WorldWideScience

Sample records for authority compressed natural

  1. 78 FR 21349 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Compressed Natural Gas, Vacating Prior Authority and Denying Request for Rehearing During January 2013 ] FE Docket... January 2013, it issued orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied......

  2. Worship of Authority and Human Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangRuisheng

    2005-01-01

    Authority is a cultural phenomenon that by its nature implies social relations between individuals. At the heart of authority is power-holders' maximization of their own interests by virtue of their ruling positions. In ancient society based on the small-scale peasant economy, the concept of authority worship was unavoidable. It is rooted in the premise that man is by nature evil and hence needs the awe-inspiring powers of authority. A highly developed cult of authority exerts enormous influence on and seriously distorts human nature. But the authority cult was not the only ideology in feudal society;

  3. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply...

  4. 8 CFR 310.1 - Administrative naturalization authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative naturalization authority... NATURALIZATION AUTHORITY § 310.1 Administrative naturalization authority. (a) Attorney General. Commencing October 1, 1991, section 310 of the Act confers the sole authority to naturalize persons as citizens...

  5. Towards Natural Transition in Compressible Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    UNIT NUMBER 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) The public reporting...4] Leandro F. Bergamo, Elmer M. Gennaro, Vassilis Theofilis, and Marcello A.F. Medeiros. Compressible modes in a square lid-driven cavity. Aerospace...Fluid Mechanics, 724:480–509, 6 2013. [68] H. Schlichting. Zur Entstehung der Turbulenz bei der Plattenströmung. In Math . Phys. Klasse, pages 182–208

  6. Quality of seamless steel cylinders for compressed natural gas; Qualidade de cilindros para gas metano veicular (gas natural comprimido)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wajnberg, Sergio [Mat-Incendio S.A., Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This work generally describes important aspects related to the quality of Seamless Steel Cylinders used with Compressed Natural Gas in vehicles which are converted in Brazil to use this kind of fuel. In addition to the manufacturing process, the necessity of a correct usage, maintenance and control of these cylinders are emphasized. (author)

  7. An accurate empirical correlation for predicting natural gas compressibility factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ehsan Sanjari; Ebrahim Nemati Lay

    2012-01-01

    The compressibility factor of natural gas is an important parameter in many gas and petroleum engineering calculations.This study presents a new empirical model for quick calculation of natural gas compressibility factors.The model was derived from 5844 experimental data of compressibility factors for a range of pseudo reduced pressures from 0.01 to 15 and pseudo reduced temperatures from 1 to 3.The accuracy of the new empirical correlation has been compared with commonly used existing methods.The comparison indicates the superiority of the new empirical model over the other methods used to calculate compressibility factor of natural gas with average absolute relative deviation percent (AARD%) of 0.6535.

  8. Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-09-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with fueling infrastructure for compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. It provides estimated cost ranges for various sizes and types of CNG fueling stations and an overview of factors that contribute to the total cost of an installed station. The information presented is based on input from professionals in the natural gas industry who design, sell equipment for, and/or own and operate CNG stations.

  9. Compressed natural gas vehicles motoring towards a green Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Kraft-Oliver, T. [International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC) - Asia, Bangkok (Thailand); Guo Xiao Yan [China North Vehicle Research Institute (CNVRI), Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This paper first describes the state-of-the-art of compressed natural gas (CNG) technologies and evaluates the market prospects for CNG vehicles in Beijing. An analysis of the natural gas resource supply for fleet vehicles follows. The costs and benefits of establishing natural gas filling stations and promoting the development of vehicle technology are evaluated. The quantity of GHG reduction is calculated. The objective of the paper is to provide information of transfer niche of CNG vehicle and equipment production in Beijing. This paper argues that the development of CNG vehicles is a cost-effective strategy for mitigating both air pollution and GHG.

  10. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compressed natural gas vehicles. 571.303 Section 571.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of motor vehicle fuel systems using compressed natural gas (CNG), including the CNG...

  11. CNG (compressed natural gas) as fuel for the transport sector in Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So`Brien, G.C.; Persad, P.; Satcunanathan, S. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad)

    1996-08-01

    Several studies have established that Trinidad and Tobago is well positioned to consider the substitution of compressed natural gas (CNG) for gasoline or diesel in the transport sector. Consequently a programme of conversion of private motors was initiated. Despite considerable advertisement programs projecting CNG as an environmentally friendly and cheap fuel, there is not yet widespread acceptance of the technology. The reasons for this are analysed. It is recommended that the policy of CNG usage be reviewed and the emphasis be shifted to transport fleets. It is also recommended that tax credits be considered as an incentive to users. (author)

  12. Compressibility of a natural kyanite to 17.5 GPa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Liu; Sean R. Shieh; Michael E. Fleet; Lifei Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The compressional behaviour of a natural kyanite, (Al1.99Fe0.01)SiO5, has been investigated to about 17.5 GPa at 300 K using a diamond-anvil cell and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The pressure-volume data fitted to the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EoS) yield an isothermal bulk modulus (K0T) of 192±6 GPa and pressure derivative (K10T) of 6±1. When K10T is fixed as 4, the derived K0T is 201±2 GPa. These values are in excellent agreement with most experimental determinations in the literature. Consequently, it can be concluded that the compressibility of kyanite under high pressures has been accurately constrained.

  13. Improved Compressive Sensing of Natural Scenes Using Localized Random Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranca, Victor J; Kovačič, Gregor; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2016-08-24

    Compressive sensing (CS) theory demonstrates that by using uniformly-random sampling, rather than uniformly-spaced sampling, higher quality image reconstructions are often achievable. Considering that the structure of sampling protocols has such a profound impact on the quality of image reconstructions, we formulate a new sampling scheme motivated by physiological receptive field structure, localized random sampling, which yields significantly improved CS image reconstructions. For each set of localized image measurements, our sampling method first randomly selects an image pixel and then measures its nearby pixels with probability depending on their distance from the initially selected pixel. We compare the uniformly-random and localized random sampling methods over a large space of sampling parameters, and show that, for the optimal parameter choices, higher quality image reconstructions can be consistently obtained by using localized random sampling. In addition, we argue that the localized random CS optimal parameter choice is stable with respect to diverse natural images, and scales with the number of samples used for reconstruction. We expect that the localized random sampling protocol helps to explain the evolutionarily advantageous nature of receptive field structure in visual systems and suggests several future research areas in CS theory and its application to brain imaging.

  14. Improved Compressive Sensing of Natural Scenes Using Localized Random Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranca, Victor J.; Kovačič, Gregor; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2016-08-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) theory demonstrates that by using uniformly-random sampling, rather than uniformly-spaced sampling, higher quality image reconstructions are often achievable. Considering that the structure of sampling protocols has such a profound impact on the quality of image reconstructions, we formulate a new sampling scheme motivated by physiological receptive field structure, localized random sampling, which yields significantly improved CS image reconstructions. For each set of localized image measurements, our sampling method first randomly selects an image pixel and then measures its nearby pixels with probability depending on their distance from the initially selected pixel. We compare the uniformly-random and localized random sampling methods over a large space of sampling parameters, and show that, for the optimal parameter choices, higher quality image reconstructions can be consistently obtained by using localized random sampling. In addition, we argue that the localized random CS optimal parameter choice is stable with respect to diverse natural images, and scales with the number of samples used for reconstruction. We expect that the localized random sampling protocol helps to explain the evolutionarily advantageous nature of receptive field structure in visual systems and suggests several future research areas in CS theory and its application to brain imaging.

  15. The use of compressed natural gas as a strategy of development of natural gas industry; Utilizacao do GNC (Gas Natural Comprimido) como estrategia de desenvolvimento da industria do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, Jucemara [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Coordenacao de Segmento Veicular; Rickmann, Cristiano [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia de Novos Negocios; Maestri, Juares [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia de Mercado de Grandes Consumidores

    2008-07-01

    This work emphasizes the Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as modal of transport, used by the Company of Gas of the State of Rio Grande do Sul - Sulgas, through experience in pioneering project in Brazil: the introduction of the technology of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) to assist areas where there is not the infrastructure of pipeline for the transport. The article offers a display of the project of expansion of the Natural gas in Rio Grande do Sul, through the supply of CNG to the company Tramontina in Carlos Barbosa's city in the year of 2002. The last aspect focused by this article demonstrates as the use of this transport technology impelled the development of the transport market in the State and it has been used as an important strategy for the development of the market of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) in the state. (author)

  16. Compressed natural gas bus safety: a quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel; Modarres, Mohammad

    2005-04-01

    This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results are compared to fire risks of the present generation of diesel-fueled school buses. Direct computation of the safety risks associated with diesel-powered vehicles is possible because these are mature technologies for which historical performance data are available. Because of limited experience, fatal accident data for CNG bus fleets are minimal. Therefore, this study uses the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to model and predict fire safety risk of CNG buses. Generic failure data, engineering judgments, and assumptions are used in this study. This study predicts the mean fire fatality risk for typical CNG buses as approximately 0.23 fatalities per 100-million miles for all people involved, including bus passengers. The study estimates mean values of 0.16 fatalities per 100-million miles for bus passengers only. Based on historical data, diesel school bus mean fire fatality risk is 0.091 and 0.0007 per 100-million miles for all people and bus passengers, respectively. One can therefore conclude that CNG buses are more prone to fire fatality risk by 2.5 times that of diesel buses, with the bus passengers being more at risk by over two orders of magnitude. The study estimates a mean fire risk frequency of 2.2 x 10(-5) fatalities/bus per year. The 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds are 9.1 x 10(-6) and 4.0 x 10(-5), respectively. The risk result was found to be affected most by failure rates of pressure relief valves, CNG cylinders, and fuel piping.

  17. 78 FR 21351 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, and Vacating Prior Authority During February 2013 FE Docket Nos. J.P. MORGAN COMMODITIES... and liquefied natural gas and vacating prior authority. These orders are summarized in the...

  18. 78 FR 19696 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas and Vacating Prior Authority During December 2012 FE Docket Nos. DIAMOND CAPITAL INTERNATIONAL... during December 2012, it issued orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and......

  19. 77 FR 12274 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During January 2012... 2012, it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas.... DOMINION COVE POINT LNG, LP 11-98-LNG ENERGY PLUS NATURAL GAS LLC 11-155-NG BROOKFIELD ENERGY......

  20. 77 FR 31838 - Notice of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During April..., it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These... Capital International, LLC....... 12-33-NG Phillips 66 Company 12-34-NG Northwest Natural Gas Company......

  1. 78 FR 46581 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas During June 2013... authority to import and export natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized... of Fossil Energy, Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Docket Room 3E-033,......

  2. 77 FR 19277 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During February 2012 FE... 2012, it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas..., ULC 12-13-NG ENCANA NATURAL GAS INC 11-163-NG ALCOA INC 12-11-NG JPMORGAN LNG CO 12-15-LNG CNE......

  3. Natural Gas Compression Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 5311.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The graduate of the Natural Gas Compression Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to install, commission, maintain and repair equipment used to gather store and transmit natural gas. Advanced Education and Technology has prepared this course outline in partnership with the Natural Gas Compression…

  4. Metrological and operational performance of measuring systems used in vehicle compressed natural gas filling stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velosa, Jhonn F.; Abril, Henry; Garcia, Luis E. [CDT de GAS (Venezuela). Gas Technological Development Center Corporation

    2008-07-01

    Corporation CDT GAS financially supported by the Colombian government through COLCIENCIAS, carried out a study aimed at designing, developing and implementing in Colombia a calibration and metrological verification 'specialized service' for gas meters installed at dispensers of filling stations using compressed natural gas. The results permitted the identification of improving opportunities (in measuring systems, equipment and devices used to deliver natural gas) which are focused on achieving the highest security and reliability of trading processes of CNG for vehicles. In the development of the first stage of the project, metrological type variables were initially considered, but given the importance of the measuring system and its interaction with the various elements involving gas supply to the filling station, the scope of the work done included aspects related to the operational performance, that is, those influencing the security of the users and the metrological performance of the measuring system. The development of the second stage counted on the collaboration of national companies from the sector of CNG for vehicles, which permitted the carrying out of multiple calibrations to the measuring systems installed in the CNG dispensers, thus achieving, in a concrete way, valid and reliable technological information of the implemented procedures. (author)

  5. Life cycle greenhouse emissions of compressed natural gas-hydrogen mixtures for transportation in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, P. [Instituto de Energia y Desarrollo Sustentable, CNEA, CONICET, Av. del Libertador 8250, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dawidowski, L.; Gomez, D. [Gerencia Quimica, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (Argentina); Pasquevich, D. [Instituto de Energia y Desarrollo Sustentable, CNEA, CONICET, Av. del Libertador 8250, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Atomico Bariloche, CNEA, Av. Bustillo 9500, S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    We have developed a model to assess the life cycle greenhouse emissions of compressed natural gas-hydrogen (CNG-H{sub 2}) mixtures used for transportation in Argentina. The overall fuel life cycle is assessed through a well-to-wheel (WTW) analysis for different hydrogen generation and distribution options. The combustion stage in road vehicles is modeled using the COPERT IV model. Hydrogen generation options include classical steam methane reforming (SMR) and water electrolysis (WE) in central plants and distributed facilities at the refueling stations. Centralized hydrogen generation by electrolysis in nuclear plants as well as the use of solar photovoltaic and wind electricity is also considered. Hydrogen distribution options include gas pipeline and refrigerated truck transportation for liquefied hydrogen. A total number of fifteen fuel pathways are studied; in all the cases the natural gas-hydrogen mixture is made at the refueling station. The use of WE using nuclear or wind electricity appears to be less contaminant that the use of pure CNG. (author)

  6. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-03-01

    This report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes a number of potential enhancements to the existing natural gas compression infrastructure that have been identified and qualitatively demonstrated in tests on three different integral engine/compressors in natural gas transmission service.

  7. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-08-01

    This report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infracture''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes a number of potential enhancements to the existing natural gas compression infrastructure that have been identified and tested on four different integral engine/compressors in natural gas transmission service.

  8. 78 FR 35014 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas During April 2013... natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized in the attached appendix and... INC 13-41-NG CASCADE NATURAL GAS CORPORATION 13-43-NG ENCANA MARKETING (USA) INC 13-44-NG......

  9. Segmentation of Natural Images by Texture and Boundary Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Mobahi, Hossein; Yang, Allen Y; Sastry, Shankar S; Ma, Yi

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for segmentation of natural images that harnesses the principle of minimum description length (MDL). Our method is based on observations that a homogeneously textured region of a natural image can be well modeled by a Gaussian distribution and the region boundary can be effectively coded by an adaptive chain code. The optimal segmentation of an image is the one that gives the shortest coding length for encoding all textures and boundaries in the image, and is obtained via an agglomerative clustering process applied to a hierarchy of decreasing window sizes as multi-scale texture features. The optimal segmentation also provides an accurate estimate of the overall coding length and hence the true entropy of the image. We test our algorithm on the publicly available Berkeley Segmentation Dataset. It achieves state-of-the-art segmentation results compared to other existing methods.

  10. The Nature of Teacher Authority and Teacher Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Julian G.

    2009-01-01

    The so-called "soft skills" utilised by teachers--including relationship building, awareness of the pupil's context and background and the demonstration of authority--to develop an appropriate learning culture in their classrooms have long been recognised as being a major contribution to effective promotion of positive behaviour. This article…

  11. 75 FR 3232 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization January 8, 2010. Take notice that on December 30, 2009, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111... sections 157.205 and 157.214 of the Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act for authorization...

  12. 75 FR 38092 - The Dow Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of... The Dow Chemical Company (Dow), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG... equivalent of 390 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas on a short-term or spot market basis. The LNG...

  13. 75 FR 19954 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY... Cheniere Marketing, LLC (CMI), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that... 500 Billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas on a short-term or spot market basis. The LNG would...

  14. Compressed Natural Gas Installation. A Video-Based Training Program for Vehicle Conversion. Instructor's Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach four competency-based course units of instruction in installing compressed natural gas (CNG) systems in motor vehicles. It is designed to accompany an instructional videotape (not included) on CNG installation. The following competencies are covered in the four instructional units:…

  15. Potentiality of the Usage of Compressed Natural Gas for Competitiveness in Service Delivery Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Mohammad Hasan Jamil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. With the rising costs of gasoline, many vehicle owners are looking for alternatives of it. Compressed natural gas (CNG has been tested for this very purpose in some countries and found as a better alternative so far. CNG comes from country’s natural resources and it is clean and less costly to use. This paper is mainly an analysis of the potential benefits of using natural gas as a transportation fuel by the service delivery industries. It will examine CNG’s potential contribution in reducing delivery and vehicle maintenance cost, saving money in the long run projects, improving fuel efficiency, enhancing physical safety and assuring environment friendly emissions of carbon monoxide or reactive gases for the service delivery industries.Keywords: Compressed natural gas (CNG, Service Delivery, Fossil fuel, Global warming, Competitiveness

  16. A Technical Review of Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Rosli A. Bakar

    2008-01-01

    Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been considerably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cylinders. Engine conversion technology is well established and suitable conversion equipment is readily available. For spark ignition engines there are two op...

  17. Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-03-19

    Natural gas is a clean-burning, abundant, and domestically produced source of energy. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has recently garnered interest as a transportation fuel because of these attributes and because of its cost savings and price stability compared to conventional petroleum fuels. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Vehicle Infrastructure and Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE) model to help businesses and fleets evaluate the financial soundness of CNG vehicle and CNG fueling infrastructure projects.

  18. Mechanical Properties of Injection Molded and Compression Molded Samples from Nature-Butadiene Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrobak Adam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show what extent there is an impact on the mechanical properties (tensile strength and tear strength of a standardized testing sample made of rubber compound based on nature rubber and butadiene rubber produced by injection molding in comparison with a sample produced by classic preparation (cutting out a compression molded plate according to the standard ISO 23529. For realization of this study it was necessary to design and produce an injection mold for all types testing samples. Subsequently, mechanical properties such as the tensile stress-strain and tear strenght of compression molded samples and injection molded samples were studied, compared and discussed.

  19. Prediction of Corrosion Resistance of Concrete Containing Natural Pozzolan from Compressive Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Swaidani, A. M.; Ismat, R.; Diyab, M. E.; Aliyan, S. D.

    2015-11-01

    A lot of Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures in Syria have suffered from reinforcement corrosion which shortened significantly their service lives. Probably, one of the most effective approaches to make concrete structures more durable and concrete industry on the whole - more sustainable is to substitute pozzolan for a portion of Portland cement (PC). Syria is relatively rich in natural pozzolan. In the study, in order to predict the corrosion resistance from compressive strength, concrete specimens were produced with seven cement types: one plain Portland cement (control) and six natural pozzolan-based cements with replacement levels ranging from 10 to 35%. The development of the compressive strengths of concrete cube specimens with curing time has been investigated. Chloride penetrability has also been evaluated for all concrete mixes after three curing times of 7, 28 and 90 days. The effect on resistance of concrete against damage caused by corrosion of the embedded reinforcing steel has been investigated using an accelerated corrosion test by impressing a constant anodic potential for 7, 28 and 90 days curing. Test results have been statistically analysed and correlation equations relating compressive strength and corrosion performance have been developed. Significant correlations have been noted between the compressive strength and both rapid chloride penetrability and corrosion initiation times. So, this prediction could be reliable in concrete mix design when using natural pozzolan as cement replacement.

  20. Effect of Sample Disturbance on Unconfined Compression Strength of Natural Marine Clays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉龙; 洪振舜

    2003-01-01

    Quantitatively correcting the unconfined compressive strength for sample disturbance is an important research project in the practice of ocean engineering and geotechnical engineering. In this study, the specimens of undisturbed natural marine clay obtained from the same depth at the same site were deliberately disturbed to different levels. Then, the specimens with different extents of sample disturbance were trimmed for both oedometer tests and unconfined compression tests. The degree of sample disturbance SD is obtained from the oedometer test data. The relationship between the unconfined compressive strength qu and SD is studied for investigating the effect of sample disturbance on qu. It is found that the value of qu decreases linearly with the increase in SD. Then, a simple method of correcting qu for sample disturbance is proposed. Its validity is also verified through analysis of the existing published data.

  1. The slow-mode nature of compressible wave power in solar wind turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, G G; Klein, K G; Chen, C H K; Salem, C S; TenBarge, J M

    2011-01-01

    We use a large, statistical set of measurements from the Wind spacecraft at 1 AU, and supporting synthetic spacecraft data based on kinetic plasma theory, to show that the compressible component of inertial range solar wind turbulence is primarily in the kinetic slow mode. The zero-lag cross correlation C(delta n, delta B_parallel) between proton density fluctuations delta n and the field-aligned (compressible) component of the magnetic field delta B_parallel is negative and close to -1. The typical dependence of C(delta n,delta B_parallel) on the ion plasma beta_i is consistent with a spectrum of compressible wave energy that is almost entirely in the kinetic slow mode. This has important implications for both the nature of the density fluctuation spectrum and for the cascade of kinetic turbulence to short wavelengths, favoring evolution to the kinetic Alfven wave mode rather than the (fast) whistler mode.

  2. Modified Liu-Carter Compression Model for Natural Clays with Various Initial Water Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Qian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial water content has a significant effect on the compression behaviour of reconstituted clays. This effect has to be considered in the Liu-Carter model to ensure the addition voids ratio only related to soil structure. A modified Liu-Carter compression model is proposed by introducing the empirical equations for reconstituted clays at different initial water contents into the Liu-Carter model. The proposed model is verified against the experimental results from the literature. The simulations by the proposed method are also compared with that by old method where the influence of initial water content is not considered. The results show that the predicted virgin compression curves of natural clays are similar, but the values of b and Δey may be very different.

  3. 16 CFR 1.8 - Nature, authority and use of trade regulation rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nature, authority and use of trade regulation rules. 1.8 Section 1.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND... Nature, authority and use of trade regulation rules. (a) For the purpose of carrying out the...

  4. 75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY..., by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra), requesting blanket authorization to export up to a total of 250 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of foreign sourced liquefied natural gas (LNG) for a two-year...

  5. A Statistical Analysis on Papers and Authors in Wuhan University Journal of Natural Sciences in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Min

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article counts and analyzes the papers and authors printed in 2003 Wuhan University Journal of Natural Sciences by means of bibliometric statistical methods, of which the characteristics of papers and authors are expounded.The result shows that the ratio of reprinting of this journal has been increased and the areas where the authors come from and their organization scattered in the whole world are widened as well, which implies a better-known fame of the journal.

  6. Unstable phenomena of low speed compressible natural convection with open boundaries by multi-GPU implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Hsiang; Fu, Wu-Shung; Tsubokura, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    Unstable phenomena of low speed compressible natural convection are investigated numerically. Geometry contains parallel square plates or single heated plate with open boundaries is taken into consideration. Numerical methods of the Roe scheme, preconditioning and dual time stepping matching the DP-LUR method are used for low speed compressible flow. The absorbing boundary condition and modified LODI method is adopted to solve open boundary problems. High performance parallel computation is achieved by multi-GPU implementation with CUDA platform. The effects of natural convection by isothermal plates facing upwards in air is then carried out by the methods mentioned above Unstable behaviors appeared upon certain Rayleigh number with characteristic length respect to the width of plates or height between plates.

  7. On the Use of Vibro-Compressed Units with Bio-Natural Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Sassu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the use of vibro-compressed units with bio-natural components on construction. The proposed mix design of vibrated blocks consist of cork granules and/or hemp shives, with the aim to substitute polymeric elements or expanded clay, together with the use of natural hydraulic lime (NHL as binder. An experimental campaign is presented, with mechanical tests to evaluate the influence of each component on flexural and compression behavior. The proposal is also investigated from a productive point of view, considering how it can be harmonized in the productive process of lightweight aggregate concrete units without modifications in the productive process. The tested elements could perform a certain reduction of the carbon impact, maintaining interesting mechanical properties. The application of the proposed units in several contexts, as separating elements joined with structural components, is considered to improve rehabilitation or to obtain higher performances in buildings.

  8. Combustion Temperature Effect of Diesel Engine Convert to Compressed Natural Gas Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    Effect of combustion temperature in the engine cylinder of diesel engine convert to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engine was presents in this study. The objective of this study was to investigate the engine cylinder combustion temperature effect of diesel engine convert to CNG engine on variation engine speed. Problem statement: The hypothesis was that the lower performance of CNG engine was caused by the effect of lower in engine cylinder temperature. Are the CNG engine is lower cylinder temp...

  9. 76 FR 18216 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on March 16, 2011, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), Post Office Box 2563... and 157.216 of the Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as amended, to abandon...

  10. 77 FR 31004 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ...] Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 9, 2012, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham, Alabama 35209, filed... Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA), and Southern's blanket certificate issued in...

  11. 75 FR 13535 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization March 16, 2010. Take notice that on March 12, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South... External Affairs, Northern Natural Gas Company, 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, at...

  12. A Technical Review of Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed natural gas (CNG has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been considerably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cylinders. Engine conversion technology is well established and suitable conversion equipment is readily available. For spark ignition engines there are two options, a bi-fuel conversion and use a dedicated to CNG engine. For compression ignition engines converted to run on natural gas, there are two main options discussed, there are dual-fuel engines and normal ignition can be initiated. Natural gas engines can operate at lean burn and stoichiometric conditions with different combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the CNG engines research and development fueled using CNG are highlighted to keep the output power, torque and emissions of natural gas engines comparable to their gasoline or diesel counterparts. The high activities for future CNG engines research and development to meet future CNG engines is recorded in the paper.

  13. Green Engines Development Using Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Compressed Natural Gas (CNG is a gaseous form of natural gas, it have been recognized as one of the promising alternative fuel due to its substantial benefits compared to gasoline and diesel. Natural gas is produced from gas wells or tied in with crude oil production. Approach: Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been considerably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cylinders. Results: The technology of engine conversion was well established and suitable conversion equipment is readily available. For petrol engines or spark ignition engines there are two options, a bi-fuel conversion and use a dedicated to CNG engine. The diesel engines converted or designed to run on natural gas, there were two main options discussed. There are dual-fuel engines and normal ignition can be initiated. Natural gas engines can be operated at lean burn and stoichiometric conditions with different combustion and emission characteristics. Conclusions: In this study, the low exhaust gas emissions of CNG engines research and development were highlighted. Stoichiometric natural gas engines were briefly reviewed. To keep the output power, torque and emissions of natural gas engines comparable to their gasoline or diesel counterparts. High activity for future green CNG engines research and development to meet future stringent emissions standards was recorded in the study.

  14. Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-09-01

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

  15. 76 FR 6491 - San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA; Final Environmental Impact... November 26, 2003 (68 FR 66478). The Service and Water Authority held a public scoping meeting on...

  16. 75 FR 11194 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... application, and notice of public meetings for the San Diego County Water Authority's (Water...

  17. Integrated modeling for optimized regional transportation with compressed natural gas fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. Gabbar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation represents major energy consumption where fuel is considered as a primary energy source. Recent development in the vehicle technology revealed possible economical improvements when using natural gas as a fuel source instead of traditional gasoline. There are several fuel alternatives such as electricity, which showed potential for future long-term transportation. However, the move from current situation where gasoline vehicle is dominating shows high cost compared to compressed natural gas vehicle. This paper presents modeling and simulation methodology to optimize performance of transportation based on quantitative study of the risk-based performance of regional transportation. Emission estimation method is demonstrated and used to optimize transportation strategies based on life cycle costing. Different fuel supply scenarios are synthesized and evaluated, which showed strategic use of natural gas as a fuel supply.

  18. The co-evolution of alternative fuel infrastructure and vehicles. A study of the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collantes, Gustavo [Renergh Consulting and Department of Commerce, State of Washington, 2001 6th Ave, Suite 2600, Seattle, WA 98121 (United States); Melaina, Marc W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (United States)

    2011-02-15

    In a quest for strategic and environmental benefits, the developed countries have been trying for many years to increase the share of alternative fuels in their transportation fuel mixes. They have met very little success though. In this paper, we examine the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas. We conducted interviews with a wide range of stakeholders and analyzed econometrically data collected in Argentina to investigate the factors, economic, political, and others that determined the high rate of adoption of this fuel. A central objective of this research was to identify lessons that could be useful to developed countries in their efforts to deploy alternative fuel vehicles. We find that fuel price regulation was a significant determinant of the adoption of compressed natural gas, while, contrary to expectations, government financing of refueling infrastructure was minimal. (author)

  19. Hardness and compression resistance of natural rubber and synthetic rubber mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguello, J. M.; Santos, A.

    2016-02-01

    This project aims to mechanically characterize through compression resistance and shore hardness tests, the mixture of hevea brasiliensis natural rubber with butadiene synthetic rubber (BR), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and ethylene-propylene-diene monomer rubber (EPDM). For each of the studied mixtures were performed 10 tests, each of which increased by 10% the content of synthetic rubber in the mixture; each test consisted of carrying out five tests of compression resistance and five tests of shore hardness. The specimens were vulcanized on a temperature of 160°C, during an approximate time of 15 minutes, and the equipment used in the performance of the mechanical tests were a Shimadzu universal machine and a digital durometer. The results show that the A shore hardness increases directly proportional, with a linear trend, with the content of synthetic BR, SBR or EPDM rubber present in the mixture, being the EPDM the most influential. With respect to the compression resistance is observed that the content of BR or SBR increase this property directly proportional through a linear trend; while the EPDM content also increases but with a polynomial trend.

  20. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Transit Bus Experience Survey: April 2009--April 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.; Horne, D. B.

    2010-09-01

    This survey was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect and analyze experiential data and information from a cross-section of U.S. transit agencies with varying degrees of compressed natural gas (CNG) bus and station experience. This information will be used to assist DOE and NREL in determining areas of success and areas where further technical or other assistance might be required, and to assist them in focusing on areas judged by the CNG transit community as priority items.

  1. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study on Leadership: Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (Presentation); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (RFTA) represents a series of unique successes in alternative fuel deployment by pushing the envelope with innovative solutions. In the last year, RFTA demonstrated the ability to utilize compressed natural gas buses at a range of altitudes, across long distances, in extreme weather conditions and in a modern indoor fueling and maintenance facility - allwhile saving money and providing high-quality customer service. This case study will highlight how the leadership of organizations and communities that are implementing advances in natural gas vehicle technology is paving the way for broader participation.

  2. 77 FR 4028 - Orders Granting, Amending and Vacating Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... Granting, Amending and Vacating Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas FE Docket Nos. Gas Natural Caxitlan, S. DE R.L 11-147-NG Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P 11-127-LNG Irving..., amending and vacating authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These......

  3. 78 FR 53739 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied Natural Gas and... export natural gas, to import and export liquefied natural gas and to vacate prior authority. These... ENERGY) 13-83-LNG STANDARD NATURAL GAS, INC.) 13-81-LNG CASTLETON COMMODITIES CANADA LP) 1...

  4. 78 FR 44940 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied Natural Gas During May 2013 FE DOCKET NOS. CASCADE NATURAL GAS CORPORATION........ 12-179-NG CASCADE NATURAL GAS... orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and to import and export liquefied......

  5. Compressed natural gas as a vehicle to promote development of consumer market in Campina Grande - PB (Brazil); O gas natural comprimido como fomentador do desenvolvimento do mercado consumidor de gas natural na regiao de Campina Grande - PB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfim, Marcelo dos Santos; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    Investments required for natural gas distribution networks are high. The use of compressed natural gas (CNG) is seen as a way to prepare and develop consuming markets to receive those networks. This paper outlines the socio-economic context and the reasons that motivated the creation of a CNG project in Campina Grande, in the state of Paraiba. Technical aspects of project implementation are described, including difficulties encountered and courses of action undertaken as a result. Other aspects considered include the social and economic impact and local consumer's expectations with the arrival of new fuel. The study also considers factors relevant to the project such as the distance from the pressure measurement and regulation station, transported volumes, technology used, infrastructure and road conditions. (author)

  6. Compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs: effects of porous media and gas mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Pan, L.

    2015-12-01

    Although large opportunities exist for compressed air energy storage (CAES) in aquifers and depleted natural gas reservoirs, only two grid-scale CAES facilities exist worldwide, both in salt caverns. As such, experience with CAES in porous media, what we call PM-CAES, is lacking and we have relied on modeling to elucidate PM-CAES processes. PM-CAES operates similarly to cavern CAES. Specifically, working gas (air) is injected through well(s) into the reservoir compressing the cushion gas (existing air in the reservoir). During energy recovery, high-pressure air from the reservoir flows first into a recuperator, then into an expander, and subsequently is mixed with fuel in a combustion turbine to produce electricity, thereby reducing compression costs. Energy storage in porous media is complicated by the solid matrix grains which provide resistance to flow (via permeability in Darcy's law); in the cap rock, low-permeability matrix provides the seal to the reservoir. The solid grains also provide storage capacity for heat that might arise from compression, viscous flow effects, or chemical reactions. The storage of energy in PM-CAES occurs variably across pressure gradients in the formation, while the solid grains of the matrix can release/store heat. Residual liquid (i.e., formation fluids) affects flow and can cause watering out at the production well(s). PG&E is researching a potential 300 MW (for ten hours) PM-CAES facility in a depleted gas reservoir near Lodi, California. Special considerations exist for depleted natural gas reservoirs because of mixing effects which can lead to undesirable residual methane (CH4) entrainment and reactions of oxygen and CH4. One strategy for avoiding extensive mixing of working gas (air) with reservoir CH4 is to inject an initial cushion gas with reduced oxygen concentration providing a buffer between the working gas (air) and the residual CH4 gas. This reduces the potential mixing of the working air with the residual CH4

  7. Compressive Strength Properties of Natural Gas Hydrate Pellet by Continuous Extrusion from a Twin-Roll System

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Hoo Lee; Bong-Hwan Koh; Heung Soo Kim; Myung Ho Song

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the compressive strength of natural gas hydrate (NGH) pellet strip extruded from die holes of a twin-roll press for continuous pelletizing (TPCP). The lab-scale TPCP was newly developed, where NGH powder was continuously fed and extruded into strip-type pellet between twin rolls. The system was specifically designed for future expansion towards mass production of solid form NGH. It is shown that the compressive strength of NGH pellet strip heavily depends on parameters...

  8. Wellhead compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Joe [Sertco Industries, Inc., Okemah, OK (United States); Vazquez, Daniel [Hoerbiger Service Latin America Inc., Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Jacobs, Denis Richard [Hoerbiger do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, all wells experience a natural decline in oil and gas production. In gas wells, the major problems are liquid loading and low downhole differential pressures which negatively impact total gas production. As a form of artificial lift, wellhead compressors help reduce the tubing pressure resulting in gas velocities above the critical velocity needed to surface water, oil and condensate regaining lost production and increasing recoverable reserves. Best results come from reservoirs with high porosity, high permeability, high initial flow rates, low decline rates and high total cumulative production. In oil wells, excessive annulus gas pressure tends to inhibit both oil and gas production. Wellhead compression packages can provide a cost effective solution to these problems by reducing the system pressure in the tubing or annulus, allowing for an immediate increase in production rates. Wells furthest from the gathering compressor typically benefit the most from wellhead compression due to system pressure drops. Downstream compressors also benefit from higher suction pressures reducing overall compression horsepower requirements. Special care must be taken in selecting the best equipment for these applications. The successful implementation of wellhead compression from an economical standpoint hinges on the testing, installation and operation of the equipment. Key challenges and suggested equipment features designed to combat those challenges and successful case histories throughout Latin America are discussed below.(author)

  9. 78 FR 65304 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied Natural Gas During... issued orders granting authority to import and export natural gas, and to import and export liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized in the attached appendix and may be found on the FE Web site...

  10. Utilization of compressed natural gas for the production of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim-Yang Lee; Wei-Ming Yeoh; Siang-Piao Chai; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The present work aims at utilizing compressed natural gas (CNG) as carbon source for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) over CoO-MoO/Al2O3 catalyst via catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) method.The as-produced carbonaceous product was characterized by thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy.The experimental finding shows that CNTs were successfully produced from CNG while carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were formed as the side products.In addition,the catalytic activity and lifetime were found sustained and prolonged,as compared with using high purity methane as carbon source.The present study suggests an alternative route which can effectively produce CNTs and CNFs using low cost CNG.

  11. Preliminary formation analysis for compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, William Payton

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an engineering and operational understanding of CAES performance for a depleted natural gas reservoir by evaluation of relative permeability effects of air, water and natural gas in depleted natural gas reservoirs as a reservoir is initially depleted, an air bubble is created, and as air is initially cycled. The composition of produced gases will be evaluated as the three phase flow of methane, nitrogen and brine are modeled. The effects of a methane gas phase on the relative permeability of air in a formation are investigated and the composition of the produced fluid, which consists primarily of the amount of natural gas in the produced air are determined. Simulations of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in depleted natural gas reservoirs were carried out to assess the effect of formation permeability on the design of a simple CAES system. The injection of N2 (as a proxy to air), and the extraction of the resulting gas mixture in a depleted natural gas reservoir were modeled using the TOUGH2 reservoir simulator with the EOS7c equation of state. The optimal borehole spacing was determined as a function of the formation scale intrinsic permeability. Natural gas reservoir results are similar to those for an aquifer. Borehole spacing is dependent upon the intrinsic permeability of the formation. Higher permeability allows increased injection and extraction rates which is equivalent to more power per borehole for a given screen length. The number of boreholes per 100 MW for a given intrinsic permeability in a depleted natural gas reservoir is essentially identical to that determined for a simple aquifer of identical properties. During bubble formation methane is displaced and a sharp N2methane boundary is formed with an almost pure N2 gas phase in the bubble near the borehole. During cycling mixing of methane and air occurs along the boundary as the air bubble boundary moves. The extracted gas mixture changes as a

  12. MECHANISM ON DISTRIBUTION OF PILOT FUEL SPRAY AND COMPRESSING IGNITION IN PREMIXED NATURAL GAS ENGINE IGNITED BY PILOT DIESEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Chunde; Yao Guangtao; Song Jinou; Wang Yinshan

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulations of pilot fuel spray and compressing ignition for pre-mixed natural gas ignited by pilot diesel are described. By means of these modeling, the dual fuel and diesel fuel ignition mechanism of some phenomena investigated on an optional engine by technology of high-speed CCD is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the longer delay of ignition in dual fuel engine is not mainly caused by change of the mixture thermodynamics parameters. The analysis results illustrate that the ignition of pre-mixed natural gas ignited by pilot diesel taking place in dual fuel engine is a process of homogenous charge compression ignition.

  13. 78 FR 75339 - Barca LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From..., by Barca LNG LLC (Barca), requesting long-term, multi- contract authorization to export LNG produced...) of natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Barca seeks authorization to export the LNG for a...

  14. Representing the nature of science in a science textbook: Exploring author-editor-publisher interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiuseppe, Maurizio

    Current reforms in elementary and secondary science education call for students and teachers to develop more informed views of the nature of science---a process in which learning materials like science textbooks play a significant role. This dissertation reports on a case study of the development of representations of the nature of science in one unit of a senior high school chemistry textbook by the book's author, editor, and publisher. The study examines the multiple discourses that arose as the developers reflected on their personal and shared understandings of the nature of science; squared these understandings with mandated curricula, the educational needs of chemistry students and teachers, and the exigencies of large-scale commercial textbook publishing; and developed and incorporated into the textbook representations of the nature of science they believed were the most suitable. Analyses of the data in this study indicate that a number of factors significantly influenced the development of representations of the nature of science, including representational accuracy (the degree to which suggested representations of the nature of science conformed to what the developers believed were contemporary understandings of the nature of science), representational consistency (the degree to which similar representations of the nature of science in different parts of the textbook conveyed the same meaning), representational appropriateness (the age-, grade-, and reading-level suitability of the suggested nature of science representations), representational alignment (the degree to which suggested representations of the nature of science addressed the requirements of mandated curricula), representational marketability (the degree to which textbook developers believed suggested representations of the nature of science would affect sales of the textbook in the marketplace), and a number of "Workplace Resources" factors such as the availability of time, relevant expertise

  15. Thermal Charging Study of Compressed Expanded Natural Graphite/Phase Change Material Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallow, Anne M [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Graham, Samuel [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2016-01-01

    The thermal charging performance of phase change materials, specifically paraffin wax, combined with compressed expanded natural graphite foam is studied under constant heat flux and constant temperature conditions. By varying the heat flux between 0.39 W/cm2 and 1.55 W/cm2 or maintaining a boundary temperature of 60 C for four graphite foam bulk densities, the impact on the rate of thermal energy storage is discussed. Thermal charging experiments indicate that thermal conductivity of the composite is an insufficient metric to compare the influence of graphite foam on the rate of thermal energy storage of the PCM composite. By dividing the latent heat of the composite by the time to melt for various boundary conditions and graphite foam bulk densities, it is determined that bulk density selection is dependent on the applied boundary condition. A greater bulk density is advantageous for samples exposed to a constant temperature near the melting temperature as compared to constant heat flux conditions where a lower bulk density is adequate. Furthermore, the anisotropic nature of graphite foam bulk densities greater than 50 kg/m3 is shown to have an insignificant impact on the rate of thermal charging. These experimental results are used to validate a computational model for future use in the design of thermal batteries for waste heat recovery.

  16. 75 FR 62510 - Chevron U.S.A. Inc.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... U.S.A. Inc.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of..., 2010, by Chevron U.S.A. Inc. (Chevron), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural... up to the equivalent of 72 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas on a short-term or spot...

  17. 76 FR 34212 - Lake Charles Exports, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... Charles Exports, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY...-contract authorization to export up to 15 million metric tons per annum (mmtpa) of domestic natural gas as liquefied natural gas (LNG) for a 25-year period, commencing the earlier of the date of first export or...

  18. 78 FR 4401 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied Natural Gas, and... export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized in the attached appendix and... ENERGY INC 12-124-NG GLACIAL NATURAL GAS, INC 12-125-NG YANKEE GAS SERVICES COMPANY 12-129-NG......

  19. An Investigation of Compressed Natural Gas Engine for Nitrogen Oxides Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study describes the use of Reformer Gas (RG to alter NOx emission in a CNG-fueled HCCI engine. Comparison with diesel, natural gas has a very high octane number (≈120 and high auto-ignition temperature (≈600°C. Composed mostly of methane, natural gas is the only common fuel to manifest relatively pure, single-stage combustion. Other fuels have stronger low-temperature reaction and the required entropy for main stage combustion can be obtained from the low temperature heat release as a result of compression to moderate pressure and temperature. In deviation, the methane molecule resists destruction by free radicals and produces negligible heat release at low temperature. In consequences, in CNG-fueled HCCI engines the activation energy required for auto-ignition must be obtained by extreme levels of charge heating and compression. This causes inherently to a high rate of heat release. HCCI operation with pure CNG fuel was attained but not really practical due to very high NOx production. While HCCI operation is usually described as a low NOx technique, the knocking behavior when running with pure CNG raised the peak combustion temperature to a value well above normal combustion and the critical Zeldovich NOx production threshold, giving very high indicated NOx emissions. Approach: One approach to improving these properties is to convert part of the base CNG fuel to Reformer Gas (RG. In this study, modified COMET engine was operated in HCCI mode using a mixture of CNG fuel and simulated RG (75% H2 and 25% CO can be produced on-board from CNG using low current and non-thermal plasma boosted fuel converter. Results: This study shows that despite of having various RG mass fractions, λ was the dominant factor in reducing NOx production and increasing RG mass fraction had only a small effect on increasing NOx. This disconnect between the overall equivalence ratio and RG fraction shows that the real benefit of the

  20. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, R.C.; Kelly, K.J.; Warnock, W.W.

    1996-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The contracts were initiated in order to help the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) during a period of limited original equipment manufacturer (OEM) model availability. Approximately 90% of all conversions were performed on compact of full-size vans and pickups, and 90% of the conversions were to bi-fuel operation. With a positive response from the fleet managers, this program helped the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT for fiscal years 1993 and 1994, despite limited OEM model availability. The conversions also helped to establish the infrastructure needed to support further growth in the use of alternative fuel vehicles. In conclusion, the program has been successful in helping the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT, establishing infrastructure, increasing the displacement of imported oil, and evaluating the emissions performance of converted vehicles. With the relatively widespread availability of OEM vehicles in the 1996 model year, the program is now being phased out.

  1. A comparison of emissions from vehicles fueled with diesel or compressed natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Lapin, Charles A; Bunn, William B

    2008-09-01

    A comprehensive comparison of emissions from vehicles fueled with diesel or compressed natural gas (CNG) was developed from 25 reports on transit buses, school buses, refuse trucks, and passenger cars. Emissions for most compounds were highest for untreated exhaust emissions and lowest for treated exhaust CNG buses without after-treatment had the highest emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs; e.g., benzene, butadiene, ethylene, etc.), and carbonyl compounds (e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein). Diesel buses without after-treatment had the highest emissions of particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exhaust after-treatments reduced most emissions to similar levels in diesel and CNG buses. Nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were similar for most vehicle types, fuels, and exhaust after-treatments with some exceptions. Diesel school buses had higher CO2 emissions than the CNG bus. CNG transit buses and passenger cars equipped with three-way catalysts had lower NO(x) emissions. Diesel buses equipped with traps had higher nitrogen dioxide emissions. Fuel economy was best in the diesel buses not equipped with exhaust after-treatment.

  2. An evaluation of criteria for selecting vehicles fueled with diesel or compressed natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hesterberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed selection criteria for diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG fueled vehicles, comparing engine emissions, fire and safety, toxicity, economics, and operations. Diesel- and CNG-fueled vehicles with the latest emission-control technology, including engine-exhaust aftertreatment, have very similar emissions of regulated and unregulated compounds, particles through all size ranges, and greenhouse gases. Although toxicity data are limited, no significant toxicity differences of engine emissions were reported. Operating and maintenance costs are variable, with no consistent difference between diesel- and CNG-fueled vehicles. The main operating concern with CNG vehicles is that they are less fuel efficient. Higher infrastructure costs are involved with implementing a CNG-fueled vehicle fleet, giving diesel vehicles a distinct cost advantage over CNG vehicles. For a given budget, greater emissions reductions can thus be achieved with diesel+filter vehicles. Finally, diesel vehicles have a significant fire-and-safety advantage over CNG vehicles. In summary, infrastructure costs and fire-and-safety concerns are much greater for CNG-fueled vehicles. These considerations should be part of the decision-making process when selecting a fuel for a transportation system.

  3. A sensitivity study of the oxidation of compressed natural gas on platinum

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a sensitivity study for the oxidation of methane (CH4) over platinum (Pt). Some dominant reactions in the CH 4-Pt surface chemistry were identified and the rates of these reactions were subsequently modified to enhance the calculations. Initially, a range of CH4-Pt surface mechanisms available in the literature are used, along with the relevant detailed gaseous chemistry to compute the structure of premixed compressed natural gas (CNG)/air flames co-flowing around a flat, vertical, unconfined, rectangular, and platinum plate. Comparison with existing measurements of surface temperature and species concentrations revealed significant discrepancies for all mechanisms. Sensitivity analysis has identified nine key reactions which dominate the heterogeneous chemistry of methane over platinum. The rates of these reactions were modified over a reasonable range and in different combinations leading to an "optimal" mechanism for methane/air surface chemistry on platinum. The new mechanism is then used with the same flow geometry for different cases varying the temperature of the incoming mixture (Tjet), its equivalence ratio (Φ) and the Reynolds number (Re). Results from the modified surface mechanism demonstrate reasonably good agreement with the experimental data for a wide range of operating conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Compressed Natural Gas and Ethanol from Municipal Solid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uisung [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2016-10-01

    The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in the United States was estimated at 254 million wet tons in 2013, and around half of that generated waste was landfilled. There is a huge potential in recovering energy from that waste, since around 60% of landfilled material is biomass-derived waste that has high energy content. In addition, diverting waste for fuel production avoids huge fugitive emissions from landfills, especially uncontrolled CH4 emissions, which are the third largest anthropogenic CH4 source in the United States. Lifecycle analysis (LCA) is typically used to evaluate the environmental impact of alternative fuel production pathways. LCA of transportation fuels is called well-to-wheels (WTW) and covers all stages of the fuel production pathways, from feedstock recovery (well) to vehicle operation (wheels). In this study, the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET®) model developed by Argonne National Laboratory is used to evaluate WTW greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fossil fuel consumption of waste-derived fuels. Two waste-to-energy (WTE) pathways have been evaluated – one for compressed natural gas (CNG) production using food waste via anaerobic digestion, and the other for ethanol production from yard trimmings via fermentation processes. Because the fuel production pathways displace current waste management practices (i.e., landfilling waste), we use a marginal approach that considers only the differences in emissions between the counterfactual case and the alternative fuel production case.

  5. Analisis Kekuatan Tangki CNG Ditinjau dengan Material Logam Lapis Komposit pada Kapal Pengangkut Compressed Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Firmansah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini, dilakukan analisa perbandingan pada kekuatan pressure vessel compressed natural gas. Pressure vessel yang digunakan yaitu tipe satu dan tipe tiga, tipe satu adalah tabung menggunakan material logam yaitu Carbon Steel SA 516 Grade 70 dan Aluminium Alloy T6-6061. Pada tabung tipe tiga material menggunakan Aluminium Alloy T6-6061 dengan lapisan Komposit (Carbon Fibre – Epoxy pada seluruh tabung (full wrapped. Sudut orientasi serat yang digunakan 54.73560 dan terdiri dari 4 lapis komposit yang membungkus aluminium. Variasi yang dilakukan pada tebal komposit yaitu 25% komposit, 50% komposit, dan 75% komposit. Pressure vessel mendapat perlakuan internal pressure sebesar 125 bar dan temperatur -300C. Analisa dilakukan dengan dua metode yaitu dengan perhitungan manual dan software finite element method (NASTRAN 2010. Dari hasil perhitungan tersebut tabung tipe satu dengan material logam terbukti aman karena memenuhi dari faktor keamanan yang ditentukan tetapi pressure vessel sangat berat. Pada tabung tipe tiga lamina dengan komposisi 75% komposit dan 50% komposit dinyatakan aman karena memenuhi dari kriteria tegangan maksimum. Sedangkan pada komposisi 25% komposit lamina mengalami kegagalan yang disebabkan terlalu rendahnya lapisan komposit. Dari keseluruhan hasil perhitungan dan analisa didapatkan komposisi ideal pressure vessel yaitu 75% komposit dan 25% aluminium dari tebal keseluruhan sehingga menghasilkan tegangan yang sangat kecil dan memiliki berat yang paling ringan.

  6. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-01-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 10 through 14 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents tests performed on a KVG103 engine/compressor installed at Duke's Thomaston Compressor Station. This is the first series of tests performed on a four-stroke engine under this program. Additionally, this report presents results, which complete a comparison of performance before and after modification to install High Pressure Fuel Injection and a Turbocharger on a GMW10 at Williams Station 60. Quarterly Reports 7 and 8 already presented detailed data from tests before and after this modification, but the final quantitative comparison required some further analysis, which is presented in Section 5 of this report. The report further presents results of detailed geometrical measurements and flow bench testing performed on the cylinders and manifolds of the Laboratory Cooper GMVH6 engine being employed for two-stroke engine air balance investigations. These measurements are required to enhance the detailed accuracy in modeling the dynamic interaction of air manifold, exhaust manifold, and in-cylinder fuel-air balance.

  7. Gaseous emissions from compressed natural gas buses in urban road and highway tests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tingting; Chai, Fahe; Hu, Jingnan; Jia, Ming; Bao, Xiaofeng; Li, Zhenhua; He, Liqang; Zu, Lei

    2016-10-01

    The natural gas vehicle market is rapidly developing throughout the world, and the majority of such vehicles operate on compressed natural gas (CNG). However, most studies on the emission characteristics of CNG vehicles rely on laboratory chassis dynamometer measurements, which do not accurately represent actual road driving conditions. To further investigate the emission characteristics of CNG vehicles, two CNG city buses and two CNG coaches were tested on public urban roads and highway sections. Our results show that when speeds of 0-10km/hr were increased to 10-20km/hr, the CO2, CO, nitrogen oxide (NOx), and total hydrocarbon (THC) emission factors decreased by (71.6±4.3)%, (65.6±9.5)%, (64.9±9.2)% and (67.8±0.3)%, respectively. In this study, The Beijing city buses with stricter emission standards (Euro IV) did not have lower emission factors than the Chongqing coaches with Euro II emission standards. Both the higher emission factors at 0-10km/hr speeds and the higher percentage of driving in the low-speed regime during the entire road cycle may have contributed to the higher CO2 and CO emission factors of these city buses. Additionally, compared with the emission factors produced in the urban road tests, the CO emission factors of the CNG buses in highway tests decreased the most (by 83.2%), followed by the THC emission factors, which decreased by 67.1%.

  8. Compressive Strength Properties of Natural Gas Hydrate Pellet by Continuous Extrusion from a Twin-Roll System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hoo Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the compressive strength of natural gas hydrate (NGH pellet strip extruded from die holes of a twin-roll press for continuous pelletizing (TPCP. The lab-scale TPCP was newly developed, where NGH powder was continuously fed and extruded into strip-type pellet between twin rolls. The system was specifically designed for future expansion towards mass production of solid form NGH. It is shown that the compressive strength of NGH pellet strip heavily depends on parameters in the extrusion process, such as feeding pressure, pressure ratio, and rotational speed. The mechanism of TPCP, along with the compressive strength and density of pellets, is discussed in terms of its feasibility for producing NGH pellets in the future.

  9. [The deformation behavior of human lumbar intervertebral discs subjected to long term axial dynamic compressive forces (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köller, W; Funke, F; Hartmann, F

    1981-04-01

    49 specimens were studied in 67 axial compression tests; the duration test varied between 2 and 6 hours. All discs showed marked creep; after a big decrease in the first minutes the rate of creep decreases still slightly. Additional the results reveal a decreasing axial deformability with time. In the beginning of a test quickly the viscoelastic behavior alters to such a steady state that the disc behaves more like an elastic body. Loss of mass normally observed after compression tests is due to loss of liquid, but liquid absorption during mechanical load is possible too. The long term biochmechanical behavior is reproducible very well; a second experiment done with the same disc yields nearly the same results.

  10. 76 FR 33746 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas..., 2011, by Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported into the United States from foreign sources...

  11. 78 FR 17189 - Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced... January 10, 2013, by Trunkline LNG Export, LLC (TLNG Export), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) in an amount up to of 15...

  12. 77 FR 63806 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... on August 31, 2012, by Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export up to 4 million tons per annum (mtpa) of liquefied natural gas (LNG),...

  13. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2006-05-31

    This project has documented and demonstrated the feasibility of technologies and operational choices for companies who operate the large installed fleet of integral engine compressors in pipeline service. Continued operations of this fleet is required to meet the projected growth of the U.S. gas market. Applying project results will meet the goals of the DOE-NETL Natural Gas Infrastructure program to enhance integrity, extend life, improve efficiency, and increase capacity, while managing NOx emissions. These benefits will translate into lower cost, more reliable gas transmission, and options for increasing deliverability from the existing infrastructure on high demand days. The power cylinders on large bore slow-speed integral engine/compressors do not in general combust equally. Variations in cylinder pressure between power cylinders occur cycle-to-cycle. These variations affect both individual cylinder performance and unit average performance. The magnitude of the variations in power cylinder combustion is dependent on a variety of parameters, including air/fuel ratio. Large variations in cylinder performance and peak firing pressure can lead to detonation and misfires, both of which can be damaging to the unit. Reducing the variation in combustion pressure, and moving the high and low performing cylinders closer to the mean is the goal of engine balancing. The benefit of improving the state of the engine ''balance'' is a small reduction in heat rate and a significant reduction in both crankshaft strain and emissions. A new method invented during the course of this project is combustion pressure ratio (CPR) balancing. This method is more effective than current methods because it naturally accounts for differences in compression pressure, which results from cylinder-to-cylinder differences in the amount of air flowing through the inlet ports and trapped at port closure. It also helps avoid compensation for low compression pressure by the

  14. Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry thanks the authors of our most cited articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    According to the Thomson Reuter report on 20 June 2013,the 2012 Impact Factor of Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry,renamed as Journal of Energy Chemistry in 2013,is 1.405,which ranks first among chemistry journals in China.We would like to express our appreciation to all the authors who have contributed their good work to the Journal.The following is the list of the articles published in 2010 and 2011which received the most citations and thus contributed the most to the new impact factor.

  15. Comparative evaluation of a two stroke compressed natural gas mixer design using simulation and experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, D.; Bakar, R.A.; Rahim, M.F.; Noor, M.M. [Malaysia Pahang Univ., Pahang (Malaysia). Automotive Focus Group

    2008-07-01

    A study was conducted in which a two-stroke engine was converted for use with bi-fuel, notably compressed natural gas and gasoline. The excessive by-products generated by two-stroke engine combustion can be attributed to the inefficient combustion process. This prototype uniflow-type single-cylinder engine was equipped with a bi-fuel conversion system. A dedicated mixer was also developed to meter the gaseous fuel through the engine intake system. It was designed to meet air and fuel requirement similar to its gasoline counterpart. The mixer was modeled to obtain optimum orifice diameter using three different sizes of 14, 16 and 18 mm respectively. A standard computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package was used to simulate the flow. A pressure reading was obtained during the prototype test. The drop in pressure across the venturi was shown to be an important parameter as it determined the actual fuel-air ratio in the actual engine. A good agreement of CFD outputs with that of the experimental outputs was recorded. The experimental technique validated the pressure distribution predicted by CFD means on the effects of the three insert rings in the CNG mixer. The simulation exercise can be used to predict the amount of CNG consumed by the engine. It was concluded that the 14 mm throat ring was best suited for the CNG mixer because it provided the best suction. Once the mixer is tested on a real engine, it will clear any doubts as to whether the throat can function at high engine speeds. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  16. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  17. 77 FR 72837 - Golden Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced... to export domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) in an amount up to the equivalent of 740... Liquefied Natural Gas by Vessel from the Golden Pass LNG Terminal to Free Trade Agreement Nations,...

  18. 77 FR 64964 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced... Liquefied Natural Gas by Vessel from the Proposed Corpus Christi Liquefaction Project to Free Trade... Project site, natural gas will be liquefied into LNG and stored in three 160,000 cubic meters...

  19. 77 FR 72840 - CE FLNG, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ..., LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic... million tons per annum (mtpa) of domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG), the equivalent of... facilities to receive and liquefy domestic natural gas at the proposed Project. CE FLNG states that...

  20. CNG (Compressed natural gas) engine M366 G for electric power generation; Motor M 366 G movido a gas metano veicular versao industrial: aplicacao grupo gerador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraro, Wilson; Shiraiwa, Nilton Mitsuro [DaimlerChrysler do Brasil Ltda., Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Mantovani, Wladimir Tadeu [Woodward Governor Company, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Daimler-Chrysler of Brazil developed the M 366 G engine, in the industrial version, using compressed natural gas. This product has the combustion with lambda 1.0, it is a 6-cylinder engine in line with displacement compressor of 5.958 cm{sup 3} , power of 65 kW @ 1800 min{sup 1} (60Hz) and power of 55 kW @ 1500 min{sup 1} (50Hz). The equipment for rotation control, ignition, reducing gas and stabilizer were specially developed for industrial motors with CNG supply for the Fca Woodward. This paper presents the results of tests made on bank of evidence and test field, which showed the good performance of the product. (author)

  1. 76 FR 2093 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY... November 30, 2010, by Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC (Eni USA), requesting blanket authorization to export... and Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042,...

  2. 78 FR 75337 - Eos LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Eos LNG... Eos LNG LLC (Eos), requesting long-term, multi- contract authorization to export LNG produced from... natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Eos seeks authorization to export the LNG for a 25-year term...

  3. Characteristics of natural gas lean combustion through the compression of quiescent charge in a rapid compression combustor; Kyusoku asshuku nensho sochinai seishi yokongoki asshuku ni okeru tennen gas no kihaku nensho tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, K. [Okayama University of Science, Okayama (Japan); Segawa, D.; Kadota, T.; Hirooka, S. [University of Osaka Prefecture, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Higashino, K. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-04-25

    In order to develop a natural gas fueled spark ignition engine with high thermal efficiency and clean exhaust gases, combustion characteristics of natural gas and air mixtures were examined using a rapid compression combustor. We concentrated on lean mixtures because of their potential for high efficiency and low pollutant emissions. To elucidate the effect of compression-induced physical aspects on the combustion process, the charge was kept quiescent before the start of the compression process. The results showed that an increased charge pressure increased the time required for combustion. A high compression ratio or piston speed tended to shorten the combustion time, but their effects were rather weak. An increased humidity in mixtures measurably increased the combustion time. The stratified charge, which was examined using the soap bubble method, markedly improved the combustion process of lean mixtures. 7 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Shear and compression rheology of Langmuir monolayers of natural ceramides: solid character and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Montero, Iván; Catapano, Elisa R; Espinosa, Gabriel; Arriaga, Laura R; Langevin, Dominique; Monroy, Francisco

    2013-06-04

    The present work addresses the fundamental question of membrane elasticity of ceramide layers with a special focus on the plastic regime. The compression and shear viscoelasticity of egg-ceramide Langmuir monolayers were investigated using oscillatory surface rheology in the linear regime and beyond. High compression and shear moduli were measured at room temperature-a clear signature for a solid behavior. At deformations larger than one per mill, egg-ceramide monolayers display plastic features characterized by a decrease of the storage modulus followed by a viscous regime typical of fluid lipids. This behavior is accompanied by a marked decrease of the loss modulus with increasing stress above a yield point. The results permit to univocally classify ceramide monolayers as 2D solids able to undergo plastic deformations, at the difference of typical fluid lipid monolayers. These unusual features are likely to have consequences in the mechanical behavior of ceramide-rich emplacements in biological membranes.

  5. Use of compressed natural gas in automotive vehicles; Uso del gas natural comprimido aplicado en vehiculos automotores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez R, Adrian [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The natural gas is natural origin energy (fossil fuel); it contains predominantly 90 percent methane; does not require transformation process for its use; is supplied the 24 hours to commerce, industries and homes by underground pipes; it is lighter than air; it is not corrosive, nor absorbent or toxic. For those reasons a study was performed where it is widely justified why the natural gas ought to be used in vehicles. [Spanish] El gas natural es un energetico de origen natural (combustible fosil), contiene predominantemente 90 por ciento de metano, no requiere proceso de transformacion para su utilizacion, llega directamente las 24 horas del dia a los hogares, comercios e industrias por tuberias subterraneas, es mas ligero que el aire, no es corrosivo, no es absorbente y no es toxico. Por esas razones se hizo un estudio donde se justifica ampliamente porque el gas natural debe utilizarse en vehiculos.

  6. Representing Nature of Science in a Science Textbook: Exploring author-editor-publisher interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiuseppe, Maurice

    2014-05-01

    Current reforms in elementary and secondary science education call for students and teachers to develop more informed views of the nature of science (NOS)-a process in which science textbooks play a significant role. This paper reports on a case study of the development of representations of the NOS in a senior high school chemistry textbook by the book's author, editor, and publisher. The study examines the multiple discourses that arose as the developers reflected on their personal and shared understandings of NOS; squared these with mandated curricula, the educational needs of chemistry students and teachers, and the exigencies of large-scale commercial textbook publishing. As a result, the team developed and incorporated, in the textbook, representations of NOS they believed were the most pedagogically suitable. Analysis of the data in this study indicates that a number of factors significantly influenced the development of representations of NOS, including representational accuracy (the degree to which representations of NOS conformed to informed views of the NOS), representational consistency (the degree to which representations of NOS in different parts of the book conveyed the same meaning), representational appropriateness (the age-, grade-, and reading-level appropriateness of the NOS representations), representational alignment (the degree to which NOS representations aligned with mandated curriculum), representational marketability (the degree to which NOS representations would affect sales of the textbook), and 'Workplace Resources' factors including availability of time, relevant expertise, and opportunities for professional development.

  7. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratapas, John; Mather, Daniel; Kozlovsky, Anton

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen’s significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an

  8. Diesel versus compressed natural gas in Transmilenio-Bogotá: innovation, precaution, and distribution of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    2007-01-01

    During the period 1998–2000, municipal officials in Bogotá implemented a new transportation system for the city. Transmilenio became the first major mass transportation system in the world to use only buses. The authors examine here the process that led to the design decision to power all...

  9. 75 FR 9921 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ..., Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of draft environmental impact report/ environmental impact...), Draft Implementing Agreement, and Draft ] Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement... permit. The permit is needed to authorize take of listed animal species due to construction,...

  10. 77 FR 55197 - LNG Development Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LNG...) filed on July 16, 2012, by LNG Development Company, LLC (d/b/a Oregon LNG), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export up to 9.6 million tons per annum (mtpa) of liquefied natural gas...

  11. Experimental determination and prediction of the compressibility factor of high CO2 content natural gas with and without water vapor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoqiang Bian; Zhimin Du; YongTang

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the effect of different CO2 contents on gas compressibility factor (Z-factor),the JEFRI-PVT apparatus has been used to measure the Z-factor of dry natural gas with CO2 content range from 10.74 to 70.42 mol% at the temperature range from 301.2 to 407.3 K and pressure range from 7 to 44 MPa.The results show that Z-factor decreases with increasing CO2 content in natural gas at constant temperature and increases with increasing temperature for natural gas with the same CO2 content.In addition,the Z-factor of water-saturated natural gas with high CO2 content has been measured.A comparison of the Z-factor between natural gas with and without saturated water vapor indicates that the former shows a higher Z-factor than the latter.Furthermore,Peng-Robinson,Hall-Yarborough,and Soave-Benedict-WebbRubin equations of state (EoS) are used for the calculation of Z-factor of high CO2 content natural gas with and without water vapor.The optimal binary interaction parameters (BIP) for PR EoS are presented.The measured Z-factor is compared with the calculated Z-factor based on three models,which shows that PR EoS combined with van der Waals mixing rule for gas without water and Huron-Vidal mixing rule for water-saturated gas,are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Situation of compressed natural gas vehicles in Japan; CNG jidosha wo torimaku josei (kanreki wo sugita CNG jidosha)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, K. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd. Osaka (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    The history of the development, the current state and future outlook, and the features of natural gas as automotive fuel are discussed, with reference made to compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles in Japan. A CNG vehicle was tentatively constructed in 1937, and there were 1000-odd CNG vehicles in service two years later. Natural gas was the energy to be substituted for oil those days. The popularization of CNG vehicles is meaningful in that they will decelerate the advancing pollution of the atmosphere due to engine exhaust gas. CNG vehicles have come to enjoy a high appreciation in terms of exhaust gas and noise level as vehicles that will replace diesel vehicles. Before CNG vehicles can replace the conventional stocks, however, they have to solve various problems. Fuel economy has to be improved before they can be substituted for the diesel stock; power performance has to be enhanced and the coverage per refuel has to be extended if to take the place of the gasoline-powered stock. CNG vehicles are capable of meeting the future demands of society through encouraging the adoption of substitute energies for oil, generating less carbon dioxide gas which is thanks to the peculiarities of the CNG fuel, elevating engine efficiency making use of the high octane value, and through producing less black smoke or particulate matters. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Cornering natural SUSY (stops, higgsinos, compressed spectra) with $\\sqrt{s}=$13 TeV data

    CERN Document Server

    Petridis, Andreas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Naturalness arguments for weak-scale supersymmetry favour supersymmetric partners of top quarks and Higgsinos with masses not too far from those of their Standard Model counterparts. The increase in the center of mass energy of the proton-proton collisions gives a unique opportunity to extend the sensitivity to the production of these supersymmetric particles at the Large Hadron Collider. The talk presents recent ATLAS and CMS results from searches for direct stop pair production using 2015+2016 data at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV. These searches include several final states with leptons, jets and missing transverse momentum.

  14. 77 FR 51794 - East Tennessee Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... abandon in place two standby compressor units and abandon in place or remove related appurtenant equipment at its Glade Spring ] Compressor Station in Washington County, Virginia, under East Tennessee's...). East Tennessee proposes to abandon in place two standby 660 horsepower reciprocating natural...

  15. Representing Nature of Science in a Science Textbook: Exploring Author-Editor-Publisher Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiuseppe, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Current reforms in elementary and secondary science education call for students and teachers to develop more informed views of the nature of science (NOS)--a process in which science textbooks play a significant role. This paper reports on a case study of the development of representations of the NOS in a senior high school chemistry textbook by…

  16. Entropy Rate Estimates for Natural Language—A New Extrapolation of Compressed Large-Scale Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Takahira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental questions about human language is whether its entropy rate is positive. The entropy rate measures the average amount of information communicated per unit time. The question about the entropy of language dates back to experiments by Shannon in 1951, but in 1990 Hilberg raised doubt regarding a correct interpretation of these experiments. This article provides an in-depth empirical analysis, using 20 corpora of up to 7.8 gigabytes across six languages (English, French, Russian, Korean, Chinese, and Japanese, to conclude that the entropy rate is positive. To obtain the estimates for data length tending to infinity, we use an extrapolation function given by an ansatz. Whereas some ansatzes were proposed previously, here we use a new stretched exponential extrapolation function that has a smaller error of fit. Thus, we conclude that the entropy rates of human languages are positive but approximately 20% smaller than without extrapolation. Although the entropy rate estimates depend on the script kind, the exponent of the ansatz function turns out to be constant across different languages and governs the complexity of natural language in general. In other words, in spite of typological differences, all languages seem equally hard to learn, which partly confirms Hilberg’s hypothesis.

  17. [The importance of temperature on storage of ground natural spices (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, W D

    1976-02-27

    Several factors influencing the ingredients of volative oils of some ground natural spices have been investigated during storage. The effects on the aroma have been characterized sensorically; relations between the analytical and sensorical results are explained using anise as an example. Of the influencing factors studied such as packaging material, storage temperature and storage duration, the storage temperature must be regarded as the most important.

  18. Assessment of air quality after the implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel in public transport in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Khaiwal; Wauters, Eric; Tyagi, Sushil K; Mor, Suman; Van Grieken, René

    2006-04-01

    Public transport in Delhi was amended by the Supreme Court of India to use Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) instead of diesel or petrol. After the implementation of CNG since April 2001, Delhi has the highest fraction of CNG-run public vehicles in the world and most of them were introduced within 20 months. In the present study, the concentrations of various criteria air pollutants (SPM, PM(10), CO, SO(2) and NO(x)) and organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed before and after the implementation of CNG. A decreasing trend was found for PAHs, SO(2) and CO concentrations, while the NO(x) level was increased in comparison to those before the implementation of CNG. Further, SPM, PM(10), and BTX concentrations showed no significant change after the implementation of CNG. However, the BTX concentration demonstrated a clear relation with the benzene content of gasoline. In addition to the impact of the introduction of CNG the daily variation in PAHs levels was also studied and the PAHs concentrations were observed to be relatively high between 10 pm to 6 am, which gives a proof of a relation with the limited day entry and movement of heavy vehicles in Delhi.

  19. An analysis of price competitiveness of CNG (compressed natural gas) versus gasoline: estimation of the elasticities of demand by CNG in a recent period in Brazil; Uma analise da competitividade de preco do GNV (Gas Natural Veicular) frente a gasolina: estimacao das elasticidades da demanda por GNV no Brasil no periodo recente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iootty, Mariana; Pinto Junior, Helder; Roppa, Bruna; Biasi, Guilherme de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia

    2004-07-01

    One of the main determinants to the expansion of natural gas on the Brazilian domestic market is its price. Hence, it is important to analyze the price competitiveness of natural gas vis-a-vis its competitors. The current paper focuses on the market of natural gas in vehicles (the compressed natural gas - CNG), and uses co-integration techniques to estimate the price-elasticity of CNG, the cross-elasticity of CNG and gasoline, and the income-elasticity. The results suggest that price is a relevant factor in the long-run, while in the short-run income is the most significant determinant of the demand variation. In addition, the paper also shows an imperfect substitutability between CNG and gasoline. (author)

  20. Particle and gaseous emissions from compressed natural gas and ultralow sulphur diesel-fuelled buses at four steady engine loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, E R; Ristovski, Z D; Meyer, N; Morawska, L

    2009-04-01

    Exhaust emissions from thirteen compressed natural gas (CNG) and nine ultralow sulphur diesel in-service transport buses were monitored on a chassis dynamometer. Measurements were carried out at idle and at three steady engine loads of 25%, 50% and 100% of maximum power at a fixed speed of 60 km h(-1). Emission factors were estimated for particle mass and number, carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen for two types of CNG buses (Scania and MAN, compatible with Euro 2 and 3 emission standards, respectively) and two types of diesel buses (Volvo Pre-Euro/Euro1 and Mercedez OC500 Euro3). All emission factors increased with load. The median particle mass emission factor for the CNG buses was less than 1% of that from the diesel buses at all loads. However, the particle number emission factors did not show a statistically significant difference between buses operating on the two types of fuel. In this paper, for the very first time, particle number emission factors are presented at four steady state engine loads for CNG buses. Median values ranged from the order of 10(12) particles min(-)(1) at idle to 10(15) particles km(-)(1) at full power. Most of the particles observed in the CNG emissions were in the nanoparticle size range and likely to be composed of volatile organic compounds The CO2 emission factors were about 20% to 30% greater for the diesel buses over the CNG buses, while the oxides of nitrogen emission factors did not show any difference due to the large variation between buses.

  1. Effect of Diesel Engine Converted to Sequential Port Injection Compressed Natural Gas Engine on the Cylinder Pressure vs Crank Angle in Variation Engine Speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    The diesel engine converted to compressed natural gas (CNG) engine effect is lower in performance. Problem statement: The hypothesis is that the lower performance of CNG engine is caused by the effect of lower in engine cylinder pressure. Are the CNG engine is lower cylinder pressure than diesel engine? This research is conducted to investigate the cylinder pressure of CNG engine as a new engine compared to diesel engine as a baseline engine. Approach: The research approach in this study is b...

  2. Comparative Performance of Direct Injection Diesel Engines Fueled Using Compressed Natural Gas and Diesel Fuel Based on GT-POWER Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2008-01-01

    The paper is investigated the application of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative fuel and its performance effect in the diesel engines using GT-POWER computational simulation. The CNG as an alternative fuel for four stroke diesel engine modeling was developed from the real diesel engine using GT-POWER computational model with measure all of engine components size. The computational model will be running on mono CNG fuel and mono diesel fuel to simulate and investigate the engine pe...

  3. Development of the on-demand fuel injection system for a light truck using the hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarawoot Watechagit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydrogen as a fuel by mixing with a commercial fuel has recently been investigated continuously in order to solve the energy crisis and global warming. This article presents the results of the design and experimentation for the use of the hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas or HCNG as a fuel. The prototype vehicle a light truck equipped with a 1809 cc. gasoline engine. The proposed system is a mixing system where the compressed natural gas and the hydrogen are stored on-board and controlled separately. They are mixed as they are injected into the intake manifold right before the intake-port (Port Injection. The hydrogen supply system used in this investigation is adopted from the common system used for compressed natural gas system. The mixing ratio (%H in the total volume of HCNG ranges from 5% to 20% by volume. The performance testing is done through the Chassis Dynamometer. The results show that the power and the torque of the engine drops when using either CNG or HCNG as compared to the gasoline fuel. However, when compared to the case when using the CNG, the 10% addition of hydrogen can increase the performance by 1%. The performance, on the other hands, is reduced for other amount of hydrogen additions.

  4. The omniscient authors, or impersonality?--Self-mentions of Chinese scholars’published papers in natural science journals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜冰茜

    2015-01-01

    Arguably, novice writers were warned of using “I”,“we”, or equivalents in an academic essay of hard sciences to“pretend to a scientific scholarly style”(Spack, 1988, p.39), although the issue of impersonality and its interdisciplinary variations have been documented in the research literature (Hyland, 2002). Now, it was partially acknowledged that authors were omniscient, as captured by Ivanic? & Camps (2001): “There is no such thing as ‘impersonal' writing…”. (p.5) However, as self-mention was obviously subjective, it followed that natural science RAs should be more objective to include few “I”s or “we”s. To attest to this belief, this paper investigated whether there were self-mentions in 4 published works (of renown journals) written by Chinese scholars from the Chemistry Department.

  5. Efficient predictive algorithms for image compression

    CERN Document Server

    Rosário Lucas, Luís Filipe; Maciel de Faria, Sérgio Manuel; Morais Rodrigues, Nuno Miguel; Liberal Pagliari, Carla

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses efficient prediction techniques for the current state-of-the-art High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, focusing on the compression of a wide range of video signals, such as 3D video, Light Fields and natural images. The authors begin with a review of the state-of-the-art predictive coding methods and compression technologies for both 2D and 3D multimedia contents, which provides a good starting point for new researchers in the field of image and video compression. New prediction techniques that go beyond the standardized compression technologies are then presented and discussed. In the context of 3D video, the authors describe a new predictive algorithm for the compression of depth maps, which combines intra-directional prediction, with flexible block partitioning and linear residue fitting. New approaches are described for the compression of Light Field and still images, which enforce sparsity constraints on linear models. The Locally Linear Embedding-based prediction method is in...

  6. On Supply Mode of Compressed Natural Gas Used as City Gas%压缩天然气供应工艺及规模的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申粤; 乔珩; 徐正康

    2001-01-01

    The article introduces production procedures and process ofCNG(compressed natural gas). By analyzing and comparing between compressing and long distance transportation pipeline under conditions of different gas consumption scale and transportation distance, the article proposes the scope of application and applicable prospect of CNG used as city gas.%介绍了压缩天然气(CNG)供应城镇的工艺流程,通过对压缩天然气及长输管道两种输送方式的分析和比较,提出在不同供气规模、不同运距条件下两种方式的适用范围以及CNG技术在城镇供气中的应用前景。

  7. Comparative Performance of Direct Injection Diesel Engines Fueled Using Compressed Natural Gas and Diesel Fuel Based on GT-POWER Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is investigated the application of compressed natural gas (CNG as an alternative fuel and its performance effect in the diesel engines using GT-POWER computational simulation. The CNG as an alternative fuel for four stroke diesel engine modeling was developed from the real diesel engine using GT-POWER computational model with measure all of engine components size. The computational model will be running on mono CNG fuel and mono diesel fuel to simulate and investigate the engine performance effect on the difference fuel. Output of the model simulation shown the effect of diesel engine fueled by CNG performance effect were simulated in any engine speeds parameters.

  8. Radiological assessment of natural radionuclides in soil within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria; Evaluation radiologique de radionucleides naturels dans le sol collectes a l'interieur et autour des stations de compression des gaz dans le delta du Niger, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ademola, J.A.; Atare, E.E. [University of Ibadan, Department of Physics, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2010-04-15

    Natural radionuclide concentrations in soil samples collected within and around crude oil flow and gas compression stations in the Niger Delta, Nigeria, were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The mean activity concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th varied from 30.1 +- 3.0 to 59.0 +- 17.1, B.D.L. to 8.8 +- 2.3 and 7.9 +- 3.7 to 10.9 +- 1.9 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The {sup 40}K, {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th contents of the soil samples are very low compared with the world average for natural background area. The absorbed dose rate and effective dose ranged from 6.9 to 11.1 n Gy.h-1 and 8.5 to 13.6 muSv.y-1, respectively. The annual gonadal dose equivalent rate ranged from 48.9 to 77.5 muSv.y-1, which is lower than the world average of 0.30 mSv.y-1. The radium equivalent activity and the external hazard index of the soil samples were below the recommended limits of 370 Bq.kg-1 and unity, respectively. The results obtained reveal that there is no significant radiation hazard due to natural radionuclides of the soil samples in the studied areas. (authors)

  9. DoD’s Compressed Natural Gas Filling Station in Afghanistan: An Ill-conceived $43 Million Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    reserves of natural gas, along with deposits of oil and natural gas liquids .3 The TFBSO Downstream Gas Utilization Project was intended to take...market for CNG vehicles. According to the World Bank , “[t]he cost of distribution of natural gas to a large number of small consumers can be...appendix I). 12 John Homer, The World Bank , Natural Gas in Developing Countries, Evaluating the Benefits to the Environment, January 1993, p. 19

  10. Compressed sensing & sparse filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Carmi, Avishy Y; Godsill, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    This book is aimed at presenting concepts, methods and algorithms ableto cope with undersampled and limited data. One such trend that recently gained popularity and to some extent revolutionised signal processing is compressed sensing. Compressed sensing builds upon the observation that many signals in nature are nearly sparse (or compressible, as they are normally referred to) in some domain, and consequently they can be reconstructed to within high accuracy from far fewer observations than traditionally held to be necessary. Apart from compressed sensing this book contains other related app

  11. The co-evolution of alternative fuel infrastructure and vehicles: A study of the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collantes, Gustavo, E-mail: gustavo.collantes@commerce.wa.go [Renergh Consulting and Department of Commerce, State of Washington, 2001 6th Ave, Suite 2600, Seattle, WA 98121 (United States); Melaina, Marc W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (United States)

    2011-02-15

    In a quest for strategic and environmental benefits, the developed countries have been trying for many years to increase the share of alternative fuels in their transportation fuel mixes. They have met very little success though. In this paper, we examine the experience of Argentina with compressed natural gas. We conducted interviews with a wide range of stakeholders and analyzed econometrically data collected in Argentina to investigate the factors, economic, political, and others that determined the high rate of adoption of this fuel. A central objective of this research was to identify lessons that could be useful to developed countries in their efforts to deploy alternative fuel vehicles. We find that fuel price regulation was a significant determinant of the adoption of compressed natural gas, while, contrary to expectations, government financing of refueling infrastructure was minimal. - Research Highlights: {yields}The broad scale adoption of CNG for transportation in Argentina was initiated by a market demand for an effective fuel that was priced at a significantly lower level compared to the mainstream alternatives. {yields}The Argentine played a marginal role in the development of refueling infrastructure. {yields}The role of the government focused on sending clear signals to the marketplace and developing effective codes and standards. {yields}Consumers willingness to switch to CNG increases as state of the economy deteriorates and disposable incomes decrease.

  12. Effect of the use of natural gas–diesel fuel mixture on performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics of a compression ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Karagöz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A compression ignition engine with a mechanical fuel system was converted into common rail fuel system by means of a self-developed electronic control unit. The engine was modified to be operated with mixtures of diesel and natural gas fuels in dual-fuel mode. Then, diesel fuel was injected into the cylinder while natural gas was injected into intake manifold with both injectors controlled with the electronic control unit. Energy content of the sprayed gas fuel was varied in the amounts of 0% (only diesel fuel, 15%, 40%, and 75% of total fuel’s energy content. All tests were carried out at constant engine speed of 1500 r/min at full load. In addition to the experiments, the engine was modeled with a one-dimensional commercial software. The experimental and numerical results were compared and found to be in reasonable agreement with each other. Both NOx and soot emissions were dropped with 15% and 40%, respectively, energy content rates in gas–fuel mixture compared to only diesel fuel. However, an increase was observed in carbon monoxide emissions with 15% natural gas fuel addition compared to only diesel fuel. Although smoke emission was reduced with natural gas fuel addition, there was a dramatic increase in NOx emissions with 75% natural gas fuel addition.

  13. Cycle-by-cycle Variations in a Direct Injection Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas Engine Employing EGR at Relative Air-Fuel Ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan Wasiu Saheed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the pressure development in a combustion chamber is uniquely related to the combustion process, substantial variations in the combustion process on a cycle-by-cycle basis are occurring. To this end, an experimental study of cycle-by-cycle variation in a direct injection spark ignition engine fueled with natural gas-hydrogen blends combined with exhaust gas recirculation at relative air-fuel ratios was conducted. The impacts of relative air-fuel ratios (i.e. λ = 1.0, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4 which represent stoichiometric, moderately lean, lean and very lean mixtures respectively, hydrogen fractions and EGR rates were studied. The results showed that increasing the relative air-fuel ratio increases the COVIMEP. The behavior is more pronounced at the larger relative air-fuel ratios. More so, for a specified EGR rate; increasing the hydrogen fractions decreases the maximum COVIMEP value just as increasing in EGR rates increases the maximum COVIMEP value. (i.e. When percentage EGR rates is increased from 0% to 17% and 20% respectively. The maximum COVIMEP value increases from 6.25% to 6.56% and 8.30% respectively. Since the introduction of hydrogen gas reduces the cycle-by-cycle combustion variation in engine cylinder; thus it can be concluded that addition of hydrogen into direct injection compressed natural gas engine employing EGR at various relative air-fuel ratios is a viable approach to obtain an improved combustion quality which correspond to lower coefficient of variation in imep, (COVIMEP in a direct injection compressed natural gas engine employing EGR at relative air-fuel ratios.

  14. "Compressed" Compressed Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, Galen

    2010-01-01

    The field of compressed sensing has shown that a sparse but otherwise arbitrary vector can be recovered exactly from a small number of randomly constructed linear projections (or samples). The question addressed in this paper is whether an even smaller number of samples is sufficient when there exists prior knowledge about the distribution of the unknown vector, or when only partial recovery is needed. An information-theoretic lower bound with connections to free probability theory and an upper bound corresponding to a computationally simple thresholding estimator are derived. It is shown that in certain cases (e.g. discrete valued vectors or large distortions) the number of samples can be decreased. Interestingly though, it is also shown that in many cases no reduction is possible.

  15. Climate and environmental effects of electric vehicles versus compressed natural gas vehicles in China: a life-cycle analysis at provincial level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Fei; He, Kebin

    2013-02-05

    Electric vehicles (EVs) and compressed natural gas vehicles (CNGVs), which are mainly coal-based and natural gas-based, are the two most widely proposed replacements of gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) in P.R. China. We examine fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), PM(2.5), PM(10), NO(x), and SO(2) of CNGVs and EVs relative to gasoline ICEVs and hybrids, by Chinese province. CNGVs can currently reduce emissions of GHGs, PM(10), PM(2,5), NO(x), and SO(2) by approximately 6%, 7%, 20%, 18% and 22%, respectively. EVs can reduce GHG emissions by 20%, but increase PM(10), PM(2.5), NO(x), and SO(2) emissions by approximately 360%, 250%, 120%, and 370%, respectively. Nevertheless, results vary significantly by province. Regarding their contribution to national emissions, PM increases from EVs are unimportant, because light-duty passenger vehicles contribute very little to overall PM emissions nationwide (≤0.05%); however, their NO(x) and SO(2) increases are important. Since China is striving to reduce power plant emissions, EVs are expected to have equivalent or even lower SO(2) and NO(x) emissions relative to ICEVs in the future (2030). Before then, however, EVs should be developed according to the cleanness of regional power mixes. This would lower their SO(2) and NO(x) emissions and earn more GHG reduction credits.

  16. 78 FR 34084 - Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... dome storage caverns; and construction, installation, and operation of floating liquefaction storage... smaller satellite platforms. FME states that these platforms will house the gas conditioning facilities... Block 299, which it will use to construct salt-dome storage caverns to store natural gas prior...

  17. 75 FR 57766 - Notice of Petition To Amend Authorizations Under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act; Cameron LNG, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Gas Act; Cameron LNG, LLC September 15, 2010. Take notice that on September 3, 2010, Cameron LNG, LLC... liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal facility located in Cameron Parish, Louisiana, for the additional purpose of exporting foreign- sourced LNG. This filing is available for review at the Commission in...

  18. Analyzing the Performance of a Dual Loop Organic Rankine Cycle System for Waste Heat Recovery of a Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofeng Yao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A dual loop organic Rankine cycle (DORC system is designed to recover waste heat from a heavy-duty compressed natural gas engine (CNGE, and the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and discussed. The DORC system includes high-temperature (HT and low-temperature (LT cycles. The HT cycle recovers energy from the exhaust gas emitted by the engine, whereas the LT cycle recovers energy from intake air, engine coolant, and the HT cycle working fluid in the preheater. The mathematical model of the system is established based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The characteristics of waste heat energy from the CNGE are calculated according to engine test data under various operating conditions. Moreover, the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and analyzed using R245fa as the working fluid. Results show that the maximum net power output and the maximum thermal efficiency of the DORC system are 29.37 kW and 10.81%, respectively, under the rated power output condition of the engine. Compared with the original CNG engine, the maximum power output increase ratio and the maximum brake specific fuel consumption improvement ratio are 33.73% and 25%, respectively, in the DORC–CNGE combined system.

  19. Comportamento de um motor de ignição por compressão trabalhando com óleo Diesel e gás natural A dual fuel compression ignition engine performance, running with Diesel fuel and natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Schlosser

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A previsível escassez de petróleo aliada a uma consciência ecológica está levando pesquisadores a procurar novas fontes de energia e processos de combustão mais eficientes e menos poluentes. Entre os combustíveis menos poluentes está o gás natural, cujo consumo aumenta ano a ano. Os motores de combustão interna são transformadores de energia que têm baixa eficiência de conversão. Este trabalho avaliou um motor Diesel, bicombustível, movido a Diesel e gás natural. Nesse motor, a energia provém, basicamente, da combustão do gás natural. O Diesel tem a função de produzir o início da combustão do gás, que é o combustível principal. Assim, haverá uma substituição parcial de óleo Diesel por gás natural, aumentando o rendimento da combustão. Inicialmente, foi feito um ensaio-testemunha, somente com óleo Diesel e após foram feitos ensaios, com três repetições, para variadas proporções de óleo Diesel, gás natural e ângulos de avanço da injeção. O melhor desempenho foi obtido para 22% de óleo Diesel em relação ao máximo débito da bomba injetora e 13 L min-1 de gás natural com ângulo de avanço de injeção original (21º. Nesse caso, a potência média aumentou 14%, e o consumo específico (medido em valores monetários diminuiu 46% em relação ao ensaio-testemunha.The foresight of a petroleum shortage and an ecological conscience is moving scientists to look for new sources of energy and to develop more efficient combustion processes and reduced emissions. Natural gas is a reduced emission fuel, whose consumption increases every year. The present work evaluates a dual fuel compression ignition engine. The major portion of the fuel burned is natural gas. The Diesel fuel acts as combustion starter, which ignites under the compression heat. Diesel fuel is used only as an ignition source. The partial substitution of Diesel fuel by natural gas increases the combustion efficiency and achieves significant

  20. Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.C.

    2002-11-14

    This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric drive system. Vehicles on U. S. highways have been propelled by ICEs for several decades. Heavy-duty vehicles have typically been fueled by diesel fuel, and light-duty vehicles have been fueled by gasoline. The hazards and risks posed by ICE vehicles are well understood and have been generally accepted by the public. The economy, durability, and safety of ICE vehicles have established a standard for other types of vehicles. Heavy-duty (i.e., heavy) HEVs have recently been introduced to U. S. roadways, and the hazards posed by these heavy HEVs can be compared with the hazards posed by ICE vehicles. The benefits of heavy HEV technology are based on their potential for reduced fuel consumption and lower exhaust emissions, while the disadvantages are the higher acquisition cost and the expected higher maintenance costs (i.e., battery packs). The heavy HEV is more suited for an urban drive cycle with stop-and-go driving conditions than for steady expressway speeds. With increasing highway congestion and the resulting increased idle time, the fuel consumption advantage for heavy HEVs (compared with conventional heavy vehicles) is enhanced by the HEVs' ability to shut down. Any increase in fuel cost obviously improves the economics of a heavy HEV. The propulsion system for a heavy HEV is more complex than the propulsion system for a conventional heavy vehicle. The heavy HEV evaluated in this study has in effect two propulsion systems: an ICE fueled by CNG and an electric drive system with additional complexity and failure modes. This additional equipment will result in a less

  1. Uncertainty in particle number modal analysis during transient operation of compressed natural gas, diesel, and trap-equipped diesel transit buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmén, Britt A; Qu, Yingge

    2004-04-15

    The relationships between transient vehicle operation and ultrafine particle emissions are not well-known, especially for low-emission alternative bus technologies such as compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel buses equipped with particulate filters/traps (TRAP). In this study, real-time particle number concentrations measured on a nominal 5 s average basis using an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) for these two bus technologies are compared to that of a baseline catalyst-equipped diesel bus operated on ultralow sulfur fuel (BASE) using dynamometer testing. Particle emissions were consistently 2 orders of magnitude lower for the CNG and TRAP compared to BASE on all driving cycles. Time-resolved total particle numbers were examined in terms of sampling factors identified as affecting the ability of ELPI to quantify the particulate matter number emissions for low-emitting vehicles such as CNG and TRAP as a function of vehicle driving mode. Key factors were instrument sensitivity and dilution ratio, alignment of particle and vehicle operating data, sampling train background particles, and cycle-to-cycle variability due to vehicle, engine, after-treatment, or driver behavior. In-cycle variability on the central business district (CBD) cycle was highest for the TRAP configuration, but this could not be attributed to the ELPI sensitivity issues observed for TRAP-IDLE measurements. Elevated TRAP emissions coincided with low exhaust temperature, suggesting on-road real-world particulate filter performance can be evaluated by monitoring exhaust temperature. Nonunique particle emission maps indicate that measures other than vehicle speed and acceleration are necessary to model disaggregated real-time particle emissions. Further testing on a wide variety of test cycles is needed to evaluate the relative importance of the time history of vehicle operation and the hysteresis of the sampling train/dilution tunnel on ultrafine particle emissions. Future studies should

  2. Compressive beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Sound source localization with sensor arrays involves the estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA) from a limited number of observations. Compressive sensing (CS) solves such underdetermined problems achieving sparsity, thus improved resolution, and can be solved efficiently with convex...

  3. Wearable EEG via lossless compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufort, Guillermo; Favaro, Federico; Lecumberry, Federico; Martin, Alvaro; Oliver, Juan P; Oreggioni, Julian; Ramirez, Ignacio; Seroussi, Gadiel; Steinfeld, Leonardo

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a wearable multi-channel EEG recording system featuring a lossless compression algorithm. The algorithm, based in a previously reported algorithm by the authors, exploits the existing temporal correlation between samples at different sampling times, and the spatial correlation between different electrodes across the scalp. The low-power platform is able to compress, by a factor between 2.3 and 3.6, up to 300sps from 64 channels with a power consumption of 176μW/ch. The performance of the algorithm compares favorably with the best compression rates reported up to date in the literature.

  4. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used − rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. Results High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than

  5. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    the clinical trial registration number at the end of the abstract. The ICMJE also recommends that, when a registration number is available, authors list that number the first time they use a trial acronym to refer to the trial they are reporting or to other trials that they mention in the manuscript. If the data have been deposited in a public repository, authors should state at the end of the abstract the data set name, repository name and number. c. Introduction Provide a context or background for the study (that is, the nature of the problem and its significance. State the specific purpose or research objective of, or hypothesis tested by, the study or observation. Cite only directly pertinent references, and do not include data or conclusions from the work being reported. d. Methods The guiding principle of the Methods section should be clarity about how and why a study was done in a particular way. Methods section should aim to be sufficiently detailed such that others with access to the data would be able to reproduce the results. In general, the section should include only information that was available at the time the plan or protocol for the study was being written; all information obtained during the study belongs in the Results section. If an organization was paid or otherwise contracted to help conduct the research (examples include data collection and management, then this should be detailed in the methods. The Methods section should include a statement indicating that the research was approved or exempted from the need for review by the responsible review committee (institutional or national. If no formal ethics committee is available, a statement indicating that the research was conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki should be included. i. Selection and Description of ParticipantsClearly describe the selection of observational or experimental participants (healthy individuals or patients, including controls, including

  6. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2015-12-01

    .c. IntroductionProvide a context or background for the study (that is, the nature of the problem and its significance. State the specific purpose or research objective of, or hypothesis tested by, the study or observation. Cite only directly pertinent references, and do not include data or conclusions from the work being reported.d. MethodsThe guiding principle of the Methods section should be clarity about how and why a study was done in a particular way. Methods section should aim to be sufficiently detailed such that others with access to the data would be able to reproduce the results. In general, the section should include only information that was available at the time the plan or protocol for the study was being written; all information obtained during the study belongs in the Results section. If an organization was paid or otherwise contracted to help conduct the research (examples include data collection and management, then this should be detailed in the methods.The Methods section should include a statement indicating that the research was approved or exempted from the need for review by the responsible review committee (institutional or national. If no formal ethics committee is available, a statement indicating that the research was conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki should be included.i. Selection and Description of ParticipantsClearly describe the selection of observational or experimental participants (healthy individuals or patients, in¬cluding controls, including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population. Because the relevance of such variables as age, sex, or ethnicity is not always known at the time of study design, researchers should aim for inclusion of representative populations into all study types and at a minimum provide descriptive data for these and other relevant demographic variables. If the study was done involving an exclusive population, for example in only one sex, authors

  7. Compressive Principal Component Pursuit

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, John; Min, Kerui; Ma, Yi

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of recovering a target matrix that is a superposition of low-rank and sparse components, from a small set of linear measurements. This problem arises in compressed sensing of structured high-dimensional signals such as videos and hyperspectral images, as well as in the analysis of transformation invariant low-rank recovery. We analyze the performance of the natural convex heuristic for solving this problem, under the assumption that measurements are chosen uniformly at random. We prove that this heuristic exactly recovers low-rank and sparse terms, provided the number of observations exceeds the number of intrinsic degrees of freedom of the component signals by a polylogarithmic factor. Our analysis introduces several ideas that may be of independent interest for the more general problem of compressed sensing and decomposing superpositions of multiple structured signals.

  8. Compressibility of hydrated and anhydrous sodium silicate-based liquids and glasses, as analogues for natural silicate melts, by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachev, Sergey Nikolayevich

    A mathematical formalism was tested on compressibility studies of water, before applying it to the high pressure-temperature compressibility studies of hydrated and anhydrous sodium silicate-based liquids and glasses. The hypersonic sound velocity, refractive index and attenuation coefficient obtained using Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy technique were in agreement with literature data. From the measured sound velocities, the pressure dependence of the bulk moduli and density of liquid water were calculated, using Vinet equation of state. The formalism was extended to the Brillouin scattering studies of the elastic properties of alkaline-calcium silica hydrogels and float glass, which exhibits a dramatic increase in the pressure dependence of longitudinal velocity and a discontinuity in the compressibility at about 6 GPa. It is demonstrated that an apparent second-order transition to a new amorphous phase can form via the abrupt onset of a new compressional mechanism, which may be triggered by a shift in polymerization of the glass or an onset of a change in coordination of silicon. Brillouin scattering measurements were carried out on an aqueous solution of Na2O-2SiO2 and anhydrous Na2O-2SiO 2 glass and liquid at high P-T conditions. The "modified" platelet scattering geometry has allowed a determination of the longitudinal velocity independently from refractive index, and hence the adiabatic compressibility and density of liquids as a function of pressure and temperature. The observed increase in density of the melt and glass phases formed at high P-T conditions is likely associated with structural effects. The large values of KS' of the liquid phase illustrate that the means of compaction of the liquid differs substantially from that of the glass, and that the liquid is able to access a wider range of compaction mechanisms. The measured bulk modulus of Na2O-2SiO2 aqueous solution is closer to values of silicate melts than to that of end-member water at

  9. 天然土层初始状态与土体压缩性的相关性刍议%DISCUSSIONS ON INTERRELATION BETWEEN INITIAL STATE OF NATURAL SOIL STRATA AND THE COMPRESSIBILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李征翼

    2014-01-01

    通过分析自钻式旁压仪等原位测试手段获取静止侧压力系数偏高现象,揭示了传统理论估算天然土层垂向应力偏小的事实。经历勘探开采的卸荷膨胀,室内实验取得的原状样本重力密度不再等同于地层埋藏条件的初始状态。初始状态不会背离土体压缩性本质,因此以均匀性假设条件认知上覆压力作用下天然土层土体的物理性质并不恰当。本文采取固结压力附加100kPa等技术措施变革压缩实验分析模式,探索构建与压缩和回弹性质及应力历史条件相关的天然土层初始状态数学模型。结合应用实例,提出室内实验观察的回弹指数不足以体现样本的膨胀状况,最小干密度和液限状态的物理意义或是土体原始压缩的最大孔隙特征,以及压缩指数不能圆满诠释土体压缩性原理等见解。%The analysis of some in-situ test means,such as self-boring pressure meter has revealed a phenomenon that the coefficient of lateral earth pressure at rest in natural soil strata is commonly on the high side.One of the reasons of the phenomenon is that the vertical stress estimated with the traditional theory is on the low side.For undisturbed sample had gone through the process of unloading and expanding,the gravity density of the soil tested in lab is no longer equal to that at the initial state in buried conditions before exploration and excavation.Influenced by the overburden pressure in initial state,the physical properties of soil should not be deviated from the compressible nature.So it is improper that the natural soil is identified in the idea of homogenization assumption.This paper takes technical measures,for example,adding 100kPa to the consolidation pressure in order to reform the analyzing model for compression test.It tries to build the mathematical model of the initial state of the soil with the conditions associated with the virgin compression,recompression and stress

  10. Compressive Sensing for Quantum Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Gregory A.

    . Entanglement imaging is demonstrated at 1024 dimensions-per-photon with channel capacities exceeding 8.4 bits-per-photon. In practice, the measurement time is reduced from 310 days for the standard technique to 8 hours for the compressive technique. An entropic steering inequality is violated to witness entanglement. The final application is a compressive wavefront sensor that unites compressive sensing with weak measurement. We show how a twisted-nematic spatial light modulator can be be used to weakly couple an optical field's position and polarization degrees of freedom. The complex nature of the weak value is used to directly measure random projections of the real and imaginary parts of the optical field, where polarization serves as an ancillary meter. We obtain 256 x 256 pixel wavefronts from only 10,000 random projections. Photon-counting detectors provide sub-picowatt sensitivity.

  11. Bridgman's concern (shock compression science)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, R. A.

    1994-07-01

    In 1956 P. W. Bridgman published a letter to the editor in the Journal of Applied Physics reporting results of electrical resistance measurements on iron under static high pressure. The work was undertaken to verify the existence of a polymorphic phase transition at 130 kbar (13 GPa) reported in the same journal and year by the Los Alamos authors, Bancroft, Peterson, and Minshall for high pressure, shock-compression loading. In his letter, Bridgman reported that he failed to find any evidence for the transition. Further, he raised some fundamental concerns as to the state of knowledge of shock-compression processes in solids. Later it was determined that Bridgman's static pressure scale was in error, and the shock observations became the basis for calibration of pressure values in static high pressure apparatuses. In spite of the error in pressure scales, Bridgman's concerns on descriptions of shock-compression processes were perceptive and have provided the basis for subsequent fundamental studies of shock-compressed solids. The present paper, written in response to receipt of the 1993 American Physical Society Shock-Compression Science Award, provides a brief contemporary assessment of those shock-compression issues which were the basis of Bridgman's 1956 concerns.

  12. Compressive Sensing Over Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Feizi, Soheil; Effros, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate some applications of compressive sensing over networks. We make a connection between compressive sensing and traditional information theoretic techniques in source coding and channel coding. Our results provide an explicit trade-off between the rate and the decoding complexity. The key difference of compressive sensing and traditional information theoretic approaches is at their decoding side. Although optimal decoders to recover the original signal, compressed by source coding have high complexity, the compressive sensing decoder is a linear or convex optimization. First, we investigate applications of compressive sensing on distributed compression of correlated sources. Here, by using compressive sensing, we propose a compression scheme for a family of correlated sources with a modularized decoder, providing a trade-off between the compression rate and the decoding complexity. We call this scheme Sparse Distributed Compression. We use this compression scheme for a general multi...

  13. Preliminary technical and economic viability for the implantation of fluvial transport of CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) for barges in Amazon Region; Avaliacao preliminar de viabilidade tecnico-economica para implantacao de transporte fluvial de GNC (Gas Natual Comprimido) por barcacas na Regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Marcos C.C. de; Porto, Paulo L. Lemgruber [Interocean Engenharia e Ship Management, Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha, Rafael H. da [Metro Rio, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Rafael M. [Pic Brasil (Brazil); Almeida, Marco A.R. de [Universidade Gama Filho (UGF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The isolated regions of the Amazon present difficulties for integration with the electrical system which is creating some economic problems due to the consequent costs of electric generation of subsidies as a function of the fossil fuel use as oils diesel and fuel. A viable option is the use of Natural Gas - NG that is Also available in the region. Its modal of transport possible in the Region North they are for gas-lines or barges. The Compressed Natural Gas transport is distinguished that - CNG for barges was still not tested operationally in Brazil. Soon, to develop a Preliminary Study of Viability Technician - Economic - SVTE for the implantation of fluvial transport of CNG between the cities of Coari and Manaus is basic, therefore it is created strategical alternative for the electric generation in this region. The electric sector, the characteristics of the NG and the transport in this region had been analyzed to support to the work. The gas line and the fluvial transport of CNG for barges in this region are not conflicting, and they in a complementary form can act. The SVTE presented a Liquid Present Value and Internal Tax of very attractive Return justifying its implantation. (author)

  14. Compression limits in cascaded quadratic soliton compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw;

    2008-01-01

    Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency.......Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency....

  15. Satellite data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Bormin

    2011-01-01

    Satellite Data Compression covers recent progress in compression techniques for multispectral, hyperspectral and ultra spectral data. A survey of recent advances in the fields of satellite communications, remote sensing and geographical information systems is included. Satellite Data Compression, contributed by leaders in this field, is the first book available on satellite data compression. It covers onboard compression methodology and hardware developments in several space agencies. Case studies are presented on recent advances in satellite data compression techniques via various prediction-

  16. 甩挂运输模式在 CNG 运输行业的效益优势分析%The advantage analysis of the drop and pull transportation mode in the field of the Compressed Natural Gas transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武怀宁

    2016-01-01

    文章主要对比分析了压缩天然气(CNG)运输行业应用甩挂运输模式较传统运输模式的效益优势。甩挂运输作为一种效率型、绿色型、节约型的先进道路物流组织方式,将成为我国道路运输发展的必然趋势。%This paper mainly analyzes the advantages of the application of drop and pull transportation mode in the field of compressed natural gas transportation in comparison with the traditional transportation mode. As an efficient, environmental and economical advanced road logistics organization mode, the drop and pull transportation will become an inevitable trend of the development of Chinese road transportation.

  17. Author Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Istadi Istadi

    2011-01-01

    AUTHOR GUIDELINES Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH) accepts only online submission of manuscript(s) by using Open Journal software (OJS) at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/login Online SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH)? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly ...

  18. Waves and compressible flow

    CERN Document Server

    Ockendon, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Now in its second edition, this book continues to give readers a broad mathematical basis for modelling and understanding the wide range of wave phenomena encountered in modern applications.  New and expanded material includes topics such as elastoplastic waves and waves in plasmas, as well as new exercises.  Comprehensive collections of models are used to illustrate the underpinning mathematical methodologies, which include the basic ideas of the relevant partial differential equations, characteristics, ray theory, asymptotic analysis, dispersion, shock waves, and weak solutions. Although the main focus is on compressible fluid flow, the authors show how intimately gasdynamic waves are related to wave phenomena in many other areas of physical science.   Special emphasis is placed on the development of physical intuition to supplement and reinforce analytical thinking. Each chapter includes a complete set of carefully prepared exercises, making this a suitable textbook for students in applied mathematics, ...

  19. Algorithmic height compression of unordered trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naoum, Farah; Godin, Christophe

    2016-01-21

    By nature, tree structures frequently present similarities between their sub-parts. Making use of this redundancy, different types of tree compression techniques have been designed in the literature to reduce the complexity of tree structures. A popular and efficient way to compress a tree consists of merging its isomorphic subtrees, which produces a directed acyclic graph (DAG) equivalent to the original tree. An important property of this method is that the compressed structure (i.e. the DAG) has the same height as the original tree, thus limiting partially the possibility of compression. In this paper we address the problem of further compressing this DAG in height. The difficulty is that compression must be carried out on substructures that are not exactly isomorphic as they are strictly nested within each-other. We thus introduced a notion of quasi-isomorphism between subtrees that makes it possible to define similar patterns along any given path in a tree. We then proposed an algorithm to detect these patterns and to merge them, thus leading to compressed structures corresponding to DAGs augmented with return edges. In this way, redundant information is removed from the original tree in both width and height, thus achieving minimal structural compression. The complete compression algorithm is then illustrated on the compression of various plant-like structures.

  20. AUTHOR GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINESIndian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/loginOnline SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.SectionsEditorial:On issues of current public health needAbout 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredInvited Commentary:Brief, provocative, opinionated communicationsOn issues of current public health needMain Text: 750-1000 words excluding referencesReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredOriginal Article:Articles from Original ResearchStructured abstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 words, IMRD formatKey Words: 5 - 8References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReview Article:On subject of public health relevanceAbstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 wordsKey Words: 3 - 4References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4Short Communication / Article:Short report of a research project / outbreakMain Text : 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 10 – 15 (PubMed - Citation preferredTable / Figure: 01*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReport from the field

  1. Experimental Study of Fractal Image Compression Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan R. Dudhagara

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Image compression applications have been increasing in recent years. Fractal compression is a lossy compression method for digital images, based on fractals. The method is best suited for textures and natural images, relying on the fact that parts of an image often resemble other parts of the same image. In this paper, a study on fractal-based image compression and fixed-size partitioning will be made, analyzed for performance and compared with a standard frequency domain based image compression standard, JPEG. Sample images will be used to perform compression and decompression. Performance metrics such as compression ratio, compression time and decompression time will be measured in JPEG cases. Also the phenomenon of resolution/scale independence will be studied and described with examples. Fractal algorithms convert these parts into mathematical data called "fractal codes" which are used to recreate the encoded image. Fractal encoding is a mathematical process used to encode bitmaps containing a real-world image as a set of mathematical data that describes the fractal properties of the image. Fractal encoding relies on the fact that all natural, and most artificial, objects contain redundant information in the form of similar, repeating patterns called fractals.

  2. Evolution of some Los Alamos flux compression programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, C.M.; Goforth, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    When we were approached to give a general discussion of some aspects of the Los Alamos flux compression program, we decided to present historical backgrounds of a few topics that have some relevance to programs that we very much In the forefront of activities going on today. Of some thirty abstracts collected at Los Alamos for this conference, ten of them dealt with electromagnetic acceleration of materials, notably the compression of heavy liners, and five dealt with plasma compression. Both of these topics have been under investigation, off and on, from the time a formal flux compression program was organized at Los Alamos. We decided that a short overview of work done In these areas would be of some interest. Some of the work described below has been discussed in Laboratory reports that, while referenced and available, are not readily accessible. For completeness, some previously published, accessible work Is also discussed but much more briefly. Perhaps the most striking thing about the early work In these two areas is how primitive much of it was when compared to the far more sophisticated, related activities of today. Another feature of these programs, actually for most programs, Is their cyclic nature. Their relevance and/or funding seems to come land go. Eventually, many of the older programs come back into favor. Activities Involving the dense plasma focus (DPF), about which some discussions will be given later, furnish a classic example of this kind, coming Into and then out of periods of heightened interest. We devote the next two sections of this paper to a review of our work In magnetic acceleration of solids and of plasma compression. A final section gives a survey of our work In which thin foils are imploded to produce intense quantities of son x-rays. The authors are well aware of much excellent work done elsewhere In all of these topics, but partly because of space limitations, have confined this discussion to work done at Los Alamos.

  3. Calculation methods of natural gas compressibility factor based on the gas composition%基于气体组成的天然气压缩因子计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁光川; 左果

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas compressibility factor Z is one of the most important physical parame-ters in the natural gas engineering calculations , and the determining methods mainly include Standing-Katz chart method ,laboratory experiments method ,equations of state law method and the empirical formulas method .Due to the usage limitations of the former two methods ,the ap-plication advantages of equations of state law method and the empirical formulas method become increasingly evident .In this paper ,the calculation accuracy of equations that calculate compressi-bility factor based gas composition was evaluated .The equations include AGA8-92DC ,Piper-DAK ,Piper-Mahmoud ,Elsharkawy-DAK and Elsharkawy-Mahmoud .These five calculation for-mulas to be valuated were written into Visual Basic 6 .0 and 113 measured values of acidic lean gas compressibility factor were used to compare with the calculated values of these five formulas . The comparison indicates that firstly for the lean gas with carbon dioxide at low pressure or medi-um pressure ,the calculation error of AGA8-92DC is less than others ;secondly ,for the lean gas with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide at low or medium pressure ,the calculation error of Pip-er-Mahmoud is minimal compared to the other correlations .In addition ,this study presents that w hen the temperature of natural gas increases ,the errors of calculated values by these five for-mulas will all decrease compared with the original calculation errors .%天然气压缩因子 Z在天然气工程计算中是最重要的物性参数之一,其获取方法主要分为查Standing-Katz图法、实验法、状态方程计算法和经验公式法。前两种方法在使用上有很大的限制性,目前状态方程计算法和经验公式法的应用优势明显。对基于气体组成来求解压缩因子的AGA8-92DC、Piper-DAK、Piper-Mahmoud、Elsharkawy-DAK和Elsharkawy-Mahmoud方程进行了计算准确度评价。将这5个待评

  4. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  5. Microbunching and RF Compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venturini, M.; Migliorati, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ferrario, M.; Vaccarezza, C.

    2010-05-23

    Velocity bunching (or RF compression) represents a promising technique complementary to magnetic compression to achieve the high peak current required in the linac drivers for FELs. Here we report on recent progress aimed at characterizing the RF compression from the point of view of the microbunching instability. We emphasize the development of a linear theory for the gain function of the instability and its validation against macroparticle simulations that represents a useful tool in the evaluation of the compression schemes for FEL sources.

  6. Thinking about the Author- construction of the Natural Science Edition Journals of Local Engineering Colleges%江苏地方工科院校自科版学报作者队伍建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英健; 沈建新

    2011-01-01

    Academic journals are the windows of teaching and scientific research of universities and colleges. Authors are important resource which must be mastered by editorial department of the journal. For the specific solutions to the problem of manuscripts of the local engineering colleges journals, We statistically analyzed the authors of the academic journals ( natural science edition) from 2009 to 2010 within 6 local engineering colleges in Jiangsu province, and suggest that natural science edition journals of local engineering colleges should focus on training the authors of Masters and lecturers in self college, attracting manuscripts of the professors in self college with preferential policies, and paying attention to the authors of postgraduates and the rccords of the superior manuscripts of the authors outside the college.%学报是反映高校教学科研成果的窗口,作者资源是高校学报的重要资源。在对江苏6所地方工科院校自然科学版学报2009—2010年发表稿件情况进行统计分析的基础上,提出地方工科院校自科版学报应着力培养本校硕士研究生和讲师层次的作者队伍、采取优惠政策吸引本校教授投稿、重视在读研究生作者群的建设和建立校外优质稿源作者档案,从而缓解工科院校自科版学报稿源紧张问题,提高学报的质量。

  7. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the Content 1.1.1   Subheading of the Content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  8. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the content 1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  9. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the content 1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  10. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second p age and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the Content 1.1.1 Subheading of the Content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www.teachingenglish.org

  11. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the content 1.1.1 Subheading of the content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Back Matter| 79 80 | STUDIES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND EDUCATION, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2014 Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v

  12. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Rune; Satti, Srinivasa Rao; Tiedemann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  13. Compressing Binary Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune Hansen, Esben; Srinivasa Rao, S.; Tiedemann, Peter

    The paper introduces a new technique for compressing Binary Decision Diagrams in those cases where random access is not required. Using this technique, compression and decompression can be done in linear time in the size of the BDD and compression will in many cases reduce the size of the BDD to 1...

  14. Hyperspectral data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Motta, Giovanni; Storer, James A

    2006-01-01

    Provides a survey of results in the field of compression of remote sensed 3D data, with a particular interest in hyperspectral imagery. This work covers topics such as compression architecture, lossless compression, lossy techniques, and more. It also describes a lossless algorithm based on vector quantization.

  15. Compressed gas manifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Richard J.; Wozniak, John J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  16. The Nature and Regulation of Authority's March-in Rights in PPP%公私合作中政府介入权的性质及其规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯明

    2016-01-01

    This paper points out that authority shall enjoy the right to march in during the execution phase of the project in PPP. According to the segmentation approach of the nature of public-private partnership in the "two-stage theory", the project implementation phase shall be subject to the adjustment of civil law. And it is obviously quite different from the administrative nature of authority's march-in rights. When analyzing of the nature of authority's march-in rights in public-private partnership, the conditions and procedures of its exercise should be strictly regulated to seek judicial relief by ways of administrative reconsideration or litigation in the light of its administrative nature.%指出公私合作(PPP)中政府方在项目执行阶段享有介入权,根据“二阶段理论”对公私合作性质的分段处理,项目执行阶段受民事法律调整,其与政府介入权明显的行政性存在巨大分歧特点,认为对公私合作中政府介入权性质的分析,应基于其行政性,严格规范其行使的条件和程序,并通过行政复议或诉讼的途径寻求救济。

  17. Compressed Blind De-convolution

    CERN Document Server

    Saligrama, V

    2009-01-01

    Suppose the signal x is realized by driving a k-sparse signal u through an arbitrary unknown stable discrete-linear time invariant system H. These types of processes arise naturally in Reflection Seismology. In this paper we are interested in several problems: (a) Blind-Deconvolution: Can we recover both the filter $H$ and the sparse signal $u$ from noisy measurements? (b) Compressive Sensing: Is x compressible in the conventional sense of compressed sensing? Namely, can x, u and H be reconstructed from a sparse set of measurements. We develop novel L1 minimization methods to solve both cases and establish sufficient conditions for exact recovery for the case when the unknown system H is auto-regressive (i.e. all pole) of a known order. In the compressed sensing/sampling setting it turns out that both H and x can be reconstructed from O(k log(n)) measurements under certain technical conditions on the support structure of u. Our main idea is to pass x through a linear time invariant system G and collect O(k lo...

  18. Magnetic compression of an FRC plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, S.; Kitano, K.; Matsumoto, H. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (JP)] [and others

    1999-04-01

    Confinement of a plasma with field-reversed configuration (FRC) is predicted to be improved if it is compressed only axially, keeping the magnetic flux between the separatrix and the confining chamber (flux conserver) wall unchanged, while allowing the plasma to expand radially. The prediction is based on an empirical scaling law of FRC confinement and on the assumption that the compression is done adiabatically. The apparatus for this axial compression was developed and the axial compression experiment was actually carried out by decreasing the distance of the mirror fields between which the FRC plasma is confined by 30% and the plasma life time of about 500 {mu}s was increased by about 50 {mu}s. (author)

  19. Nuclear data compression and reconstruction via discrete wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Ryong; Cho, Nam Zin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Discrete Wavelet Transforms (DWTs) are recent mathematics, and begin to be used in various fields. The wavelet transform can be used to compress the signal and image due to its inherent properties. We applied the wavelet transform compression and reconstruction to the neutron cross section data. Numerical tests illustrate that the signal compression using wavelet is very effective to reduce the data saving spaces. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  20. Very low rate compression of speckled SAR imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichel, P.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ives, R.W. [Navy (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radars produce coherent, and speckled, high resolution images of the ground. Because modern systems can generate large amounts of imagery, there is substantial interest in applying image compression techniques to these products. In this paper, the authors examine the properties of speckled imagery relevant to the task of data compression. In particular, they demonstrate the advisability of compressing the speckle mean function rather than the literal image. The theory, methodology, and an example are presented.

  1. Emission Characteristics of Direct Injection Natural Gas Engine Using Rapid Compression Machine%用快速压缩装置研究直喷式天然气发动机排放特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佐华; 曾科; 杨中乐

    2002-01-01

    使用快速压缩装置进行了直喷式天然气发动机排放特性的研究.测量了三种不同方式下的排放,并与均相混合气燃烧情况进行了对比.实验结果表明,在宽广的当量比范围内,天然气直喷方式的燃烧效率高于0.95.由于混合气的分层燃烧,天然气喷射方式在宽广的当量比范围内保持较低的HC排放量,同等功率下的低CO2排放量,低NOx排放量,其NOx排放在理论当量比处的降低更为明显.直喷天然气发动机既具备柴油机发动机效率高的特点,又具备预混燃烧发动机排放低的特点.%Investigation of emission characteristics of a direct injection natural gas engine is carried out using a rapid compression machine.The emissions of three injection modes are measured and compared with that of the homogeneous combustion mode.The experimental results show that the combustion efficiency of the direct injection natural gas combustion is above 0.95 for all fuel supplying modes in the wide range of overall equivalence ratio.Fuel injection can operate within a wide range of equivalence ratio and has low unburned hydrocarbon emission (HC),low CO2 emission for the same power output,low NOx emission due to the mixture stratification compared with homogeneous combustion engine,especially in the range near the stoichiometric equivalence ratio where engine power output is needed.Consequently,the direct injection natural gas engine has the advantages of high thermal efficiency like diesel engine and low emission of premixed mixture combustion.

  2. [Unusual ischemic cord compression by discal hernia (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeret, J; Noble, Y; Barat, M; Guérin, J; Arné, L

    The discal hernia are unfrequent in dorsal localization and neurological appearances are deceptive. We report a case with amyotrophic and fasciculations developing a progressive spinal cord amyotrophy aspect. The complementary investigations (gaz myelography and spinal angiography) show the discal hernia in T11-T12 which was operated successfully. The vascular factor role is discussed about semiologic and pathogenic view.

  3. Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Muqeetadnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac artery compression syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by episodic abdominal pain and weight loss. It is the result of external compression of celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament. We present a case of celiac artery compression syndrome in a 57-year-old male with severe postprandial abdominal pain and 30-pound weight loss. The patient eventually responded well to surgical division of the median arcuate ligament by laparoscopy.

  4. Stiffness of compression devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mosti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Veins and Lymphatics collects papers coming from the International Compression Club (ICC Meeting on Stiffness of Compression Devices, which took place in Vienna on May 2012. Several studies have demonstrated that the stiffness of compression products plays a major role for their hemodynamic efficacy. According to the European Committee for Standardization (CEN, stiffness is defined as the pressure increase produced by medical compression hosiery (MCH per 1 cm of increase in leg circumference.1 In other words stiffness could be defined as the ability of the bandage/stockings to oppose the muscle expansion during contraction.

  5. Wavelet image compression

    CERN Document Server

    Pearlman, William A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the stages necessary to create a wavelet compression system for images and describes state-of-the-art systems used in image compression standards and current research. It starts with a high level discussion of the properties of the wavelet transform, especially the decomposition into multi-resolution subbands. It continues with an exposition of the null-zone, uniform quantization used in most subband coding systems and the optimal allocation of bitrate to the different subbands. Then the image compression systems of the FBI Fingerprint Compression Standard and the JPEG2000 S

  6. Natural Gas Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Correa; Nelson Osorio

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  7. Natural Gas Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  8. Segmentation-based CT image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammineni, Arunoday; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Kamath, Vidya

    2004-04-01

    The existing image compression standards like JPEG and JPEG 2000, compress the whole image as a single frame. This makes the system simple but inefficient. The problem is acute for applications where lossless compression is mandatory viz. medical image compression. If the spatial characteristics of the image are considered, it can give rise to a more efficient coding scheme. For example, CT reconstructed images have uniform background outside the field of view (FOV). Even the portion within the FOV can be divided as anatomically relevant and irrelevant parts. They have distinctly different statistics. Hence coding them separately will result in more efficient compression. Segmentation is done based on thresholding and shape information is stored using 8-connected differential chain code. Simple 1-D DPCM is used as the prediction scheme. The experiments show that the 1st order entropies of images fall by more than 11% when each segment is coded separately. For simplicity and speed of decoding Huffman code is chosen for entropy coding. Segment based coding will have an overhead of one table per segment but the overhead is minimal. Lossless compression of image based on segmentation resulted in reduction of bit rate by 7%-9% compared to lossless compression of whole image as a single frame by the same prediction coder. Segmentation based scheme also has the advantage of natural ROI based progressive decoding. If it is allowed to delete the diagnostically irrelevant portions, the bit budget can go down as much as 40%. This concept can be extended to other modalities.

  9. Some keys to reread authority.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Straehle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article vindicates a rereading of the concept of authority and tries to dissociate this concept from the concept of power in order to undo their identification and thereby the oblivion of the specific nature (or the history of authority. Besides, this rereading must not be confused with an apology of authority but with an exploration about this complicated and ambivalent category. The key point of this distinction lies in that authority, unlike power, depends not on itself but on the other person, the person who acknowledges another one as authority. Therefore, authority can be compatible with freedom and can appear as an exteriority of power, which undermines it or even becomes a counterpower. Hence the logical endeavours of power to monopolize and instrumentalize authority.

  10. Compression Ratio Adjuster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    New mechanism alters compression ratio of internal-combustion engine according to load so that engine operates at top fuel efficiency. Ordinary gasoline, diesel and gas engines with their fixed compression ratios are inefficient at partial load and at low-speed full load. Mechanism ensures engines operate as efficiently under these conditions as they do at highload and high speed.

  11. Compression asphyxia from a human pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumram, Nilesh Keshav; Ambade, Vipul Namdeorao; Biyabani, Naushad

    2015-12-01

    In compression asphyxia, respiration is stopped by external forces on the body. It is usually due to an external force compressing the trunk such as a heavy weight on the chest or abdomen and is associated with internal injuries. In present case, the victim was trapped and crushed under the falling persons from a human pyramid formation for a "Dahi Handi" festival. There was neither any severe blunt force injury nor any significant pathological natural disease contributing to the cause of death. The victim was unable to remove himself from the situation because his cognitive responses and coordination were impaired due to alcohol intake. The victim died from asphyxia due to compression of his chest and abdomen. Compression asphyxia resulting from the collapse of a human pyramid and the dynamics of its impact force in these circumstances is very rare and is not reported previously to the best of our knowledge.

  12. Spectral Animation Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Wang; Yang Liu; Xiaohu Guo; Zichun Zhong; Binh Le; Zhigang Deng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a spectral approach to compress dynamic animation consisting of a sequence of homeomor-phic manifold meshes. Our new approach directly compresses the field of deformation gradient defined on the surface mesh, by decomposing it into rigid-body motion (rotation) and non-rigid-body deformation (stretching) through polar decompo-sition. It is known that the rotation group has the algebraic topology of 3D ring, which is different from other operations like stretching. Thus we compress these two groups separately, by using Manifold Harmonics Transform to drop out their high-frequency details. Our experimental result shows that the proposed method achieves a good balance between the reconstruction quality and the compression ratio. We compare our results quantitatively with other existing approaches on animation compression, using standard measurement criteria.

  13. SIMULACIÓN HORARIA DE UN SISTEMA DE REFRIGERACIÓN COMBINADO EYECTOR-COMPRESIÓN DE VAPOR ASISTIDO POR ENERGÍA SOLAR Y GAS NATURAL HOURLY SIMULATION OF A COMBINED EJECTOR-VAPOR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM ASSISTED BY SOLAR ENERGY AND NATURAL GAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Vidal

    2009-04-01

    double stage ejector cooling cycle assisted by solar energy system appears as an attractive solution to this problem. The first stage is performed by a mechanical compression cycle with R-134a as the working fluid, while the second stage is performed by a thermally driven ejector cycle with R-141b. Flat plate collectors and an auxiliary energy burner provide heat to the ejector cycle. This paper describes the hourly simulation of a combined ejector-vapor compression refrigeration system assisted by solar energy and natural gas. The combined solar refrigeration system is modeled using the TRNSYS-EES simulation tool and the typical meteorological year data containing the weather data of Florianópolis Brazil. The results obtained from the computational simulation performed in this system show that the combined ejector-vapor compression cooling cycle is more advantageous than the simple ejector cooling cycle. Finally, the computational model developed in this paper might be used to perform a thermo-economical optimization of the system in future works.

  14. Experimental research on the compressibility of stale waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yongxing; XIE Qiang; ZHANG Jianhua; WEI Yongfa

    2003-01-01

    The compressibility of stale waste is studied based on the investigation into the composition and properties of stale waste in the Chongqing City. Stale waste sampled at a landfill closed for over 8 a was analyzed indoors for its natural density,natural water content, relative density, grain size distribution curve, uniformity coefficient and curvature coefficient. Indoor compression tests for the stale waste were performed to find out the void ratio and its dependence upon applied pressure,compressibility coefficient, constrained modulus and volume compressibility coefficient. From the experimental data, the curvature coefficient and the preconsolidation pressure of the stale waste were worked out. The results indicates that the stale waste is of high compressibility, which is different from the other kinds of common soil, and is underconsolidated soil. The measured compressibility parameters are applicable to settlement calculation of closed landfills.

  15. MRC for compression of Blake Archive images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misic, Vladimir; Kraus, Kari; Eaves, Morris; Parker, Kevin J.; Buckley, Robert R.

    2002-11-01

    The William Blake Archive is part of an emerging class of electronic projects in the humanities that may be described as hypermedia archives. It provides structured access to high-quality electronic reproductions of rare and often unique primary source materials, in this case the work of poet and painter William Blake. Due to the extensive high frequency content of Blake's paintings (namely, colored engravings), they are not suitable for very efficient compression that meets both rate and distortion criteria at the same time. Resolving that problem, the authors utilized modified Mixed Raster Content (MRC) compression scheme -- originally developed for compression of compound documents -- for the compression of colored engravings. In this paper, for the first time, we have been able to demonstrate the successful use of the MRC compression approach for the compression of colored, engraved images. Additional, but not less important benefits of the MRC image representation for Blake scholars are presented: because the applied segmentation method can essentially lift the color overlay of an impression, it provides the student of Blake the unique opportunity to recreate the underlying copperplate image, model the artist's coloring process, and study them separately.

  16. Ab initio compressive phase retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesini, S

    2008-01-01

    Any object on earth has two fundamental properties: it is finite, and it is made of atoms. Structural information about an object can be obtained from diffraction amplitude measurements that account for either one of these traits. Nyquist-sampling of the Fourier amplitudes is sufficient to image single particles of finite size at any resolution. Atomic resolution data is routinely used to image molecules replicated in a crystal structure. Here we report an algorithm that requires neither information, but uses the fact that an image of a natural object is compressible. Intended applications include tomographic diffractive imaging, crystallography, powder diffraction, small angle x-ray scattering and random Fourier amplitude measurements.

  17. DSP Implementation of Image Compression by Multiresolutional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vlcek

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet algorithms allow considerably higher compression rates compared to Fourier transform based methods. The most important field of applications of wavelet transforms is that the image is captured in few wavelet coefficients. The successful applications in compression of image or in series of images in both the space and the time dimensions. Compression algorithms exploit the multi-scale nature of the wavelet transform.

  18. DSP Implementation of Image Compression by Multiresolutional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vlcek

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet algorithms allow considerably higher compression rates compared to Fourier transform based methods. The most important field of applications of wavelet transforms is that the image is captured in few wavelet coefficients. The successful applications in compression of image or in series of images in both the space and the time dimensions. Compression algorithms exploit the multi-scale nature of the wavelet transform.

  19. ADVANCED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY (ARCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny M. Deffenbaugh; Klaus Brun; Ralph E. Harris; J. Pete Harrell; Robert J. Mckee; J. Jeffrey Moore; Steven J. Svedeman; Anthony J. Smalley; Eugene L. Broerman; Robert A Hart; Marybeth G. Nored; Ryan S. Gernentz; Shane P. Siebenaler

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. natural gas pipeline industry is facing the twin challenges of increased flexibility and capacity expansion. To meet these challenges, the industry requires improved choices in gas compression to address new construction and enhancement of the currently installed infrastructure. The current fleet of installed reciprocating compression is primarily slow-speed integral machines. Most new reciprocating compression is and will be large, high-speed separable units. The major challenges with the fleet of slow-speed integral machines are: limited flexibility and a large range in performance. In an attempt to increase flexibility, many operators are choosing to single-act cylinders, which are causing reduced reliability and integrity. While the best performing units in the fleet exhibit thermal efficiencies between 90% and 92%, the low performers are running down to 50% with the mean at about 80%. The major cause for this large disparity is due to installation losses in the pulsation control system. In the better performers, the losses are about evenly split between installation losses and valve losses. The major challenges for high-speed machines are: cylinder nozzle pulsations, mechanical vibrations due to cylinder stretch, short valve life, and low thermal performance. To shift nozzle pulsation to higher orders, nozzles are shortened, and to dampen the amplitudes, orifices are added. The shortened nozzles result in mechanical coupling with the cylinder, thereby, causing increased vibration due to the cylinder stretch mode. Valve life is even shorter than for slow speeds and can be on the order of a few months. The thermal efficiency is 10% to 15% lower than slow-speed equipment with the best performance in the 75% to 80% range. The goal of this advanced reciprocating compression program is to develop the technology for both high speed and low speed compression that will expand unit flexibility, increase thermal efficiency, and increase reliability and integrity

  20. Vascular compression syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czihal, Michael; Banafsche, Ramin; Hoffmann, Ulrich; Koeppel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Dealing with vascular compression syndromes is one of the most challenging tasks in Vascular Medicine practice. This heterogeneous group of disorders is characterised by external compression of primarily healthy arteries and/or veins as well as accompanying nerval structures, carrying the risk of subsequent structural vessel wall and nerve damage. Vascular compression syndromes may severely impair health-related quality of life in affected individuals who are typically young and otherwise healthy. The diagnostic approach has not been standardised for any of the vascular compression syndromes. Moreover, some degree of positional external compression of blood vessels such as the subclavian and popliteal vessels or the celiac trunk can be found in a significant proportion of healthy individuals. This implies important difficulties in differentiating physiological from pathological findings of clinical examination and diagnostic imaging with provocative manoeuvres. The level of evidence on which treatment decisions regarding surgical decompression with or without revascularisation can be relied on is generally poor, mostly coming from retrospective single centre studies. Proper patient selection is critical in order to avoid overtreatment in patients without a clear association between vascular compression and clinical symptoms. With a focus on the thoracic outlet-syndrome, the median arcuate ligament syndrome and the popliteal entrapment syndrome, the present article gives a selective literature review on compression syndromes from an interdisciplinary vascular point of view.

  1. Critical Data Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, John

    2011-01-01

    A new approach to data compression is developed and applied to multimedia content. This method separates messages into components suitable for both lossless coding and 'lossy' or statistical coding techniques, compressing complex objects by separately encoding signals and noise. This is demonstrated by compressing the most significant bits of data exactly, since they are typically redundant and compressible, and either fitting a maximally likely noise function to the residual bits or compressing them using lossy methods. Upon decompression, the significant bits are decoded and added to a noise function, whether sampled from a noise model or decompressed from a lossy code. This results in compressed data similar to the original. For many test images, a two-part image code using JPEG2000 for lossy coding and PAQ8l for lossless coding produces less mean-squared error than an equal length of JPEG2000. Computer-generated images typically compress better using this method than through direct lossy coding, as do man...

  2. Lanthanide Catalysts for Conversion of Exhaust Gas from Compressed Natural Gas Automobiles%压缩天然气汽车稀土型尾气转化催化剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚如杰; 董新彬

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at improving the air quality, more and more automobiles with compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel are being used in some big cities now. The three way catalysts (TWC) for gasoline cars are not suitable for CNG cars. In the exhaust gases from CNG cars, the hydrocarbon is mainly methane, which is converted into carbon dioxide quite difficultly compared with other hydrocarbons. In this paper, a specially designed catalyst dosage was developed, which contained lanthanide oxides, transition element oxides and a minor part of noble metal oxides. The catalysts can reach a high conversion ratio for the exhaust pollutants above 700℃. More than 98.0 per cent of CH4 and CO in CNG engine exhaust gases can be converted into CO2 and H2O. At 1 000℃, the catalyst maintains a 99.0 per cent conversion ratio for CH4 and CO in 1.5 h, showing a high thermal stability. A resistance to sulfur oxides was also behaved.%压缩天然气(CNG)汽车因其良好的排放特性,正被越来越多的大型城市公交系统使用,但是汽油车辆用尾气净化催化剂对天然气汽车的主要烃类排放物甲烷转化效率低.针对天然气车辆排放物特点,设计了天然气汽车尾气净化催化剂,其成分包括稀土金属和过渡金属化合物、少量贵金属氧化物、结构稳定剂等.试验结果表明,在700℃以上,CO和CH4转化率达到98%以上,催化剂耐高温性能好,在1 000℃,1.5 h试验时间内HC和CO转化率达到99%,此外该催化剂具有一定的抗硫化物中毒能力.

  3. Reply of the authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein AFZALIMEHR; Jueyi SUI; Razieh MOGHBEL

    2011-01-01

    The words of "wall" and "bank" have been used interactively in our past research works.However,to our knowledge,few published studies used natural vegetation cover along the flume walls.From hydraulic point of view,the description of flow characteristics is more important than the species of wall vegetation in a preliminary research study.The authors found that,if the same vegetation cover of natural channel is used as vegetation cover on the flume walls,it will result considerable noise and anomalies in capturing data by ADV.So,for this primary research,it has been decided to use the uniform specie as wall vegetation in this experimental study.

  4. LZW Data Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheemanth H N

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lempel–Ziv–Welch (LZW is a universal lossless data compression algorithm created by Abraham Lempel, Jacob Ziv, and Terry Welch. LZW compression is one of the Adaptive Dictionary techniques. The dictionary is created while the data are being encoded. So encoding can be done on the fly. The dictionary need not be transmitted. Dictionary can be built up at receiving end on the fly. If the dictionary overflows then we have to reinitialize the dictionary and add a bit to each one of the code words. Choosing a large dictionary size avoids overflow, but spoils compressions. A codebook or dictionary containing the source symbols is constructed. For 8-bit monochrome images, the first 256 words of the dictionary are assigned to the gray levels 0-255. Remaining part of the dictionary is filled with sequences of the gray levels.LZW compression works best when applied on monochrome images and text files that contain repetitive text/patterns.

  5. Shocklets in compressible flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁湘江; 男俊武; 沈清; 李筠

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of shocklets is studied theoretically and numerically for the stationary fluid, uniform compressible flow, and boundary layer flow. The conditions that trigger shock waves for sound wave, weak discontinuity, and Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) wave in compressible flows are investigated. The relations between the three types of waves and shocklets are further analyzed and discussed. Different stages of the shocklet formation process are simulated. The results show that the three waves in compressible flows will transfer to shocklets only when the initial disturbance amplitudes are greater than the certain threshold values. In compressible boundary layers, the shocklets evolved from T-S wave exist only in a finite region near the surface instead of the whole wavefront.

  6. Prediction by Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Ratsaby, Joel

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that text compression can be achieved by predicting the next symbol in the stream of text data based on the history seen up to the current symbol. The better the prediction the more skewed the conditional probability distribution of the next symbol and the shorter the codeword that needs to be assigned to represent this next symbol. What about the opposite direction ? suppose we have a black box that can compress text stream. Can it be used to predict the next symbol in the stream ? We introduce a criterion based on the length of the compressed data and use it to predict the next symbol. We examine empirically the prediction error rate and its dependency on some compression parameters.

  7. Reference Based Genome Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Chern, Bobbie; Manolakos, Alexandros; No, Albert; Venkat, Kartik; Weissman, Tsachy

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequencing technology has advanced to a point where storage is becoming the central bottleneck in the acquisition and mining of more data. Large amounts of data are vital for genomics research, and generic compression tools, while viable, cannot offer the same savings as approaches tuned to inherent biological properties. We propose an algorithm to compress a target genome given a known reference genome. The proposed algorithm first generates a mapping from the reference to the target genome, and then compresses this mapping with an entropy coder. As an illustration of the performance: applying our algorithm to James Watson's genome with hg18 as a reference, we are able to reduce the 2991 megabyte (MB) genome down to 6.99 MB, while Gzip compresses it to 834.8 MB.

  8. Treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klazen, C.A.H.

    2010-01-01

    In Chapter I, an outline of this thesis is given. In Chapter 2 we prospectively determined the natural course of pain in patients with conservatively treated acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (VCF). In addition, we assessed the type of conservative therapy that these patients receiv

  9. Deep Blind Compressed Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Shikha; Singhal, Vanika; Majumdar, Angshul

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of extracting deeply learned features directly from compressive measurements. There has been no work in this area. Existing deep learning tools only give good results when applied on the full signal, that too usually after preprocessing. These techniques require the signal to be reconstructed first. In this work we show that by learning directly from the compressed domain, considerably better results can be obtained. This work extends the recently proposed fram...

  10. Reference Based Genome Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Chern, Bobbie; Ochoa, Idoia; Manolakos, Alexandros; No, Albert; Venkat, Kartik; Weissman, Tsachy

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequencing technology has advanced to a point where storage is becoming the central bottleneck in the acquisition and mining of more data. Large amounts of data are vital for genomics research, and generic compression tools, while viable, cannot offer the same savings as approaches tuned to inherent biological properties. We propose an algorithm to compress a target genome given a known reference genome. The proposed algorithm first generates a mapping from the reference to the target gen...

  11. Neurovascular Compression After the Latarjet Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Joseph W; Romanowski, James R; Boykin, Robert E; Eichinger, Josef K; Lafosse, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    The Latarjet procedure is an established and effective option for the treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Symptomatic compression of the vasculature around the shoulder and adjacent brachial plexus is uncommon and may be difficult to diagnose and treat. The purpose of this report is to describe a patient with neurovascular compression of the axillary artery and brachial plexus after an open Latarjet procedure. This is the first known report of documented combined vascular and neurologic thoracic outlet syndrome after a Latarjet procedure. Evaluation of this suspected problem requires a detailed clinical examination and a dynamic angiogram to verify which neurovascular structures are compressed. Treatment includes decompression of the brachial plexus and axillary vasculature by releasing tethering scar tissue or the remaining pectoralis minor that is creating a constricting sling effect. An arthroscopic approach provides for a careful and specific decompression. Additionally, the authors provide a review of the literature for neurologic complications and management for these complications.

  12. Sandia computerized shock compression bibliographical database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbeck, J.S.; Anderson, C.E.; Hokanson, J.C.; Asay, J.R.; Grady, D.E.; Graham, R.A.; Kipp, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    A searchable and updateable bibliographical database is being developed which will be designed, controlled, and evaluated by working technical experts in the field of shock-compression science. It will emphasize shock-compression properties in the stress region of a few tens of GPa and provide a broad and complete base of bibliographical information on the shock-compression behavior of materials. Through the operation of technical advisors, the database provides authoritative blbliographical and keyword data for use by both the inexperienced and expert user. In its current form, it consists of: (1) a library of journal articles, reports, books, and symposia papers in the areas of shock physics and shock mechanics; and (2) a computerized database system containing complete bibliographical information, exhaustive keyword descriptions, and author abstracts for each of the documents in the database library.

  13. Alternative Compression Garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Brown, A. K.; Westby, C. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight is still an issue for astronauts as no in-flight countermeasure has been 100% effective. Future anti-gravity suits (AGS) may be similar to the Shuttle era inflatable AGS or may be a mechanical compression device like the Russian Kentavr. We have evaluated the above garments as well as elastic, gradient compression garments of varying magnitude and determined that breast-high elastic compression garments may be a suitable replacement to the current AGS. This new garment should be more comfortable than the AGS, easy to don and doff, and as effective a countermeasure to orthostatic intolerance. Furthermore, these new compression garments could be worn for several days after space flight as necessary if symptoms persisted. We conducted two studies to evaluate elastic, gradient compression garments. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the comfort and efficacy of an alternative compression garment (ACG) immediately after actual space flight and 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of space flight, and to determine if they would impact recovery if worn for up to three days after bed rest.

  14. Nature Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Natalie; Lee, Richard E.; Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Richard Louv's "Last Child in the Woods" (2008) added to a growing consensus to get children outside and experiencing nature. Using ideas from place-based education, the authors present a simple year-long project that brings science, nature, and other curriculum standards to life right in your school yard. With a focus on journaling, this project…

  15. The Internet's impact on policy evaluation: information compression and credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry

    2004-04-01

    As with all media, the Internet structures and frames information, rewarding some information search and decision behaviors while punishing others and, thereby, strongly influences evaluation research results and possibilities. Now that the Internet is for many evaluators the information medium of choice, the impacts of the medium on evaluation deserve careful attention. The objective of this article is to lay groundwork for a theory of the impact of the Internet on evaluation and policy analysis. Questions addressed include the following: (a) What is the impact of the Internet on the evaluator's professional role, work norms, and work habits? (b) Does the use of the Internet affect who is an evaluator or the meaning of professional evaluation? and (c) How does evaluation via Internet affect the technical quality and credibility of evaluation? A key thesis is that the Internet compresses information in the sense that it is not always easy to distinguish among information resources and, especially, the authority of the information provider and the nature of the knowledge warrant. On one hand, the Internet's information compression seems to hold potential for the democratization of evaluation. On the other hand, the diminished ability to make quality distinctions about evaluation-relevant information may undercut the legitimacy of evaluation.

  16. Virtually Lossless Compression of Astrophysical Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Baronti

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe an image compression strategy potentially capable of preserving the scientific quality of astrophysical data, simultaneously allowing a consistent bandwidth reduction to be achieved. Unlike strictly lossless techniques, by which moderate compression ratios are attainable, and conventional lossy techniques, in which the mean square error of the decoded data is globally controlled by users, near-lossless methods are capable of locally constraining the maximum absolute error, based on user's requirements. An advanced lossless/near-lossless differential pulse code modulation (DPCM scheme, recently introduced by the authors and relying on a causal spatial prediction, is adjusted to the specific characteristics of astrophysical image data (high radiometric resolution, generally low noise, etc.. The background noise is preliminarily estimated to drive the quantization stage for high quality, which is the primary concern in most of astrophysical applications. Extensive experimental results of lossless, near-lossless, and lossy compression of astrophysical images acquired by the Hubble space telescope show the advantages of the proposed method compared to standard techniques like JPEG-LS and JPEG2000. Eventually, the rationale of virtually lossless compression, that is, a noise-adjusted lossles/near-lossless compression, is highlighted and found to be in accordance with concepts well established for the astronomers' community.

  17. The compressed word problem for groups

    CERN Document Server

    Lohrey, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The Compressed Word Problem for Groups provides a detailed exposition of known results on the compressed word problem, emphasizing efficient algorithms for the compressed word problem in various groups. The author presents the necessary background along with the most recent results on the compressed word problem to create a cohesive self-contained book accessible to computer scientists as well as mathematicians. Readers will quickly reach the frontier of current research which makes the book especially appealing for students looking for a currently active research topic at the intersection of group theory and computer science. The word problem introduced in 1910 by Max Dehn is one of the most important decision problems in group theory. For many groups, highly efficient algorithms for the word problem exist. In recent years, a new technique based on data compression for providing more efficient algorithms for word problems, has been developed, by representing long words over group generators in a compres...

  18. Transverse Compression of Tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, S T Samuel; Buckley, C Paul; Zavatsky, Amy B

    2016-04-01

    A study was made of the deformation of tendons when compressed transverse to the fiber-aligned axis. Bovine digital extensor tendons were compression tested between flat rigid plates. The methods included: in situ image-based measurement of tendon cross-sectional shapes, after preconditioning but immediately prior to testing; multiple constant-load creep/recovery tests applied to each tendon at increasing loads; and measurements of the resulting tendon displacements in both transverse directions. In these tests, friction resisted axial stretch of the tendon during compression, giving approximately plane-strain conditions. This, together with the assumption of a form of anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model proposed previously for tendon, justified modeling the isochronal response of tendon as that of an isotropic, slightly compressible, neo-Hookean solid. Inverse analysis, using finite-element (FE) simulations of the experiments and 10 s isochronal creep displacement data, gave values for Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of this solid of 0.31 MPa and 0.49, respectively, for an idealized tendon shape and averaged data for all the tendons and E = 0.14 and 0.10 MPa for two specific tendons using their actual measured geometry. The compression load versus displacement curves, as measured and as simulated, showed varying degrees of stiffening with increasing load. This can be attributed mostly to geometrical changes in tendon cross section under load, varying according to the initial 3D shape of the tendon.

  19. Guidelines for Authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Demir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Authors cumhuriyet theology journal  reguires writers to use the The Chicago Manual of Style “notes and bibliography” system of referencing.First citation: author(s first name and last name, title, (if applicable first and last name of translator or editor, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page number.Subsequent citations: author’s last name, the short title, and the page number should be indicated in all subsequent citations. Footnote citations should conform to the following examples.References: References should be placed at the end of the text in alphabetical order. If a source has more than one author, the surname and name of the first author should be written, and the other authors should be indicated by et.al. The titles of books and journals should be italicized; article titles and book chapters should be placed in quotation marks. Translator’s and editor’s names (if there are any should follow the title of the work: BOOKa One Author: 
1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006, 99–100.2. Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3.Bibliography: Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.  b Two Authors1. Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007, 52.2. Ward and Burns, War, 59–61. Bibliography: Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.c Three or More Authors
For three or more authors, list all of the authors in the bibliography; in the note, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”:1. Mitchell L. Eisen, Jodi A. Quas, and Gail S. Goodman, eds., Memory and Suggestibility in the Forensic Interview (Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Assoicates, 2002, 65.2. Eisen and et al., Memory and Suggestibility in the Forensic Interview, 67.Bibliography: Eisen, Mitchell

  20. SYMBOLIC VERSOR COMPRESSION ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongbo

    2009-01-01

    In an inner-product space, an invertible vector generates a reflection with re-spect to a hyperplane, and the Clifford product of several invertible vectors, called a versor in Clifford algebra, generates the composition of the corresponding reflections, which is an orthogonal transformation. Given a versor in a Clifford algebra, finding another sequence of invertible vectors of strictly shorter length but whose Clifford product still equals the input versor, is called versor compression. Geometrically, versor compression is equivalent to decomposing an orthogoual transformation into a shorter sequence of reflections. This paper proposes a simple algorithm of compressing versors of symbolic form in Clifford algebra. The algorithm is based on computing the intersections of lines with planes in the corresponding Grassmann-Cayley algebra, and is complete in the case of Euclidean or Minkowski inner-product space.

  1. Steady compression characteristics of laminated MRE isolator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, N. A. A.; Mazlan, S. A.; Ubaidillah; Sharif, A. H. R.; Kamaruddin, S.

    2016-11-01

    This paper focused on an experimental setup on laminated magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolator under steady state compression test. An isotropic type natural rubber (NR) based MRE were fabricated and layered with a steel plate to form a multilayer sandwich structure adopted from the conventional laminated rubber bearing design. A set of static compression test was conducted to explore the potential of semi-active laminated MRE isolator in field-dependent stiffness properties. Stress versus strain relationship was assessed under different magnetic fields application. Based on the examination, the stress altered as the application of magnetic fields. Consequently, the effective stiffness of isolator also influenced by the magnetic fields induction. The experimental results show that the proposed laminated MRE isolator can effectively alter the compression stiffness up to the 14.56%. The preliminary results have confirmed the tunability of the semi-active laminated MRE isolator in which it would be beneficial for improving building isolator in general.

  2. Image data compression investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrie, Carlos

    1989-01-01

    NASA continuous communications systems growth has increased the demand for image transmission and storage. Research and analysis was conducted on various lossy and lossless advanced data compression techniques or approaches used to improve the efficiency of transmission and storage of high volume stellite image data such as pulse code modulation (PCM), differential PCM (DPCM), transform coding, hybrid coding, interframe coding, and adaptive technique. In this presentation, the fundamentals of image data compression utilizing two techniques which are pulse code modulation (PCM) and differential PCM (DPCM) are presented along with an application utilizing these two coding techniques.

  3. Compressive Shift Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Henrik; Eldar, Yonina C.; Yang, Allen Y.; Sastry, S. Shankar

    2014-08-01

    The classical shift retrieval problem considers two signals in vector form that are related by a shift. The problem is of great importance in many applications and is typically solved by maximizing the cross-correlation between the two signals. Inspired by compressive sensing, in this paper, we seek to estimate the shift directly from compressed signals. We show that under certain conditions, the shift can be recovered using fewer samples and less computation compared to the classical setup. Of particular interest is shift estimation from Fourier coefficients. We show that under rather mild conditions only one Fourier coefficient suffices to recover the true shift.

  4. Image compression in local helioseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Löptien, Björn; Gizon, Laurent; Schou, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Context. Several upcoming helioseismology space missions are very limited in telemetry and will have to perform extensive data compression. This requires the development of new methods of data compression. Aims. We give an overview of the influence of lossy data compression on local helioseismology. We investigate the effects of several lossy compression methods (quantization, JPEG compression, and smoothing and subsampling) on power spectra and time-distance measurements of supergranulation flows at disk center. Methods. We applied different compression methods to tracked and remapped Dopplergrams obtained by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We determined the signal-to-noise ratio of the travel times computed from the compressed data as a function of the compression efficiency. Results. The basic helioseismic measurements that we consider are very robust to lossy data compression. Even if only the sign of the velocity is used, time-distance helioseismology is still...

  5. Distributed Compressive Sensing vs. Dynamic Compressive Sensing: Improving the Compressive Line Sensing Imaging System through Their Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Compressive Sensing vs. Dynamic Compressive Sensing : Improving the Compressive Line Sensing Imaging System...bouyang@hboi.fau.edu ABSTRACT In recent years, a compressive sensing based underwater imaging system has been under investigation: the Compressive Line...among the adjacent lines is exploited via the joint sparsity in the distributed compressive sensing model. Interestingly, the dynamic compressive

  6. A hyperspectral image compression algorithm based on wavelet transformation and fractal composition (AWFC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Xingtang; ZHANG; Bing; ZHANG; Xia; ZHENG; Lanfen; TONG; Qingxi

    2006-01-01

    Starting with a fractal-based image-compression algorithm based on wavelet transformation for hyperspectral images, the authors were able to obtain more spectral bands with the help of of hyperspectral remote sensing. Because large amounts of data and limited bandwidth complicate the storage and transmission of data measured by TB-level bits, it is important to compress image data acquired by hyperspectral sensors such as MODIS, PHI, and OMIS; otherwise, conventional lossless compression algorithms cannot reach adequate compression ratios. Other loss-compression methods can reach high compression ratios but lack good image fidelity, especially for hyperspectral image data. Among the third generation of image compression algorithms, fractal image compression based on wavelet transformation is superior to traditional compression methods,because it has high compression ratios and good image fidelity, and requires less computing time. To keep the spectral dimension invariable, the authors compared the results of two compression algorithms based on the storage-file structures of BSQ and of BIP, and improved the HV and Quadtree partitioning and domain-range matching algorithms in order to accelerate their encode/decode efficiency. The authors' Hyperspectral Image Process and Analysis System (HIPAS) software used a VC++6.0 integrated development environment (IDE), with which good experimental results were obtained. Possible modifications of the algorithm and limitations of the method are also discussed.

  7. Multiple snapshot compressive beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstoft, Peter; Xenaki, Angeliki; Mecklenbrauker, Christoph F.

    2015-01-01

    For sound fields observed on an array, compressive sensing (CS) reconstructs the multiple source signals at unknown directions-of-arrival (DOAs) using a sparsity constraint. The DOA estimation is posed as an underdetermined problem expressing the field at each sensor as a phase-lagged superposition...

  8. Compressive CFAR radar detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van; Maleki, A.; Baraniuk, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we develop the first Compressive Sensing (CS) adaptive radar detector. We propose three novel architectures and demonstrate how a classical Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detector can be combined with ℓ1-norm minimization. Using asymptotic arguments and the Complex Approximate Messag

  9. Compressive CFAR Radar Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Rossum, W.L. van; Otten, M.P.G.; Maleki, A.; Baraniuk, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the performance of a combined Compressive Sensing (CS) Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) radar processor under different interference scenarios using both the Cell Averaging (CA) and Order Statistic (OS) CFAR detectors. Using the properties of the Complex Approximate Mess

  10. [Hyperspectral image compression technology research based on EZW].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jun-Xia; Xiangli, Bin; Duan, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Zhao-Hui; Xue, Li-Jun

    2011-08-01

    Along with the development of hyperspectral remote sensing technology, hyperspectral imaging technology has been applied in the aspect of aviation and spaceflight, which is different from multispectral imaging, and with the band width of nanoscale spectral imaging the target continuously, the image resolution is very high. However, with the increasing number of band, spectral data quantity will be more and more, and these data storage and transmission is the problem that the authors must face. Along with the development of wavelet compression technology, in field of image compression, many people adopted and improved EZW, the present paper used the method in hyperspectral spatial dimension compression, but does not involved the spectrum dimension compression. From hyperspectral image compression reconstruction results, whether from the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and spectral curve or from the subjective comparison of source and reconstruction image, the effect is well. If the first compression of image from spectrum dimension is made, then compression on space dimension, the authors believe the effect will be better.

  11. 天然岩石单轴压裂过程磁组构响应实验研究%A Laboratory Research on Magnetic Fabric Response of Natural Rock Samples in the Process of Uniaxial Compression to Rupture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何耀宇; 宋选民; 李斌; 李自红; 刘力强

    2015-01-01

    In this paper ,the authors select natural rock samples as research objects ,test and analyze the variation of rock magnetic fabrics at different pressures and its relationship with stress‐strain in laboratory .Meanwhile ,acoustic emission experiments are carried out to monitor the internal micro‐fracture events and deformation process of samples as the pressure increases . The results show that the response of magnetic fabrics on stress‐strain is obvious for igneous rock samples from Xiye rock mass ,in which magnetite is the main magnetic mineral .The responses mainly exhibit the slight enhancement of the degrees of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility PJ , significant increase of the shape factor T‐value and rapid rotation of susceptibility spindle ,w hich are essentially in agreement with the conclusions drawn from synthetic samples with magnetite as the main magnetic mineral .The results can provide reference and theoretical basis for the further study of the relationship between the magnetic structure and the stress‐strain in the rock and the interpretation of the magnetic structure .%首次以天然岩石样品为研究对象,对不同压力下岩石磁组构的变化特征及其与应力应变的关系进行了实验研究,监测了试件在压力不断增强的过程中内部微破裂事件及变形破坏过程。试验结果表明,以磁铁矿为主要载磁矿物的岩体(火成岩)样品,岩石磁组构对应力应变的响应较为明显,主要表现为在压力不断增强的过程中,磁化率各向异性度 PJ 的微弱增强,形状因子 T值明显升高,磁化率主轴的快速旋转。本结果与前人利用人工合成的磁铁矿为载磁矿物的样品得出的研究结论基本一致。本研究结果可为天然岩石磁组构变化与应力应变关系的深入研究及磁组构构造意义的解释提供理论依据。

  12. Performance studies on mechanical + adsorption hybrid compression refrigeration cycles with HFC 134a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banker, N.D.; Dutta, P.; Srinivasan, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Prasad, M. [Thermal Systems Division, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore 560 017 (India)

    2008-12-15

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the efficacy of hybrid compression process for refrigerant HFC 134a in cooling applications. The conventional mechanical compression is supplemented by thermal compression using a string of adsorption compressors. Activated carbon is the adsorbent for the thermal compression segment. The alternatives of bottoming either mechanical or thermal compression stages are investigated. It is shown that almost 40% energy saving is realizable by carrying out a part of the compression in a thermal compressor compared to the case when the entire compression is carried out in a single-stage mechanical compressor. The hybrid compression is feasible even when low grade heat is available. Some performance indictors are defined and evaluated for various configurations. (author)

  13. Randomness Testing of Compressed Data

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Weiling; Yun, Xiaochun; Wang, Shupeng; Yu, Xiangzhan

    2010-01-01

    Random Number Generators play a critical role in a number of important applications. In practice, statistical testing is employed to gather evidence that a generator indeed produces numbers that appear to be random. In this paper, we reports on the studies that were conducted on the compressed data using 8 compression algorithms or compressors. The test results suggest that the output of compression algorithms or compressors has bad randomness, the compression algorithms or compressors are not suitable as random number generator. We also found that, for the same compression algorithm, there exists positive correlation relationship between compression ratio and randomness, increasing the compression ratio increases randomness of compressed data. As time permits, additional randomness testing efforts will be conducted.

  14. TEM Video Compressive Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Kovarik, Libor; Abellan, Patricia; Yuan, Xin; Carin, Lawrence; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-08-02

    One of the main limitations of imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution during in-situ TEM experiments is the frame rate of the camera being used to image the dynamic process. While the recent development of direct detectors has provided the hardware to achieve frame rates approaching 0.1ms, the cameras are expensive and must replace existing detectors. In this paper, we examine the use of coded aperture compressive sensing methods [1, 2, 3, 4] to increase the framerate of any camera with simple, low-cost hardware modifications. The coded aperture approach allows multiple sub-frames to be coded and integrated into a single camera frame during the acquisition process, and then extracted upon readout using statistical compressive sensing inversion. Our simulations show that it should be possible to increase the speed of any camera by at least an order of magnitude. Compressive Sensing (CS) combines sensing and compression in one operation, and thus provides an approach that could further improve the temporal resolution while correspondingly reducing the electron dose rate. Because the signal is measured in a compressive manner, fewer total measurements are required. When applied to TEM video capture, compressive imaging couled improve acquisition speed and reduce the electron dose rate. CS is a recent concept, and has come to the forefront due the seminal work of Candès [5]. Since the publication of Candès, there has been enormous growth in the application of CS and development of CS variants. For electron microscopy applications, the concept of CS has also been recently applied to electron tomography [6], and reduction of electron dose in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging [7]. To demonstrate the applicability of coded aperture CS video reconstruction for atomic level imaging, we simulate compressive sensing on observations of Pd nanoparticles and Ag nanoparticles during exposure to high temperatures and other environmental

  15. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.;

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  16. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast n...

  17. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast navig...

  18. Lossless Compression of Broadcast Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Eriksen, N.; Faber, E.

    1998-01-01

    We investigate several techniques for lossless and near-lossless compression of broadcast video.The emphasis is placed on the emerging international standard for compression of continous-tone still images, JPEG-LS, due to its excellent compression performance and moderatecomplexity. Except for one...

  19. Building indifferentiable compression functions from the PGV compression functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, P.; Bagheri, Nasour; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2016-01-01

    Preneel, Govaerts and Vandewalle (PGV) analysed the security of single-block-length block cipher based compression functions assuming that the underlying block cipher has no weaknesses. They showed that 12 out of 64 possible compression functions are collision and (second) preimage resistant. Black...... cipher is ideal. We address the problem of building indifferentiable compression functions from the PGV compression functions. We consider a general form of 64 PGV compression functions and replace the linear feed-forward operation in this generic PGV compression function with an ideal block cipher...... independent of the one used in the generic PGV construction. This modified construction is called a generic modified PGV (MPGV). We analyse indifferentiability of the generic MPGV construction in the ideal cipher model and show that 12 out of 64 MPGV compression functions in this framework...

  20. Compressive Spectral Renormalization Method

    CERN Document Server

    Bayindir, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a novel numerical scheme for finding the sparse self-localized states of a nonlinear system of equations with missing spectral data is introduced. As in the Petviashivili's and the spectral renormalization method, the governing equation is transformed into Fourier domain, but the iterations are performed for far fewer number of spectral components (M) than classical versions of the these methods with higher number of spectral components (N). After the converge criteria is achieved for M components, N component signal is reconstructed from M components by using the l1 minimization technique of the compressive sampling. This method can be named as compressive spectral renormalization (CSRM) method. The main advantage of the CSRM is that, it is capable of finding the sparse self-localized states of the evolution equation(s) with many spectral data missing.

  1. On Network Functional Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Feizi, Soheil

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider different aspects of the network functional compression problem where computation of a function (or, some functions) of sources located at certain nodes in a network is desired at receiver(s). The rate region of this problem has been considered in the literature under certain restrictive assumptions, particularly in terms of the network topology, the functions and the characteristics of the sources. In this paper, we present results that significantly relax these assumptions. Firstly, we consider this problem for an arbitrary tree network and asymptotically lossless computation. We show that, for depth one trees with correlated sources, or for general trees with independent sources, a modularized coding scheme based on graph colorings and Slepian-Wolf compression performs arbitrarily closely to rate lower bounds. For a general tree network with independent sources, optimal computation to be performed at intermediate nodes is derived. We introduce a necessary and sufficient condition...

  2. Restricted Conformal Property of Compressive Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Energy and direction are tow basic properties of a vector. A discrete signal is a vector in nature. RIP of compressive sensing can not show the direction information of a signal but show the energy information of a signal. Hence, RIP is not complete. Orthogonal matrices can preserve angles and lengths. Preservation of length can show energies of signals like RIP do; and preservation of angle can show directions of signals. Therefore, Restricted Conformal Property (RCP) is proposed according t...

  3. Speech Compression and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    phonological rules combined with diphone improved the algorithms used by the phonetic synthesis prog?Im for gain normalization and time... phonetic vocoder, spectral template. i0^Th^TreprtTörc"u’d1sTuV^ork for the past two years on speech compression’and synthesis. Since there was an...from Block 19: speech recognition, pnoneme recogmtion. initial design for a phonetic recognition program. We also recorded ana partially labeled a

  4. Compressed sensing electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leary, Rowan, E-mail: rkl26@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Saghi, Zineb; Midgley, Paul A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Holland, Daniel J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    The recent mathematical concept of compressed sensing (CS) asserts that a small number of well-chosen measurements can suffice to reconstruct signals that are amenable to sparse or compressible representation. In addition to powerful theoretical results, the principles of CS are being exploited increasingly across a range of experiments to yield substantial performance gains relative to conventional approaches. In this work we describe the application of CS to electron tomography (ET) reconstruction and demonstrate the efficacy of CS–ET with several example studies. Artefacts present in conventional ET reconstructions such as streaking, blurring of object boundaries and elongation are markedly reduced, and robust reconstruction is shown to be possible from far fewer projections than are normally used. The CS–ET approach enables more reliable quantitative analysis of the reconstructions as well as novel 3D studies from extremely limited data. - Highlights: • Compressed sensing (CS) theory and its application to electron tomography (ET) is described. • The practical implementation of CS–ET is outlined and its efficacy demonstrated with examples. • High fidelity tomographic reconstruction is possible from a small number of images. • The CS–ET reconstructions can be more reliably segmented and analysed quantitatively. • CS–ET is applicable to different image content by choice of an appropriate sparsifying transform.

  5. Compression of Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, Sarah; Houghton, Brittany; Renfro, Timothy

    2012-03-01

    The fall university physics class, at McMurry University, created a compression modulus experiment that even high school students could do. The class came up with this idea after a Young's modulus experiment which involved stretching wire. A question was raised of what would happen if we compressed something else? We created our own Young's modulus experiment, but in a more entertaining way. The experiment involves measuring the height of a cake both before and after a weight has been applied to the cake. We worked to derive the compression modulus by applying weight to a cake. In the end, we had our experimental cake and, ate it too! To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2012.TSS.B1.1 APS Home | APS Meetings | Join APS | Help | Contact APS Meetings var gaJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? "https://ssl." : "http://www."); document.write(unescape("%3Cscript src='" + gaJsHost + "google-analytics.com/ga.js' type='text/javascript'%3E%3C/script%3E")); try var pageTracker = gat.getTracker("UA-324916-13"); pageTracker.trackPageview(); catch(err)

  6. Shock compression of nitrobenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozu, Naoshi; Arai, Mitsuru; Tamura, Masamitsu; Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Aoki, Katsutoshi; Yoshida, Masatake; Kondo, Ken-Ichi

    1999-06-01

    The Hugoniot (4 - 30 GPa) and the isotherm (1 - 7 GPa) of nitrobenzene have been investigated by shock and static compression experiments. Nitrobenzene has the most basic structure of nitro aromatic compounds, which are widely used as energetic materials, but nitrobenzene has been considered not to explode in spite of the fact its calculated heat of detonation is similar to TNT, about 1 kcal/g. Explosive plane-wave generators and diamond anvil cell were used for shock and static compression, respectively. The obtained Hugoniot consists of two linear lines, and the kink exists around 10 GPa. The upper line agrees well with the Hugoniot of detonation products calculated by KHT code, so it is expected that nitrobenzene detonates in that area. Nitrobenzene solidifies under 1 GPa of static compression, and the isotherm of solid nitrobenzene was obtained by X-ray diffraction technique. Comparing the Hugoniot and the isotherm, nitrobenzene is in liquid phase under experimented shock condition. From the expected phase diagram, shocked nitrobenzene seems to remain metastable liquid in solid phase region on that diagram.

  7. Lossless image compression technique for infrared thermal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Lloyd G.; Kelly, Gary E.

    1992-07-01

    The authors have achieved a 6.5-to-one image compression technique for thermal images (640 X 480, 1024 colors deep). Using a combination of new and more traditional techniques, the combined algorithm is computationally simple, enabling `on-the-fly' compression and storage of an image in less time than it takes to transcribe the original image to or from a magnetic medium. Similar compression has been achieved on visual images by virtue of the feature that all optical devices possess a modulation transfer function. As a consequence of this property, the difference in color between adjacent pixels is a usually small number, often between -1 and +1 graduations for a meaningful color scheme. By differentiating adjacent rows and columns, the original image can be expressed in terms of these small numbers. A simple compression algorithm for these small numbers achieves a four to one image compression. By piggy-backing this technique with a LZW compression or a fixed Huffman coding, an additional 35% image compression is obtained, resulting in a 6.5-to-one lossless image compression. Because traditional noise-removal operators tend to minimize the color graduations between adjacent pixels, an additional 20% reduction can be obtained by preprocessing the image with a noise-removal operator. Although noise removal operators are not lossless, their application may prove crucial in applications requiring high compression, such as the storage or transmission of a large number or images. The authors are working with the Air Force Photonics Technology Application Program Management office to apply this technique to transmission of optical images from satellites.

  8. PLURALIZING NATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is widely recognised for its democratic approach to planning and the idea of planning for the common good. This interest in the common good and common values seems also to be reflected in the way which nature restoration is planned and managed – one common nature directed by the public...... authorities. But nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site......-specificity. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project (1999-2003), one interpretation of the landscape sometimes suppresses other valid interpretations neglecting its diverse history. However, evidence from Switzerland suggests that planning for the common good, in the case of nature restoration, does...

  9. Ultraspectral sounder data compression review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bormin HUANG; Hunglung HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Ultraspectral sounders provide an enormous amount of measurements to advance our knowledge of weather and climate applications. The use of robust data compression techniques will be beneficial for ultraspectral data transfer and archiving. This paper reviews the progress in lossless compression of ultra-spectral sounder data. Various transform-based, pre-diction-based, and clustering-based compression methods are covered. Also studied is a preprocessing scheme for data reordering to improve compression gains. All the coding experiments are performed on the ultraspectral compression benchmark dataset col-lected from the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations.

  10. Engineering Relative Compression of Genomes

    CERN Document Server

    Grabowski, Szymon

    2011-01-01

    Technology progress in DNA sequencing boosts the genomic database growth at faster and faster rate. Compression, accompanied with random access capabilities, is the key to maintain those huge amounts of data. In this paper we present an LZ77-style compression scheme for relative compression of multiple genomes of the same species. While the solution bears similarity to known algorithms, it offers significantly higher compression ratios at compression speed over a order of magnitude greater. One of the new successful ideas is augmenting the reference sequence with phrases from the other sequences, making more LZ-matches available.

  11. Compressive Strength of Compacted Clay-Sand Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faseel Suleman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of sand to improve the strength of natural clays provides a viable alternative for civil infrastructure construction involving earthwork. The main objective of this note was to investigate the compressive strength of compacted clay-sand mixes. A natural clay of high plasticity was mixed with 20% and 40% sand (SP and their compaction and strength properties were determined. Results indicated that the investigated materials exhibited a brittle behaviour on the dry side of optimum and a ductile behaviour on the wet side of optimum. For each material, the compressive strength increased with an increase in density following a power law function. Conversely, the compressive strength increased with decreasing water content of the material following a similar function. Finally, the compressive strength decreased with an increase in sand content because of increased material heterogeneity and loss of sand grains from the sides during shearing.

  12. Blind compressive sensing dynamic MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingala, Sajan Goud; Jacob, Mathews

    2013-06-01

    We propose a novel blind compressive sensing (BCS) frame work to recover dynamic magnetic resonance images from undersampled measurements. This scheme models the dynamic signal as a sparse linear combination of temporal basis functions, chosen from a large dictionary. In contrast to classical compressed sensing, the BCS scheme simultaneously estimates the dictionary and the sparse coefficients from the undersampled measurements. Apart from the sparsity of the coefficients, the key difference of the BCS scheme with current low rank methods is the nonorthogonal nature of the dictionary basis functions. Since the number of degrees-of-freedom of the BCS model is smaller than that of the low-rank methods, it provides improved reconstructions at high acceleration rates. We formulate the reconstruction as a constrained optimization problem; the objective function is the linear combination of a data consistency term and sparsity promoting l1 prior of the coefficients. The Frobenius norm dictionary constraint is used to avoid scale ambiguity. We introduce a simple and efficient majorize-minimize algorithm, which decouples the original criterion into three simpler subproblems. An alternating minimization strategy is used, where we cycle through the minimization of three simpler problems. This algorithm is seen to be considerably faster than approaches that alternates between sparse coding and dictionary estimation, as well as the extension of K-SVD dictionary learning scheme. The use of the l1 penalty and Frobenius norm dictionary constraint enables the attenuation of insignificant basis functions compared to the l0 norm and column norm constraint assumed in most dictionary learning algorithms; this is especially important since the number of basis functions that can be reliably estimated is restricted by the available measurements. We also observe that the proposed scheme is more robust to local minima compared to K-SVD method, which relies on greedy sparse coding. Our

  13. H.264/AVC Video Compressed Traces: Multifractal and Fractal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samčović Andreja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Publicly available long video traces encoded according to H.264/AVC were analyzed from the fractal and multifractal points of view. It was shown that such video traces, as compressed videos (H.261, H.263, and MPEG-4 Version 2 exhibit inherent long-range dependency, that is, fractal, property. Moreover they have high bit rate variability, particularly at higher compression ratios. Such signals may be better characterized by multifractal (MF analysis, since this approach describes both local and global features of the process. From multifractal spectra of the frame size video traces it was shown that higher compression ratio produces broader and less regular MF spectra, indicating to higher MF nature and the existence of additive components in video traces. Considering individual frames (I, P, and B and their MF spectra one can approve additive nature of compressed video and the particular influence of these frames to a whole MF spectrum. Since compressed video occupies a main part of transmission bandwidth, results obtained from MF analysis of compressed video may contribute to more accurate modeling of modern teletraffic. Moreover, by appropriate choice of the method for estimating MF quantities, an inverse MF analysis is possible, that means, from a once derived MF spectrum of observed signal it is possible to recognize and extract parts of the signal which are characterized by particular values of multifractal parameters. Intensive simulations and results obtained confirm the applicability and efficiency of MF analysis of compressed video.

  14. Compressed digital holography: from micro towards macro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schretter, Colas; Bettens, Stijn; Blinder, David; Pesquet-Popescu, Béatrice; Cagnazzo, Marco; Dufaux, Frédéric; Schelkens, Peter

    2016-09-01

    signal processing methods from software-driven computer engineering and applied mathematics. The compressed sensing theory in particular established a practical framework for reconstructing the scene content using few linear combinations of complex measurements and a sparse prior for regularizing the solution. Compressed sensing found direct applications in digital holography for microscopy. Indeed, the wave propagation phenomenon in free space mixes in a natural way the spatial distribution of point sources from the 3-dimensional scene. As the 3-dimensional scene is mapped to a 2-dimensional hologram, the hologram samples form a compressed representation of the scene as well. This overview paper discusses contributions in the field of compressed digital holography at the micro scale. Then, an outreach on future extensions towards the real-size macro scale is discussed. Thanks to advances in sensor technologies, increasing computing power and the recent improvements in sparse digital signal processing, holographic modalities are on the verge of practical high-quality visualization at a macroscopic scale where much higher resolution holograms must be acquired and processed on the computer.

  15. Instructions for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>1. Items of the paper Title, author’s name and working unit,abstract, key words, text andreference.2. Author and working unitEntitled authors should be those involved in the research and wouldbe able to answer

  16. Instructions for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>1. Items of the paper Title, author’s name and working unit,abstract, key words, text and reference.2. Author and working unit Entitled authors should be those involved in the research and would

  17. The analyst's knowledge and authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S A

    1998-01-01

    Current controversies about the nature of the knowledge analysts offer their patients and the kinds of authority they can legitimately claim are of central importance in the evolution of psychoanalytic ideas. These controversies reflect deep differences regarding basic assumptions about both epistemology and the nature of mind. An approach to these issues is offered which, it is argued, is closer to broad cultural shifts in thinking about knowledge in general than is the traditional psychoanalytic stance. Implications for theory and clinical practice are explored.

  18. Ombuds’ corner: Relationship to authority

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Among the cases brought to the Ombuds, many of them have to do with difficulties between supervisees and supervisors. In fact, they form the majority of the cases. For both parties, the source of the conflict boils down to the relationship that people entertain with what can be called "the authority". The relationship with the authority is somewhat different within the various Sectors of CERN, as are the relationships between personnel and supervisors. Generally one considers that natural authority can either come from a respected technical knowledge, or from charisma along with a good understanding of human relationships. Of course together these qualities ge...

  19. Authority in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Karl D.

    2012-01-01

    Authority as a philosophical concept is defined both in general and as it applies to engineering education. Authority is shown to be a good and necessary part of social structures, in contrast to some cultural trends that regard it as an unnecessary and outmoded evil. Technical, educational, and organizational authority in their normal functions…

  20. The compression of liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, E.

    The compression of liquids can be measured either directly by applying a pressure and noting the volume change, or indirectly, by measuring the magnitude of the fluctuations of the local volume. The methods used in Ottawa for the direct measurement of the compression are reviewed. The mean-square deviation of the volume from the mean at constant temperature can be measured by X-ray and neutron scattering at low angles, and the meansquare deviation at constant entropy can be measured by measuring the speed of sound. The speed of sound can be measured either acoustically, using an acoustic transducer, or by Brillouin spectroscopy. Brillouin spectroscopy can also be used to study the shear waves in liquids if the shear relaxation time is > ∼ 10 ps. The relaxation time of water is too short for the shear waves to be studied in this way, but they do occur in the low-frequency Raman and infrared spectra. The response of the structure of liquids to pressure can be studied by neutron scattering, and recently experiments have been done at Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, Chalk River, on liquid D 2O up to 15.6 kbar. They show that the near-neighbor intermolecular O-D and D-D distances are less spread out and at shorter distances at high pressure. Raman spectroscopy can also provide information on the structural response. It seems that the O-O distance in water decreases much less with pressure than it does in ice. Presumably, the bending of O-O-O angles tends to increase the O-O distance, and so to largely compensate the compression due to the direct effect of pressure.

  1. Ultrasound beamforming using compressed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yen-Feng; Li, Pai-Chi

    2012-05-01

    The rapid advancements in electronics technologies have made software-based beamformers for ultrasound array imaging feasible, thus facilitating the rapid development of high-performance and potentially low-cost systems. However, one challenge to realizing a fully software-based system is transferring data from the analog front end to the software back end at rates of up to a few gigabits per second. This study investigated the use of data compression to reduce the data transfer requirements and optimize the associated trade-off with beamforming quality. JPEG and JPEG2000 compression techniques were adopted. The acoustic data of a line phantom were acquired with a 128-channel array transducer at a center frequency of 3.5 MHz, and the acoustic data of a cyst phantom were acquired with a 64-channel array transducer at a center frequency of 3.33 MHz. The receive-channel data associated with each transmit event are separated into 8 × 8 blocks and several tiles before JPEG and JPEG2000 data compression is applied, respectively. In one scheme, the compression was applied to raw RF data, while in another only the amplitude of baseband data was compressed. The maximum compression ratio of RF data compression to produce an average error of lower than 5 dB was 15 with JPEG compression and 20 with JPEG2000 compression. The image quality is higher with baseband amplitude data compression than with RF data compression; although the maximum overall compression ratio (compared with the original RF data size), which was limited by the data size of uncompressed phase data, was lower than 12, the average error in this case was lower than 1 dB when the compression ratio was lower than 8.

  2. Beamforming using compressive sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Geoffrey F; Gaumond, Charles F

    2011-10-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is compared with conventional beamforming using horizontal beamforming of at-sea, towed-array data. They are compared qualitatively using bearing time records and quantitatively using signal-to-interference ratio. Qualitatively, CS exhibits lower levels of background interference than conventional beamforming. Furthermore, bearing time records show increasing, but tolerable, levels of background interference when the number of elements is decreased. For the full array, CS generates signal-to-interference ratio of 12 dB, but conventional beamforming only 8 dB. The superiority of CS over conventional beamforming is much more pronounced with undersampling.

  3. Statistical Mechanical Analysis of Compressed Sensing Utilizing Correlated Compression Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Koujin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a reconstruction limit of compressed sensing for a reconstruction scheme based on the L1-norm minimization utilizing a correlated compression matrix with a statistical mechanics method. We focus on the compression matrix modeled as the Kronecker-type random matrix studied in research on multi-input multi-output wireless communication systems. We found that strong one-dimensional correlations between expansion bases of original information slightly degrade reconstruction performance.

  4. Author! Author! Making Kids Laugh: Jon Scieszka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of author Jon Scieszka, best known for his first published title, "The True Story of the Three Little Pigs!" which has become a modern classic. The publication of this creative and inventive title led to the numerous fractured fairy tales published since its release in 1989. His books have received numerous…

  5. Coabsorbent and thermal recovery compression heat pumping technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Staicovici, Mihail-Dan

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces two of the most exciting heat pumping technologies, the coabsorbent and the thermal recovery (mechanical vapor) compression, characterized by a high potential in primary energy savings and environmental protection. New cycles with potential applications of nontruncated, truncated, hybrid truncated, and multi-effect coabsorbent types are introduced in this work.   Thermal-to-work recovery compression (TWRC) is the first of two particular methods explored here, including how superheat is converted into work, which diminishes the compressor work input. In the second method, thermal-to-thermal recovery compression (TTRC), the superheat is converted into useful cooling and/or heating, and added to the cycle output effect via the coabsorbent technology. These and other methods of discharge gas superheat recovery are analyzed for single-, two-, three-, and multi-stage compression cooling and heating, ammonia and ammonia-water cycles, and the effectiveness results are given.  The author presen...

  6. Application of strong zerotrees to compression of correlated MRI image sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveyko, Olexandr M.; Musatenko, Yurij S.; Kurashov, Vitalij N.; Dubikovskiy, Vladislav A.

    2001-08-01

    It is known that gainful interframe compression of magnetic resonance(MR) image set is quite difficult problem. Only few authors reported gain in performance of compressors like that comparing to separate compression of every MR image from the set (intraframe compression). Known reasons of such a situation are significant noise in MR images and presence of only low frequency correlations in images of the set. Recently we suggested new method of correlated image set compression based on Karhunen-Loeve(KL) transform and special EZW compression scheme with strong zerotrees(KLSEZW). KLSEZW algorithm showed good results in compression of video sequences with low and middle motion even without motion compensation. The paper presents successful application of the basic method and its modification to interframe MR image compression problem.

  7. Buckling a Semiflexible Polymer Chain under Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Pilyugina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Instability and structural transitions arise in many important problems involving dynamics at molecular length scales. Buckling of an elastic rod under a compressive load offers a useful general picture of such a transition. However, the existing theoretical description of buckling is applicable in the load response of macroscopic structures, only when fluctuations can be neglected, whereas membranes, polymer brushes, filaments, and macromolecular chains undergo considerable Brownian fluctuations. We analyze here the buckling of a fluctuating semiflexible polymer experiencing a compressive load. Previous works rely on approximations to the polymer statistics, resulting in a range of predictions for the buckling transition that disagree on whether fluctuations elevate or depress the critical buckling force. In contrast, our theory exploits exact results for the statistical behavior of the worm-like chain model yielding unambiguous predictions about the buckling conditions and nature of the buckling transition. We find that a fluctuating polymer under compressive load requires a larger force to buckle than an elastic rod in the absence of fluctuations. The nature of the buckling transition exhibits a marked change from being distinctly second order in the absence of fluctuations to being a more gradual, compliant transition in the presence of fluctuations. We analyze the thermodynamic contributions throughout the buckling transition to demonstrate that the chain entropy favors the extended state over the buckled state, providing a thermodynamic justification of the elevated buckling force.

  8. Fingerprints in Compressed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2013-01-01

    The Karp-Rabin fingerprint of a string is a type of hash value that due to its strong properties has been used in many string algorithms. In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed by a context-free grammar of size n that answers fingerprint queries....... That is, given indices i and j, the answer to a query is the fingerprint of the substring S[i,j]. We present the first O(n) space data structures that answer fingerprint queries without decompressing any characters. For Straight Line Programs (SLP) we get O(logN) query time, and for Linear SLPs (an SLP...... derivative that captures LZ78 compression and its variations) we get O(loglogN) query time. Hence, our data structures has the same time and space complexity as for random access in SLPs. We utilize the fingerprint data structures to solve the longest common extension problem in query time O(logNlogℓ) and O...

  9. Compressive Sensing DNA Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Baraniuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressive sensing microarrays (CSMs are DNA-based sensors that operate using group testing and compressive sensing (CS principles. In contrast to conventional DNA microarrays, in which each genetic sensor is designed to respond to a single target, in a CSM, each sensor responds to a set of targets. We study the problem of designing CSMs that simultaneously account for both the constraints from CS theory and the biochemistry of probe-target DNA hybridization. An appropriate cross-hybridization model is proposed for CSMs, and several methods are developed for probe design and CS signal recovery based on the new model. Lab experiments suggest that in order to achieve accurate hybridization profiling, consensus probe sequences are required to have sequence homology of at least 80% with all targets to be detected. Furthermore, out-of-equilibrium datasets are usually as accurate as those obtained from equilibrium conditions. Consequently, one can use CSMs in applications in which only short hybridization times are allowed.

  10. Compressive light field sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babacan, S Derin; Ansorge, Reto; Luessi, Martin; Matarán, Pablo Ruiz; Molina, Rafael; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K

    2012-12-01

    We propose a novel design for light field image acquisition based on compressive sensing principles. By placing a randomly coded mask at the aperture of a camera, incoherent measurements of the light passing through different parts of the lens are encoded in the captured images. Each captured image is a random linear combination of different angular views of a scene. The encoded images are then used to recover the original light field image via a novel Bayesian reconstruction algorithm. Using the principles of compressive sensing, we show that light field images with a large number of angular views can be recovered from only a few acquisitions. Moreover, the proposed acquisition and recovery method provides light field images with high spatial resolution and signal-to-noise-ratio, and therefore is not affected by limitations common to existing light field camera designs. We present a prototype camera design based on the proposed framework by modifying a regular digital camera. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system using experimental results with both synthetic and real images.

  11. Splines in Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abhishek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well understood that in any data acquisition system reduction in the amount of data reduces the time and energy, but the major trade-off here is the quality of outcome normally, lesser the amount of data sensed, lower the quality. Compressed Sensing (CS allows a solution, for sampling below the Nyquist rate. The challenging problem of increasing the reconstruction quality with less number of samples from an unprocessed data set is addressed here by the use of representative coordinate selected from different orders of splines. We have made a detailed comparison with 10 orthogonal and 6 biorthogonal wavelets with two sets of data from MIT Arrhythmia database and our results prove that the Spline coordinates work better than the wavelets. The generation of two new types of splines such as exponential and double exponential are also briefed here .We believe that this is one of the very first attempts made in Compressed Sensing based ECG reconstruction problems using raw data.  

  12. libpolycomp: Compression/decompression library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Libpolycomp compresses and decompresses one-dimensional streams of numbers by means of several algorithms. It is well-suited for time-ordered data acquired by astronomical instruments or simulations. One of the algorithms, called "polynomial compression", combines two widely-used ideas (namely, polynomial approximation and filtering of Fourier series) to achieve substantial compression ratios for datasets characterized by smoothness and lack of noise. Notable examples are the ephemerides of astronomical objects and the pointing information of astronomical telescopes. Other algorithms implemented in this C library are well known and already widely used, e.g., RLE, quantization, deflate (via libz) and Burrows-Wheeler transform (via libbzip2). Libpolycomp can compress the timelines acquired by the Planck/LFI instrument with an overall compression ratio of ~9, while other widely known programs (gzip, bzip2) reach compression ratios less than 1.5.

  13. Data compression on the sphere

    CERN Document Server

    McEwen, J D; Eyers, D M; 10.1051/0004-6361/201015728

    2011-01-01

    Large data-sets defined on the sphere arise in many fields. In particular, recent and forthcoming observations of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) made on the celestial sphere contain approximately three and fifty mega-pixels respectively. The compression of such data is therefore becoming increasingly important. We develop algorithms to compress data defined on the sphere. A Haar wavelet transform on the sphere is used as an energy compression stage to reduce the entropy of the data, followed by Huffman and run-length encoding stages. Lossless and lossy compression algorithms are developed. We evaluate compression performance on simulated CMB data, Earth topography data and environmental illumination maps used in computer graphics. The CMB data can be compressed to approximately 40% of its original size for essentially no loss to the cosmological information content of the data, and to approximately 20% if a small cosmological information loss is tolerated. For the topographic and il...

  14. Compressive sensing in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Christian G; Sidky, Emil Y

    2015-03-10

    The promise of compressive sensing, exploitation of compressibility to achieve high quality image reconstructions with less data, has attracted a great deal of attention in the medical imaging community. At the Compressed Sensing Incubator meeting held in April 2014 at OSA Headquarters in Washington, DC, presentations were given summarizing some of the research efforts ongoing in compressive sensing for x-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging systems. This article provides an expanded version of these presentations. Sparsity-exploiting reconstruction algorithms that have gained popularity in the medical imaging community are studied, and examples of clinical applications that could benefit from compressive sensing ideas are provided. The current and potential future impact of compressive sensing on the medical imaging field is discussed.

  15. Image Compression using GSOM Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHABBIR AHMAD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available compression. Conventional techniques such as Huffman coding and the Shannon Fano method, LZ Method, Run Length Method, LZ-77 are more recent methods for the compression of data. A traditional approach to reduce the large amount of data would be to discard some data redundancy and introduce some noise after reconstruction. We present a neural network based Growing self-organizing map technique that may be a reliable and efficient way to achieve vector quantization. Typical application of such algorithm is image compression. Moreover, Kohonen networks realize a mapping between an input and an output space that preserves topology. This feature can be used to build new compression schemes which allow obtaining better compression rate than with classical method as JPEG without reducing the image quality .the experiment result show that proposed algorithm improve the compression ratio in BMP, JPG and TIFF File.

  16. Speech Compression Using Multecirculerletet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Murtadha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressing the speech reduces the data storage requirements, leading to reducing the time of transmitting the digitized speech over long-haul links like internet. To obtain best performance in speech compression, wavelet transforms require filters that combine a number of desirable properties, such as orthogonality and symmetry.The MCT bases functions are derived from GHM bases function using 2D linear convolution .The fast computation algorithm methods introduced here added desirable features to the current transform. We further assess the performance of the MCT in speech compression application. This paper discusses the effect of using DWT and MCT (one and two dimension on speech compression. DWT and MCT performances in terms of compression ratio (CR, mean square error (MSE and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR are assessed. Computer simulation results indicate that the two dimensions MCT offer a better compression ratio, MSE and PSNR than DWT.

  17. Energy transfer in compressible turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Francoise; Zhou, YE; Bertoglio, Jean-Pierre

    1995-01-01

    This letter investigates the compressible energy transfer process. We extend a methodology developed originally for incompressible turbulence and use databases from numerical simulations of a weak compressible turbulence based on Eddy-Damped-Quasi-Normal-Markovian (EDQNM) closure. In order to analyze the compressible mode directly, the well known Helmholtz decomposition is used. While the compressible component has very little influence on the solenoidal part, we found that almost all of the compressible turbulence energy is received from its solenoidal counterpart. We focus on the most fundamental building block of the energy transfer process, the triadic interactions. This analysis leads us to conclude that, at low turbulent Mach number, the compressible energy transfer process is dominated by a local radiative transfer (absorption) in both inertial and energy containing ranges.

  18. DTU advises national and international authorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderberg Petersen, L.

    2007-01-01

    Activities at all departments at the Technical University of Denmark naturally involve advising the authorities in Denmark, the EU and internationally. The scope of these activities is set to increase in the coming years.......Activities at all departments at the Technical University of Denmark naturally involve advising the authorities in Denmark, the EU and internationally. The scope of these activities is set to increase in the coming years....

  19. Information optimal compressive sensing: static measurement design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Amit; Huang, Liang-Chih; Neifeld, Mark A

    2013-05-01

    The compressive sensing paradigm exploits the inherent sparsity/compressibility of signals to reduce the number of measurements required for reliable reconstruction/recovery. In many applications additional prior information beyond signal sparsity, such as structure in sparsity, is available, and current efforts are mainly limited to exploiting that information exclusively in the signal reconstruction problem. In this work, we describe an information-theoretic framework that incorporates the additional prior information as well as appropriate measurement constraints in the design of compressive measurements. Using a Gaussian binomial mixture prior we design and analyze the performance of optimized projections relative to random projections under two specific design constraints and different operating measurement signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes. We find that the information-optimized designs yield significant, in some cases nearly an order of magnitude, improvements in the reconstruction performance with respect to the random projections. These improvements are especially notable in the low measurement SNR regime where the energy-efficient design of optimized projections is most advantageous. In such cases, the optimized projection design departs significantly from random projections in terms of their incoherence with the representation basis. In fact, we find that the maximizing incoherence of projections with the representation basis is not necessarily optimal in the presence of additional prior information and finite measurement noise/error. We also apply the information-optimized projections to the compressive image formation problem for natural scenes, and the improved visual quality of reconstructed images with respect to random projections and other compressive measurement design affirms the overall effectiveness of the information-theoretic design framework.

  20. Biomedical sensor design using analog compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2015-05-01

    The main drawback of current healthcare systems is the location-specific nature of the system due to the use of fixed/wired biomedical sensors. Since biomedical sensors are usually driven by a battery, power consumption is the most important factor determining the life of a biomedical sensor. They are also restricted by size, cost, and transmission capacity. Therefore, it is important to reduce the load of sampling by merging the sampling and compression steps to reduce the storage usage, transmission times, and power consumption in order to expand the current healthcare systems to Wireless Healthcare Systems (WHSs). In this work, we present an implementation of a low-power biomedical sensor using analog Compressed Sensing (CS) framework for sparse biomedical signals that addresses both the energy and telemetry bandwidth constraints of wearable and wireless Body-Area Networks (BANs). This architecture enables continuous data acquisition and compression of biomedical signals that are suitable for a variety of diagnostic and treatment purposes. At the transmitter side, an analog-CS framework is applied at the sensing step before Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) in order to generate the compressed version of the input analog bio-signal. At the receiver side, a reconstruction algorithm based on Restricted Isometry Property (RIP) condition is applied in order to reconstruct the original bio-signals form the compressed bio-signals with high probability and enough accuracy. We examine the proposed algorithm with healthy and neuropathy surface Electromyography (sEMG) signals. The proposed algorithm achieves a good level for Average Recognition Rate (ARR) at 93% and reconstruction accuracy at 98.9%. In addition, The proposed architecture reduces total computation time from 32 to 11.5 seconds at sampling-rate=29 % of Nyquist rate, Percentage Residual Difference (PRD)=26 %, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE)=3 %.

  1. A model for economic evaluation of the use of Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG); Modelo de avaliacao economica do uso do Gas Natural Adsorvido (GNA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Diana C.S.; Cavalcante Junior, Celio L.; Torres, A. Eurico B.; Oliveira Junior, Jose A.; Medeiros, Vanildo M. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Campos, Flavio B.; Moura, Newton R. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Gas e Energia; Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Tecnologia de Gas e Energia; Alexandre, Francisco de Assis Souza

    2004-07-01

    Natural gas is currently transported by two main ways: through pipelines and stored in reservoirs, under compressed (CNG) or liquefied (LNG) forms. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) is a third alternative to vessel storage, which has been intensively reported in the scientific and technical literature. Working pressures are considerably lower for ANG (3,5 MPa as compared to 25 MPa for CNG), which results in lower costs with vessel construction and compression and safer handling. The project ADSPOR, sponsored by PETROBRAS and part of the R and D portfolio of RedeGasEnergia, aims to assess the technical and economical feasibility of storing and transporting natural gas confined in carbon adsorbents. The objectives of this project are the production of high-capacity active carbons, the collection of adsorption data for NG storage and the economic evaluation of ANG. The present work presents a model for cost estimation of the ANG business, which comprises from the compression into ANG vessels until the distribution to the final costumer, taking into account several shipping modes. The variables involved in the model were: compression costs, equipment and materials technical data, costs with product handling and shipping costs for motor ways, railways and inland waterways. These variables were linked so as to generate a cost matrix that may be used to assess investment and calculate the final cost for GNA transport. The model may be used to carry out parameter sensitivity analysis, for decision-making and management purposes. (author)

  2. Preservation and storage of food using natural gas as an energy source; Preservacao e armazenamento de alimentos usando gas natural como fonte de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gabriel F. da; Lira, Moema de Lima; Carnelossi, Marcelo A.G.; Sousa, Mabel R. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Jesus, Marcos Fabio de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Campos, Michel Fabianski; Martins, Ronaldo M.; Furini Filho, Roberto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Sara Macedo dos [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this work a study on preservation and storage of agricultural products was undertaken in chambers cooled through an absorption system, which used natural gas in the power plant and the results were compared with the compression system using electric energy. For the study a refrigeration pilot unit was mounted which consisted of chiller through water/ammonia absorption with direct natural gas burning, having a maximum consumption of 2,7{sup 3}/ h and capacity of 5 TR's, three refrigerating chambers with isopanel walls polyurethane, dimensions 2mx3mx2m with maximum capacity of storage of 2.000 kg each, control panel, a system of compressed natural gas supplying two carts each containing three cylinders with capacity of 71,4{sup 3} and a compression system connected to a chamber of same characteristics. Optimization studies in the storage of some fruits and vegetables were undertaken. A program was established which takes in account the food properties and characteristics of refrigeration systems to estimate the operational cost with the two systems. A techno-economic feasibility study was carried out on the two system of absorption and compression. This project was developed in the UFS, and is part of RedeGasEnergia, support for the financial aid was provided by PETROBRAS and FINEP/CTPETRO programs. (author)

  3. q-ary compressive sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Mroueh, Youssef; Rosasco, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    We introduce q-ary compressive sensing, an extension of 1-bit compressive sensing. We propose a novel sensing mechanism and a corresponding recovery procedure. The recovery properties of the proposed approach are analyzed both theoretically and empirically. Results in 1-bit compressive sensing are recovered as a special case. Our theoretical results suggest a tradeoff between the quantization parameter q, and the number of measurements m in the control of the error of the resulting recovery a...

  4. Introduction to compressible fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionThe Equations of Steady One-Dimensional Compressible FlowSome Fundamental Aspects of Compressible FlowOne-Dimensional Isentropic FlowNormal Shock WavesOblique Shock WavesExpansion Waves - Prandtl-Meyer FlowVariable Area FlowsAdiabatic Flow with FrictionFlow with Heat TransferLinearized Analysis of Two-Dimensional Compressible FlowsHypersonic and High-Temperature FlowsHigh-Temperature Gas EffectsLow-Density FlowsBibliographyAppendices

  5. Compressive sensing of sparse tensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Shmuel; Li, Qun; Schonfeld, Dan

    2014-10-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) has triggered an enormous research activity since its first appearance. CS exploits the signal's sparsity or compressibility in a particular domain and integrates data compression and acquisition, thus allowing exact reconstruction through relatively few nonadaptive linear measurements. While conventional CS theory relies on data representation in the form of vectors, many data types in various applications, such as color imaging, video sequences, and multisensor networks, are intrinsically represented by higher order tensors. Application of CS to higher order data representation is typically performed by conversion of the data to very long vectors that must be measured using very large sampling matrices, thus imposing a huge computational and memory burden. In this paper, we propose generalized tensor compressive sensing (GTCS)-a unified framework for CS of higher order tensors, which preserves the intrinsic structure of tensor data with reduced computational complexity at reconstruction. GTCS offers an efficient means for representation of multidimensional data by providing simultaneous acquisition and compression from all tensor modes. In addition, we propound two reconstruction procedures, a serial method and a parallelizable method. We then compare the performance of the proposed method with Kronecker compressive sensing (KCS) and multiway compressive sensing (MWCS). We demonstrate experimentally that GTCS outperforms KCS and MWCS in terms of both reconstruction accuracy (within a range of compression ratios) and processing speed. The major disadvantage of our methods (and of MWCS as well) is that the compression ratios may be worse than that offered by KCS.

  6. Image Compression Algorithms Using Dct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er. Abhishek Kaushik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Image compression is the application of Data compression on digital images. The discrete cosine transform (DCT is a technique for converting a signal into elementary frequency components. It is widely used in image compression. Here we develop some simple functions to compute the DCT and to compress images. An image compression algorithm was comprehended using Matlab code, and modified to perform better when implemented in hardware description language. The IMAP block and IMAQ block of MATLAB was used to analyse and study the results of Image Compression using DCT and varying co-efficients for compression were developed to show the resulting image and error image from the original images. Image Compression is studied using 2-D discrete Cosine Transform. The original image is transformed in 8-by-8 blocks and then inverse transformed in 8-by-8 blocks to create the reconstructed image. The inverse DCT would be performed using the subset of DCT coefficients. The error image (the difference between the original and reconstructed image would be displayed. Error value for every image would be calculated over various values of DCT co-efficients as selected by the user and would be displayed in the end to detect the accuracy and compression in the resulting image and resulting performance parameter would be indicated in terms of MSE , i.e. Mean Square Error.

  7. Primary hypertension and neurovascular compression: a meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaarts, H.D.; Menovsky, T.; Vries, J. de; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Grotenhuis, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECT: Several studies have suggested that neurovascular compression (NVC) of the brainstem might be a cause of hypertension. Because this compression syndrome might be demonstrated by MR imaging studies, several authors have tried to assess its prevalence in small series of patients with hypertens

  8. Dataset of long-term compressive strength of concrete with manufactured sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xinxin; Li, Changyong; Xu, Yangyang; Li, Fenglan; Zhao, Shunbo

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents 186 groups compressive strength tests data of concrete with manufactured sand (MSC) in different curing age and 262 groups compressive strength tests data of MSC at 28 days collected from authors' experiments and other researches in China. Further interpretation and discussion were described in this issues.

  9. Equilibrium states of homogeneous sheared compressible turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, M.; Lili, T.

    2011-06-01

    Equilibrium states of homogeneous compressible turbulence subjected to rapid shear is studied using rapid distortion theory (RDT). The purpose of this study is to determine the numerical solutions of unsteady linearized equations governing double correlations spectra evolution. In this work, RDT code developed by authors solves these equations for compressible homogeneous shear flows. Numerical integration of these equations is carried out using a second-order simple and accurate scheme. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number Mt, given by the root mean square turbulent velocity fluctuations divided by the speed of sound, and the gradient Mach number Mg which is the mean shear rate times the transverse integral scale of the turbulence divided by the speed of sound. Validation of this code is performed by comparing RDT results with direct numerical simulation (DNS) of [A. Simone, G.N. Coleman, and C. Cambon, Fluid Mech. 330, 307 (1997)] and [S. Sarkar, J. Fluid Mech. 282, 163 (1995)] for various values of initial gradient Mach number Mg0. It was found that RDT is valid for small values of the non-dimensional times St (St 10) in particular for large values of Mg0. This essential feature justifies the resort to RDT in order to determine equilibrium states in the compressible regime.

  10. Equilibrium states of homogeneous sheared compressible turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riahi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Equilibrium states of homogeneous compressible turbulence subjected to rapid shear is studied using rapid distortion theory (RDT. The purpose of this study is to determine the numerical solutions of unsteady linearized equations governing double correlations spectra evolution. In this work, RDT code developed by authors solves these equations for compressible homogeneous shear flows. Numerical integration of these equations is carried out using a second-order simple and accurate scheme. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number Mt, given by the root mean square turbulent velocity fluctuations divided by the speed of sound, and the gradient Mach number Mg which is the mean shear rate times the transverse integral scale of the turbulence divided by the speed of sound. Validation of this code is performed by comparing RDT results with direct numerical simulation (DNS of [A. Simone, G.N. Coleman, and C. Cambon, Fluid Mech. 330, 307 (1997] and [S. Sarkar, J. Fluid Mech. 282, 163 (1995] for various values of initial gradient Mach number Mg0. It was found that RDT is valid for small values of the non-dimensional times St (St 10 in particular for large values of Mg0. This essential feature justifies the resort to RDT in order to determine equilibrium states in the compressible regime.

  11. Respect My Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gorman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Some simple modifications to VuFind, an open source library resource portal, improve the retrieval of both lists of works and information about authors from Wikipedia. These modifications begin to address ways that current "next-generation" catalogs fail to fully harness all of the bibliographic tools available for indexing and presenting author information. Simple methods such as those described in this article, which make use of full headings for authors, can offer marked improvements to these systems.

  12. Authoring tool evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.L.; Klenk, K.S.; Coday, A.C.; McGee, J.P.; Rivenburgh, R.R.; Gonzales, D.M.; Mniszewski, S.M.

    1994-09-15

    This paper discusses and evaluates a number of authoring tools currently on the market. The tools evaluated are Visix Galaxy, NeuronData Open Interface Elements, Sybase Gain Momentum, XVT Power++, Aimtech IconAuthor, Liant C++/Views, and Inmark Technology zApp. Also discussed is the LIST project and how this evaluation is being used to fit an authoring tool to the project.

  13. Parental authority questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.

  14. Instructions for authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editors Editorial Board

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS
    Author Guidelines
    Authors must submit their papers via email to brain@edusoft.ro (please! or they can create an account and submit their papers online, at www.brain.edusoft.ro. Submited papers must be written in DOC format (Microsoft Word document, in as clear and as simple as possible English. Preferred maximum paper length for the papers is 20 pages, including figures.
    The template for the paper is at this address:
    http://www.edusoft.ro/Template_for_BRAIN.docRAIN vol. 3, issue 3, Instructions for authors

  15. An underwater acoustic data compression method based on compressed sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓乐; 杨坤德; 史阳; 段睿

    2016-01-01

    The use of underwater acoustic data has rapidly expanded with the application of multichannel, large-aperture underwater detection arrays. This study presents an underwater acoustic data compression method that is based on compressed sensing. Underwater acoustic signals are transformed into the sparse domain for data storage at a receiving terminal, and the improved orthogonal matching pursuit (IOMP) algorithm is used to reconstruct the original underwater acoustic signals at a data processing terminal. When an increase in sidelobe level occasionally causes a direction of arrival estimation error, the proposed compression method can achieve a 10 times stronger compression for narrowband signals and a 5 times stronger compression for wideband signals than the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm. The IOMP algorithm also reduces the computing time by about 20% more than the original OMP algorithm. The simulation and experimental results are discussed.

  16. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben;

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...... is observed between stiffness reduction and accumulated creep. A failure model based on the total work during the fatigue life is rejected, and a modified work model based on elastic, viscous and non-recovered viscoelastic work is experimentally supported, and an explanation at a microstructural level...

  17. Central cooling: compressive chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1978-03-01

    Representative cost and performance data are provided in a concise, useable form for three types of compressive liquid packaged chillers: reciprocating, centrifugal, and screw. The data are represented in graphical form as well as in empirical equations. Reciprocating chillers are available from 2.5 to 240 tons with full-load COPs ranging from 2.85 to 3.87. Centrifugal chillers are available from 80 to 2,000 tons with full load COPs ranging from 4.1 to 4.9. Field-assemblied centrifugal chillers have been installed with capacities up to 10,000 tons. Screw-type chillers are available from 100 to 750 tons with full load COPs ranging from 3.3 to 4.5.

  18. Adaptively Compressed Exchange Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The Fock exchange operator plays a central role in modern quantum chemistry. The large computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator hinders Hartree-Fock calculations and Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, even for systems consisting of hundreds of atoms. We develop the adaptively compressed exchange operator (ACE) formulation, which greatly reduces the computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator without loss of accuracy. The ACE formulation does not depend on the size of the band gap, and thus can be applied to insulating, semiconducting as well as metallic systems. In an iterative framework for solving Hartree-Fock-like systems, the ACE formulation only requires moderate modification of the code, and can be potentially beneficial for all electronic structure software packages involving exchange calculations. Numerical results indicate that the ACE formulation can become advantageous even for small systems with tens...

  19. Compression-based Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanyi, Paul M B

    2011-01-01

    First we consider pair-wise distances for literal objects consisting of finite binary files. These files are taken to contain all of their meaning, like genomes or books. The distances are based on compression of the objects concerned, normalized, and can be viewed as similarity distances. Second, we consider pair-wise distances between names of objects, like "red" or "christianity." In this case the distances are based on searches of the Internet. Such a search can be performed by any search engine that returns aggregate page counts. We can extract a code length from the numbers returned, use the same formula as before, and derive a similarity or relative semantics between names for objects. The theory is based on Kolmogorov complexity. We test both similarities extensively experimentally.

  20. Adaptive compressive sensing camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming K.; Cha, Jae; Iwamura, Tomo; Landa, Joseph; Nguyen, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2013-05-01

    We have embedded Adaptive Compressive Sensing (ACS) algorithm on Charge-Coupled-Device (CCD) camera based on the simplest concept that each pixel is a charge bucket, and the charges comes from Einstein photoelectric conversion effect. Applying the manufactory design principle, we only allow altering each working component at a minimum one step. We then simulated what would be such a camera can do for real world persistent surveillance taking into account of diurnal, all weather, and seasonal variations. The data storage has saved immensely, and the order of magnitude of saving is inversely proportional to target angular speed. We did design two new components of CCD camera. Due to the matured CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) technology, the on-chip Sample and Hold (SAH) circuitry can be designed for a dual Photon Detector (PD) analog circuitry for changedetection that predicts skipping or going forward at a sufficient sampling frame rate. For an admitted frame, there is a purely random sparse matrix [Φ] which is implemented at each bucket pixel level the charge transport bias voltage toward its neighborhood buckets or not, and if not, it goes to the ground drainage. Since the snapshot image is not a video, we could not apply the usual MPEG video compression and Hoffman entropy codec as well as powerful WaveNet Wrapper on sensor level. We shall compare (i) Pre-Processing FFT and a threshold of significant Fourier mode components and inverse FFT to check PSNR; (ii) Post-Processing image recovery will be selectively done by CDT&D adaptive version of linear programming at L1 minimization and L2 similarity. For (ii) we need to determine in new frames selection by SAH circuitry (i) the degree of information (d.o.i) K(t) dictates the purely random linear sparse combination of measurement data a la [Φ]M,N M(t) = K(t) Log N(t).

  1. Instructions for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>1.Items of the paper Title,author’s name and working unit,abstract,key words,text and reference. 2.Author and working unit Entitled authors should be those involved in the research and would be able to answer relevant questions.The working units,cities and

  2. Communication of authority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2009-01-01

    assimilated with the prophet. Thus, the literary persona, the prophet, and his book, is able to talk with normative authority in a context, post-exilic Judah/Yehud, which calls for normativity to sustain the rebuilding of society. The question remains if this normative authority can be upheld today, and if so...

  3. Boerhaave: Author and Editor *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The many facets of Herman Boerhaave's life are presented. He was a renowned teacher, physician, author, and editor. Discussed here are his activities as cataloger of the Vossius Collection, author of books on chemistry, botany, and medicine, and as editor of works by Vesalius and early Greek medical writers. Printing and bookselling in Leiden during Boerhaave's era are described. Images PMID:4596962

  4. The Authors Reply

    Science.gov (United States)

    File, Kieran A.; Adams, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the authors' reply to Beniko Mason and Stephen Krashen's comments on their recent article published in "TESOL Quarterly." Mason and Krashen have provided an interesting reinterpretation of the authors' results and have also brought up several valid points regarding the efficiency of vocabulary learning from instruction,…

  5. On Responsibility and Authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahaus, Kees; van de Water, Henricus

    1994-01-01

    Defining authorities is a topic of current interest in quality management. One of the conditions in the ISO 9000-series deals with this topic. In this paper we will first examine the concepts of authority and responsibility, which are not at all univocally defined in organization literature. We will

  6. Multimedia Authoring and Annotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulterman, D.C.A.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Munson, E.; Pimentel, M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    With the massive amount of captured multimedia, authoring is more relevant than ever. Multimedia content is available in many settings including the web, mobile devices, desktop applications, as well as games and interactive TV. The authoring and production of multimedia documents demands attention

  7. The Voice of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterlund, Kris

    2012-01-01

    In the last part of 2011, conversations swirled around the Internet and print about the assault on museum authority. The Marcus Institute for Digital Education in the Arts (MIDEA) summarized some of the discussion in their blog entry "The Participatory Museum and a New Authority." Other sites joined in the discussion, for example, the Museum Geek…

  8. Application specific compression : final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melgaard, David Kennett; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Myers, Daniel S.; Harrison, Carol D.; Lee, David S.; Lewis, Phillip J.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2008-12-01

    With the continuing development of more capable data gathering sensors, comes an increased demand on the bandwidth for transmitting larger quantities of data. To help counteract that trend, a study was undertaken to determine appropriate lossy data compression strategies for minimizing their impact on target detection and characterization. The survey of current compression techniques led us to the conclusion that wavelet compression was well suited for this purpose. Wavelet analysis essentially applies a low-pass and high-pass filter to the data, converting the data into the related coefficients that maintain spatial information as well as frequency information. Wavelet compression is achieved by zeroing the coefficients that pertain to the noise in the signal, i.e. the high frequency, low amplitude portion. This approach is well suited for our goal because it reduces the noise in the signal with only minimal impact on the larger, lower frequency target signatures. The resulting coefficients can then be encoded using lossless techniques with higher compression levels because of the lower entropy and significant number of zeros. No significant signal degradation or difficulties in target characterization or detection were observed or measured when wavelet compression was applied to simulated and real data, even when over 80% of the coefficients were zeroed. While the exact level of compression will be data set dependent, for the data sets we studied, compression factors over 10 were found to be satisfactory where conventional lossless techniques achieved levels of less than 3.

  9. Streaming Compression of Hexahedral Meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isenburg, M; Courbet, C

    2010-02-03

    We describe a method for streaming compression of hexahedral meshes. Given an interleaved stream of vertices and hexahedral our coder incrementally compresses the mesh in the presented order. Our coder is extremely memory efficient when the input stream documents when vertices are referenced for the last time (i.e. when it contains topological finalization tags). Our coder then continuously releases and reuses data structures that no longer contribute to compressing the remainder of the stream. This means in practice that our coder has only a small fraction of the whole mesh in memory at any time. We can therefore compress very large meshes - even meshes that do not file in memory. Compared to traditional, non-streaming approaches that load the entire mesh and globally reorder it during compression, our algorithm trades a less compact compressed representation for significant gains in speed, memory, and I/O efficiency. For example, on the 456k hexahedra 'blade' mesh, our coder is twice as fast and uses 88 times less memory (only 3.1 MB) with the compressed file increasing about 3% in size. We also present the first scheme for predictive compression of properties associated with hexahedral cells.

  10. Compression Maps and Stable Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Balanced relations were defined by G. Abrams to extend the convolution product used in the construction of incidence rings. We define stable relations,which form a class between balanced relations and preorders. We also define a compression map to be a surjective function between two sets which preserves order, preserves off-diagonal relations, and has the additional property every transitive triple is the image of a transitive triple. We show a compression map preserves the balanced and stable properties but the compression of a preorder may be stable and not transitive. We also cover an example of a stable relation which is not the compression of a preorder. In our main theorem we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a finite stable relation to be the compression of a preorder.

  11. Prediction of compressibility parameters of the soils using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnaz, T Fikret; Dagdeviren, Ugur; Yildiz, Murat; Ozkan, Ozhan

    2016-01-01

    The compression index and recompression index are one of the important compressibility parameters to determine the settlement calculation for fine-grained soil layers. These parameters can be determined by carrying out laboratory oedometer test on undisturbed samples; however, the test is quite time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, many empirical formulas based on regression analysis have been presented to estimate the compressibility parameters using soil index properties. In this paper, an artificial neural network (ANN) model is suggested for prediction of compressibility parameters from basic soil properties. For this purpose, the input parameters are selected as the natural water content, initial void ratio, liquid limit and plasticity index. In this model, two output parameters, including compression index and recompression index, are predicted in a combined network structure. As the result of the study, proposed ANN model is successful for the prediction of the compression index, however the predicted recompression index values are not satisfying compared to the compression index.

  12. Development of ultra-short high voltage pulse technology using magnetic pulse compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Byung Heon; Kim, S. G.; Nam, S. M.; Lee, B. C.; Lee, S. M.; Jeong, Y. U.; Cho, S. O.; Jin, J. T.; Choi, H. L

    1998-01-01

    The control circuit for high voltage switches, the saturable inductor for magnetic assist, and the magnetic pulse compression circuit were designed, constructed, and tested. The core materials of saturable inductors in magnetic pulse compression circuit were amorphous metal and ferrite and total compression stages were 3. By the test, in high repetition rate, high pulse compression were certified. As a result of this test, it became possible to increase life-time of thyratrons and to replace thyratrons by solid-state semiconductor switches. (author). 16 refs., 16 tabs.

  13. An efficient and extensible approach for compressing phylogenetic trees

    KAUST Repository

    Matthews, Suzanne J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Biologists require new algorithms to efficiently compress and store their large collections of phylogenetic trees. Our previous work showed that TreeZip is a promising approach for compressing phylogenetic trees. In this paper, we extend our TreeZip algorithm by handling trees with weighted branches. Furthermore, by using the compressed TreeZip file as input, we have designed an extensible decompressor that can extract subcollections of trees, compute majority and strict consensus trees, and merge tree collections using set operations such as union, intersection, and set difference.Results: On unweighted phylogenetic trees, TreeZip is able to compress Newick files in excess of 98%. On weighted phylogenetic trees, TreeZip is able to compress a Newick file by at least 73%. TreeZip can be combined with 7zip with little overhead, allowing space savings in excess of 99% (unweighted) and 92%(weighted). Unlike TreeZip, 7zip is not immune to branch rotations, and performs worse as the level of variability in the Newick string representation increases. Finally, since the TreeZip compressed text (TRZ) file contains all the semantic information in a collection of trees, we can easily filter and decompress a subset of trees of interest (such as the set of unique trees), or build the resulting consensus tree in a matter of seconds. We also show the ease of which set operations can be performed on TRZ files, at speeds quicker than those performed on Newick or 7zip compressed Newick files, and without loss of space savings.Conclusions: TreeZip is an efficient approach for compressing large collections of phylogenetic trees. The semantic and compact nature of the TRZ file allow it to be operated upon directly and quickly, without a need to decompress the original Newick file. We believe that TreeZip will be vital for compressing and archiving trees in the biological community. © 2011 Matthews and Williams; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  14. Effect of Lossy JPEG Compression of an Image with Chromatic Aberrations on Target Measurement Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports an experiment conducted to investigate the effect of lossy JPEG compression of an image with chromatic aberrations on the measurement accuracy of target center by the intensity-weighted centroid method. I utilized six images shooting a white sheet with 30 by 20 black filled circles in the experiment. The images were acquired by a digital camera Canon EOS 20D. The image data were compressed by using two compression parameter sets of a downsampling ratio, a quantization table and a Huffman code table utilized in EOS 20D. The experiment results clearly indicate that lossy JPEG compression of an image with chromatic aberrations would produce a significant effect on measurement accuracy of target center by the intensity-weighted centroid method. The maximum displacements of red, green and blue components caused by lossy JPEG compression were 0.20, 0.09, and 0.20 pixels respectively. The results also suggest that the downsampling of the chrominance components Cb and Cr in lossy JPEG compression would produce displacements between uncompressed image data and compressed image data. In conclusion, since the author consider that it would be unable to correct displacements caused by lossy JPEG compression, the author would recommend that lossy JPEG compression before recording an image in a digital camera should not be executed in case of highly precise image measurement by using color images acquired by a non-metric digital camera.

  15. TRIAXIAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslav Sovják

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to describe the strength of Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC under triaxial compression. The main goal is to find a trend in the triaxial compressive strength development under various values of confinement pressure. The importance of triaxial tests lies in the spatial loading of the sample, which simulates the real loading of the material in the structure better than conventional uniaxial strength tests. In addition, the authors describe a formulation process for UHPC that has been developed without using heat treatment, pressure or a special mixer. Only ordinary materials available commercially in the Czech Republic were utilized throughout the material design process.

  16. Compressed Submanifold Multifactor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Khoa; Savvides, Marios; Bui, Tien; Suen, Ching

    2016-04-14

    Although widely used, Multilinear PCA (MPCA), one of the leading multilinear analysis methods, still suffers from four major drawbacks. First, it is very sensitive to outliers and noise. Second, it is unable to cope with missing values. Third, it is computationally expensive since MPCA deals with large multi-dimensional datasets. Finally, it is unable to maintain the local geometrical structures due to the averaging process. This paper proposes a novel approach named Compressed Submanifold Multifactor Analysis (CSMA) to solve the four problems mentioned above. Our approach can deal with the problem of missing values and outliers via SVD-L1. The Random Projection method is used to obtain the fast low-rank approximation of a given multifactor dataset. In addition, it is able to preserve the geometry of the original data. Our CSMA method can be used efficiently for multiple purposes, e.g. noise and outlier removal, estimation of missing values, biometric applications. We show that CSMA method can achieve good results and is very efficient in the inpainting problem as compared to [1], [2]. Our method also achieves higher face recognition rates compared to LRTC, SPMA, MPCA and some other methods, i.e. PCA, LDA and LPP, on three challenging face databases, i.e. CMU-MPIE, CMU-PIE and Extended YALE-B.

  17. Instructions for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ GENERAL SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS These guidelines have been prepared in accordance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.1 Authors should familiarize themselves with these requirements before submission.

  18. Copyright Authorization Statement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Should the article be accepted and published by Meteorological and Environmental Research,the author hereby grants exclu-sively to the editorial department of Meteorological and Environmental Research the digital reproduction

  19. Copyright Authorization Statement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Should the article be accepted and published by Meteorological and Environmental Research,the author hereby grants exclu-sively to the editorial department of Meteorological and Environmental Research the digital reproduction

  20. GUIDE TO AUTHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions has no page chargesManuscript Submission.Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions operates an online submission and peer review system that allows authors to submit articles onlineand track their

  1. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.

    1992-01-01

    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

  2. Author Identification in Dialnet

    OpenAIRE

    Bergasa, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    26 slides.-- Presentation delivered at the Topic Session "Identifiers". The presentation introduces the Dialnet Foundation, a public non-profit organisation founded 2009 as a Spin-off from the University of La Rioja in Spain, and the Dialnet portal whose database holds nearly 4M documents, mostly in Spanish. Authority control is one of the strategic Dialnet worklines and permanent cleaning work is done on the over 2.5M author records in cooperation with universities and other institutions....

  3. Authority Control for INVENIO

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, Christopher Michael; Omar, Abou Khaled; Felber, Pascal

    This is the final report for a Bachelor project at the École d'Ingénieurs et d'Architectes (EIA-FR), in collaboration with the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) near Geneva. The official starting date for this project was June 30th 2011. All of the work described in this document was done at CERN during an internship in the IT-UDS-CDS team. The goal of the project was to add authority contro1 to INVENIO. Authority control provides a library management software with two main functions. 1. It allows the disambiguation between similar or identical terms, such as author names referring to different people. 2. It allows for the collocation of seemingly distinct information that logically belongs together, e.g. alternate names for an author or institution. In recent years, INVENIO users have seen the need to control standardized ways of managing the names of authors and institutions, journals and subjects. “Authority records” keep track of the standard way (e.g. “Curie, Marie”) as well as...

  4. Designing experiments through compressed sensing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis

    2013-06-01

    In the following paper, we discuss how to design an ensemble of experiments through the use of compressed sensing. Specifically, we show how to conduct a small number of physical experiments and then use compressed sensing to reconstruct a larger set of data. In order to accomplish this, we organize our results into four sections. We begin by extending the theory of compressed sensing to a finite product of Hilbert spaces. Then, we show how these results apply to experiment design. Next, we develop an efficient reconstruction algorithm that allows us to reconstruct experimental data projected onto a finite element basis. Finally, we verify our approach with two computational experiments.

  5. Compressive sensing for urban radar

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Moeness

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of compressive sensing and sparse signal reconstruction, approaches to urban radar have shifted toward relaxed constraints on signal sampling schemes in time and space, and to effectively address logistic difficulties in data acquisition. Traditionally, these challenges have hindered high resolution imaging by restricting both bandwidth and aperture, and by imposing uniformity and bounds on sampling rates.Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar is the first book to focus on a hybrid of two key areas: compressive sensing and urban sensing. It explains how reliable imaging, tracki

  6. Partial transparency of compressed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Sugimori, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    We have developed novel wood composite with optical transparency at arbitrary region. Pores in wood cells have a great variation in size. These pores expand the light path in the sample, because the refractive indexes differ between constituents of cell and air in lumen. In this study, wood compressed to close to lumen had optical transparency. Because the condition of the compression of wood needs the plastic deformation, wood was impregnated phenolic resin. The optimal condition for high transmission is compression ratio above 0.7.

  7. Compressive myelopathy in fluorosis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R.K. [MR Section, Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow-226014 (India); Agarwal, P. [MR Section, Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow-226014 (India); Kumar, S. [MR Section, Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow-226014 (India); Surana, P.K. [Department of Neurology, SGPGIMS, Lucknow-226014 (India); Lal, J.H. [MR Section, Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow-226014 (India); Misra, U.K. [Department of Neurology, SGPGIMS, Lucknow-226014 (India)

    1996-05-01

    We examined four patients with fluorosis, presenting with compressive myelopathy, by MRI, using spin-echo and fast low-angle shot sequences. Cord compression due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) and ligamentum flavum (LF) was demonstrated in one and ossification of only the LF in one. Marrow signal was observed in the PLL and LF in all the patients on all pulse sequences. In patients with compressive myelopathy secondary to ossification of PLL and/or LF, fluorosis should be considered as a possible cause, especially in endemic regions. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Compressive phase-only filtering at extreme compression rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Calle, David; Pastuszczak, Anna; Mikołajczyk, Michał; Kotyński, Rafał

    2017-01-01

    We introduce an efficient method for the reconstruction of the correlation between a compressively measured image and a phase-only filter. The proposed method is based on two properties of phase-only filtering: such filtering is a unitary circulant transform, and the correlation plane it produces is usually sparse. Thanks to these properties, phase-only filters are perfectly compatible with the framework of compressive sensing. Moreover, the lasso-based recovery algorithm is very fast when phase-only filtering is used as the compression matrix. The proposed method can be seen as a generalization of the correlation-based pattern recognition technique, which is hereby applied directly to non-adaptively acquired compressed data. At the time of measurement, any prior knowledge of the target object for which the data will be scanned is not required. We show that images measured at extremely high compression rates may still contain sufficient information for target classification and localization, even if the compression rate is high enough, that visual recognition of the target in the reconstructed image is no longer possible. The method has been applied by us to highly undersampled measurements obtained from a single-pixel camera, with sampling based on randomly chosen Walsh-Hadamard patterns.

  9. Efficient lossy compression for compressive sensing acquisition of images in compressive sensing imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangwei; Lan, Xuguang; Yang, Meng; Xue, Jianru; Zheng, Nanning

    2014-12-05

    Compressive Sensing Imaging (CSI) is a new framework for image acquisition, which enables the simultaneous acquisition and compression of a scene. Since the characteristics of Compressive Sensing (CS) acquisition are very different from traditional image acquisition, the general image compression solution may not work well. In this paper, we propose an efficient lossy compression solution for CS acquisition of images by considering the distinctive features of the CSI. First, we design an adaptive compressive sensing acquisition method for images according to the sampling rate, which could achieve better CS reconstruction quality for the acquired image. Second, we develop a universal quantization for the obtained CS measurements from CS acquisition without knowing any a priori information about the captured image. Finally, we apply these two methods in the CSI system for efficient lossy compression of CS acquisition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution improves the rate-distortion performance by 0.4~2 dB comparing with current state-of-the-art, while maintaining a low computational complexity.

  10. Efficient Lossy Compression for Compressive Sensing Acquisition of Images in Compressive Sensing Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Compressive Sensing Imaging (CSI is a new framework for image acquisition, which enables the simultaneous acquisition and compression of a scene. Since the characteristics of Compressive Sensing (CS acquisition are very different from traditional image acquisition, the general image compression solution may not work well. In this paper, we propose an efficient lossy compression solution for CS acquisition of images by considering the distinctive features of the CSI. First, we design an adaptive compressive sensing acquisition method for images according to the sampling rate, which could achieve better CS reconstruction quality for the acquired image. Second, we develop a universal quantization for the obtained CS measurements from CS acquisition without knowing any a priori information about the captured image. Finally, we apply these two methods in the CSI system for efficient lossy compression of CS acquisition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution improves the rate-distortion performance by 0.4~2 dB comparing with current state-of-the-art, while maintaining a low computational complexity.

  11. Compressed sensing for distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Coluccia, Giulio; Magli, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the state-of-the art in the exciting and timely topic of compressed sensing for distributed systems. It has to be noted that, while compressed sensing has been studied for some time now, its distributed applications are relatively new. Remarkably, such applications are ideally suited to exploit all the benefits that compressed sensing can provide. The objective of this book is to provide the reader with a comprehensive survey of this topic, from the basic concepts to different classes of centralized and distributed reconstruction algorithms, as well as a comparison of these techniques. This book collects different contributions on these aspects. It presents the underlying theory in a complete and unified way for the first time, presenting various signal models and their use cases. It contains a theoretical part collecting latest results in rate-distortion analysis of distributed compressed sensing, as well as practical implementations of algorithms obtaining performance close to...

  12. Compression fractures of the back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taking steps to prevent and treat osteoporosis is the most effective way to prevent compression or insufficiency fractures. Getting regular load-bearing exercise (such as walking) can help you avoid bone loss.

  13. Preprocessing of compressed digital video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, C. Andrew; Karunaratne, Passant V.; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K.

    2000-12-01

    Pre-processing algorithms improve on the performance of a video compression system by removing spurious noise and insignificant features from the original images. This increases compression efficiency and attenuates coding artifacts. Unfortunately, determining the appropriate amount of pre-filtering is a difficult problem, as it depends on both the content of an image as well as the target bit-rate of compression algorithm. In this paper, we explore a pre- processing technique that is loosely coupled to the quantization decisions of a rate control mechanism. This technique results in a pre-processing system that operates directly on the Displaced Frame Difference (DFD) and is applicable to any standard-compatible compression system. Results explore the effect of several standard filters on the DFD. An adaptive technique is then considered.

  14. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  15. Normalized Compression Distance of Multiples

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Andrew R

    2012-01-01

    Normalized compression distance (NCD) is a parameter-free similarity measure based on compression. The NCD between pairs of objects is not sufficient for all applications. We propose an NCD of finite multisets (multiples) of objacts that is metric and is better for many applications. Previously, attempts to obtain such an NCD failed. We use the theoretical notion of Kolmogorov complexity that for practical purposes is approximated from above by the length of the compressed version of the file involved, using a real-world compression program. We applied the new NCD for multiples to retinal progenitor cell questions that were earlier treated with the pairwise NCD. Here we get significantly better results. We also applied the NCD for multiples to synthetic time sequence data. The preliminary results are as good as nearest neighbor Euclidean classifier.

  16. Reflections on Parental Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela LUPŞAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The movement in the European Union territory of the family members de jure or de facto - parents married or not, on the one hand, and their children, on the other hand, the birth of litigation related to the content, exercising or limiting the parental authority in the event at least one holder of parental authority is in a Member State other than where the minor child is, and the interest of achieving a good administration of justice within the European Union, led to the development of Community instruments in the area of parental authority, which has provisions on conflicts of jurisdiction, conflict of laws, recognition and enforceability, enforcement, legal aid and cooperation between central authorities, designating the applicable law. In the first part of the study we have analyzed the rules of jurisdiction by establishing the jurisdiction of the court hearing with an application for parental responsibility, whether there are pending divorce proceeding or not. In the second part of the study, we have limited the analysis to the rules applicable to the law causes that have as object parental authority.

  17. Convergence of Compressible Euler-Maxwell Equations to Compressible Euler-Poisson Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the convergence of time-dependent Euler-Maxwell equations to compressible Euler-Poisson equations in a torus via the non-relativistic limit is studied.The local existence of smooth solutions to both systems is proved by using energy estimates for first order symmetrizable hyperbolic systems. For well prepared initial data the convergence of solutions is rigorously justified by an analysis of asymptotic expansions up to any order. The authors perform also an initial layer analysis for general initial data and prove the convergence of asymptotic expansions up to first order.

  18. Unified Compression-Based Acceleration of Edit-Distance Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Hermelin, Danny; Landau, Shir; Weimann, Oren

    2010-01-01

    The edit distance problem is a classical fundamental problem in computer science in general, and in combinatorial pattern matching in particular. The standard dynamic programming solution for this problem computes the edit-distance between a pair of strings of total length O(N) in O(N^2) time. To this date, this quadratic upper-bound has never been substantially improved for general strings. However, there are known techniques for breaking this bound in case the strings are known to compress well under a particular compression scheme. The basic idea is to first compress the strings, and then to compute the edit distance between the compressed strings. As it turns out, practically all known o(N^2) edit-distance algorithms work, in some sense, under the same paradigm described above. It is therefore natural to ask whether there is a single edit-distance algorithm that works for strings which are compressed under any compression scheme. A rephrasing of this question is to ask whether a single algorithm can explo...

  19. Visual combustion research using the rapid compression expansion machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhof, Dino; Takasaki, Koji [Kyushu Univ. (Japan). Lab. of Engine and Combustion (ECO)

    2012-08-15

    A large Rapid Compression Expansion Machine (RCEM) has been built at Kyushu University, Japan, for research on large marine engines. Three focal points of research are testing light cycle oil using a multiple injection to establish its potential as a low sulphur fuel; abnormal combustion caused by lubricating oil in lean burn gas engines; visualising high pressure natural gas injection (GI). (orig.)

  20. Shock compression of polyvinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents shock compression simulation of atactic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics. The manuscript also identifies the limits of applicability of classical molecular dynamics based shock compression simulation for PVC. The mechanism of bond dissociation under shock loading and its progression is demonstrated in this manuscript using the density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The rate of dissociation of different bonds at different shock velocities is also presented in this manuscript.

  1. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    General Asian Journal of Andrology ( AJA ), the official journal of the Asian Society of Andrology. invites reports of original research on all areas of andrology, both experimental and clinical, including modem, traditional, and epidemiological, from any part of the world. Short communications (including clinical practice or case report) and letters to the editor are also welcome. Review articles based primarily on authors' own research of internationally important topics are accepted. Authors are requested to submit a covering letter indicating that their manuscript represents original unpublished material that has not been and will not be published elsewhere. This restriction does not apply to results published as abstracts of communications, letters to the editor or as preliminary reports. By submitting a manuscript the authors warrant that all necessary permissions have been obtained.

  2. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    General Asian Journal of Andrology ( AJA ), the official journal of the Asian Society of Andrology, invites reports of original research on all areas of andrology, both experimental and clinical, including modem, traditional, and epidemiological, from any part of the world. Short communications (including clinical practice or case report) and letters to the editor are also welcome. Review articles based primarily on authors' own research of internationally important topics are accepted. Authors are requested to submit a covering letter indicating that their manuscript represents original unpublished material that has not been and will not be published elsewhere. This restriction does not apply to results published as abstracts of communications, letters to the editor or as preliminary reports. By submitting a manuscript the authors warrant that all necessary permissions have been obtained.

  3. Compressed sensing with side information on the feasible region

    CERN Document Server

    Rostami, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses compressive sensing in the presence of side information. Compressive sensing is an emerging technique for efficiently acquiring and reconstructing a signal. Interesting instances of Compressive Sensing (CS) can occur when, apart from sparsity, side information is available about the source signals. The side information can be about the source structure, distribution, etc. Such cases can be viewed as extensions of the classical CS. In these cases we are interested in incorporating the side information to either improve the quality of the source reconstruction or decrease the number of samples required for accurate reconstruction. In this book we assume availability of side information about the feasible region. The main applications investigated are image deblurring for optical imaging, 3D surface reconstruction, and reconstructing spatiotemporally correlated sources. The author shows that the side information can be used to improve the quality of the reconstruction compared to the classic...

  4. Dynamic' MR imaging of the cervical cord in patients with cervical spondylosis and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament; Significance of dynamic cord compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Tetsuo; Itoh, Takayuki; Takahashi, Akira (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Yanagi, Tsutomu; Yamamura, Akiko

    1992-01-01

    This investigation was designed to assess the influence of dynamic cord compression on severity and course of myelopathy. Sixty-seven patients consisted of 54 cases of cervical spondylosis and 13 cases of ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament. These patients underwent 'dynamic' MRI imaging of the cervical spine. MR images in the sagittal view were obtained in three different neck positions: flexion, neutral, and extension. MR imaging was performed with a 0.15 T resistive unit. For technical reasons, the body coil was used. The pulse sequence was 500/30 (Tr msec/echo time msec) for T1 images. The spinal cord compression was accelerated in 32 cases when extended, in 2 cases when flexsed, and in 4 cases when both extended and flexed. In 21 cases, we compared myelograms with MR images in the same neck position. Findings of myelograms well corresponded with those of MR images on 83 percent of intervertebral levels. The patients with dynamic cord compression were proved to have severer long tract signs, and their disability was regressive or progressive case by case for an average of 21-month follow-up. The 'dynamic' MR imaging can provide dynamic nature of spinal cord compression, and prognostic clues. (author).

  5. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientif ic journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing & Media Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier and Science Press. General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s) that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals. The experiment related to crop yield should be conducted at least two locations or growing seasons with replications. All the results should be supported by appropriate statistical analyses. Scopes ? Crop Germplasm Resources ? Crop Genetics, Genomics and Molecular Biology

  6. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing & Media Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier and Science Press. General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s) that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals. The experiment related to crop yield should be conducted at least two locations or growing seasons with replications. All the results should be supported by appropriate statistical

  7. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s) that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals.The experiment related to crop yield should be conducted at least two locations or growing seasons with replications.All the results should be supported by appropriate statistical analyses.

  8. Instructions to authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This section is to be used by authors of the special issue "Social media and language learning: (revolution?" who write their text in English. Please use the model article file attached when writing your text. 1. Submission and publication principles Authors whose texts have been accepted agree to transfer the associated rights permanently to the Alsic journal. They are free to re-publish these works (in printed or electronic form subject to the following conditions: they clearly indicate t...

  9. Fast and Adaptive Lossless Onboard Hyperspectral Data Compression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranki, Nazeeh I.; Keymeulen, Didier; Kimesh, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Modern hyperspectral imaging systems are able to acquire far more data than can be downlinked from a spacecraft. Onboard data compression helps to alleviate this problem, but requires a system capable of power efficiency and high throughput. Software solutions have limited throughput performance and are power-hungry. Dedicated hardware solutions can provide both high throughput and power efficiency, while taking the load off of the main processor. Thus a hardware compression system was developed. The implementation uses a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The implementation is based on the fast lossless (FL) compression algorithm reported in Fast Lossless Compression of Multispectral-Image Data (NPO-42517), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 8 (August 2006), page 26, which achieves excellent compression performance and has low complexity. This algorithm performs predictive compression using an adaptive filtering method, and uses adaptive Golomb coding. The implementation also packetizes the coded data. The FL algorithm is well suited for implementation in hardware. In the FPGA implementation, one sample is compressed every clock cycle, which makes for a fast and practical realtime solution for space applications. Benefits of this implementation are: 1) The underlying algorithm achieves a combination of low complexity and compression effectiveness that exceeds that of techniques currently in use. 2) The algorithm requires no training data or other specific information about the nature of the spectral bands for a fixed instrument dynamic range. 3) Hardware acceleration provides a throughput improvement of 10 to 100 times vs. the software implementation. A prototype of the compressor is available in software, but it runs at a speed that does not meet spacecraft requirements. The hardware implementation targets the Xilinx Virtex IV FPGAs, and makes the use of this compressor practical for Earth satellites as well as beyond-Earth missions with hyperspectral instruments.

  10. Flux Limiter Lattice Boltzmann for Compressible Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峰; 许爱国; 张广财; 李英骏

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new flux limiter scheme with the splitting technique is successfully incorporated into a multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for shacked compressible flows. The proposed flux limiter scheme is efficient in decreasing the artificial oscillations and numerical diffusion around the interface. Due to the kinetic nature, some interface problems being difficult to handle at the macroscopic level can be modeled more naturally through the LB method. Numerical simulations for the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability show that with the new model the computed interfaces are smoother and more consistent with physical analysis. The growth rates of bubble and spike present a satisfying agreement with the theoretical predictions and other numerical simulations.

  11. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  12. Internal combustion engine for natural gas compressor operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Christopher; Babbitt, Guy

    2016-12-27

    This application concerns systems and methods for compressing natural gas with an internal combustion engine. In a representative embodiment, a method is featured which includes placing a first cylinder of an internal combustion engine in a compressor mode, and compressing a gas within the first cylinder, using the cylinder as a reciprocating compressor. In some embodiments a compression check valve system is used to regulate pressure and flow within cylinders of the engine during a compression process.

  13. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media; Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that

  14. GUIDE TO AUTHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions has no page charges Manuscript Submission. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions operates an online submission and peer review system that allows authors to submit articles online and track their progress via a web interface.

  15. GUIDE TO AUTHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions has no page charges Manuscript Scbmission.Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions operates an online submission and peer review system that allows authors to submit articles online and track their progress via a web interface.to submit a manuscript,

  16. GUIDE TO AUTHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions has no page charges Manuscript Submission. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions operates an online submission and peer review system that allows authors to submit articles onlineand track their progress via a web interface. To submit a manuscript,

  17. FFTF Authorization Agreement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAUTEL, W.A.

    2000-02-25

    The purpose of the Authorization Agreement is to serve as a mechanism whereby the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and Fluor Hanford (FH) jointly clarify and agree to key conditions for conducting work safely and efficiently.

  18. GUIDE TO AUTHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions has no page charges Manuscript Submission.Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions operates an online submission and peer review system that allows authors to submit articles online and track their progress via a web interface. To submit a manuscript, please visit http://www.SCAR.ac.cn/, log on, get an account, and follow

  19. GUIDE TO AUTHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions has no page chargesManuscript Submission. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions operates an online submission and peer review system that allows authors to submit articles onlineand track their progress via a web interface. To submit a manuscript, please visit http://www.SCAR.ac.cn/, log on, get an account, and follow the

  20. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  1. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series G: Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer

  2. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series G:Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer,

  3. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series G: Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer,

  4. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series G:Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer

  5. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series G: Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press

  6. Instructions to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Journal of Resources and Ecology is an international journal for the publication of recent works in the related fields of natural resources and ecology. The journal was established in 2010 and is published quarterly.

  7. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science China Press and Springer, is committed

  8. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series D:Earth Sciences,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Press and

  9. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Science in China Series D:Earth Sciences,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is com-

  10. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series B: Chemistry, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to

  11. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer,

  12. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science China Press and Springer, is committed to

  13. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series E:Technological Sciences,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Pr

  14. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to

  15. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and

  16. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series E:Technological Sciences,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China

  17. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science China Press and Springer,

  18. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer,

  19. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Mathematics, a peer review mathematical journal cosponsored by Chinese Academy of Sciences and National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published monthly in both print and electronic forms by Science China Press and Springer, is committed

  20. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Founation of China, and published by Science China Press and

  1. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science China Press and

  2. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Mathematics, a peer review mathematical journal cosponsored by Chinese Academy of Sciences and National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published monthly in both print and electronic

  3. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science China Press and

  4. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Mathematics,a peer review mathematical journal cosponsored by Chinese Academy of Sciences and National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published monthly in both print and electronic

  5. Environmentally friendly drive for gas compression applications: enhanced design of high-speed induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Karina Velloso; Pradurat, Jean Francois; Mercier, Jean Charles [Institut National Polytechncique, Lorrain (France). Converteam Motors Div.; Truchot, Patrick [Nancy Universite (France). Equipe de Recherche sur les Processus Innovatifs (ERPI)

    2008-07-01

    Taking into account the key issues faced by gas compressors users, this paper aims to help optimize the choice of the drive equipment as well as the driven equipment, in function of the cost of the whole installation life cycle. The design of the enhanced high-speed induction motor (MGV-Moteuer a Grande Vitesse) represents a technological breakthrough for the industry, it allows the direct coupling to the compressor, without using a gearbox making the system more efficient and reliable. From both micro and macro-economic viewpoints, the high-speed electric driver becomes a more efficient use of natural gas energy resources. This new technology associated with the electric option offers challenging and rewarding work to those responsible for the operation and maintenance of the compressor station. The electric option is not only conceptually viable but has a proven track record that justifies serious consideration as an alternative for reliably powering. Once an operator becomes comfortable with the prospects of motor-driven compression, the analysis of machine options requires only a few new approaches to fairly evaluate the alternatives. The application of this reasoning in projects using compression units is especially opportune, in view of the great variations of operational conditions and environmental issues. (author)

  6. Development of ultra-lightweight slurries with high compressive strength for use in oil wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P. [Halliburton Company, Houston, TX (United States); Farias, A.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, Danilo; Fernandes, Thiago; Santos, Reened [Halliburton Energy Services Aberdeen, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Formations with low fracture gradients or depleted reservoirs often lead to difficult oil well cementing operations. Commonly employed cement slurries (14.0 to 15.8 lb/gal), generate an equivalent circulating density (ECD) higher than the fracture gradient and ultimately lead to formation damage, lost circulation and a decreased top of cement. Given the high price of oil, companies are investing in those and other wells that are difficult to explore. Naturally, lightweight cement slurries are used to reduce the ECD (10.0 to 14.0 lb/gal), using additives to trap water and stabilize the slurry. However, when the density reaches 11.0 lb/gal, the increase in water content may cause a change in characteristics. The focus of this study is extreme cases where it is necessary to employ ultra-lightweight cement slurries (5.5 to 10.0 lb/gal). Foamed slurries have been widely used, and the objective is to set an alternative by developing cement slurries containing uncompressible microspheres, aiming for a density of 7.5 lb/gal as well as high compressive strength. Another benefit in contrast to preparing foamed cement slurries is that there is no requirement for special equipment in the field. Routine laboratory tests such as fluid-loss control, sedimentation, thickening time, free water, compressive strength, and rheology (at room and high temperatures) were performed. Thus, it was concluded that the proposed cement slurries can be used in oil wells. (author)

  7. Schwarz-based algorithms for compressible flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidriri, M.D. [ICASE, Hampton, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    To compute steady compressible flows one often uses an implicit discretization approach which leads to a large sparse linear system that must be solved at each time step. In the derivation of this system one often uses a defect-correction procedure, in which the left-hand side of the system is discretized with a lower order approximation than that used for the right-hand side. This is due to storage considerations and computational complexity, and also to the fact that the resulting lower order matrix is better conditioned than the higher order matrix. The resulting schemes are only moderately implicit. In the case of structured, body-fitted grids, the linear system can easily be solved using approximate factorization (AF), which is among the most widely used methods for such grids. However, for unstructured grids, such techniques are no longer valid, and the system is solved using direct or iterative techniques. Because of the prohibitive computational costs and large memory requirements for the solution of compressible flows, iterative methods are preferred. In these defect-correction methods, which are implemented in most CFD computer codes, the mismatch in the right and left hand side operators, together with explicit treatment of the boundary conditions, lead to a severely limited CFL number, which results in a slow convergence to steady state aerodynamic solutions. Many authors have tried to replace explicit boundary conditions with implicit ones. Although they clearly demonstrate that high CFL numbers are possible, the reduction in CPU time is not clear cut.

  8. Compression-absorption cascade refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Sieres, Jaime; Vazquez, Manuel [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidade de Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, 36200 Vigo (Spain)

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes the study carried out to analyse a refrigeration system in cascade with a compression system at the low temperature stage and an absorption system at the high temperature stage to generate cooling at low temperatures, as well as the possibility of powering it by means of a cogeneration system. CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} have been considered as refrigerants in the compression stage and the pair NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O in the absorption stage. The analysis has been realized by means of a mathematical model of the refrigeration system implemented in a computer program and taking into account the characteristic operating conditions of a cogeneration system with gas engines. The paper presents the results obtained regarding the performance of the refrigeration system and the adaptability between the power requirements of the refrigeration system and the power supplied by the cogeneration system taking into account the present Spanish Regulations about the use of cogeneration systems. [Author].

  9. Compression analysis of rectangular elastic layers bonded between rigid plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiang-Chuan Tsai [National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei (China). Dept. of Construction Engineering

    2005-06-01

    An elastic layer bonded between two rigid plates has higher compression stiffness than the elastic layer without bonding. While the finite element method can be applied to calculate the stiffness, the compression stiffness of bonded rectangular layers derived through a theoretical approach in this paper provides a convenient way for parametric study. Based on two kinematics assumptions, the governing equation for the mean pressure is derived from the equilibrium equations. Using the approximate shear boundary condition, the mean pressure is solved and the compression stiffness of the bonded rectangular layer is then established in an explicit single-series form. Through the solved pressure, the horizontal displacements are derived from the corresponding equilibrium equations, from which the shear stress on the bonding surface can be found. It is found that the effect of the rectangular aspect on the compression stiffness is significant only when Poisson's ratio is near 0.5. For the smaller Poisson's ratio, the compression stiffness of the rectangular layer can be approximated by the formula for the infinite-strip layer of the same shape factor. (author)

  10. Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow

    CERN Document Server

    Gatski, Thomas B

    2013-01-01

    Compressibility, Turbulence and High Speed Flow introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range, through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. The book provides the reader with the necessary background and current trends in the theoretical and experimental aspects of compressible turbulent flows and compressible turbulence. Detailed derivations of the pertinent equations describing the motion of such turbulent flows is provided and

  11. Geological background of the estimation of natural stresses in soil body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich

    2015-01-01

    fractures. Also the article shows the influence of the surface topography of the territory on stress in soil. In order to draw conclusions the author uses his observations of the construction in Siberia and Mongolia, as well as publications of other scientists. The author notes that in engineering surveys for construction of tunnels, high-rise dams, high rise buildings there is no good method of determining the natural stresses in rocks and soils, which is equal in accuracy to the methods of construction of geological sections and methods for determining the estimated characteristics of the soil. This gap needs to be filled. The possible direction of work is: to combine the methods of direct measurements of compressive stresses with indirect geophysical methods and computer modeling.

  12. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Enhance Nature Exploration with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Patricia; Mahan, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Kids and nature seem like a natural combination, but what was natural a generation ago is different today. Children are spending less time outdoors but continue to need nature for their physical, emotional, and mental development. This fact has led author Richard Louv to suggest that today's children are suffering from "nature-deficit disorder"…

  14. Regulatory aspects of the transportation of natural gas coming from marginal fields; Aspectos regulatorios do transporte de gas natural oriundo de campos marginais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpire, Ricardo [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil); Tiryaki, Gisele Ferreira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Natural gas is an energy input that only recently began to have greater weight in the Brazilian energy matrix. The share of natural gas in national energy policies grew significantly between 1998 and 2009, reaching almost 10% of energetic participation in the end of this period. Because of this very dynamic and growing market, it is necessary to revisit the existing legislation to assess its relevance in the face of new conflict situations among experienced agents. This article aims to evaluate the existing legislation for the natural gas sector, particularly as to its effectiveness in regulating the conflicting issues in its distribution of this input in the form of compressed natural gas reserves come from marginal, where the final consumer is not located within the pipeline network of state distributor. Will address the standards in the industry, to the most recent law passed, Gas Law No. 11.909/2009, presented a critical review of the subject. (author)

  15. Word-Based Text Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Platos, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Today there are many universal compression algorithms, but in most cases is for specific data better using specific algorithm - JPEG for images, MPEG for movies, etc. For textual documents there are special methods based on PPM algorithm or methods with non-character access, e.g. word-based compression. In the past, several papers describing variants of word-based compression using Huffman encoding or LZW method were published. The subject of this paper is the description of a word-based compression variant based on the LZ77 algorithm. The LZ77 algorithm and its modifications are described in this paper. Moreover, various ways of sliding window implementation and various possibilities of output encoding are described, as well. This paper also includes the implementation of an experimental application, testing of its efficiency and finding the best combination of all parts of the LZ77 coder. This is done to achieve the best compression ratio. In conclusion there is comparison of this implemented application wi...

  16. Alternative ways to transport natural gas; Transporte alternativo de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, N.R.; Campos, F.B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian energy matrix has been showing a huge increase in the demand of natural gas due mainly to industries and power plants. Today the Brazilian gas market is supplied with gas produced by PETROBRAS and imported from Bolivia. To increase the Brazilian gas supply, on the short and middle term, PETROBRAS will import LNG (liquefied natural gas) and exploit the new offshore fields discovered on the pre-salt area. The only proven technology available today to bring this offshore gas to the market is the pipeline, but its costs for the pre-salt area are high enough to keep the solution economically attractive. So, PETROBRAS are evaluating and developing alternative ways to transport offshore gas, such as LNG, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), GTS (Gas-to-Solids or Natural Gas Hydrates) and ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas). Using information available in the literature, this paper analyses the main concepts of CNG and LNG floating unities. This paper also presents the PETROBRAS R and D results on ANG and GTS aiming at offshore application. (author)

  17. Markets and authorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Cecco, Marcello de

    of integrating large developing countries into a liberal world order and the consequences of the multilateral system for the world's poor. In further discussions they investigate the sustainability of global capitalism in light of financial crisis, widespread inequality and the uncertain future for traditional......This text addresses the relationship between market authority and political authority - a favourite theme of Susan Strange, to whom the book is dedicated. From a survey of the bias against capital liberalization in economic thought to an analysis of the US role in global monetary affairs...... welfare states. They also advance various mechanisms through which they believe greater stability and equity could be introduced into the global financial system and the world economy....

  18. INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>AIMS AND SCOPE High Power Laser Science and Engineering(HPLaser)is an international,peer-reviewed open access journal which focuses on all aspects of high power laser science and engineering.HPLaser publishes research that seeks to uncover the underlying science and engineering in the fields of high energy density physics,high power lasers,advanced laser technology and applications,and laser components.ORIGINALITY,OPEN ACCESS LICENCE TO PUBLISH FORM AND COPYRIGHT To be considered for publication in HPLaser a manuscript cannot have been published previously,nor can it be under review for publication elsewhere.Papers with multiple authors are considered for publication in HPLaser with the assumption that all authors have approved the submitted manuscript and concur in its submission to HPLaser.For accepted articles,a Licence to Publish form must be

  19. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously

  20. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously published or simultaneously

  1. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals.

  2. RAF and Authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    friendly foreign countries or international organizations to purchase defense articles or services.”72 Title 22, United States Code, Section 2347 covers... HIV /AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP) in support of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). This law authorizes activities to protect...and prevent foreign nation armed forces from HIV /AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria.112 In another example, under Public Law 104-201 Section 1082

  3. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co‐sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously

  4. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals.

  5. Instructions for authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editors Editorial Board

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors must submit their papers via email to brain@edusoft.ro or they can create an account and submit their papers online, at www.brain.edusoft.ro. Submited papers must be written in DOC format (Microsoft Word document, in as clear and as simple as possible English. Preferred maximum paper length for the papers is 20 pages, including figures.The template for the paper is at this address:http://www.edusoft.ro/Template_for_BRAIN.docThe text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point Times New Roman font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses; and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end. The title will be bold 14-point, and the author will be 12-point italic. Figures have caption in bottom-center side, and tables have captions in left-top side. Use a tab for identing each paragraph and the subtitles, too. The subtitleswill be bold 12-point. Please use Microsoft Word 97-2003.We encourage the authors to use the camera ready format even for the first submission. All paper submissions will be carefully reviewed by an editor, and by the members of the scientific board or independent experts, who will provide a written feedback with comments and ratings.Authors will be notified of acceptance in maximum 3 weeks. Accepted manuscripts should be revised according to the comments of the reviewers and of the editors.For questions concerning manuscript submission, contact Mr. Bogdan Patrut by mail atbogdan@edusoft.ro.

  6. Instructions for Authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editors Editorial Board

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Authors must submit their papers via email to brain@edusoft.ro or they can create an account and submit their papers online, at www.brain.edusoft.ro. Submited papers must be written in DOC format (Microsoft Word document, in as clear and as simple as possible English. Preferred maximum paper length for the papers is 20 pages, including figures. The template for the paper is at this address: http://www.edusoft.ro/Template_for_BRAIN.doc

  7. Image Denoising of Wavelet based Compressed Images Corrupted by Additive White Gaussian Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Lal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study an efficient algorithm is proposed for removal of additive white Gaussian noise from compressed natural images in wavelet based domain. First, the natural image is compressed by discrete wavelet transform and then proposed hybrid filter is applied for image denoising of compressed images corrupted by Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN. The proposed hybrid filter (HMCD is combination of non-linear fourth order partial differential equation and bivariate shrinkage function. The proposed hybrid filter provides better results in term of noise suppression with keeping minimum edge blurring as compared to other existing image denoising techniques for wavelet based compressed images. Simulation and experimental results on benchmark test images demonstrate that the proposed hybrid filter attains competitive image denoising performances as compared with other state-of-the-art image denoising algorithms. It is more effective particularly for the highly corrupted images in wavelet based compressed domain.

  8. Instructions to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Cellular & Molecular Immunology (CMI) is the official publication of the Chinese Society of Immunology. The Journal is published bimonthly in English and edited at the University of Science & Technology of China (USTC). Papers in all areas of cellular and molecular immunology are welcome including immunobiology, comparative immunology, immunogenetics, neuroimmunology, immunopathology, immunopharmacology, tumor immunology, infection immunology, clinical immunology, transplantation immunology, veterinary immunology and immunological techniques. All international immunologists and immunologyrelated investigators will find CMI suitable for their publications. CMI publishes articles and brief reports for original investigations. Reviews and minireviews are also accepted from authors on request by the editorial board of the journal. A paper is submitted to CMI with the understanding that it has not been and will not be published elsewhere. The submission must have the approval of all of the authors. The preferred medium of final submission to the accepting editor is on computer disk with the accompanying reviewed and revised manuscript (see'electronic manuscripts' below). Publication in CMI is taken to imply the authors' willingness to comply with reasonable requests to supply reagents such as recombinant clones and monoclonal antibodies, and sequence data in electronic form to persons lacking access to computer databases.

  9. Instructions to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Cellular & Molecular Immunology (CMI) is the official publication of the Chinese Society of Immunology. The Journal is published bimonthly in English and edited at the University of Science & Technology of China (USTC). Papers in all areas of cellular and molecular immunology are welcome including immunobiology, comparative immunology, immunogenetics, neuroimmunology, immunopathology, immunopharmacology, tumor immunology, infection immunology, clinical immunology, transplantation immunology, veterinary immunology and immunological techniques. All international immunologists and irnmunologyrelated investigators will find CMI suitable for their publications. CMI publishes articles and brief reports for original investigations. Reviews and minireviews are also accepted from authors on request by the editorial board of the journal A paper is submitted to CMI with the understanding that it has not been and will not be published elsewhere. The submission must have the approval of all of the authors. The preferred medium of final submission to the accepting editor is on computer disk with the accompanying reviewed and revised manuscript (see 'electronic manuscripts' below). Publication in CMI is taken to imply the authors' willingness to comply with reasonable requests to supply reagents such as recombinant clones and monoclonal antibodies, and sequence data in electronic form to persons lacking access to computer databases.

  10. Instructions for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.Chinese Journal of Chemistry publishes original research work in all fields of chemistry, i.e. physical chemistry,inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry and analytic chemistry, etc., in the forms of Accounts, Articles,Notes and Communications. Each issue contains Graphic Abstract. Only contributions that have not been and are not to be published elsewhere will be considered. Acoounts are summary of significant recent work and new developments from the research group of the principal author. Photographs and resumes of all authors will be included. Articles and Notes are designed to report research of high scientific quality and originality that are of interest to the wide and diverse readership of the Journal with experimental details. Communications are restricted to publish results with unusual urgency, significance, and interest. In the cover letter the author should briefly state the urgency of this paper.

  11. Instructions for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Chinese Journal of Chemistry publishes original research work in all fields of chemistry, i.e. physical chemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry and analytic chemistry, etc., in the forms of Accounts, Articles, Notes and Communications. Each issue contains Graphic Abstract. Only contributions that have not been and are not to be published elsewhere will be consid ered.Accounts are reports on significant recent work and new developments from the research group of the principal author. Photographs and resumes of all authors will be included.Articles and Notes are designed to report research of high scientific quality and originality that are of interest to the wide and diverse readership of the Joumal with experimental details.Communications are restricted to publish results with unusual urgency, significance, and interest. In the cover letter the author should briefly state the urgency of this paper.

  12. GUIDELINES FOR AUTHORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    1 THE JOURNAL The Journal publishes original papers in all fields of sustainable development. Papers are peer-reviewed according to the generally accepted criteria for scientific work. 2 AUTHORS' RESPONSIBILITIES Authors are responsible for the originality of the work, permission to publish and permission to reproduce any cited figures, and proofreading. 3 MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION All papers must be in English. Papers are restricted to 5000 words in length. Papers with fewer than 1500 words will be considered as Short Notes. Manuscripts must be double-spaced, on one side of the paper only and on standard sized paper (e. g. European A4 - 21 by 29.6 cm). Each paper should consist of the following sections, in order: title, abstract, key words, text, acknowledgments, references, intemet references, figure captions, figures, table captions, tables and appendices (if any), photograph captions, photographs. Pages should be numbered. Author should provide e-mail of corresponding author. Title - The title should be brief but accurately descriptive of the contents. The title should be followed by authors' names,( as they are to appear in print) and institutional affiliations. The corresponding author's e-mail address should follow (or fax- number if no e-mail is available).

  13. Stabilization of weak solutions to compressible Navier-Stokes equations

    OpenAIRE

    Novotný, Anton’ın; Straškraba, Ivan

    2000-01-01

    In [17] the present authors investigated the stabilization of the weak solutions to space periodic problem for barotropic compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The main goal of this paper is to show the power of the method introduced in [17] by treating other boundary conditions. In fact, the only limitation of the method is potential external force and the validity of the Poincaré inequality for the velocity.

  14. Lossless Digital Image Compression Method for Bitmap Images

    CERN Document Server

    Meyyappan, Dr T; Nachiaban, N M Jeya; 10.5121/ijma.2011.3407

    2011-01-01

    In this research paper, the authors propose a new approach to digital image compression using crack coding This method starts with the original image and develop crack codes in a recursive manner, marking the pixels visited earlier and expanding the entropy in four directions. The proposed method is experimented with sample bitmap images and results are tabulated. The method is implemented in uni-processor machine using C language source code.

  15. Compressive Strength of a Longitudinally Stiffened FRP Panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    A structural analysis of a cross stiffened orthotropic FRP panel subjected to uni-axial compressive load is crarried out. Analytical Calculations of the strength of the panel are presented and compared to finite element analysis performed by different authors. Both analytica and finite element ap...... approaches confirm an identical failrue scenario. In the present case, the load carrying capacity of the stiffened panel is limited by the plate stiffener debonding stress....

  16. Space, time, error, and power optimization of image compression transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.; Ritter, Gerhard X.; Caimi, Frank M.

    2000-11-01

    The implementation of an image compression transform on one or more small, embedded processors typically involves stringent constraints on power consumption and form factor. Traditional methods of optimizing compression algorithm performance typically emphasize joint minimization of space and time complexity, often without significant consideration of arithmetic accuracy or power consumption. However, small autonomous imaging platforms typically require joint optimization of space, time, error (or accuracy), and power (STEP) parameters, which the authors call STEP optimization. In response to implementational constraints on space and power consumption, the authors have developed systems and techniques for STEP optimization that are based on recent research in VLSI circuit design, as well as extensive previous work in system optimization. Building on the authors' previous research in embedded processors as well as adaptive or reconfigurable computing, it is possible to produce system-independent STEP optimization that can be customized for a given set of system-specific constraints. This approach is particularly useful when algorithms for image and signal processing (ISP) computer vision (CV), or automated target recognition (ATR), expressed in a machine- independent notation, are mapped to one or more heterogeneous processors (e.g., digital signal processors or DSPs, SIMD mesh processors, or reconfigurable logic). Following a theoretical summary, this paper illustrates various STEP optimization techniques via case studies, for example, real-time compression of underwater imagery on board an autonomous vehicle. Optimization algorithms are taken from the literature, and error profiling/analysis methodologies developed in the authors' previous research are employed. This yields a more rigorous basis for the simulation and evaluation of compression algorithms on a wide variety of hardware models. In this study, image algebra is employed as the notation of choice

  17. Compressive Sleeping Wireless Sensor Networks With Active Node Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Wassell, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from IEEE via http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/GLOCOM.2014.7036776 In this paper, we propose an active node selection framework for compressive sleeping wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in order to improve the signal acquisition performance and network lifetime. The node selection can be seen as a specialized sensing matrix design problem where the sensing matrix consists of selected rows of an identity matrix. By capitalizing ...

  18. Adaptivity with near-orthogonality constraint for high compression rates in lifting scheme framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Tadeusz; Voisin, Yvon; Diou, Alain

    2004-01-01

    Since few years, Lifting Scheme has proven its utility in compression field. It permits to easily create fast, reversible, separable or no, not necessarily linear, multiresolution analysis for sound, image, video or even 3D graphics. An interesting feature of lifting scheme is the ability to build adaptive transforms for compression, more easily than with other decompositions. Many works have already be done in this subject, especially in lossless or near-lossless compression framework : better compression than with usually used methods can be obtained. However, most of the techniques used in adaptive near-lossless compression can not be extended to higher lossy compression rates, even in the simplest cases. Indeed, this is due to the quantization error introduced before coding, which has not controlled propagation through inverse transform. Authors have put their interest to the classical Lifting Scheme, with linear convolution filters, but they studied criterions to maintain a high level of adaptivity and a good error propagation through inverse transform. This article aims to present relatively simple criterion to obtain filters able to build image and video compression with high compression rate, tested here with the Spiht coder. For this, upgrade and predict filters are simultaneously adapted thanks to a constrained least-square method. The constraint consists in a near-orthogonality inequality, letting sufficiently high level of adaptivity. Some compression results are given, illustrating relevance of this method, even with short filters.

  19. Some Perceptions of English Geography Textbook Authors on Writing Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Catling, Simon

    2016-01-01

    There has been much research into the nature and uses of school geography textbooks as teaching resources, yet the perceptions of their authors have been neglected. This study investigated the perspectives of a sample of authors of English primary and secondary school geography textbooks on their experiences as textbook authors. It enquired into…

  20. Compressive Sensing with Optical Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontani, D.; Choi, D.; Chang, C.-Y.; Locquet, A.; Citrin, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is a technique to sample a sparse signal below the Nyquist-Shannon limit, yet still enabling its reconstruction. As such, CS permits an extremely parsimonious way to store and transmit large and important classes of signals and images that would be far more data intensive should they be sampled following the prescription of the Nyquist-Shannon theorem. CS has found applications as diverse as seismology and biomedical imaging. In this work, we use actual optical signals generated from temporal intensity chaos from external-cavity semiconductor lasers (ECSL) to construct the sensing matrix that is employed to compress a sparse signal. The chaotic time series produced having their relevant dynamics on the 100 ps timescale, our results open the way to ultrahigh-speed compression of sparse signals.

  1. Compressive Sensing for MIMO Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yao; Poor, H Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar systems have been shown to achieve superior resolution as compared to traditional radar systems with the same number of transmit and receive antennas. This paper considers a distributed MIMO radar scenario, in which each transmit element is a node in a wireless network, and investigates the use of compressive sampling for direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. According to the theory of compressive sampling, a signal that is sparse in some domain can be recovered based on far fewer samples than required by the Nyquist sampling theorem. The DOA of targets form a sparse vector in the angle space, and therefore, compressive sampling can be applied for DOA estimation. The proposed approach achieves the superior resolution of MIMO radar with far fewer samples than other approaches. This is particularly useful in a distributed scenario, in which the results at each receive node need to be transmitted to a fusion center for further processing.

  2. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  3. Compressive Sensing in Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Wireless communication is omnipresent today, but this development has led to frequency spectrum becoming a limited resource. Furthermore, wireless devices become more and more energy-limited, due to the demand for continual wireless communication of higher and higher amounts of information....... The need for cheaper, smarter and more energy efficient wireless devices is greater now than ever. This thesis addresses this problem and concerns the application of the recently developed sampling theory of compressive sensing in communication systems. Compressive sensing is the merging of signal...... acquisition and compression. It allows for sampling a signal with a rate below the bound dictated by the celebrated Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem. In some communication systems this necessary minimum sample rate, dictated by the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem, is so high it is at the limit of what...

  4. Morphological Transform for Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pastor Sanchez Fernandez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method for image compression based on morphological associative memories (MAMs is presented. We used the MAM to implement a new image transform and applied it at the transformation stage of image coding, thereby replacing such traditional methods as the discrete cosine transform or the discrete wavelet transform. Autoassociative and heteroassociative MAMs can be considered as a subclass of morphological neural networks. The morphological transform (MT presented in this paper generates heteroassociative MAMs derived from image subblocks. The MT is applied to individual blocks of the image using some transformation matrix as an input pattern. Depending on this matrix, the image takes a morphological representation, which is used to perform the data compression at the next stages. With respect to traditional methods, the main advantage offered by the MT is the processing speed, whereas the compression rate and the signal-to-noise ratio are competitive to conventional transforms.

  5. PREPARATION OF BIOACTIVE NANOSTRUCTURE SCAFFOLD WITH IMPROVED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. EMADI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly porous scaffolds with open structure are today the best candidates for bone substitution to ensure bone oxygenation and angiogenesis. In this study, we developed a new route to enhance the compressive strength of porous hydroxyapatite scaffold made of natural bone. Briefly, the spongy bone of an adult bovine was extracted, annealed, and coated by a nanostructure bioactive glass layer to be subsequently sintered at different temperatures. The apatite formation ability on the surfaces of the coated scaffolds was investigated by standard procedures. Our results showed that the scaffold and coating microstructure consisted of the grains smaller than 100 nm. These nanostructures improved the compressive strength and bioactivity of highly porous scaffold. The results showed that with increasing the sintering temperature, the compressive strength of scaffolds increased while their in vitro bioactivity decreased.

  6. Use of compressed-air storage systems; Einsatz von Druckluftspeichersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyphely, I.; Rufer, A.; Brueckmann, Ph.; Menhardt, W.; Reller, A.

    2004-07-01

    This final report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) looks at the use of compressed air as a means of storing energy. Historical aspects are listed and compressed-air storage as an alternative to current ideas that use electrolysis and hydrogen storage is discussed. The storage efficiency advantages of compressed-air storage is stressed and the possibilities it offers for compensating the stochastic nature of electricity production from renewable energy sources are discussed. The so-called BOP (Battery with Oil-hydraulics and Pneumatics) principle for the storage of electricity is discussed and its function is described. The advantages offered by such a system are listed and the development focus necessary is discussed.

  7. IMPROVED COMPRESSION OF XML FILES FOR FAST IMAGE TRANSMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Manimurugan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The eXtensible Markup Language (XML is a format that is widely used as a tool for data exchange and storage. It is being increasingly used in secure transmission of image data over wireless network and World Wide Web. Verbose in nature, XML files can be tens of megabytes long. Thus, to reduce their size and to allow faster transmission, compression becomes vital. Several general purpose compression tools have been proposed without satisfactory results. This paper proposes a novel technique using modified BWT for compressing XML files in a lossless fashion. The experimental results show that the performance of the proposed technique outperforms both general purpose and XML-specific compressors.

  8. Two-band hybrid FIR-IIR filters for image compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianyu; Smith, Mark J T

    2011-11-01

    Two-band analysis-synthesis filters or wavelet filters are used pervasively for compressing natural images. Both FIR and IIR filters have been studied in this context, the former being the most popular. In this paper, we examine the compression performance of these two-band filters in a dyadic wavelet decomposition and attempt to isolate features that contribute most directly to the performance gain. Then, employing the general exact reconstruction condition, hybrid FIR-IIR analysis-synthesis filters are designed to maximize compression performance for natural images. Experimental results are presented that compare performance with the popular biorthogonal filters in terms of peak SNR, subjective quality, and computational complexity.

  9. [Vascular compression of the duodenum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, B; Guachalla, G; Martínez, C; Felce, S; Ledezma, G

    1991-01-01

    The acute vascular compression of the duodenum is a well-recognized clinical entity, characterized by recurrent vomiting, abdominal distention, weight loss, post prandial distress. The cause of compression is considered to be effect produced as a result of the angle formed by the superior mesenteric vessels and sometimes by one of its first two branches, and vertebrae and paravertebral muscles, when the angle between superior mesenteric vessels and the aorta it's lower than 18 degrees we can saw this syndrome. The duodenojejunostomy is the best treatment, as well as in our patient.

  10. GPU-accelerated compressive holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yutaka; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Kakue, Takashi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2016-04-18

    In this paper, we show fast signal reconstruction for compressive holography using a graphics processing unit (GPU). We implemented a fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm on a GPU to solve the ℓ1 and total variation (TV) regularized problems that are typically used in compressive holography. Since the algorithm is highly parallel, GPUs can compute it efficiently by data-parallel computing. For better performance, our implementation exploits the structure of the measurement matrix to compute the matrix multiplications. The results show that GPU-based implementation is about 20 times faster than CPU-based implementation.

  11. Compressing the Inert Doublet Model

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, Nikita; Morrissey, David E; de la Puente, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Inert Doublet Model relies on a discrete symmetry to prevent couplings of the new scalars to Standard Model fermions. This stabilizes the lightest inert state, which can then contribute to the observed dark matter density. In the presence of additional approximate symmetries, the resulting spectrum of exotic scalars can be compressed. Here, we study the phenomenological and cosmological implications of this scenario. We derive new limits on the compressed Inert Doublet Model from LEP, and outline the prospects for exclusion and discovery of this model at dark matter experiments, the LHC, and future colliders.

  12. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series C: Life Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  13. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series G: Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  14. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series A: Mathematics, a peer review mathematical journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality,

  15. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  16. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is com-mitted to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  17. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series A: Mathematics, a peer re-view mathematical journal cosponsored by the Chi-nese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Sci-ence in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  18. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is com- mitted to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  19. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Science in China Series B: Chemistry, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to pub- lishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  20. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Science in China Series C: Life Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality,

  1. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series B: Chemistry, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied

  2. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Science in China Series A:Mathematics,a Peer re- view mathematical journal cosponsored by the Chi- nese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Sci- ence in China Press and Springer,is committed to publishing high-quality,original results in both basic and applied research.

  3. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series A: Mathematics, a peer- reviewed mathematical journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is commit- ted to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  4. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series D:Earth Sciences,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Press and Springer,is committed to publishing high-quality,original results in both basic and applied research.

  5. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is com- mitted to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  6. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  7. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series B: Chemistry, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to pub- lishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  8. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series A:Mathematics,a peer review mathematical journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Press and Springer,is committed to publishing high-quality,original results in both basic and applied research.

  9. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series C:Life Sciences,an academic jour-nal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and pub-lished by Science in China Press and Springer,is committed to publishing high-quality,original results in both basic and applied research.

  10. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is com-mitted to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  11. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science China Press and Springer, is committed to pub-lishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied

  12. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality

  13. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series C:Life Sciences,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Press and Springer,is committed to publishing high-quality,original results in both

  14. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series B:Chemistry,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Press and Springer,is committed to pub-lishing high-quality

  15. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science China Press and Springer,is committed to pub-lishing high-quality,original results in both basic and applied research.

  16. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, an academic journal co-sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science China Press and Springer, is committed to pub-lishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  17. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  18. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is com-mitted to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic

  19. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science China Press and Springer, is committed to pub-lishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  20. Instructions to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Journal of Resources and Ecology is an international journal for the publication of recent works in the related fields of natural resources and ecology.The journal was established in 2010 and is published quarterly.Journal of Resources and Ecology will consider manuscripts in the following categories:

  1. Instructions to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry has renamed as the Journal of Energy Chemistry in 2013.The Journal of Energy Chemistry is a bimonthly Journal jointly edited by the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics and the Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry,Chinese Academy of Sciences.Elsevier will publish the Journal on ScienceDirect,the online full text and

  2. Instructions to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry is a quarterly Journal jointly edited by the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics and the Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Starting in 2006, Elsevier will publish the Journal on ScienceDirect, the online full text and bibliographic information resource, and take care of the Journal's international institutional print subscriptions.

  3. Instructions to Author

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry is a bimonthlyJournal jointly edited by the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics and the Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2010.Starting in 2006, Elsevier published the Journal on ScienceDirect, the online full text and bibliographic information resource, and take care of the Journal's international institutional print subscriptions.

  4. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Science in China Series A-Mathematics is a monthly mathematical journal supervised by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and co-sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and National Natural Science Foundation of China. The subject areas featured include basic mathematics, applied mathematics, computational mathematics and science engineering computation, statistics, etc.

  5. Guide to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Aims and scope With the tenet of concerning ecology and serving economy, aimed at constructing a harmonious society of man and nature, Ecological Economy focuses on the sustainable development of economy and the ecological environment, and puts attention on theories, methods and technical innovations concerning ecological/green economy, recycling/circular economy and ecological/green industry.

  6. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Physics,Mechanics & Astronomy,a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science China Press and Springer,is committed to publishing high-quality,original results in both basic and applied research.

  7. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series B-Chemistry (Sci China Ser B-Chem) is a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal su-pervised by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and co-sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and National Natural Science Foundation of China. Its primary mission is to encourage communication of basic and inno-

  8. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series A: Mathematics, a peer review mathematical journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic

  9. About 13 cases of medullary metastatic compression in breast cancer; A propos de 13 cas de compression medullaire metastatique du cancer du sein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahfoud, T.; Aassab, R.; Errihani, H. [Service d' oncologie medicale, Institut national d' oncologie, Rabat (Morocco); Mahfoud, T.; Khmamouche, M.R.; Debbagh, A.; Bazine, A.; Ichou, M. [Service d' oncologie medicale, Hopital militaire d' instruction Mohammed-V, Rabat (Morocco)

    2010-10-15

    As this issue is a diagnosis and therapeutic emergency, the authors report the development of a method to take into care medullary metastatic compression of the breast cancer. This study is based on 13 patients of a Rabat hospital over 3 years. Compressions have been observed by MRI. They have been treated by cortico-therapy and radiotherapy, but also by laminectomy in one case. The authors observed a improvement in terms of symptomatology, and a neurological recovery from the fourth week after the treatment. Short communication

  10. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals.The experiment related to crop yield should be conducted at

  11. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals.The experiment related to crop yield should be conducted at least two locations or growing seasons with replications.All the results should be supported by appropriate statistical

  12. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals.The experiment related to crop yield should be conducted at least two locations or growing seasons with replications.All the results should be supported by appropriate statistical analyses.

  13. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientifi c journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals.The experiment related to crop yield should be conducted at least two locations or growing seasons with replications.All the results should be supported by appropriate statistical

  14. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals.The experiment related to crop yield should be conducted at least two locations or growing seasons with replications.All the results should be supported by appropriate statistical analyses.

  15. GUIDE FOR AUTHORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Types of paper Contributions falling into the following categories will be considered for publication:Original articles in nursing research,clinical research and review articles.Please ensure that you select the appropriate article type from the list of options when preparing for your submission.Authors contributing to special issues should ensure that they select the special issue article type from this list.Before You Begin Ethics in Publishing For information on Ethics in Publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/ethicalguidelines.

  16. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals.The experiment related to crop yield should be conducted at

  17. NOTICE TO AUTHORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@CELL RESEARCH is an international academic journal, the only one publishes papers in En glish in all branches of animal and plant cell biology in China. It is edited by Shanghai Institute of Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, published and distributed by Science Press, Beijing, China, and New York Agency, Ltd., USA, as well as by the Institute. The journal started pub lication semiannully in 1990 and changed to quarterly beginning from Volume 8, in 1998. This periodical has been accepted to be included in Index Medicus and MEDLINE on the MEDLARS system beginning from volume7(1), 1997 by National Library of Medicine, USA, and it was informed recently by Institute for Scientific Information, USA that ISI will be indexing CELL RESEARCH beginning with volume 9(1), 1999 in the following products: Science Citation Index-Expanded, available as SciSearch on Dialog or as the ISI Web of Science on the Internet-Research Alert. Manuscripts must be written in a clear and concise style. The principle criteria for acceptance are originality and scientific excelence. Papers judged by two referees and a member of the Editorial Board to be inapppropriate for the journal's scope and content will be returned to author. One original and two copies of each manuscript should be submitted. Authors are encouraged to submit text by a computer disk (3.5' disk with clearly labbled file name) in IBM compatible PC in Word, Write, under Windows prograne, Wordperfect 5.1, WPS 3.0 or Wordstar 4.0. Text sent by e mail are also welcomed. These all should be accompanied with an identical hard copy printout. Manuscripts are requested to be send to Ms. Ai Lan CHANG, Editorial office of CELL RESEARCH, Shanghai Institute of Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yue-yang Road, Shanghai 200031, China. e-mail: edto@sunm.shcnc.ac.cn. Author(s) from other countries can also send their manuscript(s) to three reginal editors in UK or USA (Dr. Jing De ZHU, Cathcart Laboratory, Division of

  18. Compressibility Effects in Turbulent Boundary Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yu-Hui; PEI Jie; CHEN Jun; SHE Zhen-Su

    2008-01-01

    Local cascade (LC) scheme and space-time correlations are used to study turbulent structures and their convection behaviour in the near-wall region of compressible boundary layers at Ma = 0.8 and 1.3. The convection velocities of fluctuating velocity components u (streamwise) and v (vertical) are investigated by statistically analysing scale-dependent ensembles of LC structures. The results suggest that u is convected with entropy perturbations while v with an isentropic process. An abnormal thin layer distinct from the conventional viscous sub-layer is discovered in the immediate vicinity of the wall (y+≤1) in supersonic flows. While in the region 1 < y+ < 30,streamwise streaks dominate velocity, density and temperature fluctuations, the abnormal thin layer is dominated by spanwise streaks in vertical velocity and density fluctuations, where pressure and density fluctuations are strongly correlated. The LC scheme is proven to be effective in studying the nature of supersonic flows and compressibility effects on wall-bounded motions.

  19. Compressed Sensing Methods in Radio Receivers Exposed to Noise and Interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek

    , there is a problem of interference, which makes digitization of radio receivers even more dicult. High-order low-pass lters are needed to remove interfering signals and secure a high-quality reception. In the mid-2000s a new method of signal acquisition, called compressed sensing, emerged. Compressed sensing...... is a mathematical tool which allows for sub-Nyquist signal sampling. In this thesis the author opens a new possibility of relaxing requirements for analog signal ltering in a direct conversion receiver by applying compressed sensing. In the proposed solution,high-order low-pass lters which separate...... the downconverted baseband signal and interference, may be replaced by low-order lters. Additional digital signal processing is a price to pay for this feature. Hence, the signal processing is moved from the analog to the digital domain. Filtering compressed sensing, which is a new application of compressed sensing...

  20. A linear mixture analysis-based compression for hyperspectral image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. I. Chang; I. W. Ginsberg

    2000-06-30

    In this paper, the authors present a fully constrained least squares linear spectral mixture analysis-based compression technique for hyperspectral image analysis, particularly, target detection and classification. Unlike most compression techniques that directly deal with image gray levels, the proposed compression approach generates the abundance fractional images of potential targets present in an image scene and then encodes these fractional images so as to achieve data compression. Since the vital information used for image analysis is generally preserved and retained in the abundance fractional images, the loss of information may have very little impact on image analysis. In some occasions, it even improves analysis performance. Airborne visible infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) data experiments demonstrate that it can effectively detect and classify targets while achieving very high compression ratios.

  1. Lossless compression of medical images using Burrows-Wheeler Transformation with Inversion Coder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Collin; Arnavut, Ziya; Koc, Basar

    2015-08-01

    Medical imaging is a quickly growing industry where the need for highly efficient lossless compression algorithms is necessary in order to reduce storage space and transmission rates for the large, high resolution, medical images. Due to the fact that medical imagining cannot utilize lossy compression, in the event that vital information may be lost, it is imperative that lossless compression be used. While several authors have investigated lossless compression of medical images, the Burrows-Wheeler Transformation with an Inversion Coder (BWIC) has not been examined. Our investigation shows that BWIC runs in linear time and yields better compression rates than well-known image coders, such as JPEG-LS and JPEG-2000.

  2. Wavelet and wavelet packet compression of electrocardiograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, M L

    1997-05-01

    Wavelets and wavelet packets have recently emerged as powerful tools for signal compression. Wavelet and wavelet packet-based compression algorithms based on embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) coding are developed for electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, and eight different wavelets are evaluated for their ability to compress Holter ECG data. Pilot data from a blind evaluation of compressed ECG's by cardiologists suggest that the clinically useful information present in original ECG signals is preserved by 8:1 compression, and in most cases 16:1 compressed ECG's are clinically useful.

  3. Becoming Co-Authors: Toward Sharing Authority in Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2009-01-01

    This article offers an alternative model, the model of shared authority, to the traditional, authoritarian model for authority and obedience for Religious Education. This model moves away from the authoritarian model of a teacher as the authority and the students as obedient listeners in the direction of a shared authority model in which teachers…

  4. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series C: Life Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.Science in China Series C: Life Sciences is published monthly in both print and electronic forms. It is indexed by Aquatic Science & Fisheries, Abstracts, BIOBASE, BioEngineering Abstracts, Biological Abstracts, BIOSIS,

  5. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series C: Life Sciences, an academic jour-nal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and pub-lished by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research. Science in China Series C: Life Sciences is published monthly in both print and electronic forms. It is indexed by Aquatic Science & Fisheries, Abstracts, BIOBASE, BioEngineering

  6. Instructions to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry has renamed as the Journal of Energy Chemistry in 2013.The Journal of Energy Chemistry is a bimonthly Journal jointly edited by the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics and the Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry,Chinese Academy of Sciences.Elsevier will publish the Journal on ScienceDirect,the online full text and bibliographic information resource,and take care of the Journal’s international institutional print subscriptions.

  7. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Science in China Series A: Mathematics, a mathematical journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research. Science in China Series A: Mathematics is published monthly in both print and electronic forms. It is indexed by Chemical Abstracts Service, Personal Alert, Cur-

  8. Instruction for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM) is an official international journal sponsored by Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research and Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. The purpose of CHM is to provide a forum for the studies on Chinese herbal medicines, phyto- medicines, and natural products as well. The journal will accept the following contributions: letters, research articles, review papers, short

  9. Grid-free compressive beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation problem involves the localization of a few sources from a limited number of observations on an array of sensors, thus it can be formulated as a sparse signal reconstruction problem and solved efficiently with compressive sensing (CS) to achieve high...

  10. Compressing spatio-temporal trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Joachim; Katajainen, Jyrki; Merrick, Damian

    2009-01-01

    A trajectory is a sequence of locations, each associated with a timestamp, describing the movement of a point. Trajectory data is becoming increasingly available and the size of recorded trajectories is getting larger. In this paper we study the problem of compressing planar trajectories such tha...

  11. LIDAR data compression using wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, B.; Mansor, Shattri; Ramli, Abdul Rahman; Mohamed Sharif, Abdul Rashid B.; Sandeep, K.

    2005-10-01

    The lifting scheme has been found to be a flexible method for constructing scalar wavelets with desirable properties. In this paper, it is extended to the LIDAR data compression. A newly developed data compression approach to approximate the LIDAR surface with a series of non-overlapping triangles has been presented. Generally a Triangulated Irregular Networks (TIN) are the most common form of digital surface model that consists of elevation values with x, y coordinates that make up triangles. But over the years the TIN data representation has become a case in point for many researchers due its large data size. Compression of TIN is needed for efficient management of large data and good surface visualization. This approach covers following steps: First, by using a Delaunay triangulation, an efficient algorithm is developed to generate TIN, which forms the terrain from an arbitrary set of data. A new interpolation wavelet filter for TIN has been applied in two steps, namely splitting and elevation. In the splitting step, a triangle has been divided into several sub-triangles and the elevation step has been used to 'modify' the point values (point coordinates for geometry) after the splitting. Then, this data set is compressed at the desired locations by using second generation wavelets. The quality of geographical surface representation after using proposed technique is compared with the original LIDAR data. The results show that this method can be used for significant reduction of data set.

  12. Maxwell's Demon and Data Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Hosoya, Akio; Shikano, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    In an asymmetric Szilard engine model of Maxwell's demon, we show the equivalence between information theoretical and thermodynamic entropies when the demon erases information optimally. The work gain by the engine can be exactly canceled out by the work necessary to reset demon's memory after optimal data compression a la Shannon before the erasure.

  13. Compressive passive millimeter wave imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Liao, Shaolin; Elmer, Thomas W; Koehl, Eugene R; Heifetz, Alexander; Raptis, Apostolos C

    2015-01-27

    A compressive scanning approach for millimeter wave imaging and sensing. A Hadamard mask is positioned to receive millimeter waves from an object to be imaged. A subset of the full set of Hadamard acquisitions is sampled. The subset is used to reconstruct an image representing the object.

  14. Empirical Formula for the Relationship between Compressive Strength and Test Temperature of Carbon/Polyimide Composites

    OpenAIRE

    濱口, 泰正; Hamaguchi, Yasumasa

    2002-01-01

    T800H/PMR-15 carbon/polyimide composite possesses good specific strength and specific rigidity in the high-temperature region around 300C. This material is an advanced structural composite for use in elevons and other secondary structures of the unmanned space reentry vehicle HOPE-X. The author carried out basic strength evaluation tests on this material. Compressive strength data is especially important for structural design using composite materials. Compressive strength data was therefore ...

  15. Spinal cord compression in two related Ursus arctos horribilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomovsky, Stephanie A; Chen, Annie V; Roberts, Greg R; Schmidt, Carrie E; Layton, Arthur W

    2012-09-01

    Two 15-yr-old grizzly bear littermates were evaluated within 9 mo of each other with the symptom of acute onset of progressive paraparesis and proprioceptive ataxia. The most significant clinical examination finding was pelvic limb paresis in both bears. Magnetic resonance examinations of both bears showed cranial thoracic spinal cord compression. The first bear had left-sided extradural, dorsolateral spinal cord compression at T3-T4. Vertebral canal stenosis was also observed at T2-T3. Images of the second bear showed lateral spinal cord compression from T2-T3 to T4-T5. Intervertebral disk disease and associated spinal cord compression was also observed at T2-T3 and T3-T4. One grizzly bear continued to deteriorate despite reduced exercise, steroid, and antibiotic therapy. The bear was euthanized, and a necropsy was performed. The postmortem showed a spinal ganglion cyst that caused spinal cord compression at the level of T3-T4. Wallerian-like degeneration was observed from C3-T6. The second bear was prescribed treatment that consisted of a combination of reduced exercise and steroid therapy. He continued to deteriorate with these medical therapies and was euthanized 4 mo after diagnosis. A necropsy showed hypertrophy and protrusion of the dorsal longitudinal ligament at T2-T3 and T3-T4, with resulting spinal cord compression in this region. Wallerian-like degeneration was observed from C2-L1. This is one of few case reports that describes paresis in bears. It is the only case report, to the authors' knowledge, that describes spinal magnetic resonance imaging findings in a grizzly bear and also the only report that describes a cranial thoracic myelopathy in two related grizzly bears with neurologic signs.

  16. Adaptive Lattice Boltzmann Model for Compressible Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows is presented. The main difference from the standard lattice Boltzmann model is that the particle velocities are no longer constant, but vary with the mean velocity and internal energy. The adaptive nature of the particle velocities permits the mean flow to have a high Mach number. The introduction of a particle potential energy makes the model suitable for a perfect gas with arbitrary specific heat ratio. The Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations are derived by the Chapman-Enskog method from the BGK Boltzmann equation. Two kinds of simulations have been carried out on the hexagonal lattice to test the proposed model. One is the Sod shock-tube simulation. The other is a strong shock of Mach number 5.09 diffracting around a corner.

  17. Acoustic metric of the compressible draining bathtub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.

    2011-10-01

    The draining bathtub flow, a cornerstone in the theory of acoustic black holes, is here extended to the case of exact solutions for compressible nonviscous flows characterized by a polytropic equation of state. Investigating the analytical configurations obtained for selected values of the polytropic index, it is found that each of them becomes nonphysical at the so called limiting circle. By studying the null geodesics structure of the corresponding acoustic line elements, it is shown that such a geometrical locus coincides with the acoustic event horizon. This region is characterized also by an infinite value of space-time curvature, so the acoustic analogy breaks down there. Possible applications for artificial and natural vortices are finally discussed.

  18. Spinal cord compression in {beta}-thalassemia: follow-up after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Silvana Fahel da; Figueiredo, Maria Stella; Cancado, Rodolfo Delfini; Nakadakare, Fernando; Segreto, Roberto; Kerbauy, Jose [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina

    1998-12-01

    Spinal cord compression due to extramedullary hematopoiesis is a well-described bu rare syndrome encountered in several hematologic disorders, including {beta}-thalassemia. We report a case of a patient with intermediate {beta}-thalassemia and crural paraparesis due to spinal cord compression by a paravertebral extramedullary mass. She was successfully treated with low-dose radiotherapy and transfusions. After splenectomy, she was regularly followed up for over four years without transfusion or recurrence of spinal cord compression. Extramedullary hematopoiesis should be investigated in patients with hematologic disorders and spinal cord symptoms. The rapid recognition and treatment with radiotherapy can dramatically alleviate symptoms. (author)

  19. The Compressive Strength of High-Performance Concrete and Ultrahigh-Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H. Kadri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strength of silica fume concretes was investigated at low water-cementitious materials ratios with a naphthalene sulphonate superplasticizer. The results show that partial cement replacement up to 20% produce, higher compressive strengths than control concretes, nevertheless the strength gain is less than 15%. In this paper we propose a model to evaluate the compressive strength of silica fume concrete at any time. The model is related to the water-cementitious materials and silica-cement ratios. Taking into account the author's and other researchers’ experimental data, the accuracy of the proposed model is better than 5%.

  20. Effects of dynamic range compression on spatial selective auditory attention in normal-hearing listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrew H.; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.

    2013-01-01

    Many hearing aids introduce compressive gain to accommodate the reduced dynamic range that often accompanies hearing loss. However, natural sounds produce complicated temporal dynamics in hearing aid compression, as gain is driven by whichever source dominates at a given moment. Moreover, independent compression at the two ears can introduce fluctuations in interaural level differences (ILDs) important for spatial perception. While independent compression can interfere with spatial perception of sound, it does not always interfere with localization accuracy or speech identification. Here, normal-hearing listeners reported a target message played simultaneously with two spatially separated masker messages. We measured the amount of spatial separation required between the target and maskers for subjects to perform at threshold in this task. Fast, syllabic compression that was independent at the two ears increased the required spatial separation, but linking the compressors to provide identical gain to both ears (preserving ILDs) restored much of the deficit caused by fast, independent compression. Effects were less clear for slower compression. Percent-correct performance was lower with independent compression, but only for small spatial separations. These results may help explain differences in previous reports of the effect of compression on spatial perception of sound. PMID:23556599