y.J. [Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    The neuro-anatomical substrate of autism has been the subject of detailed investigation. Because previous studies have not demonstrated consistent and specific neuro-imaging findings in autism and most such studies have been performed in adults and school-aged children, we performed a retrospective review in young children in search of common functional and anatomical abnormalities with brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) and correlative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The patient population was composed of 23 children aged 28-92 months (mean: 54 months) who met the diagnostic criteria of autism as defined in the DSM-IV and CARS. Brain SPET was performed after intravenous injection of 185-370 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD using a brain-dedicated annular crystal gamma camera. MRI was performed in all patients, including T1, T2 axial and T1 sagittal sequences. SPET data were assessed visually. Twenty patients had abnormal SPET scans revealing focal areas of decreased perfusion. Decreased perfusion of the cerebellar hemisphere (20/23), thalami (19/23), basal ganglia (5/23) and posterior parietal (10/23) and temporal (7/23) areas were noted on brain SPET. By contrast all patients had normal MRI findings without evidence of abnormalities of the cerebellar vermis, cerebellar hemisphere, thalami, basal ganglia or parietotemporal cortex. In conclusion, extensive perfusion impairments involving the cerebellum, thalami and parietal cortex were found in this study. SPET may be more sensitive in reflecting the pathophysiology of autism than MRI. However, further studies are necessary to determine the significance of thalamic and parietal perfusion impairment in autism. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 33 refs.

  12. The Value of Surprising Findings for Research on Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong

    2004-01-01

    In the work of Armstrong (Journal of Business Research, 2002), I examined empirical research on the scientific process and related these to marketing science. The findings of some studies were surprising. In this reply, I address surprising findings and other issues raised by commentators.

  13. Ethnicity Reporting Practices for Empirical Research in Three Autism-Related Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Nigel P.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sorrells, Audrey M.; Fragale, Christina L.; White, Pamela J.; Aguilar, Jeannie M.; Cole, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines ethnicity reporting in three autism-related journals ("Autism," "Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities," and "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders") over a 6-year period. A comprehensive multistep search of articles is used to identify ethnicity as a demographic variable in…

  14. Recruiting Underserved Mothers to Medical Research: Findings from North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Spears, Chaya R.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; O’Neill, Jenna L.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Feldman, Steven R.; Arcury, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Representative samples are required for ethical, valid, and useful health research. Yet, recruiting participants, especially from historically underserved communities, can be challenging. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 40 mothers about factors that might influence their willingness to participate or allow their children to participate in medical research. Saliency analysis organizes the findings. Frequent and important salient themes about research participation in...

  15. Virginia Tech Center for Autism Research - Tina Savla perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Savla, Tina

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the research perspective of Tina Savla, Center for Gerentology and Department of Human Development. The primary area of research is caregiving and its relationship to stress, including behavioral, psychological, and physiological outcomes of distress.

  16. Autism spectrum disorders. Recent advances in the research on the impairment in social communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the discovery of early infantile autism (1943), the etiology of the disease has for long been a matter of dispute-from a form of innate schizophrenia, maltreatment by 'refrigerator mother', to dysfunction of speech development. After the re-discovery of Asperger syndrome by Wing (1981), the concept of this diverse syndrome complex has merged to pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). People suffering from Asperger syndrome do not show impairments in speech development, in fact, they have good linguistic abilities. They can explain their own psychopathology, which helps in the understanding of classical autism with profound mental retardation. Currently, ASD is prevalent in 1 of 150 births with strong genetic inheritance. ASD is therefore thought a psychiatric common disease. Asperger syndrome has frequently been the subject of neuroimaging studies, since social communication is an important characteristic of human behavior. This review encompasses a historical and clinical overview of ASD and puts force the current perspectives on the researches in animal models, genetic studies of animal and human samples, and neuroimaging studies. Our current focus is the possible role of oxytocin, which was recently found to have an effect on empathy, in the etiology of ASD. (author)

  17. AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (ASD)

    OpenAIRE

    Middha Akanksha; Kataria Sahil; Sandhu Premjeet; Kapoor Bhawna

    2011-01-01

    Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a serious neurological disorder affecting communication skills, social interactions, adaptability in an individual, and also causes dramatic changes in behavioral patterns. This condition typically lasts throughout one’s lifetime and affects both, children as well as adults. Research has shown a tenfold increase in autism cases over the past decade and still rising at an alarming pace. The origins of autism are not known even to modern science. Aut...

  18. Critical Review of Research Findings on Information Technology in Education

    OpenAIRE

    Markauskaite, Lina

    2003-01-01

    This article analyses the field of research on information and communication technology (ICT) in education. It reviews the results of ICT researches carried out in the world. First, the article presents the retrospective of researches on ICT implementation into education. Summarizing them, it reviews main research findings in five areas of ICT implementation: 1) the impact of ICT use on students achievements and attitudes; 2) the impact of ICT use on teachers; 3) the effect of teachers' facto...

  19. Researchers Find 8 Immune Genes in Aggressive Brain Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159031.html Researchers Find 8 Immune Genes in Aggressive Brain Cancer Discovery might eventually lead to better ... tissue samples from 170 people with a less aggressive type of brain tumor. This led to the ...

  20. Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

  1. [Childhood vaccines and autism--much ado about nothing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, Ido; Bornstein, Jacob

    2010-04-01

    The increased diagnoses of autism and developmental disorders in recent decades, together with the childhood vaccination program, has led to the hypothesis that vaccination in general, and the measles, mumps, and rubella virus live vaccine, and vaccines that contain mercury, in particular, cause autism. It has been hypothesized that intestinal infection caused by live virus vaccines change the permeability of the intestinal wall, and subsequently, the passage of peptides through the intestinal wall to the blood, and from there to the brain. It has been suggested that the accumulation of these peptides in the central nervous system causes autism. Studies that investigated this theory did not find an association between vaccine administration and between digestive system symptoms and autism. According to a second hypothesis, an organomercury compound (Thimerosal), used as a preservative in vaccines that do not include live viruses, is a cause of autism. Like the former, this hypothesis has been well researched, and refuted. Some studies have in fact found an increase in autism diagnosis among children who were vaccinated after Thimerosal was removed from the vaccine preparation. Recent studies have refuted the theory that the consecutive administration of vaccines weakens the young immune system in children, and leads to an autoimmune process that causes autism. The etiology of autism is still unknown, with research continuing from different directions. The extensive research conducted so far indicates that childhood vaccination is not a cause of the sharp increase in autism diagnoses in recent decades.

  2. Brief Report: Recruitment and Retention of Minority Children for Autism Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Irina; Williams, Marian E; Higareda, Marcia; Wheeler, Barbara Y; Levitt, Pat

    2016-02-01

    Given the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities in health research (Heiat et al. in Arch Int Med 162(15):1-17, 2002; Kelly et al. in J Nat Med Assoc 97:777-783, 2005; United States Department of Health and Human Services. Monitoring adherence to the NIH policy on the inclusion of women and minorities as subjects in clinical research. http://orwh.od.nih.gov/research/inclusion/reports.asp , 2013), this study evaluated promising strategies to effectively recruit Latinos into genetic research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The study included 97 children, aged 5-17 years, with ASD; 82.5 % of the participants were identified as Latino/Hispanic. Traditional and culture-specific recruitment and retention strategies were compared between the Latino and non-Latino groups. Culture-specific, parent-centered approaches were found to be successful in engaging and retaining Latino participants for research involving genetic testing.

  3. Managing incidental findings in population based biobank research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Solberg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of whole genome sequencing in medical research, the debate on how to handle incidental findings is becoming omnipresent. Much of the literature on the topic so far, seems to defend the researcher’s duty to inform, the participant’s right to know combined with a thorough informed consent in order to protect and secure high ethical standards in research. In this paper, we argue that this ethical response to incidental findings and whole genome sequencing is appropriate in a clinical context, in what we call therapeutic research. However, we further argue, that it is rather inappropriate in basic research, like the research going on in public health oriented population based biobanks. Our argument is based on two premises: First, in population based biobank research the duties and rights involved are radically different from a clinical based setting. Second, to introduce the ethical framework from the clinical setting into population based basic research, is not only wrong, but it may lead to unethical consequences. A Norwegian population based biobank and the research-ethical debate in Norway on the regulation of whole genome sequencing is used as an illustrative case to demonstrate the pitfalls when approaching the debate on incidental findings in population based biobank research.

  4. Lived Experiences of Parents of Gifted Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Struggle to Find Appropriate Educational Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Lisa DaVia; Schelling, Natalie; Wilczynski, Susan M.; Hooks, Elizabeth N.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological, qualitative study was to illuminate the lived, shared experiences of parents of gifted children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Thirteen parents were interviewed and the interviews were transcribed and qualitatively analyzed. This article specifically examines the parents' experiences navigating the…

  5. Brief Report: Social Disability in Autism Spectrum Disorder--Results from Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, Lawrence; Hallett, Victoria; Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Arnold, L. Eugene; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Deng, Yanhong; Dziura, James; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2013-01-01

    There is growing interest in measuring social disability as a core element of autism spectrum disorders in medication trials. We conducted a secondary analysis on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Social Withdrawal subscale using data from two federally-funded, multi-site, randomized trials with risperidone. Study 1 included 52 subjects assigned to…

  6. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in autism spectrum disorder: Challenges, promise, and roadmap for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Lindsay M; Enticott, Peter G; Casanova, Manuel F; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; McCracken, James T

    2016-02-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a behaviorally defined complex neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by impairments in social communication, by the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors, interests and activities, and by abnormalities in sensory reactivity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a promising, emerging tool for the study and potential treatment of ASD. Recent studies suggest that TMS measures provide rapid and noninvasive pathophysiological ASD biomarkers. Furthermore, repetitive TMS (rTMS) may represent a novel treatment strategy for reducing some of the core and associated ASD symptoms. However, the available literature on the TMS use in ASD is preliminary, composed of studies with methodological limitations. Thus, off-label clinical rTMS use for therapeutic interventions in ASD without an investigational device exemption and outside of an IRB approved research trial is premature pending further, adequately powered and controlled trials. Leaders in this field have gathered annually for a two-day conference (prior to the 2014 and 2015 International Meeting for Autism Research, IMFAR) to share recent progress, promote collaboration across laboratories, and establish consensus on protocols. Here we review the literature in the use of TMS in ASD in the context of the unique challenges required for the study and exploration of treatment strategies in this population. We also suggest future directions for this field of investigations. While its true potential in ASD has yet to be delineated, TMS represents an innovative research tool and a novel, possibly transformative approach to the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26536383

  7. Neuropathology and Animal Models of Autism: Genetic and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi S. Gadad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a heterogeneous behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorder. It is defined by the presence of marked social deficits, specific language abnormalities, and stereotyped repetitive patterns of behavior. Because of the variability in the behavioral phenotype of the disorder among patients, the term autism spectrum disorder has been established. In the first part of this review, we provide an overview of neuropathological findings from studies of autism postmortem brains and identify the cerebellum as one of the key brain regions that can play a role in the autism phenotype. We review research findings that indicate possible links between the environment and autism including the role of mercury and immune-related factors. Because both genes and environment can alter the structure of the developing brain in different ways, it is not surprising that there is heterogeneity in the behavioral and neuropathological phenotypes of autism spectrum disorders. Finally, we describe animal models of autism that occur following insertion of different autism-related genes and exposure to environmental factors, highlighting those models which exhibit both autism-like behavior and neuropathology.

  8. Obtaining Consent from Young People with Autism to Participate in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Daisy

    2013-01-01

    Young people with autism were involved in a study examining the participation of young people with autism in drama education. This study considers the approaches devised to obtain consent from ten young people with autism who communicated in different ways. The process of obtaining consent and monitoring assent is outlined and evaluated. The…

  9. [Therapeutic effects of oxytocin in autism: Current status of the research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, C; Doyen, C; Amado, I; Lôo, H; Gaillard, R

    2016-02-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is an evolutionary highly conserved molecule that plays a part in the regulation of complex social cognition and behaviours. From a pathophysiological point of view, several studies have evidenced dysfunctions of the oxytocinergic system in autism spectrum disorders (ASD): a lowering of plasma OT and genetic or epigenetic anomalies of the OT receptor. Therefore, some authors have hypothesized that an abnormality in the OT neurotransmission may account for several features of autism and that a treatment restoring a normal OT pathway functioning could improve social abilities. OT administration has thus been used in clinical trials, especially in groups of subjects suffering from autism. Some studies found that OT decreased repetitive behaviours, enhanced emotional understanding of speech intonation, improved performance of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and reinforced cooperation. Nevertheless, the findings of the OT administration studies on clinical samples show great diversity. The context, the personality and childhood experiences of the subject could be moderators influencing the effect of exogenous OT. Besides, three mechanisms could play a part in the action of OT on ASD social symptoms: anxiety reduction (with a lowering in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness and in the amygdale reactivity to social stimuli), increased affiliative motivation (involving the dopaminergic pathway and several regions of the social brain) and enhanced perceptual selectivity and social stimuli salience. To conclude, OT could be a promising molecule used as a treatment to promote social behaviours, helping individuals with ASD to develop new relationships. OT could be administered during a cognitive-behavioural therapy to reinforce the efficacy of such procedures. More studies are needed, on larger samples, to investigate the safety and efficacy of OT administration and to specify optimal dosages and characteristics of

  10. Needles and Haystacks: Finding Funding for Medical Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Durning, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    Medical education research suffers from a significant and persistent lack of funding. Although adequate funding has been shown to improve the quality of research, there are a number of factors that continue to limit it. The competitive environment for medical education research funding makes it essential to understand strategies for improving the search for funding sources and the preparation of proposals. This article offers a number of resources, strategies, and suggestions for finding funding. Investigators must be able to frame their research in the context of significant issues and principles in education. They must set their proposed work in the context of prior work and demonstrate its potential for significant new contributions. Because there are few funding sources earmarked for medical education research, researchers much also be creative, flexible, and adaptive as they seek to present their ideas in ways that are appealing and relevant to the goals of funders. Above all, the search for funding requires persistence and perseverance.

  11. The Children's Hearings Project Research Findings. A Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Sally E.; And Others

    Since 1980 the Children's Hearings Project (CHP) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, has offered status offenders and their families mediation as an alternative to the courts. This report describes CPH's origins and summarizes the results of an extensive research study conducted during the first 2 years of its operation. The key findings were: (1)…

  12. PCR and serology find no association between xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satterfield Brent C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV is a retrovirus implicated in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Press releases have suggested that it could contribute to autism spectrum disorder (ASD. In this study we used two PCR assays and one antibody assay to screen 25 blood samples from autistic children born to mothers with CFS and from 20 mixed controls including family members of the children assayed, people with fibromyalgia and people with chronic Lyme disease. Using a real-time PCR assay, we screened an additional 48 South Carolina autism disorder samples, 96 Italian ASD samples, 61 South Carolina ASD samples and 184 healthy controls. Despite having the ability to detect low copy number XMRV DNA in a large background of cellular DNA, none of the PCR assays found any evidence of XMRV infection in blood cells from patients or controls. Further, no anti-XMRV antibodies were detected, ruling out possible low level or abortive infections in blood or in other reservoirs. These results imply that XMRV is not associated with autism.

  13. "My Brother Likes Meeting New People, but Don't Ask Him Any Direct Questions": Involving Adults with Autism plus Learning Disability in a Qualitative Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Rosemary; Atkin, Karl; Wenham, Aniela

    2014-01-01

    Adult siblings of people with autism and a learning disability have hitherto been largely overlooked by research, policy and practice in the UK. As part of a qualitative study focussing on adult siblings, we met twelve people with autism plus severe learning disability with their brother or sister. Individually tailored resources were used to make…

  14. Does Rubella Cause Autism: A 2015 Reappraisal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Jill

    2016-01-01

    In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today's world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen; yet, autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects, and to a lesser extent visual changes. Autistic children commonly have hyperactivity and spasticity, as do CRS children. Both autistic and CRS individuals may develop type 1 diabetes as young adults. Neuropathology of CRS infants may reveal cerebral vasculitis with narrowed lumens and cerebral necrosis. Neuroradiological findings of children with CRS show calcifications, periventricular leukomalacia, and dilated perivascular spaces. Neuroradiology of autism has also demonstrated hyperintensities, leukomalacia, and prominent perivascular spaces. PET studies of autistic individuals exhibit decreased perfusion to areas of the brain similarly affected by rubella. In both autism and CRS, certain changes in the brain have implicated the immune system. Several children with autism lack antibodies to rubella, as do children with CRS. These numerous similarities increase the probability of an association between rubella virus and autism. Rubella and autism cross many ethnicities in many countries. Contrary to current belief, rubella has not been eradicated and globally affects up to 5% of pregnant women. Susceptibility continues as vaccines are not given worldwide and are not fully protective. Rubella might still cause autism, even in vaccinated populations. PMID:26869906

  15. Does rubella cause autism: a 2015 reappraisal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill eHutton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS, 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today’s world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen, yet autistic children often share findings of CRS including deafness, congenital heart defects and to a lesser extent visual changes. Autistic children commonly have hyperactivity and spasticity, as do CRS children. Both autistic and CRS individuals may develop type 1 diabetes as young adults. Neuropathology of CRS infants may reveal cerebral vasculitis with narrowed lumens and cerebral necrosis. Neuroradiologic findings of children with CRS show calcifications, periventricular leukomalacia, and dilated perivascular spaces. Neuroradiology of autism has also demonstrated hyperintensities, leukomalacia and prominent perivascular spaces. PET studies of autistic individuals exhibit decreased perfusion to areas of the brain similarly affected by rubella. In both autism and CRS, certain changes in the brain have implicated the immune system. Several children with autism lack antibodies to rubella, as do children with CRS. These numerous similarities increase the probability of an association between rubella virus and autism.Rubella and autism cross many ethnicities in many countries. Contrary to current belief, rubella has not been eradicated and globally affects up to 5% of pregnant women. Susceptibility continues as vaccines are not given worldwide and are not fully protective. Rubella might still cause autism, even in vaccinated populations.

  16. Review of evolution of clinical, training and educational services and research program for autism spectrum disorders in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Virginia Chun-Nei; Fung, Cheuk-Wing; Lee, So-Lun; Wong, Polly Tsz Yan

    2015-10-01

    The evolution of a local fragmented model of services for children with autism in Hong Kong emerged gradually over the past three decades with lack of government funding or support. This had been due to increasing number of children with autism being detected and referred for earlier assessment. With increasing pressure from parents due to long waiting time for assessment and training services and the increasing polarization by mass media there had been a gradual increasing public awareness over the past five years. Though still highly fragmented in the availability of services, there is a growing "business model" available in the community due to increasing need and lack of public funding for support. There is a lack of strategic planning for medical diagnostic and management issues in Hong Kong. Our University of Hong Kong based Autism Research Program was pioneered in 1985 based on the increasing load of autism cases referred for assessment for other developmental problems and diagnosed as Autism in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital. As the first author has been the staff of the University of Hong Kong, this program flourished as a research based program. The benefits of early identification and intervention of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) had been increasingly recognized, and with the increased public awareness and increasing trend of earlier diagnosis, there has been a continuously high demand from parents for earlier assessment and training for children suspected to have ASD. This model had not received extra funding for this integrated program for research, teaching and training in autism. We had to apply for various donations and grants to support the development of this pioneer program. The research output and organization of forums for public education and awareness are reviewed. The latter part of the paper reports the summary of clinical profile of autism cases (N=1441) assessed from 1985 to 2010 June under the University of Hong Kong. As the

  17. Research progress of autism spectrum disorder%孤独症谱系障碍的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁梦; 汪萌芽

    2016-01-01

    本文以《精神疾病诊断与统计手册》为基础,对孤独症谱系障碍的诊断起源、病因和治疗3个方面进行综述。未来孤独症谱系障碍的研究仍任重而道远,明确孤独症谱系障碍的病因,完善诊断康复服务体系刻不容缓。%This paper to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as the foundation, the origins of diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders, etiology and treatment of three aspects were reviewed. Future autism spectrum disorders research still allow to weigh and the responsibilities, clear the etiology of autism spectrum disorders, good diagnosis rehabilitation service system without delay.

  18. Biological sex affects the neurobiology of autism

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Suckling, John; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Ecker, Christine; Deoni, Sean C.L.; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Bullmore, Edward T; ,; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In autism, heterogeneity is the rule rather than the exception. One obvious source of heterogeneity is biological sex. Since autism was first recognized, males with autism have disproportionately skewed research. Females with autism have thus been relatively overlooked, and have generally been assumed to have the same underlying neurobiology as males with autism. Growing evidence, however, suggests that this is an oversimplification that risks obscuring the biological base of autism. This stu...

  19. Outcomes of Structured Teaching for Children on the Autism Spectrum: Does the Research Evidence Neglect the Bigger Picture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of "structured teaching" is evident in educational settings worldwide and has fast become one of the key "tools" in autism education. As calls for evidence-based practice have increased, research evidence has grown to interrogate the effectiveness of structured teaching components. Previous systematic literature…

  20. Assessing the Influence of Researcher-Partner Involvement on the Process and Outcomes of Participatory Research in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivraj, Jamil; Sacrey, Lori-Ann; Newton, Amanda; Nicholas, David; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2014-01-01

    Participatory research aims to increase the relevance and broaden the implementation of health research by involving those affected by the outcomes of health studies. Few studies within the field of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorders, have involved autistic individuals as partners. This study sought to identify…

  1. Nest predation research: Recent findings and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Ibanez-Alamo, J. D.; Magrath, R. D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Thomson, R. L.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Haff, T. M.; Martin, T.E.

    2016-01-01

    Nest predation is a key source of selection for birds that has attracted increasing attention from ornithologists. The inclusion of new concepts applicable to nest predation that stem from social information, eavesdropping or physiology has expanded our knowledge considerably. Recent methodological advancements now allow focus on all three players within nest predation interactions: adults, offspring and predators. Indeed, the study of nest predation now forms a vital part of avian research in several fields, including animal behaviour, population ecology, evolution and conservation biology. However, within nest predation research there are important aspects that require further development, such as the comparison between ecological and evolutionary antipredator responses, and the role of anthropogenic change. We hope this review of recent findings and the presentation of new research avenues will encourage researchers to study this important and interesting selective pressure, and ultimately will help us to better understand the biology of birds.

  2. POLITENESS IN REQUESTS: SOME RESEARCH FINDINGS RELEVANT FOR INTERCULTURAL ENCOUNTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura CODREANU; Alina DEBU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this article is to analyze the relationship between indirectness and politeness in requests. The research project supporting the findings of the paper was undertaken in order to find out to what extent politeness and indirectness are viewed as overlapping or mutually excluding categories by Romanians compared to other nationalities, such as the British and the Hebrew. Another inherent goal of the paper is to provide an example of the socio linguistics instruments that can be employed in the investigation of the differences and similarities likely to emerge in intercultural encounters. Thus, we believe that only through similar research undertaken in the fields contributing to the emerging field of interculturality one can actually trespass the theoretical assumptions and move on to the identification of the right tools and means through which intercultural discourse to be approached at a pragmatic level and thus better understood and taught in educational establishments.

  3. Critical Review of Research Findings on Information Technology in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina MARKAUSKAITE

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the field of research on information and communication technology (ICT in education. It reviews the results of ICT researches carried out in the world. First, the article presents the retrospective of researches on ICT implementation into education. Summarizing them, it reviews main research findings in five areas of ICT implementation: 1 the impact of ICT use on students achievements and attitudes; 2 the impact of ICT use on teachers; 3 the effect of teachers' factors and instructional methods on ICT efficiency; 4 the influence of infrastructure and organizational factors on ICT efficiency; 5 the effect of specific software design features. Then, the paper reviews the main recent and future directions of researches on ICT in education, in the world. Finally, it shortly reviews the most important future directions of ICT research and development in Lithuania. The article concludes that in spite of numerous ICT studies worldwide the national research and experiments have to be carried out in order to implement ICT in an appropriate for Lithuania and efficient way.

  4. Gestalt Processing in Human-Robot Interaction: A Novel Account for Autism Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Dimitrova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel analysis focused on showing that education is possible through robotic enhancement of the Gestalt processing in children with autism, which is not comparable to alternative educational methods such as demonstration and instruction provided solely by human tutors. The paper underlines the conceptualization of cognitive processing of holistic representations traditionally named in psychology as Gestalt structures, emerging in the process of human-robot interaction in educational settings. Two cognitive processes are proposed in the present study - bounding and unfolding - and their role in Gestalt emergence is outlined. The proposed theoretical approach explains novel findings of autistic perception and gives guidelines for design of robot-assistants to the rehabilitation process.

  5. Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

  6. The Broader Autism Phenotype and Its Implications on the Etiology and Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Gerdts; Raphael Bernier

    2011-01-01

    The presence of autism-related traits has been well documented in undiagnosed family members of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The most common finding is mild impairments in social and communication skills that are similar to those shown by individuals with autism, but exhibited to a lesser degree. Termed the broader autism phenotype (BAP), these traits suggest a genetic liability for autism-related traits in families. Genetic influence in autism is strong, with identical tw...

  7. [Research advances in the management of autism spectrum disorders in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Hua; Shan, Ling; Du, Lin; Jia, Fei-Yong

    2015-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of developmental dysfuntion of nervous system characterized by social interaction and communication disorders, restricted interests and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. The incidence of ASD has been increasing through the world. Some studies have shown that early reasonable individualized comprehensive intervention can obviously improve the prognosis of children with ASD. The etiology of ASD is unclear now, and behavioral and developmental intervention is the main therapy for ASD. The reasonable application of some drugs can improve the efficacy of the behavioral intervention for concomitant symptoms in ASD. With the in-depth study of the pathogenesis of ASD, bumetanide, oxytocin, vitamin D and hyperbaric oxygen therapy have been found to be promising for the improvement of core symptoms of ASD. This article reviews the research advances in the behavioral and developmental intervention and drug therapy for ASD. PMID:26287360

  8. Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain George Hightower searches for genetic mutations that affect HIV's ability to infect the brain. Read Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry and Biochemistry Enzymes, Molecular Probes, Metabolic ...

  9. Commentary: Immunological Treatments for Autism: In Search of Reasons for Promising Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Andrew W.

    2000-01-01

    This commentary on research findings that indicate immunological abnormalities in children with autism, discusses the lack of evidence indicating autoantibodies specifically affect the vulnerable neuronal networks or synaptic functions of individuals with autism to account for the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of the disorder. (Contains…

  10. Conditions of Teaching and Research in Economics: Some Preliminary Findings

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Naseem; Qureshi, Sarfraz K.; Rehana SIDDIQUI

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the preliminary findings of a study initiated two years ago, at the initiative of the P.I.D.E. to review the problems of teaching and research in economics and related subjects (ERS) I during the last two decades. The need for such a study has been felt for some time not only because of the common perception of declining standards in higher education generally and, economics, in particular, but also from the perceived competition economics has faced from other discipline...

  11. Educating to Tolerance: Effects of Communicating Social Psychology Research Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Barbera, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants' motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants' actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual's level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.

  12. Educating to Tolerance: Effects of Communicating Social Psychology Research Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco La Barbera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants’ motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants’ actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual’s level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Commercialisation of research findings – what does it take?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Kiang Gan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The last four decades have witnessed the mostadvances in science and technology in the history ofmankind. Advance in technology development in thisperiod has radically altered the economic system inthe world. Clearly, technology has a positive impact inthe business and economic development of a nation.Nations and businesses that can achieve high levelsof performance in innovation will be well placed to beleaders in the future. Hence, wealth today, can no longerbe measured in terms of physical winch alone. It mustalso be measured by the degree of access to, and timelyuse of knowledge and technology that leads to intensive,value-added capabilities. Thus, commercialisation ofuniversities’ research findings is becoming an importantaspect of economic development of a nation. This isreflected in the vast amount of investment of publicfunds into research activities among the universities bythe government. The same scenario can be seen amongboth developed and developing countries across theglobe.

  14. Emotion Regulation and Emotional Distress in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Foundations and Considerations for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often associated with emotional distress and psychiatric comorbidities. Atypical emotion regulation (ER) may underlie these accompanying features. This special issue of the "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders" presents a series of mechanistic and applied papers on ER and emotional experiences…

  15. ASD: What Are Autism Spectrum Disorders? | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any part of a vaccine or combination of vaccines causes autism. There is also no proof that any material ... research on autism and vaccines. Its Concerns About Vaccines and Autism ( www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Concerns/Autism/Index.html ) ...

  16. LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF EVALUATIVE STANCE: FINDINGS FROM RESEARCH ARTICLE DISCUSSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attapol Khamkhien

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Recent research (e.g., Hunston 2007; Hyland 1999; 2008; 2009 has marked and evidenced the importance of effectively using linguistic features as a major component in expressing stances and as an essential part of the shared knowledge of a professional discourse community by giving space for negotiation and evaluation of viewpoints.  The present study is concerned with the use of the expression of evaluation in academic discourse, focusing on some communicative strategies for indicating stance.  With the corpus-based approach, research articles on applied linguistics and language teaching selected from top-ten journals were systematically complied and analyzed.  The results revealed that professional and experienced writers variably exploit stance markers including epistemic modality, extraposed ‘it’, communication verbs, and personal pronouns in terms of different functional types of evaluative stance.  The findings highlight the importance of understanding the use of stance devices in academics, facilitating a better understanding of novice readers and writers when writing academic productions.  Pedagogically, the description of this study contributes to ways to improvement of practical language and academic writing courses to suit the discourse community.   Keywords: Corpus, evaluative stance, discourse, academic research

  17. Autism Plus versus Autism Pure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The reported prevalence of autism is going up and up. We propose that some--even much--of the increase in the rate of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is driven by "Autism Plus". Autism Plus refers to autism with comorbidities (including intellectual developmental disorder, language disorder, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder),…

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids in the management of autism spectrum disorders: findings from an open-label pilot study in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Y P; Weng, S-J; Jang, L Y; Low, L; Seah, J; Teo, S; Ang, R P; Lim, C G; Liew, A; Fung, D S; Sung, M

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this open-label trial was to examine the efficacy and safety of a 12-week omega-3 fatty acids supplementation among children suffering with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A total of 41 children and adolescents aged 7-18 years (36 boys, 5 girls; mean age = 11.66, s.d. = 3.05) diagnosed with ASD participated in the study. At post-treatment, participants showed significant improvements on all subscales of the Social Responsiveness Scale (P Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation was well-tolerated and did not cause any serious side effects. Our findings lend some preliminary support for the use of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in addressing ASD. Future randomized controlled trials of omega-3 fatty acids in ASD with blood fatty acid measurements with a larger sample and longer follow-up period is warranted.

  19. Empirical research findings on telework: Management experiences and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Forgacs

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the technological progress and the complex work processes of our increasingly globalisedworld, novel ways of organising work can be seen everywhere. The EU has defined atypical forms ofemployment as breakthrough points in improving employment indices.Telework is probably the the most innovative atypical working form, offering huge amount of benefitsfor the employer, employee and the society. Gaining a deeper understanding of employment trends andemployers’ decision-making mechanisms, we can understand the specifics of this spreading workingform, and we can use this knowledge to stimulate the employment trends.This study summarises the finding of an empirical research among medium and large enterprises inHungary using telework.

  20. [Autism Spectrum Disorder in DSM-5 - concept, validity, and reliability, impact on clinical care and future research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M

    2014-05-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in DSM-5 comprises the former DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder and PDD-nos. The criteria for ASD in DSM-5 were considerably revised from those of ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR. The present article compares the diagnostic criteria, presents studies on the validity and reliability of ASD, and discusses open questions. It ends with a clinical and research perspective. PMID:24846867

  1. 'Project launch': from research finding to therapeutic product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevc, Gregor

    2014-01-23

    Only 0.1-0.5% of new therapy candidates gains marketing approval; just 10-20% of the approved ones ultimately recoup the ~0.6-0.9$USbn invested into their R&D until marketing authorisation. One reason is the high inherent risk of new therapeutic products development. Further reasons are suboptimal decisions during R&D and, too often, lack of adequate experience. To bridge the latter gap, this article succinctly reviews identification of new product opportunities and their patent protection, the resulting commercial opportunity and portfolio valuation, planning and conduct of the ensuing preclinical and clinical tests, as well as therapeutic product registration and price reimbursement, covering risk management as an aside. The article also clarifies the key terms, identifies the main pit falls, highlights the essential requirements for and the goals of different product development steps, to facilitate communication between researchers and developers. By combining public information with personal experience and recommendations the article aims at informing more broadly those who are familiar mainly with some of the (strictly regulated) activities involved in design, development and launch of new therapeutic products, be it that they are medicinal products or medical devices. Taken together, this should support initiation and evolution of new therapeutic products and assist researchers in finding-and better and more smoothly co-operating with-consultants or partners in development and marketing.

  2. Current knowledge on the genetics of autism and propositions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeron, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by problems in social communication, as well as by the presence of restricted interests, stereotyped and repetitive behaviours. In the last 40years, genetic studies have provided crucial information on the causes of ASD and its diversity. In this article, I will first review the current knowledge on the genetics of ASD and then suggest three propositions to foster research in this field. Twin and familial studies estimated the heritability of ASD to be 50%. While most of the inherited part of ASD is captured by common variants, our current knowledge on the genetics of ASD comes almost exclusively from the identification of highly penetrant de novo mutations through candidate gene or whole exome/genome sequencing studies. Approximately 10% of patients with ASD, especially those with intellectual disability, are carriers of de novo copy-number (CNV) or single nucleotide variants (SNV) affecting clinically relevant genes for ASD. Given the function of these genes, it was hypothesized that abnormal synaptic plasticity and failure of neuronal/synaptic homeostasis could increase the risk of ASD. In addition to these discoveries, three propositions coming from institutions, researchers and/or communities of patients and families can be made to foster research on ASD: (i) to use more dimensional and quantitative data than diagnostic categories; (ii) to increase data sharing and research on genetic and brain diversity in human populations; (iii) to involve patients and relatives as participants for research. Hopefully, this knowledge will lead to a better diagnosis, care and integration of individuals with ASD.

  3. An Illustrated Guide to Research Findings from USDA's Economic Research Service

    OpenAIRE

    Economic Research Service

    2009-01-01

    This book contains a sampling of recent ERS research illustrating the breadth of the Agency’s research on current policy issues: from biofuels to food consumption to land conservation to patterns of trade for agricultural products. What you won’t find in this collection is any mention of economists’ favorite analytic tools (regression analyses, for example, and coefficients of variation). We wanted this guide to highlight results, not process. Even so, the findings on display here are all bas...

  4. Autism overflows: increasing prevalence and proliferating theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Lynn

    2008-12-01

    This selective review examines the lack of an explanation for the sharply increasing prevalence of autism, and the lack of any synthesis of the proliferating theories of autism. The most controversial and most widely disseminated notion for increasing prevalence is the measles-mumps-rubella/thimerosal vaccine theory. Less controversial causes that have been proposed include changes in autism diagnostic criteria, increasing services for autism, and growing awareness of the disorder. Regardless of its causes, the increasing prevalence of autism has put pressure on the field of autism research to generate productive and predictive theories of autism. However, the heterogeneity of brain deficits, impaired behaviors, and genetic variants in autism have challenged researchers and theorists, and despite 45 years of research, no standard causal synthesis has emerged. Research going forward should assume that autism is an aggregation of myriad independent disorders of impaired sociality, social cognition, communication, and motor and cognitive skills.

  5. Annual Research Review: Infant development, autism, and ADHD - early pathways to emerging disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Mark H.; Gliga, Teodora; Jones, Emily; Charman, Tony

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundAutism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders, with a high degree of co-occurrence.MethodsProspective longitudinal studies of infants who later meet criteria for ASD or ADHD offer the opportunity to determine whether the two disorders share developmental pathways.ResultsProspective studies of younger siblings of children with autism have revealed a range of infant behavioral and neural mark...

  6. Self and Informant Reports of Mental Health Difficulties among Adults with Autism Findings from a Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Philippa; Howlin, Patricia; Savage, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Data on psychiatric problems in adults with autism are inconsistent, with estimated rates ranging from around 25% to over 75%. We assessed difficulties related to mental health in 58 adults with autism (10 females, 48 males; mean age 44?years) whom we have followed over four decades. All were of average non-verbal intelligence quotient when…

  7. The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED): A Multisite Epidemiologic Study of Autism by the Centers for Autism and Developmental Disabilities Research and Epidemiology (CADDRE) Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Diana E.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Croen, Lisa A.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Reed, Philip L.; Schieve, Laura A.; Wiggins, Lisa D.; Daniels, Julie; Grether, Judith; Levy, Susan E.; Miller, Lisa; Newschaffer, Craig; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Robinson, Cordelia; Windham, Gayle C.; Alexander, Aimee; Aylsworth, Arthur S.; Bernal, Pilar; Bonner, Joseph D.; Blaskey, Lisa; Bradley, Chyrise; Collins, Jack; Ferretti, Casara J.; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Giarelli, Ellen; Harvey, Marques; Hepburn, Susan; Herr, Matthew; Kaparich, Kristina; Landa, Rebecca; Lee, Li-Ching; Levenseller, Brooke; Meyerer, Stacey; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Ratchford, Andria; Reynolds, Ann; Rosenberg, Steven; Rusyniak, Julie; Shapira, Stuart K.; Smith, Karen; Souders, Margaret; Thompson, Patrick Aaron; Young, Lisa; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2012-01-01

    The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multisite investigation addressing knowledge gaps in autism phenotype and etiology, aims to: (1) characterize the autism behavioral phenotype and associated developmental, medical, and behavioral conditions and (2) investigate genetic and environmental risks with emphasis on immunologic, hormonal,…

  8. Reconceptualizing functional brain connectivity in autism from a developmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucina Q Uddin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available While there is almost universal agreement amongst researchers that autism is associated with alterations in brain connectivity, the precise nature of these alterations continues to be debated. Theoretical and empirical work is beginning to reveal that autism is associated with a complex functional phenotype characterized by both hypo- and hyper-connectivity of large-scale brain systems. It is not yet understood why such conflicting patterns of brain connectivity are observed across different studies, and the factors contributing to these heterogeneous findings have not been identified. Develoopmental changes in functional connectivity have received inadequate attention to date. We propose that discrepancies between findings of autism related hypo-connectivity and hyper-connectivity might be reconciled by taking developmental changes into account. We review neuroimaging studies of autism, with an emphasis on functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of intrinsic functional connectivity in children, adolescents and adults. The consistent pattern emerging across several studies is that while intrinsic functional connectivity in adolescents and adults with autism is generally reduced compared with age-matched controls, functional connectivity in younger children with the disorder appears to be increased. We suggest that by placing recent empirical findings within a developmental framework, and explicitly characterizing age and pubertal stage in future work, it may be possible to resolve conflicting findings of hypo- and hyper-connectivity in the extant literature and arrive at a more comprehensive understanding of the neurobiology of autism.

  9. 0RGANIZATIONAL CULTURE IN NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS - RESEARCH FINDINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiecińska, Monika

    2008-01-01

    This paper aim at identifying types oforganizationał culture in non-profit organizations on the basis of the authors own research conducted over the period of 2005-2006. The research covered 120 associations and foundation in the Lower Silesi area. Various research techniiques were used including participative observation, documcntation analysis and research surveys. The object of study involved assorted manifestations of organizational culture, such as norms, values, degree of formaliz...

  10. Prenatal Inflammation Linked to Autism Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thursday, January 24, 2013 Prenatal inflammation linked to autism risk Maternal inflammation during early pregnancy may be related to an increased risk of autism in children, according to new findings supported by ...

  11. Speaking up about Advocacy: Findings from a Partnership Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melanie; Bannister, Susan; Davies, Julie; Fleming, Simon; Graham, Claire; Mcmaster, Andrea; Seddon, Angela; Wheldon, Anita; Whittell, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a partnership research project carried out by a research team consisting of people with learning disabilities and people without learning disabilities. The research explored people's understandings of advocacy and identified gaps in advocacy provision for people with learning disabilities and their families. Four focus…

  12. Finding Qualitative Research Evidence for Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJean, Deirdre; Giacomini, Mita; Simeonov, Dorina; Smith, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies increasingly use reviews of qualitative research as evidence for evaluating social, experiential, and ethical aspects of health technologies. We systematically searched three bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Social Science Citation Index [SSCI]) using published search filters or "hedges" and our hybrid filter to identify qualitative research studies pertaining to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and early breast cancer. The search filters were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Our screening by title and abstract revealed that qualitative research constituted only slightly more than 1% of all published research on each health topic. The performance of the published search filters varied greatly across topics and databases. Compared with existing search filters, our hybrid filter demonstrated a consistently high sensitivity across databases and topics, and minimized the resource-intensive process of sifting through false positives. We identify opportunities for qualitative health researchers to improve the uptake of qualitative research into evidence-informed policy making. PMID:27117960

  13. Finding Qualitative Research Evidence for Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJean, Deirdre; Giacomini, Mita; Simeonov, Dorina; Smith, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies increasingly use reviews of qualitative research as evidence for evaluating social, experiential, and ethical aspects of health technologies. We systematically searched three bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Social Science Citation Index [SSCI]) using published search filters or "hedges" and our hybrid filter to identify qualitative research studies pertaining to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and early breast cancer. The search filters were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Our screening by title and abstract revealed that qualitative research constituted only slightly more than 1% of all published research on each health topic. The performance of the published search filters varied greatly across topics and databases. Compared with existing search filters, our hybrid filter demonstrated a consistently high sensitivity across databases and topics, and minimized the resource-intensive process of sifting through false positives. We identify opportunities for qualitative health researchers to improve the uptake of qualitative research into evidence-informed policy making.

  14. Hunting for sustainability: a summary of research findings from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Beatriz; Delibes-Mateos, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The HUNTing for Sustainability multi-discplinary research project has been funded by the European Union’s 7th Framework Research Programme. The project involved cooperation with a range of institutions and included case studies from Norway, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, Slovenia, Croatia, Ethiopia and Tanzania. The primary research activity in Spain has been related to assessing costs and benefits of different management styles for red-legged partridge hunting.

  15. The Troubled Touch of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Alexander H; Bartsch, Victoria B; Zylka, Mark J

    2016-07-14

    A study finds that deficits in touch-sensing somatosensory neurons contribute to social interaction and anxiety phenotypes in mouse models of autism and Rett syndrome. These findings suggest that some core symptoms of autism might originate from aberrant development or function of the peripheral nervous system. PMID:27419865

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids in the management of autism spectrum disorders: findings from an open-label pilot study in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Y P; Weng, S-J; Jang, L Y; Low, L; Seah, J; Teo, S; Ang, R P; Lim, C G; Liew, A; Fung, D S; Sung, M

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this open-label trial was to examine the efficacy and safety of a 12-week omega-3 fatty acids supplementation among children suffering with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A total of 41 children and adolescents aged 7-18 years (36 boys, 5 girls; mean age = 11.66, s.d. = 3.05) diagnosed with ASD participated in the study. At post-treatment, participants showed significant improvements on all subscales of the Social Responsiveness Scale (P < 0.01) and the Social and Attention Problems syndrome scales of the Child Behavior Checklist (P < 0.05). Blood fatty acid levels were significantly correlated with changes in the core symptoms of ASD. Baseline levels of blood fatty acid levels were also predictive of response to the omega-3 treatment. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation was well-tolerated and did not cause any serious side effects. Our findings lend some preliminary support for the use of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in addressing ASD. Future randomized controlled trials of omega-3 fatty acids in ASD with blood fatty acid measurements with a larger sample and longer follow-up period is warranted. PMID:25804268

  17. Evaluating Direct Marketing Campaigns: recent findings and future research topics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J-J. Jonker (Jedid-Jah); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); N. Piersma (Nanda)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper contains a survey of the recent literature on the evaluation of direct marketing campaigns. We give an outline of the various stages included in such a campaign. Next, we review the statistical methods most frequently used and we review the general findings from using these me

  18. Research Progress of Functional Connectivity of Autism Spectrum Disorder%自闭谱系障碍的大脑功能性连接研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申荷永; 李新格; 朱绘霖

    2014-01-01

    The research progress on the functional connectivity of autism spectrum disorder is illustrated.Autism spectrum disorder is an early-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the communication and social in-teraction impairments, repetitive and stereotyped behavior and restricted interests.The recent research finds that autistic adolescents and adults show the functional underconnectivity in the brain areas and this lower synchroniza-tion of neural activity has a negative correlation with the severity of symptoms in autism spectrum disorder.The functional near-infrared spectroscopy, a newly developed noninvasive optical neural imaging, is used to study autis-tic children between 8-11 years of age on the resting-state.The results indicate that, compared with typically de-veloping children, autistic children show significantly lower functional connectivity in the bilateral inferior frontal cortices and temporal cortices.This functional underconnectivity has a negative correlation with the severity of lan-guage, communication and social interaction deficits of autism spectrum disorder.This study supports the feasibility and convenience of using the functional near-infrared spectroscopy method to assess atypical functional connectivity of cortical activity in autistic children and its potential for early diagnosis on autism spectrum disorder.%自闭谱系障碍是一种以早期社会交往上的广泛性异常、缺乏与人进行沟通的能力、异常局限的兴趣以及刻板重复性行为为特征的复杂的神经发育障碍。自闭谱系障碍的脑功能成像研究表明,无论是任务态下,还是静息态下,自闭谱系障碍存在着功能性连接的普遍降低,而这种神经同步性活动的异常可能与自闭谱系障碍的社会交往障碍和沟通障碍的严重程度有关。除了采用功能性磁共振成像( fMRI)对自闭谱系障碍成人的大脑皮层功能性连接进行测量外,还可以

  19. Research Review: Social Motivation and Oxytocin in Autism--Implications for Joint Attention Development and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Katherine K. M.; Carver, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Scope: The social motivation hypothesis (SMH) suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less intrinsically rewarded by social stimuli than their neurotypical peers. This difference in social motivation has been posited as a factor contributing to social deficits in ASD. Social motivation is thought to…

  20. Research Review: Goals, Intentions and Mental States--Challenges for Theories of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to understand the goals and intentions behind other people's actions is central to many social interactions. Given the profound social difficulties seen in autism, we might expect goal understanding to be impaired in these individuals. Two influential theories, the "broken mirror" theory and the mentalising theory, can both predict…

  1. Comment on Technology-Based Intervention Research for Individuals on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleery, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this letter to the editor is to comment on several review papers recently published in the current "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Special Issue on Technology: Software, Robotics, and Translational Science." These reviews address a variety of aspects relating to technology-aided intervention and instruction…

  2. Teachers' Perspectives of Research-Based Instructional Strategies and Implementation to Promote Literacy Skills for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Collection of Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Prasopsuk Y.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this collection of multiple case studies was to examine teachers' perspectives and practices to determine whether instructional strategies implemented in their classrooms to promote literacy skills for students with autism spectrum disorders were described as research-based practices. Although extensive research has been conducted…

  3. Most Colleges Chase Prestige on a Treadmill, Researchers Find

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The pursuit of institutional prestige has done little to improve the reputations of most colleges, and it may be causing many of them to become less distinguishable from their competitors, new research shows. In one study presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Kyle V. Sweitzer, a data-resource…

  4. Management Communication Ethics Research: Finding the Bull's-Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, N. Lamar, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that scholars who wish to produce substantive research in management communication ethics would be helped by a clear vision of what the term designates. States that management communication ethics should designate concerns that lie at the intersection of management, communication, and ethics. Concludes that this approach could help to…

  5. Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent 2 highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, and research in this area has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. We conceptualize the…

  6. Research Findings on Radiation Hormesis and Radon Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation hormesis research in Japan to determine the validity of Luckey's claims has revealed information on the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific data of animal tests we obtained and successful results actually brought by radon therapy on human patients show us a clearer understanding of the health effects of low-level radiation. We obtained many animal test results and epidemiological survey data through our research activities cooperating with more than ten universities in Japan, categorized as follows: 1. suppression of cancer by enhancement of the immune system based on gene activation; 2. rejuvenation and suppression of aging by increasing cell membrane permeability and enzyme syntheses; 3. adaptive response by activation of gene expression on DNA repair and cell apoptosis; 4. pain relief and stress moderation by hormone formation in the brain and central nervous system; 5. avoidance and therapy of obstinate diseases by enhancing damage control systems and form one formation

  7. Using the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) and Childhood Autism Rating Scales (CARS) to Predict Long Term Outcomes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L.; Brewer, Neil

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the predictive validity of the Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, Autism detection in early childhood: ADEC. Australian Council of Educational Research, Camberwell, VIC 2007) and a well-established screening tool, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS; Schopler et al. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS).…

  8. Searching for Pedagogical Adaptations by Exploring Teacher's Tacit Knowledge and Interactional Co-Regulation in the Education of Pupils with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, Irene; Kontu, Elina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce a research design, which aims to find useful pedagogical adaptations for teaching pupils with autism. Autism is a behavioural syndrome characterised by disabilities and dysfunctions in interaction and communication, which is why it is interesting to explore educational processes particularly from an…

  9. Erratum to "Progress and Outcomes for Children with Autism Receiving Parent-Managed Intensive Interventions" [Research in Developmental Disabilities 22 (2001) 425-447].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, Peter; Eikeseth, Svein; Martin, Neil T.; Mudford, Oliver C.; Reeves, David

    2002-01-01

    This corrected article on parent-managed interventions with children with autism reports on analysis of data on 66 children. Findings generally indicated that, after 31.6 months of intervention, IQ scores had not changed but adaptive behavior scores had increased significantly (n=21). However, overall interventions did not reproduce results from…

  10. Autism Speaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... summary of House to Home Prize Congress highlights role of small business employing those with autism The Importance of Water Safety: Tips and Tools See all Families & Adults Adult Services Autism Apps and Technology Autism Response Team Community Outreach Grants Non-English Resources Resource Guide ...

  11. Discovery research: the scientific challenge of finding new antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, David M

    2011-09-01

    The dwindling supply of new antibiotics largely reflects regulatory and commercial challenges, but also a failure of discovery. In the 1990s the pharmaceutical industry abandoned its classical ways of seeking antibiotics and instead adopted a strategy that combined genomics with high-throughput screening of existing compound libraries. Too much emphasis was placed on identifying targets and molecules that bound to them, and too little emphasis was placed on the ability of these molecules to permeate bacteria, evade efflux and avoid mutational resistance; moreover, the compound libraries were systematically biased against antibiotics. The sorry result is that no antibiotic found by this strategy has yet entered clinical use and many major pharmaceutical companies have abandoned antibiotic discovery. Although a raft of start-up companies-variously financed by venture capital, charity or public money--are now finding new antibiotic compounds (some of them very promising in vitro or in early trials), their development through Phase III depends on financial commitments from large pharmaceutical companies, where the discouraging regulatory environment and the poor likely return on investment remain paramount issues.

  12. Exploiting multimedia in reproductive science education: research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, P L; Oki, A C; Trevisan, M S; McLean, D J

    2012-08-01

    Education in reproductive science is operating from an outdated paradigm of teaching and learning. Traditionally, reproductive education follows the pattern where students read a textbook, listen to instructor presentations, re-read the textbook and class notes and then complete a test. This paradigm is inefficient, costly and has not incorporated the potential that technology can offer with respect to increases in student learning. Further, teachers of reproductive science (and all of science for that matter) have little training in the use of documented methods of instructional design and cognitive psychology. Thus, most of us have learned to teach by repeating the approaches our mentors used (both good and bad). The technology now exists to explain complex topics using multimedia presentations in which digital animation and three-dimensional anatomical reconstructions greatly reduce time required for delivery while at the same time improving student understanding. With funding from the Small Business Innovation Research program through the U.S. Department of Education, we have developed and tested a multimedia approach to teaching complex concepts in reproductive physiology. The results of five separate experiments involving 1058 university students and 122 patients in an OB/GYN clinic indicate that students and patients learned as much or more in less time when viewing the multimedia presentations when compared to traditional teaching methodologies. PMID:22827348

  13. EU socio-economic research on fusion: Findings and program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997 the European Commission launched a Socio-Economic Research program to study under which conditions future fusion power plants may become competitive, compatible with the energy supply system and acceptable for the public. It has been shown, among others, that: 1) local communities are ready to support the construction of an experimental fusion facility, if appropriate communication and awareness campaigns are carried out; 2) since the externalities are much lower than for competitors, fusion power plants may become the major producer of base load electricity at the end of the century in Europe, if climate changes have to be mitigated, if the construction of new nuclear fission power plants continues to be constrained and if nuclear fusion power plants become commercially available in 2050. Cooperating with major international organizations, the program for next year aims to demonstrating, through technical economic programming models and global multi-regional energy environmental scenarios, that the potential global benefits of fusion power plants in the second half of the century largely outdo the RD and D costs borne in the first half to make it available. Making the public aware of such benefits through field experiences will be part of the program. (author)

  14. Becoming a Scientist: Research Findings on STEM Students' Gains from Conducting Undergraduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, A.; Laursen, S.; Thiry, H.; Seymour, E.

    2006-12-01

    Undergraduate research is widely believed to enhance STEM students' education and increase their persistence to graduate education and careers in the sciences. Yet until very recently, little evidence from research and evaluation studies was available to substantiate such claims and document what students gain from doing undergraduate research or how these gains come about. We have conducted a three-year qualitative research study of STEM students participating in UR at four liberal arts colleges with a strong tradition of faculty-led summer research apprenticeships. Benefits to students reported by both students and their faculty advisors are categorized into six main categories of gains in skills, knowledge, "thinking like a scientist," career preparation, career development, and personal and professional growth. Student and faculty observations are strongly corroborative, but also differ in interesting ways that reflect the distinct perspectives of each group: students are still in the midst of discovering their own career paths while faculty advisors have observed the later career development of their past research students. While not all students find UR to heighten their interest in graduate school, they do find it a powerful growth experience that clarifies their career ambitions by providing a "real world" experience of science. For students whose interest in science is reinforced, UR has a significant role in their professional socialization into the culture and norms of science, which we call "becoming a scientist," through interactions that draw them into the scientific community and experiences that deepen their understanding of the nature of research. Cumulatively, the qualitative data set of nearly 350 interviews offers a rich portrayal of the UR enterprise from a variety of perspectives. Longitudinal data enable us to track the influence of UR on students' career and education trajectories in the years after college, and comparative data from a group

  15. Research note: exceptional absolute pitch perception for spoken words in an able adult with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Pamela; Davis, Robert E; Happé, Francesca G E

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterised by deficits in socialisation and communication, with repetitive and stereotyped behaviours [American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: APA]. Whilst intellectual and language impairment is observed in a significant proportion of diagnosed individuals [Gillberg, C., & Coleman, M. (2000). The biology of the autistic syndromes (3rd ed.). London: Mac Keith Press; Klinger, L., Dawson, G., & Renner, P. (2002). Autistic disorder. In E. Masn, & R. Barkley (Eds.), Child pyschopathology (2nd ed., pp. 409-454). New York: Guildford Press], the disorder is also strongly associated with the presence of highly developed, idiosyncratic, or savant skills [Heaton, P., & Wallace, G. (2004) Annotation: The savant syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45 (5), 899-911]. We tested identification of fundamental pitch frequencies in complex tones, sine tones and words in AC, an intellectually able man with autism and absolute pitch (AP) and a group of healthy controls with self-reported AP. The analysis showed that AC's naming of speech pitch was highly superior in comparison to controls. The results suggest that explicit access to perceptual information in speech is retained to a significantly higher degree in autism.

  16. 76 FR 33763 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct AGENCY... final notice of debarment based on the misconduct in science and research misconduct findings of the... misconduct in science and research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of General...

  17. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404 Findings of research misconduct and...

  18. Low Endogenous Neural Noise in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Greg; Plaisted-Grant, Kate

    2015-01-01

    "Heuristic" theories of autism postulate that a single mechanism or process underpins the diverse psychological features of autism spectrum disorder. Although no such theory can offer a comprehensive account, the parsimonious descriptions they provide are powerful catalysts to autism research. One recent proposal holds that…

  19. Elderly with Autism: Executive Functions and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Vissers, Marlies E.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive autism research is mainly focusing on children and young adults even though we know that autism is a life-long disorder and that healthy aging already has a strong impact on cognitive functioning. We compared the neuropsychological profile of 23 individuals with autism and 23 healthy controls (age range 51-83 years). Deficits were…

  20. Autism across Cultures: Rethinking Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the autism prevalence rate has been very closely monitored in the United States, the same has not been observed in many other countries. This may be attributed to the fact that each culture views and defines autism differently. Using field notes and semi-structured interviews with family members with an individual with autism, teachers,…

  1. A review of traditional and novel treatments for seizures in autism spectrum disorder: findings from a systematic review and expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Richard E; Rossignol, Daniel; Casanova, Manuel F; Brown, Gregory L; Martin, Victoria; Edelson, Stephen; Coben, Robert; Lewine, Jeffrey; Slattery, John C; Lau, Chrystal; Hardy, Paul; Fatemi, S Hossein; Folsom, Timothy D; Macfabe, Derrick; Adams, James B

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that seizures are commonly associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the effectiveness of treatments for seizures has not been well studied in individuals with ASD. This manuscript reviews both traditional and novel treatments for seizures associated with ASD. Studies were selected by systematically searching major electronic databases and by a panel of experts that treat ASD individuals. Only a few anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) have undergone carefully controlled trials in ASD, but these trials examined outcomes other than seizures. Several lines of evidence point to valproate, lamotrigine, and levetiracetam as the most effective and tolerable AEDs for individuals with ASD. Limited evidence supports the use of traditional non-AED treatments, such as the ketogenic and modified Atkins diet, multiple subpial transections, immunomodulation, and neurofeedback treatments. Although specific treatments may be more appropriate for specific genetic and metabolic syndromes associated with ASD and seizures, there are few studies which have documented the effectiveness of treatments for seizures for specific syndromes. Limited evidence supports l-carnitine, multivitamins, and N-acetyl-l-cysteine in mitochondrial disease and dysfunction, folinic acid in cerebral folate abnormalities and early treatment with vigabatrin in tuberous sclerosis complex. Finally, there is limited evidence for a number of novel treatments, particularly magnesium with pyridoxine, omega-3 fatty acids, the gluten-free casein-free diet, and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic simulation. Zinc and l-carnosine are potential novel treatments supported by basic research but not clinical studies. This review demonstrates the wide variety of treatments used to treat seizures in individuals with ASD as well as the striking lack of clinical trials performed to support the use of these treatments. Additional studies concerning these treatments for controlling seizures in individuals

  2. A review of traditional and novel treatments for seizures in autism spectrum disorder: Findings from a systematic review and expert panel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Eugene Frye

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that seizures are commonly associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, the effectiveness of treatments for seizures has not been well studied in individuals with ASD. This manuscript reviews both traditional and novel treatments for seizures associated with ASD. Studies were selected by systematically searching major electronic databases and by a panel of experts that treat ASD individuals. Only a few anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs have undergone carefully controlled trials in ASD, but these trials examined outcomes other than seizures. Several lines of evidence point to valproate, lamotrigine and levetiracetam as the most effective and tolerable AEDs for individuals with ASD. Limited evidence supports the use of traditional non-AED treatments, such as the ketogenic and modified Atkins diet, multiple subpial transections and immunomodulation and neurofeedback treatments. Although specific treatments may be more appropriate for specific genetic and metabolic syndromes associated with ASD and seizures, there are few studies which have documented the effectiveness of treatments for seizures for specific syndromes. Limited evidence supports L-carnitine, multivitamins and N-acetyl-L-cysteine in mitochondrial disease and dysfunction, folinic acid in cerebral folate abnormalities and early treatment with vigabatrin in tuberous sclerosis complex. Finally, there is limited evidence for a number of novel treatments, particularly magnesium with pyridoxine, omega-3 fatty acids, the gluten-free casein-free diet and transcranial magnetic simulation. Zinc and L-carnosine are potential novel treatments supported by basic research but not clinical studies. This review demonstrates the wide variety of treatments used to treat seizures in individuals with ASD as well as the striking lack of clinical trials performed to support the use these treatments. Additional studies concerning these treatments for controlling seizures in individuals with ASD

  3. Children with Autism: Sleep Problems and Symptom Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Megan E.; Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between the specific sleep problems and specific behavioral problems of children with autism were evaluated. Mothers' reports of sleep habits and autism symptoms were collected for 109 children with autism. Unlike previous research in this area, only children diagnosed with autism without any commonly comorbid diagnoses (e.g.,…

  4. Advances in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschwind, Daniel H

    2009-01-01

    Autism is a common childhood neurodevelopmental disorder with strong genetic liability. It is not a unitary entity but a clinical syndrome, with variable deficits in social behavior and language, restrictive interests, and repetitive behaviors. Recent advances in the genetics of autism emphasize its etiological heterogeneity, with each genetic susceptibility locus accounting for only a small fraction of cases or having a small effect. Therefore, it is not surprising that no unifying structural or neuropathological features have been conclusively identified. Given the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), approaches based on studying heritable components of the disorder, or endophenotypes, such as language or social cognition, provide promising avenues for genetic and neurobiological investigations. Early intensive behavioral and cognitive interventions are efficacious in many cases, but autism does not remit in the majority of children. Therefore, development of targeted therapies based on pathophysiologically and etiologically defined subtypes of ASD remains an important and achievable goal of current research. PMID:19630577

  5. Effects of a Socially Interactive Robot on the Conversational Turns between Parents and Their Young Children with Autism. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Derryberry, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a socially interactive robot on the conversational turns between four young children with autism and their mothers were investigated as part of the intervention study described in this research report. The interventions with each child were conducted over 4 or 5 days in the children's homes where a practitioner facilitated…

  6. Effectiveness of Gluten-Free and Casein-Free Diets for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Evidence-Based Research Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Mayton, Michael R.; Wheeler, John J.

    2013-01-01

    In order to better assist practitioners and better serve persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their families, it is vital for professionals to systematically evaluate the existing body of literature and synthesize its scientific evidence, so that the efficacy of research can be translated to evidence-based practices (EBPs) (Wheeler,…

  7. ADHD og autisme findes skam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Eskebæk

    2013-01-01

    Jeg vil gerne frabede mig den kreative klasses frelste holdninger og i stedet bede om en debat, der tager udgangspunkt i, hvordan vi som samfund kan blive bedre til at rumme sårbare børn og voksne....

  8. Can Findings from Randomized Controlled Trials of Social Skills Training in Autism Spectrum Disorder Be Generalized? The Neglected Dimension of External Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Ulf; Olsson, Nora Choque; Bölte, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews have traditionally focused on internal validity, while external validity often has been overlooked. In this study, we systematically reviewed determinants of external validity in the accumulated randomized controlled trials of social skills group interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. We…

  9. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. When the final HHS action does not result in a settlement or finding of... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding...

  10. Quantification of the stapedial reflex reveals delayed responses in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukose, Richard; Brown, Kevin; Barber, Carol M; Kulesza, Randy Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder characterized, in part, by sensory abnormalities. It is well established that most if not all patients with autism have problems with auditory processing, ranging from deafness to hyperacusis, and physiological testing of auditory function (i.e. auditory brain stem responses) implicates brain stem dysfunction in autism. Additionally, previous research from this lab has revealed significantly fewer auditory brain stem neurons in autistic subjects as young as 2 years of age. These observations have led us to hypothesize that objective, noninvasive measures of auditory function can be used as an early screening tool to identify neonates with an elevated risk of carrying a diagnosis of autism. Here, we provide a detailed quantitative investigation of the acoustic stapedial reflex (ASR), a three- or four-neuron brain stem circuit, in young autistic subjects and normal developing controls. Indeed, we find significantly lower thresholds, responses occurring at significantly longer latency and right-left asymmetry in autistic subjects. The results from this investigation support deficits in auditory function as a cardinal feature of autism and suggest that individuals with autism can be identified by their ASR responses. PMID:23825093

  11. A comparison of differential reinforcement procedures with children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Brittany A; Vladescu, Jason C; Kodak, Tiffany M; Argott, Paul J; Kisamore, April N

    2015-12-01

    The current evaluation compared the effects of 2 differential reinforcement arrangements and a nondifferential reinforcement arrangement on the acquisition of tacts for 3 children with autism. Participants learned in all reinforcement-based conditions, and we discuss areas for future research in light of these findings and potential limitations.

  12. Structural Patterns in Conversations with a Woman Who Has Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbinson, Sushie; Perkins, Michael R.; Boucher, Jill

    1998-01-01

    Conversational analysis was used to evaluate conversation between an adult with autism and a researcher. Analysis identified differences in conversational style based on such features as topic movement, topic maintenance, repairs, interference from earlier structures, common collocations, overlaps, latching, and pauses. Findings suggest the…

  13. Perception of emotions from facial expressions in high-functioning adults with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Daniel P.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Impairment in social communication is one of the diagnostic hallmarks of autism spectrum disorders, and a large body of research has documented aspects of impaired social cognition in autism, both at the level of the processes and the neural structures involved. Yet one of the most common social communicative abilities in everyday life, the ability to judge somebody's emotion from their facial expression, has yielded conflicting findings. To investigate this issue, we used a sensitive task th...

  14. Material Voices: Intermediality and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimingham, Melissa; Shaughnessy, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Autism continues to be regarded enigmatically; a community that is difficult to access due to perceived disruptions of interpersonal connectedness. Through detailed observations of two children participating in the Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project "Imagining Autism: Drama, Performance and Intermediality as Interventions for…

  15. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. When a final HHS action results in a settlement or research misconduct... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final HHS action with settlement or finding...

  16. 42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opportunity to contest findings of research... RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions General Information § 93.501 Opportunity...

  17. New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy: Introduction to Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan M.; Wittenborn, Andrea K.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the special section "New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy." Emotionally focused couple therapy researchers have a strong tradition of outcome and process research and this special section presents new findings from three recent studies. The first study furthers the goal of determining the kinds of clients…

  18. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI

    2011-12-01

    , Tajdar H, Mohammadi MR, Mohammadi M, Nouroozinejad GH, Shabstari OL, et al. A double-blindplacebo controlled trial of piracetam added to risperidonein patients with autistic disorder. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2008; 39: 237-245.Rezaei V, Mohammadi MR, Ghanizadeh A, Sahraian A,Tabrizi M, Rezazadeh SA, et al. Double-blind, placebo controlled trial of risperidone plus topiramate in children with autistic disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2010; 34: 1269-1272.Akhondzadeh S, Erfani S, Mohammadi MR, Tehrani-Doost M, Amini H, Gudarzi SS, et al. Cyproheptadine in the treatment of autistic disorder: a double-blind placebo controlled trial. J Clin Pharm Ther 2004; 29: 145-150.Mohammadi MR, Asadabadi M, Akhondzadeh S. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of celecoxib added to risperidone in children with autistic disorder. Unpublished paper.Ghanizadeh A. Targeting of glycine site on NMDA receptor as a possible new strategy for autism treatment.Neurochem Res 2011; 36: 922-923.Ghanizadeh A. Targeting neurotensin as a potential novel approach for the treatment of autism. J Neuro inflammation 2010; 7: 58.Bahmanzadegan Jahromi M, Yarmohammadian A,Mousavi H. Efficacy of social skills training in autistic behaviors and social development in children with autism disorder through social stories. New findings inpsychology 2009; 3: 79-93.Dalvand H, Dehghan L, Feizy A, Hosseini SA. The effect of home based Lovaas approach on social interaction,Speech and language, Play and behavior skills, and intensity of autism in young children with Autism. Modern Rehabilitation 2009; 3: 3.Golabi P, Alipour A, Zandi B. the effect of intervention by ABA method on children with autism. Research on exceptional children 2005; 5: 33-54.Arman S, Hakiman S, Golabi P. Three therapeutic methods for autistic children: a clinical trial. Journal of Isfahan Medical School 2005; 23: 44-48.Hatamzadeh A, Pouretemad H, Hassanabadi H. The effectiveness of parent-child interaction therapy for children with

  19. A case-control study of autism and mumps-measles-rubella vaccination using the general practice research database: design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Xiangning

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An association between mumps-measles-rubella (MMR vaccination and the onset of symptoms typical of autism has recently been suggested. This has led to considerable concern about the safety of the vaccine. Methods A matched case-control study using data derived form the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database. Children with a possible diagnosis of autism will be identified from their electronic health records. All diagnoses will be validated by a detailed review of hospital letters and by using information derived from a parental questionnaire. Ten controls per case will be selected from the database. Conditional logistic regression will be used to assess the association between MMR vaccination and autism. In addition case series analyses will be undertaken to estimate the relative incidence of onset of autism in defined time intervals after vaccination. The study is funded by the United Kingdom Medical Research Council. Discussion Electronic health databases offer tremendous opportunities for evaluating the adverse effects of vaccines. However there is much scope for bias and confounding. The rigorous validation of all diagnoses and the collection of additional information by parental questionnaire in this study are essential to minimise the possibility of misleading results.

  20. Environmental risk factors for autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney R. Dietert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals.

  1. The Association Between Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince, Yasmeen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Every day many thousands of children face the complications of Autism. According to Geraghty, Depasquale, and Lane (2010, Autism has become one of the most frequently diagnosed developmental disabilities, with one in one hundred children diagnosed with Autism in the United States every day. The etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD has not been determined. One of many questions researchers are asking is whether an association exists between gastrointestinal disorders and Autism. This literature review examines the relationship between GI symptoms and eating patterns in children with Autism, and assesses whether special diets reduce symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

  2. 儿童孤独症神经病理学研究进展%Research progress of neuropathology of autism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迪

    2013-01-01

    Childhood autism is an extensive developmental disorder.Abnormal neuroimaging and neuropathology brain structure research of autistic children in recent years are reviewed in this paper.Brain structure researches have showed the brain volume increased in children with autism,normally occuring to the frontal lobe,temporal lobe.Brain function researches have shown that children with autism have abnormal activity in the fusiform gyrus,superior temporal gyrus,and inferior frontal lobe.Brain metabolites studies have shown that children with autism present glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid and serotonin metabolism disorder.Immunological studies have found that children with autism have proinflammatory factor and the emergence of a brain protein antibody.%儿童孤独症是广泛性发育障碍中的代表性疾病.该文综述近年来孤独症患儿神经影像学及神经病理学方面的异常.脑结构的研究显示孤独症患儿的脑体积的增大,额叶、颞叶等处发育异常;脑功能的研究显示孤独症患儿在颞上回、额下回、梭状回等处存在异常活动;脑代谢物的研究显示孤独症患儿存在谷氨酸及γ-氨基丁酸以及5-羟色胺代谢异常;免疫学研究发现孤独症患儿促炎症因子及脑蛋白抗体的出现等.

  3. Hearing Voices:Re/Presenting the Findings of Narrative Research into Patient Experience as Poems

    OpenAIRE

    Stenhouse, R.

    2013-01-01

    Research into the patient's perspective on their care is being given increasing importance within health and nurse education policy, predicated upon the idea that the findings represent the patient experience. Researchers have power to silence the voices of research participants through the process of authorship. Exploring the arts as a means of presenting findings offers the opportunity problematize issues of power and authorship, and examine ways of decentring the researcher's voice. Re/pre...

  4. Expression of the Broad Autism Phenotype in Simplex Autism Families from the Simons Simplex Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Julie; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.; Green-Snyder, Lee Anne; Hundley, Rachel J.; Warren, Zachary; Peters, Sarika U.

    2014-01-01

    The broad autism phenotype (BAP) refers to the phenotypic expression of an underlying genetic liability to autism, manifest in non-autistic relatives. This study examined the relationship among the "Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire" (BAPQ), "Social Responsiveness Scale: Adult Research Version" (SRS:ARV), and "Family…

  5. A Review of Traditional and Novel Treatments for Seizures in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Findings from a Systematic Review and Expert Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Richard E; Rossignol, Daniel; Casanova, Manuel F.; Brown, Gregory L.; Martin, Victoria; Edelson, Stephen; Coben, Robert; Lewine, Jeffrey; Slattery, John C.; Lau, Chrystal; Hardy, Paul; Fatemi, S. Hossein; Folsom, Timothy D.; MacFabe, Derrick; Adams, James B

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that seizures are commonly associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the effectiveness of treatments for seizures has not been well studied in individuals with ASD. This manuscript reviews both traditional and novel treatments for seizures associated with ASD. Studies were selected by systematically searching major electronic databases and by a panel of experts that treat ASD individuals. Only a few anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) have undergone carefully controlled trials ...

  6. Researches on neuroimmunological pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder%孤独症谱系障碍神经免疫机制的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周源源

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a series of extensive and severe neuronal disorders.Autism has renamed autism spectrum disorder(ASD)in the United States of the Diagnosis and Classification Manual Fifth Edition in May,2013.Abnormal neuroimmunological pathogenesis research of ASD in recent years is reviewed in this paper.Studies have found that children with ASD have abnormal proinflammatory factor,neurotransmitter and the emergence of a brain protein antibody.%孤独症是一组发生在婴幼儿时期广泛而严重的神经系统发育障碍性疾病,2013年5月颁布的美国精神疾病诊断与分类手册第五版将孤独症更名为孤独症谱系障碍(autism spectrum disorder,ASD).该文综述近年来ASD神经免疫机制方面的异常,包括免疫因子、神经递质与抗脑组织抗体等.

  7. Commenting on Findings in Qualitative and Quantitative Research Articles’ Discussion Sections in Applied Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Dobakhti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research articles have received a wide interest in discourse studies particularly in genre analysis over the last few decades. A vast number of studies have focused on identifying the organizational patterns of research articles in various fields. However, to date, no study has been conducted on generic structure of qualitative and quantitative research articles. This study investigates the importance of commenting on findings in Discussion section of qualitative and quantitative research articles and the strategies that these two types of articles employ in making comments. The analysis shows that while commenting on findings is an important feature in both sets of articles, different strategies of commenting are favored in each type of articles. The differences can be attributed to the different epistemology of qualitative and quantitative research.Keywords: genre analysis, qualitative research, quantitative research, commenting on findings

  8. Research and rural; EGPRN and EURIPA—finding common ground. October 2013, Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Richard G; Wynn-Jones, John

    2015-03-01

    The European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN) and the European Rural and Isolated Practitioner Association (EURIPA) convened a historic joint meeting in Malta in October 2013. Speakers reviewed the inadequacies of the current system and conduct of clinical science research and the use and misuse of the resulting findings. Rural communities offer extraordinary opportunities to conduct more holistic, integrative, and relevant research using new methods and data sources. Investigators presented exciting research findings on questions important to the health of those in rural areas. Participants discussed several strategies to enhance the capacity and stature of rural health research and practice. EGPRN and EURIPA pledged to work together to develop rural research courses, joint research projects, and a European Rural Research Agenda based on the most urgent priorities and the European definition of general practice research in rural health care.

  9. Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Rosenberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a national online registry to examine variation in cumulative prevalence of community diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity in 4343 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression models compared influence of individual, family, and geographic factors on cumulative prevalence of parent-reported anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Adjusted odds of community-assigned lifetime psychiatric comorbidity were significantly higher with each additional year of life, with increasing autism severity, and with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified compared with autistic disorder. Overall, in this largest study of parent-reported community diagnoses of psychiatric comorbidity, gender, autistic regression, autism severity, and type of ASD all emerged as significant factors correlating with cumulative prevalence. These findings could suggest both underlying trends in actual comorbidity as well as variation in community interpretation and application of comorbid diagnoses in ASD.

  10. Tightening research-practice connections: Taking ISLS findings to public debate

    OpenAIRE

    McKenney, Susan; Gomez, Kimberly; Reiser, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This session will: sensitize participants to the importance of sharing research findings with non-researchers (e.g. teachers, school leaders, policy makers, parents); inform participants about existing strategies for engaging in public debate; and support participants in forming collaborative outreach projects. During the workshop, collaboration teams will identify specific research insights to be shared with non-researchers; start shaping key messages; and select approaches for engaging in p...

  11. [Autism, genetics and synaptic function alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perche, O; Laumonnier, F; Baala, L; Ardourel, M-Y; Menuet, A; Robin, V; Mortaud, S; Montécot-Dubourg, C; Richard, O; Pichon, J; Briault, S

    2010-10-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a deficit of language and communication both associated with a restricted repertoire of activities and interests. The current prevalence of autistic disorder stricto sensu is estimated at 1/500 whereas autism spectrum disorders (ASD) increases up to 1/150 to 1/200. Mental deficiency (MD) and epilepsy are present in numerous autistic individuals. Consequently, autism is as a major public health issue. Autism was first considered as a non biological disease; however various rational approaches for analysing epidemiological data suggested the possibility of the influence of genetic factors. In 2003, this hypothesis was clearly illustrated by the characterization of genetic mutations transmitted through a mendelian manner. Subsequently, the glutamate synapse appeared as a preferential causal target in autism because the identified genes encoded proteins present in this structure. Strikingly, the findings that an identical genetic dysfunction of the synapse might also explain some MD suggested the possibility of a genetic comorbidity between these neurodevelopmental conditions. To date, various identified genes are considered indifferently as "autism" or "MD" genes. The characterization of mutations in the NLGN4X gene in patients with Asperger syndrome, autism without MD, or MD without autism, was the first example. It appears that a genetic continuum between ASD on one hand, and between autism and MD on the other hand, is present. Consequently, it is likely that genes already involved in MD will be found mutated in autistic patients and will represent future target for finding new factors in autism.

  12. Parent-Led Autism Therapy Shows Lasting Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161690.html Parent-Led Autism Therapy Shows Lasting Benefits Early intervention reduced symptom ... may have lasting benefits for young children with autism, a new clinical trial suggests. Researchers from the ...

  13. If impact is essential to REF, how can we find a common definition across research fields?

    OpenAIRE

    Penfield, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    'Impact’ can mean different things to different people yet all researchers are being faced with proving evidence of their own impact. Teresa Penfield introduces the DESCRIBE project; an attempt to find a definition common to academics, international experts and professionals.

  14. Alcohol Use Disorders, Research Findings | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Alcohol Use Research Findings Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table ... and adolescents years after they were exposed to alcohol in the womb. That is according to a ...

  15. Social learning in Learning Networks through peer support: research findings and pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouns, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Brouns, F. (2012, 2-4 April). Social learning in Learning Networks through peer support: research findings and pitfalls. Presentation at the Eighth International Conference on Networked Learning 2012, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

  16. Finding a Place for Systems-Based, Collaborative Research in Emerging Disease Research in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Theresa E; Stephen, Craig

    2015-12-01

    The need to adequately predict, prevent and respond to infectious diseases emerging unexpectedly from human-animal-environmental systems has driven interest in multisectoral, socio-economic, systems-based, collaborative (MSC) research approaches such as EcoHealth and One Health. Our goals were to document how MSC research has been used to address EIDs in Asia, and to explore how MSC approaches align with current priorities for EID research in Asia. We gathered priorities for EID research from the peer-reviewed and grey literature, documented organizational descriptions of MCS research approaches, and analysed a series of EID MSC projects. We found that priority areas for EID research in Asia included (1) understanding host-pathogen-environment interactions; (2) improving tools and technologies; (3) changing people's behaviour; and (4) evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. We found that the unifying characteristics of MSC research were that it was action-oriented and sought to inspire change under real-world conditions at the complex interface of human and natural systems. We suggest that MSC research can be considered a type of 'pragmatic research' and might be most useful in describing change in complex human-animal-environmental systems, accelerating research-to-action, and evaluating effectiveness of interventions in 'real world' settings.

  17. 自闭症谱系障碍的分子遗传学研究进展%Molecular genetic research progress in autism spectrum disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚亮; 马媛媛; 白雪; 邢万金

    2016-01-01

    自闭症谱系障碍是一种复杂的神经发育障碍性疾病,表现的缺陷有:兴趣爱好受限,重复性的行为;语言和交流障碍;基本丧失参与社会互动能力等。自闭症谱系障碍的病因至今不清,通过对自闭症谱系障碍家族的遗传学研究发现,大约25%患者的患病原因与遗传相关。大约10%~20%的自闭症谱系障碍患者存在染色体重排和罕见的新拷贝数变异,相较而言这类变异在普通人群和未受影响的兄弟姐妹中出现的概率只有1%~2%。大量证据还表明,单核苷酸多态性与自闭症谱系障碍的易感性有关。这些结果与基因组测序数据相结合,有助于鉴定与自闭症谱系障碍相关的基因。总结了近年来自闭症谱系障碍分子遗传方向的研究成果,介绍了与自闭症谱系障碍相关的拷贝数变异、单核苷酸变异以及候选基因等遗传因素,为自闭症谱系障碍的遗传研究提供相关参考。%Autism spectrum disorders ( ASDs) are a complex neurodevelopmental disorder displaying restricted interests , repetitive be-havior, impairments in language and communication , and an inability to engage in social interactions .The causes of the ASDs remain unknown for the majority of individuals with ASD .ASD is among the most heritable disorders .Family studies indicate that up to 25%of cases can be identified as a genetic cause .Chromosomal rearrangements as well as rare and de novo copy-number variants ( CNVs) are present in 10%-20% of individuals with ASD , compared with 1%-2% in the general population and/or unaffected siblings . Evidences show the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) seem to contribute to ASD susceptibility.These findings, coupled with genome sequencing data may unveil the genes implicated in ASDs .This paper summarizes the results of molecular genetic research on autism and mainly introduces the genetic risk factors such as CNVs , SNPs and

  18. Is There Concordance in Attitudes and Beliefs between Parents and Scientists about Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Ruth L.; Harris, Mark J.; Ballan, Michelle S.; Fischbach, Gerald D.; Link, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    There is no reported investigation comparing concordance in attitudes and beliefs about autism spectrum disorder between parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and scientists who research autism spectrum disorder. To investigate the level of concordance between these groups on causes of autism, priorities of research, perceived stigma,…

  19. School Effectiveness Research Findings in the Portuguese Speaking Countries: Brazil and Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrão, Maria Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides findings of research on school effectiveness and discusses implications for evaluation in Brazil and Portugal. Most findings reported over the last decade have been published in Brazilian or Portuguese refereed journals. Thus, a brief literature review of such studies enables that knowledge to reach international scholars and…

  20. Impact of problem finding on the quality of authentic open inquiry science research projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labanca, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007 Connecticut Science Fair and the 2007 International Science and Engineering Fair. A multicase qualitative study was framed through the lenses of creativity, inquiry strategies, and situated cognition learning theory. Data were triangulated by methods (interviews, document analysis, surveys) and sources (students, teachers, mentors, fair directors, documents). The data demonstrated that the quality of student projects was directly impacted by the quality of their problem finding. Effective problem finding was a result of students using resources from previous, specialized experiences. They had a positive self-concept and a temperament for both the creative and logical perspectives of science research. Successful problem finding was derived from an idiosyncratic, nonlinear, and flexible use and understanding of inquiry. Finally, problem finding was influenced and assisted by the community of practicing scientists, with whom the students had an exceptional ability to communicate effectively. As a result, there appears to be a juxtaposition of creative and logical/analytical thought for open inquiry that may not be present in other forms of inquiry. Instructional strategies are suggested for teachers of science research students to improve the quality of problem finding for their students and their subsequent research projects.

  1. A Clinical Service to Support the Return of Secondary Genomic Findings in Human Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Andrew J.; Austin, Howard; Bluemke, David A.; Cannon, Richard O.; Fischbeck, Kenneth; Gahl, William; Goldman, David; Grady, Christine; Greene, Mark H.; Holland, Steven M.; Hull, Sara Chandros; Porter, Forbes D.; Resnik, David; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Biesecker, Leslie G.

    2016-01-01

    Human genome and exome sequencing are powerful research tools that can generate secondary findings beyond the scope of the research. Most secondary genomic findings are of low importance, but some (for a current estimate of 1%–3% of individuals) confer high risk of a serious disease that could be mitigated by timely medical intervention. The impact and scope of secondary findings in genome and exome sequencing will only increase in the future. There is considerable agreement that high-impact findings should be returned to participants, but many researchers performing genomic research studies do not have the background, skills, or resources to identify, verify, interpret, and return such variants. Here, we introduce a proposal for the formation of a secondary-genomic-findings service (SGFS) that would support researchers by enabling the return of clinically actionable sequencing results to research participants in a standardized manner. We describe a proposed structure for such a centralized service and evaluate the advantages and challenges of the approach. We suggest that such a service would be of greater benefit to all parties involved than present practice, which is highly variable. We encourage research centers to consider the adoption of a centralized SGFS. PMID:26942283

  2. Researcher Tales and Research Ethics: The Spaces in Which We Find Ourselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Julie; Fitzgerald, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    The tales we tell here focus on the ethical issues arising from our research practice with vulnerable young participants and those for whom research has been inextricably linked with European imperialism and colonialism. The importance of relational obligations, temporality and potential for a continuing narrative approach to ethical research…

  3. Tightening research-practice connections: Taking ISLS findings to public debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Gomez, Kimberly; Reiser, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This session will: sensitize participants to the importance of sharing research findings with non-researchers (e.g. teachers, school leaders, policy makers, parents); inform participants about existing strategies for engaging in public debate; and support participants in forming collaborative outrea

  4. A Simulation Study of Categorizing Continuous Exposure Variables Measured with Error in Autism Research: Small Changes with Large Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn Heavner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the odds ratio (OR resulting from selection of cutoffs for categorizing continuous variables is rarely discussed. We present results for the effect of varying cutoffs used to categorize a mismeasured exposure in a simulated population in the context of autism spectrum disorders research. Simulated cohorts were created with three distinct exposure-outcome curves and three measurement error variances for the exposure. ORs were calculated using logistic regression for 61 cutoffs (mean ± 3 standard deviations used to dichotomize the observed exposure. ORs were calculated for five categories with a wide range for the cutoffs. For each scenario and cutoff, the OR, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. The three exposure-outcome relationships had distinctly shaped OR (versus cutoff curves, but increasing measurement error obscured the shape. At extreme cutoffs, there was non-monotonic oscillation in the ORs that cannot be attributed to “small numbers.” Exposure misclassification following categorization of the mismeasured exposure was differential, as predicted by theory. Sensitivity was higher among cases and specificity among controls. Cutoffs chosen for categorizing continuous variables can have profound effects on study results. When measurement error is not too great, the shape of the OR curve may provide insight into the true shape of the exposure-disease relationship.

  5. Characterizing the daily life, needs, and priorities of adults with autism spectrum disorder from Interactive Autism Network data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotham, Katherine; Marvin, Alison R; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Warren, Zachary; Anderson, Connie M; Law, Paul A; Law, Jessica K; Lipkin, Paul H

    2015-10-01

    Using online survey data from a large sample of adults with autism spectrum disorder and legal guardians, we first report outcomes across a variety of contexts for participants with a wide range of functioning, and second, summarize these stakeholders' priorities for future research. The sample included n = 255 self-reporting adults with autism spectrum disorder aged 18-71 years (M = 38.5 years, standard deviation = 13.1 years) and n = 143 adults with autism spectrum disorder aged 18-58 years (M = 25.0 years, standard deviation = 8.2 years) whose information was provided by legal guardians. Although the self-reporting subsample had much higher rates of employment, marriage/partnership, and independent living than are typically seen in autism spectrum disorder outcome studies, they remained underemployed and had strikingly high rates of comorbid disorders. Data on both descriptive outcomes and rated priorities converged across subsamples to indicate the need for more adult research on life skills, treatments, co-occurring conditions, and vocational and educational opportunities. Stakeholders also placed priority on improving public services, health care access, and above all, public acceptance of adults with autism spectrum disorder. Findings must be interpreted in light of the self-reporting subsample's significant proportion of females and of later-diagnosed individuals. This study underscores the need for lifespan research; initiatives will benefit from incorporating information from the unique perspectives of adults with autism spectrum disorder and their families.

  6. Autism--genetics, electrophysiology and clinical syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Plasevska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a severe and the most heritable developmental disorder, whose pathogenesis is still largely unknown. The rising incidence of autism in the last decade has increased the scientific interest and research. More than a thousand papers concerned with information about the etiology of this "static disorder of the immature brain" can be found on Pub Med. The aim of this paper is to give a review of published genetic chromosomal anomalies associated with autistic spectrum disorders, as well as to discuss common syndromes associated with autistic traits. In addition, some of our own findings in genetics, as well as in quantitative electroencephalography and neurofeedback training in autistic children, will be presented and discussed. Generally, the subsequent analyses indicate that the causes of autism include fewer common single-gene mutations and chromosomal abnormalities, as well as multiple interacting genes of weak effect. Genome-wide linkage analysis has identified several susceptibility loci and positional and functional candidate genes which appear to represent possible risks of the autistic spectrum. Electrophysiological findings showed high delta/theta activity in frontal-central regions, while in 25% high beta activity was detected as a result of anxiety. Neurofeedback is a promising therapy for symptom mitigation.

  7. Dissemination as Dialogue: Building Trust and Sharing Research Findings Through Community Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavitt, Bryce; Bogart, Laura M; Mutchler, Matt G; Wagner, Glenn J; Green, Harold D; Lawrence, Sean Jamar; Mutepfa, Kieta D; Nogg, Kelsey A

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental feature of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is sharing findings with community members and engaging community partners in the dissemination process. To be truly collaborative, dissemination should involve community members in a two-way dialogue about new research findings. Yet little literature describes how to engage communities in dialogue about research findings, especially with historically marginalized communities where mistrust of researchers may exist because of past or present social injustices. Through a series of interactive community presentations on findings from a longitudinal study, we developed a process for community dissemination that involved several overlapping phases: planning, outreach, content development, interactive presentations, and follow-up. Through this process, we built on existing and new community relationships. Following each interactive presentation, the research team debriefed and reviewed notes to identify lessons learned from the process. Key themes included the importance of creating a flexible dissemination plan, tailoring presentations to each community group, establishing a point person to serve as a community liaison, and continuing dialogue with community members after the presentations. Core strategies for developing trust during dissemination included engaging community members at every step, reserving ample time for discussion during presentations, building rapport by sharing personal experiences, being receptive to and learning from criticism, and implementing input from community members. This process led to a deeper understanding of research findings and ensured that results reached community members who were invested in them.

  8. Dissemination as Dialogue: Building Trust and Sharing Research Findings Through Community Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavitt, Bryce; Bogart, Laura M; Mutchler, Matt G; Wagner, Glenn J; Green, Harold D; Lawrence, Sean Jamar; Mutepfa, Kieta D; Nogg, Kelsey A

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental feature of community-based participatory research (CBPR) is sharing findings with community members and engaging community partners in the dissemination process. To be truly collaborative, dissemination should involve community members in a two-way dialogue about new research findings. Yet little literature describes how to engage communities in dialogue about research findings, especially with historically marginalized communities where mistrust of researchers may exist because of past or present social injustices. Through a series of interactive community presentations on findings from a longitudinal study, we developed a process for community dissemination that involved several overlapping phases: planning, outreach, content development, interactive presentations, and follow-up. Through this process, we built on existing and new community relationships. Following each interactive presentation, the research team debriefed and reviewed notes to identify lessons learned from the process. Key themes included the importance of creating a flexible dissemination plan, tailoring presentations to each community group, establishing a point person to serve as a community liaison, and continuing dialogue with community members after the presentations. Core strategies for developing trust during dissemination included engaging community members at every step, reserving ample time for discussion during presentations, building rapport by sharing personal experiences, being receptive to and learning from criticism, and implementing input from community members. This process led to a deeper understanding of research findings and ensured that results reached community members who were invested in them. PMID:26986541

  9. [Research on the method of stress assessment--from the research findings of 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese Society for Occupational Mental Health has conducted research on assessment of the psychological load (i.e., stress) among workers. Investigations were conducted three times, and those were contract research projects assigned by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In this project, the author was the primary researcher. In the latest research, a survey utilizing the Live Event Method was performed extensively nationwide; the survey covered 10,494 subjects (including 1,977 females) from all types of industry and occupation. The objective of this research was to reevaluate the Psychological Load Assessment Sheet used as an evaluation basis for the "Certification of workers' compensation related to mental disorders from psychological load." Two previous research investigations, conducted in 2002 and 2006, had suggested the need for such reevaluation. The outcomes revealed that, the longer the monthly overtime working hours, the higher the stress scores (in the range of 0 to 10), and the lower the appearance rate of stress. Subjects who performed 140 hours or more of overtime work per month, which fell under the category of "Extremely Excessive Overtime Work," showed 6.3 points, which was markedly high, and ranked fourth in the survey with 63 assessment items. The category, "Extremely Excessive Overtime Work," includes two working hour ranges, 120 hours or more and 160 hours or more; those working hour ranges were defined in the revision based on the latest research. Monthly overtime work of 120 hours or more, but less than 140 hours, was ranked ninth and scored 6.3 points. Monthly overtime work of 80 hours or more, but less than 100 hours, scored 5.3 points with a frequency of 14.2%. Based on the above results, new assessment items were added to the Psychological Load Assessment Sheet. This paper addresses and studies the issues explained above.

  10. Development of Motion Processing in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaz, Dagmara; Remington, Anna; Milne, Elizabeth; Coleman, Mike; Campbell, Ruth; Thomas, Michael S. C.; Swettenham, John

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that children with autism may be impaired in the perception of biological motion from moving point-light displays. Some children with autism also have abnormally high motion coherence thresholds. In the current study we tested a group of children with autism and a group of typically developing children aged 5 to 12 years of…

  11. Broader Autism Phenotype in Parents of Autistic Children: Reality or Myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeren, Anke M.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.

    2008-01-01

    The finding that relatives of individuals with autism show mild autistic traits is referred to as the broader autism phenotype (BAP). In the current study, 25 parents with a child with high-functioning autism and 25 parents with typically developed children were compared on: (1) the Block Design Test, (2) the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and (3)…

  12. A Theoretical Model for Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal de Caralho, Luís Alfred; Ferreira, Nívea de Carvalho; Fiszman, Adriana

    2001-01-01

    Autism is a mental disorder characterized by deficits in socialization, communication, and imagination. Along with the deficits, autistic children may show savant skills (“islets of ability”) of unknown origin that puzzles their families and the psychologists. Comorbidity with epilepsy and mental retardation has brought the researchers' attention to neurobiological and cognitive theories of the syndrome. The present article proposes a neurobiological model for the autism based on the fundamen...

  13. Is Autism a Disease of the Cerebellum?: An integration of clinical and pre-clinical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany D. Rogers

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in social skills and communication, unusual and repetitive behavior, and a range of deficits in cognitive function. While the etiology of autism is unknown, current research indicates that abnormalities of the cerebellum, now believed to be involved in cognitive function and the prefrontal cortex (PFC, are associated with autism. The current paper proposes that impaired cerebello-cortical circuitry could, at least in part, underlie autistic symptoms. The use of animal models that allow for manipulation of genetic and environmental influences are an effective means of elucidating both distal and proximal etiological factors in autism and their potential impact on cerebello-cortical circuitry. Some existing rodent models of autism, as well as some models not previously applied to the study of the disorder, display cerebellar and behavioral abnormalities that parallel those commonly seen in autistic patients. The novel findings produced from research utilizing rodent models could provide a better understanding of the neurochemical and behavioral impact of changes in cerebello-cortical circuitry in autism.

  14. Research on Self-Determination in Physical Education: Key Findings and Proposals for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Berghe, Lynn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Cardon, Greet; Kirk, David; Haerens, Leen

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the last 30 years, several theories of motivation have generated insights into the motives underlying learners' behavior in physical education. Self-determination theory (SDT), a general theory on social development and motivation, has enjoyed increasing popularity in physical education research during the past decade. SDT…

  15. Becoming an Engineering Education Researcher: Finding Pathways toward Interdisciplinarity. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendoerfer, Cheryl; Adams, Robin; Bell, Philip; Fleming, Lorraine; Leifer, Larry

    2007-01-01

    Interdisciplinary thinking is gaining momentum as an important topic for empirical investigation, particularly in regard to how crossing disciplinary boundaries can enrich teaching and learning across fields. There is a need for researchers who can think and work at the interdisciplinary interface. However, despite increased attention given to…

  16. Autism: Pathophysiology and Promising Herbal Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Sarrafchi, Amir; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a comprehensive growth abnormality in which social skills, language, communication, and behavioral skills are developed with delay and as diversionary. The reasons for autism are unclear, but various theories of genetics, immunity, biological, and psychosocial factors have been proffered. In fact, autism is a complex disorder with distinct causes that usually co-occur. Although no medicine has been recognized to treat this disorder, pharmacological treatments can be effective in reducing its signs, such as self-mutilation, aggression, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, inattention, hyperactivity, and sleeping disorders. Recently, complementary and alternative approaches have been considered to treat autism. Ginkgo biloba is one of the most effective plants with an old history of applications in neuropsychological disorders which recently is used for autism. The present review discusses the recent findings, pathophysiology, and etiology of autism and thereafter addresses the promising results of herbal remedies.

  17. MicroResearch--Finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, Tobias R; Bortolussi, Robert; MacDonald, Noni E

    2015-06-01

    The urgent need in Africa for research capacity building has been recognized by African leaders and governments for many years. However, lack of large research funding opportunities has been seen as a major obstacle to improving research capacity in precisely those countries that need it the most. Microfinance has shown that a small infusion of capital can "prime the pump" to creative local economic productivity. In a similar way, MicroResearch has proven effective in promoting a similar bottom-up strategy to find sustainable solutions to local health challenges through local community focused research. Specifically, MicroResearch through hands-on didactic courses, mentoring and small-scale research funding promotes small research projects that improve research skills across the entire health-care provider spectrum to unleash a culture of inquiry. This in turn stimulates health care providers to identify the locally most relevant obstacles that need to be overcome and implement locally feasible and sustainable solutions. MicroResearch is a bottom-up strategy proven effective at finding sustainable solutions to local health challenges. PMID:25934328

  18. Thinking about the nature of research findings: a hermeneutic phenomenological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greatrex-White, Sheila

    2008-12-01

    Written in response to an ongoing process of reflexivity, I deconstruct the findings of a recently completed qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological research study which was designed to answer the question: "How is study abroad manifest in the experience of nursing students?" The purpose is to assist and urge other researchers to locate their research, themselves and their research participants more transparently in the social and cultural worlds within which they move and are a part. Following a sketch of the research study upon which the paper is based, the relationships between structure, agency, researched and researcher are explored within a hermeneutic phenomenological framework. In particular, I relate some of the challenges encountered through reflections on specific aspects of the research process. I conclude that research findings might best be understood as being a dynamic and complex, two-way constructed interpretation of phenomena involving both structure and agency. I proceed from the stance that the discursive and the emotional, the artistic and the scientific, need to be balanced partners. Where this relationship is harmonious, intellectual ability increases leading to better meaning making, better decisions and greater understanding. PMID:18842262

  19. The Ademe research programme on atmospheric emissions from composting. Research findings and literature review - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emissions of gas and particulates (dusts, mineral and organic) linked to composting wastes essentially come from the biodegradation of organic matter by micro-organisms and from the related site management activities, especially material handling (of the raw waste, mixes and compost): movements, turning, sieving and loading. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is, in terms of mass, the main gas produced (along with water vapor) during composting. However, many other gases emitted in small amounts can also have a major impact on the environment and/or health risks. Such is the case for nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) with respect to global warming, and also for ammonia (NH3) with respect to acidification and eutrophication of the local environment, and of a wide range of sulfur-based and volatile organic compounds which can potentially lead to very unpleasant (or offensive) odors and health risks. In the case of emitted dust particles, these can often carry micro-organisms and/or biological compounds with the known health effects of inflammation, allergic reactions and infection. Thus dealing with these emissions and the evaluation of their health and environmental impacts represents key aspects in the long term sustainability of the composting option. Even if the understanding of these emissions remains incomplete, taking into account the wide range of solid wastes treated and of the methods of composting available, efforts have been made these last years to better characterize the substrate and to improve the related measurement methods. ADEME launched in 2006 a research programme specifically addressing this theme in particular, involving many research organizations, technical centres, research consultancies and industrial partners. The work carried out in this framework has enabled an improvement in the knowledge of characterizing emissions, of their sources and controlling factors, of their metrology (whether at the source or within the environment around treatment

  20. Novel approach to improve molecular imaging research: Correlation between macroscopic and molecular pathological findings in patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: i.boehm@uni-bonn.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, ZARF Project, Center for Molecular Imaging Research MBMB, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Currently, clinical research approaches are sparse in molecular imaging studies. Moreover, possible links between imaging features and pathological laboratory parameters are unknown, so far. Therefore, the goal was to find a possible relationship between imaging features and peripheral blood cell apoptosis, and thereby to present a novel way to complement molecular imaging research. Materials and methods: The investigation has been done in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement, autoantibody production, and disturbed apoptosis. Retrospectively, radiological findings have been compared to both autoantibody findings and percentage apoptotic blood cells. Results: Two SLE groups could be identified: patients with normal (annexin V binding < 20%), and with increased apoptosis (annexin V binding > 20%) of peripheral blood cells. The frequency of radiological examinations in SLE patients significantly correlated with an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (p < 0.005). In patients with characteristic imaging findings (e.g. lymph node swelling, pleural effusion) an elevated percentage of apoptotic cells was present. In contrast SLE-patients with normal imaging findings or uncharacteristic results of minimal severity had normal percentages of apoptotic blood cells. Conclusion: This correlation between radiographic findings and percentage of apoptotic blood cells provides (1) further insight into pathological mechanisms of SLE, (2) will offer the possibility to introduce apoptotic biomarkers as molecular probes for clinical molecular imaging approaches in future to early diagnose organ complaints in patients with SLE, and (3) is a plea to complement molecular imaging research by this clinical approach.

  1. MOMO syndrome associated with autism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunco, C T; Moretti-Ferreira, D; Silva, A E; Rocha, S S; Fett-Conte, A C

    2008-11-04

    This is a case report of macrosomia, obesity, macrocephaly and ocular abnormalities (MOMO syndrome) associated with autism. Studies on genetic or environmental syndromes associated with autism can provide genetic markers or uncover relevant events, and are very important for the definition of autism subgroups in future molecular research.

  2. Anterior EEG Asymmetry and the Modifier Model of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Courtney P.; Henderson, Heather A.; Inge, Anne Pradella; Zahka, Nicole E.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Mundy, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in the expression of autism complicate research on the nature and treatment of this disorder. In the Modifier Model of Autism (Mundy et al. 2007), we proposed that individual differences in autism may result not only from syndrome specific causal processes, but also from variability in generic, non-syndrome specific…

  3. Metabolic Approaches to the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Theodore

    2000-01-01

    This review evaluates evidence for metabolic etiologies in autism spectrum disorders, as well as for the efficacy of dietary and vitamin treatments. The relationship between gastrointestinal abnormalities and autism spectrum disorders is also considered, and the need for more research on larger populations of individuals with autism is stressed.…

  4. Presentation of Depression in Autism and Asperger Syndrome: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mary E.; Barnard, Louise; Pearson, Joanne; Hasan, Reem; O'Brien, Gregory

    2006-01-01

    Depression is common in autism and Asperger syndrome, but despite this, there has been little research into this issue. This review considers the current literature on the prevalence, presentation, treatment and assessment of depression in autism and Asperger syndrome. There are diagnostic difficulties when considering depression in autism and…

  5. Author Productivity and Publication Trends in Autism-Specific Journals from 1997 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Berenice; Cannella-Malone, Helen I.; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Sigafoos, Jeff; Robinson, Dan; Son, Seung-Hyun

    2006-01-01

    The 20 most productive authors (in terms of number of articles authored) were identified across three major autism-specific journals ("Autism: An International Journal of Research and Practice, Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities," and the "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders") published between 1997 and 2004. Of the top…

  6. Disentangling imitation and dyspraxia in individuals with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Heidi Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Imitation deficits are well-documented in autism although the specific nature of these deficits is not completely understood. Researchers have attempted to account for imitation deficits within the context of cognitive theories of autism but these theories have not been successful in explaining all of the gestural disturbances reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The types of gestural impairments along with error patterns observed in autism are simila...

  7. Four Research Findings That Will Change What We Think About Perinatal Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Research by health psychologists is changing what we know about perinatal depression. In this guest editorial, the author examines depression in pregnant and breastfeeding women in light of this recent research and describes four major findings that are influencing how we think about depression in new mothers: inflammation has an etiologic role in depression, a relationship exists between sleep disturbances and depression, breastfeeding protects maternal mental health, and all effective treat...

  8. APPLIED SOCIAL SCIENCES, ACTION RESEARCH AND THE RETURNING OF INQUIRY FINDINGS

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight some connections between the applied social sciences, action research, and the returning of inquiry findings. Usually, the applicability of a social science is defined by its openness to the complexity of (psycho-) social change as described by the intervention design meant to trigger this change. We will also see how the social sciences collaborate with action research. This is mainly the case in social psychology, a field in which this orientation is largely con...

  9. Autism Research: Music Aptitude's Effect on Developmental/Academic Gains for Students with Significant Cognitive/Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Elise S.

    2014-01-01

    This research study was built upon findings in neuroscience of the brain's natural ability to physically change itself through cognitive modifiability by creating new pathways and neural connections. The purpose of the research was to investigate instructional music applications for improvement in basic math skills with students who are on the…

  10. The clinician's guide to autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, John W; Allen, Korrie

    2014-02-01

    On the basis of the most recent epidemiologic research, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects approximately 1% to 2% of all children. (1)(2) On the basis of some research evidence and consensus, the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers isa helpful tool to screen for autism in children between ages 16 and 30 months. (11) The Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, changes to a 2-symptom category from a 3-symptom category in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition(DSM-5): deficits in social communication and social interaction are combined with repetitive and restrictive behaviors, and more criteria are required per category. The DSM-5 subsumes all the previous diagnoses of autism (classic autism, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) into just ASDs. On the basis of moderate to strong evidence, the use of applied behavioral analysis and intensive behavioral programs has a beneficial effect on language and the core deficits of children with autism. (16) Currently, minimal or no evidence is available to endorse most complementary and alternative medicine therapies used by parents, such as dietary changes (gluten free), vitamins, chelation, and hyperbaric oxygen. (16) On the basis of consensus and some studies, pediatric clinicians should improve their capacity to provide children with ASD a medical home that is accessible and provides family-centered, continuous, comprehensive and coordinated, compassionate, and culturally sensitive care. (20)

  11. The clinician's guide to autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, John W; Allen, Korrie

    2014-02-01

    On the basis of the most recent epidemiologic research, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects approximately 1% to 2% of all children. (1)(2) On the basis of some research evidence and consensus, the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers isa helpful tool to screen for autism in children between ages 16 and 30 months. (11) The Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, changes to a 2-symptom category from a 3-symptom category in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition(DSM-5): deficits in social communication and social interaction are combined with repetitive and restrictive behaviors, and more criteria are required per category. The DSM-5 subsumes all the previous diagnoses of autism (classic autism, Asperger syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified) into just ASDs. On the basis of moderate to strong evidence, the use of applied behavioral analysis and intensive behavioral programs has a beneficial effect on language and the core deficits of children with autism. (16) Currently, minimal or no evidence is available to endorse most complementary and alternative medicine therapies used by parents, such as dietary changes (gluten free), vitamins, chelation, and hyperbaric oxygen. (16) On the basis of consensus and some studies, pediatric clinicians should improve their capacity to provide children with ASD a medical home that is accessible and provides family-centered, continuous, comprehensive and coordinated, compassionate, and culturally sensitive care. (20) PMID:24488830

  12. Student Engagement and Student Outcomes: Key Findings from "CCSSE" Validation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenney, Kay; Marti, C. Nathan; Adkins, Courtney

    2012-01-01

    The findings from 20 years of research on undergraduate education have been unequivocal: The more actively engaged students are--with college faculty and staff, with other students, and with the subject matter they study--the more likely they are to learn, to stick with their studies, and to attain their academic goals. The existing literature,…

  13. Plagiarism: Examination of Conceptual Issues and Evaluation of Research Findings on Using Detection Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Angelos; Theodosiadou, Dimitra; Pappos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze and evaluate the research findings on using Plagiarism Detection Services (PDS) in universities. In order to do that, conceptual issues about plagiarism are examined and the complex nature of plagiarism is discussed. Subsequently, the pragmatic forms of student plagiarism are listed and PDS strategies on…

  14. Educative Accountability Policies for Tasmania's Locally Managed Schools: Interim Policy Research Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, R. J. S.

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes interim findings of a policy research project in Tasmania, Australia, aimed at producing educative accountability options for identifying processes and criteria to improve learning, teaching, and leadership. Identifies preferred accountability criteria and processes in Tasmania's locally managed school district, maps patterns of…

  15. A Simple Syllogism-Solving Test: Empirical Findings and Implications for "g" Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikishima, Chizuru; Yamagata, Shinji; Hiraishi, Kai; Sugimoto, Yutaro; Murayama, Kou; Ando, Juko

    2011-01-01

    It has been reported that the ability to solve syllogisms is highly "g"-loaded. In the present study, using a self-administered shortened version of a syllogism-solving test, the "BAROCO Short," we examined whether robust findings generated by previous research regarding IQ scores were also applicable to "BAROCO Short" scores. Five…

  16. Research-Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorden, Joan F., Ed.; Kuh, Charlotte V., Ed.; Voytuk, James A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment" examines data on the biomedical sciences programs to gather additional insight about the talent, training environment, outcomes, diversity, and international participation in the biomedical sciences workforce. This report supports an earlier…

  17. 75 FR 62892 - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Correction In notice document 2010-24809 beginning on page 61220 in the issue of...

  18. Programme Implementation in Social and Emotional Learning: Basic Issues and Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlak, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental importance of achieving quality implementation when assessing the impact of social and emotional learning interventions. Recent findings in implementation science are reviewed that include a definition of implementation, its relation to programme outcomes, current research on the factors that affect…

  19. Public Understanding of Cognitive Neuroscience Research Findings: Trying to Peer beyond Enchanted Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzer, Tina A.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the appeal of cognitive neuroscience research to the general public within the context of the deep puzzles involved in using our minds to understand how our minds work. It offers a few promising examples of findings that illuminate the ways of the mind and reveal these workings to be counter-intuitive with our subjective…

  20. Gambaran Kebahagiaan Pada Ibu yang Memiliki Anak Autisme

    OpenAIRE

    Sembiring, Marisha

    2011-01-01

    This research is a descriptive qualitative study aimed to find out the picture of happiness on my mother who has a child with autism. Specifically picture of happiness can be known through the aspects of happiness, happiness characteristics and factors that affect happiness. Seligman (2005) explain the happiness is a concept that refers to positive emotions felt by individuals as well as positive activities favored by the individual. Happiness is the overall quality of human life, what makes ...

  1. Finding the Middle Ground in Violent Video Game Research: Lessons From Ferguson (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Patrick M

    2015-09-01

    Ferguson's comprehensive meta-analysis provides convincing data that violent video games have almost no effect on children's aggression. Although this finding is unlikely to bring unity to a divided field, Ferguson's article (2015, this issue) provides important rules that should aid all researchers. First, we need to be more accepting of results that are inconsistent with our own theories. Second, extraneous variables are often responsible for the relations previous studies have found between violent media and aggression. Third, we should avoid using unstandardized assessments of important variables whenever possible. Finally, caution is warranted when generalizing laboratory research findings to severe acts of violent in the "real world." It is hoped that, by accepting these basic rules, researchers and others will adopt less extreme positions concerning the effects of violent video games. PMID:26386003

  2. The Experience of Crisis in Families of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stacy E.; McMorris, Carly; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Lunsky, Yona

    2012-01-01

    It is well-established that parents of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience significant stress in their caregiving role, and research findings indicate that chronic stressors can act as a precipitant to crisis. In the present study, we examined the experience of crisis in families of individuals with ASD from early childhood…

  3. A Further Investigation of Goal-Directed Intention Understanding in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Natalie I.; Ingersoll, Brooke

    2014-01-01

    Findings from research investigating goal-directed intention understanding in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been equivocal, in part because of the varying methodologies used across studies. This study compares both object-oriented and social-communicatively cued goal-directed intention understanding in children with ASD and…

  4. Randomiseret kontrolleret undersøgelse af improviseret musikterapi's effekt på børn med autisme spektrum forstyrrelse (TIME-A):Forskningsprotokol

    OpenAIRE

    Geretsegger, Monika; Holck, Ulla; Gold, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that music therapy may facilitate skills in areas typically affected by autism spectrum disorders such as social interaction and communication. However, generalisability of previous findings has been restricted, as studies were limited in either methodological accuracy or the clinical relevance of their approach. The aim of this study is to determine effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills of children with autism spect...

  5. Mercury and autism: accelerating evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, Joachim; Naumann, Johannes; Schneider, Rainer; Walach, Harald; Haley, Boyd

    2005-10-01

    The causes of autism and neurodevelopmental disorders are unknown. Genetic and environmental risk factors seem to be involved. Because of an observed increase in autism in the last decades, which parallels cumulative mercury exposure, it was proposed that autism may be in part caused by mercury. We review the evidence for this proposal. Several epidemiological studies failed to find a correlation between mercury exposure through thimerosal, a preservative used in vaccines, and the risk of autism. Recently, it was found that autistic children had a higher mercury exposure during pregnancy due to maternal dental amalgam and thimerosal-containing immunoglobulin shots. It was hypothesized that children with autism have a decreased detoxification capacity due to genetic polymorphism. In vitro, mercury and thimerosal in levels found several days after vaccination inhibit methionine synthetase (MS) by 50%. Normal function of MS is crucial in biochemical steps necessary for brain development, attention and production of glutathione, an important antioxidative and detoxifying agent. Repetitive doses of thimerosal leads to neurobehavioral deteriorations in autoimmune susceptible mice, increased oxidative stress and decreased intracellular levels of glutathione in vitro. Subsequently, autistic children have significantly decreased level of reduced glutathione. Promising treatments of autism involve detoxification of mercury, and supplementation of deficient metabolites.

  6. Research progress of MRI in autism spectrum disorder%孤独症谱系障碍的MRI研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王龙伦; 蔡金华

    2016-01-01

    孤独症谱系障碍(ASD)是一种广泛的神经精神发育障碍,MRI为ASD研究提供了有力手段。 ASD在幼年期脑体积可有增加,而成人时的形态结构成像多无异常。扩散张量成像(DTI)显示青少年及成人ASD多数白质纤维束各向异性分数(FA)值降低,但幼年期ASD大部分纤维束FA值升高。任务态和静息态脑功能磁共振成像(fMRI)显示了与社会认知、语言交流以及执行功能等ASD核心症状相关的脑功能区激活降低或脑功能网络连接失常,对于ASD病理机制的研究潜力巨大,同时睡眠静息态fMRI将是婴幼儿ASD研究的重要手段。现就ASD的结构及功能MR成像研究进展予以综述。%Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder, MRI provides a powerfulapproach for research of ASD. Traditional MRI shows an increased brain volume, otherwise no positive finding in most ofpatients with ASD at a young stage. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has revealed that adolescents and adults with ASD are characterized by generally lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in many white matter tracts, whereas young children with ASD are featured by increased FA. The results of functional MRI (fMRI) suggest that the functional network connectivity and activation of brain regions associated with social cognition, communication and executive control are reduced. The resting-state fMRI has a great potential to reveal the pathological mechanism of ASD. The sleeping resting-state fMRI will become an importanttool in the research of infant and toddler ASD. The research progress of structural and functional MRI in ASD was reviewed.

  7. Health Care: Role of ICT in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Hafiza Maimoona; Tariq, Sohaib; Saleem, Imran; Butt, Muhammad Adil; Tariq, Arslan; Tariq, Iqra

    2015-01-01

    Recently, considerable advancement has been seen for educating the people with autism. Research has shown that people with autism reveals positive behavior while interacting with innovative information technologies as compared to therapies. This review focuses on the possible use of ICT in the education and development of the people with autism…

  8. Teaching Children with Autism to Request Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingsburg, M. Alice; Valentino, Amber L.; Bowen, Crystal N.; Bradley, Danielle; Zavatkay, Dana

    2011-01-01

    Question asking behavior, or requesting information, is often deficient in children with autism and can prove challenging to teach. Currently, there exists a paucity of research regarding the types of teaching strategies that are effective in teaching children with autism this crucial skill. The purpose of the present study was to examine…

  9. Shedding Light on a Pervasive Problem: A Review of Research on Bullying Experiences among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jessica H.; Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Bebko, James M.; Pepler, Debra J.; Weiss, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by difficulties with social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and the development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships. As a result, individuals with ASD are at an increased risk of bullying victimization, compared to typically developing peers. This paper reviews the…

  10. Bridging the Research-to-Practice Gap in Autism Intervention: An Application of Diffusion of Innovation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingfelder, Hilary E.; Mandell, David S.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence that efficacious interventions for autism are rarely adopted or successfully implemented in public mental health and education systems. We propose applying diffusion of innovation theory to further our understanding of why this is the case. We pose a practical set of questions that administrators face as they decide about…

  11. Autism Post-Mortem Neuroinformatic Resource: The Autism Tissue Program (ATP) Informatics Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimacombe, Michael B.; Pickett, Richard; Pickett, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The Autism Tissue Program (ATP) was established to oversee and manage brain donations related to neurological research in autism. The ATP Informatics Portal (www.atpportal.org) is an integrated data access system based on Oracle technology, developed to provide access for researchers to information on this rare tissue resource. It also permits…

  12. Embodiment of the interpersonal nexus: revealing qualitative research findings on shoulder surgery patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass N

    2012-03-01

    qualitative findings in patient experiences of shoulder surgery.Keywords: interpersonal, qualitative research, pain management, patient experiences, shoulder surgery

  13. 美国自闭症协会:促进全球对自闭症的认识、科研及服务%Autism Speaks Global Autism Public Health Initiative: Bridging gaps in autism awareness, research, and services around the world

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andy SHIH; Michael ROSANOFF; Simon WALLACE; Geraldine DAWSON

    2009-01-01

    @@ Autism is a complex neurobiological, developmental disorder that is typically diagnosed in childhood and often lasts throughout a person' s life time. Autism is part of a group of disorders known as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) characterized by varying degrees of symptom severity and impact, ranging from mild or "high-functioning" to quite severe or "low-functioning. "

  14. Meta-analysis of qualitative studies: a tool for reviewing qualitative research findings in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timulak, Ladislav

    2009-07-01

    This article focuses on the presentation of qualitative meta-analysis as a method for reviewing qualitative studies. Qualitative meta-analysis is an attempt to conduct a rigorous secondary qualitative analysis of primary qualitative findings. Its purpose*to provide a more comprehensive description of a phenomenon and an assessment of the influence of the method of investigation on findings*is discussed. The distinctive features of conducting meta-analysis approaches are presented. Several considerations important for conducting qualitative meta-analysis are also discussed. The author uses examples of the first experiences attempted with qualitative meta-analysis in the field of psychotherapy research.

  15. Contextual Autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2009-01-01

    This project deals with the notion of ghost anthropologically and artistic. The contextual autism of ghosting reveals itself as a sensation of in-betweeness in art as well as in everyday life. The ghost is not easily defined; as Jacques Derrida states in Spectres of Marx (1993/1994) about...

  16. A Multidimensional Reappraisal of Language in Autism: Insights from a Discourse Analytic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we leverage theoretical insights and methodological guidelines of discourse analytic scholarship to re-examine language phenomena typically associated with autism. Through empirical analysis of the verbal behavior of three children with autism, we engage the question of how prototypical features of autistic language-notably pronoun atypicality, pragmatic deficit, and echolalia-might conceal competencies and interactional processes that are largely invisible in mainstream research. Our findings offer a complex picture of children with autism in their use of language to communicate, interact and experience others. Such a picture also deepens our understanding of the interactional underpinnings of autistic children's speech. Finally, we describe how our findings offer fruitful suggestions for clinical intervention.

  17. Autisme-spektrum forstyrrelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Kathrine Bang

    2014-01-01

    Sammenfatning Autisme er blandt de alvorligste psykiske udviklingsforstyrrelser blandt børn og unge. Vi har set en stigning i diagnosticerede tilfælde igennem de sidste 20 år fra nogle få promille til omkring én procent. Stigningen i forekomsten skyldes formodentlig primært udvikling i diagnostisk...... praksis kombineret med stigende krav til sociale færdigheder og fleksibilitet. Autisme kan findes i forskellige grader og er fire gange hyppigere hos drenge end hos piger. Udenlandske studier har vist en højere forekomst af ASF hos familier med høj socioøkonomisk status, men det er uvist, om denne...... sammenhæng blot er udtryk for en ulige adgang til sundhedssystemet. I Danmark er der ikke tegn på større social skævhed i relation til denne diagnose. Der findes ingen medicinsk behandling for autisme, men en tidlig erkendelse af problemerne og efterfølgende støtte kan formodentlig forbedre livsforløbet....

  18. Biomarkers in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eHendren

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are complex, heterogeneous disorders caused by an interaction between genetic vulnerability and environmental factors. In an effort to better target the underlying roots of ASD for diagnosis and treatment, efforts to identify reliable biomarkers in genetics, neuroimaging, gene expression and measures of the body’s metabolism are growing. For this article, we review the published studies of potential biomarkers in autism and conclude that while there is increasing promise of finding biomarkers that can help us target treatment, there are none with enough evidence to support routine clinical use unless medical illness is suspected. Promising biomarkers include those for mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and immune function. Genetic clusters are also suggesting the potential for useful biomarkers.

  19. A Mixed Method Research for Finding a Model of Administrative Decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Tahereh Feizy; Alireza Moghali; Masuod Geramipoor; Reza Zare

    2015-01-01

    One of the critical issues of administrative decentralization in translating theory into practice is understanding its meaning. An important method to identify administrative decentralization is to address how it can be planned and implemented, and what are its implications, and how it would overcome challenges. The purpose of this study is finding a model for analyzing and evaluating administrative decentralization, so a mixed method research was used to explore and confirm the model of Admi...

  20. Walk like me, talk like me. The connection between mirror neurons and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffin, Jillian M; Tohid, Hassaan

    2016-04-01

    Understanding social cognition has become a hallmark in deciphering autism spectrum disorder. Neurobiological theories are taking precedence in causation studies as researchers look to abnormalities in brain development as the cause of deficits in social behavior, cognitive processes, and language. Following their discovery in the 1990s, mirror neurons have become a dominant theory for that the mirror neuron system may play a critical role in the pathophysiology of various symptoms of autism. Over the decades, the theory has evolved from the suggestion of a broken mirror neuron system to impairments in mirror neuron circuitry. The mirror neuron system has not gained total support due to inconsistent findings; a comprehensive analysis of the growing body of research could shed light on the benefits, or the disadvantage of continuing to study mirror neurons and their connection to autism.

  1. Walk like me, talk like me. The connection between mirror neurons and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffin, Jillian M; Tohid, Hassaan

    2016-04-01

    Understanding social cognition has become a hallmark in deciphering autism spectrum disorder. Neurobiological theories are taking precedence in causation studies as researchers look to abnormalities in brain development as the cause of deficits in social behavior, cognitive processes, and language. Following their discovery in the 1990s, mirror neurons have become a dominant theory for that the mirror neuron system may play a critical role in the pathophysiology of various symptoms of autism. Over the decades, the theory has evolved from the suggestion of a broken mirror neuron system to impairments in mirror neuron circuitry. The mirror neuron system has not gained total support due to inconsistent findings; a comprehensive analysis of the growing body of research could shed light on the benefits, or the disadvantage of continuing to study mirror neurons and their connection to autism. PMID:27094520

  2. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson-Hanley C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR; in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. Keywords: autism, repetitive behaviors, exergaming, exercise, executive function

  3. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  4. Diagnostic stability in young children at risk for autism spectrum disorder:A baby siblings research consortium study

    OpenAIRE

    Ozonoff, Sally; Gregory S. Young; Landa, Rebecca J; Brian, Jessica; Bryson, Susan; Charman, Tony; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Macari, Suzanne L.; Messinger, Daniel; Stone, Wendy L.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Iosif, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) made before age 3 has been found to be remarkably stable in clinic- and community-ascertained samples. The stability of an ASD diagnosis in prospectively ascertained samples of infants at risk for ASD due to familial factors has not yet been studied, however. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends intensive surveillance and screening for this high-risk group, which may afford earlier identification. Therefore, it is critical to...

  5. Autism genetic database (AGD: a comprehensive database including autism susceptibility gene-CNVs integrated with known noncoding RNAs and fragile sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebizadeh Zohreh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a highly heritable complex neurodevelopmental disorder, therefore identifying its genetic basis has been challenging. To date, numerous susceptibility genes and chromosomal abnormalities have been reported in association with autism, but most discoveries either fail to be replicated or account for a small effect. Thus, in most cases the underlying causative genetic mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present work, the Autism Genetic Database (AGD was developed as a literature-driven, web-based, and easy to access database designed with the aim of creating a comprehensive repository for all the currently reported genes and genomic copy number variations (CNVs associated with autism in order to further facilitate the assessment of these autism susceptibility genetic factors. Description AGD is a relational database that organizes data resulting from exhaustive literature searches for reported susceptibility genes and CNVs associated with autism. Furthermore, genomic information about human fragile sites and noncoding RNAs was also downloaded and parsed from miRBase, snoRNA-LBME-db, piRNABank, and the MIT/ICBP siRNA database. A web client genome browser enables viewing of the features while a web client query tool provides access to more specific information for the features. When applicable, links to external databases including GenBank, PubMed, miRBase, snoRNA-LBME-db, piRNABank, and the MIT siRNA database are provided. Conclusion AGD comprises a comprehensive list of susceptibility genes and copy number variations reported to-date in association with autism, as well as all known human noncoding RNA genes and fragile sites. Such a unique and inclusive autism genetic database will facilitate the evaluation of autism susceptibility factors in relation to known human noncoding RNAs and fragile sites, impacting on human diseases. As a result, this new autism database offers a valuable tool for the research

  6. ABA versus TEACCH: the case for defining and validating comprehensive treatment models in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Kevin; Shukla-Mehta, Smita; Magee, Sandy; Wie, Min

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyzed the results of a social validation survey to determine if autism service providers including special education teachers, parents, and administrators demonstrate a preference for the intervention components of Applied Behavior Analysis or Training and Education of Autistic and other Communication Handicapped Children. They also investigated the comprehensiveness of these treatment models for use in public school programs. The findings indicate no clear preference for either model, but a significantly higher level of social validity for components inherent in both approaches. The authors discuss the need for research to define what is meant by comprehensive programming in autism. PMID:19649699

  7. Childhood leukaemia risks: from unexplained findings near nuclear installations to recommendations for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent findings related to childhood leukaemia incidence near nuclear installations have raised questions which can be answered neither by current knowledge on radiation risk nor by other established risk factors. In 2012, a workshop was organised on this topic with two objectives: (a) review of results and discussion of methodological limitations of studies near nuclear installations; (b) identification of directions for future research into the causes and pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia. The workshop gathered 42 participants from different disciplines, extending widely outside of the radiation protection field. Regarding the proximity of nuclear installations, the need for continuous surveillance of childhood leukaemia incidence was highlighted, including a better characterisation of the local population. The creation of collaborative working groups was recommended for consistency in methodologies and the possibility of combining data for future analyses. Regarding the causes of childhood leukaemia, major fields of research were discussed (environmental risk factors, genetics, infections, immunity, stem cells, experimental research). The need for multidisciplinary collaboration in developing research activities was underlined, including the prevalence of potential predisposition markers and investigating further the infectious aetiology hypothesis. Animal studies and genetic/epigenetic approaches appear of great interest. Routes for future research were pointed out. (review)

  8. Involving Scientists in Outreach: Incentives, Barriers, and Recommendations from Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, G.; Laursen, S.; Andrews, E.; Weaver, A.; Hanley, D.; Shamatha, J. H.

    2004-12-01

    Public agencies that fund scientific research are increasingly requiring that researchers invest some of their funding in education or outreach activities that have a "broader impact." Yet barriers exist that inhibit scientists' motivation to participate in K-12 outreach. We will share findings from a quantitative and qualitative study that examined the motivations, rewards, and obstacles for scientists who participate in outreach. We found that most researchers became interested in doing outreach out of a desire to contribute and an expectation of having fun and enjoying the experience. They typically gave outreach presentations away from work, acted as a resource for school teachers, or helped with teacher professional development. However, scientists viewed outreach as a form of volunteer work that was auxiliary to their other responsibilities. Thus, time constraints, a lack of information about outreach opportunities, and the lower value placed on outreach by departments constituted significant barriers to their participation. Scientists involved in outreach typically found their efforts to be rewarding, but occasionally factors left a negative impression, such as poor audience response, classroom management difficulties, organizational problems, or demonstrations not going as planned. Based upon our findings, we offer recommendations on how scientists' participation and experiences in K-12 outreach can be improved, including how to successfully recruit scientists, create a positive outreach experience, and increase institutional support for outreach work.

  9. A decade of research with dyslexic college students: A summary of findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, P G; Phillips, S

    1986-01-01

    The major findings of several research projects that investigated dyslexic college students are summarized in this paper. Consistent findings of these investigations led to the following conclusions. 1) Developmental dyslexia is a syndrome made up of the following four symptoms: slow rate of reading, error-prone oral reading, poor written spelling, and grammatically incorrect writing; 2) all these symptoms could be traced to a poor mastery of the grapheme-phoneme relational rules; 3) developmental dyslexia can be found in subjects who appear to have adequate oral language skills; 4) ex-dyslexics who appear to be "poor spellers but good readers" have subtle reading deficits; and 5) the 20 dyslexic subjects investigated appear to constitute a homogeneous group which raises questions regarding dyslexia subtypes.

  10. Autism and tuberous sclerosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Smalley, SL; Tanguay, PE; Smith, M.; Gutierrez, G.

    1992-01-01

    Autism is a behavior disorder with genetic influences indicated from twin and family studies and from the co-occurrence of autism with known genetic disorders. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a known genetic disorder with behavioral manifestations including autism. A literature review of these two disorders substantiates a significant association of autism and TSC with 17-58% of TSC subjects manifesting autism and 0.4-3% of autistic subjects having TSC. In initial data collected on 13 TSC...

  11. Music therapists’ practice-based research in cancer and palliative care: Creative methods and situated findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa Barry

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Although randomized controlled trials are described as the gold standard in health care research, their superiority is being questioned in palliative care which is focused on addressing individualized needs to maximize life quality. We use creative practice-based research to examine the usefulness of our music therapy work amongst people with life threatening conditions. Examined voices include “collective” (patients, visitors, staff, and music therapist, "their” (patients or caregivers, "our” (a group of music therapists, and "my voice” (one music therapist. Data sources have included clinical journals, semi-structured questionnaires, interview responses, a focus group, reflexive groupwork supervision transcripts, and patients’ song lyrics. Findings, situated within varied theoretic lenses, substantiate music therapy’s role in oncology and palliative care settings. Readers are invited to devise creative ways to voice their clients’, bystanders’, and own wisdom about music therapy to meaningfully extend the knowledge base.

  12. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  13. Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Global Environmental Change: Research findings and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Gómez-Baggethun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the special feature of Ecology and Society entitled "Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Global Environmental Change. The special feature addresses two main research themes. The first theme concerns the resilience of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (hereafter TEK and the conditions that might explain its loss or persistence in the face of global change. The second theme relates to new findings regarding the way in which TEK strengthens community resilience to respond to the multiple stressors of global environmental change. Those themes are analyzed using case studies from Africa, Asia, America and Europe. Theoretical insights and empirical findings from the studies suggest that despite the generalized worldwide trend of TEK erosion, substantial pockets of TEK persist in both developing and developed countries. A common trend on the studies presented here is hybridization, where traditional knowledge, practices, and beliefs are merged with novel forms of knowledge and technologies to create new knowledge systems. The findings also reinforce previous hypotheses pointing at the importance of TEK systems as reservoirs of experiential knowledge that can provide important insights for the design of adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with global environmental change. Based on the results from papers in this feature, we discuss policy directions that might help to promote maintenance and restoration of living TEK systems as sources of social-ecological resilience.

  14. A non-inflammatory role for microglia in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Anne Edmonson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, difficulties with language, and repetitive/restricted behaviors. The etiology of ASD is still largely unclear, but immune dysfunction and abnormalities in synaptogenesis have repeatedly been implicated as contributing to the disease phenotype. However, an understanding of how and if these two processes are related has not firmly been established. As non-inflammatory roles of microglia become increasingly recognized as critical to normal neurodevelopment, it is important to consider how dysfunction in these process might explain the seemingly disparate findings of immune dysfunction and aberrant synaptogenesis seen in ASD. In this review, we highlight research demonstrating the importance of microglia to development of normal neural networks, review recent studies demonstrating abnormal microglia in autism, and discuss how the relationship between these processes may contribute to the development of autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders at the cellular level.

  15. Possible Role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family of survival-promoting molecules, plays a vital role in the growth, development, maintenance, and function of several neuronal systems. The purpose of this review is to document the support for the involvement of this molecule in the maintenance of normal cognitive, emotional functioning, and to outline recent developments in the content of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Current and future treatment development can be guided by developing understanding of this molecules actions in the brain and the ways the expression of BDNF can be planned. Over the years, research findings suggested a critical role played by BDNF in the development of autism including increased serum concentrations of BDNF in children with autism and identification of different forms of BDNF in families of autistic individuals. (author)

  16. Neural Correlates of Visuomotor Learning in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharer, Elizabeth; Crocetti, Deana; Muschelli, John; Barber, Anita D; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S; Pekar, Jim J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-12-01

    Motor impairments are prevalent in children with autism spectrum disorder. The Serial Reaction Time Task, a well-established visuomotor sequence learning probe, has produced inconsistent behavioral findings in individuals with autism. Moreover, it remains unclear how underlying neural processes for visuomotor learning in children with autism compare to processes for typically developing children. Neural activity differences were assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a modified version of the Serial Reaction Time Task in children with and without autism. Though there was no group difference in visuomotor sequence learning, underlying patterns of neural activation significantly differed when comparing sequence (i.e., learning) to random (i.e., nonlearning) blocks. Children with autism demonstrated decreased activity in brain regions implicated in visuomotor sequence learning: superior temporal sulcus and posterior cingulate cortex. The findings implicate differences in brain mechanisms that support initial sequence learning in autism and can help explain behavioral observations of autism-associated impairments in skill development (motor, social, communicative) reliant on visuomotor integration.

  17. NIDCD: Celebrating 25 Years of Research Helping People with Communication Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ability to use or understand language), stuttering, and autism spectrum disorder, for example, and the disorders of ... disorders. Find Out More The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) maintains extensive research ...

  18. Does pet arrival trigger prosocial behaviors in individuals with autism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Grandgeorge

    Full Text Available Alteration of social interactions especially prosocial behaviors--an important aspect of development--is one of the characteristics of autistic disorders. Numerous strategies or therapies are used to improve communication skills or at least to reduce social impairments. Animal-assisted therapies are used widely but their relevant benefits have never been scientifically evaluated. In the present study, we evaluated the association between the presence or the arrival of pets in families with an individual with autism and the changes in his or her prosocial behaviors. Of 260 individuals with autism--on the basis of presence or absence of pets--two groups of 12 individuals and two groups of 8 individuals were assigned to: study 1 (pet arrival after age of 5 versus no pet and study 2 (pet versus no pet, respectively. Evaluation of social impairment was assessed at two time periods using the 36-items ADI-R algorithm and a parental questionnaire about their child-pet relationships. The results showed that 2 of the 36 items changed positively between the age of 4 to 5 (t(0 and time of assessment (t(1 in the pet arrival group (study 1: "offering to share" and "offering comfort". Interestingly, these two items reflect prosocial behaviors. There seemed to be no significant changes in any item for the three other groups. The interactions between individuals with autism and their pets were more--qualitatively and quantitatively--reported in the situation of pet arrival than pet presence since birth. These findings open further lines of research on the impact of pet's presence or arrival in families with an individual with autism. Given the potential ability of individuals with autism to develop prosocial behaviors, related studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms involved in the development of such child-pet relationship.

  19. Biological Motion Perception in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Cusack

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Typically developing adults can readily recognize human actions, even when conveyed to them via point-like markers placed on the body of the actor (Johansson, 1973. Previous research has suggested that children affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD are not equally sensitive to this type of visual information (Blake et al, 2003, but it remains unknown why ASD would impact the ability to perceive biological motion. We present evidence which looks at how adolescents and adults with autism are affected by specific factors which are important in biological motion perception, such as (eg, inter-agent synchronicity, upright/inverted, etc.

  20. Evidence for Shared Deficits in Identifying Emotions from Faces and from Voices in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lauren J.; Maybery, Murray T.; Grayndler, Luke; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: While autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) have traditionally been conceptualized as distinct disorders, recent findings indicate that the boundaries between these two conditions are not clear-cut. While considerable research has investigated overlap in the linguistic characteristics of ASD and SLI,…

  1. Concerns and considerations among caregivers of a child with autism in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheir Nadir M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism impacts the lives of the family looking after a child with the condition in different ways, and forces family members to modify their daily lives to suit their reality. To our knowledge, no previous research investigated concern and considerations of parents/caregivers of children with autism in Qatar or the Arabic speaking Middle Eastern region. Methods Caregivers of a child who was between the age of 3 to17 years old at the time of the study and who was diagnosed with ASD (Autistic Group or AG were recruited from the two main developmental pediatric and children rehabilitation clinics in Qatar. The control group (non-autism group, or NAG was represented by caregivers of a non-autistic child between the age of 3 to 17 years old at the time of the study and who were visiting a family clinic of a primary health care facility for routine medical check-up. Data collected from both groups included related to the child (e.g. the child’s date of birth, his/her relation to the caregiver, number of siblings, number of hours of sleep in a day, number of hours spent watching television or videos prior to age 3, time spent indoors prior to age 3, absenteeism from school, and use of a nanny to care for the child and to the caregiver (education level, profession, level of consanguinity using the phylogram method. In addition to these questions, caregivers in the AG were asked specific questions around maternal concern and considerations in respect to the future of their children and the specialized services they receive. Results Children in the autism group spent more time indoors, watching television, or sleeping than children in the non-autism group. Only around 40% of caregivers in the autism group said they would encourage their child to get married and become a parent when s/he grows up. A number of caregivers of children with autism frequently utilize specialized rehabilitation services; others did express their needs for

  2. Subregional differences in intrinsic amygdala hyperconnectivity and hypoconnectivity in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Natalia M; Reiter, Maya A; Neuhaus, Emily; Pauley, Greg; Martin, Nathalie; Dager, Stephen; Estes, Annette

    2016-07-01

    The amygdala is a complex structure with distinct subregions and dissociable functional networks. The laterobasal subregion of the amygdala is hypothesized to mediate the presentation and severity of autism symptoms, although very little data are available regarding amygdala dysfunction at the subregional level. In this study, we investigated the relationship between abnormal amygdalar intrinsic connectivity, autism symptom severity, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. We collected resting state fMRI data on 31 high functioning adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder and 38 typically developing (TD) controls aged 14-45. Twenty-five participants with ASD and 28 TD participants were included in the final analyses. ASD participants were administered the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Adult participants were administered the Beck Depression Inventory II and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Functional connectivity analyses were conducted from three amygdalar subregions: centromedial (CM), laterobasal (LB) and superficial (SF). In addition, correlations with the behavioral measures were tested in the adult participants. In general, the ASD group showed significantly decreased connectivity from the LB subregion and increased connectivity from the CM and SF subregions compared to the TD group. We found evidence that social symptoms are primarily associated with under-connectivity from the LB subregion whereas over-connectivity and under-connectivity from the CM, SF and LB subregions are related to co-morbid depression and anxiety in ASD, in brain regions that were distinct from those associated with social dysfunction, and in different patterns than were observed in mildly symptomatic TD participants. Our findings provide new evidence for functional subregional differences in amygdala pathophysiology in ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 760-772. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  3. Neuro-Immune Abnormalities in Autism and their interaction with the environment: A Variable Insult Model for Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel K Goyal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a heterogeneous condition affecting an individual’s ability to communicate and socialise and often presents with repetitive movements or behaviours. It tends to be severe with less than 10% achieving independent living with a marked variation in the progression of the condition. To date the literature supports a multi factorial model with the largest, most detailed twin study demonstrating strong environmental contribution to the development of the condition. Here we present a brief review of the neurological, immunological and autonomic abnormalities in ASD focusing on the causative roles of environmental agents and abnormal gut microbiota. We present a working hypothesis attempting to bring together the influence of environment on the abnormal neurological, immunological and neuroimmunological functions and we explain in brief how such pathophysiology can lead to, and/or exacerbate ASD symptomology. At present there is a lack of consistent findings relating to the neurobiology of autism. Whilst we postulate such variable findings may reflect the marked heterogeneity in clinical presentation and as such the variable findings may be of pathophysiological relevance, more research into the neurobiology of autism is necessary before establishing a working hypothesis. Both the literature review and hypothesis presented here explores possible neurobiological explanations with an emphasis of environmental aetiologies and is presented with this bias.

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafodatskaya, Daria; Chung, Brian; Szatmari, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate…

  5. Cross-pollination of research findings, although uncommon, may accelerate discovery of human disease genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Marlena

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Technological leaps in genome sequencing have resulted in a surge in discovery of human disease genes. These discoveries have led to increased clarity on the molecular pathology of disease and have also demonstrated considerable overlap in the genetic roots of human diseases. In light of this large genetic overlap, we tested whether cross-disease research approaches lead to faster, more impactful discoveries. Methods We leveraged several gene-disease association databases to calculate a Mutual Citation Score (MCS for 10,853 pairs of genetically related diseases to measure the frequency of cross-citation between research fields. To assess the importance of cooperative research, we computed an Individual Disease Cooperation Score (ICS and the average publication rate for each disease. Results For all disease pairs with one gene in common, we found that the degree of genetic overlap was a poor predictor of cooperation (r2=0.3198 and that the vast majority of disease pairs (89.56% never cited previous discoveries of the same gene in a different disease, irrespective of the level of genetic similarity between the diseases. A fraction (0.25% of the pairs demonstrated cross-citation in greater than 5% of their published genetic discoveries and 0.037% cross-referenced discoveries more than 10% of the time. We found strong positive correlations between ICS and publication rate (r2=0.7931, and an even stronger correlation between the publication rate and the number of cross-referenced diseases (r2=0.8585. These results suggested that cross-disease research may have the potential to yield novel discoveries at a faster pace than singular disease research. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the frequency of cross-disease study is low despite the high level of genetic similarity among many human diseases, and that collaborative methods may accelerate and increase the impact of new genetic discoveries. Until we have a better

  6. Variation in the autism candidate gene GABRB3 modulates tactile sensitivity in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavassoli Teresa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism spectrum conditions have a strong genetic component. Atypical sensory sensitivities are one of the core but neglected features of autism spectrum conditions. GABRB3 is a well-characterised candidate gene for autism spectrum conditions. In mice, heterozygous Gabrb3 deletion is associated with increased tactile sensitivity. However, no study has examined if tactile sensitivity is associated with GABRB3 genetic variation in humans. To test this, we conducted two pilot genetic association studies in the general population, analysing two phenotypic measures of tactile sensitivity (a parent-report and a behavioural measure for association with 43 SNPs in GABRB3. Findings Across both tactile sensitivity measures, three SNPs (rs11636966, rs8023959 and rs2162241 were nominally associated with both phenotypes, providing a measure of internal validation. Parent-report scores were nominally associated with six SNPs (P Conclusions This is the first human study to show an association between GABRB3 variation and tactile sensitivity. This provides support for the evidence from animal models implicating the role of GABRB3 variation in the atypical sensory sensitivity in autism spectrum conditions. Future research is underway to directly test this association in cases of autism spectrum conditions.

  7. Some recent research findings on the social dynamics of environmental risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: key themes: social dynamics of public risk perception; trust, tolerability, and risk management; discourses of environmental risk; implications for risk communication and environmental valuation; application of mixed qualitative/quantitative methods in risk perception research. This paper presents some of the key findings of a two-year comparative European study (the PRISP Project) on public perception of risks associated with industrial sites in the UK, Italy and Spain. The project utilised a mixed-method approach (comprising community ethnography, semi-structured interviews, questionnaire survey and focus groups), within a Grounded Theory framework, to examine the social dynamics of risk comprehension, tolerability and politics in settings adjacent to a range of industrial facilities. These often complex industrial zones present a portfolio of 'acute' and 'chronic' risks including hazards associated with sites regulated by the European Union COMAH Directive. Our findings have important implications for the regulation of both major accident hazard and pollution risks, risk communication programmes, industrial risk management practices and for the methodological basis of health and safety and environmental valuation techniques. (authors)

  8. Digital animation as a method to disseminate research findings to the community using a community-based participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Nicole A; Jacoby, Sara F; Williams, Thalia; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A; Richmond, Therese S

    2013-03-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy.

  9. Rape treatment outcome research: empirical findings and state of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Katrina A; Margolin, Gayla

    2009-07-01

    This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery.

  10. Motor skill impairments in typically developing children and children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Maja Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research into early identifying features and associated symptoms of autism has shown high prevalence rates of motor skill deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This research has shown evidence of deficiencies in a wide range of motor skills in children with autism, but there is little agreement in the field on whether motor skill impairments are a defining feature of autism or not. This study explored differences in motor development on parental reports of mot...

  11. Does rubella cause autism: a 2015 reappraisal?

    OpenAIRE

    Jill eHutton

    2016-01-01

    In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today’s world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen, yet a...

  12. Does Rubella Cause Autism: A 2015 Reappraisal?

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Jill

    2016-01-01

    In the 1970s, Stella Chess found a high prevalence of autism in children with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), 200 times that of the general population at the time. Many researchers quote this fact to add proof to the current theory that maternal infection with immune system activation in pregnancy leads to autism in the offspring. This rubella and autism association is presented with the notion that rubella has been eliminated in today’s world. CRS cases are no longer typically seen; yet, ...

  13. The puzzle of autism: an ophthalmologic contribution.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, M T; Strömland, K.; Gillberg, C; M. Johansson; Nilsson, E W

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: A previous study of 86 thalidomide-affected subjects with ophthalmic manifestations revealed the unexpected finding of autism in 4 of the 5 severely retarded individuals. The subjects had anomalies associated with an early gestational effect of thalidomide, including facial nerve palsy and incomitant strabismus. Because autism has been observed in a few cases of Möbius sequence (Möbius syndrome), a condition characterized by involvement of the sixth and seventh cranial nerves, the si...

  14. The neurology of autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jeste, SS

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review: Neurological comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are not only common, but they are also associated with more clinical severity. This review highlights the most recent literature on three of autism's most prevalent neurological comorbidities: motor impairment, sleep disorders and epilepsy. Recent findings: Motor impairment in ASDs manifests as both delays and deficits, with delays found in gross and fine motor domains and deficits found in praxis, coordination ...

  15. Autism and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R

    2012-01-01

    The pervasive developmental disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), and Rett's disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as autism spectrum disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiological characteristics compared to Rett's disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews research and clinical information to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  16. Risk factors for bullying among children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Anderson, Connie M; Law, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Although children with disabilities have been found to be at an increased risk of bullying, there are limited studies investigating predictors of bullying involvement in children with autism spectrum disorders. The current study presents findings from 1221 parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who were selected from a national web-based registry. Parents completed a survey dedicated to the school and bullying experiences of their child, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify child and school risk factors for involvement as victim, bully, or bully-victim. Additional analyses examined the risk of bullying involvement based on the amount of time spent in general education classrooms. Children diagnosed with Asperger's disorder, attending a public school or a school with a general education population, were at the greatest risk of being victimized in the past month. Children with comorbid conditions and a high level of autistic traits were the most likely to be victims, bullies, and bully-victims. Finally, children in full inclusion classrooms were more likely to be victimized than those who spend the majority of their time in special education settings. Future research studies should be invested in finding appropriate supports for children with autism spectrum disorder placed in inclusive settings.

  17. Risk factors for bullying among children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Anderson, Connie M; Law, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Although children with disabilities have been found to be at an increased risk of bullying, there are limited studies investigating predictors of bullying involvement in children with autism spectrum disorders. The current study presents findings from 1221 parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who were selected from a national web-based registry. Parents completed a survey dedicated to the school and bullying experiences of their child, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify child and school risk factors for involvement as victim, bully, or bully-victim. Additional analyses examined the risk of bullying involvement based on the amount of time spent in general education classrooms. Children diagnosed with Asperger's disorder, attending a public school or a school with a general education population, were at the greatest risk of being victimized in the past month. Children with comorbid conditions and a high level of autistic traits were the most likely to be victims, bullies, and bully-victims. Finally, children in full inclusion classrooms were more likely to be victimized than those who spend the majority of their time in special education settings. Future research studies should be invested in finding appropriate supports for children with autism spectrum disorder placed in inclusive settings. PMID:23901152

  18. Kids' Quest: Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For... Parents / Educators National Center Homepage What is autism and how do I recognize a kid who might be diagnosed as having an autism spectrum disorder? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  19. 42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notifying the respondent of findings of research... RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.405 Notifying the respondent...

  20. The G22A Polymorphism of the ADA Gene and Susceptibility to Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinger, Joe A.; Liu, Xudong; Holden, Jeanette Jeltje Anne

    2008-01-01

    Inborn errors of purine metabolism have been implicated as a cause for some cases of autism. This hypothesis is supported by the finding of decreased adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in the sera of some children with autism and reports of an association of the A allele of the ADA G22A (Asp8Asn) polymorphism in individuals with autism of…

  1. The emergence and effectiveness of global health networks: findings and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Peter Schmitz, Hans; Berlan, David; Smith, Stephanie L; Quissell, Kathryn; Gneiting, Uwe; Pelletier, David

    2016-04-01

    Global health issues vary in the amount of attention and resources they receive. One reason is that the networks of individuals and organizations that address these issues differ in their effectiveness. This article presents key findings from a research project on the emergence and effectiveness of global health networks addressing tobacco use, alcohol harm, maternal mortality, neonatal mortality, tuberculosis and pneumonia. Although networks are only one of many factors influencing priority, they do matter, particularly for shaping the way the problem and solutions are understood, and convincing governments, international organizations and other global actors to address the issue. Their national-level effects vary by issue and are more difficult to ascertain. Networks are most likely to produce effects when (1) their members construct a compelling framing of the issue, one that includes a shared understanding of the problem, a consensus on solutions and convincing reasons to act and (2) they build a political coalition that includes individuals and organizations beyond their traditional base in the health sector, a task that demands engagement in the politics of the issue, not just its technical aspects. Maintaining a focused frame and sustaining a broad coalition are often in tension: effective networks find ways to balance the two challenges. The emergence and effectiveness of a network are shaped both by its members' decisions and by contextual factors, including historical influences (e.g. prior failed attempts to address the problem), features of the policy environment (e.g. global development goals) and characteristics of the issue the network addresses (e.g. its mortality burden). Their proliferation raises the issue of their legitimacy. Reasons to consider them legitimate include their members' expertise and the attention they bring to neglected issues. Reasons to question their legitimacy include their largely elite composition and the fragmentation they

  2. 孤独症谱系障碍儿童及其家庭成员生活质量研究现状%Current research on quality of life in children with autism spectrum disorders and their family members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟; 代英; 李廷玉

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders is characterized by impaired language communication,impaired social interaction,and repetitive behaviors and fixated interests.The prevalence rate of autism spectrum disorders is 1%.The children with autism spectrum disorders and their family have to face huge challenges because of the high prevalence rate,disability rate and economical burden.This review summarize the domestic and overseas researches on quality of life in children with autism spectrum disorders or their family members,aimed at attracting more concern at this special community.%孤独症谱系障碍以言语发育缺损、社会交往缺损、重复刻板行为、狭隘兴趣活动为特征.目前公认患病率为1%.因患病率高、致残率高、看护者经济压力大,给个人和家庭带来巨大挑战.现对国内外孤独症谱系障碍儿童及其家庭成员的生活质量研究作一综述,以使更多学者关注孤独症谱系障碍特殊群体.

  3. What's the Matter with Food?: A Hands-On Action Research Study on the Effect of Using Food Preparation To Teach Students with Autism about the Three States of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, Nicole

    This investigation studied the effectiveness of using food preparation to teach students with Autism about the three states of matter. A hands-on learning approach was used within the home and careers classroom. One class of five students, three boys and two girls, all diagnosed with Autism, participated in a five day academic unit about the three phases of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. The class received hands-on learning science instruction using food through various differentiated activities. Results indicate that students express focus when using food to learn. In addition, this study acknowledges that hands-on learning in science enhances the learning process of students with Autism. One of the main reasons is that students enjoy learning when this teaching style is used in the classroom, and students that enjoy what they are learning are more likely to be engaged and motivated to learn. After using this approach, all the students in the study increased their scores from the pre-assessments to the post-assessments. Students expressed through actions and words that they enjoyed using hands-on experiences to learn in the classroom. Implications for practice indicate that a variety of manipulatives are needed to teach students with Autism. Future research would help uncover additional information about student motivation and learning in the home and careers classroom.

  4. Early Intervention for Children with Autism: Methodologies Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tews, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The topic of early intervention for autism is widely researched and discussed within the literature. The application of applied behavioral analysis (ABA) continues to be an important topic. Due to the extensive amount of research on behavioral treatments for autism, and its widespread practice, the focus of this paper will be based upon treatment…

  5. Autism and Dimensionality: Differences between Copying and Drawing Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Elizabeth; Ropar, Danielle; Mitchell, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests individuals with autism may be less influenced by a three-dimensional interpretation when copying line drawings (Sheppard et al. "J Autism Dev Disord" 37:1913-1924, 2007). The current research aimed to determine whether this reduced dimensionality effect extends to drawings of an actual object. Twenty-four children and…

  6. A theoretical rut: revisiting and critically evaluating the generalized under/over-connectivity hypothesis of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picci, Giorgia; Gotts, Stephen J; Scherf, K Suzanne

    2016-07-01

    In 2004, two papers proposed that pervasive functional under-connectivity (Just et al., ) or a trade-off between excessive local connectivity at the cost of distal under-connectivity (Belmonte et al., ) characterizes atypical brain organization in autism. Here, we take stock of the most recent and rigorous functional and structural connectivity findings with a careful eye toward evaluating the extent to which they support these original hypotheses. Indeed, the empirical data do not support them. From rsfMRI studies in adolescents and adults, there is an emerging consensus regarding long-range functional connections indicating cortico-cortical under-connectivity, specifically involving the temporal lobes, combined with subcortical-cortical over-connectivity. In contrast, there is little to no consensus regarding local functional connectivity or findings from task-based functional connectivity studies. The structural connectivity data suggest that white matter tracts are pervasively weak, particularly in the temporal lobe. Together, these findings are revealing how deeply complex the story is regarding atypical neural network organization in autism. In other words, distance and strength of connectivity as individual factors or as interacting factors do not consistently explain the patterns of atypical neural connectivity in autism. Therefore, we make several methodological recommendations and highlight developmental considerations that will help researchers in the field cultivate new hypotheses about the nature and mechanisms of potentially aberrant functional and structural connectivity in autism. PMID:27412228

  7. Plasma Oxytocin in Children with Autism and Its Correlations with Behavioral Parameters in Children and Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Husarova, Veronika Marcincakova; Lakatosova, Silvia; Pivovarciova, Anna; Babinska, Katarina; Bakos, Jan; Durdiakova, Jaroslava; Kubranska, Aneta; Ondrejka, Igor; Ostatnikova, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Objective Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated to play an important role in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) etiology. We aimed to find out the differences in plasma OT levels between children with autism and healthy children, the associations of OT levels with particular autism symptoms and the associations of particular parental autistic traits with their ASD children OT levels. Methods We included 19 boys with autism and 44 healthy age-matched boys. OT levels were analyzed by ELISA method. Chi...

  8. Controversies in autism: is a broader model of social disorders needed?

    OpenAIRE

    Hrdlicka, Michal; Dudova, Iva

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the most significant, contradictory evidence pertaining to autism. The first section of the article includes reports of recovery from autism, data obtained from studies involving oxytocin, early deprivation, autism in preterm children, late-onset autism, and symptom overlap among ASD, social phobias and personality disorders. In the second section of the article, we offer a model that better incorporates current findings and address controversies that continue to surroun...

  9. Problems Teachers Face When Doing Action Research and Finding Possible Solutions: Three Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration during…

  10. Emotion processing in autism spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Philip, Ruth Clare Margaret

    2009-01-01

    With an estimated prevalence of ~1%, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is relatively common. Whilst accepted as a neurodevelopmental disorder, currently the diagnosis of autism is based on the observation of characteristic behaviour: deficits in language, communication and social skills in addition to unusual or restricted interests. Research in the condition has been approached with psychological and physiological methodology however a full understanding of the underlying neuropa...

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorder: the Present Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, S.; Chatterjee, N

    2015-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a surge of awareness about autism among the public and professionals. Much revealing research is being done on this issue and the knowledge base has improved substantially and a set of professionals are specializing on the subject, focusing on its causative factors and management. Autism being a disorder stemming from early childhood and the prevalence rate rising alarmingly over the years, Pediatricians are expected to play a vital role in early detection and ea...

  12. Roses for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaino, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses Roses for Autism, a program that provides training, guidance and employment opportunities for older students and adults on the autistic spectrum. Roses for Autism tackles one of the biggest challenges currently facing the autism community--a disproportionally high unemployment rate that hovers around 88 percent. Although a…

  13. Research on the effect of noise at different times of day: Models, methods and findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Social surveys of residents' responses to noise at different times of day are reviewed. Some of the discrepancies in published reports about the importance of noise at different times of day are reduced when the research findings are classified according to the type of time of day reaction model, the type of time of day weight calculated and the method which is used to estimate the weight. When the estimates of nighttime weights from 12 studies are normalized, it is found that they still disagree, but do not support stronger nighttime weights than those used in existing noise indices. Challenges to common assumptions in nighttime response models are evaluated. Two of these challenges receive enough support to warrant further investigation: the impact of changes in numbers of noise events may be less at night than in the day and nighttime annoyance may be affected by noise levels in other periods. All existing social survey results in which averages of nighttime responses were plotted by nighttime noise levels are reproduced.

  14. Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jeffery A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many interventions found to be effective in health services research studies fail to translate into meaningful patient care outcomes across multiple contexts. Health services researchers recognize the need to evaluate not only summative outcomes but also formative outcomes to assess the extent to which implementation is effective in a specific setting, prolongs sustainability, and promotes dissemination into other settings. Many implementation theories have been published to help promote effective implementation. However, they overlap considerably in the constructs included in individual theories, and a comparison of theories reveals that each is missing important constructs included in other theories. In addition, terminology and definitions are not consistent across theories. We describe the Consolidated Framework For Implementation Research (CFIR that offers an overarching typology to promote implementation theory development and verification about what works where and why across multiple contexts. Methods We used a snowball sampling approach to identify published theories that were evaluated to identify constructs based on strength of conceptual or empirical support for influence on implementation, consistency in definitions, alignment with our own findings, and potential for measurement. We combined constructs across published theories that had different labels but were redundant or overlapping in definition, and we parsed apart constructs that conflated underlying concepts. Results The CFIR is composed of five major domains: intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals involved, and the process of implementation. Eight constructs were identified related to the intervention (e.g., evidence strength and quality, four constructs were identified related to outer setting (e.g., patient needs and resources, 12 constructs were identified related to inner setting (e.g., culture

  15. Red-Cell Trace Minerals in Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Jory

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in mineral-dependent antioxidant enzymes in children with autism raise interest in the determination of trace mineral status in this population. A cross sectional investigation of red cell mineral levels was carried out among 20 children with autism and 15 controls. Children with autism demonstrated significantly lower red cell selenium (p<0.0006 and higher molybdenum (p<0.01 than the controls. There was a trend toward lower red cell zinc and higher cobalt and vanadium, among the children with autism. There were no differences in red cell levels of chromium, copper, manganese, or magnesium. These findings confirm an earlier report of low red cell selenium in autism and support a role for decreased trace mineral status in oxidative stress in autism through alteration of selenium-dependent antioxidant enzymes and increased lipid peroxidation.

  16. Gaze Perception Develops Atypically in Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Webster

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mindblindness model is the main model of social cognitive development in autism. This model assumes that eye direction detection and eye contact detection develop typically in autism (Baron-Cohen, 1995. The model's assumption of maturational development implies that when these skills are abnormal, they must either be absent or developmentally delayed. In contrast, the atypical modularisation hypothesis predicts that these skills can develop deviantly—successfully but atypically—in children with autism. Two computer-based tasks were used to assess eye direction detection and eye contact detection in children with autism and in typically developing children. These skills were developmentally deviant in children with autism. The findings support a model of social cognition in autism that accounts for developmental processes.

  17. Behavioral phenotypes of genetic mouse models of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdoba, T M; Leach, P T; Crawley, J N

    2016-01-01

    More than a hundred de novo single gene mutations and copy-number variants have been implicated in autism, each occurring in a small subset of cases. Mutant mouse models with syntenic mutations offer research tools to gain an understanding of the role of each gene in modulating biological and behavioral phenotypes relevant to autism. Knockout, knockin and transgenic mice incorporating risk gene mutations detected in autism spectrum disorder and comorbid neurodevelopmental disorders are now widely available. At present, autism spectrum disorder is diagnosed solely by behavioral criteria. We developed a constellation of mouse behavioral assays designed to maximize face validity to the types of social deficits and repetitive behaviors that are central to an autism diagnosis. Mouse behavioral assays for associated symptoms of autism, which include cognitive inflexibility, anxiety, hyperactivity, and unusual reactivity to sensory stimuli, are frequently included in the phenotypic analyses. Over the past 10 years, we and many other laboratories around the world have employed these and additional behavioral tests to phenotype a large number of mutant mouse models of autism. In this review, we highlight mouse models with mutations in genes that have been identified as risk genes for autism, which work through synaptic mechanisms and through the mTOR signaling pathway. Robust, replicated autism-relevant behavioral outcomes in a genetic mouse model lend credence to a causal role for specific gene contributions and downstream biological mechanisms in the etiology of autism.

  18. Interpretative phenomenological analysis of the experiences of autism and perceptions of parenting in parents with a child with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, Susie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Research has highlighted that parenting a child with autism can be challenging and stressful. However, many parents successfully cope with the challenges posed by autism. A systematic review investigated parental psychological predictors of positive adjustment and coping in parents with a child with autism. Although a range of potential predictor variables were examined, including social support, coping styles and religious beliefs, the results of the review were ...

  19. Impact of Problem Finding on the Quality of Authentic Open Inquiry Science Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBanca, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully…

  20. Altered oscillation patterns and connectivity during picture naming in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eBuard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Similar behavioral deficits are shared between individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and their first-degree relatives, such as impaired face memory, object recognition and some language aspects. Functional neuroimaging studies have reported abnormalities in ASD in at least one brain area implicated in those functions, the fusiform gyrus (FG. High frequency oscillations have also been described as abnormal in ASD in a separate line of research. The present study examined whether low- and high-frequency oscillatory power, localized in part to FG and other language-related regions, differs in ASD subjects and first-degree relatives. Twelve individuals with ASD, 16 parents of children with ASD, and 35 healthy controls participated in a picture-naming task using magnetoencephalography (MEG to assess oscillatory power and connectivity. Relative to controls, we observed reduced evoked high-gamma activity in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG and reduced high-beta/low-gamma evoked power in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG in the ASD group. Finally, reductions in phase-locked beta-band were also seen in the ASD group relative to controls, especially in the occipital lobes (OCC. First degree relatives, in contrast, exhibited higher high-gamma band power in the left STG compared with controls, as well as increased high-beta/low-gamma evoked power in the left FG. In the left hemisphere, beta- and gamma-band functional connectivity between the IFG and FG and between STG and OCC were higher in the autism group than in controls. This suggests that intrahemispheric patterns of connectivity at different frequencies are different in autism. The lack of behavioral correlation for the findings warrants some caution in interpreting the relevance of such changes for language function in ASD. Our findings in parents further implicates the gamma- and beta-band ranges as potential endophenotypes in autism.

  1. Rethinking language in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterponi, Laura; de Kirby, Kenton; Shankey, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we invite a rethinking of traditional perspectives of language in autism. We advocate a theoretical reappraisal that offers a corrective to the dominant and largely tacitly held view that language, in its essence, is a referential system and a reflection of the individual's cognition. Drawing on scholarship in Conversation Analysis and linguistic anthropology, we present a multidimensional view of language, showing how it also functions as interactional accomplishment, social action, and mode of experience. From such a multidimensional perspective, we revisit data presented by other researchers that include instances of prototypical features of autistic speech, giving them a somewhat different-at times complementary, at times alternative-interpretation. In doing so, we demonstrate that there is much at stake in the view of language that we as researchers bring to our analysis of autistic speech. Ultimately, we argue that adopting a multidimensional view of language has wide ranging implications, deepening our understanding of autism's core features and developmental trajectory. PMID:24916453

  2. Oculomotor studies of cerebellar function in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Caralynn V; Minshew, Nancy J; Luna, Beatriz; Takarae, Yukari; Sweeney, John A

    2005-11-15

    Histopathological, neuroimaging and genetic findings indicate cerebellar abnormalities in autism, but the extent of neurophysiological dysfunction associated with those findings has not been systematically examined. Suppression of intrusive saccades (square wave jerks) and the ability to sustain eccentric gaze, two phenomena requiring intact cerebellar function, were examined in 52 high-functioning individuals with autism and 52 age- and IQ-matched healthy subjects during visual fixation of static central and peripheral targets. Rates of intrusive saccades were not increased in autism during visual fixation, and foveopetal ocular drift was also not increased when subjects held an eccentric gaze. The absence of gross disturbances of visual fixation associated with cerebellar disease in individuals with autism, such as increased square wave jerk rates and foveopetal drift when holding eccentric gaze, indicates that the functional integrity of cerebellar--brainstem networks devoted to oculomotor control is preserved in autism despite reported anatomic variations. However, increased amplitude of intrusive saccades and reduced latency of target refixation after intrusive saccades were observed in individuals with autism, especially when subjects maintained fixation of remembered target locations without sensory guidance. The atypical metrics of intrusive saccades that were observed may be attributable to faulty functional connectivity in cortico-cerebellar networks. PMID:16214219

  3. Theory of Mind and Emotion Recognition Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development: Group Differences and Connection to Knowledge of Grammatical Morphology, Word-Finding Abilities and Verbal Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukusa, Soile; Mäkinen, Leena; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social perception skills, such as understanding the mind and emotions of others, affect children's communication abilities in real-life situations. In addition to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is increasing knowledge that children with specific language impairment (SLI) also demonstrate difficulties in their social…

  4. A Large Scale Study of the Psychometric Characteristics of the IBR Modified Overt Aggression Scale: Findings and Evidence for Increased Self-Destructive Behaviors in Adult Females with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ira L.; Tsiouris, John A.; Flory, Michael J.; Kim, Soh-Yule; Freedland, Robert; Heaney, Glenn; Pettinger, Jill; Brown, W. Ted

    2010-01-01

    The psychometric characteristics of the IBR Modified Overt Aggression Scale were studied in over 2,000 people with Intellectual Disability (ID). Reliability ranged from good to excellent. Aggression toward others and objects was highest in the youngest adults, in those in the moderate to severe range of ID, and in those with an autism spectrum…

  5. A Research on Right Protection for Autism Family--Based on Case Studies of Autism Families%自闭症家庭权利保护研究*--基于自闭症家庭个案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆奇斌; 张强; 付愈

    2014-01-01

    家庭是自闭症人士赖以生存的最有效空间,家庭权利的保护直接关系到自闭症人士的生存质量。自闭症家庭在不同生命周期所面临着不同的压力、应激反应、行为和需求,应当在此基础上构建基于需求层次的自闭症家庭权利保护体系。通过从“个人权利”中心向“家庭权利”中心的转变,为自闭症人士的权利保护、乃至其他残障人士的权利保护提供一个新的视角。%Focused on the autism families, the study analyzed the stress, response, behavior and demand of families in different stage of the autism family life cycle. Eventually, the authors built a right protection system for autism families based on the hierarchical needs. From transformation of "individual rights" center to the "family rights" center, this paper provided a new perspective of right protection for autism people and other disabilities.

  6. Correlation between hedgehog (hh) protein family and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) in autism spectrum disorder (asd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the correlation of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), Indian Hedgehog (IHH), and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Study Design: An observational, comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Autism Research and Treatment Center, Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2011 to May 2012. Methodology: Serum levels of SHH, IHH and BDNF were determined in recently diagnosed autistic patients and age matched healthy children (n=25), using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) was used for the assessment of autistic severity. Spearman correlation co-efficient-r was determined. Results: The serum levels of IHH and SHH were significantly higher in autistic subjects than those of control subjects. There was significant correlation between age and IHH (r = 0.176, p = 0.03), BDNF and severe IHH (r = 0.1763, p = 0.003), and severe BDNF and severe SHH (r = 0.143, p < 0.001). However, there were no significant relationships among the serum levels of SHH, IHH and BDNF and the CARS score, age or gender. Conclusion: The findings support a correlation between SHH, IHH and BDNF in autistic children, suggesting their pathological role in autism. (author)

  7. Incidental findings are frequent in young healthy individuals undergoing magnetic resonance imaging in brain research imaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Siebner, Hartwig R; Deuschl, Günther;

    2010-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about how to handle incidental findings (IF) detected in healthy individuals who participate in research-driven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. There are currently no established guidelines regarding their management.......There is an ongoing debate about how to handle incidental findings (IF) detected in healthy individuals who participate in research-driven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. There are currently no established guidelines regarding their management....

  8. Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Boys in South Asia. A review of research findings, legislation, policy and programme responses

    OpenAIRE

    John Frederick

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of research findings, legislation, policy and programme responses to prevent and respond to the sexual abuse and exploitation of boys in South Asia. The background to the paper is based on the findings from previous UNICEF IRC research on child trafficking in the region, which indicated that boys enjoy less legal protection than girls from sexual abuse and exploitation and less access to services for victims. While it is seen that the majority of legislation an...

  9. Perspectives of College of Education Students in Turkey on Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Pinar; Cronin, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed the autism awareness of College of Education students in two universities in Turkey. The main purpose of this research study was to conduct a needs assessment to learn more about Turkey's College of Education students' knowledge and awareness of autism. The Autism Awareness of College of Education Students in Turkey…

  10. Autism's anatomy : A dissection of the structure and development of a psychiatric concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Berend

    2015-01-01

    Only a few decades ago, autism was a rare and largely unknown psychiatric disorder. Today, autism is one of the most diagnosed, researched and discussed psychiatric disorders. What is more, in less than thirty years, autism has become an almost inescapable cultural phenomenon. Despite its current om

  11. Quality of Life of Caregivers of Children with Autism in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheir, Nadir; Ghoneim, Ola; Sandridge, Amy L.; Al-Ismail, Muna; Hayder, Sara; Al-Rawi, Fadhila

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Caring for a child diagnosed with autism could affect the quality of life of the caregiver in various different ways. No previous research has assessed the quality of lives of caregivers of children with autism in Qatar. Methods: Caregivers of a child with autism between 3 and 17 years old were recruited from child rehabilitation…

  12. Finding my ground in public health research: lessons from my Grandmother’s kitchen

    OpenAIRE

    Koolmatrie Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Research has a 'bad name' in Aboriginal communities. Too often, researchers have come, gathered information and taken it away from Aboriginal people, with no benefit for the communities taking part in the research. This history has implications for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal researchers planning research with Aboriginal communities. An in depth interview study will be conducted in one region of Victoria. Participants will be Aboriginal women who have had a baby within t...

  13. Configuring the autism epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Fie Lund Lindegaard; Seeberg, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Autism has been described as an epidemic, but this claim is contested and may point to an awareness epidemic, i.e. changes in the definition of what autism is and more attention being invested in diagnosis leading to a rise in registered cases. The sex ratio of children diagnosed with autism...... is skewed in favour of boys, and girls with autism tend to be diagnosed much later than boys. Building and further developing the notion of ‘configuration’ of epidemics, this article explores the configuration of autism in Denmark, with a particular focus on the health system and social support to families...

  14. Risk Factors for Bullying among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Anderson, Connie M.; Law, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although children with disabilities have been found to be at an increased risk of bullying, there are limited studies investigating predictors of bullying involvement in children with autism spectrum disorders. The current study presents findings from 1221 parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who were selected from a…

  15. Alexithymia in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmari, Peter; Georgiades, Stelios; Duku, Eric; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Goldberg, Jeremy; Bennett, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Given the recent findings regarding the association between alexithymia and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and the accumulating evidence for the presence of the Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) in relatives of individuals with ASD, we further explored the construct of alexithymia in parents of children with ASD as a potential part of the BAP. We…

  16. Brief Report: Circumscribed Attention in Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Noah J.; Elison, Jed T.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.

    2011-01-01

    School-aged children and adolescents with autism demonstrate circumscribed attentional patterns to nonsocial aspects of complex visual arrays (Sasson et al. "2008"). The current study downward extended these findings to a sample of 2-5 year-olds with autism and 2-5 year-old typically developing children. Eye-tracking was used to quantify discrete…

  17. Identification of Significant Association and Gene-Gene Interaction of GABA Receptor Subunit Genes in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, D Q; Whitehead, P. L.; Menold, M M; Martin, E. R.; Ashley-Koch, A. E.; Mei, H; Ritchie, M. D.; Delong, G R; Abramson, R.K.; Wright, H. H.; Cuccaro, M. L.; Hussman, J. P.; Gilbert, J.R.; Pericak-Vance, M A

    2005-01-01

    Autism is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a significant genetic component. Existing research suggests that multiple genes contribute to autism and that epigenetic effects or gene-gene interactions are likely contributors to autism risk. However, these effects have not yet been identified. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, has been implicated in autism etiology. Fourteen known autosomal GABA receptor subunit genes were studied...

  18. Virtual reality for the treatment of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, D

    1997-01-01

    Autism is a mental disorder which has received attention in several unrelated studies using virtual reality. One of the first attempts was to diagnose children with special needs at Tokyo University using a sandbox playing technique. Although operating the computer controls proved to be too difficult for the individuals with autism in the Tokyo study, research at the University of Nottingham, UK, is successful in using VR as a learning aid for children with a variety of disorders including autism. Both centers used flat screen computer systems with virtual scenes. Another study which concentrated on using VR as a learning aid with an immersive headset system is described in detail in this chapter. Perhaps because of the seriousness of the disorder and the lack of effective treatments, autism has received more study than attention deficit disorders, although both would appear to benefit from many of the same technology features. PMID:10184809

  19. Summaries of Conference Papers, Theme 1, Research Findings. International Conference on Evaluation and Research in Educational Television and Radio (Milton Keynes, England, April 9-13, 1976).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Open Univ., Walton, Bletchley, Bucks (England).

    Educational television and radio research and evaluation findings are the subject of 25 papers summarized in this document. Seven papers deal with evaluation of research projects in educational television and radio. Four papers on adult education and two on educational technology in teacher training are also summarized. Research in teaching with…

  20. The Molecular Genetics of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Genomic Mechanisms, Neuroimmunopathology, and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Guerra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs have become increasingly common in recent years. The discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and accompanying copy number variations within the genome has increased our understanding of the architecture of the disease. These genetic and genomic alterations coupled with epigenetic phenomena have pointed to a neuroimmunopathological mechanism for ASD. Model animal studies, developmental biology, and affective neuroscience laid a foundation for dissecting the neural pathways impacted by these disease-generating mechanisms. The goal of current autism research is directed toward a systems biological approach to find the most basic genetic and environmental causes to this severe developmental disease. It is hoped that future genomic and neuroimmunological research will be directed toward finding the road toward prevention, treatment, and cure of ASD.

  1. Adjudicating non-knowledge in the Omnibus Autism Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoteau, Claire Laurier; Underman, Kelly

    2015-08-01

    After 5600 families of children diagnosed with autism filed claims with the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program in the United States, the court selected 'test' cases consolidated into the Omnibus Autism Proceedings, held from 2007 to 2008, to examine claims that vaccines caused the development of autism. The court found all of the causation theories presented to be untenable and did not award damages to any parents. We analyze the Omnibus Autism Proceedings as a struggle within the scientific field between the scientific orthodoxy of the respondents and the heterodox position taken by the plaintiffs, suggesting that the ruling in these cases helped to shore up hegemony on autism causation. Drawing on the literature on non-knowledge, we suggest that only the respondents had enough scientific capital to strategically direct non-knowledge toward genetic research, thereby foreclosing the possibility of environmental causation of autism. The plaintiffs, who promote a non-standard ontology of autism, suggest that the science on autism remains undone and should not be circumscribed. In analyzing the Omnibus Autism Proceedings with field theory, we highlight the way in which scientific consensus-building and the setting of research agendas are the result of struggle, and we show that the strategic deployment of non-knowledge becomes a major stake in battles for scientific legitimacy and the settling of scientific controversies.

  2. Research in Online and Blended Learning in the Business Disciplines: Key Findings and Possible Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaugh, J. B.; Godfrey, Michael R.; Johnson, Marianne; Pollack, Birgit Leisen; Niendorf, Bruce; Wresch, William

    2009-01-01

    In this literature review, we examine and assess the state of research of online and blended learning in the business disciplines with the intent of assessing the state of the field and identifying opportunities for meaningful future research. We review research from business disciplines such as Accounting, Economics, Finance, Information Systems…

  3. Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Tureck, Kimberly; Schneiderman, Robyn L

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. PMID:22114543

  4. Statement of principles on the return of research results and incidental findings in paediatric research: a multi-site consultative process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénécal, Karine; Rahimzadeh, Vasiliki; Knoppers, Bartha M; Fernandez, Conrad V; Avard, Denise; Sinnett, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a set of recommendations for the return of research results and incidental findings in paediatrics. The Network of Applied Genetic Medicine of Quebec spearheaded the initiative to develop the Statement of Principles on the Return of Research Results and Incidental Findings, which was the result of a consultation process with clinical and research experts in the field. To formulate the Statement of Principles, the authors (i) reviewed empirical and grey literature on the return of research results and incidental findings in Europe and Canada, (ii) conducted a qualitative study of stakeholder groups, (iii) developed, and (iv) validated the recommendations through consultations with the stakeholder groups. The Statement of Principles provides a useful disclosure tool for deciding when, and under what circumstances to return research results and incidental findings. It addresses the issue of return of results in genetic research generally, and has also specific principles for various research contexts, including paediatric research. It delineates ethical issues unique to paediatric research, and provides a framework to guide research ethics committees as well as the research community in addressing these issues.

  5. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Shi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence rate of tuberous sclerosis complex in autistic disorder.Methods: We studied one cohort of children followed up since 2005 until 2009, with autistic disorder, to determine the incidence of tuberous sclerosis complex. We established an autistic disorder registry in 2005 at China Rehabilitation Research Center. During the 4-year period (2005–2009, we collected a database of 429 children (390 boys and 39 girls; male to female ratio 10:1 with autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorders. We routinely examined all children with autistic disorder for any features oftuberous sclerosis complex by looking for neurocutaneous markers such as depigmented spots. In those with infantile spasm or epilepsy, the clinical features of tuberous sclerosis complex were monitored regularly during follow-up.Findings: Of these, five had tuberous sclerosis complex. Thus, the prevalence rate of tuberous sclerosis complex in autistic disorder is 1.17%. All of these children were mentally retarded with moderate to severe grades. Their IQ or developmental quotient was less than 70.Conclusion: The prevalence rate of tuberous sclerosis complex in autistic disorder was 1.17% in our region;autism spectrum disorder is a condition that might be associated with development of tuberous sclerosis complex.

  6. Randomised controlled Trial of Improvisational Music therapy's Effectiveness for children with Autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geretsegger, Monika; Holck, Ulla; Gold, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that music therapy may facilitate skills in areas typically affected by autism spectrum disorders such as social interaction and communication. However, generalisability of previous findings has been restricted, as studies were limited in either...... methodological accuracy or the clinical relevance of their approach. The aim of this study is to determine effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorders. An additional aim of the study is to examine if variation in dose of treatment (i.......e., number of music therapy sessions per week) affects outcome of therapy, and to determine cost-effectiveness. Methods Children aged between 4;0 and 6;11 years who are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder will be randomly assigned to one of three conditions. Parents of all participants will receive three...

  7. Signs and Symptoms of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Autism Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z ... Z # Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Autism Cancel Submit Search The CDC Autism Spectrum Disorder ( ...

  8. What We Have Learned about Autism Spectrum Disorder from Valproic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor Chomiak; Nathanael Turner; Bin Hu

    2013-01-01

    Two recent epidemiological investigations in children exposed to valproic acid (VPA) treatment in utero have reported a significant risk associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in particular. Parallel to this work, there is a growing body of animal research literature using VPA as an animal model of ASD. In this focused review we first summarize the epidemiological evidence linking VPA to ASD and then comment on two important neurobiological findings li...

  9. A Review of Rhythm and Responsiveness of Cortisol in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Corbett, Blythe A

    2014-01-01

    Examination of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis via cortisol among individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been a growing area of research interest. The following review includes investigations of cortisol conducted with cohorts of individuals with ASD across the lifespan over the past four decades. In general, studies find dysregulation when examining the diurnal rhythm as a whole in lower functioning children with ASD; however, limited evidence exists for alteration...

  10. Neural connectivity abnormalities in autism: Insights from the Tuberous Sclerosis model

    OpenAIRE

    Tye, Charlotte; Bolton, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a behavioral syndrome caused by complex genetic and non-genetic risk factors. It has been proposed that these risk factors lead to alterations in the development and 'wiring' of brain circuits and hence, the emergence of ASD. Although several lines of research lend support to this theory, etiological and clinical heterogeneity, methodological issues and inconsistent findings have led to significant doubts. One of the best established, albeit rare, causes of A...

  11. Ability of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders to Identify Emotional Facial Expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzi, Jill Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on emotion identification in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has demonstrated inconsistent results. While some studies have cited a deficit in emotion identification for individuals with ASD compared to controls, others have failed to find a difference. Many studies have used static photographs that do not capture subtle details of dynamic, real-life facial expressions that characterize authentic social interactions, and therefore have not been able to provide...

  12. Evaluation of regression in autism spectrum disorder based on parental reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet K Kern

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research indicates that some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD experience a developmental regression. Aims: The study examined the percentage of children with autism, pervasive developmental disorder (PDD, ASD, and Asperger syndrome (AS who were considered to be delayed (D, regressed (R, or delayed and later regressed (DR and examined any relationship with autism severity, time of onset, factors associated with onset, gastrointestinal (GI symptoms, race, age, and gender. Materials and Methods: The study reviewed developmental and medical information based on parental reports of 135 children with a diagnosis of autism, PDD, ASD, or AS. Results: The number of children in the D group was 53 (39.2% with 19 (14.1% in the DR group and 63 (46.7% in the R group. Thus, 82 children (60.7% were reported to have R. In regard to onset of symptoms, there was a significant difference between the D and R groups as well as between the DR and R groups. The analyses showed that there was no significant relationship between age, gender, race, severity, or GI symptoms and membership in any group; D, DR, or R. The majority of parents reported that the regression was preceded by or was associated with vaccinations (57.3% or another medically related event (11.0%. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with previous research and reinforce our understanding of regression in those children with an ASD diagnosis.

  13. History of music therapy treatment interventions for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the history of music therapy research and treatment of children with autism. Understanding such history is important in order to improve clinical efficacy and inform future research. This paper includes a history of autism diagnosis, reviews strengths and limitations of music therapy practice with children with autism from 1940-2009, and suggests direction for future music therapy research and clinical practice with this population. Literature was limited to the English language and obtained with the following search terms: autism, autistic, (early) infantile autism, child, therapeutic music, musical therapy, and music therapy. Table of contents from music therapy journals were searched, and reference lists from obtained articles were perused for additional articles. This historical review focused primarily on journal articles, however, books and book chapters that appeared to hold particular historical significance were also included.

  14. Tactile Perception in Adults with Autism: A Multidimensional Psychophysical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascio, Carissa; McGlone, Francis; Folger, Stephen; Tannan, Vinay; Baranek, Grace; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Essick, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    Although sensory problems, including unusual tactile sensitivity, are heavily associated with autism, there is a dearth of rigorous psychophysical research. We compared tactile sensation in adults with autism to controls on the palm and forearm, the latter innervated by low-threshold unmyelinated afferents subserving a social/affiliative…

  15. Referential Gaze and Word Learning in Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaqre, Iyad; Paulus, Markus; Sodian, Beate

    2015-01-01

    While typically developing children can use referential gaze to guide their word learning, those with autism spectrum disorder are often described to have problems with that. However, some researchers assume that the ability to follow gaze to select the correct referent can develop in autism later compared to typically developing individuals. To…

  16. The "Eye Avoidance" Hypothesis of Autism Face Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, James W.; Sung, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Although a growing body of research indicates that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit selective deficits in their ability to recognize facial identities and expressions, the source of their face impairment is, as yet, undetermined. In this paper, we consider three possible accounts of the autism face deficit: (1) the holistic…

  17. Disorganized Cortical Patches Suggest Prenatal Origin of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children with autism can be traced back to prenatal development. “While autism is generally considered a developmental brain disorder, research has not identified a consistent or causative lesion,” said ... the prenatal brain develops, neurons in the cortex differentiate into ...

  18. Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…

  19. Autism by Another Name? Semantic and Pragmatic Impairments in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Sarah Lister; Bowler, Dermot M.

    1992-01-01

    A review of the literature on children with language disorders characterized by semantic and pragmatic impairments suggests that some of these conditions may stem from the same fundamental cognitive and interpersonal difficulties found in early childhood autism. A summary of recent research and theory in autism is also presented. (Author/DB)

  20. Addressing Working Memory in Children with Autism through Behavioral Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltruschat, Lisa; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Tarbox, Jonathan; Dixon, Dennis R.; Najdowski, Adel C.; Mullins, Ryan D.; Gould, Evelyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism often struggle with executive function (EF) deficits, particularly with regard to working memory (WM). Despite the documented deficits in these areas, very little controlled research has evaluated treatments for remediation of EF or WM deficits in children with autism. This study examined the use of positive reinforcement for…

  1. Biomedical and Behavioral Research Scientists: Their Training and Supply. Volume 1: Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel.

    This is the first of three volumes which presents the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel's examination of the educational process that leads to doctoral degrees in biomedical and behavioral science (and to postdoctoral study in some cases) and the role of the National Research Service Awards (NRSA) training programs in it.…

  2. Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

  3. Brief Report: Do the Nature of Communication Impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorders Relate to the Broader Autism Phenotype in Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lauren J.; Maybery, Murray T.; Wray, John; Ravine, David; Hunt, Anna; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive empirical evidence indicates that the lesser variant of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) involves a communication impairment that is similar to, but milder than, the deficit in clinical ASD. This research explored the relationship between the broader autism phenotype (BAP) among parents, an index of genetic liability for ASD, and proband…

  4. Anxiety Symptoms in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder Attending Special Schools: Associations with Gender, Adaptive Functioning and Autism Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiati, Iliana; Ong, Clarissa; Lim, Xin Yi; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Ong, Amily Yi Lin; Patrycia, Ferninda; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Sung, Min; Poon, Kenneth K.; Howlin, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety-related problems are among the most frequently reported mental health difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. As most research has focused on clinical samples or high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder, less is known about the factors associated with anxiety in community samples across the ability range. This…

  5. The prevalence of obesity in children with autism: a secondary data analysis using nationally representative data from the National Survey of Children's Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Must Aviva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically in the last two decades and numerous efforts to understand, intervene on, and prevent this significant threat to children's health are underway for many segments of the pediatric population. Understanding the prevalence of obesity in populations of children with developmental disorders is an important undertaking, as the factors that give rise to obesity may not be the same as for typically developing children, and because prevention and treatment efforts may need to be tailored to meet their needs and the needs of their families. The goal of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents with autism. Methods This study was a secondary data analysis of cross-sectional nationally representative data collected by telephone interview of parents/guardians on 85,272 children ages 3-17 from the 2003-2004 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH. Autism was determined by response to the question, "Has a doctor or health professional ever told you that your child has autism?" Children and adolescents were classified as obese accordingto CDC guidelines for body mass index (BMI for age and sex. Results The prevalence of obesity in children with autism was 30.4% compared to 23.6% of children without autism (p = .075. The unadjusted odds of obesity in children with autism was 1.42 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.00, 2.02, p = .052 compared to children without autism. Conclusions Based on US nationally representative data, children with autism have a prevalence of obesity at least as high as children overall. These findings suggest that additional research is warranted to understand better the factors that influence the development of obesity in this population of children.

  6. 儿童自闭症的遗传学研究进展%Advance in the Research of Genetics of Autism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 黄薇

    2009-01-01

    Autistic disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction and restricted and repetitive patterns of interest or behavior.Evidence from twin and family studies indieates that the heritability estimates up to 90%.This review aims to introduce the development of autism genetics research and the focus is on the current methods and analysis approaches including cytagenetic,candidate gene,linkage,copy number variation and genome wide association studies.%自闭症是一种以语言发育障碍、社会交往障碍及兴趣范围狭窄、行为刻板为主要特征的神经发育性疾病.通过同胞对和家系研究表明,其遗传度可高达90%.本文对近年来在自闭症遗传学研究方面的进展进行了论述,着重介绍目前的一些研究手段和分析方法,包括细胞遗传学、候选基因、连锁分析、拷贝数变异以及全基因组关联分析等研究.

  7. Gender ratio in a clinical population sample, age of diagnosis and duration of assessment in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Marion; McKenzie, Karen; Johnson, Tess; Catchpole, Ciara; O'Hare, Anne; McClure, Iain; Forsyth, Kirsty; McCartney, Deborah; Murray, Aja

    2016-07-01

    This article reports on gender ratio, age of diagnosis and the duration of assessment procedures in autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in a national study which included all types of clinical services for children and adults. Findings are reported from a retrospective case note analysis undertaken with a representative sample of 150 Scottish children and adults recently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The study reports key findings that the gender ratio in this consecutively referred cohort is lower than anticipated in some age groups and reduces with increasing age. The gender ratio in children, together with the significant difference in the mean age of referral and diagnosis for girls compared to boys, adds evidence of delayed recognition of autism spectrum disorder in younger girls. There was no significant difference in duration of assessment for males and females suggesting that delays in diagnosis of females occur prior to referral for assessment. Implications for practice and research are considered.

  8. The ROOTS study: a 10-year review of findings on adolescent depression, and recommendations for future longitudinal research

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Gemma; Jones, Peter B.; Goodyer, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to review longitudinal findings on adolescent mental health from the ‘ROOTS study’, and provide directions and recommendations for future longitudinal research. To do this, we discuss relevant findings from the ROOTS study, and review its strengths and limitations. Methods We examined all publications from the ROOTS study up to July 2015, selected those examining adolescent mental health, and classified them as investigating (a) childhood risk factors for ...

  9. Sustainable communities : qualitative householder research findings from South Cambridgeshire and Barking and Dagenham

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2007-01-01

    This report is part of the evidence base for 'In-depth review of sustainable communities policy'. This qualitative householder research was carried out to complement the Area-Based Assessments undertaken on behalf of the Sustainable Development Commission. It was undertaken in Barking and Dagenham, and South Cambridgeshire. This report is based on the transcripts of interviews undertaken in these areas. The aim of the research was to seek householders’ opinions of their communities. Pub...

  10. Music therapists’ practice-based research in cancer and palliative care: Creative methods and situated findings

    OpenAIRE

    Philippa Barry; Clare O'Callaghan

    2009-01-01

    Although randomized controlled trials are described as the gold standard in health care research, their superiority is being questioned in palliative care which is focused on addressing individualized needs to maximize life quality. We use creative practice-based research to examine the usefulness of our music therapy work amongst people with life threatening conditions. Examined voices include “collective” (patients, visitors, staff, and music therapist), "their” (patients or caregivers), "o...

  11. Cyberbullying Victimization and Behaviors Among Girls: Applying Research Findings in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia A. Snell; Elizabeth K. Englander

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Prior research on cyberbullying has been conducted; however specific research on gender differences has yet to be examined. The current study focuses on gender trends, specifically females, in cyberbullying victimization and behaviors. Approach: A survey was given to undergraduate students at Bridgewater State College in an effort to see what gender trends exist in cyberbullying behaviors. A pilot program focused on girls and cyberbullying is also examined in this article. ...

  12. The implications of brain connectivity in the neuropsychology of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximo, Jose O; Cadena, Elyse J; Kana, Rajesh K

    2014-03-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that has been associated with atypical brain functioning. Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) studies examining neural networks in autism have seen an exponential rise over the last decade. Such investigations have led to the characterization of autism as a distributed neural systems disorder. Studies have found widespread cortical underconnectivity, local overconnectivity, and mixed results suggesting disrupted brain connectivity as a potential neural signature of autism. In this review, we summarize the findings of previous fcMRI studies in autism with a detailed examination of their methodology, in order to better understand its potential and to delineate the pitfalls. We also address how a multimodal neuroimaging approach (incorporating different measures of brain connectivity) may help characterize the complex neurobiology of autism at a global level. Finally, we also address the potential of neuroimaging-based markers in assisting neuropsychological assessment of autism. The quest for a neural marker for autism is still ongoing, yet new findings suggest that aberrant brain connectivity may be a promising candidate.

  13. Food, diversity, vulnerability and social change : research findings from insular Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niehof, A.

    2010-01-01

    Food is a universal basic need. The diverse ways in which people and households try to meet this need, the constraints they are up against in doing so, and the strategies they develop to reduce their vulnerability to food insecurity form the core of this book. A large range of findings on these subj

  14. Evaluation of the Child Development Project: Research Design, Procedures, and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Daniel; And Others

    Findings of an evaluation of the first 5 years of a longitudinal program designed to enhance children's prosocial development are reported. The program was offered for children in three elmentary schools in a suburban, middle-class district near San Francisco. Three schools in the same district served as a comparison group. Enrollment ranged from…

  15. Communicating Comparative Findings from Meta-Analysis in Educational Research: Some Examples and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Steve; Katsipataki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews some of the strengths and limitations of the comparative use of meta-analysis findings, using examples from the Sutton Trust-Education Endowment Foundation Teaching and Learning "Toolkit" which summarizes a range of educational approaches to improve pupil attainment in schools. This comparative use of quantitative…

  16. AUTISM ON THE INTERNET

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    2000-01-01

    The Internet as the world wide information system is a global information network that provides instantly communication between a million users through its services. The Internet can be used in any science discipline especially in medicine. The aim of this paper is to show the possibilities of Internet in studying all the aspects of autism syndrome, introducing the public with some web-sites which treats autism and presenting the one and only web-site in Macedonia called Autism-Macedonia. In ...

  17. Reward Processing in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Scott-Van Zeeland, Ashley A.; DAPRETTO, MIRELLA; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Poldrack, Russell A.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.

    2010-01-01

    The social motivation hypothesis of autism posits that infants with autism do not experience social stimuli as rewarding, thereby leading to a cascade of potentially negative consequences for later development. While possible downstream effects of this hypothesis such as altered face and voice processing have been examined, there has not been a direct investigation of social reward processing in autism. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine social and monetary rewarded ...

  18. "I Have Lived an Autism Experience. Autism Is an Interesting Disease": The Life Story of a Young Man with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulec-Aslan, Yesim; Ozbey, Fidan; Yassibas, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to describe the life experiences of a young man who has been diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) through a narrative research. In other words, our research aim is to investigate the nature of life and especially the social and school experiences of individual affected by this syndrome. Data were collected via…

  19. Announcement of the principal findings and value addition in Computer Science research papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasima Shehzad

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rhetorical analysis of the Introductions of Computer Science (CS research articles from a specialized corpus with reference to “Announcement of Principal Findings” and “Statement of Value” steps within the framework of the “Create A Research Space” (CARS model (Swales, 2004, conducted through corpus-based techniques. The results show that discoursal practices in CS are result-oriented and in various ways highlight the writers’ contribution. The results are explicitly described with embedded “value” statements in the elaborate explanations of the nature of the present research. The common linguistic indicators used for this purpose are “contribution”, “efficient” and “novel”. The discussion concludes with the suggestion to amend the CARS model for CS writers.

  20. Cyberbullying Victimization and Behaviors Among Girls: Applying Research Findings in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Snell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Prior research on cyberbullying has been conducted; however specific research on gender differences has yet to be examined. The current study focuses on gender trends, specifically females, in cyberbullying victimization and behaviors. Approach: A survey was given to undergraduate students at Bridgewater State College in an effort to see what gender trends exist in cyberbullying behaviors. A pilot program focused on girls and cyberbullying is also examined in this article. Results: Preliminary results from both the survey and the pilot study have shown gender differences in regards to cyberbullying victimization and behaviors. Results suggest that females are more often involved in cyberbullying activities both as victims and perpetrators. Conclusion: The current study has found evidence of gender trends in regards to females and cyberbullying behaviors. Future research needs to be conducted to further examine the gender trends emerging in cyberbullying related behaviors."

  1. Affective States and Performance Outcomes – The Findings of Preliminary Research Involving Pentathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samełko Aleksandra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this article is to discuss the relationship between affective states experienced by athletes and the outcome of their performance. The article presents the findings of a pilot study which made it possible to determine the relationship between the emotional states, mood, and level of stress of a group of pentathletes and the outcomes they achieved in a sports competition. Material and methods. The study involved 12 senior modern pentathletes, including 7 male and 5 female athletes. The following standard psychology questionnaires were used in the study: the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, and the Profile of Mood State (POMS. Performance was assessed based on the number of points achieved by the pentathletes in particular events in the pentathlon, which are held according to the rules set by the International Modern Pentathlon Union (UIPM. Results. The findings of the study confirmed that there was a correlation between the athletes’ mood and emotions and the outcome of their performance. The level of stress strongly negatively correlated with both the outcome they expected to achieve and the one they actually achieved for the combined event (running and shooting. For this event a relationship was also found between the athletes’ affective states and their outcomes: in running and shooting there was a positive and statistically significant correlation between the level of positive emotions and anger and the results achieved. However, friendliness, one of the other affective state variables that were measured, correlated negatively with the outcomes of the athletes’ performance. Conclusions. In the group of pentathletes who participated in the study, a high level of anger was associated with better outcomes, and a high level of friendliness had an adverse effect on the results achieved. The findings of the current study confirm that there is a relationship

  2. Insomnia in places of detention: a review of the most recent research findings

    OpenAIRE

    Elger, Bernice Simone

    2007-01-01

    Up to 40% of prisoner patients in a general medicine outpatient service seek medical consultation for sleep problems. This paper provides a brief overview of what is known about insomnia and its treatment from studies on non-detained patients and discusses the relevance of the findings from studies in liberty for prison health care. The clinical and ethical issues of insomnia in prison are described, followed by a summary of the existing studies on insomnia in prison. The results of the repor...

  3. Employment activities and experiences of adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger’s Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra; Warren, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    There is limited large-scale empirical research into the working lives of adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on data from a national survey, this report describes the employment activities and experiences of 130 adults with Asperger's Disorder (AD) and high functioning autism (HFA) in Australia. Outcome measures include current occupation; occupational skill level and alignment with educational attainment; type of job contract; hours of work; support received to find work; support received in the workplace; and positive and negative experiences of employment. The findings confirm and expand upon existing evidence that adults with AD and HFA, despite their capacity and willingness to work, face significant disadvantages in the labour market and a lack of understanding and support in employment settings.

  4. Employment activities and experiences of adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger’s Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susanna; Costley, Debra; Warren, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    There is limited large-scale empirical research into the working lives of adults who have an autism spectrum disorder with no co-occurring intellectual disability. Drawing on data from a national survey, this report describes the employment activities and experiences of 130 adults with Asperger's Disorder (AD) and high functioning autism (HFA) in Australia. Outcome measures include current occupation; occupational skill level and alignment with educational attainment; type of job contract; hours of work; support received to find work; support received in the workplace; and positive and negative experiences of employment. The findings confirm and expand upon existing evidence that adults with AD and HFA, despite their capacity and willingness to work, face significant disadvantages in the labour market and a lack of understanding and support in employment settings. PMID:24715257

  5. Examination of Local Functional Homogeneity in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing neuroimaging evidence suggests that autism patients exhibit abnormal brain structure and function. We used the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE sample to analyze locally focal (~8 mm functional connectivity of 223 autism patients and 285 normal controls from 15 international sites using a recently developed surface-based approach. We observed enhanced local connectivity in the middle frontal cortex, left precuneus, and right superior temporal sulcus, and reduced local connectivity in the right insular cortex. The local connectivity in the right middle frontal gyrus was positively correlated with the total score of the autism diagnostic observation schedule whereas the local connectivity within the right superior temporal sulcus was positively correlated with total subscores of both the communication and the stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests of the schedule. Finally, significant interactions between age and clinical diagnosis were detected in the left precuneus. These findings replicated previous observations that used a volume-based approach and suggested possible neuropathological impairments of local information processing in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and insular cortices. Novel site-variability analysis demonstrated high reproducibility of our findings across the 15 international sites. The age-disease interaction provides a potential target region for future studies to further elucidate the neurodevelopmental mechanisms of autism.

  6. The Meaning of Work among Chinese University Students: Findings from Prototype Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sili; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xu

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Chinese university students' conceptualization of the meaning of work. One hundred and ninety students (93 male, 97 female) from Beijing, China, participated in the study. Prototype research methodology (J. Li, 2001) was used to explore the meaning of work and the associations among the identified meanings. Cluster analysis was…

  7. Domestic Violence Between Same-Gender Partners: Recent Findings and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClennen, Joan C.

    2005-01-01

    Empirical literature about same-gender domestic violence was relatively nonexistent until the past 20 years, and conducting research with this population about a sensitive topic remains a daunting endeavor. Existing studies reveal similarities between opposite- and same-gender domestic violence in prevalence, types of abuse, and various dynamics,…

  8. Finding the right research question: quality science depends on quality careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D A; Abernethy, D R

    2008-09-01

    When making the transition from trainee to principal investigator, there are few steps more important than selecting the first independent research project. The project must synthesize the excitement and idealism of contributing to the well-being of humankind and the practical realities of an area of inquiry that is likely to lead to a successful career. PMID:18615005

  9. Increasing the Uptake of Peer Feedback in Primary School Writing: Findings from an Action Research Enquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Stuart Ian

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on how an action research strategy was used to increase children's uptake of feedback during peer assessment in primary school writing. Several different strategies were used in the study that had been successful in increasing students' uptake of peer feedback in contexts such as higher education. In order to evaluate how…

  10. Can We Find Solutions with People? Participatory Action Research with Small Organic Producers in Andalusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Padilla, Mamen; Calle-Collado, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and…

  11. The Challenge of Finding Faculty Time for Applied Research Activities in Ontario Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Otte

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how the role of Ontario college faculty has evolved since the advent of the Post-Secondary Education Choice and Excellence Act of 2000 and the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology Act of 2002 in terms of whether or not the decision to create a research culture at the colleges included making time…

  12. Census of Institutional Repositories in the United States: MIRACLE Project Research Findings. CLIR Publication No. 140

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Karen; Rieh, Soo Young; St. Jean, Beth; Kim, Jihyun; Yakel, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    In this report, the authors describe results of a nationwide census of institutional repositories in U.S. academic institutions. The census is one of several activities of the MIRACLE Project, an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)-funded research program based at the University of Michigan. The acronym MIRACLE means "Making…

  13. Better Together: Research Findings on the Relationship between Racial Justice Organizations and LGBT Communities. Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rinku; Wessler, Seth; Apollon, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    In partnership with the Arcus Foundation, the Applied Research Center (ARC) has undertaken a study of the relationship between racial justice organizations and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) constituencies and issues, with the understanding that communities of color themselves, including their LGBT members, have a good deal at stake in…

  14. Strategies for Improving Rehearsal Technique: Using Research Findings to Promote Better Rehearsals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvey, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Music education researchers and conducting pedagogues have identified numerous behaviors that contribute to increased verbal and nonverbal teaching effectiveness of conductors on the podium. This article is a review of literature concerning several conductor behaviors that may (a) increase the effectiveness of rehearsals, (b) enhance the…

  15. Key Events and Lessons for Managers in a Diverse Workforce: A Report on Research and Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Christina A.

    The research documented in this report builds on earlier work in the 1980s in the area of on-the-job experiences in developing effective leaders. The current study was designed to answer the following: (1) What are the significant events from which African American managers learn and develop? (2) Are the key events and lessons learned different…

  16. Reporting and Interpreting Quantitative Research Findings: What Gets Reported and Recommendations for the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson-Hall, Jenifer; Plonsky, Luke

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a set of guidelines for reporting on five types of quantitative data issues: (1) Descriptive statistics, (2) Effect sizes and confidence intervals, (3) Instrument reliability, (4) Visual displays of data, and (5) Raw data. Our recommendations are derived mainly from various professional sources related to L2 research but…

  17. Gluten- and casein-free dietary intervention for autism spectrum conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eWhiteley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intervention as a tool for maintaining and improving physical health and wellbeing is a widely researched and discussed topic. Speculation that diet may similarly affect mental health and wellbeing particularly in cases of psychiatric and behavioural symptomatology opens up various avenues for potentially improving quality of life. We examine evidence suggestive that a gluten-free, casein-free or combined gluten- and casein-free diet can ameliorate core and peripheral symptoms and improve developmental outcome in some cases of autism spectrum conditions. Although not wholly affirmative, the majority of published studies indicate statistically significant positive changes to symptom presentation following dietary intervention. In particular, changes to areas of communication, attention and hyperactivity are detailed, despite the presence of various methodological shortcomings. Specific characteristics of best- and non-responders to intervention have not been fully elucidated; neither has the precise mode of action for any universal effect outside of known individual cases of food-related co-morbidity. With the publication of controlled medium- and long-term group studies of a gluten- and casein-free diet alongside more consolidated biological findings potentially linked to intervention, the appearance of a possible diet-related autism phenotype seems to be emerging supportive of a positive dietary effect in some cases. Further debate on whether such dietary intervention should form part of best practice guidelines for autism spectrum conditions and onward representative of an autism dietary-sensitive enteropathy is warranted.

  18. Finding the right doctoral thesis – an innovative research fair for medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Julius; Grabbert, Markus; Pander, Tanja; Gradel, Maximilian; Köhler, Lisa-Maria; Fischer, Martin R.; von der Borch, Philip; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The importance of research, as promoted by the CanMEDS framework, is widely acknowledged. Many medical students in Germany work on a research project as part of their doctoral thesis whilst still going to medical school. However, a significant amount of projects are abandoned unfinished, which leads to substantial wastage of resources. One reason for this is an information deficit concerning undergraduate research projects. Project description: To counteract this, we introduced an annual event at LMU Munich called DoktaMed with more than 600 visitors each year. It combines medical convention and research fair including keynote lectures, workshops and poster sessions as well as an exhibition of research groups and institutes. DoktaMed is a peer-to-peer event organized by a team of 40 students. Results: A needs analysis before its implementation underlined the information deficit as a possible cause for the high rate of abandoned projects. In the annual evaluation, visitors of DoktaMed rate the event with an average grade of 2.1 on a six-level Likert scale (n=558, SD=1.06, with "1=very good", "6=poor"). They stated to now feel better informed about the topic and regarded visiting DoktaMed as a worthwhile investment of time. Discussion: Students are generally satisfied with the event and feel better informed after visiting DoktaMed. However, many students never visit DoktaMed for various reasons. A possible improvement would be to present a greater number of clinical studies in addition to the laboratory work that DoktaMed focuses on now. Conclusion: Evaluation after six years of DoktaMed is very promising. Visitors seem to be better informed. Nevertheless there is space for improvement in order to get more students and more faculty members involved. More studies are needed to assess long-term effects. PMID:26413167

  19. Finding the right doctoral thesis – an innovative research fair for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen, Julius

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of research, as promoted by the framework, is widely acknowledged. Many medical students in Germany work on a research project as part of their doctoral thesis whilst still going to medical school. However, a significant amount of projects are abandoned unfinished, which leads to substantial wastage of resources. One reason for this is an information deficit concerning undergraduate research projects.Project description: To counteract this, we introduced an annual event at LMU Munich called with more than 600 visitors each year. It combines medical convention and research fair including keynote lectures, workshops and poster sessions as well as an exhibition of research groups and institutes. is a peer-to-peer event organized by a team of 40 students. Results: A needs analysis before its implementation underlined the information deficit as a possible cause for the high rate of abandoned projects. In the annual evaluation, visitors of rate the event with an average grade of 2.1 on a six-level Likert scale (n=558, SD=1.06, with "1=very good", "6=poor". They stated to now feel better informed about the topic and regarded visiting as a worthwhile investment of time.Discussion: Students are generally satisfied with the event and feel better informed after visiting . However, many students never visit DoktaMed for various reasons. A possible improvement would be to present a greater number of clinical studies in addition to the laboratory work that focuses on now.Conclusion: Evaluation after six years of is very promising. Visitors seem to be better informed. Nevertheless there is space for improvement in order to get more students and more faculty members involved. More studies are needed to assess long-term effects.

  20. Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

    The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

  1. An Example of the Use of Research Methods and Findings as an Experiential Learning Exercise in an Accounting Theory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Bruce; Philipich, Kirk; Blatz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this teaching note is to describe an experiential learning exercise used in a master's level financial accounting theory course. The experiential exercise illustrates how order effects can affect user's judgments, a long-standing research finding. This experiential exercise was used in an attempt to make students more cognizant of…

  2. The Educational Context and Outcomes for High School Students with Disabilities: Overview of the Study and Findings. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Jean B.; Deshler, Donald D.; Lenz, B. Keith; Bulgren, Janis A.; Davis, Betsy; Grossen, Bonnie; Marquis, Janet

    This research report discusses findings from descriptive studies that investigated the context and outcomes of educational programs for students with disabilities who were expected to receive standard high-school diplomas. The nine high schools included three in urban areas, three in suburban areas, and three in rural areas. Principals, special…

  3. Applied behavior analysis treatment of autism: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx, Richard M

    2008-10-01

    The treatment of individuals with autism is associated with fad, controversial, unsupported, disproven, and unvalidated treatments. Eclecticism is not the best approach for treating and educating children and adolescents who have autism. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) uses methods derived from scientifically established principles of behavior and incorporates all of the factors identified by the US National Research Council as characteristic of effective interventions in educational and treatment programs for children who have autism. ABA is a primary method of treating aberrant behavior in individuals who have autism. The only interventions that have been shown to produce comprehensive, lasting results in autism have been based on the principles of ABA. PMID:18775372

  4. Bioremediation via Methanotrophy: Overview of Recent Findings and Suggestions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eSemrau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbially-mediated bioremediation of polluted sites has been a subject of much research over the past 30 years, with many different compounds shown to be degraded under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Aerobic-mediated bioremediation commonly examines the use of methanotrophs, microorganisms that consume methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Given the diverse environments in which methanotrophs have been found, the range of substrates they can degrade and the fact that they can be easily stimulated with the provision of methane and oxygen, these microorganisms in particular have been examined for aerobic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The physiological and phylogenetic diversity of methanotrophy, however, has increased substantially in just the past five years. Here in this review, the current state of knowledge of methanotrophy, particularly as it applies to pollutant degradation is summarized, and suggestions for future research provided.

  5. Steps to Strengthen Ethics in Organizations: Research Findings, Ethics Placebos, and What Works

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that many organizations overlook needs and opportunities to strengthen ethics. Barriers can make it hard to see the need for stronger ethics and even harder to take effective action. These barriers include the organization’s misleading use of language, misuse of an ethics code, culture of silence, strategies of justification, institutional betrayal, and ethical fallacies. Ethics placebos tend to take the place of steps to see, solve, and prevent problems. This article reviews r...

  6. Nursing Home Residents vs. Researcher: Establishing Their Needs while Finding Your Way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram

    2016-01-01

    Residents at nursing homes need to exercise to retain self-efficacy. But all the while, many do not seem to want to prioritize exercise routines over leisure activities. The first part of this chapter analyzes the potential reasons for this lack of exercise commitment at a nursing home in Copenha...... that researchers face, when operating and navigating the specific field of nursing homes, due to the inherent characteris- tics of its context and users....

  7. Contributions to Cancer Research: Finding a Niche in Communication | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This past July, I started a journey into the fields of communications and cancer research when I joined the Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG) as a fellow in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Health Communications Internship Program (HCIP). Cancer genomics and working in an office were new and uncharted territory for me: before I came to OCG, I was finishing a Ph.D. in cell biology at Vanderbilt University in Dr. Matthew Tyska’s laboratory.

  8. Building an Interdisciplinary Research Program in Water Conservation: Approach, preliminary findings, and next steps

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, David E.; Endter-Wada, Joanna; Caplan, Arthur; Glenn, Diana T.; Ballard, Guy; Henderson, Katie

    2011-01-01

    Effective urban water conservation programs must harness a synergy of new technologies, public policies, social cost pricing, information dissemination, citizen engagement, and coordinated actions across decision making scales. Together, these factors affect the volume of water an individual user ultimately saves and the overall success of a conservation program or programs. Over the past 18 months, we have started building an interdisciplinary research program in urban water conservation to ...

  9. Dietary Fiber Future Directions: Integrating New Definitions and Findings to Inform Nutrition Research and Communication12

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Julie Miller

    2013-01-01

    The CODEX Alimentarius definition of dietary fiber includes all nondigestible carbohydrate polymers with a degree of polymerization of 3 or more as dietary fiber with the proviso that they show health benefits. The global definition, if accepted by all authoritative bodies, offers a chance for international harmonization in research, food composition tables, and food labeling. Its nonacceptance highlights problems that may develop when definitions vary by region. The definition requires that ...

  10. Physics Education Research: Or it's so hard to find good help these days

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, S

    2004-01-01

    Physics education research (PER) aims to improve how students solve problems. But whose problems are we teaching students to solve? Physics has grown up as a child of war, and PER stems from the cognitive revolution in psychology, which arose from military needs and funding. Physics, PER, and state power are allies. By improving physics teaching, we arm the state against ourselves and move farther from a peaceful and humane world.

  11. Are LGBT populations at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors in Australia? Research findings and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney M; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the Australian literature about suicidality in minority sexual identity and/or behavior groups in order to determine the evidence base for their reported higher vulnerability to suicidal behaviors than heterosexual and non-transgendered individuals in the Australian context, as well as to identify the factors that are predictive of suicidal behaviors in these groups in Australia. A literature search for all available years (until the end of 2012) was conducted using the databases Scopus, Medline, and Proquest for articles published in English in peer-reviewed academic journals. All peer-reviewed publications that provided empirical evidence for prevalence and predictive factors of suicidal behaviors among LGBT individuals (or a subset thereof) in Australia were included. Reference lists were also scrutinized to identify "gray" literature for inclusion. The results revealed that there is only limited research from Australia. Nevertheless, although no population-based studies have been published, research indicates that sexual minorities are indeed at a higher risk for suicidal behaviors. In order to further the understanding of suicidal behaviors and potential prevention among LGBT groups in the Australia, further research is needed, particularly on fatal suicidal behaviors. PMID:25569508

  12. Studying the Behaviour of Model of Mirror Neuron System in Case of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Shikha Anirban; Mohammad Hanif Ali

    2012-01-01

    Several experiment done by the researchers conducted that autism is caused by the dysfunctional mirror neuron system and the dysfunctions of mirror neuron system is proportional to the symptom severity of autism. In the present work those experiments were studied as well as studying a model of mirror neuron system called MNS2 developed by a research group. This research examined the behavior of the model in case of autism and compared the result with those studies conducting dysfunctions of m...

  13. How autism became autism: The radical transformation of a central concept of child development in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bonnie

    2013-07-01

    This article argues that the meaning of the word 'autism' experienced a radical shift in the early 1960s in Britain which was contemporaneous with a growth in epidemiological and statistical studies in child psychiatry. The first part of the article explores how 'autism' was used as a category to describe hallucinations and unconscious fantasy life in infants through the work of significant child psychologists and psychoanalysts such as Jean Piaget, Lauretta Bender, Leo Kanner and Elwyn James Anthony. Theories of autism were then associated both with schizophrenia in adults and with psychoanalytic styles of reasoning. The closure of institutions for 'mental defectives' and the growth in speech therapy services in the 1960s and 1970s encouraged new models for understanding autism in infants and children. The second half of the article explores how researchers such as Victor Lotter and Michael Rutter used the category of autism to reconceptualize psychological development in infants and children via epidemiological studies. These historical changes have influenced the form and function of later research into autism and related conditions. PMID:24014081

  14. Causation model of autism: Audiovisual brain specialization in infancy competes with social brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffler, Karen Frankel; Oestreicher, Leonard M

    2016-06-01

    Earliest identifiable findings in autism indicate that the autistic brain develops differently from the typical brain in the first year of life, after a period of typical development. Twin studies suggest that autism has an environmental component contributing to causation. Increased availability of audiovisual (AV) materials and viewing practices of infants parallel the time frame of the rise in prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies have shown an association between ASD and increased TV/cable screen exposure in infancy, suggesting AV exposure in infancy as a possible contributing cause of ASD. Infants are attracted to the saliency of AV materials, yet do not have the experience to recognize these stimuli as socially relevant. The authors present a developmental model of autism in which exposure to screen-based AV input in genetically susceptible infants stimulates specialization of non-social sensory processing in the brain. Through a process of neuroplasticity, the autistic infant develops the skills that are driven by the AV viewing. The AV developed neuronal pathways compete with preference for social processing, negatively affecting development of social brain pathways and causing global developmental delay. This model explains atypical face and speech processing, as well as preference for AV synchrony over biological motion in ASD. Neural hyper-connectivity, enlarged brain size and special abilities in visual, auditory and motion processing in ASD are also explained by the model. Positive effects of early intervention are predicted by the model. Researchers studying causation of autism have largely overlooked AV exposure in infancy as a potential contributing factor. The authors call for increased public awareness of the association between early screen viewing and ASD, and a concerted research effort to determine the extent of causal relationship. PMID:26146132

  15. Potential Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Screening of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental condition, which is typically characterized by a triad of symptoms: impaired social communication, social reciprocity and repetitive stereotypic behavior. While the behavioral phenotype of ASD is well described, the search for reliable ‘autism biomarkers’ continues. CONTENT: Insulin growth factor (IGF is essential for the myelination of developing fetal neurons; this is in addition to the well-known links between IGF, maternal inflammation, infection and autism supporting IGF as a potential marker. Combining IGF data with data regarding levels of the known markers, serotonin and anti-myelin basic protein, in order to calculate an autism index, could provide a new diagnostic method for at-risk neonates. Disruptions to multiple pathophysiological systems, including redox, folate, methylation, tryptophan metabolism, and mitochondrial metabolism, have been well documented in autistic patients. Maternal infection and inflammation have known links with autism. Autoimmunity has therefore been a well-studied area of autism research. The potential of using autoantibodies as novel biomarkers for autism, in addition to providing insights into the neurodevelopmental processes that lead to autism. SUMMARY: The six proposed causes of autism involve both metabolic and immunologic dysfunctions and include: increased oxidative stress; decreased methionine metabolism and trans-sulfuration: aberrant free and bound metal burden; gastrointestinal (GI disturbances; immune/inflammation dysregulation; and autoimmune targeting. A newborn screening program for early-onset ASD should be capable of utilizing a combination of ASD-associated biomarkers representative of the six proposed causes of autism in order to identify newborns at risk. The biomarkers discussed in this article are useful to guide the selection, efficacy and sufficiency of biomedical interventions, which would likely

  16. Human Performance Optimization Metrics: Consensus Findings, Gaps, and Recommendations for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Jaffin, Dianna P; Dretsch, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Wesensten, Nancy J; Kent, Michael L; Grunberg, Neil E; Pierce, Joseph R; Barry, Erin S; Scott, Jonathan M; Young, Andrew J; OʼConnor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Human performance optimization (HPO) is defined as "the process of applying knowledge, skills and emerging technologies to improve and preserve the capabilities of military members, and organizations to execute essential tasks." The lack of consensus for operationally relevant and standardized metrics that meet joint military requirements has been identified as the single most important gap for research and application of HPO. In 2013, the Consortium for Health and Military Performance hosted a meeting to develop a toolkit of standardized HPO metrics for use in military and civilian research, and potentially for field applications by commanders, units, and organizations. Performance was considered from a holistic perspective as being influenced by various behaviors and barriers. To accomplish the goal of developing a standardized toolkit, key metrics were identified and evaluated across a spectrum of domains that contribute to HPO: physical performance, nutritional status, psychological status, cognitive performance, environmental challenges, sleep, and pain. These domains were chosen based on relevant data with regard to performance enhancers and degraders. The specific objectives at this meeting were to (a) identify and evaluate current metrics for assessing human performance within selected domains; (b) prioritize metrics within each domain to establish a human performance assessment toolkit; and (c) identify scientific gaps and the needed research to more effectively assess human performance across domains. This article provides of a summary of 150 total HPO metrics across multiple domains that can be used as a starting point-the beginning of an HPO toolkit: physical fitness (29 metrics), nutrition (24 metrics), psychological status (36 metrics), cognitive performance (35 metrics), environment (12 metrics), sleep (9 metrics), and pain (5 metrics). These metrics can be particularly valuable as the military emphasizes a renewed interest in Human Dimension efforts

  17. The educational gradient in marital disruption: a meta-analysis of European research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Anna; Styrc, Marta; Vignoli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    A large number of empirical studies have investigated the effects of women's education on union dissolution in Europe, but results have varied substantially. This paper seeks to assess the relationship between educational attainment and the incidence of marital disruption by systematizing the existing empirical evidence. A quantitative literature review (a meta-analysis) was conducted to investigate the temporal change in the relationship, net of inter-study differences. The results point to a weakening of the positive educational gradient in marital disruption over time and even to a reversal in the direction of this gradient in some countries. The findings also show that the change in the educational gradient can be linked to an increase in access to divorce. Finally, the results suggest that women's empowerment has played an important role in changing the educational gradient, while the liberalization of divorce laws has not.

  18. New findings and setting the research agenda for soil and water conservation for sustainable land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Argaman, Eli; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Quinton, John

    2014-05-01

    The session on soil and water conservation for sustainable land management provides insights into the current research producing viable measures for sustainable land management and enhancing the lands role as provider of ecosystem services. The insights into degradation processes are essential for designing and implementing feasible measures to mitigate against degradation of the land resource and adapt to the changing environment. Land degradation occurs due to multiple pressures on the land, such as population growth, land-use and land-cover changes, climate change and over exploitation of resources, often resulting in soil erosion due to water and wind, which occurs in many parts of the world. Understanding the processes of soil erosion by wind and water and the social and economic constraints faced by farmers forms an essential component of integrated land development projects. Soil and water conservation measures are only viable and sustainable if local environmental and socio-economic conditions are taken into account and proper enabling conditions and policies can be achieved. Land degradation increasingly occurs because land use, and farming systems are subject to rapid environmental and socio-economic changes without implementation of appropriate soil and water conservation technologies. Land use and its management are thus inextricably bound up with development; farmers must adapt in order to sustain the quality of their, and their families, lives. In broader perspective, soil and water conservation is needed as regulating ecosystem service and as a tool to enhance food security and biodiversity. Since land degradation occurs in many parts of the world and threatens food production and environmental stability it affects those countries with poorer soils and resilience in the agriculture sector first. Often these are the least developed countries. Therefore the work from researchers from developing countries together with knowledge from other disciplines

  19. PLUME-FEATHER, Referencing and Finding Software for Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénassy, O.; Caron, C.; Ferret-Canape, C.; Cheylus, A.; Courcelle, E.; Dantec, C.; Dayre, P.; Dostes, T.; Durand, A.; Facq, A.; Gambini, G.; Geahchan, E.; Helft, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Ingarao, M.; Joly, P.; Kieffer, J.; Larré, J.-M.; Libes, M.; Morris, F.; Parmentier, H.; Pérochon, L.; Porte, O.; Romier, G.; Rousse, D.; Tournoy, R.; Valeins, H.

    2014-06-01

    PLUME-FEATHER is a non-profit project created to Promote economicaL, Useful and Maintained softwarEFor theHigher Education And THE Research communities. The site references software, mainly Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) from French universities and national research organisations, (CNRS, INRA...), laboratories or departments as well as other FLOSS software used and evaluated by users within these institutions. Each software is represented by a reference card, which describes origin, aim, installation, cost (if applicable) and user experience from the point of view of an academic user for academic users. Presently over 1000 programs are referenced on PLUME by more than 900 contributors. Although the server is maintained by a French institution, it is open to international contributions in the academic domain. All contained and validated contents are visible to anonymous public, whereas (presently more than 2000) registered users can contribute, starting with comments on single software reference cards up to help with the organisation and presentation of the referenced software products. The project has been presented to the HEP community in 2012 for the first time [1]. This is an update of the status and a call for (further) contributions.

  20. Examining playground engagement between elementary school children with and without autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jill; Shih, Wendy; Kretzmann, Mark; Kasari, Connie

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about the social behavior of children with and without autism spectrum disorder during recess. This study documented the naturally occurring recess engagement and peer interaction behaviors of children with and without autism spectrum disorder in inclusive school settings. Participants included 51 children with autism spectrum disorder and 51 classmates without autism spectrum disorder who served as peer models matched on gender, classroom, grade, age, and ethnicity. Using a timed-interval behavior-coding system, children with autism spectrum disorder spent approximately 30% of their recess time engaged in solitary activities, whereas their classmates only spent approximately 9% of recess unengaged. In addition, children with autism spectrum disorder spent about 40% of the recess period jointly engaged with peers in a reciprocal activity, conversation, or game as compared to 70% for matched classmates. These findings provide a context for which to interpret intervention outcomes and gains for children with autism spectrum disorder in inclusive settings. PMID:26341991

  1. The Coherence of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, R. Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of opinion that we should view autism as fractionable into different, largely independent sets of clinical features. The alternative view is that autism is a coherent syndrome in which principal features of the disorder stand in intimate developmental relationship with each other. Studies of congenitally blind children…

  2. Autism and Dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Frith, Uta

    2013-01-01

    Autism and dyslexia are wrongly classified as childhood disorders: They are lifelong and therefore have to be studied in adults as well as in children. Individual variability is enormous, and, as a result, behavioral diagnosis remains problematic. The study of the underlying cognitive abilities in autism and dyslexia has acted as a gateway for the emergence of developmental cognitive neuroscience.

  3. Disaster media coverage and psychological outcomes: descriptive findings in the extant research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D; Nitiéma, Pascal; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Rahman, Ambreen

    2014-09-01

    This review of the literature on disaster media coverage describes the events, samples, and forms of media coverage (television, newspapers, radio, internet) studied and examines the association between media consumption and psychological outcomes. A total of 36 studies representing both man-made and natural events met criteria for review in this analysis. Most studies examined disaster television viewing in the context of terrorism and explored a range of outcomes including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caseness and posttraumatic stress (PTS), depression, anxiety, stress reactions, and substance use. There is good evidence establishing a relationship between disaster television viewing and various psychological outcomes, especially PTSD caseness and PTS, but studies are too few to draw definitive conclusions about the other forms of media coverage that have been examined. As media technology continues to advance, future research is needed to investigate these additional media forms especially newer forms such as social media. PMID:25064691

  4. Research into cost and value in medical education: can we make findings more generalisable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Walsh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a growing number of papers have started to appear in the literature on the subject of cost and value in medical education. However many of the articles describe tactical projects within specific areas. As a result the generalisability of such articles is often questionable. Lack of generalisability will mean that progress in research and practice in this field will be slow. Generalisability of cost-value analyses in any discipline is not always straightforward. However reports on cost and value in medical education should ideally ensure absolute clarity with regard to study centres, enrolment of learners, alternative options, perspectives of stakeholders, resources used and their costs, instruments used, variability, and any problems with the analyses (such as incomplete data.

  5. Strategies Used in Natural Environments to Promote Communication Development in Young Children at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogle, Christan Grygas; Floyd, Kim; Hanline, Mary Frances; Kellner-Hiczewski, Jacquie

    2013-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has documented that 1 in every 88 children is identified with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD; CDC, 2012). Autism is now recognized in children at an earlier age because most researchers agree autism can be reliably identified by the time children reach 24 months (Cox et al., 1999; Stone et…

  6. Stereotypes of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draaisma, Douwe

    2009-05-27

    In their landmark papers, both Kanner and Asperger employed a series of case histories to shape clinical insight into autistic disorders. This way of introducing, assessing and representing disorders has disappeared from today's psychiatric practice, yet it offers a convincing model of the way stereotypes may build up as a result of representations of autism. Considering that much of what society at large learns on disorders on the autism spectrum is produced by representations of autism in novels, TV-series, movies or autobiographies, it will be of vital importance to scrutinize these representations and to check whether or not they are, in fact, misrepresenting autism. In quite a few cases, media representations of talent and special abilities can be said to have contributed to a harmful divergence between the general image of autism and the clinical reality of the autistic condition. PMID:19528033

  7. Overview of Findings from the World Trade Center Disaster Outcome Study: Recommendations for Future Research after Exposure to Psychological Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we review findings from the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD) Outcomes Study, a prospective cohort study of 2,368 New York City (NYC) adults funded by the National Institutes of Health after the September 11 attacks. The findings reported were based on a baseline survey conducted one year after the disaster and a follow-up conducted two years post-disaster. One of the goals of this research was to assess the effectiveness of post-disaster treatments received by NYC residents ...

  8. Mirror system based therapy for autism spectrum disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei CHEN; Jing ZHANG; Jun DING

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the present theories and empirical research of autisms' cognitive research and mir-ror systems and introduces a new hypothesis about the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD): autistic mir-ror neuron dysfunction hypothesis. ASD subjects show obvious lack of the activation of the mirror system during the task of observation or emotional cognition. It is sig-nificant to investigate the mirror system for revealing the causes of autism and it is also helpful for developing new ways to diagnose or treat this disorder.

  9. Saccade adaptation in autism and Asperger's disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B P; Rinehart, N J; White, O; Millist, L; Fielding, J

    2013-07-23

    Autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) are neurodevelopmental disorders primarily characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication, however motor coordination deficits are increasingly recognized as a prevalent feature of these conditions. Although it has been proposed that children with autism and AD may have difficulty utilizing visual feedback during motor learning tasks, this has not been directly examined. Significantly, changes within the cerebellum, which is implicated in motor learning, are known to be more pronounced in autism compared to AD. We used the classic double-step saccade adaptation paradigm, known to depend on cerebellar integrity, to investigate differences in motor learning and the use of visual feedback in children aged 9-14 years with high-functioning autism (HFA; IQ>80; n=10) and AD (n=13). Performance was compared to age and IQ matched typically developing children (n=12). Both HFA and AD groups successfully adapted the gain of their saccades in response to perceived visual error, however the time course for adaptation was prolonged in the HFA group. While a shift in saccade dynamics typically occurs during adaptation, we revealed aberrant changes in both HFA and AD groups. This study contributes to a growing body of evidence centrally implicating the cerebellum in ocular motor dysfunction in autism. Specifically, these findings collectively imply functional impairment of the cerebellar network and its inflow and outflow tracts that underpin saccade adaptation, with greater disturbance in HFA compared to AD. PMID:23562581

  10. Finding an optimization of the plate element of Egyptian research reactor using genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAHED Mohamed; IBRAHIM Wesam; EFFAT Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    The second Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-2 went critical on the 27th of November 1997. The National Center of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NCNSRC) has the responsibility of the evaluation and assessment of the safety of this reactor. The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to optimization of the fuel element plate.For an efficient search through the solution space we use a multi objective genetic algorithm which allows us to identify a set of Pareto optimal solutions providing the decision maker with the complete spectrum of optimal solutions with respect to the various targets. The aim of this paper is to propose a new approach for optimizing the fuel element plate in the reactor. The fuel element plate is designed with a view to improve reliability and lifetime and it is one of the most important elements during the shut down. In this present paper, we present a conceptual design approach for fuel element plate, in conjunction with a genetic algorithm to obtain a fuel plate that maximizes a fitness value to optimize the safety design of the fuel plate.

  11. Why public information works: Research findings on organizational and individual impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broad and growing public recognition of the importance of nuclear energy in the United States is evident in the public opinion polls, continued defeat of antinuclear referenda, positive Congressional actions, and open support by politicians-from the National Conference of State Legislatures to President Bush. At leadership levels, the need to address the looming electricity crisis without increasing dependence on foreign oil or greenhouse gas emissions is being voiced increasingly. Within this context, the industry is beginning to be successful in getting its message across to the American public through national advertising and media and public relations programs of the U.S. Council for Energy Awareness (USCEA). And the author knows that the American Nuclear Society (ANS) Public Information Committee is working hard in complementary kinds of public education. Research shows that the public's attitudes toward nuclear energy become more favorable when they are exposed to public information and that a more active scientific community could greatly increase public recognition of the benefits that nuclear energy provides

  12. Landslide susceptibility mapping for rural development: Case studies and research findings from the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, J.; Petley, D. N.

    2003-04-01

    In 2002 landslides caused a reported 346 human fatalities in the Himalayan Kingdom of Nepal. Over the last decade the total reported deaths due to landslides has exceeded 900. During the past 2-3 years in neighbouring Bhutan landslides have caused extensive damage to roads and other infrastructure, also leading to significant loss of life. Landslides, therefore, are major considerations in the siting of new infrastructure, the maintenance of existing facilities and the protection of rural communities and road users in the Himalayan region. Despite this, there is extremely limited information available on landslide hazards in the region, and the situation is a particular concern in Nepal and Bhutan. The Landslide Risk Assessment Project was established in 2000 to investigate cause-effect relationships in landslide occurrence and to develop simple techniques of landslide susceptibility mapping. A total of over 1300 landslides have been mapped from remote sensing and field surveys in six study areas in Nepal and Bhutan. GIS has been used to compare the spatial distribution of these landslides with a range of geological, terrain and land use factors. The research has shown that consistent relationships can be found between the location of landslides and rock type, geological structure, slope steepness and terrain classification. The results have positive implications for the assessment of landslide susceptibility for rural development planning in areas where limited data already exist.

  13. Understanding the findings of resilience-related research for fostering the development of African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Frederica H; Armstrong, Mary I; Vargo, Amy; Boothroyd, Roger A

    2007-04-01

    African American youth face a number of challenges to prosocial development that the majority of American youth never encounter. Despite this, the research clearly documents that African American youth often are resilient in the face of these challenges. This article explores various factors associated with resilience in African American children and their implications for practitioners. An ecologic framework described by Bronfenbrenner is used as an organizing framework for understanding interventions at the micro-, mezzo-, and exo-system levels. In this article, the importance of identity formation, maintenance of social networks, and exposure to safe and supportive environments is expressed in conjunction with recommendations for practitioners. Practitioners are encouraged to stress the promotion of ethnic and racial identity and self-efficacy with the youth and their family and the involvement of the youth and family in meaningful activities through local community centers, schools, churches, and other organizations serving youth. A case study of an African American girl, from age 16 into adulthood and motherhood, is presented to illustrate the interplay between protective and risk factors.

  14. Analysing Live Music in the UK:Findings One Year into a Three-Year Research Project

    OpenAIRE

    Frith, Simon; Brennan, Matthew; Cloonan, Martin; Webster, Emma

    2010-01-01

    This series of articles presents the findings of a research team who are one year into a three-year project investigating the social, cultural and economic impact of live music in the UK over the past 50 years. The project is funded by the UK's Arts and Humanities Research Council, and rather than focusing on a particular musical genre, it concentrates instead on understanding live music from the perspective of the live music promoter. The project aims to fill a significant gap in the scholar...

  15. Obesity More Common Among Teens with Autism: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161525.html Obesity More Common Among Teens With Autism: Study Addressing ... new study suggests. The researchers noted that childhood obesity could have long-term health consequences for those ...

  16. Insurance Mandates Boost U.S. Autism Diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159812.html Insurance Mandates Boost U.S. Autism Diagnoses Early treatment provides ... the Penn researchers analyzed inpatient and outpatient health insurance claims from 2008 through 2012 for more than ...

  17. What Are the Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parent-mediated therapy Physical therapy Social skills training Speech-language therapy Other FAQs NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are the treatments for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? Skip sharing on social media ...

  18. Canadian Immersion Education in an Evaluative Perspective : A Synthesis of Research Findings on the Efficiency of French Immersion Programmes (1)

    OpenAIRE

    伊東, 治己

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to synthesize research findings accumulated by numerous evaluation studies on the efficiency of French immersion programmes in Canada. The synthesis has been attempted in terms of the four different, but related perspectives; effects on French language skills, effects on English language skills, effects on general scholastic achievements, and effects on socio-cultural domains. Out of these four perspectives, the present paper, the first of the series of two...

  19. Theoretical Perspectives, Research Findings, and Classroom Implications of the Learning Styles of American Indian and Alaska Native Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hilberg, R. Soleste; G. Tharp, Roland

    2002-01-01

    Although research on learning styles has found variation between cultural groups in styles of learning (e.g., Park, 2001; Zhang & Sternberg, 2001), great variation has also been found within groups (e.g., Nuby & Oxford, 1998). These findings suggest that even in classrooms consisting exclusively of a single cultural group, as is the case in many reservation schools, teachers must use a variety of instructional strategies. Effective teaching requires teaching individuals. This Digest...

  20. Factors predicting the use of technology: findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Sara J; Charness, Neil; Fisk, Arthur D; Hertzog, Christopher; Nair, Sankaran N; Rogers, Wendy A; Sharit, Joseph

    2006-06-01

    The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18-91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics, self-rated health, experience with technology, attitudes toward computers, and component cognitive abilities. Findings indicate that the older adults were less likely than younger adults to use technology in general, computers, and the World Wide Web. The results also indicate that computer anxiety, fluid intelligence, and crystallized intelligence were important predictors of the use of technology. The relationship between age and adoption of technology was mediated by cognitive abilities, computer self-efficacy, and computer anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of training strategies to promote technology adoption.

  1. Educating Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Organizational Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsonova E.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data of applied socio-psychological research devoted to the study of difficulties encountered by educational institutions when teaching children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The research involved analysis of theoretical issues and practical experience on the subject; a survey of administrative and teaching staff; an exploration of organizational problems related to the education of children with ASD, in particular, the need for methodological support in teachers providing such education. The findings of the research indicated the following problems in educational institutions teaching children with ASD: 1 Education models for children with ASD require personnel and economic support; 2 teachers are not provided with special training necessary for working with children with ASD and for developing adapted teaching programmes; 3 institutions lack methodological and didactic support necessary for working with children with ASD; 4 there’s no communication between educational and medical institutions concerning the assistance to children with ASD and their families

  2. The ethics of sharing preliminary research findings during public health emergencies: a case study from the 2009 influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowcroft, N S; Rosella, L C; Pakes, B N

    2014-01-01

    During the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic, a suite of studies conducted in Canada showed an unexpected finding, that patients with medically attended laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza were more likely to have received seasonal influenza vaccination than test-negative control patients. Different bodies, including scientific journals and government scientific advisory committees, reviewed the evidence simultaneously to determine its scientific validity and implications. Decision-making was complicated when the findings made their way into the media. The normal trajectory of non-urgent research includes peer-review publication after which decision-makers can process the information taking into account other evidence and logistic considerations. In the situation that arose, however, the congruence of an unexpected finding and the simultaneous review of the evidence both within and outside the traditional peer-review sphere raised several interesting issues about how to deal with emerging evidence during a public health emergency. These events are used in this article to aid discussion of the complex interrelationship between researchers, public health decision-makers and scientific journals, the trade-offs between sharing information early and maintaining the peer-review quality assurance process, and to emphasise the need for critical reflection on the practical and ethical norms that govern the way in which research is evaluated, published and communicated in public health emergencies. PMID:24970372

  3. Nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism vs. neurotypical children, and the association with autism severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehn Eva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between relative metabolic disturbances and developmental disorders is an emerging research focus. This study compares the nutritional and metabolic status of children with autism with that of neurotypical children and investigates the possible association of autism severity with biomarkers. Method Participants were children ages 5-16 years in Arizona with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (n = 55 compared with non-sibling, neurotypical controls (n = 44 of similar age, gender and geographical distribution. Neither group had taken any vitamin/mineral supplements in the two months prior to sample collection. Autism severity was assessed using the Pervasive Development Disorder Behavior Inventory (PDD-BI, Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC, and Severity of Autism Scale (SAS. Study measurements included: vitamins, biomarkers of vitamin status, minerals, plasma amino acids, plasma glutathione, and biomarkers of oxidative stress, methylation, sulfation and energy production. Results Biomarkers of children with autism compared to those of controls using a t-test or Wilcoxon test found the following statistically significant differences (p A stepwise, multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated significant associations between several groups of biomarkers with all three autism severity scales, including vitamins (adjusted R2 of 0.25-0.57, minerals (adj. R2 of 0.22-0.38, and plasma amino acids (adj. R2 of 0.22-0.39. Conclusion The autism group had many statistically significant differences in their nutritional and metabolic status, including biomarkers indicative of vitamin insufficiency, increased oxidative stress, reduced capacity for energy transport, sulfation and detoxification. Several of the biomarker groups were significantly associated with variations in the severity of autism. These nutritional and metabolic differences are generally in agreement with other published results and are likely amenable to

  4. Research Units of Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network Randomized Clinical Trial of Parent Training and Medication: One-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Aman, Michael G.; Li, Xiaobai; Butter, Eric; Humphries, Kristina; Scahill, Lawrence; Lecavalier, Luc; McDougle, Christopher J.; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Handen, Benjamin; Wilson, Krystina; Stigler, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To follow up on a three-site, 24-week randomized clinical trial (N = 124) comparing antipsychotic medication alone (MED) with antipsychotic medication plus parent training in the behavior management (COMB) of children with autism spectrum disorders and severe behavior problems. The COMB treatment had shown a significant advantage for…

  5. Increasing Capacity for Stewardship of Oceans and Coasts: Findings of the National Research Council Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S. J.; Feeley, M. H.

    2008-05-01

    With the increasing stress on ocean and coastal resources, ocean resource management will require greater capacity in terms of people, institutions, technology and tools. Successful capacity-building efforts address the needs of a specific locale or region and include plans to maintain and expand capacity after the project ends. In 2008, the US National Research Council published a report that assesses past and current capacity-building efforts to identify barriers to effective management of coastal and marine resources. The report recommends ways that governments and organizations can strengthen marine conservation and management capacity. Capacity building programs instill the tools, knowledge, skills, and attitudes that address: ecosystem function and change; processes of governance that influence societal and ecosystem change; and assembling and managing interdisciplinary teams. Programs require efforts beyond traditional sector-by-sector planning because marine ecosystems range from the open ocean to coastal waters and land use practices. Collaboration among sectors, scaling from local community-based management to international ocean policies, and ranging from inland to offshore areas, will be required to establish coordinated and efficient governance of ocean and coastal ecosystems. Barriers Most capacity building activities have been initiated to address particular issues such as overfishing or coral reef degradation, or they target a particular region or country facing threats to their marine resources. This fragmentation inhibits the sharing of information and experience and makes it more difficult to design and implement management approaches at appropriate scales. Additional barriers that have limited the effectiveness of capacity building programs include: lack of an adequate needs assessment prior to program design and implementation; exclusion of targeted populations in decision- making efforts; mismanagement, corruption, or both; incomplete or

  6. Autism: A review for family physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande Sunil

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by qualitative impairments in social interaction and communication, with restricted, repetitive, stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities. These behaviors manifest along a wide spectrum and commence before 36 months of age. Diagnosis of autism is made by ascertaining whether the child′s specific behaviors meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Revised criteria. Its etiology is still unclear but recent studies suggest that genetics plays a major role in conferring susceptibility. Recent neuroimaging research studies indicate that autism may be caused by atypical functioning in the central nervous system, particularly in the limbic system: amygdala and hippocampus. In a third of autistic children, loss of language and/or social skills occurs during the second year of life, usually between 15 and 21 months of age. Comorbidity with mental retardation, epilepsy, disruptive behaviors and learning difficulty is not uncommon. Although there is currently no known cure for autism there is evidence to suggest that early intervention therapy can improve functioning of autistic children. Judicious use of psychotropic drugs is necessary to manage associated aggression, hyperactivity, self-mutilation, temper tantrums; but drugs are not a substitute for behavioral and educational interventions. The family physician can play an important role in detecting autism early, coordinating its assessment and treatment, counseling the parents and classroom teacher, and monitoring the child′s progress on a long term basis.

  7. Sleep problems in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail Williams, P; Sears, Lonnie L; Allard, AnnaMary

    2004-09-01

    Autism is a developmental disability characterized by severe deficits in social interaction and communication, and the presence of repetitive-ritualistic behaviors. Sleep problems are frequently reported by parents of children with autism with prevalence estimates of 44-83% for sleep disorders in this population. To better understand sleep in autism, we surveyed sleep problems in 210 children with autism using a Likert-based questionnaire for parent report. The most frequently reported sleep problems included difficulty in falling asleep, restless sleep, not falling asleep in own bed, and frequent wakenings. Least frequently reported sleep problems were sleep walking, morning headaches, crying during sleep, apnea, and nightmares. When surveys were divided into mental retardation (MR)/not MR categories, no significant differences were identified in frequencies of reported sleep problems except for waking at night which occurred much more frequently in the MR group. There was also no difference in sleep problems related to age of the child other than nocturnal enuresis. An association was noted between certain medical problems and sleep problems. Vision problems, upper respiratory problems, and runny nose were associated with decreased nighttime sleep. Vision problems, poor appetite, and poor growth were associated with increased nighttime waking. Poor appetite and poor growth were associated with decreased willingness to fall asleep. This study confirms a high prevalence of sleep problems reported by parents of children with autism and points to the need for more systematic research as an initial step in developing treatment strategies. PMID:15339262

  8. Autism: A review for family physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Sunil

    2006-05-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by qualitative impairments in social interaction and communication, with restricted, repetitive, stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities. These behaviors manifest along a wide spectrum and commence before 36 months of age. Diagnosis of autism is made by ascertaining whether the child's specific behaviors meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Revised criteria. Its etiology is still unclear but recent studies suggest that genetics plays a major role in conferring susceptibility. Recent neuroimaging research studies indicate that autism may be caused by atypical functioning in the central nervous system, particularly in the limbic system: amygdala and hippocampus. In a third of autistic children, loss of language and/or social skills occurs during the second year of life, usually between 15 and 21 months of age. Comorbidity with mental retardation, epilepsy, disruptive behaviors and learning difficulty is not uncommon. Although there is currently no known cure for autism there is evidence to suggest that early intervention therapy can improve functioning of autistic children. Judicious use of psychotropic drugs is necessary to manage associated aggression, hyperactivity, self-mutilation, temper tantrums; but drugs are not a substitute for behavioral and educational interventions. The family physician can play an important role in detecting autism early, coordinating its assessment and treatment, counseling the parents and classroom teacher, and monitoring the child's progress on a long term basis. PMID:16733293

  9. The motivation for very early intervention for infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Sara Jane; Jones, Emily J.H.; Kelly, Jean; Dawson, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    The first Autism Research Matrix (IACC, 2003) listed the identification of behavioural and biological markers of risk for autism as a top priority. This emphasis was based on the hypothesis that intervention with infants at-risk, at an early age when the brain is developing and before core autism symptoms have emerged, could significantly alter the developmental trajectory of children at risk for the disorder and impact long-range outcome. Research has provided support for specific models of ...

  10. Beyond Modularisation: The Need of a Socio-Neuro-Constructionist Model of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a "developmental" disorder defined by "social and communication" impairments. Current theoretical approaches and research studies however conceptualise autism as both static and independent from the social context in which it develops. Two lines of research stand out from this general trend. First, research from the…

  11. The neural correlates of visuo-spatial working memory in children with autism spectrum disorder: effects of cognitive load

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa M. Vogan; Morgan, Benjamin R.; Lee, Wayne; Powell, Tamara L.; Smith, Mary Lou; Margot J. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on the neural bases of cognitive deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has shown that working memory (WM) difficulties are associated with abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex. However, cognitive load impacts these findings, and no studies have examined the relation between WM load and neural underpinnings in children with ASD. Thus, the current study determined the effects of cognitive load on WM, using a visuo-spatial WM capacity task in children with and without ...

  12. Randomised controlled trial of improvisational music therapy's effectiveness for children with autism spectrum disorders (TIME-A): study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Geretsegger Monika; Holck Ulla; Gold Christian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous research has suggested that music therapy may facilitate skills in areas typically affected by autism spectrum disorders such as social interaction and communication. However, generalisability of previous findings has been restricted, as studies were limited in either methodological accuracy or the clinical relevance of their approach. The aim of this study is to determine effects of improvisational music therapy on social communication skills of children with aut...

  13. Autism: is there a biological cause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J E

    1994-12-01

    1. Autism is the term used to describe certain characteristics observed in some children, including a preference for aloneness, and sameness. 2. The condition was thought for some time to be caused by a psychological disturbance resulting from a combination of stress and poor parental upbringing. 3. Recently emerging data suggests the symptoms are related to a cognitive deficit associated with a biological cause. 4. As research progresses, it is hoped it will become possible to improve the quality of life for people suffering from or looking after those with, autism. PMID:7862687

  14. Anxiety symptoms in young people with autism spectrum disorder attending special schools:Associations with gender, adaptive functioning and autism symptomatology

    OpenAIRE

    Magiati, Iliana; Ong, Clarissa; Lim, Xin Yi; Tan, Julianne Wen Li; Ong, Amily Yi Lin; Patrycia, Ferninda; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Sung, Min; Poon, Kenneth K.; Howlin, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety-related problems are among the most frequently reported mental health difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. As most research has focused on clinical samples or high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder, less is known about the factors associated with anxiety in community samples across the ability range. This cross-sectional study examined the association of gender, age, adaptive functioning and autism symptom severity with different caregiver-reported anxiety sympto...

  15. Family function, Parenting Style and Broader Autism Phenotype as Predicting Factors of Psychological Adjustment in Typically Developing Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadreza Mohammadi; Hadi Zarafshan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Siblings of children with autism are at a greater risk of experiencing behavioral and social problems. Previous researches had focused on environmental variables such as family history of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), behavior problems in the child with an ASD, parental mental health problems, stressful life events and “broader autism phenotype” (BAP), while variables like parenting style and family function that are shown to influence children’s behavioral and psychosocial adju...

  16. THE NEWS IN THERAPY OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no specifically marked medicine for the treatment of autism. A number of approaches have been used in evaluating the safety and efficiency of pharmacological treatments of both children and adults with autism. Two study parameters are particularly important, the presence of “blind” and control groups. The highest quality studies utilize equally “blind” and control procedures as well. They have to be performed at multiple sites with a large number of subjects.Research evaluating medicine proposed for treatment of autism, is on the increase. There is accelerated emphasis on medicine testing and better information on treatments should be more available than in the past. In this article, the following classes of medicine and therapies will be discussed: possible future medicine treatments - such as oxytocin, tetrahydrobiopterin and ampakines, hormone therapies, anti-yeast therapies, vitamin therapies, dimethylglycine, alpha lipoic acid and diet therapies.

  17. Identifying trustworthy experts: how do policymakers find and assess public health researchers worth consulting or collaborating with?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Abby S; Derrick, Gemma E; Redman, Sally; Hall, Wayne D; Gillespie, James A; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports data from semi-structured interviews on how 26 Australian civil servants, ministers and ministerial advisors find and evaluate researchers with whom they wish to consult or collaborate. Policymakers valued researchers who had credibility across the three attributes seen as contributing to trustworthiness: competence (an exemplary academic reputation complemented by pragmatism, understanding of government processes, and effective collaboration and communication skills); integrity (independence, "authenticity", and faithful reporting of research); and benevolence (commitment to the policy reform agenda). The emphases given to these assessment criteria appeared to be shaped in part by policymakers' roles and the type and phase of policy development in which they were engaged. Policymakers are encouraged to reassess their methods for engaging researchers and to maximise information flow and support in these relationships. Researchers who wish to influence policy are advised to develop relationships across the policy community, but also to engage in other complementary strategies for promoting research-informed policy, including the strategic use of mass media. PMID:22403693

  18. Identifying trustworthy experts: how do policymakers find and assess public health researchers worth consulting or collaborating with?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby S Haynes

    Full Text Available This paper reports data from semi-structured interviews on how 26 Australian civil servants, ministers and ministerial advisors find and evaluate researchers with whom they wish to consult or collaborate. Policymakers valued researchers who had credibility across the three attributes seen as contributing to trustworthiness: competence (an exemplary academic reputation complemented by pragmatism, understanding of government processes, and effective collaboration and communication skills; integrity (independence, "authenticity", and faithful reporting of research; and benevolence (commitment to the policy reform agenda. The emphases given to these assessment criteria appeared to be shaped in part by policymakers' roles and the type and phase of policy development in which they were engaged. Policymakers are encouraged to reassess their methods for engaging researchers and to maximise information flow and support in these relationships. Researchers who wish to influence policy are advised to develop relationships across the policy community, but also to engage in other complementary strategies for promoting research-informed policy, including the strategic use of mass media.

  19. Vitamin D and Autism: Clinical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovska, Eva; Fernell, Elisabeth; Billstedt, Eva; Minnis, Helen; Gillberg, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. The interplay between genetic and environmental factors has become the subject of intensified research in the last several years. Vitamin D deficiency has recently been proposed as a possible environmental risk…

  20. Touching the Future Technology for Autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintz, Joseph; Gyori, Miklos; Aagaard, Morten

    2012-01-01

    apps designed to develop social and daily life skills in young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), should be developed and implemented in the future. We also set out a roadmap for a future research agenda, indicating further promising lines of enquiry that could potentially lead...

  1. Morphological features in children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgen, Mihriban Heval

    2008-01-01

    The central research aim in the present thesis was to extend the insight in several aspects of the role of the morphological features in autism. Clinical morphology might be used as a biomarker for ASD to reveal insight into the complexity of the disorder. In Chapter 1 current terminology and classi

  2. Increased glutamate and homocysteine and decreased glutamine levels in autism: a review and strategies for future studies of amino acids in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    There are many reports about the significant roles of some amino acids in neurobiology and treatment of autism. This is a critical review of amino acids levels in autism. No published review article about the level of amino acids in autism was found. The levels of glutamate and homocystein are increased in autism while the levels of glutamine and tryptophan are decreased. Findings regarding the plasma levels of taurine and lysine are controversial. The urinary levels of homocysteine and essential amino acids in both the untreated and treated autistic children are significantly less than those in the controls. The current literature suffers from many methodological shortcomings which needed to be considered in future studies. Some of them are age, gender, developmental level, autism symptoms severity, type of autism spectrum disorders, medical comorbidities, intelligent quotient, diet, concomitant medications, body mass index, and technical method of assessment of amino acids. PMID:24167375

  3. Increased Glutamate and Homocysteine and Decreased Glutamine Levels in Autism: A Review and Strategies for Future Studies of Amino Acids in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reports about the significant roles of some amino acids in neurobiology and treatment of autism. This is a critical review of amino acids levels in autism. No published review article about the level of amino acids in autism was found. The levels of glutamate and homocystein are increased in autism while the levels of glutamine and tryptophan are decreased. Findings regarding the plasma levels of taurine and lysine are controversial. The urinary levels of homocysteine and essential amino acids in both the untreated and treated autistic children are significantly less than those in the controls. The current literature suffers from many methodological shortcomings which needed to be considered in future studies. Some of them are age, gender, developmental level, autism symptoms severity, type of autism spectrum disorders, medical comorbidities, intelligent quotient, diet, concomitant medications, body mass index, and technical method of assessment of amino acids.

  4. Autism in Developing Countries: Lessons from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyed Ali Samadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most research into Autism Spectrum Disorders has been conducted in affluent English-speaking countries which have extensive professional support services. This paper describes a series of investigations that was undertaken in Iran, and these findings, together with reviews of research in other low-income countries, are used to identify key lessons in three areas of service provision of particular relevance to developing countries with scarce professional resources: first, the issues to be considered in establishing the prevalence of the condition nationally; second, identification of parental understanding of ASD and the impact it has on them as carers; third, the education and training that could be provided to families when professional supports are sparse. It is concluded that culturally sensitive, parental support strategies must be central to the planning and development of services. Moreover, future research should further elucidate the needs of families and evaluate the impact of culturally tailored interventions designed to promote the children’s development and overall family quality of life.

  5. Are prejudices against disabled persons determined by personality characteristics? Reviewing a theoretical approach on the basis of empirical research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloerkes, G

    1981-01-01

    Taking as point of departure the results obtained from research on prejudice, many authors believe that the quality of attitudes toward disabled persons is influenced by the personality structure of the nondisabled. In order to verify this assumption, a secondary analysis of 67 empirical studies was undertaken. These studies referred to different personality variables such as authoritarianism, ethnocentrism, dogmatism, rigidity, intolerance of ambiguity, cognitive simplicity, anxiety, ego-weakness, self-concept, body-concept, aggressiveness, empathy, intelligence, etc. The results can be summarized as follows: Statistical criteria show that single personality traits have relatively little influence on the attitudes towards disabled persons. An adequate evaluation of the research findings is complicated by, at times, considerable methodological problems which arise when applying the proper test instruments to non-clinical populations. Marked correlations are to be found in particular in the case of authoritarianism, ethnocentrism, intolerance of ambiguity, anxiety, and ego-weakness. The intercorrelations, however, between most of the personality variables are rather high, which by cumulation of "extreme" factors may, in fact, sometimes result in particularly unfavorable attitudes toward the disabled. Thus, personality-related research findings to provide certain valuable explanations. Special attention should be devoted to the multiple connections between personality structure and social structure. PMID:6452419

  6. Animal models of autism spectrum disorders: Information for neurotoxicologists

    OpenAIRE

    Halladay, Alycia K.; Amaral, David; Aschner, Michael; Bolivar, Valerie J.; Bowman, Aaron; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel; Hyman, Susan L.; Keller, Flavio; Lein, Pamela; Pessah, Isaac; Restifo, Linda; Threadgill, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings derived from large-scale datasets and biobanks link multiple genes to autism spectrum disorders. Consequently, novel rodent mutants with deletions, truncations and in some cases, overexpression of these candidate genes have been developed and studied both behaviorally and biologically. At the Annual Neurotoxicology Meeting in Rochester, NY in October of 2008, a symposium of clinicians and basic scientists gathered to present the behavioral features of autism, as well as strate...

  7. An exploration of sensory and movement differences from the perspective of individuals with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi eRobledo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Parents, teachers, and people who themselves experience sensory and movement differences have consistently reported disturbances of sensation and movement associated with autism. Our review of the literature has revealed both historical and recent references to and research about sensory and movement difference characteristics and symptoms for individuals with autism. What is notably infrequent in this literature, however, is research that highlights the perspective of the individual with autism. If we wish to truly understand the experience of sensory and movement differences for individuals with autism, we must explore their experiences and perspectives. This study presents a qualitative analysis of more than 40 hours in-depth inquiry into the lives of five individuals with the autism label. Data were sorted into six categories: perception, action, posture, emotion, communication, and cognition. The insights into sensory and movement differences and autism offered by these individuals was illuminating. We found that the data strongly supported the presence of disruption of organization and regulation of sensory and movement differences in the lived experience of these participants with autism. The present data suggests that in autism this disruption of organization and regulation is amplified in terms of quantity, quality, intensity, and may affect everyday life. These data contribute to a more expansive view of autism that incorporates the possibility that autism is a disorder that affects motor planning, behavior, communication, the sensory motor system, and the dynamic interaction of all of these.

  8. [Autism and neuropsychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruyère, Nelly; Sonie, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    In neuropsychology, the deficiencies associated with autism are generally classed into three areas: social cognition, executive functioning and central coherence. Autistic people however have singular capacities, notably with regard to their perceptual processing focused on details.

  9. Chromosomal abnormalities and autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida El-Baz

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities were not detected in the studied autistic children, and so the relation between the genetics and autism still needs further work up with different study methods and techniques.

  10. Autism Data & Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2006-2008, ranging from mild disabilities such as speech and language impairments to serious developmental disabilities, such as intellectual disabilities, cerebral palsy, and autism. [ Read summary ] Learn more about prevalence of ASD ...

  11. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout a person's life. ... be known as Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorders. It is called a "spectrum" disorder because people ...

  12. Research advances in the management of autism spectrum disorders in children%儿童孤独症谱系障碍的治疗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪华; 单玲; 杜琳; 贾飞勇

    2015-01-01

    孤独症谱系障碍(ASD)为一类广泛性神经系统发育障碍,以社会交往及交流障碍、兴趣狭窄、刻板与重复行为为主要特点。目前ASD的发病率呈显著上升趋势,早期合理的个性化综合干预治疗可明显改善患儿预后。由于ASD的病因不明,目前尚无特效药,主要以行为与教育干预为主;对ASD的伴发症状,如易激惹、自伤行为、注意缺陷多动障碍、睡眠问题等,合理应用一些药物,可改善ASD患儿的行为干预效果。随着ASD发病机制的深入研究,布美他尼、催产素、维生素D及高压氧治疗,可有望改善ASD核心症状。该文对目前针对ASD的行为与发展干预及治疗方法进行了综述。%Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of developmental dysfuntion of nervous system characterized by social interaction and communication disorders, restricted interests and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. The incidence of ASD has been increasing through the world. Some studies have shown that early reasonable individualized comprehensive intervention can obviously improve the prognosis of children with ASD. The etiology of ASD is unclear now, and behavioral and developmental intervention is the main therapy for ASD. The reasonable application of some drugs can improve the efifcacy of the behavioral intervention for concomitant symptoms in ASD. With the in-depth study of the pathogenesis of ASD, bumetanide, oxytocin, vitamin D and hyperbaric oxygen therapy have been found to be promising for the improvement of core symptoms of ASD. This article reviews the research advances in the behavioral and developmental intervention and drug therapy for ASD.

  13. Explicit versus implicit social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callenmark, Björn; Kjellin, Lars; Rönnqvist, Louise; Bölte, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Although autism spectrum disorder is defined by reciprocal social-communication impairments, several studies have found no evidence for altered social cognition test performance. This study examined explicit (i.e. prompted) and implicit (i.e. spontaneous) variants of social cognition testing in autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 19 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 19 carefully matched typically developing controls completed the Dewey Story Test. 'Explicit' (multiple-choice answering format) and 'implicit' (free interview) measures of social cognition were obtained. Autism spectrum disorder participants did not differ from controls regarding explicit social cognition performance. However, the autism spectrum disorder group performed more poorly than controls on implicit social cognition performance in terms of spontaneous perspective taking and social awareness. Findings suggest that social cognition alterations in autism spectrum disorder are primarily implicit in nature and that an apparent absence of social cognition difficulties on certain tests using rather explicit testing formats does not necessarily mean social cognition typicality in autism spectrum disorder.

  14. Inheritance of resistance to facial eczema: a review of research findings from sheep and cattle in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C A; Towers, N R; Hohenboken, W D; Maqbool, N; Smith, B L; Phua, S H

    2004-10-01

    Facial eczema (FE) is a costly problem to New Zealand pastoral agriculture, and has a detrimental impact on animal wellbeing. Incidence and severity of the disease can be reduced by grazing management and zinc prophylaxis. An additional strategy is to breed animals that are genetically resistant to intoxication with sporidesmin, the causative mycotoxin. This review summarises research findings on the inheritance of resistance of animals to FE, including evidence of among- and within-breed genetic variation, direct and correlated responses to selection, and identification of genetic markers and candidate genes for FE resistance. PMID:15768115

  15. Research Progress of Facial Emotion Recognition in Autism%孤独症患者面部情绪认知研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉凤; 汪凯; 朱春燕

    2011-01-01

    Autism facial emotion identifying difficulties have not only general features, but also specific performance, such as looking at local details, etc. And the study found that the facial emotion identifying difficulties of autism may be closely related to specific areas of emotion identifying of the brain, such as fusiform gyms, amygdala and mirror neurons.%孤独症患者面部情绪识别困难不仅有一般性特点,还存在特异性表现,如注视局部细节等.孤独症患者情绪面部识别障碍可能与情绪识别特定的脑区有着密切的关系,如梭状回、杏仁核以及镜像神经元等.

  16. Locus ceruleus neurons in people with autism contain no histochemically-detectable mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamphlett, Roger; Kum Jew, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to environmental mercury has been proposed to play a part in autism. Mercury is selectively taken up by the human locus ceruleus, a region of the brain that has been implicated in autism. We therefore looked for the presence of mercury in the locus ceruleus of people who had autism, using the histochemical technique of autometallography which can detect nanogram amounts of mercury in tissues. In addition, we sought evidence of damage to locus ceruleus neurons in autism by immunostaining for hyperphosphorylated tau. No mercury was found in any neurons of the locus ceruleus of 6 individuals with autism (5 male, 1 female, age range 16-48 years). Mercury was present in locus ceruleus neurons in 7 of 11 (64%) age-matched control individuals who did not have autism, which is significantly more than in individuals with autism. No increase in numbers of locus ceruleus neurons containing hyperphosphorylated tau was detected in people with autism. In conclusion, most people with autism have not been exposed early in life to quantities of mercury large enough to be found later in adult locus ceruleus neurons. Human locus ceruleus neurons are sensitive indicators of mercury exposure, and mercury appears to remain in these neurons indefinitely, so these findings do not support the hypothesis that mercury neurotoxicity plays a role in autism.

  17. Use of Artificial Intelligence to Shorten the Behavioral Diagnosis of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dennis P.; Dally, Rebecca; Luyster, Rhiannon; Jung, Jae-Yoon; DeLuca, Todd F.

    2012-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is one of the most commonly used instruments for assisting in the behavioral diagnosis of autism. The exam consists of 93 questions that must be answered by a care provider within a focused session that often spans 2.5 hours. We used machine learning techniques to study the complete sets of answers to the ADI-R available at the Autism Genetic Research Exchange (AGRE) for 891 individuals diagnosed with autism and 75 individuals who did not meet the criteria for an autism diagnosis. Our analysis showed that 7 of the 93 items contained in the ADI-R were sufficient to classify autism with 99.9% statistical accuracy. We further tested the accuracy of this 7-question classifier against complete sets of answers from two independent sources, a collection of 1654 individuals with autism from the Simons Foundation and a collection of 322 individuals with autism from the Boston Autism Consortium. In both cases, our classifier performed with nearly 100% statistical accuracy, properly categorizing all but one of the individuals from these two resources who previously had been diagnosed with autism through the standard ADI-R. Our ability to measure specificity was limited by the small numbers of non-spectrum cases in the research data used, however, both real and simulated data demonstrated a range in specificity from 99% to 93.8%. With incidence rates rising, the capacity to diagnose autism quickly and effectively requires careful design of behavioral assessment methods. Ours is an initial attempt to retrospectively analyze large data repositories to derive an accurate, but significantly abbreviated approach that may be used for rapid detection and clinical prioritization of individuals likely to have an autism spectrum disorder. Such a tool could assist in streamlining the clinical diagnostic process overall, leading to faster screening and earlier treatment of individuals with autism. PMID:22952789

  18. "He Is Intelligent but Different": Stakeholders' Perspectives on Children on the Autism Spectrum in an Urban Indian School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja Johansson, Shruti

    2014-01-01

    This article explores stakeholders' awareness of autism and their perspectives on children with autism, in an urban Indian school context. Using an interpretive framework, the article draws on interview data from a study conducted in Kolkata. Findings indicated varying but limited awareness of autism among school staff. Teachers instead…

  19. Mindfulness-Based Therapy in Adults with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, Annelies A.; van Ham, Nadia C.; Nyklicek, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that depression and anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric concern in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) has been found effective in reducing anxiety and depression symptoms, however research in autism is limited. Therefore, we examined the effects of a modified MBT protocol (MBT-AS) in…

  20. Reviewing Instructional Studies Conducted Using Video Modeling to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Cimen; Diken, Ibrahim H.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored 31 instructional research articles written using video modeling to children with autism and published in peer-reviewed journals. The studies in this research have been reached by searching EBSCO, Academic Search Complete, ERIC and other Anadolu University online search engines and using keywords such as "autism, video modeling,…