WorldWideScience

Sample records for authority compressed natural

  1. Worship of Authority and Human Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangRuisheng

    2005-01-01

    Authority is a cultural phenomenon that by its nature implies social relations between individuals. At the heart of authority is power-holders' maximization of their own interests by virtue of their ruling positions. In ancient society based on the small-scale peasant economy, the concept of authority worship was unavoidable. It is rooted in the premise that man is by nature evil and hence needs the awe-inspiring powers of authority. A highly developed cult of authority exerts enormous influence on and seriously distorts human nature. But the authority cult was not the only ideology in feudal society;

  2. 78 FR 21349 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Compressed Natural Gas, Vacating Prior Authority and Denying Request for Rehearing During January 2013 ] FE Docket... GAS LLC 12-168-CNG MERRILL LYNCH COMMODITIES CANADA, ULC 12-169-NG GAS NATURAL PUERTO RICO INC...

  3. Rapidly Estimating Natural Gas Compressibility Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Bahadori; Saeid Mokhatab; Brian F. Towler

    2007-01-01

    Natural gases containing sour components exhibit different gas compressibility factor (Z) behavior than do sweet gases. Therefore, a new accurate method should be developed to account for these differences. Several methods are available today for calculating the Z-factor from an equation of state. However, these equations are more complex than the foregoing correlations, involving a large number of parameters, which require more complicated and longer computations. The aim of this study is to develop a simplified calculation method for a rapid estimating Z-factor for sour natural gases containing as much as 90% total acid gas. In this article, two new correlations are first presented for calculating the pseudo-critical pressure and temperature of the gas mixture as a function of the gas specific gravity. Then, a simple correlation on the basis of the standard gas compressibility factor chart is introduced for a quick estimation of sweet gases' compressibility factor as a function of reduced pressure and temperature. Finally, a new corrective term related to the mole fractions of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide is developed.

  4. [Extrinsic compression of the popliteal artery (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, J M

    1980-01-01

    Popliteal artery compression may be due to trapping of the artery, a tumor, or a subadventricial cyst. Diagnosis is suggested by the discovery of ischemia in a subject who is often young, this being an unusual finding. It is confirmed by dynamic doppler tests, ultrasonography, and vascular opacification. Eight cases of trapped popliteal, three of osteochondroma, and seven cases due to cysts were observed. Surgical treatment is regularly effective and can prevent complications of embolism and acute thrombosis. PMID:7240996

  5. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section 48.4041-21 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... as the model certificate provided in paragraph (c)(4) of this section, and should contain...

  6. Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-09-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with fueling infrastructure for compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. It provides estimated cost ranges for various sizes and types of CNG fueling stations and an overview of factors that contribute to the total cost of an installed station. The information presented is based on input from professionals in the natural gas industry who design, sell equipment for, and/or own and operate CNG stations.

  7. Compressed natural gas vehicles motoring towards a green Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Kraft-Oliver, T. [International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC) - Asia, Bangkok (Thailand); Guo Xiao Yan [China North Vehicle Research Institute (CNVRI), Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This paper first describes the state-of-the-art of compressed natural gas (CNG) technologies and evaluates the market prospects for CNG vehicles in Beijing. An analysis of the natural gas resource supply for fleet vehicles follows. The costs and benefits of establishing natural gas filling stations and promoting the development of vehicle technology are evaluated. The quantity of GHG reduction is calculated. The objective of the paper is to provide information of transfer niche of CNG vehicle and equipment production in Beijing. This paper argues that the development of CNG vehicles is a cost-effective strategy for mitigating both air pollution and GHG.

  8. Compressed natural gas fueled vehicles: The Houston experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The report describes the experience of the City of Houston in defining the compressed natural gas fueled vehicle research scope and issues. It details the ways in which the project met initial expectations, and how the project scope, focus, and duration were adjusted in response to unanticipated results. It provides examples of real world successes and failures in efforts to commercialize basic research in adapting a proven technology (natural gas) to a noncommercially proven application (vehicles). Phase one of the demonstration study investigates, develops, documents, and disseminates information regarding the economic, operational, and environmental implications of utilizing compressed natural gas (CNG) in various truck fueling applications. The four (4) truck classes investigated are light duty gasoline trucks, medium duty gasoline trucks, medium duty diesel trucks and heavy duty diesel trucks. The project researches aftermarket CNG conversions for the first three vehicle classes and original equipment manufactured (OEM) CNG vehicles for light duty gasoline and heavy duty diesel classes. In phase two of the demonstration project, critical issues are identified and assessed with respect to implementing use of CNG fueled vehicles in a large vehicle fleet. These issues include defining changes in local, state, and industry CNG fueled vehicle related codes and standards; addressing vehicle fuel storage limitations; using standardized vehicle emission testing procedures and results; and resolving CNG refueling infrastructure implementation issues and related cost factors. The report identifies which CNG vehicle fueling options were tried and failed and which were tried and succeeded, with and without modifications. The conclusions include a caution regarding overly optimistic assessments of CNG vehicle technology at the initiation of the project.

  9. Compressibility of a natural kyanite to 17.5 GPa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Liu; Sean R. Shieh; Michael E. Fleet; Lifei Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The compressional behaviour of a natural kyanite, (Al1.99Fe0.01)SiO5, has been investigated to about 17.5 GPa at 300 K using a diamond-anvil cell and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The pressure-volume data fitted to the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EoS) yield an isothermal bulk modulus (K0T) of 192±6 GPa and pressure derivative (K10T) of 6±1. When K10T is fixed as 4, the derived K0T is 201±2 GPa. These values are in excellent agreement with most experimental determinations in the literature. Consequently, it can be concluded that the compressibility of kyanite under high pressures has been accurately constrained.

  10. Improved Compressive Sensing of Natural Scenes Using Localized Random Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranca, Victor J.; Kovačič, Gregor; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2016-08-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) theory demonstrates that by using uniformly-random sampling, rather than uniformly-spaced sampling, higher quality image reconstructions are often achievable. Considering that the structure of sampling protocols has such a profound impact on the quality of image reconstructions, we formulate a new sampling scheme motivated by physiological receptive field structure, localized random sampling, which yields significantly improved CS image reconstructions. For each set of localized image measurements, our sampling method first randomly selects an image pixel and then measures its nearby pixels with probability depending on their distance from the initially selected pixel. We compare the uniformly-random and localized random sampling methods over a large space of sampling parameters, and show that, for the optimal parameter choices, higher quality image reconstructions can be consistently obtained by using localized random sampling. In addition, we argue that the localized random CS optimal parameter choice is stable with respect to diverse natural images, and scales with the number of samples used for reconstruction. We expect that the localized random sampling protocol helps to explain the evolutionarily advantageous nature of receptive field structure in visual systems and suggests several future research areas in CS theory and its application to brain imaging.

  11. Improved Compressive Sensing of Natural Scenes Using Localized Random Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranca, Victor J; Kovačič, Gregor; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David

    2016-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) theory demonstrates that by using uniformly-random sampling, rather than uniformly-spaced sampling, higher quality image reconstructions are often achievable. Considering that the structure of sampling protocols has such a profound impact on the quality of image reconstructions, we formulate a new sampling scheme motivated by physiological receptive field structure, localized random sampling, which yields significantly improved CS image reconstructions. For each set of localized image measurements, our sampling method first randomly selects an image pixel and then measures its nearby pixels with probability depending on their distance from the initially selected pixel. We compare the uniformly-random and localized random sampling methods over a large space of sampling parameters, and show that, for the optimal parameter choices, higher quality image reconstructions can be consistently obtained by using localized random sampling. In addition, we argue that the localized random CS optimal parameter choice is stable with respect to diverse natural images, and scales with the number of samples used for reconstruction. We expect that the localized random sampling protocol helps to explain the evolutionarily advantageous nature of receptive field structure in visual systems and suggests several future research areas in CS theory and its application to brain imaging. PMID:27555464

  12. Removal of methane from compressed natural gas fueled vehicle exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the modes of methane (CH4) removal from simulated compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled vehicle exhaust under net oxidizing, net reducing, and stoichiometric conditions. Model reaction studies were conducted. The results suggest that the oxidation of methane with oxygen contributes to the removal of methane under net oxidizing conditions. In contrast, the oxidation of methane with oxygen as well as nitric oxide contributes to its removal under net reducing conditions. The steam reforming reaction does not significantly contribute to the removal of methane. The methane conversions under net reducing conditions are higher than those observed under net oxidizing conditions. The study shows that the presence of carbon monoxide in the feed gas leads to a gradual decrease in the methane conversion with increasing redox ratio, under net oxidizing conditions. a minimum in methane conversion is observed at a redox ratio of 0. 8. The higher activity for the methane-oxygen reaction resulting from a lowering in the overall oxidation state of palladium and the contribution of the methane-nitric oxide reaction toward the removal of CH4 appear to account for the higher CH4 conversions observed under net reducing conditions

  13. Selection of Mother Wavelet For Image Compression on Basis of Nature of Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajanan K. Kharate

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently discrete wavelet transform and wavelet packet has emerged as popular techniques for image compression. The wavelet transform is one of the major processing components of image compression. The results of the compression change as per the basis and tap of the wavelet used. This paper compares compression performance of Daubechies, Biorthogonal, Coiflets and other wavelets along with results for different frequency images. Based on the result, it is proposed that proper selection of mother wavelet on the basis of nature of images, improve the quality as well as compression ratio remarkably. The prime objective is to select the proper mother wavelet during the transform phase to compress the color image. This paper includes the discussion on principles of image compression, image compression methodology, the basics of wavelet and orthogonal wavelet transforms, the selection of discrete wavelet transform with results and conclusion.

  14. Compressed natural gas bus safety: a quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel; Modarres, Mohammad

    2005-04-01

    This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results are compared to fire risks of the present generation of diesel-fueled school buses. Direct computation of the safety risks associated with diesel-powered vehicles is possible because these are mature technologies for which historical performance data are available. Because of limited experience, fatal accident data for CNG bus fleets are minimal. Therefore, this study uses the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to model and predict fire safety risk of CNG buses. Generic failure data, engineering judgments, and assumptions are used in this study. This study predicts the mean fire fatality risk for typical CNG buses as approximately 0.23 fatalities per 100-million miles for all people involved, including bus passengers. The study estimates mean values of 0.16 fatalities per 100-million miles for bus passengers only. Based on historical data, diesel school bus mean fire fatality risk is 0.091 and 0.0007 per 100-million miles for all people and bus passengers, respectively. One can therefore conclude that CNG buses are more prone to fire fatality risk by 2.5 times that of diesel buses, with the bus passengers being more at risk by over two orders of magnitude. The study estimates a mean fire risk frequency of 2.2 x 10(-5) fatalities/bus per year. The 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds are 9.1 x 10(-6) and 4.0 x 10(-5), respectively. The risk result was found to be affected most by failure rates of pressure relief valves, CNG cylinders, and fuel piping.

  15. Structures in compressible magnetoconvection and the nature of umbral dots

    OpenAIRE

    C. Tian; Petrovay, K.

    2011-01-01

    Structures seen in idealized numerical experiments on compressible magnetoconvection in an imposed strong vertical magnetic field show important differences from those detected in observations or realistic numerical simulations of sunspot umbrae. To elucidate the origin of these discrepancies, we present a series of idealized 3D compressible magnetoconvection experiments that differ from previous such experiments in several details, bringing them closer to realistic solar conditions. An initi...

  16. The use of compressed natural gas as a strategy of development of natural gas industry; Utilizacao do GNC (Gas Natural Comprimido) como estrategia de desenvolvimento da industria do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, Jucemara [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Coordenacao de Segmento Veicular; Rickmann, Cristiano [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia de Novos Negocios; Maestri, Juares [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia de Mercado de Grandes Consumidores

    2008-07-01

    This work emphasizes the Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as modal of transport, used by the Company of Gas of the State of Rio Grande do Sul - Sulgas, through experience in pioneering project in Brazil: the introduction of the technology of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) to assist areas where there is not the infrastructure of pipeline for the transport. The article offers a display of the project of expansion of the Natural gas in Rio Grande do Sul, through the supply of CNG to the company Tramontina in Carlos Barbosa's city in the year of 2002. The last aspect focused by this article demonstrates as the use of this transport technology impelled the development of the transport market in the State and it has been used as an important strategy for the development of the market of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) in the state. (author)

  17. Modification Design of Petrol Engine for Alternative Fueling using Compressed Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Eliezer Uchechukwu Okeke; Barinaadaa Thaddeus Lebele-Alawa

    2013-01-01

    This paper is on the modification design of petrol engine for alternative fuelling using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It provides an analytical background in the modification design process. A petrol engine Honda CR-V 2.0 auto which has a compression ratio of 9.8 was selected as case study. In order for this petrol engine to run on CNG, its compression had to be increased. An optimal compression ratio of 11.97 was computed using the standard temperature-specific volume relationsh...

  18. Structures in compressible magnetoconvection and the nature of umbral dots

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, C

    2011-01-01

    Structures seen in idealized numerical experiments on compressible magnetoconvection in an imposed strong vertical magnetical field show important differences with respect to those detected in observations or realistic numerical simulations of sunspot umbrae.In order to elucidate the origin of these discrepancies, here we present a series of idealized 3D compressible magnetoconvection experiments that differ from previous such experiments in several details, bringing them closer to realistic solar conditions. An initially vertical magnetic field $B_0$ is imposed on a time snapshot of fully developed solar-like turbulent convection in a layer bounded by a stable layer from above. Upon relaxation to a statistically steady state, the structure of the flow field and magnetic field is examined. Instead of the vigorous granular convection (GRC) well known to take place in nonmagnetized or weakly magnetized convection, for high values of $B_0$ heat is transported by small-scale convection (SSC) in the form of narrow...

  19. Natural Gas Compression Technician: Apprenticeship Course Outline. Apprenticeship and Industry Training. 5311.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The graduate of the Natural Gas Compression Technician apprenticeship program is a certified journeyperson who will be able to install, commission, maintain and repair equipment used to gather store and transmit natural gas. Advanced Education and Technology has prepared this course outline in partnership with the Natural Gas Compression…

  20. Compressive elastic modulus of natural fiber based binary composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayani, Susanah, Y.; Utami, L. S.; Khotimah, S. N.; Viridi, S.

    2012-06-01

    The composites made of bamboo apus fiber - epoxy resin and charcoal - tapioca starch with several compositions have been synthesized. Bamboo fiber powder as the rest of cutting process was refined and filtered by mesh 40 before used. Epoxy resin 1021A and hardener 1021B has been used as resin. The synthesis of epoxy resin-based composites was carried out via simple mixing method by adding adequate 70% ethanol solution before drying. The 100 mesh-filtered dry charcoal was mixed with tapioca mixture before it was pressed and dried to produce briquette composites. To study the compressive elastic modulus of the composites, pressure tests using Mark 10 Pressure Test Machine have been carried out. It was found that all the composites show maximum compressive elastic modulus at certain component compositions. The maximum elastic modulus for bamboo fiber-epoxy resin, charcoal - epoxy resin and charcoal-tapioca starch were observed at 52.9%, 56.3%, and 25.0% of mass fraction of bamboo fiber, charcoal and tapioca starch, respectively.

  1. 77 FR 12274 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During January 2012.... DOMINION COVE POINT LNG, LP 11-98-LNG ENERGY PLUS NATURAL GAS LLC 11-155-NG BROOKFIELD ENERGY MARKETING L.P... 2012, it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural...

  2. 78 FR 46581 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import Liquefied Natural Gas During June 2013... authority to import and export natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized... of Fossil Energy, Office of Natural Gas Regulatory Activities, Docket Room 3E-033, Forrestal...

  3. 77 FR 19277 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During February 2012 FE..., ULC 12-13-NG ENCANA NATURAL GAS INC 11-163-NG ALCOA INC 12-11-NG JPMORGAN LNG CO 12-15-LNG CNE GAS... 2012, it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural...

  4. 77 FR 31838 - Notice of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas During April... Capital International, LLC....... 12-33-NG Phillips 66 Company 12-34-NG Northwest Natural Gas Company 12..., it issued Orders granting authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas....

  5. Structures in compressible magnetoconvection and the nature of umbral dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, C.; Petrovay, K.

    2013-03-01

    Context. Structures seen in idealized numerical experiments on compressible magnetoconvection in an imposed strong vertical magnetic field show important differences from those detected in observations or realistic numerical simulations of sunspot umbrae. Aims: To elucidate the origin of these discrepancies, we present a series of idealized 3D compressible magnetoconvection experiments that differ from previous such experiments in several details, bringing them closer to realistic solar conditions. Methods: An initially vertical magnetic field B0 is imposed on a time snapshot of fully developed solar-like turbulent convection in a layer bounded by a stable layer from above. Upon relaxation to a statistically steady state, the structure of the flow field and magnetic field is examined. Results: Instead of the vigorous granular convection (GRC) well known to take place in magnetized or weakly magnetized convection, for high values of B0 heat is transported by small-scale convection (SSC) in the form of narrow, persistent convective columns consisting of slender upflows accompanied by adjacent downflow patches, which are reminiscent of the "convectons" identified in earlier semianalytic models. For moderate field strengths, flux separation (FXS) is observed: isolated field-free inclusions of GRC are embedded in a strongly magnetized plasma with SSC. Between the SSC and FXS regimes, a transitional regime (F/S) is identified where convectons dynamically evolve into multiply segmented granular inclusions and back. Conclusions: Our results agree in some aspects more closely with observed umbral structures than earlier idealized models, because they do reproduce the strong localized, patchy downflows immediately adjacent to the narrow convective columns. Based on recent observations of umbral dots, we suggest that in some cases the conditions in sunspot umbræ correspond to the newly identified F/S transitional regime.

  6. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-03-01

    This report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes a number of potential enhancements to the existing natural gas compression infrastructure that have been identified and qualitatively demonstrated in tests on three different integral engine/compressors in natural gas transmission service.

  7. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2004-08-01

    This report documents work performed in Phase I of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infracture''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes a number of potential enhancements to the existing natural gas compression infrastructure that have been identified and tested on four different integral engine/compressors in natural gas transmission service.

  8. Modification Design of Petrol Engine for Alternative Fueling using Compressed Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Uchechukwu Okeke

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is on the modification design of petrol engine for alternative fuelling using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG. It provides an analytical background in the modification design process. A petrol engine Honda CR-V 2.0 auto which has a compression ratio of 9.8 was selected as case study. In order for this petrol engine to run on CNG, its compression had to be increased. An optimal compression ratio of 11.97 was computed using the standard temperature-specific volume relationship for an isentropic compression process. This computation of compression ratio is based on an inlet air temperature of 30oC (representative of tropical ambient condition and pre-combustion temperature of 540oC (corresponding to the auto-ignition temperature of CNG. Using this value of compression ratio, a dimensional modification Quantity =1.803mm was obtained using simple geometric relationships. This value of 1.803mm is needed to increase the length of the connecting rod, the compression height of the piston or reducing the sealing plate’s thickness. After the modification process, a CNG engine of air standard efficiency 62.7% (this represents a 4.67% increase over the petrol engine, capable of a maximum power of 83.6kW at 6500rpm, was obtained.

  9. 49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... natural gas fuel container integrity. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of compressed natural gas (CNG), motor vehicle fuel containers. S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to... vehicle crashes. S3. Application. This standard applies to each passenger car, multipurpose...

  10. Experimental and Skeletal Kinetic Model Study of Compressed Natural Gas Fueled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In homogeneous charge compression ignition engines fuel oxidation chemistry determines the auto-ignition timing, heat release, reaction intermediates and the ultimate products of combustion. To shorten development time and to understand combustion processes, the use of simulation is increasing. Approach: A model that correctly simulates fuel oxidation at these conditions would be a useful design tool. Detailed models of hydrocarbon fuel oxidation, consisting of hundreds of chemical species and thousands of reactions. A way to lessen the burden was to use a skeletal reaction model, containing only tens of species and reactions. Results: The model was developed from the existing pre-ignition model, which had 10 species, 5 elementary reactions for kinetic and 6 elementary reactions for equilibrium and the standard k-ε turbulence model had been used in this investigation. This model combines the chemistry of the low, intermediate and high temperature regions. Conclusion: Simulations are compared with measured and calculated data from the engine operating at the following conditions: speed 1500 RPM, inlet temperature 363-433 K, fuel CNG and λ range 3-5. The simulations are generally in good agreement with the experimental data including temperature, pressure, combustion duration and ignition delay and heat release.

  11. Life cycle greenhouse emissions of compressed natural gas-hydrogen mixtures for transportation in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, P. [Instituto de Energia y Desarrollo Sustentable, CNEA, CONICET, Av. del Libertador 8250, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dawidowski, L.; Gomez, D. [Gerencia Quimica, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, San Martin (Argentina); Pasquevich, D. [Instituto de Energia y Desarrollo Sustentable, CNEA, CONICET, Av. del Libertador 8250, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Atomico Bariloche, CNEA, Av. Bustillo 9500, S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    We have developed a model to assess the life cycle greenhouse emissions of compressed natural gas-hydrogen (CNG-H{sub 2}) mixtures used for transportation in Argentina. The overall fuel life cycle is assessed through a well-to-wheel (WTW) analysis for different hydrogen generation and distribution options. The combustion stage in road vehicles is modeled using the COPERT IV model. Hydrogen generation options include classical steam methane reforming (SMR) and water electrolysis (WE) in central plants and distributed facilities at the refueling stations. Centralized hydrogen generation by electrolysis in nuclear plants as well as the use of solar photovoltaic and wind electricity is also considered. Hydrogen distribution options include gas pipeline and refrigerated truck transportation for liquefied hydrogen. A total number of fifteen fuel pathways are studied; in all the cases the natural gas-hydrogen mixture is made at the refueling station. The use of WE using nuclear or wind electricity appears to be less contaminant that the use of pure CNG. (author)

  12. 75 FR 9921 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... the Draft Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan...

  13. 78 FR 21351 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, and Vacating Prior Authority During February 2013 FE Docket Nos. J.P. MORGAN COMMODITIES... US INC 13-05-NG GAS NATURAL APROVISIONAMIENTOS SDG, S.A 13-07-LNG SOCIETE GENERALE ENERGY INC...

  14. Segmentation of Natural Images by Texture and Boundary Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Mobahi, Hossein; Yang, Allen Y; Sastry, Shankar S; Ma, Yi

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for segmentation of natural images that harnesses the principle of minimum description length (MDL). Our method is based on observations that a homogeneously textured region of a natural image can be well modeled by a Gaussian distribution and the region boundary can be effectively coded by an adaptive chain code. The optimal segmentation of an image is the one that gives the shortest coding length for encoding all textures and boundaries in the image, and is obtained via an agglomerative clustering process applied to a hierarchy of decreasing window sizes as multi-scale texture features. The optimal segmentation also provides an accurate estimate of the overall coding length and hence the true entropy of the image. We test our algorithm on the publicly available Berkeley Segmentation Dataset. It achieves state-of-the-art segmentation results compared to other existing methods.

  15. Compressive Strength of Concrete Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate as Complete Replacement of Natural Aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Osei, Daniel Yaw

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a report of an experimental investigation on the effect of complete replacement of natural aggregate by recycled concrete aggregate in the production of concrete on the compressive strength of concrete. Two sets of concrete mixtures of ratios 1:3:6, 1:2:4, 1:11/2:3, 1:1:2 by mass were cast using natural aggregates and recycled aggregates concrete respectively. The 28-day compressive strengths of 1:3:6, 1:2:4, 1:11/2:3, 1:1:2 concrete using recycled concrete aggregates were...

  16. The effect of compression on natural graphite anode performance and matrix conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Striebel, K.A.; A. Sierra; Shim, J.; Wang, C.-W.; Sastry, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Anodes for lithium-ion cells were constructed from three types of natural graphite, two coated spherical and one flaky. Anode samples were compressed from 0 to 300 kg/cm2 and studied in half-cells to study the relations between anode density, SEI formation and anode cyclability. The C/25 formation of the SEI layer was found to depend on the nature of the graphite and the anode density. Compression of the uncoated graphite lead to an increased conductivity, but only slight improvements i...

  17. 78 FR 35014 - Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas, and to Import Liquefied Natural Gas During April 2013... INC 13-41-NG CASCADE NATURAL GAS CORPORATION 13-43-NG ENCANA MARKETING (USA) INC 13-44-NG CITIGROUP... natural gas and to import liquefied natural gas. These orders are summarized in the attached appendix...

  18. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... are those specified in S8.2 of Standard No. 208, 49 CFR 571.208. S7.3Rear moving barrier test conditions. The rear moving barrier test conditions are those specified in S8.2 of Standard No. 208, 49 CFR... system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements...

  19. Compressed Natural Gas Installation. A Video-Based Training Program for Vehicle Conversion. Instructor's Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach four competency-based course units of instruction in installing compressed natural gas (CNG) systems in motor vehicles. It is designed to accompany an instructional videotape (not included) on CNG installation. The following competencies are covered in the four instructional units:…

  20. Potentiality of the Usage of Compressed Natural Gas for Competitiveness in Service Delivery Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Mohammad Hasan Jamil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. With the rising costs of gasoline, many vehicle owners are looking for alternatives of it. Compressed natural gas (CNG has been tested for this very purpose in some countries and found as a better alternative so far. CNG comes from country’s natural resources and it is clean and less costly to use. This paper is mainly an analysis of the potential benefits of using natural gas as a transportation fuel by the service delivery industries. It will examine CNG’s potential contribution in reducing delivery and vehicle maintenance cost, saving money in the long run projects, improving fuel efficiency, enhancing physical safety and assuring environment friendly emissions of carbon monoxide or reactive gases for the service delivery industries.Keywords: Compressed natural gas (CNG, Service Delivery, Fossil fuel, Global warming, Competitiveness

  1. The Nature of Teacher Authority and Teacher Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Julian G.

    2009-01-01

    The so-called "soft skills" utilised by teachers--including relationship building, awareness of the pupil's context and background and the demonstration of authority--to develop an appropriate learning culture in their classrooms have long been recognised as being a major contribution to effective promotion of positive behaviour. This article…

  2. A Technical Review of Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Rosli A. Bakar

    2008-01-01

    Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been considerably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cylinders. Engine conversion technology is well established and suitable conversion equipment is readily available. For spark ignition engines there are two op...

  3. Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-03-19

    Natural gas is a clean-burning, abundant, and domestically produced source of energy. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has recently garnered interest as a transportation fuel because of these attributes and because of its cost savings and price stability compared to conventional petroleum fuels. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Vehicle Infrastructure and Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE) model to help businesses and fleets evaluate the financial soundness of CNG vehicle and CNG fueling infrastructure projects.

  4. 75 FR 3232 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization January 8, 2010. Take notice that on December 30, 2009, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111... sections 157.205 and 157.214 of the Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act for authorization...

  5. Prediction of Corrosion Resistance of Concrete Containing Natural Pozzolan from Compressive Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Swaidani, A. M.; Ismat, R.; Diyab, M. E.; Aliyan, S. D.

    2015-11-01

    A lot of Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures in Syria have suffered from reinforcement corrosion which shortened significantly their service lives. Probably, one of the most effective approaches to make concrete structures more durable and concrete industry on the whole - more sustainable is to substitute pozzolan for a portion of Portland cement (PC). Syria is relatively rich in natural pozzolan. In the study, in order to predict the corrosion resistance from compressive strength, concrete specimens were produced with seven cement types: one plain Portland cement (control) and six natural pozzolan-based cements with replacement levels ranging from 10 to 35%. The development of the compressive strengths of concrete cube specimens with curing time has been investigated. Chloride penetrability has also been evaluated for all concrete mixes after three curing times of 7, 28 and 90 days. The effect on resistance of concrete against damage caused by corrosion of the embedded reinforcing steel has been investigated using an accelerated corrosion test by impressing a constant anodic potential for 7, 28 and 90 days curing. Test results have been statistically analysed and correlation equations relating compressive strength and corrosion performance have been developed. Significant correlations have been noted between the compressive strength and both rapid chloride penetrability and corrosion initiation times. So, this prediction could be reliable in concrete mix design when using natural pozzolan as cement replacement.

  6. The slow-mode nature of compressible wave power in solar wind turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Howes, G G; Klein, K G; Chen, C H K; Salem, C S; TenBarge, J M

    2011-01-01

    We use a large, statistical set of measurements from the Wind spacecraft at 1 AU, and supporting synthetic spacecraft data based on kinetic plasma theory, to show that the compressible component of inertial range solar wind turbulence is primarily in the kinetic slow mode. The zero-lag cross correlation C(delta n, delta B_parallel) between proton density fluctuations delta n and the field-aligned (compressible) component of the magnetic field delta B_parallel is negative and close to -1. The typical dependence of C(delta n,delta B_parallel) on the ion plasma beta_i is consistent with a spectrum of compressible wave energy that is almost entirely in the kinetic slow mode. This has important implications for both the nature of the density fluctuation spectrum and for the cascade of kinetic turbulence to short wavelengths, favoring evolution to the kinetic Alfven wave mode rather than the (fast) whistler mode.

  7. Modified Liu-Carter Compression Model for Natural Clays with Various Initial Water Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Qian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial water content has a significant effect on the compression behaviour of reconstituted clays. This effect has to be considered in the Liu-Carter model to ensure the addition voids ratio only related to soil structure. A modified Liu-Carter compression model is proposed by introducing the empirical equations for reconstituted clays at different initial water contents into the Liu-Carter model. The proposed model is verified against the experimental results from the literature. The simulations by the proposed method are also compared with that by old method where the influence of initial water content is not considered. The results show that the predicted virgin compression curves of natural clays are similar, but the values of b and Δey may be very different.

  8. On the Use of Vibro-Compressed Units with Bio-Natural Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Sassu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the use of vibro-compressed units with bio-natural components on construction. The proposed mix design of vibrated blocks consist of cork granules and/or hemp shives, with the aim to substitute polymeric elements or expanded clay, together with the use of natural hydraulic lime (NHL as binder. An experimental campaign is presented, with mechanical tests to evaluate the influence of each component on flexural and compression behavior. The proposal is also investigated from a productive point of view, considering how it can be harmonized in the productive process of lightweight aggregate concrete units without modifications in the productive process. The tested elements could perform a certain reduction of the carbon impact, maintaining interesting mechanical properties. The application of the proposed units in several contexts, as separating elements joined with structural components, is considered to improve rehabilitation or to obtain higher performances in buildings.

  9. EFFECT OF NATURAL ZEOLITE ON THE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AND FREEZE-THAW RESISTANCE OF PORTLAND CEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bayartsetseg, E.; Lkhagvajargal, G.; Batgerel, D.; Sarangerel, D.; Ochirkhuyag, B

    2011-01-01

    Effects of zeolites in various natural deposits as replacement cementing material on mechanical performance of Portland cement were studied. The blended cement pastes with zeolites were cured at room temperature in air for various durations (1, 7 and 28 days). Mechanical performance of the blended cement samples such as setting time, volume of water, compressive strength, normal consistency and freeze-thaw resistance of the mortar are determined. The optimal substitution ratio was 20 wt. % of...

  10. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn

    2003-10-01

    This report documents work performed in the fourth quarter of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report describes the following work: second field test; test data analysis for the first field test; operational optimization plans.

  11. 16 CFR 1.8 - Nature, authority and use of trade regulation rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nature, authority and use of trade regulation rules. 1.8 Section 1.8 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND... Nature, authority and use of trade regulation rules. (a) For the purpose of carrying out the...

  12. 75 FR 19954 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY... Cheniere Marketing, LLC (CMI), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that... exported from the Sabine Pass LNG terminal owned by CMI's affiliate, Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., in...

  13. 75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY..., by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra), requesting blanket authorization to export up to a total of... Order No. 2795, which granted Cheniere Marketing, LLC (Cheniere) blanket authorization to...

  14. A Technical Review of Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed natural gas (CNG has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been considerably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cylinders. Engine conversion technology is well established and suitable conversion equipment is readily available. For spark ignition engines there are two options, a bi-fuel conversion and use a dedicated to CNG engine. For compression ignition engines converted to run on natural gas, there are two main options discussed, there are dual-fuel engines and normal ignition can be initiated. Natural gas engines can operate at lean burn and stoichiometric conditions with different combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the CNG engines research and development fueled using CNG are highlighted to keep the output power, torque and emissions of natural gas engines comparable to their gasoline or diesel counterparts. The high activities for future CNG engines research and development to meet future CNG engines is recorded in the paper.

  15. Green Engines Development Using Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Compressed Natural Gas (CNG is a gaseous form of natural gas, it have been recognized as one of the promising alternative fuel due to its substantial benefits compared to gasoline and diesel. Natural gas is produced from gas wells or tied in with crude oil production. Approach: Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been considerably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cylinders. Results: The technology of engine conversion was well established and suitable conversion equipment is readily available. For petrol engines or spark ignition engines there are two options, a bi-fuel conversion and use a dedicated to CNG engine. The diesel engines converted or designed to run on natural gas, there were two main options discussed. There are dual-fuel engines and normal ignition can be initiated. Natural gas engines can be operated at lean burn and stoichiometric conditions with different combustion and emission characteristics. Conclusions: In this study, the low exhaust gas emissions of CNG engines research and development were highlighted. Stoichiometric natural gas engines were briefly reviewed. To keep the output power, torque and emissions of natural gas engines comparable to their gasoline or diesel counterparts. High activity for future green CNG engines research and development to meet future stringent emissions standards was recorded in the study.

  16. A Statistical Analysis on Papers and Authors in Wuhan University Journal of Natural Sciences in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Min

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article counts and analyzes the papers and authors printed in 2003 Wuhan University Journal of Natural Sciences by means of bibliometric statistical methods, of which the characteristics of papers and authors are expounded.The result shows that the ratio of reprinting of this journal has been increased and the areas where the authors come from and their organization scattered in the whole world are widened as well, which implies a better-known fame of the journal.

  17. Potential hazards of compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Paul W.; Grubelich, Mark Charles; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-09-01

    This report is a preliminary assessment of the ignition and explosion potential in a depleted hydrocarbon reservoir from air cycling associated with compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media. The study identifies issues associated with this phenomenon as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in geologic media has been proposed to help supplement renewable energy sources (e.g., wind and solar) by providing a means to store energy when excess energy is available, and to provide an energy source during non-productive or low productivity renewable energy time periods. Presently, salt caverns represent the only proven underground storage used for CAES. Depleted natural gas reservoirs represent another potential underground storage vessel for CAES because they have demonstrated their container function and may have the requisite porosity and permeability; however reservoirs have yet to be demonstrated as a functional/operational storage media for compressed air. Specifically, air introduced into a depleted natural gas reservoir presents a situation where an ignition and explosion potential may exist. This report presents the results of an initial study identifying issues associated with this phenomena as well as possible mitigating measures that should be considered.

  18. 77 FR 31004 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 9, 2012, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite....210 of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA),...

  19. 76 FR 18216 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on March 16, 2011, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), Post Office Box 2563... and 157.216 of the Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as amended, to abandon...

  20. 75 FR 13535 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization March 16, 2010. Take notice that on March 12, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South... External Affairs, Northern Natural Gas Company, 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, at...

  1. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTNG NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-01-28

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents a survey test performed on an HBA-6 engine/compressor installed at Duke Energy's Bedford Compressor Station. This is one of several tests planned, which will emphasize identification and reduction of compressor losses. Additionally, this report presents a methodology for distinguishing losses in compressor attributable to valves, irreversibility in the compression process, and the attached piping (installation losses); it illustrates the methodology with data from the survey test. The report further presents the validation of the simulation model for the Air Balance tasks and outline of conceptual manifold designs.

  2. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Transit Bus Experience Survey: April 2009--April 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.; Horne, D. B.

    2010-09-01

    This survey was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect and analyze experiential data and information from a cross-section of U.S. transit agencies with varying degrees of compressed natural gas (CNG) bus and station experience. This information will be used to assist DOE and NREL in determining areas of success and areas where further technical or other assistance might be required, and to assist them in focusing on areas judged by the CNG transit community as priority items.

  3. 76 FR 6491 - San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Diego County Water Authority Subregional Natural Community Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA; Final Environmental Impact... November 26, 2003 (68 FR 66478). The Service and Water Authority held a public scoping meeting on...

  4. 75 FR 11194 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San Diego and Riverside Counties, CA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... application, and notice of public meetings for the San Diego County Water Authority's (Water...

  5. Wellhead compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Joe [Sertco Industries, Inc., Okemah, OK (United States); Vazquez, Daniel [Hoerbiger Service Latin America Inc., Deerfield Beach, FL (United States); Jacobs, Denis Richard [Hoerbiger do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, all wells experience a natural decline in oil and gas production. In gas wells, the major problems are liquid loading and low downhole differential pressures which negatively impact total gas production. As a form of artificial lift, wellhead compressors help reduce the tubing pressure resulting in gas velocities above the critical velocity needed to surface water, oil and condensate regaining lost production and increasing recoverable reserves. Best results come from reservoirs with high porosity, high permeability, high initial flow rates, low decline rates and high total cumulative production. In oil wells, excessive annulus gas pressure tends to inhibit both oil and gas production. Wellhead compression packages can provide a cost effective solution to these problems by reducing the system pressure in the tubing or annulus, allowing for an immediate increase in production rates. Wells furthest from the gathering compressor typically benefit the most from wellhead compression due to system pressure drops. Downstream compressors also benefit from higher suction pressures reducing overall compression horsepower requirements. Special care must be taken in selecting the best equipment for these applications. The successful implementation of wellhead compression from an economical standpoint hinges on the testing, installation and operation of the equipment. Key challenges and suggested equipment features designed to combat those challenges and successful case histories throughout Latin America are discussed below.(author)

  6. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study on Leadership: Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (Presentation); NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (RFTA) represents a series of unique successes in alternative fuel deployment by pushing the envelope with innovative solutions. In the last year, RFTA demonstrated the ability to utilize compressed natural gas buses at a range of altitudes, across long distances, in extreme weather conditions and in a modern indoor fueling and maintenance facility - allwhile saving money and providing high-quality customer service. This case study will highlight how the leadership of organizations and communities that are implementing advances in natural gas vehicle technology is paving the way for broader participation.

  7. Compressed air energy storage in depleted natural gas reservoirs: effects of porous media and gas mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, C. M.; Pan, L.

    2015-12-01

    Although large opportunities exist for compressed air energy storage (CAES) in aquifers and depleted natural gas reservoirs, only two grid-scale CAES facilities exist worldwide, both in salt caverns. As such, experience with CAES in porous media, what we call PM-CAES, is lacking and we have relied on modeling to elucidate PM-CAES processes. PM-CAES operates similarly to cavern CAES. Specifically, working gas (air) is injected through well(s) into the reservoir compressing the cushion gas (existing air in the reservoir). During energy recovery, high-pressure air from the reservoir flows first into a recuperator, then into an expander, and subsequently is mixed with fuel in a combustion turbine to produce electricity, thereby reducing compression costs. Energy storage in porous media is complicated by the solid matrix grains which provide resistance to flow (via permeability in Darcy's law); in the cap rock, low-permeability matrix provides the seal to the reservoir. The solid grains also provide storage capacity for heat that might arise from compression, viscous flow effects, or chemical reactions. The storage of energy in PM-CAES occurs variably across pressure gradients in the formation, while the solid grains of the matrix can release/store heat. Residual liquid (i.e., formation fluids) affects flow and can cause watering out at the production well(s). PG&E is researching a potential 300 MW (for ten hours) PM-CAES facility in a depleted gas reservoir near Lodi, California. Special considerations exist for depleted natural gas reservoirs because of mixing effects which can lead to undesirable residual methane (CH4) entrainment and reactions of oxygen and CH4. One strategy for avoiding extensive mixing of working gas (air) with reservoir CH4 is to inject an initial cushion gas with reduced oxygen concentration providing a buffer between the working gas (air) and the residual CH4 gas. This reduces the potential mixing of the working air with the residual CH4

  8. 77 FR 4028 - Orders Granting, Amending and Vacating Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... Granting, Amending and Vacating Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas FE Docket Nos. Gas Natural Caxitlan, S. DE R.L 11-147-NG Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P 11-127-LNG Irving..., amending and vacating authority to import and export natural gas and liquefied natural gas. These...

  9. The relationship between the political authorities and the commercial actors in the European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In summarizing the reasons for the fall of the Roman empire one has found about 210 significant ones. Without too much comparison the Roman empire and the EU natural gas market have similarities in connections between political authorities and the commercial actors in the European natural gas market. The area has consisted of several independent markets with different solutions that from 1988 has been tried integrated in an inner energy market. Several governmental and private actors have interest in this sector and both inhabitants and businesses are affected by alterations in a national natural gas market. This process is not yet finished. The thesis gives a broad description of the topic by including as many as possible of the EU member states. The topic is large and complex and the author has had to make a choice which parts to emphasize. There are chapters on the theoretical basis, the natural gas industry, what factors may explain the relationship between the political authorities and the commercial actors in the national natural gas market in each EU member and how does the EU Commission goals regarding free competition in the energy market affect the relationship between the political authorities and commercial actors in the national natural gas market

  10. Utilization of compressed natural gas for the production of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim-Yang Lee; Wei-Ming Yeoh; Siang-Piao Chai; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The present work aims at utilizing compressed natural gas (CNG) as carbon source for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) over CoO-MoO/Al2O3 catalyst via catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) method.The as-produced carbonaceous product was characterized by thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy.The experimental finding shows that CNTs were successfully produced from CNG while carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were formed as the side products.In addition,the catalytic activity and lifetime were found sustained and prolonged,as compared with using high purity methane as carbon source.The present study suggests an alternative route which can effectively produce CNTs and CNFs using low cost CNG.

  11. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-10-27

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first summarizes key results from survey site tests performed on an HBA-6 installed at Duke Energy's Bedford compressor station, and on a TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station. The report then presents results of design analysis performed on the Bedford HBA-6 to develop options and guide decisions for reducing pulsations and enhancing compressor system efficiency and capacity. The report further presents progress on modifying and testing the laboratory GMVH6 at SwRI for correcting air imbalance.

  12. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-07-27

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 15, 16, and 18 through 23 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents a survey site test performed on a TCVC10 engine/compressor installed at Dominion's Groveport Compressor Station. This test completes planned screening efforts designed to guide selection of one or more units for design analysis and testing with emphasis on identification and reduction of compressor losses. The report further presents the validation of the simulation model for the Air Balance tasks and outline of conceptual manifold designs.

  13. Developing compressed natural gas as an automotive fuel in Nigeria: Lessons from international markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nigerian government proposed the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an automotive fuel in 1997 as part of the initiatives to harness natural gas (NG) resources but progress has been slow. This paper examines the natural gas vehicle (NGV) implementation approaches and outcomes in seven countries with diverse experiences in order to gain an understanding of the barriers to the NGV market development in Nigeria. The analysis employs hermeneutic principles to secondary data derived from academic literature, published reports from a variety of international agencies, grey literature, and text from online sources and identifies eight success factors for NGV market development namely: strategic intent, legal backing, learning and adaptation, assignment of responsibilities, financial incentives, NG pricing, consumer confidence, and NG infrastructure. The paper concludes that the principal impediment to NGV market development in Nigeria is the uncoordinated implementation approach and that greater government involvement is required in setting strategic goals, developing the legal and regulatory frameworks, setting of clear standards for vehicles and refuelling stations as well as assigning responsibilities to specific agencies. Short-term low cost policy interventions identified include widening the existing NG and gasoline price gap and offering limited support for refuelling and retrofitting facilities. - Highlights: • We examined the NGV policies and implementation strategies in selected countries. • The use of legislative mandates help deepen NGV penetration. • Aligning stakeholder interest is critical to NGV adoption. • Making national interest a priority ahead of regional infrastructure is a critical success factor. • Government support drives participation

  14. Dual-fuelling of a direct-injection automotive diesel engine by diesel and compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of Compressed Natural Gas in diesel engines has always been important, especially in the field of automotive engineering. This is due to easy accessibility, better mixing quality and good combustion characteristics of the Compressed Natural Gas fuel. In this study the application of Compressed Natural Gas fuel along with diesel oil in a heavy duty direct-injection automotive diesel engine is experimentally investigated. In order to convert a diesel engine into a diesel-gas one, the so called mixed diesel-gasapproach has been used and for this purpose a carbureted Compressed Natural Gas fuel system has been designed and manufactured. For controlling quantity of Compressed Natural Gas, the gas valve is linked to the diesel fuel injection system by means of a set of rods. Then, the dual-fuel system is adjusted so that, at full load conditions, the quantity of diesel fuel is reduced to 20% and 80% of its equivalent energy is substituted by Compressed Natural Gas fuel. Also injection pressure of pilot jet is increased by 11.4%. Performance and emission tests are conducted under variation of load and speed on both diesel and diesel-gas engines. Results show that, with equal power and torque, the diesel-gas engine has the potential to improve overall engine performance and emission. For example, at rated power and speed, fuel economy increases by 5.48%, the amount of smoke decreases by 78%, amount of CO decreases by 64.3% and mean exhaust gas temperature decreases by 6.4%

  15. Influence of the mechanical stress and the filler content on the hydrostatic compression behaviour of natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of natural rubber (NR) compounds under mechanical stress is often reported in literature. An important and widely discussed effect that occurs is the Mullins effect. During the first loading cycles in a tensile test for example, a stress-softening effect is observed. This and other effects on the mechanical behaviour are investigated for different rubber materials with and without different types of fillers and filler contents. Besides, the hydrostatic compression behaviour is affected by the type and content of filler as well, which is shown for an NR with and without waxes and different contents of carbon black (CB) in this contribution. In contrast to the Mullins effect, there is no dependence of the number of loading cycles on the volumetric behaviour determined in hydrostatic compression tests. Furthermore, the influence of the previous stress-softening due to mechanical stress on the compression behaviour is elaborated. Cyclic uniaxial tensile tests are performed to realize the stress-softening in the rubber materials. The subsequent compression tests are compared to compression tests without any pre-stretching to determine the influence of previous mechanical loading on the compression behaviour of natural rubber with different filler contents

  16. MECHANISM ON DISTRIBUTION OF PILOT FUEL SPRAY AND COMPRESSING IGNITION IN PREMIXED NATURAL GAS ENGINE IGNITED BY PILOT DIESEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Chunde; Yao Guangtao; Song Jinou; Wang Yinshan

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulations of pilot fuel spray and compressing ignition for pre-mixed natural gas ignited by pilot diesel are described. By means of these modeling, the dual fuel and diesel fuel ignition mechanism of some phenomena investigated on an optional engine by technology of high-speed CCD is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the longer delay of ignition in dual fuel engine is not mainly caused by change of the mixture thermodynamics parameters. The analysis results illustrate that the ignition of pre-mixed natural gas ignited by pilot diesel taking place in dual fuel engine is a process of homogenous charge compression ignition.

  17. 75 FR 38092 - The Dow Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... The Dow Chemical Company (Dow), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG... with its principal place of business in Midland, Michigan. Dow is an international chemical and...\\ The Dow Chemical Company, DOE/FE Order No. 2754 issued February 25, 2010. Current Application In...

  18. Thermal Charging Study of Compressed Expanded Natural Graphite/Phase Change Material Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallow, Anne M [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Graham, Samuel [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2016-01-01

    The thermal charging performance of phase change materials, specifically paraffin wax, combined with compressed expanded natural graphite foam is studied under constant heat flux and constant temperature conditions. By varying the heat flux between 0.39 W/cm2 and 1.55 W/cm2 or maintaining a boundary temperature of 60 C for four graphite foam bulk densities, the impact on the rate of thermal energy storage is discussed. Thermal charging experiments indicate that thermal conductivity of the composite is an insufficient metric to compare the influence of graphite foam on the rate of thermal energy storage of the PCM composite. By dividing the latent heat of the composite by the time to melt for various boundary conditions and graphite foam bulk densities, it is determined that bulk density selection is dependent on the applied boundary condition. A greater bulk density is advantageous for samples exposed to a constant temperature near the melting temperature as compared to constant heat flux conditions where a lower bulk density is adequate. Furthermore, the anisotropic nature of graphite foam bulk densities greater than 50 kg/m3 is shown to have an insignificant impact on the rate of thermal charging. These experimental results are used to validate a computational model for future use in the design of thermal batteries for waste heat recovery.

  19. Representing the nature of science in a science textbook: Exploring author-editor-publisher interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiuseppe, Maurizio

    Current reforms in elementary and secondary science education call for students and teachers to develop more informed views of the nature of science---a process in which learning materials like science textbooks play a significant role. This dissertation reports on a case study of the development of representations of the nature of science in one unit of a senior high school chemistry textbook by the book's author, editor, and publisher. The study examines the multiple discourses that arose as the developers reflected on their personal and shared understandings of the nature of science; squared these understandings with mandated curricula, the educational needs of chemistry students and teachers, and the exigencies of large-scale commercial textbook publishing; and developed and incorporated into the textbook representations of the nature of science they believed were the most suitable. Analyses of the data in this study indicate that a number of factors significantly influenced the development of representations of the nature of science, including representational accuracy (the degree to which suggested representations of the nature of science conformed to what the developers believed were contemporary understandings of the nature of science), representational consistency (the degree to which similar representations of the nature of science in different parts of the textbook conveyed the same meaning), representational appropriateness (the age-, grade-, and reading-level suitability of the suggested nature of science representations), representational alignment (the degree to which suggested representations of the nature of science addressed the requirements of mandated curricula), representational marketability (the degree to which textbook developers believed suggested representations of the nature of science would affect sales of the textbook in the marketplace), and a number of "Workplace Resources" factors such as the availability of time, relevant expertise

  20. An Investigation of Compressed Natural Gas Engine for Nitrogen Oxides Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study describes the use of Reformer Gas (RG to alter NOx emission in a CNG-fueled HCCI engine. Comparison with diesel, natural gas has a very high octane number (≈120 and high auto-ignition temperature (≈600°C. Composed mostly of methane, natural gas is the only common fuel to manifest relatively pure, single-stage combustion. Other fuels have stronger low-temperature reaction and the required entropy for main stage combustion can be obtained from the low temperature heat release as a result of compression to moderate pressure and temperature. In deviation, the methane molecule resists destruction by free radicals and produces negligible heat release at low temperature. In consequences, in CNG-fueled HCCI engines the activation energy required for auto-ignition must be obtained by extreme levels of charge heating and compression. This causes inherently to a high rate of heat release. HCCI operation with pure CNG fuel was attained but not really practical due to very high NOx production. While HCCI operation is usually described as a low NOx technique, the knocking behavior when running with pure CNG raised the peak combustion temperature to a value well above normal combustion and the critical Zeldovich NOx production threshold, giving very high indicated NOx emissions. Approach: One approach to improving these properties is to convert part of the base CNG fuel to Reformer Gas (RG. In this study, modified COMET engine was operated in HCCI mode using a mixture of CNG fuel and simulated RG (75% H2 and 25% CO can be produced on-board from CNG using low current and non-thermal plasma boosted fuel converter. Results: This study shows that despite of having various RG mass fractions, λ was the dominant factor in reducing NOx production and increasing RG mass fraction had only a small effect on increasing NOx. This disconnect between the overall equivalence ratio and RG fraction shows that the real benefit of the

  1. Analisis Kekuatan Tangki CNG Ditinjau dengan Material Logam Lapis Komposit pada Kapal Pengangkut Compressed Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Firmansah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini, dilakukan analisa perbandingan pada kekuatan pressure vessel compressed natural gas. Pressure vessel yang digunakan yaitu tipe satu dan tipe tiga, tipe satu adalah tabung menggunakan material logam yaitu Carbon Steel SA 516 Grade 70 dan Aluminium Alloy T6-6061. Pada tabung tipe tiga material menggunakan Aluminium Alloy T6-6061 dengan lapisan Komposit (Carbon Fibre – Epoxy pada seluruh tabung (full wrapped. Sudut orientasi serat yang digunakan 54.73560 dan terdiri dari 4 lapis komposit yang membungkus aluminium. Variasi yang dilakukan pada tebal komposit yaitu 25% komposit, 50% komposit, dan 75% komposit. Pressure vessel mendapat perlakuan internal pressure sebesar 125 bar dan temperatur -300C. Analisa dilakukan dengan dua metode yaitu dengan perhitungan manual dan software finite element method (NASTRAN 2010. Dari hasil perhitungan tersebut tabung tipe satu dengan material logam terbukti aman karena memenuhi dari faktor keamanan yang ditentukan tetapi pressure vessel sangat berat. Pada tabung tipe tiga lamina dengan komposisi 75% komposit dan 50% komposit dinyatakan aman karena memenuhi dari kriteria tegangan maksimum. Sedangkan pada komposisi 25% komposit lamina mengalami kegagalan yang disebabkan terlalu rendahnya lapisan komposit. Dari keseluruhan hasil perhitungan dan analisa didapatkan komposisi ideal pressure vessel yaitu 75% komposit dan 25% aluminium dari tebal keseluruhan sehingga menghasilkan tegangan yang sangat kecil dan memiliki berat yang paling ringan.

  2. An evaluation of criteria for selecting vehicles fueled with diesel or compressed natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hesterberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed selection criteria for diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG fueled vehicles, comparing engine emissions, fire and safety, toxicity, economics, and operations. Diesel- and CNG-fueled vehicles with the latest emission-control technology, including engine-exhaust aftertreatment, have very similar emissions of regulated and unregulated compounds, particles through all size ranges, and greenhouse gases. Although toxicity data are limited, no significant toxicity differences of engine emissions were reported. Operating and maintenance costs are variable, with no consistent difference between diesel- and CNG-fueled vehicles. The main operating concern with CNG vehicles is that they are less fuel efficient. Higher infrastructure costs are involved with implementing a CNG-fueled vehicle fleet, giving diesel vehicles a distinct cost advantage over CNG vehicles. For a given budget, greater emissions reductions can thus be achieved with diesel+filter vehicles. Finally, diesel vehicles have a significant fire-and-safety advantage over CNG vehicles. In summary, infrastructure costs and fire-and-safety concerns are much greater for CNG-fueled vehicles. These considerations should be part of the decision-making process when selecting a fuel for a transportation system.

  3. A sensitivity study of the oxidation of compressed natural gas on platinum

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a sensitivity study for the oxidation of methane (CH4) over platinum (Pt). Some dominant reactions in the CH 4-Pt surface chemistry were identified and the rates of these reactions were subsequently modified to enhance the calculations. Initially, a range of CH4-Pt surface mechanisms available in the literature are used, along with the relevant detailed gaseous chemistry to compute the structure of premixed compressed natural gas (CNG)/air flames co-flowing around a flat, vertical, unconfined, rectangular, and platinum plate. Comparison with existing measurements of surface temperature and species concentrations revealed significant discrepancies for all mechanisms. Sensitivity analysis has identified nine key reactions which dominate the heterogeneous chemistry of methane over platinum. The rates of these reactions were modified over a reasonable range and in different combinations leading to an "optimal" mechanism for methane/air surface chemistry on platinum. The new mechanism is then used with the same flow geometry for different cases varying the temperature of the incoming mixture (Tjet), its equivalence ratio (Φ) and the Reynolds number (Re). Results from the modified surface mechanism demonstrate reasonably good agreement with the experimental data for a wide range of operating conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE OPERATION OF THE EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2005-01-01

    This quarterly report documents work performed under Tasks 10 through 14 of the project entitled: ''Technologies to Enhance Operation of the Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure''. The project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity. The report first documents tests performed on a KVG103 engine/compressor installed at Duke's Thomaston Compressor Station. This is the first series of tests performed on a four-stroke engine under this program. Additionally, this report presents results, which complete a comparison of performance before and after modification to install High Pressure Fuel Injection and a Turbocharger on a GMW10 at Williams Station 60. Quarterly Reports 7 and 8 already presented detailed data from tests before and after this modification, but the final quantitative comparison required some further analysis, which is presented in Section 5 of this report. The report further presents results of detailed geometrical measurements and flow bench testing performed on the cylinders and manifolds of the Laboratory Cooper GMVH6 engine being employed for two-stroke engine air balance investigations. These measurements are required to enhance the detailed accuracy in modeling the dynamic interaction of air manifold, exhaust manifold, and in-cylinder fuel-air balance.

  5. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony J. Smalley; Ralph E. Harris; Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Danny M. Deffenbaugh

    2006-05-31

    This project has documented and demonstrated the feasibility of technologies and operational choices for companies who operate the large installed fleet of integral engine compressors in pipeline service. Continued operations of this fleet is required to meet the projected growth of the U.S. gas market. Applying project results will meet the goals of the DOE-NETL Natural Gas Infrastructure program to enhance integrity, extend life, improve efficiency, and increase capacity, while managing NOx emissions. These benefits will translate into lower cost, more reliable gas transmission, and options for increasing deliverability from the existing infrastructure on high demand days. The power cylinders on large bore slow-speed integral engine/compressors do not in general combust equally. Variations in cylinder pressure between power cylinders occur cycle-to-cycle. These variations affect both individual cylinder performance and unit average performance. The magnitude of the variations in power cylinder combustion is dependent on a variety of parameters, including air/fuel ratio. Large variations in cylinder performance and peak firing pressure can lead to detonation and misfires, both of which can be damaging to the unit. Reducing the variation in combustion pressure, and moving the high and low performing cylinders closer to the mean is the goal of engine balancing. The benefit of improving the state of the engine ''balance'' is a small reduction in heat rate and a significant reduction in both crankshaft strain and emissions. A new method invented during the course of this project is combustion pressure ratio (CPR) balancing. This method is more effective than current methods because it naturally accounts for differences in compression pressure, which results from cylinder-to-cylinder differences in the amount of air flowing through the inlet ports and trapped at port closure. It also helps avoid compensation for low compression pressure by the

  6. Comparative evaluation of a two stroke compressed natural gas mixer design using simulation and experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, D.; Bakar, R.A.; Rahim, M.F.; Noor, M.M. [Malaysia Pahang Univ., Pahang (Malaysia). Automotive Focus Group

    2008-07-01

    A study was conducted in which a two-stroke engine was converted for use with bi-fuel, notably compressed natural gas and gasoline. The excessive by-products generated by two-stroke engine combustion can be attributed to the inefficient combustion process. This prototype uniflow-type single-cylinder engine was equipped with a bi-fuel conversion system. A dedicated mixer was also developed to meter the gaseous fuel through the engine intake system. It was designed to meet air and fuel requirement similar to its gasoline counterpart. The mixer was modeled to obtain optimum orifice diameter using three different sizes of 14, 16 and 18 mm respectively. A standard computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package was used to simulate the flow. A pressure reading was obtained during the prototype test. The drop in pressure across the venturi was shown to be an important parameter as it determined the actual fuel-air ratio in the actual engine. A good agreement of CFD outputs with that of the experimental outputs was recorded. The experimental technique validated the pressure distribution predicted by CFD means on the effects of the three insert rings in the CNG mixer. The simulation exercise can be used to predict the amount of CNG consumed by the engine. It was concluded that the 14 mm throat ring was best suited for the CNG mixer because it provided the best suction. Once the mixer is tested on a real engine, it will clear any doubts as to whether the throat can function at high engine speeds. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  7. Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry thanks the authors of our most cited articles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    According to the Thomson Reuter report on 20 June 2013,the 2012 Impact Factor of Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry,renamed as Journal of Energy Chemistry in 2013,is 1.405,which ranks first among chemistry journals in China.We would like to express our appreciation to all the authors who have contributed their good work to the Journal.The following is the list of the articles published in 2010 and 2011which received the most citations and thus contributed the most to the new impact factor.

  8. 32 CFR 537.15 - Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. 537.15 Section 537.15 National Defense Department of....15 Statutory authority for maritime claims and claims involving civil works of a maritime nature. (a... affirmative claims involving civil works of a maritime nature is set out at 33 U.S.C. 408....

  9. 76 FR 2093 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY... liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported into the United States from foreign sources in an amount up to the equivalent of 100 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas. The LNG would...

  10. Tensile and compressive properties of flax fibres for natural fibre reinforced composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.L.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Peters, O.C.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical properties of standard decorticated and hand isolated flax bast fibres were determined in tension as well as in compression. The tensile strength of technical fibre bundles was found to depend strongly on the clamping length. The tensile strength of elementary flax fibres was found to ran

  11. Waste Heat Approximation for Understanding Dynamic Compression in Nature and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanloz, R.

    2015-12-01

    Energy dissipated during dynamic compression quantifies the residual heat left in a planet due to impact and accretion, as well as the deviation of a loading path from an ideal isentrope. Waste heat ignores the difference between the pressure-volume isentrope and Hugoniot in approximating the dissipated energy as the area between the Rayleigh line and Hugoniot (assumed given by a linear dependence of shock velocity on particle velocity). Strength and phase transformations are ignored: justifiably, when considering sufficiently high dynamic pressures and reversible transformations. Waste heat mis-estimates the dissipated energy by less than 10-20 percent for volume compressions under 30-60 percent. Specific waste heat (energy per mass) reaches 0.2-0.3 c02 at impact velocities 2-4 times the zero-pressure bulk sound velocity (c0), its maximum possible value being 0.5 c02. As larger impact velocities are implied for typical orbital velocities of Earth-like planets, and c02 ≈ 2-30 MJ/kg for rock, the specific waste heat due to accretion corresponds to temperature rises of about 3-15 x 103 K for rock: melting accompanies accretion even with only 20-30 percent waste heat retained. Impact sterilization is similarly quantified in terms of waste heat relative to the energy required to vaporize H2O (impact velocity of 7-8 km/s, or 4.5-5 c0, is sufficient). Waste heat also clarifies the relationship between shock, multi-shock and ramp loading experiments, as well as the effect of (static) pre-compression. Breaking a shock into 2 steps significantly reduces the dissipated energy, with minimum waste heat achieved for two equal volume compressions in succession. Breaking a shock into as few as 4 steps reduces the waste heat to within a few percent of zero, documenting how multi-shock loading approaches an isentrope. Pre-compression, being less dissipative than an initial shock to the same strain, further reduces waste heat. Multi-shock (i.e., high strain-rate) loading of pre-compressed

  12. TECHNOLOGIES TO ENHANCE THE OPERATION OF EXISTING NATURAL GAS COMPRESSION INFRASTRUCTURE - MANIFOLD DESIGN FOR CONTROLLING ENGINE AIR BALANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Bourn; Ford A. Phillips; Ralph E. Harris

    2005-12-01

    This document provides results and conclusions for Task 15.0--Detailed Analysis of Air Balance & Conceptual Design of Improved Air Manifolds in the ''Technologies to Enhance the Operation of Existing Natural Gas Compression Infrastructure'' project. SwRI{reg_sign} is conducting this project for DOE in conjunction with Pipeline Research Council International, Gas Machinery Research Council, El Paso Pipeline, Cooper Compression, and Southern Star, under DOE contract number DE-FC26-02NT41646. The objective of Task 15.0 was to investigate the perceived imbalance in airflow between power cylinders in two-stroke integral compressor engines and develop solutions via manifold redesign. The overall project objective is to develop and substantiate methods for operating integral engine/compressors in gas pipeline service, which reduce fuel consumption, increase capacity, and enhance mechanical integrity.

  13. Making copies or originals of nature: a feature-based compressed fractal encoding of natural objects and its evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocevar, Erwin; Kropatsch, Walter G.

    1998-11-01

    It is shown by evaluation against the standard fractal encoding by partitioned IFS that global IFS are suited best because which are often self similar even not always exactly. Global iterated function system (IFS) represent an object by the union of affine contractive transformed copies of the object itself. The objects are decomposed into a minimal set of copies by calculating their touching points (TP) - which have no neighborhood that can be affinely and expansively be mapped to a neighborhood of any other TP - on the object boundary. This boundary is computed by a fractal hull. An affine invariant representation of feature points are mapped to those of the sub objects to calculate their affine transformations. This technique can be generalized to encode assemblies of arbitrary colored objects, using extensions of the IFS-Theory. According to Barnsley's collage theorem not exactly affine self similar objects can be also encoded. Even for worse approximations by an IFS, compression ratios in the range of the standard encoding methods can be reached. For good approximations the compression is even far better.

  14. 78 FR 17189 - Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... authorization to export domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) in an amount up to of 15 million... of the date of first export or 10 years from the date the requested authorization is granted. DATES... under contracts to be executed on a date that is closer to the date of first export. TLNG...

  15. Use of compressed natural gas in automotive vehicles; Uso del gas natural comprimido aplicado en vehiculos automotores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez R, Adrian [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The natural gas is natural origin energy (fossil fuel); it contains predominantly 90 percent methane; does not require transformation process for its use; is supplied the 24 hours to commerce, industries and homes by underground pipes; it is lighter than air; it is not corrosive, nor absorbent or toxic. For those reasons a study was performed where it is widely justified why the natural gas ought to be used in vehicles. [Spanish] El gas natural es un energetico de origen natural (combustible fosil), contiene predominantemente 90 por ciento de metano, no requiere proceso de transformacion para su utilizacion, llega directamente las 24 horas del dia a los hogares, comercios e industrias por tuberias subterraneas, es mas ligero que el aire, no es corrosivo, no es absorbente y no es toxico. Por esas razones se hizo un estudio donde se justifica ampliamente porque el gas natural debe utilizarse en vehiculos.

  16. 78 FR 65304 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, and To Import and Export Liquefied Natural Gas During..., LLC 13-84-LNG Public Utility District No. 1 of Clark 13-88-NG County. Occidental Energy Marketing, Inc... Charles Exports, LLC 13-59-LNG Newpage Corporation 13-93-NG Koch Energy Services, LLC 13-92-NG...

  17. Representing Nature of Science in a Science Textbook: Exploring author-editor-publisher interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiuseppe, Maurice

    2014-05-01

    Current reforms in elementary and secondary science education call for students and teachers to develop more informed views of the nature of science (NOS)-a process in which science textbooks play a significant role. This paper reports on a case study of the development of representations of the NOS in a senior high school chemistry textbook by the book's author, editor, and publisher. The study examines the multiple discourses that arose as the developers reflected on their personal and shared understandings of NOS; squared these with mandated curricula, the educational needs of chemistry students and teachers, and the exigencies of large-scale commercial textbook publishing. As a result, the team developed and incorporated, in the textbook, representations of NOS they believed were the most pedagogically suitable. Analysis of the data in this study indicates that a number of factors significantly influenced the development of representations of NOS, including representational accuracy (the degree to which representations of NOS conformed to informed views of the NOS), representational consistency (the degree to which representations of NOS in different parts of the book conveyed the same meaning), representational appropriateness (the age-, grade-, and reading-level appropriateness of the NOS representations), representational alignment (the degree to which NOS representations aligned with mandated curriculum), representational marketability (the degree to which NOS representations would affect sales of the textbook), and 'Workplace Resources' factors including availability of time, relevant expertise, and opportunities for professional development.

  18. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Pratapas; Daniel Mather; Anton Kozlovsky

    2007-03-31

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen's significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an

  19. Evaluation of Technical Feasibility of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Fueled with Hydrogen, Natural Gas, and DME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratapas, John; Mather, Daniel; Kozlovsky, Anton

    2013-03-31

    The objective of the proposed project was to confirm the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas to improve the performance, efficiency, controllability and emissions of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine. The project team utilized both engine simulation and laboratory testing to evaluate and optimize how blends of hydrogen and natural gas fuel might improve control of HCCI combustion. GTI utilized a state-of-the art single-cylinder engine test platform for the experimental work in the project. The testing was designed to evaluate the feasibility of extending the limits of HCCI engine performance (i.e., stable combustion, high efficiency and low emissions) on natural gas by using blends of natural gas and hydrogen. Early in the project Ricardo provided technical support to GTI as we applied their engine performance simulation program, WAVE, to our HCCI research engine. Modeling support was later provided by Digital Engines, LLC to use their proprietary model to predict peak pressures and temperatures for varying operating parameters included in the Design of Experiments test plan. Digital Engines also provided testing support for the hydrogen and natural gas blends. Prof. David Foster of University of Wisconsin-Madison participated early in the project by providing technical guidance on HCCI engine test plans and modeling requirements. The main purpose of the testing was to quantify the effects of hydrogen addition to natural gas HCCI. Directly comparing straight natural gas with the hydrogen enhanced test points is difficult due to the complexity of HCCI combustion. With the same air flow rate and lambda, the hydrogen enriched fuel mass flow rate is lower than the straight natural gas mass flow rate. However, the energy flow rate is higher for the hydrogen enriched fuel due to hydrogen’s significantly greater lower heating value, 120 mJ/kg for hydrogen compared to 45 mJ/kg for natural gas. With these caveats in mind, an

  20. Hot surface assisted compression ignition in a direct injection natural gas engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aesoey, Vilmar

    1996-12-31

    This study investigates the problem of ignition in a direct injection natural gas engine. Due to poor auto-ignition properties of natural gas compared to regular diesel engine fuels, a special arrangement to assist and secure ignition is required. The objective was to investigate the feasibility of using a hot surface as ignition assistance, primarily for application in medium and large size engines, and further study the main mechanisms involved in the ignition process. A constant volume combustion bomb and a test engine are used for experiments, supported by theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. Variable composition of natural gas depending on the gas source and over time, is a important problem causing significant variation in ignition properties. It is shown that even small quantities of non-methane components, which are normally present in natural gases, strongly influence ignition. Actions to handle the ignition problem caused by variable natural composition, are also discussed. In order to estimate the ignition properties of natural gas, a simple correlation to gas composition is proposed, showing good correlation to the experimental data. Mathematical models for simulation of the processes are developed based on fundamental physical relations and experimental results. They are mainly used in this study to support and analyze the physical experiments, but can also be useful in future design and optimization processes. 71 refs., 80 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. On the nature of personal right of an author%论著作人身权的性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林侠

    2011-01-01

    给著作人身权定性,一方面要考虑民法中人身权的理论,另一方面还要考虑知识产权的无形性特征,不能忽视著作人身权所特有的性质。为著作人身权定性,主要是从这两个方面综合考量,对著作人身权的性质进行了阐述。%When determining the nature of personal right of an author,we not only consider the personal rights theory in civil law,but also consider the intangible characteristics of intellectual property.On the above two factors The writer determines the nature of personal right of an author,and makes a simple description and analysis on the nature of personal right of an author.

  2. Diesel versus compressed natural gas in Transmilenio-Bogotá: innovation, precaution, and distribution of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    2007-01-01

    During the period 1998–2000, municipal officials in Bogotá implemented a new transportation system for the city. Transmilenio became the first major mass transportation system in the world to use only buses. The authors examine here the process that led to the design decision to power all...

  3. The Effect of Injection Timings on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural-Gas Direct Injection Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Aljamali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental part investigates the effect of injection timing on performance and emissions of homogenous mixture compressed natural-gas direct injection. The engine of 1.6 L capacity, 4 cylinders, spark ignition, and compression ratio of 14 was used. Performance and emission were recorded under wide-open throttle using an engine control system (Rotronics and the portable exhaust gas analyser (Kane. The engine was tested at speed ranging from 1500 revolutions per minute (RPM to 4000 RPM with 500 RPM increments. The engine control unit (ECU was modified using Motec 800. The injection timings investigated were at the end of injection (EOI 120 bTDC, 180 bTDC, 300 bTDC, and 360 bTDC. Results show high brake power, torque, and BMEP with 120 as compared with the other injection timings. At 4000 RPM the power, torque, and BMEP with 120 were 5% compared to that with 180. Furthermore, it shows low BSFC and high fuel conversion efficiency with 120. With 360, the engine produced less CO and CO2 at higher speeds.

  4. Compressed nature : co-existing grazers in a small reserve in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwasi, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Wildlife habitats in Kenya are getting more fragmented and isolated due to increasing human activities within them. This has resulted in the establishment of several small nature reserves where wildlife is protected from human interference. Grazers contribute a large proportion of total herbivore bi

  5. Combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of a dual fuel compression ignition engine operated with pilot Diesel fuel and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towards the effort of reducing pollutant emissions, especially soot and nitrogen oxides, from direct injection Diesel engines, engineers have proposed various solutions, one of which is the use of a gaseous fuel as a partial supplement for liquid Diesel fuel. These engines are known as dual fuel combustion engines, i.e. they use conventional Diesel fuel and a gaseous fuel as well. This technology is currently reintroduced, associated with efforts to overcome various difficulties of HCCI engines, using various fuels. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is a promising solution. The potential benefits of using natural gas in Diesel engines are both economical and environmental. The high autoignition temperature of natural gas is a serious advantage since the compression ratio of conventional Diesel engines can be maintained. The present contribution describes an experimental investigation conducted on a single cylinder DI Diesel engine, which has been properly modified to operate under dual fuel conditions. The primary amount of fuel is the gaseous one, which is ignited by a pilot Diesel liquid injection. Comparative results are given for various engine speeds and loads for conventional Diesel and dual fuel operation, revealing the effect of dual fuel combustion on engine performance and exhaust emissions

  6. Diesel versus compressed natural gas in Transmilenio-Bogotá: innovation, precaution, and distribution of risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Valderrama

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available During the period 1998–2000, municipal officials in Bogotá implemented a new transportation system for the city. Transmilenio became the first major mass transportation system in the world to use only buses. The authors examine here the process that led to the design decision to power all of the buses with diesel fuel. The main finding is that the various public and private partners sought to accommodate themselves to the alternative that was deemed to be less risky. The diesel option was the outcome of contingent negotiation and distribution of responsibilities among the different interests. The dynamics of these processes were heavily influenced by a precautionary posture.

  7. 77 FR 72837 - Golden Pass Products LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... From Domestic Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 25-Year Period AGENCY... adequacy of domestic production to meet projected demand over the term of the requested authorization. GPP... impact on U.S. job creation, U.S. gross domestic product, domestic energy security, U.S. trade, as...

  8. 78 FR 19696 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... C.V 12-162-NG MEXICANA DE COBRE, S.A. DE C.V 12-163-NG ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE 12-165-NG CHENIERE... to export natural gas to Mexico. 3206 12/03/12 12-163-NG Mexicana de Cobre, Order granting blanket...

  9. Hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG: A futuristic fuel for internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanthagopal Kasianantham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is fast becoming a serious global problem with increasing population and its subsequent demands. This has resulted in increased usage of hydrogen as fuel for internal combustion engines. Hydrogen resources are vast and it is considered as one of the most promising fuel for automotive sector. As the required hydrogen infrastructure and refueling stations are not meeting the demand, widespread introduction of hydrogen vehicles is not possible in the near future. One of the solutions for this hurdle is to blend hydrogen with methane. Such types of blends take benefit of the unique combustion properties of hydrogen and at the same time reduce the demand for pure hydrogen. Enriching natural gas with hydrogen could be a potential alternative to common hydrocarbon fuels for internal combustion engine applications. Many researchers are working on this for the last few years and work is now focused on how to use this kind of fuel to its maximum extent. This technical note is an assessment of HCNG usage in case of internal combustion engines. Several examples and their salient features have been discussed. Finally, overall effects of hydrogen addition on an engine fueled with HCNG under various conditions are illustrated. In addition, the scope and challenges being faced in this area of research are clearly described.

  10. 77 FR 51794 - East Tennessee Natural Gas, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... abandon in place two standby compressor units and abandon in place or remove related appurtenant equipment at its Glade Spring ] Compressor Station in Washington County, Virginia, under East Tennessee's...). East Tennessee proposes to abandon in place two standby 660 horsepower reciprocating natural...

  11. Assessment of air quality after the implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel in public transport in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Khaiwal; Wauters, Eric; Tyagi, Sushil K; Mor, Suman; Van Grieken, René

    2006-04-01

    Public transport in Delhi was amended by the Supreme Court of India to use Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) instead of diesel or petrol. After the implementation of CNG since April 2001, Delhi has the highest fraction of CNG-run public vehicles in the world and most of them were introduced within 20 months. In the present study, the concentrations of various criteria air pollutants (SPM, PM(10), CO, SO(2) and NO(x)) and organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed before and after the implementation of CNG. A decreasing trend was found for PAHs, SO(2) and CO concentrations, while the NO(x) level was increased in comparison to those before the implementation of CNG. Further, SPM, PM(10), and BTX concentrations showed no significant change after the implementation of CNG. However, the BTX concentration demonstrated a clear relation with the benzene content of gasoline. In addition to the impact of the introduction of CNG the daily variation in PAHs levels was also studied and the PAHs concentrations were observed to be relatively high between 10 pm to 6 am, which gives a proof of a relation with the limited day entry and movement of heavy vehicles in Delhi.

  12. A comparative life cycle assessment of diesel and compressed natural gas powered refuse collection vehicles in a Canadian city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumers and organizations worldwide are searching for low-carbon alternatives to conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their impact on the environment. A comprehensive technique used to estimate overall cost and environmental impact of vehicles is known as life cycle assessment (LCA). In this article, a comparative LCA of diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) powered heavy duty refuse collection vehicles (RCVs) is conducted. The analysis utilizes real-time operational data obtained from the City of Surrey in British Columbia, Canada. The impact of the two alternative vehicles is assessed from various points in their life. No net gain in energy use is found when a diesel powered RCV is replaced by a CNG powered RCV. However, significant reductions (approximately 24% CO2-equivalent) in GHG and criteria air contaminant (CAC) emissions are obtained. Moreover, fuel cost estimations based on 2011 price levels and a 5-year lifetime for both RCVs reveal that considerable cost savings may be achieved by switching to CNG vehicles. Thus, CNG RCVs are not only favorable in terms of reduced climate change impact but also cost effective compared to conventional diesel RCVs, and provide a viable and realistic near-term strategy for cities and municipalities to reduce GHG emissions. - Highlights: ► Life cycle analysis is performed on two alternative refuse collection vehicle technologies. ► Real-time operational data obtained by the City of Surrey in British Columbia are utilized. ► The life cycle energy use is similar for diesel and CNG RCVs. ► A 24% reduction of GHG emissions (CO2-equivalent) may be realized by switching from diesel to CNG. ► CNG RCVs are estimated to be cost effective and may lead to reduced fuel costs.

  13. Mechanical stability of a salt cavern submitted to rapid pressure variations: Application to the underground storage of natural gas, compressed air and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt caverns used for the underground storage of large volumes of natural gas are in high demand given the ever-increasing energy needs. The storage of renewable energy is also envisaged in these salt caverns for example, storage of compressed air and hydrogen mass storage. In both cases, salt caverns are more solicited than before because they are subject to rapid injection and withdrawal rates. These new operating modes raise new mechanical problems, illustrated in particular by sloughing, and falling of overhanging blocks at cavern wall. Indeed, to the purely mechanical stress related to changes in gas pressure variations, repeated dozens of degrees Celsius of temperature variation are superimposed; causes in particular during withdrawal, additional tensile stresses whom may lead to fractures at cavern wall; whose evolution could be dangerous. The mechanical behavior of rock salt is known: it is elasto-viscoplastic, nonlinear and highly thermo sensitive. The existing rock salt constitutive laws and failures and damages criteria have been used to analyze the behavior of caverns under the effects of these new loading. The study deals with the thermo mechanics of rocks and helps to analyze the effects of these new operations modes on the structural stability of salt caverns. The approach was to firstly design and validate a thermodynamic model of the behavior of gas in the cavern. This model was used to analyze blowout in gas salt cavern. Then, with the thermo mechanical coupling, to analyze the effects of rapid withdrawal, rapid injection and daily cycles on the structural stability of caverns. At the experimental level, we sought the optimal conditions to the occurrence and the development of cracks on a pastille and a block of rock salt. The creep behavior of rock salt specimens in triaxial extension also was analyzed. (author)

  14. Comparative Performance of Direct Injection Diesel Engines Fueled Using Compressed Natural Gas and Diesel Fuel Based on GT-POWER Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2008-01-01

    The paper is investigated the application of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative fuel and its performance effect in the diesel engines using GT-POWER computational simulation. The CNG as an alternative fuel for four stroke diesel engine modeling was developed from the real diesel engine using GT-POWER computational model with measure all of engine components size. The computational model will be running on mono CNG fuel and mono diesel fuel to simulate and investigate the engine pe...

  15. Pra Rancangan Pabrik Pembuatan Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Dari Biogas Hasil Fermentasi Thermofilik Limbah Cair Kelapa Sawit Dengan Kapasitas 45 Ton Tbs /Jam

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Refina Sari

    2011-01-01

    Gas alam terkompresi (Compressed natural gas, CNG) adalah alternatif bahan bakar selain bensin atau solar. Di Indonesia, CNG dikenal sebagai bahan bakar gas (BBG). Bahan bakar ini dianggap lebih bersih bila dibandingkan dengan dua bahan bakar minyak karena emisi gas buangnya yang ramah lingkungan. CNG dibuat dengan melakukan kompresi metana (CH4). Komposisi CNG yang terdiri dari metana (CH4) ini dapat diperoleh dari biogas. Biogas dapat dibuat dari limbah organik, salah satunya limbah cair ke...

  16. Pra Rancangan Pabrik Pembuatan Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Dari Biogas Hasil Fermentasi Thermofilik Limbah Cair Kelapa Sawit Dengan Kapasitas 60 Ton TBS /Jam

    OpenAIRE

    Senafati

    2011-01-01

    Gas alam terkompresi (Compressed natural gas, CNG) adalah alternatif bahan bakar selain bensin atau solar. Di Indonesia, CNG dikenal sebagai bahan bakar gas (BBG). Bahan bakar ini dianggap lebih bersih bila dibandingkan dengan dua bahan bakar minyak karena emisi gas buangnya yang ramah lingkungan. CNG dibuat dengan melakukan kompresi metana (CH4). Komposisi CNG yang terdiri dari metana (CH4) ini dapat diperoleh dari biogas. Biogas dapat dibuat dari limbah organik, salah satunya limbah cair ke...

  17. On Supply Mode of Compressed Natural Gas Used as City Gas%压缩天然气供应工艺及规模的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申粤; 乔珩; 徐正康

    2001-01-01

    The article introduces production procedures and process ofCNG(compressed natural gas). By analyzing and comparing between compressing and long distance transportation pipeline under conditions of different gas consumption scale and transportation distance, the article proposes the scope of application and applicable prospect of CNG used as city gas.%介绍了压缩天然气(CNG)供应城镇的工艺流程,通过对压缩天然气及长输管道两种输送方式的分析和比较,提出在不同供气规模、不同运距条件下两种方式的适用范围以及CNG技术在城镇供气中的应用前景。

  18. The omniscient authors, or impersonality?--Self-mentions of Chinese scholars’published papers in natural science journals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜冰茜

    2015-01-01

    Arguably, novice writers were warned of using “I”,“we”, or equivalents in an academic essay of hard sciences to“pretend to a scientific scholarly style”(Spack, 1988, p.39), although the issue of impersonality and its interdisciplinary variations have been documented in the research literature (Hyland, 2002). Now, it was partially acknowledged that authors were omniscient, as captured by Ivanic? & Camps (2001): “There is no such thing as ‘impersonal' writing…”. (p.5) However, as self-mention was obviously subjective, it followed that natural science RAs should be more objective to include few “I”s or “we”s. To attest to this belief, this paper investigated whether there were self-mentions in 4 published works (of renown journals) written by Chinese scholars from the Chemistry Department.

  19. Compressed sensing & sparse filtering

    CERN Document Server

    Carmi, Avishy Y; Godsill, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    This book is aimed at presenting concepts, methods and algorithms ableto cope with undersampled and limited data. One such trend that recently gained popularity and to some extent revolutionised signal processing is compressed sensing. Compressed sensing builds upon the observation that many signals in nature are nearly sparse (or compressible, as they are normally referred to) in some domain, and consequently they can be reconstructed to within high accuracy from far fewer observations than traditionally held to be necessary. Apart from compressed sensing this book contains other related app

  20. 78 FR 34084 - Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... the world. \\8\\ FME notes that exports of natural gas directly from the OCS may be subject to the... Imported Natural Gas, 49 FR 6,684 (Feb.22, 1984). \\12\\ Id. (citing, e.g., Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corp... Produced From Domestic Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 30- Year...

  1. Cycle-by-cycle Variations in a Direct Injection Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas Engine Employing EGR at Relative Air-Fuel Ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan Wasiu Saheed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the pressure development in a combustion chamber is uniquely related to the combustion process, substantial variations in the combustion process on a cycle-by-cycle basis are occurring. To this end, an experimental study of cycle-by-cycle variation in a direct injection spark ignition engine fueled with natural gas-hydrogen blends combined with exhaust gas recirculation at relative air-fuel ratios was conducted. The impacts of relative air-fuel ratios (i.e. λ = 1.0, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4 which represent stoichiometric, moderately lean, lean and very lean mixtures respectively, hydrogen fractions and EGR rates were studied. The results showed that increasing the relative air-fuel ratio increases the COVIMEP. The behavior is more pronounced at the larger relative air-fuel ratios. More so, for a specified EGR rate; increasing the hydrogen fractions decreases the maximum COVIMEP value just as increasing in EGR rates increases the maximum COVIMEP value. (i.e. When percentage EGR rates is increased from 0% to 17% and 20% respectively. The maximum COVIMEP value increases from 6.25% to 6.56% and 8.30% respectively. Since the introduction of hydrogen gas reduces the cycle-by-cycle combustion variation in engine cylinder; thus it can be concluded that addition of hydrogen into direct injection compressed natural gas engine employing EGR at various relative air-fuel ratios is a viable approach to obtain an improved combustion quality which correspond to lower coefficient of variation in imep, (COVIMEP in a direct injection compressed natural gas engine employing EGR at relative air-fuel ratios.

  2. 78 FR 75337 - Eos LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... risen, U.S. natural gas prices have fallen to the point where they are the lowest in the world. Eos states that LNG prices in Asia are indexed to crude oil prices and are generally higher than elsewhere in... business model will be to buy natural gas at the domestic price of the Henry Hub futures contract and...

  3. Compressed Teleportation

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffe, Arthur; Wozniakowski, Alex

    2016-01-01

    In a previous paper we introduced holographic software for quantum networks, inspired by work on planar para algebras. This software suggests the definition of a compressed transformation. Here we utilize the software to find a CT protocol to teleport compressed transformations. This protocol serves multiple parties with multiple persons.

  4. 77 FR 64964 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... rendered obsolete once prominent concerns of declining future domestic natural gas production. CMI... security, and any other issues, including the impact on the U.S. economy (GDP), consumers, and...

  5. 76 FR 33746 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ..., which granted the Dow Chemical Company blanket authorization to export up to an amount equivalent to 390....'' \\7\\ \\7\\ The Dow Chemical Company, DOE/FE Order No. 2859, issued October 5, 2010. Additionally...) Texas LNG Holdings, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and wholly-owned subsidiary of The...

  6. 76 FR 34212 - Lake Charles Exports, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... Singapore. DATES: Protests, motions to intervene or notices of intervention, as applicable, requests for... improvements in natural gas exploration and production technology ] have changed the outlook for the U.S... in certain narrow circumstances not applicable here. \\8\\ Executive Order No. 13534, 75 FR...

  7. 78 FR 4401 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Import and Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ...) TRADING LTD......... 12-104-NG PEMEX GAS Y PETROQUIMICA BASICA 12-110-NG NORTH WESTERN CORPORATION d/b/a.../ (Canada) Trading export natural gas Ltd. from/to Canada. 3154 10/04/12 12-110-NG Pemex Gas y...

  8. Analyzing the Performance of a Dual Loop Organic Rankine Cycle System for Waste Heat Recovery of a Heavy-Duty Compressed Natural Gas Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baofeng Yao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A dual loop organic Rankine cycle (DORC system is designed to recover waste heat from a heavy-duty compressed natural gas engine (CNGE, and the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and discussed. The DORC system includes high-temperature (HT and low-temperature (LT cycles. The HT cycle recovers energy from the exhaust gas emitted by the engine, whereas the LT cycle recovers energy from intake air, engine coolant, and the HT cycle working fluid in the preheater. The mathematical model of the system is established based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The characteristics of waste heat energy from the CNGE are calculated according to engine test data under various operating conditions. Moreover, the performance of the DORC–CNGE combined system is simulated and analyzed using R245fa as the working fluid. Results show that the maximum net power output and the maximum thermal efficiency of the DORC system are 29.37 kW and 10.81%, respectively, under the rated power output condition of the engine. Compared with the original CNG engine, the maximum power output increase ratio and the maximum brake specific fuel consumption improvement ratio are 33.73% and 25%, respectively, in the DORC–CNGE combined system.

  9. Gasoline and other transportation fuels from natural gas in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ways in which natural gas might displace cude oil as a source of fuels for the Canadian transportation market are reviewed. Three approaches are possible: (1) direct use as compressed natural gas; (2)conversion of natural gas to methanol; and (3) further conversion of methanol to synthetic gasoline. (author)

  10. Comportamento de um motor de ignição por compressão trabalhando com óleo Diesel e gás natural A dual fuel compression ignition engine performance, running with Diesel fuel and natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Schlosser

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A previsível escassez de petróleo aliada a uma consciência ecológica está levando pesquisadores a procurar novas fontes de energia e processos de combustão mais eficientes e menos poluentes. Entre os combustíveis menos poluentes está o gás natural, cujo consumo aumenta ano a ano. Os motores de combustão interna são transformadores de energia que têm baixa eficiência de conversão. Este trabalho avaliou um motor Diesel, bicombustível, movido a Diesel e gás natural. Nesse motor, a energia provém, basicamente, da combustão do gás natural. O Diesel tem a função de produzir o início da combustão do gás, que é o combustível principal. Assim, haverá uma substituição parcial de óleo Diesel por gás natural, aumentando o rendimento da combustão. Inicialmente, foi feito um ensaio-testemunha, somente com óleo Diesel e após foram feitos ensaios, com três repetições, para variadas proporções de óleo Diesel, gás natural e ângulos de avanço da injeção. O melhor desempenho foi obtido para 22% de óleo Diesel em relação ao máximo débito da bomba injetora e 13 L min-1 de gás natural com ângulo de avanço de injeção original (21º. Nesse caso, a potência média aumentou 14%, e o consumo específico (medido em valores monetários diminuiu 46% em relação ao ensaio-testemunha.The foresight of a petroleum shortage and an ecological conscience is moving scientists to look for new sources of energy and to develop more efficient combustion processes and reduced emissions. Natural gas is a reduced emission fuel, whose consumption increases every year. The present work evaluates a dual fuel compression ignition engine. The major portion of the fuel burned is natural gas. The Diesel fuel acts as combustion starter, which ignites under the compression heat. Diesel fuel is used only as an ignition source. The partial substitution of Diesel fuel by natural gas increases the combustion efficiency and achieves significant

  11. Effects of operating parameters on nitrogen oxides emissions for a natural gas fueled homogeneous charged compression ignition engine (HCCI): Results from a thermodynamic model with detailed chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Nitrogen oxides emissions were determined for a natural gas fueled HCCI engine. ► The thermal NO mechanism accounts for the most of the NOx (around 70%). ► Among the parameters examined, equivalence ratio had the greatest effect on NOx. ► Reduction of NOx was due to decreased times at high temperatures. ► The nitrogen oxides emissions were reduced with increasing EGR level. -- Abstract: Past numerical studies on natural gas HCCI engines have provided few thorough analyses of the effects of operating parameters on nitrogen oxides (referring to the mixture of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide). A single zone thermodynamic model with detailed chemical kinetics was used to determine the effect of operating parameters on nitrogen oxides emissions. The model employed Chemkin and used chemical kinetics for natural gas with 53 species and 325 reactions. The simulation was conducted for a modified 0.4 l single cylinder engine, which possessed a compression ratio of 21.5:1, and had a bore and stroke of 86 and 75 mm, respectively. Several sets of parametric studies were completed to investigate the effect of engine load (imep = 200–600 kPa), speed (600–3000 RPM), equivalence ratio (0.3–1.0), EGR level (0–40%), temperature at IVC (390–460 K), and fuel compositions (0–10% C2H6) on nitrogen oxides emissions. Contributions of different NOx mechanisms have been examined, and the thermal mechanism accounts for over 70% of the total NOx at most of the conditions. The results show significant changes in nitrogen oxides concentrations with varying engine operating conditions. These changes are shown to be strongly dependent on the chemical kinetics and the resulting differences in gas temperature profiles. For this particular study, 50% reduction in nitrogen oxides emissions could result from a load (imep) decrease from 300 kPa to 200 kPa, or an EGR level increase from 0% to 20%.

  12. Compressive beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Sound source localization with sensor arrays involves the estimation of the direction-of-arrival (DOA) from a limited number of observations. Compressive sensing (CS) solves such underdetermined problems achieving sparsity, thus improved resolution, and can be solved efficiently with convex...

  13. 压缩天然气在乘用车上的应用%Application of Compressed Natural Gas in Passenger Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树会

    2011-01-01

    压缩天然气(CNG)是一种可替代汽油、柴油、丙烷或液化石油气的化石燃料。虽然它的燃烧会产生温室气体,但比其它燃料对环境的污染小得多,而且比其他燃料更安全,天然气比空气轻,泄露后很快发散在空气中。CNG通过压缩天然气(主要成分是甲烷[CH4])获得,常压下其体积仅占不足空气的1%,因此需要加压储存在20~25 MPa圆筒形或球形的压力容器中。CNG可以在传统的汽油机车辆的基础上改装,成为汽油、CNG双燃料车。由于汽油价格上涨,天然气车辆已经逐渐在亚太区域、拉丁美洲、欧洲和美国应用。受高燃料价格和环境要求的影%Compressed natural gas(CNG) is a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline(petrol),diesel,or propane/LPG.Although its combustion does produce greenhouse gases,it is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels,and it is much safer than other fuels in

  14. Development and evaluation of natural gum-based extended release matrix tablets of two model drugs of different water solubilities by direct compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori-Kwakye, Kwabena; Mfoafo, Kwadwo Amanor; Kipo, Samuel Lugrie; Kuntworbe, Noble; Boakye-Gyasi, Mariam El

    2016-01-01

    The study was aimed at developing extended release matrix tablets of poorly water-soluble diclofenac sodium and highly water-soluble metformin hydrochloride by direct compression using cashew gum, xanthan gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) as release retardants. The suitability of light grade cashew gum as a direct compression excipient was studied using the SeDeM Diagram Expert System. Thirteen tablet formulations of diclofenac sodium (∼100 mg) and metformin hydrochloride (∼200 mg) were prepared with varying amounts of cashew gum, xanthan gum and HPMC by direct compression. The flow properties of blended powders and the uniformity of weight, crushing strength, friability, swelling index and drug content of compressed tablets were determined. In vitro drug release studies of the matrix tablets were conducted in phosphate buffer (diclofenac: pH 7.4; metformin: pH 6.8) and the kinetics of drug release was determined by fitting the release data to five kinetic models. Cashew gum was found to be suitable for direct compression, having a good compressibility index (ICG) value of 5.173. The diclofenac and metformin matrix tablets produced generally possessed fairly good physical properties. Tablet swelling and drug release in aqueous medium were dependent on the type and amount of release retarding polymer and the solubility of drug used. Extended release of diclofenac (∼24 h) and metformin (∼8-12 h) from the matrix tablets in aqueous medium was achieved using various blends of the polymers. Drug release from diclofenac tablets fitted zero order, first order or Higuchi model while release from metformin tablets followed Higuchi or Hixson-Crowell model. The mechanism of release of the two drugs was mostly through Fickian diffusion and anomalous non-Fickian diffusion. The study has demonstrated the potential of blended hydrophilic polymers in the design and optimization of extended release matrix tablets for soluble and poorly soluble drugs by direct

  15. Overview of the Safety Issues Associated with the Compressed Natural Gas Fuel System and Electric Drive System in a Heavy Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.C.

    2002-11-14

    This report evaluates the hazards that are unique to a compressed-natural-gas (CNG)-fueled heavy hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design compared with a conventional heavy vehicle. The unique design features of the heavy HEV are the CNG fuel system for the internal-combustion engine (ICE) and the electric drive system. This report addresses safety issues with the CNG fuel system and the electric drive system. Vehicles on U. S. highways have been propelled by ICEs for several decades. Heavy-duty vehicles have typically been fueled by diesel fuel, and light-duty vehicles have been fueled by gasoline. The hazards and risks posed by ICE vehicles are well understood and have been generally accepted by the public. The economy, durability, and safety of ICE vehicles have established a standard for other types of vehicles. Heavy-duty (i.e., heavy) HEVs have recently been introduced to U. S. roadways, and the hazards posed by these heavy HEVs can be compared with the hazards posed by ICE vehicles. The benefits of heavy HEV technology are based on their potential for reduced fuel consumption and lower exhaust emissions, while the disadvantages are the higher acquisition cost and the expected higher maintenance costs (i.e., battery packs). The heavy HEV is more suited for an urban drive cycle with stop-and-go driving conditions than for steady expressway speeds. With increasing highway congestion and the resulting increased idle time, the fuel consumption advantage for heavy HEVs (compared with conventional heavy vehicles) is enhanced by the HEVs' ability to shut down. Any increase in fuel cost obviously improves the economics of a heavy HEV. The propulsion system for a heavy HEV is more complex than the propulsion system for a conventional heavy vehicle. The heavy HEV evaluated in this study has in effect two propulsion systems: an ICE fueled by CNG and an electric drive system with additional complexity and failure modes. This additional equipment will result in a less

  16. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM). We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590) and two biodiesels were used − rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214) and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC). A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. Results High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG) displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were significantly greater than

  17. Toxicological properties of emission particles from heavy duty engines powered by conventional and bio-based diesel fuels and compressed natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalava Pasi I

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major areas for increasing the use of renewable energy is in traffic fuels e.g. bio-based fuels in diesel engines especially in commuter traffic. Exhaust emissions from fossil diesel fuelled engines are known to cause adverse effects on human health, but there is very limited information available on how the new renewable fuels may change the harmfulness of the emissions, especially particles (PM. We evaluated the PM emissions from a heavy-duty EURO IV diesel engine powered by three different fuels; the toxicological properties of the emitted PM were investigated. Conventional diesel fuel (EN590 and two biodiesels were used − rapeseed methyl ester (RME, EN14214 and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO either as such or as 30% blends with EN590. EN590 and 100% HVO were also operated with or without an oxidative catalyst (DOC + POC. A bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG was included for comparison with the liquid fuels. However, the results from CNG powered bus cannot be directly compared to the other situations in this study. Results High volume PM samples were collected on PTFE filters from a constant volume dilution tunnel. The PM mass emission with HVO was smaller and with RME larger than that with EN590, but both biofuels produced lower PAH contents in emission PM. The DOC + POC catalyst greatly reduced the PM emission and PAH content in PM with both HVO and EN590. Dose-dependent TNFα and MIP-2 responses to all PM samples were mostly at the low or moderate level after 24-hour exposure in a mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Emission PM from situations with the smallest mass emissions (HVO + cat and CNG displayed the strongest potency in MIP-2 production. The catalyst slightly decreased the PM-induced TNFα responses and somewhat increased the MIP-2 responses with HVO fuel. Emission PM with EN590 and with 30% HVO blended in EN590 induced the strongest genotoxic responses, which were

  18. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    the clinical trial registration number at the end of the abstract. The ICMJE also recommends that, when a registration number is available, authors list that number the first time they use a trial acronym to refer to the trial they are reporting or to other trials that they mention in the manuscript. If the data have been deposited in a public repository, authors should state at the end of the abstract the data set name, repository name and number. c. Introduction Provide a context or background for the study (that is, the nature of the problem and its significance. State the specific purpose or research objective of, or hypothesis tested by, the study or observation. Cite only directly pertinent references, and do not include data or conclusions from the work being reported. d. Methods The guiding principle of the Methods section should be clarity about how and why a study was done in a particular way. Methods section should aim to be sufficiently detailed such that others with access to the data would be able to reproduce the results. In general, the section should include only information that was available at the time the plan or protocol for the study was being written; all information obtained during the study belongs in the Results section. If an organization was paid or otherwise contracted to help conduct the research (examples include data collection and management, then this should be detailed in the methods. The Methods section should include a statement indicating that the research was approved or exempted from the need for review by the responsible review committee (institutional or national. If no formal ethics committee is available, a statement indicating that the research was conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki should be included. i. Selection and Description of ParticipantsClearly describe the selection of observational or experimental participants (healthy individuals or patients, including controls, including

  19. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2015-12-01

    .c. IntroductionProvide a context or background for the study (that is, the nature of the problem and its significance. State the specific purpose or research objective of, or hypothesis tested by, the study or observation. Cite only directly pertinent references, and do not include data or conclusions from the work being reported.d. MethodsThe guiding principle of the Methods section should be clarity about how and why a study was done in a particular way. Methods section should aim to be sufficiently detailed such that others with access to the data would be able to reproduce the results. In general, the section should include only information that was available at the time the plan or protocol for the study was being written; all information obtained during the study belongs in the Results section. If an organization was paid or otherwise contracted to help conduct the research (examples include data collection and management, then this should be detailed in the methods.The Methods section should include a statement indicating that the research was approved or exempted from the need for review by the responsible review committee (institutional or national. If no formal ethics committee is available, a statement indicating that the research was conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki should be included.i. Selection and Description of ParticipantsClearly describe the selection of observational or experimental participants (healthy individuals or patients, in¬cluding controls, including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population. Because the relevance of such variables as age, sex, or ethnicity is not always known at the time of study design, researchers should aim for inclusion of representative populations into all study types and at a minimum provide descriptive data for these and other relevant demographic variables. If the study was done involving an exclusive population, for example in only one sex, authors

  20. Compressive Sensing for Quantum Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Gregory A.

    . Entanglement imaging is demonstrated at 1024 dimensions-per-photon with channel capacities exceeding 8.4 bits-per-photon. In practice, the measurement time is reduced from 310 days for the standard technique to 8 hours for the compressive technique. An entropic steering inequality is violated to witness entanglement. The final application is a compressive wavefront sensor that unites compressive sensing with weak measurement. We show how a twisted-nematic spatial light modulator can be be used to weakly couple an optical field's position and polarization degrees of freedom. The complex nature of the weak value is used to directly measure random projections of the real and imaginary parts of the optical field, where polarization serves as an ancillary meter. We obtain 256 x 256 pixel wavefronts from only 10,000 random projections. Photon-counting detectors provide sub-picowatt sensitivity.

  1. Fractal image compression

    OpenAIRE

    Žemlo, Gražina

    2004-01-01

    One of the images compression methods – fractal image compression is analyzed in the work. After work carried out, it is possible to state, that selecting parameters of method of fractal compression depends on user’s demands.

  2. Compression limits in cascaded quadratic soliton compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw;

    2008-01-01

    Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency.......Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency....

  3. Satellite data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Bormin

    2011-01-01

    Satellite Data Compression covers recent progress in compression techniques for multispectral, hyperspectral and ultra spectral data. A survey of recent advances in the fields of satellite communications, remote sensing and geographical information systems is included. Satellite Data Compression, contributed by leaders in this field, is the first book available on satellite data compression. It covers onboard compression methodology and hardware developments in several space agencies. Case studies are presented on recent advances in satellite data compression techniques via various prediction-

  4. Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Ferretti, Federico; Schmidt Di Friedberg, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    International audience From the ancient times to the present debates on nature and environment, the idea of Nature has been one of the main concepts which interested Geographers. This paper deals with the representations of this idea in the works of thinkers who played a major role in shaping modern Geography, with a special focus on the Mediterranean world. It aims to clarify how Nature was important in defining heuristic strategies of the geographical sciences and their explications of r...

  5. 5 CFR 532.513 - Flexible and compressed work schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flexible and compressed work schedules... REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Premium Pay and Differentials § 532.513 Flexible and compressed work schedules. Federal Wage System employees who are authorized to work flexible and compressed work...

  6. On Finite Alphabet Compressive Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Abhik Kumar; Vishwanath, Sriram

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of compressive sensing over a finite alphabet, where the finite alphabet may be inherent to the nature of the data or a result of quantization. There are multiple examples of finite alphabet based static as well as time-series data with inherent sparse structure; and quantizing real values is an essential step while handling real data in practice. We show that there are significant benefits to analyzing the problem while incorporating its finite alphabet natur...

  7. Compressed sensing for wide-field radio interferometric imaging

    CERN Document Server

    McEwen, J D

    2010-01-01

    For the next generation of radio interferometric telescopes it is of paramount importance to incorporate wide field-of-view (WFOV) considerations in interferometric imaging, otherwise the fidelity of reconstructed images will suffer greatly. We extend compressed sensing techniques for interferometric imaging to a WFOV and recover images in the spherical coordinate space in which they naturally live, eliminating any distorting projection. The effectiveness of the spread spectrum phenomenon, highlighted recently by one of the authors, is enhanced when going to a WFOV, while sparsity is promoted by recovering images directly on the sphere. Both of these properties act to improve the quality of reconstructed interferometric images. We quantify the performance of compressed sensing reconstruction techniques through simulations, highlighting the superior reconstruction quality achieved by recovering interferometric images directly on the sphere rather than the plane.

  8. Author guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Chief Editor

    2014-01-01

    AUTHOR GUIDELINESIndian Journal of Community Health (IJCH) accepts only online submission of manuscript(s) by using Open Journal software (OJS) at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/loginOnline SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH)? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly ad...

  9. Author Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Chief Editor

    2015-01-01

    Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts). Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s).SectionsEditorial:On issues of current public health needA...

  10. Taking into care metastatic medullary compressions; Prise en charge des compressions medullaires metastatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, C.; Feuvret, L. [Groupe hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-10-15

    As between 5 and 14 per cent of patients suffering from cancer will suffer from a metastatic medullary compression which severely impacts the vital and functional prognostic, the authors proposes an overview of the different techniques used to take these compressions into care: surgery, radiotherapy and cortico-therapy. They describe their positive and negative impacts. Short communication

  11. Algorithmic height compression of unordered trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naoum, Farah; Godin, Christophe

    2016-01-21

    By nature, tree structures frequently present similarities between their sub-parts. Making use of this redundancy, different types of tree compression techniques have been designed in the literature to reduce the complexity of tree structures. A popular and efficient way to compress a tree consists of merging its isomorphic subtrees, which produces a directed acyclic graph (DAG) equivalent to the original tree. An important property of this method is that the compressed structure (i.e. the DAG) has the same height as the original tree, thus limiting partially the possibility of compression. In this paper we address the problem of further compressing this DAG in height. The difficulty is that compression must be carried out on substructures that are not exactly isomorphic as they are strictly nested within each-other. We thus introduced a notion of quasi-isomorphism between subtrees that makes it possible to define similar patterns along any given path in a tree. We then proposed an algorithm to detect these patterns and to merge them, thus leading to compressed structures corresponding to DAGs augmented with return edges. In this way, redundant information is removed from the original tree in both width and height, thus achieving minimal structural compression. The complete compression algorithm is then illustrated on the compression of various plant-like structures.

  12. Preliminary technical and economic viability for the implantation of fluvial transport of CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) for barges in Amazon Region; Avaliacao preliminar de viabilidade tecnico-economica para implantacao de transporte fluvial de GNC (Gas Natual Comprimido) por barcacas na Regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Marcos C.C. de; Porto, Paulo L. Lemgruber [Interocean Engenharia e Ship Management, Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha, Rafael H. da [Metro Rio, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Rafael M. [Pic Brasil (Brazil); Almeida, Marco A.R. de [Universidade Gama Filho (UGF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The isolated regions of the Amazon present difficulties for integration with the electrical system which is creating some economic problems due to the consequent costs of electric generation of subsidies as a function of the fossil fuel use as oils diesel and fuel. A viable option is the use of Natural Gas - NG that is Also available in the region. Its modal of transport possible in the Region North they are for gas-lines or barges. The Compressed Natural Gas transport is distinguished that - CNG for barges was still not tested operationally in Brazil. Soon, to develop a Preliminary Study of Viability Technician - Economic - SVTE for the implantation of fluvial transport of CNG between the cities of Coari and Manaus is basic, therefore it is created strategical alternative for the electric generation in this region. The electric sector, the characteristics of the NG and the transport in this region had been analyzed to support to the work. The gas line and the fluvial transport of CNG for barges in this region are not conflicting, and they in a complementary form can act. The SVTE presented a Liquid Present Value and Internal Tax of very attractive Return justifying its implantation. (author)

  13. Waves and compressible flow

    CERN Document Server

    Ockendon, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Now in its second edition, this book continues to give readers a broad mathematical basis for modelling and understanding the wide range of wave phenomena encountered in modern applications.  New and expanded material includes topics such as elastoplastic waves and waves in plasmas, as well as new exercises.  Comprehensive collections of models are used to illustrate the underpinning mathematical methodologies, which include the basic ideas of the relevant partial differential equations, characteristics, ray theory, asymptotic analysis, dispersion, shock waves, and weak solutions. Although the main focus is on compressible fluid flow, the authors show how intimately gasdynamic waves are related to wave phenomena in many other areas of physical science.   Special emphasis is placed on the development of physical intuition to supplement and reinforce analytical thinking. Each chapter includes a complete set of carefully prepared exercises, making this a suitable textbook for students in applied mathematics, ...

  14. Study of CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scheme of longitudinal bunch compression cavity for the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR)is an important issue. Plasma physics experiments require high density heavy ion beam and short pulsed bunch,which can be produced by non-adiabatic compression of bunch implemented by a fast compression with 90 degree rotation in the longitudinal phase space. The phase space rotation in fast compression is initiated by a fast jump of the RF-voltage amplitude. For this purpose, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity, loaded with FINEMET-FT-1M is studied and simulated with MAFIA code. In this paper, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity is simulated and the initial bunch length of 238U72+ with 250 MeV/u will be compressed from 200 ns to 50 ns.The construction and RF properties of the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity are simulated and calculated also with MAFIA code. The operation frequency of the cavity is 1.15 MHz with peak voltage of 80 kV, and the cavity can be used to compress heavy ions in the CSR. (authors)

  15. 甩挂运输模式在 CNG 运输行业的效益优势分析%The advantage analysis of the drop and pull transportation mode in the field of the Compressed Natural Gas transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武怀宁

    2016-01-01

    文章主要对比分析了压缩天然气(CNG)运输行业应用甩挂运输模式较传统运输模式的效益优势。甩挂运输作为一种效率型、绿色型、节约型的先进道路物流组织方式,将成为我国道路运输发展的必然趋势。%This paper mainly analyzes the advantages of the application of drop and pull transportation mode in the field of compressed natural gas transportation in comparison with the traditional transportation mode. As an efficient, environmental and economical advanced road logistics organization mode, the drop and pull transportation will become an inevitable trend of the development of Chinese road transportation.

  16. Experimental Study of Fractal Image Compression Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan R. Dudhagara

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Image compression applications have been increasing in recent years. Fractal compression is a lossy compression method for digital images, based on fractals. The method is best suited for textures and natural images, relying on the fact that parts of an image often resemble other parts of the same image. In this paper, a study on fractal-based image compression and fixed-size partitioning will be made, analyzed for performance and compared with a standard frequency domain based image compression standard, JPEG. Sample images will be used to perform compression and decompression. Performance metrics such as compression ratio, compression time and decompression time will be measured in JPEG cases. Also the phenomenon of resolution/scale independence will be studied and described with examples. Fractal algorithms convert these parts into mathematical data called "fractal codes" which are used to recreate the encoded image. Fractal encoding is a mathematical process used to encode bitmaps containing a real-world image as a set of mathematical data that describes the fractal properties of the image. Fractal encoding relies on the fact that all natural, and most artificial, objects contain redundant information in the form of similar, repeating patterns called fractals.

  17. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  18. 压缩天然气管道输送应用分析%Application Analysis of Compressed Natural Gas Pipeline Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉; 金星; 胡晓露

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing of world energy demand, petroleum resources supply become nervous, in this situa⁃tion, we strengthen the developing of natural gas in our country. With the application of natural gas pipeline auto⁃mation technology, it meets the market demand, at the same time, also provides clean energy for people. This arti⁃cle mainly analyzed the transportation application of natural gas pipeline automation technology and provided cer⁃tain reference for related study.%随着世界能源需求量的增加,造成石油资源供应的短缺,在这种形势下,我国加大了天然气的开发力度。随着天然气管道自动化技术的应用,在满足市场需求的同时,也为人们提供了清洁能源。本文对压缩天然气输送应用进行了分析,为相关研究提供一定参考。

  19. Hyperspectral data compression

    CERN Document Server

    Motta, Giovanni; Storer, James A

    2006-01-01

    Provides a survey of results in the field of compression of remote sensed 3D data, with a particular interest in hyperspectral imagery. This work covers topics such as compression architecture, lossless compression, lossy techniques, and more. It also describes a lossless algorithm based on vector quantization.

  20. Compressed gas manifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Richard J.; Wozniak, John J.

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  1. Evolution of some Los Alamos flux compression programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, C.M.; Goforth, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    When we were approached to give a general discussion of some aspects of the Los Alamos flux compression program, we decided to present historical backgrounds of a few topics that have some relevance to programs that we very much In the forefront of activities going on today. Of some thirty abstracts collected at Los Alamos for this conference, ten of them dealt with electromagnetic acceleration of materials, notably the compression of heavy liners, and five dealt with plasma compression. Both of these topics have been under investigation, off and on, from the time a formal flux compression program was organized at Los Alamos. We decided that a short overview of work done In these areas would be of some interest. Some of the work described below has been discussed in Laboratory reports that, while referenced and available, are not readily accessible. For completeness, some previously published, accessible work Is also discussed but much more briefly. Perhaps the most striking thing about the early work In these two areas is how primitive much of it was when compared to the far more sophisticated, related activities of today. Another feature of these programs, actually for most programs, Is their cyclic nature. Their relevance and/or funding seems to come land go. Eventually, many of the older programs come back into favor. Activities Involving the dense plasma focus (DPF), about which some discussions will be given later, furnish a classic example of this kind, coming Into and then out of periods of heightened interest. We devote the next two sections of this paper to a review of our work In magnetic acceleration of solids and of plasma compression. A final section gives a survey of our work In which thin foils are imploded to produce intense quantities of son x-rays. The authors are well aware of much excellent work done elsewhere In all of these topics, but partly because of space limitations, have confined this discussion to work done at Los Alamos.

  2. AUTHOR GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINESIndian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/loginOnline SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.SectionsEditorial:On issues of current public health needAbout 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredInvited Commentary:Brief, provocative, opinionated communicationsOn issues of current public health needMain Text: 750-1000 words excluding referencesReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredOriginal Article:Articles from Original ResearchStructured abstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 words, IMRD formatKey Words: 5 - 8References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReview Article:On subject of public health relevanceAbstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 wordsKey Words: 3 - 4References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4Short Communication / Article:Short report of a research project / outbreakMain Text : 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 10 – 15 (PubMed - Citation preferredTable / Figure: 01*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReport from the field

  3. Design of Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas Engine Fuel System and Test Research%天然气掺氢发动机燃气供给系统设计与试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝山; 熊树生; 任晓帅; 姚红; 徐进; 谢莲; 刘震涛

    2012-01-01

    提出了将滑动弧电解制氢装置应用到天然气发动机中,通过电解天然气制氢,轻松实现天然气(CNG)发动机到天然气掺氢(HCNG)发动机的改装.通过自制装置,进行了过量空气系数和点火提前角与燃用不同掺氢比例的HCNG对发动机排放特性影响的试验研究.结果表明,发动机燃用HCNG,其HC和CO的排放都减少,NOx排放量增加,但随着过量空气系数的增加或点火提前角的减少,NOx排放会大大减少,排放性能得到优化.同时进行了体积掺氢比20%的HCNG和纯CNG外特性对比试验研究,结果表明,相比纯CNG,燃用掺氢20% HCNG后,其动力性变化不大,燃料消耗率却相应的减少,经济性得到改善.%This paper put forward a device installed into the fuel system,which used the sliding electric arc to electrolyze the natural gas to make hydrogen and then blend them into the fuel pipe for final combustion. We could re-equip the compressed natural gas (CNG) engine to hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG) engine easily. The test research of the engine emissions characteristics using different hydrogen-CNG ratios was conducted when the excess air ratios and the spark advance angles were different. The results show that HC and CO emissions of engine fueled with HCNG reduce when NOx emissions increase. The NOx emissions are reduced greatly with the increase of the excess air ratio or the decrease of the spark advance angle. Comparative experiments of the performance characteristics of engine burned with HCNG whose volume hydrogen-CNG ratio was 20% and CNG were conducted under wide open throttle operating conditions. The results show that the torque output is unchanged when 20% HCNG is burned compared with CNG engine,but the fuel consumption is reduced and the fuel economy is improved.

  4. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the Content 1.1.1   Subheading of the Content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  5. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the content 1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  6. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the content 1.1.1 Subheading of the content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Back Matter| 79 80 | STUDIES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND EDUCATION, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2014 Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v

  7. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second p age and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the Content 1.1.1 Subheading of the Content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www.teachingenglish.org

  8. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the content 1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  9. Compressed Blind De-convolution

    CERN Document Server

    Saligrama, V

    2009-01-01

    Suppose the signal x is realized by driving a k-sparse signal u through an arbitrary unknown stable discrete-linear time invariant system H. These types of processes arise naturally in Reflection Seismology. In this paper we are interested in several problems: (a) Blind-Deconvolution: Can we recover both the filter $H$ and the sparse signal $u$ from noisy measurements? (b) Compressive Sensing: Is x compressible in the conventional sense of compressed sensing? Namely, can x, u and H be reconstructed from a sparse set of measurements. We develop novel L1 minimization methods to solve both cases and establish sufficient conditions for exact recovery for the case when the unknown system H is auto-regressive (i.e. all pole) of a known order. In the compressed sensing/sampling setting it turns out that both H and x can be reconstructed from O(k log(n)) measurements under certain technical conditions on the support structure of u. Our main idea is to pass x through a linear time invariant system G and collect O(k lo...

  10. Calculation methods of natural gas compressibility factor based on the gas composition%基于气体组成的天然气压缩因子计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁光川; 左果

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas compressibility factor Z is one of the most important physical parame-ters in the natural gas engineering calculations , and the determining methods mainly include Standing-Katz chart method ,laboratory experiments method ,equations of state law method and the empirical formulas method .Due to the usage limitations of the former two methods ,the ap-plication advantages of equations of state law method and the empirical formulas method become increasingly evident .In this paper ,the calculation accuracy of equations that calculate compressi-bility factor based gas composition was evaluated .The equations include AGA8-92DC ,Piper-DAK ,Piper-Mahmoud ,Elsharkawy-DAK and Elsharkawy-Mahmoud .These five calculation for-mulas to be valuated were written into Visual Basic 6 .0 and 113 measured values of acidic lean gas compressibility factor were used to compare with the calculated values of these five formulas . The comparison indicates that firstly for the lean gas with carbon dioxide at low pressure or medi-um pressure ,the calculation error of AGA8-92DC is less than others ;secondly ,for the lean gas with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide at low or medium pressure ,the calculation error of Pip-er-Mahmoud is minimal compared to the other correlations .In addition ,this study presents that w hen the temperature of natural gas increases ,the errors of calculated values by these five for-mulas will all decrease compared with the original calculation errors .%天然气压缩因子 Z在天然气工程计算中是最重要的物性参数之一,其获取方法主要分为查Standing-Katz图法、实验法、状态方程计算法和经验公式法。前两种方法在使用上有很大的限制性,目前状态方程计算法和经验公式法的应用优势明显。对基于气体组成来求解压缩因子的AGA8-92DC、Piper-DAK、Piper-Mahmoud、Elsharkawy-DAK和Elsharkawy-Mahmoud方程进行了计算准确度评价。将这5个待评

  11. Using compression to identify acronyms in text

    OpenAIRE

    Yeates, Stuart; Bainbridge, David; Witten, Ian H

    2000-01-01

    Text mining is about looking for patterns in natural language text, and may be defined as the process of analyzing text to extract information from it for particular purposes. In previous work, we claimed that compression is a key technology for text mining, and backed this up with a study that showed how particular kinds of lexical tokens---names, dates, locations, etc.---can be identified and located in running text, using compression models to provide the leverage necessary to distinguish ...

  12. Compressed Sensing in Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Bobin, J; Ottensamer, R

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in signal processing have focused on the use of sparse representations in various applications. A new field of interest based on sparsity has recently emerged: compressed sensing. This theory is a new sampling framework that provides an alternative to the well-known Shannon sampling theory. In this paper we investigate how compressed sensing (CS) can provide new insights into astronomical data compression and more generally how it paves the way for new conceptions in astronomical remote sensing. We first give a brief overview of the compressed sensing theory which provides very simple coding process with low computational cost, thus favoring its use for real-time applications often found on board space mission. We introduce a practical and effective recovery algorithm for decoding compressed data. In astronomy, physical prior information is often crucial for devising effective signal processing methods. We particularly point out that a CS-based compression scheme is flexible enough to account ...

  13. Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Muqeetadnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac artery compression syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by episodic abdominal pain and weight loss. It is the result of external compression of celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament. We present a case of celiac artery compression syndrome in a 57-year-old male with severe postprandial abdominal pain and 30-pound weight loss. The patient eventually responded well to surgical division of the median arcuate ligament by laparoscopy.

  14. Large Eddy Simulation for Compressible Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Garnier, E; Sagaut, P

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of compressible flows is still a widely unexplored area of research. The authors, whose books are considered the most relevant monographs in this field, provide the reader with a comprehensive state-of-the-art presentation of the available LES theory and application. This book is a sequel to "Large Eddy Simulation for Incompressible Flows", as most of the research on LES for compressible flows is based on variable density extensions of models, methods and paradigms that were developed within the incompressible flow framework. The book addresses both the fundamentals and the practical industrial applications of LES in order to point out gaps in the theoretical framework as well as to bridge the gap between LES research and the growing need to use it in engineering modeling. After introducing the fundamentals on compressible turbulence and the LES governing equations, the mathematical framework for the filtering paradigm of LES for compressible flow equations is established. Instead ...

  15. Magnetic compression of an FRC plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, S.; Kitano, K.; Matsumoto, H. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (JP)] [and others

    1999-04-01

    Confinement of a plasma with field-reversed configuration (FRC) is predicted to be improved if it is compressed only axially, keeping the magnetic flux between the separatrix and the confining chamber (flux conserver) wall unchanged, while allowing the plasma to expand radially. The prediction is based on an empirical scaling law of FRC confinement and on the assumption that the compression is done adiabatically. The apparatus for this axial compression was developed and the axial compression experiment was actually carried out by decreasing the distance of the mirror fields between which the FRC plasma is confined by 30% and the plasma life time of about 500 {mu}s was increased by about 50 {mu}s. (author)

  16. Wavelet image compression

    CERN Document Server

    Pearlman, William A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the stages necessary to create a wavelet compression system for images and describes state-of-the-art systems used in image compression standards and current research. It starts with a high level discussion of the properties of the wavelet transform, especially the decomposition into multi-resolution subbands. It continues with an exposition of the null-zone, uniform quantization used in most subband coding systems and the optimal allocation of bitrate to the different subbands. Then the image compression systems of the FBI Fingerprint Compression Standard and the JPEG2000 S

  17. Growing concern following compression mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, Johannes Pieter; Hoption Cann, Stephen; Thornton, Ian; Finegan, Rory

    2016-01-01

    A patient without clinical symptoms had a mammogram in October 2008. The procedure caused intense persistent pain, swelling and development of a haematoma following mediolateral left breast compression. Three months later, a 9×11 cm mass developed within the same region. Core biopsies showed a necrotizing high-grade ductal carcinoma, with a high mitotic index. Owing to its extensive size, the patient began chemotherapy followed by trastuzumab and later radiotherapy to obtain clear margins for a subsequent mastectomy. The mastectomy in October 2009 revealed an inflammatory carcinoma, with 2 of 3 nodes infiltrated by the tumour. The stage IIIC tumour, oestrogen and progesterone receptor negative, was highly HER2 positive. A recurrence led to further chemotherapy in February 2011. In July 2011, another recurrence was removed from the mastectomy scar. She died of progressive disease in 2012. In this article, we discuss the potential influence of compression on the natural history of the tumour. PMID:27581236

  18. Sparsity Averaging for Compressive Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Carrillo, Rafael E; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Wiaux, Yves

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel regularization method for sparse image reconstruction from compressive measurements. The approach relies on the conjecture that natural images exhibit strong average sparsity over multiple coherent frames. The associated reconstruction algorithm, based on an analysis prior and a reweighted $\\ell_1$ scheme, is dubbed Sparsity Averaging Reweighted Analysis (SARA). We test our prior and the associated algorithm through extensive numerical simulations for spread spectrum and Gaussian acquisition schemes suggested by the recent theory of compressed sensing with coherent and redundant dictionaries. Our results show that average sparsity outperforms state-of-the-art priors that promote sparsity in a single orthonormal basis or redundant frame, or that promote gradient sparsity. We also illustrate the performance of SARA in the context of Fourier imaging, for particular applications in astronomy and medicine.

  19. Analysis of the Alternate Extrusion and Multiaxial Compression Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwapisz M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the results of numerical simulations of the alternate indirect extrusion and multiaxial compression process, performed using commercial software designed for the thermomechanical analysis of plastic working processes, Forge 2009. The novel method of alternate indirect extrusion and multiaxial compression, proposed by the authors, is characterized by the occurrence of strain states in the material being plastically worked, which are similar to those occurring in the equal channel angular pressing and cyclic extrusion compression processes.

  20. Nuclear data compression and reconstruction via discrete wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Ryong; Cho, Nam Zin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Discrete Wavelet Transforms (DWTs) are recent mathematics, and begin to be used in various fields. The wavelet transform can be used to compress the signal and image due to its inherent properties. We applied the wavelet transform compression and reconstruction to the neutron cross section data. Numerical tests illustrate that the signal compression using wavelet is very effective to reduce the data saving spaces. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  1. Image quality meter using compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposed a new technique to compressed image blockiness/blurriness in frequency domain through edge detection method by applying Fourier transform. In image processing, boundaries are characterized by edges and thus, edges are the problems of fundamental importance. The edges have to be identified and computed thoroughly in order to retrieve the complete illustration of the image. Our novel edge detection scheme for blockiness and blurriness shows improvement of 60 and 100 blocks for high frequency components respectively than any other detection technique. (author)

  2. Thinking about the Author- construction of the Natural Science Edition Journals of Local Engineering Colleges%江苏地方工科院校自科版学报作者队伍建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英健; 沈建新

    2011-01-01

    Academic journals are the windows of teaching and scientific research of universities and colleges. Authors are important resource which must be mastered by editorial department of the journal. For the specific solutions to the problem of manuscripts of the local engineering colleges journals, We statistically analyzed the authors of the academic journals ( natural science edition) from 2009 to 2010 within 6 local engineering colleges in Jiangsu province, and suggest that natural science edition journals of local engineering colleges should focus on training the authors of Masters and lecturers in self college, attracting manuscripts of the professors in self college with preferential policies, and paying attention to the authors of postgraduates and the rccords of the superior manuscripts of the authors outside the college.%学报是反映高校教学科研成果的窗口,作者资源是高校学报的重要资源。在对江苏6所地方工科院校自然科学版学报2009—2010年发表稿件情况进行统计分析的基础上,提出地方工科院校自科版学报应着力培养本校硕士研究生和讲师层次的作者队伍、采取优惠政策吸引本校教授投稿、重视在读研究生作者群的建设和建立校外优质稿源作者档案,从而缓解工科院校自科版学报稿源紧张问题,提高学报的质量。

  3. The Nature and Regulation of Authority's March-in Rights in PPP%公私合作中政府介入权的性质及其规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯明

    2016-01-01

    This paper points out that authority shall enjoy the right to march in during the execution phase of the project in PPP. According to the segmentation approach of the nature of public-private partnership in the "two-stage theory", the project implementation phase shall be subject to the adjustment of civil law. And it is obviously quite different from the administrative nature of authority's march-in rights. When analyzing of the nature of authority's march-in rights in public-private partnership, the conditions and procedures of its exercise should be strictly regulated to seek judicial relief by ways of administrative reconsideration or litigation in the light of its administrative nature.%指出公私合作(PPP)中政府方在项目执行阶段享有介入权,根据“二阶段理论”对公私合作性质的分段处理,项目执行阶段受民事法律调整,其与政府介入权明显的行政性存在巨大分歧特点,认为对公私合作中政府介入权性质的分析,应基于其行政性,严格规范其行使的条件和程序,并通过行政复议或诉讼的途径寻求救济。

  4. Compression Ratio Adjuster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    New mechanism alters compression ratio of internal-combustion engine according to load so that engine operates at top fuel efficiency. Ordinary gasoline, diesel and gas engines with their fixed compression ratios are inefficient at partial load and at low-speed full load. Mechanism ensures engines operate as efficiently under these conditions as they do at highload and high speed.

  5. Arabic Short Text Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Omer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Text compression permits representing a document by using less space. This is useful not only to save disk space, but more importantly, to save disk transfer and network transmission time. With the continues increase in the number of Arabic short text messages sent by mobile phones, the use of a suitable compression scheme would allow users to use more characters than the default value specified by the provider. The development of an efficient compression scheme to compress short Arabic texts is not a straight forward task. Approach: This study combined the benefits of pre-processing, entropy reduction through splitting files and hybrid dynamic coding: A new technique proposed in this study that uses the fact that Arabic texts have single case letters. Experimental tests had been performed on short Arabic texts and a comparison with the well known plain Huffman compression was made to measure the performance of the proposed schema for Arabic short text. Results: The proposed schema can achieve a compression ratio around 4.6 bits byte-1 for very short Arabic text sequences of 15 bytes and around 4 bits byte-1 for 50 bytes text sequences, using only 8 Kbytes overhead of memory. Conclusion: Furthermore, a reasonable compression ratio can be achieved using less than 0.4 KB of memory overhead. We recommended the use of proposed schema to compress small Arabic text with recourses limited.

  6. Fractal image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnsley, Michael F.; Sloan, Alan D.

    1989-01-01

    Fractals are geometric or data structures which do not simplify under magnification. Fractal Image Compression is a technique which associates a fractal to an image. On the one hand, the fractal can be described in terms of a few succinct rules, while on the other, the fractal contains much or all of the image information. Since the rules are described with less bits of data than the image, compression results. Data compression with fractals is an approach to reach high compression ratios for large data streams related to images. The high compression ratios are attained at a cost of large amounts of computation. Both lossless and lossy modes are supported by the technique. The technique is stable in that small errors in codes lead to small errors in image data. Applications to the NASA mission are discussed.

  7. Spectral Animation Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Wang; Yang Liu; Xiaohu Guo; Zichun Zhong; Binh Le; Zhigang Deng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a spectral approach to compress dynamic animation consisting of a sequence of homeomor-phic manifold meshes. Our new approach directly compresses the field of deformation gradient defined on the surface mesh, by decomposing it into rigid-body motion (rotation) and non-rigid-body deformation (stretching) through polar decompo-sition. It is known that the rotation group has the algebraic topology of 3D ring, which is different from other operations like stretching. Thus we compress these two groups separately, by using Manifold Harmonics Transform to drop out their high-frequency details. Our experimental result shows that the proposed method achieves a good balance between the reconstruction quality and the compression ratio. We compare our results quantitatively with other existing approaches on animation compression, using standard measurement criteria.

  8. Compression asphyxia from a human pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumram, Nilesh Keshav; Ambade, Vipul Namdeorao; Biyabani, Naushad

    2015-12-01

    In compression asphyxia, respiration is stopped by external forces on the body. It is usually due to an external force compressing the trunk such as a heavy weight on the chest or abdomen and is associated with internal injuries. In present case, the victim was trapped and crushed under the falling persons from a human pyramid formation for a "Dahi Handi" festival. There was neither any severe blunt force injury nor any significant pathological natural disease contributing to the cause of death. The victim was unable to remove himself from the situation because his cognitive responses and coordination were impaired due to alcohol intake. The victim died from asphyxia due to compression of his chest and abdomen. Compression asphyxia resulting from the collapse of a human pyramid and the dynamics of its impact force in these circumstances is very rare and is not reported previously to the best of our knowledge.

  9. Emission Characteristics of Direct Injection Natural Gas Engine Using Rapid Compression Machine%用快速压缩装置研究直喷式天然气发动机排放特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄佐华; 曾科; 杨中乐

    2002-01-01

    使用快速压缩装置进行了直喷式天然气发动机排放特性的研究.测量了三种不同方式下的排放,并与均相混合气燃烧情况进行了对比.实验结果表明,在宽广的当量比范围内,天然气直喷方式的燃烧效率高于0.95.由于混合气的分层燃烧,天然气喷射方式在宽广的当量比范围内保持较低的HC排放量,同等功率下的低CO2排放量,低NOx排放量,其NOx排放在理论当量比处的降低更为明显.直喷天然气发动机既具备柴油机发动机效率高的特点,又具备预混燃烧发动机排放低的特点.%Investigation of emission characteristics of a direct injection natural gas engine is carried out using a rapid compression machine.The emissions of three injection modes are measured and compared with that of the homogeneous combustion mode.The experimental results show that the combustion efficiency of the direct injection natural gas combustion is above 0.95 for all fuel supplying modes in the wide range of overall equivalence ratio.Fuel injection can operate within a wide range of equivalence ratio and has low unburned hydrocarbon emission (HC),low CO2 emission for the same power output,low NOx emission due to the mixture stratification compared with homogeneous combustion engine,especially in the range near the stoichiometric equivalence ratio where engine power output is needed.Consequently,the direct injection natural gas engine has the advantages of high thermal efficiency like diesel engine and low emission of premixed mixture combustion.

  10. Experimental research on the compressibility of stale waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yongxing; XIE Qiang; ZHANG Jianhua; WEI Yongfa

    2003-01-01

    The compressibility of stale waste is studied based on the investigation into the composition and properties of stale waste in the Chongqing City. Stale waste sampled at a landfill closed for over 8 a was analyzed indoors for its natural density,natural water content, relative density, grain size distribution curve, uniformity coefficient and curvature coefficient. Indoor compression tests for the stale waste were performed to find out the void ratio and its dependence upon applied pressure,compressibility coefficient, constrained modulus and volume compressibility coefficient. From the experimental data, the curvature coefficient and the preconsolidation pressure of the stale waste were worked out. The results indicates that the stale waste is of high compressibility, which is different from the other kinds of common soil, and is underconsolidated soil. The measured compressibility parameters are applicable to settlement calculation of closed landfills.

  11. Refrigeration Carnot-type cycle based on isothermal vapour compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, F. [Laboratoire du Froid EA 21, Cnam-IFFI, 292 rue Saint-Martin (France)

    2006-01-01

    A refrigeration Carnot-type cycle based on isothermal compression and two reversible expansions is proposed. Although ideal, this cycle is close to a realistic one which could be designed with existing hardware. (author)

  12. Ab initio compressive phase retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesini, S

    2008-01-01

    Any object on earth has two fundamental properties: it is finite, and it is made of atoms. Structural information about an object can be obtained from diffraction amplitude measurements that account for either one of these traits. Nyquist-sampling of the Fourier amplitudes is sufficient to image single particles of finite size at any resolution. Atomic resolution data is routinely used to image molecules replicated in a crystal structure. Here we report an algorithm that requires neither information, but uses the fact that an image of a natural object is compressible. Intended applications include tomographic diffractive imaging, crystallography, powder diffraction, small angle x-ray scattering and random Fourier amplitude measurements.

  13. ADVANCED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY (ARCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny M. Deffenbaugh; Klaus Brun; Ralph E. Harris; J. Pete Harrell; Robert J. Mckee; J. Jeffrey Moore; Steven J. Svedeman; Anthony J. Smalley; Eugene L. Broerman; Robert A Hart; Marybeth G. Nored; Ryan S. Gernentz; Shane P. Siebenaler

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. natural gas pipeline industry is facing the twin challenges of increased flexibility and capacity expansion. To meet these challenges, the industry requires improved choices in gas compression to address new construction and enhancement of the currently installed infrastructure. The current fleet of installed reciprocating compression is primarily slow-speed integral machines. Most new reciprocating compression is and will be large, high-speed separable units. The major challenges with the fleet of slow-speed integral machines are: limited flexibility and a large range in performance. In an attempt to increase flexibility, many operators are choosing to single-act cylinders, which are causing reduced reliability and integrity. While the best performing units in the fleet exhibit thermal efficiencies between 90% and 92%, the low performers are running down to 50% with the mean at about 80%. The major cause for this large disparity is due to installation losses in the pulsation control system. In the better performers, the losses are about evenly split between installation losses and valve losses. The major challenges for high-speed machines are: cylinder nozzle pulsations, mechanical vibrations due to cylinder stretch, short valve life, and low thermal performance. To shift nozzle pulsation to higher orders, nozzles are shortened, and to dampen the amplitudes, orifices are added. The shortened nozzles result in mechanical coupling with the cylinder, thereby, causing increased vibration due to the cylinder stretch mode. Valve life is even shorter than for slow speeds and can be on the order of a few months. The thermal efficiency is 10% to 15% lower than slow-speed equipment with the best performance in the 75% to 80% range. The goal of this advanced reciprocating compression program is to develop the technology for both high speed and low speed compression that will expand unit flexibility, increase thermal efficiency, and increase reliability and integrity

  14. 压缩过程中天然沉积土应力灵敏度的变化规律%Variation reqularity of stress sensitivity of natural clay during compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱森; 史剑; 丁建文

    2015-01-01

    In order to describe the variation reqularity of the stress sensitivity of natural clay with the consolidation stress during compression,a stress sensitivity change model was proposed by introdu-cing the Liu-Cater model into the stress sensitivity framework based on the definition of the stress sensitivity and the modeling idea of the Liu-Cater model.The applicability of the proposed model was verified by comparing the simulation results of the stress sensitivity change model with the one-dimensional compression test results of undisturbed and remolded samples of natural clay from the lit-erature.The study results show that the simulation results of the stress sensitivity change model agree well with the test results.The stress sensitivity reaches a maximum value under the consolidation yield stress and gradually decreases to 1 with the further increase of the consolidation stress.The re-duction index of the stress sensitivity depends on the soil type and the characteristic of soil structure. The reduction index of the stress sensitivity of soft clay is usually higher than that of stiff clay.The more rapid the destruction of soil structure,the higher the reduction index of the stress sensitivity.%为了描述压缩过程中天然沉积土应力灵敏度随固结压力的变化规律,基于耦合应力灵敏度的概念和 Liu-Cater 模型的建模思路,将 Liu-Cater 模型引入应力灵敏度评价体系中,建立了应力灵敏度变化模型。将已有文献中天然沉积土原状样与重塑样的一维压缩试验实测结果与应力灵敏度变化模型预测结果相比较,以验证所提模型的适用性。结果表明:应力灵敏度变化模型预测结果与试验实测结果均具有良好的一致性;应力灵敏度在固结屈服压力时处于最大值,之后随固结压力的增大而逐渐减小至1;应力灵敏度衰减指数的大小主要决定于土的种类及土结构性的特征,软黏土的应力灵敏度衰减指数

  15. The authority of lawyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Jung

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The public standing of lawyers has always been somewhat ambivalent. On the one hand, they have been taken for a conceited technocratical elite with their own incomprehensible language. On the other hand, they have been cherished as the number one trouble-shooter and peace-maker. Today, the traditional monopoly of lawyers has come under pressure. Rivaling professions such as mediators want to have their share of the conflict resolution market. Still, lawyers are likely to retain the greater bulk. The author identifies and discusses the following reasons for this predominance the affinity of lawyers with the state and public authority; the reflex of the authority of law; the complex nature of legal systems and the ensuing need for professionalisation; a particular training in rhetorical, linguistic, communicative and social skills; the function of lawyers as ‘high priests’ of the judicial ritual; the real or supposed competence of lawyers to master each and every challenge irrespective of its nature and background; homogeneity of the group; the ability of lawyers to embrace and ‘swallow’ other disciplines. The topic is part of the general discourse on the role of professional actors.

  16. Hygienic and microbiological influences exerted on natural water biotopes by algae and the growth of water plants. 2. Communication: improvement of the chemical and bacteriological water quality by the natural growth of aquatic plants (author's transl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graef, W.; Kersch, D.; Pawlofsky, C.M.

    1981-12-01

    For a natural pond, whose waters are used for recreational purposes (swimming) and are subject to waste water inflow, the biological purifying function of a zone overgrown with reeds and aquatic plants was ascertained by means of chemical and bacteriological water quality parameters. In the years from 1975 to 1980 the contents of ammonia, nitrites, nitrates, phosphates and chlorides as well as the colony counts (CFU/ml), the coli titres and the content of fruiting myxobacteria were determined from water samples, both during the lush-growth summer period and the low-growth winter season. The location of the 6 sampling points systematically extended from the sewage outlet via the tributary ditch, in front of and behind the natural growth zone as far as the swimming waters. The test series showed - that in the tributary ditch and especially during the passage through the upper water zone densely overgrown with aquatic plants, the proportion of degradable nitrogen compounds and phosphates is distinctly reduced beyond the extent of reduction by dilution processes, - that the colony counts in the effluent water as well as the content of E. coli and of the fruiting myxobacteria, which act as indirect faecal indicator, are also reduced considerably, - that the biological purifying of the vegetation zone is definitely higher in summer than during the low-growth winter months. From this the conclusion can be drawn that for maintaining and furthering an adequate water quality of recreational waters compromised by waste water, the preservation of the naturally growing aquatic plants both in the water itself and on the banks is absolutely necessary.

  17. Focus on Compression Stockings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy may be recommended as part of a treatment plan. There are several situations when compression may be helpful, including: tired legs, varicose veins, chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), lymphedema, or deep vein thrombosis (DVT). This brochure focuses ...

  18. LZW Data Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheemanth H N

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lempel–Ziv–Welch (LZW is a universal lossless data compression algorithm created by Abraham Lempel, Jacob Ziv, and Terry Welch. LZW compression is one of the Adaptive Dictionary techniques. The dictionary is created while the data are being encoded. So encoding can be done on the fly. The dictionary need not be transmitted. Dictionary can be built up at receiving end on the fly. If the dictionary overflows then we have to reinitialize the dictionary and add a bit to each one of the code words. Choosing a large dictionary size avoids overflow, but spoils compressions. A codebook or dictionary containing the source symbols is constructed. For 8-bit monochrome images, the first 256 words of the dictionary are assigned to the gray levels 0-255. Remaining part of the dictionary is filled with sequences of the gray levels.LZW compression works best when applied on monochrome images and text files that contain repetitive text/patterns.

  19. Shocklets in compressible flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁湘江; 男俊武; 沈清; 李筠

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of shocklets is studied theoretically and numerically for the stationary fluid, uniform compressible flow, and boundary layer flow. The conditions that trigger shock waves for sound wave, weak discontinuity, and Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) wave in compressible flows are investigated. The relations between the three types of waves and shocklets are further analyzed and discussed. Different stages of the shocklet formation process are simulated. The results show that the three waves in compressible flows will transfer to shocklets only when the initial disturbance amplitudes are greater than the certain threshold values. In compressible boundary layers, the shocklets evolved from T-S wave exist only in a finite region near the surface instead of the whole wavefront.

  20. Some keys to reread authority.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Straehle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article vindicates a rereading of the concept of authority and tries to dissociate this concept from the concept of power in order to undo their identification and thereby the oblivion of the specific nature (or the history of authority. Besides, this rereading must not be confused with an apology of authority but with an exploration about this complicated and ambivalent category. The key point of this distinction lies in that authority, unlike power, depends not on itself but on the other person, the person who acknowledges another one as authority. Therefore, authority can be compatible with freedom and can appear as an exteriority of power, which undermines it or even becomes a counterpower. Hence the logical endeavours of power to monopolize and instrumentalize authority.

  1. 艺术的大众契约性——兼论权威与艺术的关系%The Mass Contractual Nature of Art --The Relation of Authority and Art

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟春林

    2012-01-01

    艺术本质上是相对多数人的一种契约,大多数人认可它是艺术就是艺术,得到越多的人认可的艺术就是越好的艺术。然而。怎样才知道大多数人的观点是什么呢?这就需要集中,集中必然产生权威,真正的权威本来就是大众契约的结果。是代表大众的观点、意志行事的。这样一来,从表面上和形式上看,艺术就转化成权威的认定。%Art is a kind of contract to the majority in nature, namely it is art if the majority accept it as art. The more it is accepted by people, the better it is as art. How are the majority's ideas known? It requires centralization ,from which authority comes. Authority is the result of the mass contract representing the view of the majority and will. Thus, art is the result of the affirmation of the authority, superficially and formally.

  2. Fingerprint Image Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Mansi Kambli,; Shalini Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Modified Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Tree with Run Length Encoding is a new framework proposed for fingerprint image compression. The Proposed method is better because more number of images related to the fingerprint image are retrieved. Experiments on an image database of grayscale bitmap images show that the proposed technique performs well in compression and decompression. We use Peak Signal to noise ratio [3] and Mean Square Error [3] to compute the picture quality of fingerprint ima...

  3. Hydrodynamics compression in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrodynamics compression in ICF plasma has been theoretically studied using conservation equations. The study is based on single fluid plasma model. A comparison is made between shock and adiabatic compression. It seems that the amount of energy required to compress the fusion fuel by same factor is greater for strong shocks but is nearly same for weak shocks in comparison with the adiabatic compression. It can be inferred as conclusion that weak shocks are appropriate for compression in ICF. The ratio of pressure, density and temperature are obtained in terms of shock speed, i.e., in terms of mach numbers. The limitation of achievable density of fuel in shock is calculated beyond which there is expansion rather than compression. (author)

  4. Natural Gas Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Correa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the present and future on natural gas transportation options, from oil and gas fields to markets, including liquefied natural gas, gas pipeline, compressed natural gas, natural gas hydrates, and gas to liquids and the perspectives of using them in Colombia, since this is the main fuel alternative to supply the world in at least the next 50 years.

  5. SIMULACIÓN HORARIA DE UN SISTEMA DE REFRIGERACIÓN COMBINADO EYECTOR-COMPRESIÓN DE VAPOR ASISTIDO POR ENERGÍA SOLAR Y GAS NATURAL HOURLY SIMULATION OF A COMBINED EJECTOR-VAPOR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM ASSISTED BY SOLAR ENERGY AND NATURAL GAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Vidal

    2009-04-01

    double stage ejector cooling cycle assisted by solar energy system appears as an attractive solution to this problem. The first stage is performed by a mechanical compression cycle with R-134a as the working fluid, while the second stage is performed by a thermally driven ejector cycle with R-141b. Flat plate collectors and an auxiliary energy burner provide heat to the ejector cycle. This paper describes the hourly simulation of a combined ejector-vapor compression refrigeration system assisted by solar energy and natural gas. The combined solar refrigeration system is modeled using the TRNSYS-EES simulation tool and the typical meteorological year data containing the weather data of Florianópolis Brazil. The results obtained from the computational simulation performed in this system show that the combined ejector-vapor compression cooling cycle is more advantageous than the simple ejector cooling cycle. Finally, the computational model developed in this paper might be used to perform a thermo-economical optimization of the system in future works.

  6. Reply of the authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein AFZALIMEHR; Jueyi SUI; Razieh MOGHBEL

    2011-01-01

    The words of "wall" and "bank" have been used interactively in our past research works.However,to our knowledge,few published studies used natural vegetation cover along the flume walls.From hydraulic point of view,the description of flow characteristics is more important than the species of wall vegetation in a preliminary research study.The authors found that,if the same vegetation cover of natural channel is used as vegetation cover on the flume walls,it will result considerable noise and anomalies in capturing data by ADV.So,for this primary research,it has been decided to use the uniform specie as wall vegetation in this experimental study.

  7. Neurovascular Compression After the Latarjet Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Joseph W; Romanowski, James R; Boykin, Robert E; Eichinger, Josef K; Lafosse, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    The Latarjet procedure is an established and effective option for the treatment of recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Symptomatic compression of the vasculature around the shoulder and adjacent brachial plexus is uncommon and may be difficult to diagnose and treat. The purpose of this report is to describe a patient with neurovascular compression of the axillary artery and brachial plexus after an open Latarjet procedure. This is the first known report of documented combined vascular and neurologic thoracic outlet syndrome after a Latarjet procedure. Evaluation of this suspected problem requires a detailed clinical examination and a dynamic angiogram to verify which neurovascular structures are compressed. Treatment includes decompression of the brachial plexus and axillary vasculature by releasing tethering scar tissue or the remaining pectoralis minor that is creating a constricting sling effect. An arthroscopic approach provides for a careful and specific decompression. Additionally, the authors provide a review of the literature for neurologic complications and management for these complications.

  8. Lanthanide Catalysts for Conversion of Exhaust Gas from Compressed Natural Gas Automobiles%压缩天然气汽车稀土型尾气转化催化剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚如杰; 董新彬

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at improving the air quality, more and more automobiles with compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel are being used in some big cities now. The three way catalysts (TWC) for gasoline cars are not suitable for CNG cars. In the exhaust gases from CNG cars, the hydrocarbon is mainly methane, which is converted into carbon dioxide quite difficultly compared with other hydrocarbons. In this paper, a specially designed catalyst dosage was developed, which contained lanthanide oxides, transition element oxides and a minor part of noble metal oxides. The catalysts can reach a high conversion ratio for the exhaust pollutants above 700℃. More than 98.0 per cent of CH4 and CO in CNG engine exhaust gases can be converted into CO2 and H2O. At 1 000℃, the catalyst maintains a 99.0 per cent conversion ratio for CH4 and CO in 1.5 h, showing a high thermal stability. A resistance to sulfur oxides was also behaved.%压缩天然气(CNG)汽车因其良好的排放特性,正被越来越多的大型城市公交系统使用,但是汽油车辆用尾气净化催化剂对天然气汽车的主要烃类排放物甲烷转化效率低.针对天然气车辆排放物特点,设计了天然气汽车尾气净化催化剂,其成分包括稀土金属和过渡金属化合物、少量贵金属氧化物、结构稳定剂等.试验结果表明,在700℃以上,CO和CH4转化率达到98%以上,催化剂耐高温性能好,在1 000℃,1.5 h试验时间内HC和CO转化率达到99%,此外该催化剂具有一定的抗硫化物中毒能力.

  9. Transverse Compression of Tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, S T Samuel; Buckley, C Paul; Zavatsky, Amy B

    2016-04-01

    A study was made of the deformation of tendons when compressed transverse to the fiber-aligned axis. Bovine digital extensor tendons were compression tested between flat rigid plates. The methods included: in situ image-based measurement of tendon cross-sectional shapes, after preconditioning but immediately prior to testing; multiple constant-load creep/recovery tests applied to each tendon at increasing loads; and measurements of the resulting tendon displacements in both transverse directions. In these tests, friction resisted axial stretch of the tendon during compression, giving approximately plane-strain conditions. This, together with the assumption of a form of anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive model proposed previously for tendon, justified modeling the isochronal response of tendon as that of an isotropic, slightly compressible, neo-Hookean solid. Inverse analysis, using finite-element (FE) simulations of the experiments and 10 s isochronal creep displacement data, gave values for Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of this solid of 0.31 MPa and 0.49, respectively, for an idealized tendon shape and averaged data for all the tendons and E = 0.14 and 0.10 MPa for two specific tendons using their actual measured geometry. The compression load versus displacement curves, as measured and as simulated, showed varying degrees of stiffening with increasing load. This can be attributed mostly to geometrical changes in tendon cross section under load, varying according to the initial 3D shape of the tendon. PMID:26833218

  10. The compressed word problem for groups

    CERN Document Server

    Lohrey, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The Compressed Word Problem for Groups provides a detailed exposition of known results on the compressed word problem, emphasizing efficient algorithms for the compressed word problem in various groups. The author presents the necessary background along with the most recent results on the compressed word problem to create a cohesive self-contained book accessible to computer scientists as well as mathematicians. Readers will quickly reach the frontier of current research which makes the book especially appealing for students looking for a currently active research topic at the intersection of group theory and computer science. The word problem introduced in 1910 by Max Dehn is one of the most important decision problems in group theory. For many groups, highly efficient algorithms for the word problem exist. In recent years, a new technique based on data compression for providing more efficient algorithms for word problems, has been developed, by representing long words over group generators in a compres...

  11. Virtually Lossless Compression of Astrophysical Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Baronti

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe an image compression strategy potentially capable of preserving the scientific quality of astrophysical data, simultaneously allowing a consistent bandwidth reduction to be achieved. Unlike strictly lossless techniques, by which moderate compression ratios are attainable, and conventional lossy techniques, in which the mean square error of the decoded data is globally controlled by users, near-lossless methods are capable of locally constraining the maximum absolute error, based on user's requirements. An advanced lossless/near-lossless differential pulse code modulation (DPCM scheme, recently introduced by the authors and relying on a causal spatial prediction, is adjusted to the specific characteristics of astrophysical image data (high radiometric resolution, generally low noise, etc.. The background noise is preliminarily estimated to drive the quantization stage for high quality, which is the primary concern in most of astrophysical applications. Extensive experimental results of lossless, near-lossless, and lossy compression of astrophysical images acquired by the Hubble space telescope show the advantages of the proposed method compared to standard techniques like JPEG-LS and JPEG2000. Eventually, the rationale of virtually lossless compression, that is, a noise-adjusted lossles/near-lossless compression, is highlighted and found to be in accordance with concepts well established for the astronomers' community.

  12. Geometric Signal Compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Zhou; Hu-Jun Bao; Jiao-Ying Shi; Qun-Sheng Peng

    2004-01-01

    Compression of mesh attributes becomes a challenging problem due to the great need for efficient storage and fast transmission. This paper presents a novel geometric signal compression framework for all mesh attributes, including position coordinates, normal, color, texture, etc. Within this framework, mesh attributes are regarded as geometric signals defined on mesh surfaces. A planar parameterization algorithm is first proposed to map 3D meshes to 2D parametric meshes. Geometric signals are then transformed into 2D signals, which are sampled into 2D regular signals using an adaptive sampling method. The JPEG2000 standard for still image compression is employed to effectively encode these regular signals into compact bit-streams with high rate/distortion ratios. Experimental results demonstrate the great application potentials of this framework.

  13. SYMBOLIC VERSOR COMPRESSION ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongbo

    2009-01-01

    In an inner-product space, an invertible vector generates a reflection with re-spect to a hyperplane, and the Clifford product of several invertible vectors, called a versor in Clifford algebra, generates the composition of the corresponding reflections, which is an orthogonal transformation. Given a versor in a Clifford algebra, finding another sequence of invertible vectors of strictly shorter length but whose Clifford product still equals the input versor, is called versor compression. Geometrically, versor compression is equivalent to decomposing an orthogoual transformation into a shorter sequence of reflections. This paper proposes a simple algorithm of compressing versors of symbolic form in Clifford algebra. The algorithm is based on computing the intersections of lines with planes in the corresponding Grassmann-Cayley algebra, and is complete in the case of Euclidean or Minkowski inner-product space.

  14. Graph Compression by BFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Apostolico

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Web Graph is a large-scale graph that does not fit in main memory, so that lossless compression methods have been proposed for it. This paper introduces a compression scheme that combines efficient storage with fast retrieval for the information in a node. The scheme exploits the properties of the Web Graph without assuming an ordering of the URLs, so that it may be applied to more general graphs. Tests on some datasets of use achieve space savings of about 10% over existing methods.

  15. Compressive Shift Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Henrik; Eldar, Yonina C.; Yang, Allen Y.; Sastry, S. Shankar

    2014-08-01

    The classical shift retrieval problem considers two signals in vector form that are related by a shift. The problem is of great importance in many applications and is typically solved by maximizing the cross-correlation between the two signals. Inspired by compressive sensing, in this paper, we seek to estimate the shift directly from compressed signals. We show that under certain conditions, the shift can be recovered using fewer samples and less computation compared to the classical setup. Of particular interest is shift estimation from Fourier coefficients. We show that under rather mild conditions only one Fourier coefficient suffices to recover the true shift.

  16. Isentropic compression of argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeser, L.R.; Ekdahl, C.A.; Oona, H. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The compression was done in an MC-1 flux compression (explosive) generator, in order to study the transition from an insulator to a conductor. Since conductivity signals were observed in all the experiments (except when the probe is removed), both the Teflon and the argon are becoming conductive. The conductivity could not be determined (Teflon insulation properties unknown), but it could be bounded as being {sigma}=1/{rho}{le}8({Omega}cm){sub -1}, because when the Teflon breaks down, the dielectric constant is reduced. The Teflon insulator problem remains, and other ways to better insulate the probe or to measure the conductivity without a probe is being sought.

  17. Image compression in local helioseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Löptien, Björn; Gizon, Laurent; Schou, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Context. Several upcoming helioseismology space missions are very limited in telemetry and will have to perform extensive data compression. This requires the development of new methods of data compression. Aims. We give an overview of the influence of lossy data compression on local helioseismology. We investigate the effects of several lossy compression methods (quantization, JPEG compression, and smoothing and subsampling) on power spectra and time-distance measurements of supergranulation flows at disk center. Methods. We applied different compression methods to tracked and remapped Dopplergrams obtained by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We determined the signal-to-noise ratio of the travel times computed from the compressed data as a function of the compression efficiency. Results. The basic helioseismic measurements that we consider are very robust to lossy data compression. Even if only the sign of the velocity is used, time-distance helioseismology is still...

  18. Multiple snapshot compressive beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstoft, Peter; Xenaki, Angeliki; Mecklenbrauker, Christoph F.;

    2015-01-01

    For sound fields observed on an array, compressive sensing (CS) reconstructs the multiple source signals at unknown directions-of-arrival (DOAs) using a sparsity constraint. The DOA estimation is posed as an underdetermined problem expressing the field at each sensor as a phase-lagged superposition...

  19. Compressive CFAR Radar Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Rossum, W.L. van; Otten, M.P.G.; Maleki, A.; Baraniuk, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the performance of a combined Compressive Sensing (CS) Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) radar processor under different interference scenarios using both the Cell Averaging (CA) and Order Statistic (OS) CFAR detectors. Using the properties of the Complex Approximate Mess

  20. Compressive CFAR radar detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Otten, M.P.G.; Rossum, W.L. van; Maleki, A.; Baraniuk, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we develop the first Compressive Sensing (CS) adaptive radar detector. We propose three novel architectures and demonstrate how a classical Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detector can be combined with ℓ1-norm minimization. Using asymptotic arguments and the Complex Approximate Messag

  1. Fingerprints in Compressed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li;

    2013-01-01

    The Karp-Rabin fingerprint of a string is a type of hash value that due to its strong properties has been used in many string algorithms. In this paper we show how to construct a data structure for a string S of size N compressed by a context-free grammar of size n that answers fingerprint queries...

  2. Guidelines for Authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Demir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Authors cumhuriyet theology journal  reguires writers to use the The Chicago Manual of Style “notes and bibliography” system of referencing.First citation: author(s first name and last name, title, (if applicable first and last name of translator or editor, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page number.Subsequent citations: author’s last name, the short title, and the page number should be indicated in all subsequent citations. Footnote citations should conform to the following examples.References: References should be placed at the end of the text in alphabetical order. If a source has more than one author, the surname and name of the first author should be written, and the other authors should be indicated by et.al. The titles of books and journals should be italicized; article titles and book chapters should be placed in quotation marks. Translator’s and editor’s names (if there are any should follow the title of the work: BOOKa One Author: 
1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006, 99–100.2. Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 3.Bibliography: Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.  b Two Authors1. Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History 1941–1945 (New York: Knopf, 2007, 52.2. Ward and Burns, War, 59–61. Bibliography: Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History 1941–1945. New York: Knopf, 2007.c Three or More Authors
For three or more authors, list all of the authors in the bibliography; in the note, list only the first author, followed by et al. (“and others”:1. Mitchell L. Eisen, Jodi A. Quas, and Gail S. Goodman, eds., Memory and Suggestibility in the Forensic Interview (Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Assoicates, 2002, 65.2. Eisen and et al., Memory and Suggestibility in the Forensic Interview, 67.Bibliography: Eisen, Mitchell

  3. TEM Video Compressive Sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Kovarik, Libor; Abellan, Patricia; Yuan, Xin; Carin, Lawrence; Browning, Nigel D.

    2015-08-02

    One of the main limitations of imaging at high spatial and temporal resolution during in-situ TEM experiments is the frame rate of the camera being used to image the dynamic process. While the recent development of direct detectors has provided the hardware to achieve frame rates approaching 0.1ms, the cameras are expensive and must replace existing detectors. In this paper, we examine the use of coded aperture compressive sensing methods [1, 2, 3, 4] to increase the framerate of any camera with simple, low-cost hardware modifications. The coded aperture approach allows multiple sub-frames to be coded and integrated into a single camera frame during the acquisition process, and then extracted upon readout using statistical compressive sensing inversion. Our simulations show that it should be possible to increase the speed of any camera by at least an order of magnitude. Compressive Sensing (CS) combines sensing and compression in one operation, and thus provides an approach that could further improve the temporal resolution while correspondingly reducing the electron dose rate. Because the signal is measured in a compressive manner, fewer total measurements are required. When applied to TEM video capture, compressive imaging couled improve acquisition speed and reduce the electron dose rate. CS is a recent concept, and has come to the forefront due the seminal work of Candès [5]. Since the publication of Candès, there has been enormous growth in the application of CS and development of CS variants. For electron microscopy applications, the concept of CS has also been recently applied to electron tomography [6], and reduction of electron dose in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging [7]. To demonstrate the applicability of coded aperture CS video reconstruction for atomic level imaging, we simulate compressive sensing on observations of Pd nanoparticles and Ag nanoparticles during exposure to high temperatures and other environmental

  4. Randomness Testing of Compressed Data

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Weiling; Yun, Xiaochun; Wang, Shupeng; Yu, Xiangzhan

    2010-01-01

    Random Number Generators play a critical role in a number of important applications. In practice, statistical testing is employed to gather evidence that a generator indeed produces numbers that appear to be random. In this paper, we reports on the studies that were conducted on the compressed data using 8 compression algorithms or compressors. The test results suggest that the output of compression algorithms or compressors has bad randomness, the compression algorithms or compressors are not suitable as random number generator. We also found that, for the same compression algorithm, there exists positive correlation relationship between compression ratio and randomness, increasing the compression ratio increases randomness of compressed data. As time permits, additional randomness testing efforts will be conducted.

  5. Data Compression for Helioseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löptien, Björn

    2015-10-01

    Efficient data compression will play an important role for several upcoming and planned space missions involving helioseismology, such as Solar Orbiter. Solar Orbiter, to be launched in October 2018, will be the next space mission involving helioseismology. The main characteristic of Solar Orbiter lies in its orbit. The spacecraft will have an inclined solar orbit, reaching a solar latitude of up to 33 deg. This will allow, for the first time, probing the solar poles using local helioseismology. In addition, combined observations of Solar Orbiter and another helioseismic instrument will be used to study the deep interior of the Sun using stereoscopic helioseismology. The Doppler velocity and continuum intensity images of the Sun required for helioseismology will be provided by the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (PHI). Major constraints for helioseismology with Solar Orbiter are the low telemetry and the (probably) short observing time. In addition, helioseismology of the solar poles requires observations close to the solar limb, even from the inclined orbit of Solar Orbiter. This gives rise to systematic errors. In this thesis, I derived a first estimate of the impact of lossy data compression on helioseismology. I put special emphasis on the Solar Orbiter mission, but my results are applicable to other planned missions as well. First, I studied the performance of PHI for helioseismology. Based on simulations of solar surface convection and a model of the PHI instrument, I generated a six-hour time-series of synthetic Doppler velocity images with the same properties as expected for PHI. Here, I focused on the impact of the point spread function, the spacecraft jitter, and of the photon noise level. The derived power spectra of solar oscillations suggest that PHI will be suitable for helioseismology. The low telemetry of Solar Orbiter requires extensive compression of the helioseismic data obtained by PHI. I evaluated the influence of data compression using

  6. A hyperspectral image compression algorithm based on wavelet transformation and fractal composition (AWFC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Xingtang; ZHANG; Bing; ZHANG; Xia; ZHENG; Lanfen; TONG; Qingxi

    2006-01-01

    Starting with a fractal-based image-compression algorithm based on wavelet transformation for hyperspectral images, the authors were able to obtain more spectral bands with the help of of hyperspectral remote sensing. Because large amounts of data and limited bandwidth complicate the storage and transmission of data measured by TB-level bits, it is important to compress image data acquired by hyperspectral sensors such as MODIS, PHI, and OMIS; otherwise, conventional lossless compression algorithms cannot reach adequate compression ratios. Other loss-compression methods can reach high compression ratios but lack good image fidelity, especially for hyperspectral image data. Among the third generation of image compression algorithms, fractal image compression based on wavelet transformation is superior to traditional compression methods,because it has high compression ratios and good image fidelity, and requires less computing time. To keep the spectral dimension invariable, the authors compared the results of two compression algorithms based on the storage-file structures of BSQ and of BIP, and improved the HV and Quadtree partitioning and domain-range matching algorithms in order to accelerate their encode/decode efficiency. The authors' Hyperspectral Image Process and Analysis System (HIPAS) software used a VC++6.0 integrated development environment (IDE), with which good experimental results were obtained. Possible modifications of the algorithm and limitations of the method are also discussed.

  7. Analysis of the Alternate Extrusion and Multiaxial Compression Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kwapisz M.; Knapiński M.; Dyja H.; Kawałek A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper present the results of numerical simulations of the alternate indirect extrusion and multiaxial compression process, performed using commercial software designed for the thermomechanical analysis of plastic working processes, Forge 2009. The novel method of alternate indirect extrusion and multiaxial compression, proposed by the authors, is characterized by the occurrence of strain states in the material being plastically worked, which are similar to those occurring in the equal cha...

  8. Equations of state in soil compression based on statistical mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    González Tejada, Ignacio; Jimenez Rodriguez, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    The authors have published a very interesting contribution in which they present a new and general relationship between void ratio and overburden pressure in the compression process of soils. The study is based on the law of interparticle energy distribution used in statistical mechanics and, in particular, the compression process of a soil is described according to its initial and final void ratios, and to a parameter /? which is related to the potential energy of a soil element. Such p...

  9. Compressed clay and its applications. Stampflehm und seine Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minke, G.

    1985-01-01

    This is the second book in a series books on the subject of building with clay. It contains contributions from various authors on research and practice of building with compressed clay. Building with compressed clay is a technique with a rich tradition, but which has sunk largely into oblivion in the 20th century. It was not until new machinery for working it that it again became economically interesting. Compressed clay is a useful material for walls, ceilings and floors. Stoves and furnances can also be built with it. The book also contains a list of historic clay buildings in Lower Saxony, Hamburg and Bremen. (BWI).

  10. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.;

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  11. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.;

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  12. Performance studies on mechanical + adsorption hybrid compression refrigeration cycles with HFC 134a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banker, N.D.; Dutta, P.; Srinivasan, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Prasad, M. [Thermal Systems Division, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore 560 017 (India)

    2008-12-15

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the efficacy of hybrid compression process for refrigerant HFC 134a in cooling applications. The conventional mechanical compression is supplemented by thermal compression using a string of adsorption compressors. Activated carbon is the adsorbent for the thermal compression segment. The alternatives of bottoming either mechanical or thermal compression stages are investigated. It is shown that almost 40% energy saving is realizable by carrying out a part of the compression in a thermal compressor compared to the case when the entire compression is carried out in a single-stage mechanical compressor. The hybrid compression is feasible even when low grade heat is available. Some performance indictors are defined and evaluated for various configurations. (author)

  13. Compressible motion fields

    OpenAIRE

    Ottaviano, Giuseppe; Kohli, Pushmeet

    2013-01-01

    Traditional video compression methods obtain a compact representation for image frames by computing coarse motion fields defined on patches of pixels called blocks, in order to compensate for the motion in the scene across frames. This piecewise constant approximation makes the motion field efficiently encodable, but it introduces block artifacts in the warped image frame. In this paper, we address the problem of estimating dense motion fields that, while accurately predicting one frame from ...

  14. Compression-based similarity

    OpenAIRE

    Vitányi, Paul

    2011-01-01

    First we consider pair-wise distances for literal objects consisting of finite binary files. These files are taken to contain all of their meaning, like genomes or books. The distances are based on compression of the objects concerned, normalized, and can be viewed as similarity distances. Second, we consider pair-wise distances between names of objects, like "red" or "christianity." In this case the distances are based on searches of the Internet. Such a search can be performed by any search...

  15. Compressibility of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinet, P.; Ferrante, J.; Rose, J. H.; Smith, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    A universal form is proposed for the equation of state (EOS) of solids. Good agreement is found for a variety of test data. The form of the EOS is used to suggest a method of data analysis, which is applied to materials of geophysical interest. The isothermal bulk modulus is discussed as a function of the volume and of the pressure. The isothermal compression curves for materials of geophysical interest are examined.

  16. Compression of Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, Sarah; Houghton, Brittany; Renfro, Timothy

    2012-03-01

    The fall university physics class, at McMurry University, created a compression modulus experiment that even high school students could do. The class came up with this idea after a Young's modulus experiment which involved stretching wire. A question was raised of what would happen if we compressed something else? We created our own Young's modulus experiment, but in a more entertaining way. The experiment involves measuring the height of a cake both before and after a weight has been applied to the cake. We worked to derive the compression modulus by applying weight to a cake. In the end, we had our experimental cake and, ate it too! To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2012.TSS.B1.1 APS Home | APS Meetings | Join APS | Help | Contact APS Meetings var gaJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? "https://ssl." : "http://www."); document.write(unescape("%3Cscript src='" + gaJsHost + "google-analytics.com/ga.js' type='text/javascript'%3E%3C/script%3E")); try var pageTracker = gat.getTracker("UA-324916-13"); pageTracker.trackPageview(); catch(err)

  17. Scale adaptive compressive tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengpeng; Cui, Shaohui; Gao, Min; Fang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the compressive tracking (CT) method (Zhang et al. in Proceedings of European conference on computer vision, pp 864-877, 2012) has attracted much attention due to its high efficiency, but it cannot well deal with the scale changing objects due to its constant tracking box. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a scale adaptive CT approach, which adaptively adjusts the scale of tracking box with the size variation of the objects. Our method significantly improves CT in three aspects: Firstly, the scale of tracking box is adaptively adjusted according to the size of the objects. Secondly, in the CT method, all the compressive features are supposed independent and equal contribution to the classifier. Actually, different compressive features have different confidence coefficients. In our proposed method, the confidence coefficients of features are computed and used to achieve different contribution to the classifier. Finally, in the CT method, the learning parameter λ is constant, which will result in large tracking drift on the occasion of object occlusion or large scale appearance variation. In our proposed method, a variable learning parameter λ is adopted, which can be adjusted according to the object appearance variation rate. Extensive experiments on the CVPR2013 tracking benchmark demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. PMID:27386298

  18. Compressed sensing electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leary, Rowan, E-mail: rkl26@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Saghi, Zineb; Midgley, Paul A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Holland, Daniel J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    The recent mathematical concept of compressed sensing (CS) asserts that a small number of well-chosen measurements can suffice to reconstruct signals that are amenable to sparse or compressible representation. In addition to powerful theoretical results, the principles of CS are being exploited increasingly across a range of experiments to yield substantial performance gains relative to conventional approaches. In this work we describe the application of CS to electron tomography (ET) reconstruction and demonstrate the efficacy of CS–ET with several example studies. Artefacts present in conventional ET reconstructions such as streaking, blurring of object boundaries and elongation are markedly reduced, and robust reconstruction is shown to be possible from far fewer projections than are normally used. The CS–ET approach enables more reliable quantitative analysis of the reconstructions as well as novel 3D studies from extremely limited data. - Highlights: • Compressed sensing (CS) theory and its application to electron tomography (ET) is described. • The practical implementation of CS–ET is outlined and its efficacy demonstrated with examples. • High fidelity tomographic reconstruction is possible from a small number of images. • The CS–ET reconstructions can be more reliably segmented and analysed quantitatively. • CS–ET is applicable to different image content by choice of an appropriate sparsifying transform.

  19. Economic Modeling of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Bo; Ming Ni; Yang Gu; James McCalley

    2013-01-01

    Due to the variable nature of wind resources, the increasing penetration level of wind power will have a significant impact on the operation and planning of the electric power system. Energy storage systems are considered an effective way to compensate for the variability of wind generation. This paper presents a detailed production cost simulation model to evaluate the economic value of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in systems with large-scale wind power generation. The co-optimizatio...

  20. Restricted Conformal Property of Compressive Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Energy and direction are tow basic properties of a vector. A discrete signal is a vector in nature. RIP of compressive sensing can not show the direction information of a signal but show the energy information of a signal. Hence, RIP is not complete. Orthogonal matrices can preserve angles and lengths. Preservation of length can show energies of signals like RIP do; and preservation of angle can show directions of signals. Therefore, Restricted Conformal Property (RCP) is proposed according t...

  1. Ultraspectral sounder data compression review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bormin HUANG; Hunglung HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Ultraspectral sounders provide an enormous amount of measurements to advance our knowledge of weather and climate applications. The use of robust data compression techniques will be beneficial for ultraspectral data transfer and archiving. This paper reviews the progress in lossless compression of ultra-spectral sounder data. Various transform-based, pre-diction-based, and clustering-based compression methods are covered. Also studied is a preprocessing scheme for data reordering to improve compression gains. All the coding experiments are performed on the ultraspectral compression benchmark dataset col-lected from the NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations.

  2. Parental authority in flux

    OpenAIRE

    Reiter, Herwig; Kuhar, Metka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the workings of parental authority in Slovenian families: how is parental authority asserted and how do adolescents react to parental authority? Based on a qualitative exploration, the study shows that parental authority is accommodated in ways that comply with the general culture of intergenerational negotiations

  3. Lossless image compression technique for infrared thermal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Lloyd G.; Kelly, Gary E.

    1992-07-01

    The authors have achieved a 6.5-to-one image compression technique for thermal images (640 X 480, 1024 colors deep). Using a combination of new and more traditional techniques, the combined algorithm is computationally simple, enabling `on-the-fly' compression and storage of an image in less time than it takes to transcribe the original image to or from a magnetic medium. Similar compression has been achieved on visual images by virtue of the feature that all optical devices possess a modulation transfer function. As a consequence of this property, the difference in color between adjacent pixels is a usually small number, often between -1 and +1 graduations for a meaningful color scheme. By differentiating adjacent rows and columns, the original image can be expressed in terms of these small numbers. A simple compression algorithm for these small numbers achieves a four to one image compression. By piggy-backing this technique with a LZW compression or a fixed Huffman coding, an additional 35% image compression is obtained, resulting in a 6.5-to-one lossless image compression. Because traditional noise-removal operators tend to minimize the color graduations between adjacent pixels, an additional 20% reduction can be obtained by preprocessing the image with a noise-removal operator. Although noise removal operators are not lossless, their application may prove crucial in applications requiring high compression, such as the storage or transmission of a large number or images. The authors are working with the Air Force Photonics Technology Application Program Management office to apply this technique to transmission of optical images from satellites.

  4. Compressive Strength of Compacted Clay-Sand Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faseel Suleman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of sand to improve the strength of natural clays provides a viable alternative for civil infrastructure construction involving earthwork. The main objective of this note was to investigate the compressive strength of compacted clay-sand mixes. A natural clay of high plasticity was mixed with 20% and 40% sand (SP and their compaction and strength properties were determined. Results indicated that the investigated materials exhibited a brittle behaviour on the dry side of optimum and a ductile behaviour on the wet side of optimum. For each material, the compressive strength increased with an increase in density following a power law function. Conversely, the compressive strength increased with decreasing water content of the material following a similar function. Finally, the compressive strength decreased with an increase in sand content because of increased material heterogeneity and loss of sand grains from the sides during shearing.

  5. H.264/AVC Video Compressed Traces: Multifractal and Fractal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samčović Andreja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Publicly available long video traces encoded according to H.264/AVC were analyzed from the fractal and multifractal points of view. It was shown that such video traces, as compressed videos (H.261, H.263, and MPEG-4 Version 2 exhibit inherent long-range dependency, that is, fractal, property. Moreover they have high bit rate variability, particularly at higher compression ratios. Such signals may be better characterized by multifractal (MF analysis, since this approach describes both local and global features of the process. From multifractal spectra of the frame size video traces it was shown that higher compression ratio produces broader and less regular MF spectra, indicating to higher MF nature and the existence of additive components in video traces. Considering individual frames (I, P, and B and their MF spectra one can approve additive nature of compressed video and the particular influence of these frames to a whole MF spectrum. Since compressed video occupies a main part of transmission bandwidth, results obtained from MF analysis of compressed video may contribute to more accurate modeling of modern teletraffic. Moreover, by appropriate choice of the method for estimating MF quantities, an inverse MF analysis is possible, that means, from a once derived MF spectrum of observed signal it is possible to recognize and extract parts of the signal which are characterized by particular values of multifractal parameters. Intensive simulations and results obtained confirm the applicability and efficiency of MF analysis of compressed video.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulations of shock compressed graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present molecular dynamic simulations of the shock compression of graphite with the LCBOPII potential. The range of shock intensities covers the full range of available experimental data, including near-tera-pascal pressures. The results are in excellent agreement with the available DFT data and point to a graphite-diamond transition for shock pressures above 65 GPa, a value larger than the experimental data (20 to 50 GPa). The transition mechanism leads preferentially to hexagonal diamond through a diffusion-less process but is submitted to irreversible re-graphitization upon release: this result is in good agreement with the lack of highly ordered diamond observed in post-mortem experimental samples. Melting is found for shock pressures ranging from 200 to 300 GPa, close to the approximate LCBOPII diamond melting line. A good overall agreement is found between the calculated and experimental Hugoniot data up to 46% compression rate. (authors)

  7. Comparative data compression techniques and multi-compression results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data compression is very necessary in business data processing, because of the cost savings that it offers and the large volume of data manipulated in many business applications. It is a method or system for transmitting a digital image (i.e., an array of pixels) from a digital data source to a digital data receiver. More the size of the data be smaller, it provides better transmission speed and saves time. In this communication, we always want to transmit data efficiently and noise freely. This paper will provide some compression techniques for lossless text type data compression and comparative result of multiple and single compression, that will help to find out better compression output and to develop compression algorithms

  8. Analysis by compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    MEL is a geometric music encoding language designed to allow for musical objects to be encoded parsimoniously as sets of points in pitch-time space, generated by performing geometric transformations on component patterns. MEL has been implemented in Java and coupled with the SIATEC pattern...... discovery algorithm to allow for compact encodings to be generated automatically from in extenso note lists. The MEL-SIATEC system is founded on the belief that music analysis and music perception can be modelled as the compression of in extenso descriptions of musical objects....

  9. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben;

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...

  10. Ultrasound beamforming using compressed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yen-Feng; Li, Pai-Chi

    2012-05-01

    The rapid advancements in electronics technologies have made software-based beamformers for ultrasound array imaging feasible, thus facilitating the rapid development of high-performance and potentially low-cost systems. However, one challenge to realizing a fully software-based system is transferring data from the analog front end to the software back end at rates of up to a few gigabits per second. This study investigated the use of data compression to reduce the data transfer requirements and optimize the associated trade-off with beamforming quality. JPEG and JPEG2000 compression techniques were adopted. The acoustic data of a line phantom were acquired with a 128-channel array transducer at a center frequency of 3.5 MHz, and the acoustic data of a cyst phantom were acquired with a 64-channel array transducer at a center frequency of 3.33 MHz. The receive-channel data associated with each transmit event are separated into 8 × 8 blocks and several tiles before JPEG and JPEG2000 data compression is applied, respectively. In one scheme, the compression was applied to raw RF data, while in another only the amplitude of baseband data was compressed. The maximum compression ratio of RF data compression to produce an average error of lower than 5 dB was 15 with JPEG compression and 20 with JPEG2000 compression. The image quality is higher with baseband amplitude data compression than with RF data compression; although the maximum overall compression ratio (compared with the original RF data size), which was limited by the data size of uncompressed phase data, was lower than 12, the average error in this case was lower than 1 dB when the compression ratio was lower than 8. PMID:22434817

  11. Statistical Mechanical Analysis of Compressed Sensing Utilizing Correlated Compression Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Takeda, Koujin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a reconstruction limit of compressed sensing for a reconstruction scheme based on the L1-norm minimization utilizing a correlated compression matrix with a statistical mechanics method. We focus on the compression matrix modeled as the Kronecker-type random matrix studied in research on multi-input multi-output wireless communication systems. We found that strong one-dimensional correlations between expansion bases of original information slightly degrade reconstruction performance.

  12. Nature Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Natalie; Lee, Richard E.; Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Richard Louv's "Last Child in the Woods" (2008) added to a growing consensus to get children outside and experiencing nature. Using ideas from place-based education, the authors present a simple year-long project that brings science, nature, and other curriculum standards to life right in your school yard. With a focus on journaling, this project…

  13. Compressive Sensing DNA Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Baraniuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressive sensing microarrays (CSMs are DNA-based sensors that operate using group testing and compressive sensing (CS principles. In contrast to conventional DNA microarrays, in which each genetic sensor is designed to respond to a single target, in a CSM, each sensor responds to a set of targets. We study the problem of designing CSMs that simultaneously account for both the constraints from CS theory and the biochemistry of probe-target DNA hybridization. An appropriate cross-hybridization model is proposed for CSMs, and several methods are developed for probe design and CS signal recovery based on the new model. Lab experiments suggest that in order to achieve accurate hybridization profiling, consensus probe sequences are required to have sequence homology of at least 80% with all targets to be detected. Furthermore, out-of-equilibrium datasets are usually as accurate as those obtained from equilibrium conditions. Consequently, one can use CSMs in applications in which only short hybridization times are allowed.

  14. Compressive Bilateral Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kenjiro; Kamata, Sei-Ichiro

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an efficient constant-time bilateral filter that produces a near-optimal performance tradeoff between approximate accuracy and computational complexity without any complicated parameter adjustment, called a compressive bilateral filter (CBLF). The constant-time means that the computational complexity is independent of its filter window size. Although many existing constant-time bilateral filters have been proposed step-by-step to pursue a more efficient performance tradeoff, they have less focused on the optimal tradeoff for their own frameworks. It is important to discuss this question, because it can reveal whether or not a constant-time algorithm still has plenty room for improvements of performance tradeoff. This paper tackles the question from a viewpoint of compressibility and highlights the fact that state-of-the-art algorithms have not yet touched the optimal tradeoff. The CBLF achieves a near-optimal performance tradeoff by two key ideas: 1) an approximate Gaussian range kernel through Fourier analysis and 2) a period length optimization. Experiments demonstrate that the CBLF significantly outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of approximate accuracy, computational complexity, and usability. PMID:26068315

  15. Splines in Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abhishek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well understood that in any data acquisition system reduction in the amount of data reduces the time and energy, but the major trade-off here is the quality of outcome normally, lesser the amount of data sensed, lower the quality. Compressed Sensing (CS allows a solution, for sampling below the Nyquist rate. The challenging problem of increasing the reconstruction quality with less number of samples from an unprocessed data set is addressed here by the use of representative coordinate selected from different orders of splines. We have made a detailed comparison with 10 orthogonal and 6 biorthogonal wavelets with two sets of data from MIT Arrhythmia database and our results prove that the Spline coordinates work better than the wavelets. The generation of two new types of splines such as exponential and double exponential are also briefed here .We believe that this is one of the very first attempts made in Compressed Sensing based ECG reconstruction problems using raw data.  

  16. Compressive sensing in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Christian G; Sidky, Emil Y

    2015-03-10

    The promise of compressive sensing, exploitation of compressibility to achieve high quality image reconstructions with less data, has attracted a great deal of attention in the medical imaging community. At the Compressed Sensing Incubator meeting held in April 2014 at OSA Headquarters in Washington, DC, presentations were given summarizing some of the research efforts ongoing in compressive sensing for x-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging systems. This article provides an expanded version of these presentations. Sparsity-exploiting reconstruction algorithms that have gained popularity in the medical imaging community are studied, and examples of clinical applications that could benefit from compressive sensing ideas are provided. The current and potential future impact of compressive sensing on the medical imaging field is discussed.

  17. libpolycomp: Compression/decompression library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Libpolycomp compresses and decompresses one-dimensional streams of numbers by means of several algorithms. It is well-suited for time-ordered data acquired by astronomical instruments or simulations. One of the algorithms, called "polynomial compression", combines two widely-used ideas (namely, polynomial approximation and filtering of Fourier series) to achieve substantial compression ratios for datasets characterized by smoothness and lack of noise. Notable examples are the ephemerides of astronomical objects and the pointing information of astronomical telescopes. Other algorithms implemented in this C library are well known and already widely used, e.g., RLE, quantization, deflate (via libz) and Burrows-Wheeler transform (via libbzip2). Libpolycomp can compress the timelines acquired by the Planck/LFI instrument with an overall compression ratio of ~9, while other widely known programs (gzip, bzip2) reach compression ratios less than 1.5.

  18. Speech Compression Using Multecirculerletet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Murtadha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressing the speech reduces the data storage requirements, leading to reducing the time of transmitting the digitized speech over long-haul links like internet. To obtain best performance in speech compression, wavelet transforms require filters that combine a number of desirable properties, such as orthogonality and symmetry.The MCT bases functions are derived from GHM bases function using 2D linear convolution .The fast computation algorithm methods introduced here added desirable features to the current transform. We further assess the performance of the MCT in speech compression application. This paper discusses the effect of using DWT and MCT (one and two dimension on speech compression. DWT and MCT performances in terms of compression ratio (CR, mean square error (MSE and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR are assessed. Computer simulation results indicate that the two dimensions MCT offer a better compression ratio, MSE and PSNR than DWT.

  19. Data compression on the sphere

    CERN Document Server

    McEwen, J D; Eyers, D M; 10.1051/0004-6361/201015728

    2011-01-01

    Large data-sets defined on the sphere arise in many fields. In particular, recent and forthcoming observations of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) made on the celestial sphere contain approximately three and fifty mega-pixels respectively. The compression of such data is therefore becoming increasingly important. We develop algorithms to compress data defined on the sphere. A Haar wavelet transform on the sphere is used as an energy compression stage to reduce the entropy of the data, followed by Huffman and run-length encoding stages. Lossless and lossy compression algorithms are developed. We evaluate compression performance on simulated CMB data, Earth topography data and environmental illumination maps used in computer graphics. The CMB data can be compressed to approximately 40% of its original size for essentially no loss to the cosmological information content of the data, and to approximately 20% if a small cosmological information loss is tolerated. For the topographic and il...

  20. Introduction to compressible fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionThe Equations of Steady One-Dimensional Compressible FlowSome Fundamental Aspects of Compressible FlowOne-Dimensional Isentropic FlowNormal Shock WavesOblique Shock WavesExpansion Waves - Prandtl-Meyer FlowVariable Area FlowsAdiabatic Flow with FrictionFlow with Heat TransferLinearized Analysis of Two-Dimensional Compressible FlowsHypersonic and High-Temperature FlowsHigh-Temperature Gas EffectsLow-Density FlowsBibliographyAppendices

  1. Information optimal compressive sensing: static measurement design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Amit; Huang, Liang-Chih; Neifeld, Mark A

    2013-05-01

    The compressive sensing paradigm exploits the inherent sparsity/compressibility of signals to reduce the number of measurements required for reliable reconstruction/recovery. In many applications additional prior information beyond signal sparsity, such as structure in sparsity, is available, and current efforts are mainly limited to exploiting that information exclusively in the signal reconstruction problem. In this work, we describe an information-theoretic framework that incorporates the additional prior information as well as appropriate measurement constraints in the design of compressive measurements. Using a Gaussian binomial mixture prior we design and analyze the performance of optimized projections relative to random projections under two specific design constraints and different operating measurement signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes. We find that the information-optimized designs yield significant, in some cases nearly an order of magnitude, improvements in the reconstruction performance with respect to the random projections. These improvements are especially notable in the low measurement SNR regime where the energy-efficient design of optimized projections is most advantageous. In such cases, the optimized projection design departs significantly from random projections in terms of their incoherence with the representation basis. In fact, we find that the maximizing incoherence of projections with the representation basis is not necessarily optimal in the presence of additional prior information and finite measurement noise/error. We also apply the information-optimized projections to the compressive image formation problem for natural scenes, and the improved visual quality of reconstructed images with respect to random projections and other compressive measurement design affirms the overall effectiveness of the information-theoretic design framework.

  2. 1999 Annual report: compression + power + service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enerflex manufactures, services and leases compression systems for the production and processing of natural gas and gas-fueled power generation systems. Design, engineering, project management, financing, installation commissioning and after-sales service are also part of Enerflex's arsenal of tools to ensure innovation, and high standards of quality and service. In 1999, Enerflex suffered an 18 per cent decline in revenues from $315 million in 1998 to $257 million in 1999, entirely due to lower sales of big ticket compression equipment in Canada. At the same time, revenues from international sales and service increased to $ 61.8 million in 1999, from $ 53 million in 1998. The company successfully completed the move to a new 328,000 sq. ft state-of-the-art manufacturing facility, and made its first significant sale to the United States in 1999 in the form of delivering a coal bed methane project in the Powder River area of Wyoming, and power generation equipment to Massachusetts. Although in the short term unusually warm average temperatures, industry cash flows, and access to capital may determine demand for the company's products and services, the long-term fundamentals are positive and demand for compression equipment and power generation systems is likely to grow. Indeed, in the fourth quarter of 1999, market conditions improved significantly and the company recorded its highest quarterly revenues and earnings during the last quarter. The annual review provides further details about the operations of the company's various divisions, (Compression and Power Systems, Parts and Compression Services, Leasing and Financing), management's review of the company's overall operations and finances, audited financial statements, and shareholders' information

  3. Coabsorbent and thermal recovery compression heat pumping technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Staicovici, Mihail-Dan

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces two of the most exciting heat pumping technologies, the coabsorbent and the thermal recovery (mechanical vapor) compression, characterized by a high potential in primary energy savings and environmental protection. New cycles with potential applications of nontruncated, truncated, hybrid truncated, and multi-effect coabsorbent types are introduced in this work.   Thermal-to-work recovery compression (TWRC) is the first of two particular methods explored here, including how superheat is converted into work, which diminishes the compressor work input. In the second method, thermal-to-thermal recovery compression (TTRC), the superheat is converted into useful cooling and/or heating, and added to the cycle output effect via the coabsorbent technology. These and other methods of discharge gas superheat recovery are analyzed for single-, two-, three-, and multi-stage compression cooling and heating, ammonia and ammonia-water cycles, and the effectiveness results are given.  The author presen...

  4. Instructions for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>1. Items of the paper Title, author’s name and working unit,abstract, key words, text and reference.2. Author and working unit Entitled authors should be those involved in the research and would

  5. Instructions for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>1. Items of the paper Title, author’s name and working unit,abstract, key words, text andreference.2. Author and working unitEntitled authors should be those involved in the research and wouldbe able to answer

  6. Compressive sensing of sparse tensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, Shmuel; Li, Qun; Schonfeld, Dan

    2014-10-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) has triggered an enormous research activity since its first appearance. CS exploits the signal's sparsity or compressibility in a particular domain and integrates data compression and acquisition, thus allowing exact reconstruction through relatively few nonadaptive linear measurements. While conventional CS theory relies on data representation in the form of vectors, many data types in various applications, such as color imaging, video sequences, and multisensor networks, are intrinsically represented by higher order tensors. Application of CS to higher order data representation is typically performed by conversion of the data to very long vectors that must be measured using very large sampling matrices, thus imposing a huge computational and memory burden. In this paper, we propose generalized tensor compressive sensing (GTCS)-a unified framework for CS of higher order tensors, which preserves the intrinsic structure of tensor data with reduced computational complexity at reconstruction. GTCS offers an efficient means for representation of multidimensional data by providing simultaneous acquisition and compression from all tensor modes. In addition, we propound two reconstruction procedures, a serial method and a parallelizable method. We then compare the performance of the proposed method with Kronecker compressive sensing (KCS) and multiway compressive sensing (MWCS). We demonstrate experimentally that GTCS outperforms KCS and MWCS in terms of both reconstruction accuracy (within a range of compression ratios) and processing speed. The major disadvantage of our methods (and of MWCS as well) is that the compression ratios may be worse than that offered by KCS.

  7. Lossless Compression of Broadcast Video

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Eriksen, N.; Faber, E.;

    1998-01-01

    We investigate several techniques for lossless and near-lossless compression of broadcast video.The emphasis is placed on the emerging international standard for compression of continous-tone still images, JPEG-LS, due to its excellent compression performance and moderatecomplexity. Except for one...... artificial sequence containing uncompressible data all the 4:2:2, 8-bit test video material easily compresses losslessly to a rate below 125 Mbit/s. At this rate, video plus overhead can be contained in a single telecom 4th order PDH channel or a single STM-1 channel. Difficult 4:2:2, 10-bit test material...

  8. The anisotropic compressive mechanical properties of the rabbit patellar tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lakiesha N; Elder, Steven H; Bouvard, J L; Horstemeyer, M F

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examine the transverse and longitudinal compressive mechanical behavior of the rabbit patellar tendon. The anisotropic compressive properties are of interest, because compression occurs where the tendon attaches to bone and where the tendon wraps around bone leading to the development of fibro-cartilaginous matrices. We quantified the time dependent viscoelastic and anisotropic behavior of the tendon under compression. For both orientations, sections of patellar tendon were drawn from mature male white New Zealand rabbits in preparation for testing. The tendons were sequentially compressed to 40% strain at strain rates of 0.1, 1 and 10% strain(s) using a computer-controlled stepper motor driven device under physiological conditions. Following monotonic loading, the tendons were subjected to stress relaxation. The tendon equilibrium compressive modulus was quantified to be 19.49+/-11.46 kPa for the transverse direction and 1.11+/-0.57 kPa for the longitudinal direction. The compressive modulus at applied strain rates of 0.1, 1 and 10% strain(s) in the transverse orientation were 13.48+/-2.31, 18.24+/-4.58 and 20.90+/-8.60 kPa, respectively. The compressive modulus at applied strain rates of 0.1, 1 and 10% strain/s in the longitudinal orientation were 0.19+/-0.11, 1.27+/-1.38 and 3.26+/-3.49 kPa, respectively. The modulus values were almost significantly different for the examination of the effect of orientation on the equilibrium modulus (p=0.054). Monotonic loading of the tendon showed visual differences of the strain rate dependency; however, no significant difference was shown in the statistical analysis of the effect of strain rate on compressive modulus. The statistical analysis of the effect of orientation on compressive modulus showed a significant difference. The difference shown in the orientation analysis validated the anisotropic nature of the tendon. PMID:19065006

  9. Authority in Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Karl D.

    2012-01-01

    Authority as a philosophical concept is defined both in general and as it applies to engineering education. Authority is shown to be a good and necessary part of social structures, in contrast to some cultural trends that regard it as an unnecessary and outmoded evil. Technical, educational, and organizational authority in their normal functions…

  10. Ombuds’ corner: Relationship to authority

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Among the cases brought to the Ombuds, many of them have to do with difficulties between supervisees and supervisors. In fact, they form the majority of the cases. For both parties, the source of the conflict boils down to the relationship that people entertain with what can be called "the authority". The relationship with the authority is somewhat different within the various Sectors of CERN, as are the relationships between personnel and supervisors. Generally one considers that natural authority can either come from a respected technical knowledge, or from charisma along with a good understanding of human relationships. Of course together these qualities ge...

  11. Population attribute compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James M.; Faber, Vance; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.

    1995-01-01

    An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes that represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete look-up table (LUT). Color space containing the LUT color values is successively subdivided into smaller volumes until a plurality of volumes are formed, each having no more than a preselected maximum number of color values. Image pixel color values can then be rapidly placed in a volume with only a relatively few LUT values from which a nearest neighbor is selected. Image color values are assigned 8 bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8 bit pointer value to provide 24 bit color values from the LUT.

  12. Central cooling: compressive chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1978-03-01

    Representative cost and performance data are provided in a concise, useable form for three types of compressive liquid packaged chillers: reciprocating, centrifugal, and screw. The data are represented in graphical form as well as in empirical equations. Reciprocating chillers are available from 2.5 to 240 tons with full-load COPs ranging from 2.85 to 3.87. Centrifugal chillers are available from 80 to 2,000 tons with full load COPs ranging from 4.1 to 4.9. Field-assemblied centrifugal chillers have been installed with capacities up to 10,000 tons. Screw-type chillers are available from 100 to 750 tons with full load COPs ranging from 3.3 to 4.5.

  13. Compression Using Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha-Hassan A. Hashim

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Audio compression has become one of the basic technologies of the multimedia age. The change in the telecommunication infrastructure, in recent years, from circuit switched to packet switched systems has also reflected on the way that speech and audio signals are carried in present systems. In many applications, such as the design of multimedia workstations and high quality audio transmission and storage, the goal is to achieve transparent coding of audio and speech signals at the lowest possible data rates. In other words, bandwidth cost money, therefore, the transmission and storage of information becomes costly. However, if we can use less data, both transmission and storage become cheaper. Further reduction in bit rate is an attractive proposition in applications like remote broadcast lines, studio links, satellite transmission of high quality audio and voice over internet.

  14. Adaptively Compressed Exchange Operator

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The Fock exchange operator plays a central role in modern quantum chemistry. The large computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator hinders Hartree-Fock calculations and Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations with hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, even for systems consisting of hundreds of atoms. We develop the adaptively compressed exchange operator (ACE) formulation, which greatly reduces the computational cost associated with the Fock exchange operator without loss of accuracy. The ACE formulation does not depend on the size of the band gap, and thus can be applied to insulating, semiconducting as well as metallic systems. In an iterative framework for solving Hartree-Fock-like systems, the ACE formulation only requires moderate modification of the code, and can be potentially beneficial for all electronic structure software packages involving exchange calculations. Numerical results indicate that the ACE formulation can become advantageous even for small systems with tens...

  15. Adaptive compressive sensing camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming K.; Cha, Jae; Iwamura, Tomo; Landa, Joseph; Nguyen, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2013-05-01

    We have embedded Adaptive Compressive Sensing (ACS) algorithm on Charge-Coupled-Device (CCD) camera based on the simplest concept that each pixel is a charge bucket, and the charges comes from Einstein photoelectric conversion effect. Applying the manufactory design principle, we only allow altering each working component at a minimum one step. We then simulated what would be such a camera can do for real world persistent surveillance taking into account of diurnal, all weather, and seasonal variations. The data storage has saved immensely, and the order of magnitude of saving is inversely proportional to target angular speed. We did design two new components of CCD camera. Due to the matured CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) technology, the on-chip Sample and Hold (SAH) circuitry can be designed for a dual Photon Detector (PD) analog circuitry for changedetection that predicts skipping or going forward at a sufficient sampling frame rate. For an admitted frame, there is a purely random sparse matrix [Φ] which is implemented at each bucket pixel level the charge transport bias voltage toward its neighborhood buckets or not, and if not, it goes to the ground drainage. Since the snapshot image is not a video, we could not apply the usual MPEG video compression and Hoffman entropy codec as well as powerful WaveNet Wrapper on sensor level. We shall compare (i) Pre-Processing FFT and a threshold of significant Fourier mode components and inverse FFT to check PSNR; (ii) Post-Processing image recovery will be selectively done by CDT&D adaptive version of linear programming at L1 minimization and L2 similarity. For (ii) we need to determine in new frames selection by SAH circuitry (i) the degree of information (d.o.i) K(t) dictates the purely random linear sparse combination of measurement data a la [Φ]M,N M(t) = K(t) Log N(t).

  16. Equilibrium states of homogeneous sheared compressible turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riahi, M.; Lili, T.

    2011-06-01

    Equilibrium states of homogeneous compressible turbulence subjected to rapid shear is studied using rapid distortion theory (RDT). The purpose of this study is to determine the numerical solutions of unsteady linearized equations governing double correlations spectra evolution. In this work, RDT code developed by authors solves these equations for compressible homogeneous shear flows. Numerical integration of these equations is carried out using a second-order simple and accurate scheme. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number Mt, given by the root mean square turbulent velocity fluctuations divided by the speed of sound, and the gradient Mach number Mg which is the mean shear rate times the transverse integral scale of the turbulence divided by the speed of sound. Validation of this code is performed by comparing RDT results with direct numerical simulation (DNS) of [A. Simone, G.N. Coleman, and C. Cambon, Fluid Mech. 330, 307 (1997)] and [S. Sarkar, J. Fluid Mech. 282, 163 (1995)] for various values of initial gradient Mach number Mg0. It was found that RDT is valid for small values of the non-dimensional times St (St 10) in particular for large values of Mg0. This essential feature justifies the resort to RDT in order to determine equilibrium states in the compressible regime.

  17. Equilibrium states of homogeneous sheared compressible turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Riahi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Equilibrium states of homogeneous compressible turbulence subjected to rapid shear is studied using rapid distortion theory (RDT. The purpose of this study is to determine the numerical solutions of unsteady linearized equations governing double correlations spectra evolution. In this work, RDT code developed by authors solves these equations for compressible homogeneous shear flows. Numerical integration of these equations is carried out using a second-order simple and accurate scheme. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number Mt, given by the root mean square turbulent velocity fluctuations divided by the speed of sound, and the gradient Mach number Mg which is the mean shear rate times the transverse integral scale of the turbulence divided by the speed of sound. Validation of this code is performed by comparing RDT results with direct numerical simulation (DNS of [A. Simone, G.N. Coleman, and C. Cambon, Fluid Mech. 330, 307 (1997] and [S. Sarkar, J. Fluid Mech. 282, 163 (1995] for various values of initial gradient Mach number Mg0. It was found that RDT is valid for small values of the non-dimensional times St (St 10 in particular for large values of Mg0. This essential feature justifies the resort to RDT in order to determine equilibrium states in the compressible regime.

  18. Application specific compression : final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melgaard, David Kennett; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Myers, Daniel S.; Harrison, Carol D.; Lee, David S.; Lewis, Phillip J.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2008-12-01

    With the continuing development of more capable data gathering sensors, comes an increased demand on the bandwidth for transmitting larger quantities of data. To help counteract that trend, a study was undertaken to determine appropriate lossy data compression strategies for minimizing their impact on target detection and characterization. The survey of current compression techniques led us to the conclusion that wavelet compression was well suited for this purpose. Wavelet analysis essentially applies a low-pass and high-pass filter to the data, converting the data into the related coefficients that maintain spatial information as well as frequency information. Wavelet compression is achieved by zeroing the coefficients that pertain to the noise in the signal, i.e. the high frequency, low amplitude portion. This approach is well suited for our goal because it reduces the noise in the signal with only minimal impact on the larger, lower frequency target signatures. The resulting coefficients can then be encoded using lossless techniques with higher compression levels because of the lower entropy and significant number of zeros. No significant signal degradation or difficulties in target characterization or detection were observed or measured when wavelet compression was applied to simulated and real data, even when over 80% of the coefficients were zeroed. While the exact level of compression will be data set dependent, for the data sets we studied, compression factors over 10 were found to be satisfactory where conventional lossless techniques achieved levels of less than 3.

  19. Data Compression with Prime Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Chalmers, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    A compression algorithm is presented that uses the set of prime numbers. Sequences of numbers are correlated with the prime numbers, and labeled with the integers. The algorithm can be iterated on data sets, generating factors of doubles on the compression.

  20. Video Compression Using Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Mishra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the existing technology on image compression represented by series of JPEG, MPEG and H.26x standards, new technology such as neural networks and genetic algorithms are being developed to explore the future of image coding. Successful applications of neural networks to basic propagation algorithm have now become well established and other aspects of neural network involvement in this technology. In this paper different algorithms were implemented like gradient descent back propagation, gradient descent with momentum back propagation, gradient descent with adaptive learning back propagation, gradient descent with momentum and adaptive learning back propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The size of original video clip is 25MB and after compression it becomes 21.3MB giving the compression ratio as 85.2% and compression factor of 1.174. It was observed that the size remains same after compression but the difference is in the clarity.

  1. Analytical model for ramp compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Quanxi; Jiang, Shaoen; Wang, Zhebin; Wang, Feng; Hu, Yun; Ding, Yongkun

    2016-08-01

    An analytical ramp compression model for condensed matter, which can provide explicit solutions for isentropic compression flow fields, is reported. A ramp compression experiment can be easily designed according to the capability of the loading source using this model. Specifically, important parameters, such as the maximum isentropic region width, material properties, profile of the pressure pulse, and the pressure pulse duration can be reasonably allocated or chosen. To demonstrate and study this model, laser-direct-driven ramp compression experiments and code simulation are performed successively, and the factors influencing the accuracy of the model are studied. The application and simulation show that this model can be used as guidance in the design of a ramp compression experiment. However, it is verified that further optimization work is required for a precise experimental design.

  2. Compressive sensing exploiting wavelet-domain dependencies for ECG compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polania, Luisa F.; Carrillo, Rafael E.; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Barner, Kenneth E.

    2012-06-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is an emerging signal processing paradigm that enables sub-Nyquist sampling of sparse signals. Extensive previous work has exploited the sparse representation of ECG signals in compression applications. In this paper, we propose the use of wavelet domain dependencies to further reduce the number of samples in compressive sensing-based ECG compression while decreasing the computational complexity. R wave events manifest themselves as chains of large coefficients propagating across scales to form a connected subtree of the wavelet coefficient tree. We show that the incorporation of this connectedness as additional prior information into a modified version of the CoSaMP algorithm can significantly reduce the required number of samples to achieve good quality in the reconstruction. This approach also allows more control over the ECG signal reconstruction, in particular, the QRS complex, which is typically distorted when prior information is not included in the recovery. The compression algorithm was tested upon records selected from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm leads to high compression ratios associated with low distortion levels relative to state-of-the-art compression algorithms.

  3. Respect My Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gorman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Some simple modifications to VuFind, an open source library resource portal, improve the retrieval of both lists of works and information about authors from Wikipedia. These modifications begin to address ways that current "next-generation" catalogs fail to fully harness all of the bibliographic tools available for indexing and presenting author information. Simple methods such as those described in this article, which make use of full headings for authors, can offer marked improvements to these systems.

  4. Parental authority questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.

  5. Collaborative authoring workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Schmitz, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    Klemke, R., & Schmitz, B. (2009). Collaborative authoring workshop. Workshop presentation at the Joint Technology Enhanced Learning Summerschool (JTELSS 2009). May, 30-June, 6, 2009, Terchova, Slovakia.

  6. Parental authority questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness. PMID:16370893

  7. Markets and authorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Cecco, Marcello de

    This text addresses the relationship between market authority and political authority - a favourite theme of Susan Strange, to whom the book is dedicated. From a survey of the bias against capital liberalization in economic thought to an analysis of the US role in global monetary affairs, it disc......This text addresses the relationship between market authority and political authority - a favourite theme of Susan Strange, to whom the book is dedicated. From a survey of the bias against capital liberalization in economic thought to an analysis of the US role in global monetary affairs...

  8. An efficient and extensible approach for compressing phylogenetic trees

    KAUST Repository

    Matthews, Suzanne J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Biologists require new algorithms to efficiently compress and store their large collections of phylogenetic trees. Our previous work showed that TreeZip is a promising approach for compressing phylogenetic trees. In this paper, we extend our TreeZip algorithm by handling trees with weighted branches. Furthermore, by using the compressed TreeZip file as input, we have designed an extensible decompressor that can extract subcollections of trees, compute majority and strict consensus trees, and merge tree collections using set operations such as union, intersection, and set difference.Results: On unweighted phylogenetic trees, TreeZip is able to compress Newick files in excess of 98%. On weighted phylogenetic trees, TreeZip is able to compress a Newick file by at least 73%. TreeZip can be combined with 7zip with little overhead, allowing space savings in excess of 99% (unweighted) and 92%(weighted). Unlike TreeZip, 7zip is not immune to branch rotations, and performs worse as the level of variability in the Newick string representation increases. Finally, since the TreeZip compressed text (TRZ) file contains all the semantic information in a collection of trees, we can easily filter and decompress a subset of trees of interest (such as the set of unique trees), or build the resulting consensus tree in a matter of seconds. We also show the ease of which set operations can be performed on TRZ files, at speeds quicker than those performed on Newick or 7zip compressed Newick files, and without loss of space savings.Conclusions: TreeZip is an efficient approach for compressing large collections of phylogenetic trees. The semantic and compact nature of the TRZ file allow it to be operated upon directly and quickly, without a need to decompress the original Newick file. We believe that TreeZip will be vital for compressing and archiving trees in the biological community. © 2011 Matthews and Williams; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  9. Compression ratio effect on methane HCCI combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S. M.; Pitz, W.; Smith, J. R.; Westbrook, C.

    1998-09-29

    We have used the HCT (Hydrodynamics, Chemistry and Transport) chemical kinetics code to simulate HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) combustion of methane-air mixtures. HCT is applied to explore the ignition timing, bum duration, NOx production, gross indicated efficiency and gross IMEP of a supercharged engine (3 atm. Intake pressure) with 14:1, 16:l and 18:1 compression ratios at 1200 rpm. HCT has been modified to incorporate the effect of heat transfer and to calculate the temperature that results from mixing the recycled exhaust with the fresh mixture. This study uses a single control volume reaction zone that varies as a function of crank angle. The ignition process is controlled by adjusting the intake equivalence ratio and the residual gas trapping (RGT). RGT is internal exhaust gas recirculation which recycles both thermal energy and combustion product species. Adjustment of equivalence ratio and RGT is accomplished by varying the timing of the exhaust valve closure in either 2-stroke or 4-stroke engines. Inlet manifold temperature is held constant at 300 K. Results show that, for each compression ratio, there is a range of operational conditions that show promise of achieving the control necessary to vary power output while keeping indicated efficiency above 50% and NOx levels below 100 ppm. HCT results are also compared with a set of recent experimental data for natural gas.

  10. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately

  11. Advances in compressible turbulent mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannevik, W.P.; Buckingham, A.C.; Leith, C.E. [eds.

    1992-01-01

    This volume includes some recent additions to original material prepared for the Princeton International Workshop on the Physics of Compressible Turbulent Mixing, held in 1988. Workshop participants were asked to emphasize the physics of the compressible mixing process rather than measurement techniques or computational methods. Actual experimental results and their meaning were given precedence over discussions of new diagnostic developments. Theoretical interpretations and understanding were stressed rather than the exposition of new analytical model developments or advances in numerical procedures. By design, compressibility influences on turbulent mixing were discussed--almost exclusively--from the perspective of supersonic flow field studies. The papers are arranged in three topical categories: Foundations, Vortical Domination, and Strongly Coupled Compressibility. The Foundations category is a collection of seminal studies that connect current study in compressible turbulent mixing with compressible, high-speed turbulent flow research that almost vanished about two decades ago. A number of contributions are included on flow instability initiation, evolution, and transition between the states of unstable flow onset through those descriptive of fully developed turbulence. The Vortical Domination category includes theoretical and experimental studies of coherent structures, vortex pairing, vortex-dynamics-influenced pressure focusing. In the Strongly Coupled Compressibility category the organizers included the high-speed turbulent flow investigations in which the interaction of shock waves could be considered an important source for production of new turbulence or for the enhancement of pre-existing turbulence. Individual papers are processed separately.

  12. ADVANCED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY (ARCT). FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. natural gas pipeline industry is facing the twin challenges of increased flexibility and capacity expansion. To meet these challenges, the industry requires improved choices in gas compression to address new construction and enhancement of the currently installed infrastructure. The current fleet of installed reciprocating compression is primarily slow-speed integral machines. Most new reciprocating compression is and will be large, high-speed separable units. The major challenges with the fleet of slow-speed integral machines are: limited flexibility and a large range in performance. In an attempt to increase flexibility, many operators are choosing to single-act cylinders, which are causing reduced reliability and integrity. While the best performing units in the fleet exhibit thermal efficiencies between 90% and 92%, the low performers are running down to 50% with the mean at about 80%. The major cause for this large disparity is due to installation losses in the pulsation control system. In the better performers, the losses are about evenly split between installation losses and valve losses. The major challenges for high-speed machines are: cylinder nozzle pulsations, mechanical vibrations due to cylinder stretch, short valve life, and low thermal performance. To shift nozzle pulsation to higher orders, nozzles are shortened, and to dampen the amplitudes, orifices are added. The shortened nozzles result in mechanical coupling with the cylinder, thereby, causing increased vibration due to the cylinder stretch mode. Valve life is even shorter than for slow speeds and can be on the order of a few months. The thermal efficiency is 10% to 15% lower than slow-speed equipment with the best performance in the 75% to 80% range. The goal of this advanced reciprocating compression program is to develop the technology for both high speed and low speed compression that will expand unit flexibility, increase thermal efficiency, and increase reliability and integrity

  13. Difference Sequence Compression of Multidimensional Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Szépkúti, István

    2011-01-01

    The multidimensional databases often use compression techniques in order to decrease the size of the database. This paper introduces a new method called difference sequence compression. Under some conditions, this new technique is able to create a smaller size multidimensional database than others like single count header compression, logical position compression or base-offset compression. Keywords: compression, multidimensional database, On-line Analytical Processing, OLAP.

  14. Multimedia Authoring and Annotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulterman, D.C.A.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Munson, E.; Pimentel, M.G.C.

    2014-01-01

    With the massive amount of captured multimedia, authoring is more relevant than ever. Multimedia content is available in many settings including the web, mobile devices, desktop applications, as well as games and interactive TV. The authoring and production of multimedia documents demands attention

  15. The Authors Reply

    Science.gov (United States)

    File, Kieran A.; Adams, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the authors' reply to Beniko Mason and Stephen Krashen's comments on their recent article published in "TESOL Quarterly." Mason and Krashen have provided an interesting reinterpretation of the authors' results and have also brought up several valid points regarding the efficiency of vocabulary learning from instruction,…

  16. American Indian Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momaday, Natachee Scott

    Twenty-six selections by 15 contemporary American Indian authors are given in this book. The selections--legends, ceremonial chants and prayers, poems, and stories--are accompanied by topics for discussion. Some of the selections deal with the supernatural, and some tell an actual story about the author. Pictures and short biographies of each…

  17. Instructions for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>1.Items of the paper Title,author’s name and working unit,abstract,key words,text and reference. 2.Author and working unit Entitled authors should be those involved in the research and would be able to answer relevant questions.The working units,cities and

  18. The Authors Reply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilloteaux, Marie J.; Dornyei, Zoltan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the authors' reply to Rod Ellis's comments on their study on motivated classroom behavior. As Ellis correctly summarizes, the three student variables selected for investigation in the authors' study were attention, participation, and volunteering for teacher-fronted activity. These three components were then summed up in a…

  19. Communication of authority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2009-01-01

    assimilated with the prophet. Thus, the literary persona, the prophet, and his book, is able to talk with normative authority in a context, post-exilic Judah/Yehud, which calls for normativity to sustain the rebuilding of society. The question remains if this normative authority can be upheld today, and if so...

  20. The Voice of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterlund, Kris

    2012-01-01

    In the last part of 2011, conversations swirled around the Internet and print about the assault on museum authority. The Marcus Institute for Digital Education in the Arts (MIDEA) summarized some of the discussion in their blog entry "The Participatory Museum and a New Authority." Other sites joined in the discussion, for example, the Museum Geek…

  1. Development of ultra-short high voltage pulse technology using magnetic pulse compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control circuit for high voltage switches, the saturable inductor for magnetic assist, and the magnetic pulse compression circuit were designed, constructed, and tested. The core materials of saturable inductors in magnetic pulse compression circuit were amorphous metal and ferrite and total compression stages were 3. By the test, in high repetition rate, high pulse compression were certified. As a result of this test, it became possible to increase life-time of thyratrons and to replace thyratrons by solid-state semiconductor switches. (author). 16 refs., 16 tabs

  2. Compressive impact strength of high temperature gas-cooled reactor graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effect of strain rate on fracture behavior for coarse grained nuclear graphite, PGX, a hydraulic servo type impact testing machine has been constructed and compressive impact strength test was performed at various strain up to more than 100(1/s). From the results, the following conclusions were derived. (1) Compressive impact strength of graphite increases with increasing of strain rate in the range of 10-3 to 100(1/s). (2) Compressive impact strength decreases drastically for strain rates more than 100(1/s). (3) Compressive impact strength dose not depend on specimen volume. (author)

  3. Development of ultra-short high voltage pulse technology using magnetic pulse compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Byung Heon; Kim, S. G.; Nam, S. M.; Lee, B. C.; Lee, S. M.; Jeong, Y. U.; Cho, S. O.; Jin, J. T.; Choi, H. L

    1998-01-01

    The control circuit for high voltage switches, the saturable inductor for magnetic assist, and the magnetic pulse compression circuit were designed, constructed, and tested. The core materials of saturable inductors in magnetic pulse compression circuit were amorphous metal and ferrite and total compression stages were 3. By the test, in high repetition rate, high pulse compression were certified. As a result of this test, it became possible to increase life-time of thyratrons and to replace thyratrons by solid-state semiconductor switches. (author). 16 refs., 16 tabs.

  4. Longitudinal compression of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the longitudinal compression of ion beams which is necessary in some designs of drivers intended to realize inertial thermonuclear fusion by heavy ions. Taking space-charge forces in the beams into account, two compression schemes are investigated: the first preserves the longitudinal phase-space area of the beams, and the second allows an increase of the phase-space area. The compression-system parameters are optimized for an example of a driver for inertial thermonuclear fusion by heavy ions with an energy of 10 MJ and with a pulse length of 25 ns on the target

  5. Compressive adaptive computational ghost imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Aßmann, Marc; 10.1038/srep01545

    2013-01-01

    Compressive sensing is considered a huge breakthrough in signal acquisition. It allows recording an image consisting of $N^2$ pixels using much fewer than $N^2$ measurements if it can be transformed to a basis where most pixels take on negligibly small values. Standard compressive sensing techniques suffer from the computational overhead needed to reconstruct an image with typical computation times between hours and days and are thus not optimal for applications in physics and spectroscopy. We demonstrate an adaptive compressive sampling technique that performs measurements directly in a sparse basis. It needs much fewer than $N^2$ measurements without any computational overhead, so the result is available instantly.

  6. Learning Representations by Maximizing Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Gregor, Karol

    2011-01-01

    We give an algorithm that learns a representation of data through compression. The algorithm 1) predicts bits sequentially from those previously seen and 2) has a structure and a number of computations similar to an autoencoder. The likelihood under the model can be calculated exactly, and arithmetic coding can be used directly for compression. When training on digits the algorithm learns filters similar to those of restricted boltzman machines and denoising autoencoders. Independent samples can be drawn from the model by a single sweep through the pixels. The algorithm has a good compression performance when compared to other methods that work under random ordering of pixels.

  7. Partial transparency of compressed wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Sugimori, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    We have developed novel wood composite with optical transparency at arbitrary region. Pores in wood cells have a great variation in size. These pores expand the light path in the sample, because the refractive indexes differ between constituents of cell and air in lumen. In this study, wood compressed to close to lumen had optical transparency. Because the condition of the compression of wood needs the plastic deformation, wood was impregnated phenolic resin. The optimal condition for high transmission is compression ratio above 0.7.

  8. Compressive myelopathy in fluorosis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R.K. [MR Section, Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow-226014 (India); Agarwal, P. [MR Section, Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow-226014 (India); Kumar, S. [MR Section, Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow-226014 (India); Surana, P.K. [Department of Neurology, SGPGIMS, Lucknow-226014 (India); Lal, J.H. [MR Section, Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow-226014 (India); Misra, U.K. [Department of Neurology, SGPGIMS, Lucknow-226014 (India)

    1996-05-01

    We examined four patients with fluorosis, presenting with compressive myelopathy, by MRI, using spin-echo and fast low-angle shot sequences. Cord compression due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) and ligamentum flavum (LF) was demonstrated in one and ossification of only the LF in one. Marrow signal was observed in the PLL and LF in all the patients on all pulse sequences. In patients with compressive myelopathy secondary to ossification of PLL and/or LF, fluorosis should be considered as a possible cause, especially in endemic regions. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Designing experiments through compressed sensing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Joseph G.; Ridzal, Denis

    2013-06-01

    In the following paper, we discuss how to design an ensemble of experiments through the use of compressed sensing. Specifically, we show how to conduct a small number of physical experiments and then use compressed sensing to reconstruct a larger set of data. In order to accomplish this, we organize our results into four sections. We begin by extending the theory of compressed sensing to a finite product of Hilbert spaces. Then, we show how these results apply to experiment design. Next, we develop an efficient reconstruction algorithm that allows us to reconstruct experimental data projected onto a finite element basis. Finally, we verify our approach with two computational experiments.

  10. Compressive sensing for urban radar

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Moeness

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of compressive sensing and sparse signal reconstruction, approaches to urban radar have shifted toward relaxed constraints on signal sampling schemes in time and space, and to effectively address logistic difficulties in data acquisition. Traditionally, these challenges have hindered high resolution imaging by restricting both bandwidth and aperture, and by imposing uniformity and bounds on sampling rates.Compressive Sensing for Urban Radar is the first book to focus on a hybrid of two key areas: compressive sensing and urban sensing. It explains how reliable imaging, tracki

  11. [Authority in the psychiatric clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laemmel, K

    1983-01-01

    Although considerable progress was made as far as therapy and individual rights of the patients are concerned today the psychiatric hospital is more than ever the butt of open citicism. One of the reasons for that is the odium of involuntarity and authority surrounding it. It is based on the ill-fame and dubious reputation of the nineteenth century "asylum". The problem of authority concerns today's hospitals as much as ever. How the hospital is run depends naturally in the first place on the personality of it's director his views on authority, as much as on his understanding and ability to handle the intensive dynamic processes in the institution. Recognizing the boundaries of his actual knowledge and training, his "authoritative authority", makes him wisely limit his goals and activities. Power or "authoritarian authority" must be employed with restraint and moderation but without hesitancy when necessary. The clinic represents for the patient a total milieu. It's therapeutic effect relies a great deal on the regulatory influence of the daily routine based on the authority of the treatment team. Jones' ideas of the "Therapeutic Community" have only limited value for today's psychiatric hospital. Even less significant contributions have been made by the antipsychiatric movement or the Marxist-inspired reformers of the last decades. Only that is therapeutic which in the final analysis helps the patient to cope successfully with reality. Even today the use of involuntary measures-seclusion and medication etc. remain a necessary tool for the treatment of some patients. As every institution is always part of a public or private structure, it's authority is always bridled by these. Ethical clinical psychiatry requires an ethical political state, if it is not to become it's henchman. Even in democratic countries problems may arise around involuntary hospitalization, the care of psychiatrically ill criminals or the legalities around medicating the uncooperative psychotic

  12. A model for economic evaluation of the use of Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG); Modelo de avaliacao economica do uso do Gas Natural Adsorvido (GNA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Diana C.S.; Cavalcante Junior, Celio L.; Torres, A. Eurico B.; Oliveira Junior, Jose A.; Medeiros, Vanildo M. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Campos, Flavio B.; Moura, Newton R. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Gas e Energia; Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Tecnologia de Gas e Energia; Alexandre, Francisco de Assis Souza

    2004-07-01

    Natural gas is currently transported by two main ways: through pipelines and stored in reservoirs, under compressed (CNG) or liquefied (LNG) forms. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) is a third alternative to vessel storage, which has been intensively reported in the scientific and technical literature. Working pressures are considerably lower for ANG (3,5 MPa as compared to 25 MPa for CNG), which results in lower costs with vessel construction and compression and safer handling. The project ADSPOR, sponsored by PETROBRAS and part of the R and D portfolio of RedeGasEnergia, aims to assess the technical and economical feasibility of storing and transporting natural gas confined in carbon adsorbents. The objectives of this project are the production of high-capacity active carbons, the collection of adsorption data for NG storage and the economic evaluation of ANG. The present work presents a model for cost estimation of the ANG business, which comprises from the compression into ANG vessels until the distribution to the final costumer, taking into account several shipping modes. The variables involved in the model were: compression costs, equipment and materials technical data, costs with product handling and shipping costs for motor ways, railways and inland waterways. These variables were linked so as to generate a cost matrix that may be used to assess investment and calculate the final cost for GNA transport. The model may be used to carry out parameter sensitivity analysis, for decision-making and management purposes. (author)

  13. Preservation and storage of food using natural gas as an energy source; Preservacao e armazenamento de alimentos usando gas natural como fonte de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gabriel F. da; Lira, Moema de Lima; Carnelossi, Marcelo A.G.; Sousa, Mabel R. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Jesus, Marcos Fabio de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Campos, Michel Fabianski; Martins, Ronaldo M.; Furini Filho, Roberto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Sara Macedo dos [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this work a study on preservation and storage of agricultural products was undertaken in chambers cooled through an absorption system, which used natural gas in the power plant and the results were compared with the compression system using electric energy. For the study a refrigeration pilot unit was mounted which consisted of chiller through water/ammonia absorption with direct natural gas burning, having a maximum consumption of 2,7{sup 3}/ h and capacity of 5 TR's, three refrigerating chambers with isopanel walls polyurethane, dimensions 2mx3mx2m with maximum capacity of storage of 2.000 kg each, control panel, a system of compressed natural gas supplying two carts each containing three cylinders with capacity of 71,4{sup 3} and a compression system connected to a chamber of same characteristics. Optimization studies in the storage of some fruits and vegetables were undertaken. A program was established which takes in account the food properties and characteristics of refrigeration systems to estimate the operational cost with the two systems. A techno-economic feasibility study was carried out on the two system of absorption and compression. This project was developed in the UFS, and is part of RedeGasEnergia, support for the financial aid was provided by PETROBRAS and FINEP/CTPETRO programs. (author)

  14. PLURALIZING NATURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    Denmark is widely recognised for its democratic approach to planning and the idea of planning for the common good. This interest in the common good and common values seems also to be reflected in the way which nature restoration is planned and managed – one common nature directed by the public...... authorities. But nature restoration is far from being a neural undertaking. Just like any other type of heritage production it can be the source of dissonance – ‘our’ nature is not necessary ‘their’ nature. Often this dissonance is managed in ways, which are not particular sensitive to site......-specificity. As exemplified by the Skjern River Restoration Project (1999-2003), one interpretation of the landscape sometimes suppresses other valid interpretations neglecting its diverse history. However, evidence from Switzerland suggests that planning for the common good, in the case of nature restoration, does...

  15. Efficient Lossy Compression for Compressive Sensing Acquisition of Images in Compressive Sensing Imaging Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Compressive Sensing Imaging (CSI is a new framework for image acquisition, which enables the simultaneous acquisition and compression of a scene. Since the characteristics of Compressive Sensing (CS acquisition are very different from traditional image acquisition, the general image compression solution may not work well. In this paper, we propose an efficient lossy compression solution for CS acquisition of images by considering the distinctive features of the CSI. First, we design an adaptive compressive sensing acquisition method for images according to the sampling rate, which could achieve better CS reconstruction quality for the acquired image. Second, we develop a universal quantization for the obtained CS measurements from CS acquisition without knowing any a priori information about the captured image. Finally, we apply these two methods in the CSI system for efficient lossy compression of CS acquisition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution improves the rate-distortion performance by 0.4~2 dB comparing with current state-of-the-art, while maintaining a low computational complexity.

  16. Efficient lossy compression for compressive sensing acquisition of images in compressive sensing imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangwei; Lan, Xuguang; Yang, Meng; Xue, Jianru; Zheng, Nanning

    2014-12-05

    Compressive Sensing Imaging (CSI) is a new framework for image acquisition, which enables the simultaneous acquisition and compression of a scene. Since the characteristics of Compressive Sensing (CS) acquisition are very different from traditional image acquisition, the general image compression solution may not work well. In this paper, we propose an efficient lossy compression solution for CS acquisition of images by considering the distinctive features of the CSI. First, we design an adaptive compressive sensing acquisition method for images according to the sampling rate, which could achieve better CS reconstruction quality for the acquired image. Second, we develop a universal quantization for the obtained CS measurements from CS acquisition without knowing any a priori information about the captured image. Finally, we apply these two methods in the CSI system for efficient lossy compression of CS acquisition. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution improves the rate-distortion performance by 0.4~2 dB comparing with current state-of-the-art, while maintaining a low computational complexity.

  17. Six beam spherical compression of plasma focus guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary experiment with a one beam plasma focus is carried out to confirm plasma formation with the lowest input energy of 0.2 kJ for six beam spherical compression of plasma focus guns. The plasma front of this cableless gun can be used for compression and for the coupling of six guns situated along three rectangular axes, providing a good plasma focus pinch instantaneously or many plasma focus pinches continuously. The whole device with the energy bank is mounted on a sphere, and the minimum requirement for the plasma chamber of this sphere is a diameter of ∼ 22 cm. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs

  18. TRIAXIAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslav Sovják

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to describe the strength of Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC under triaxial compression. The main goal is to find a trend in the triaxial compressive strength development under various values of confinement pressure. The importance of triaxial tests lies in the spatial loading of the sample, which simulates the real loading of the material in the structure better than conventional uniaxial strength tests. In addition, the authors describe a formulation process for UHPC that has been developed without using heat treatment, pressure or a special mixer. Only ordinary materials available commercially in the Czech Republic were utilized throughout the material design process.

  19. Compressed sensing for distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Coluccia, Giulio; Magli, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the state-of-the art in the exciting and timely topic of compressed sensing for distributed systems. It has to be noted that, while compressed sensing has been studied for some time now, its distributed applications are relatively new. Remarkably, such applications are ideally suited to exploit all the benefits that compressed sensing can provide. The objective of this book is to provide the reader with a comprehensive survey of this topic, from the basic concepts to different classes of centralized and distributed reconstruction algorithms, as well as a comparison of these techniques. This book collects different contributions on these aspects. It presents the underlying theory in a complete and unified way for the first time, presenting various signal models and their use cases. It contains a theoretical part collecting latest results in rate-distortion analysis of distributed compressed sensing, as well as practical implementations of algorithms obtaining performance close to...

  20. Efficient video compression using EZWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Amit S. Hatekar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, wavelet based lossy video compression algorithm is presented. The motion estimation and compensation, being an important part in the compression, is based on segment movements. The proposed work is based on wavelet transform algorithm Embedded Zeroed WaveletTransform (EZWT. Based on the results of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR, mean squared error (MSE, different videos are analyzed. Maintaining the PSNR to acceptable limits the proposed EZWT algorithm achieves very good compression ratios making the technique more efficient than the 2-Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT in the H.264/AVC codec. The method is being suitable for low bit rate video showing highest compression ratio and very good PSNR of more than 30dB.

  1. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  2. [New aspects of compression therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partsch, Bernhard; Partsch, Hugo

    2016-06-01

    In this review article the mechanisms of action of compression therapy are summarized and a survey of materials is presented together with some practical advice how and when these different devices should be applied. Some new experimental findings regarding the optimal dosage (= compression pressure) concerning an improvement of venous hemodynamics and a reduction of oedema are discussed. It is shown, that stiff, non-yielding material applied with adequate pressure provides hemodynamically superior effects compared to elastic material and that relatively low pressures reduce oedema. Compression over the calf is more important to increase the calf pump function compared to graduated compression. In patients with mixed, arterial-venous ulcers and an ABPI over 0.6 inelastic bandages not exceeding a sub-bandage pressure of 40 mmHg may increase the arterial flow and improve venous pumping function. PMID:27259340

  3. Compression fractures of the back

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... better with other treatments. Surgery can include: Balloon kyphoplasty Vertebroplasty Spinal fusion Other surgery may be done ... J, et al. Efficacy and safety of balloon kyphoplasty compared with non-surgical care for vertebral compression ...

  4. MRI analysis of vascular compressive trigeminal neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the offending vessels of vascular compressive trigeminal neuralgia by magnetic resonance tomographic angiography (MRTA). Methods: MRTA images of 235 asymptomatic trigeminal nerves and 147 symptomatic trigeminal nerves were analyzed by two radiologists who were blinded to the clinical findings. Judgment was made on if there were some vessels close to the trigeminal nerve. The diameter of the offending vessel, the distance from the offending vessel's contact point to the pons and the direction of the vessel toward the nerve were also recorded at the same time. Group t-test and Chi-Square test were used for statistics. Results: Two hundred and forty-two trigeminal nerves of all 382 nerves can be detected offending vessels on MRTA images, 111 of 242 trigeminal nerves were asymptomatic, the rest 131 were symptomatic. Statistical analysis indicated that the distance from the offending vessel's contact point to the pons in symptomatic group (the median is 2 mm) was shorter than that in the asymptomatic group (the median is 4 mm) (P<0.01). In 89.3% cases (117/131) of the symptomatic group the angle between the vessel and the nerve is larger than 45 degree, but only in 67.6% cases (75/111) in the asymptomatic group the angle is larger than 45 degree. That means significant difference is between the two groups (P<0.01). Vessel-nerve compression can be seen in 1 case of asymptomatic group (0.4%, 1/235) and 45 eases in symptomatic group (30.6%, 45/147). The vessel-nerve compression rate of the symptomatic group was much higher than that of the asymptomatic group (P<0.01). Conclusion: MR is a useful tool to evaluate the offending vessels of vascular compressive trigeminal neuralgia. The distance from the offending vessel's contact point to the pons and the direction of the vessel toward the nerve are related to the onset of vascular compressive trigeminal neuralgia. (authors)

  5. Learning Representations by Maximizing Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor, Karol; LeCun, Yann

    2011-01-01

    We give an algorithm that learns a representation of data through compression. The algorithm 1) predicts bits sequentially from those previously seen and 2) has a structure and a number of computations similar to an autoencoder. The likelihood under the model can be calculated exactly, and arithmetic coding can be used directly for compression. When training on digits the algorithm learns filters similar to those of restricted boltzman machines and denoising autoencoders. Independent samples ...

  6. Geometric Results for Compressible Magnetohydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Arter, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Recently, compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) has been elegantly formulated in terms of Lie derivatives. This paper exploits the geometrical properties of the Lie bracket to give new insights into the properties of compressible MHD behaviour, both with and without feedback of the magnetic field on the flow. These results are expected to be useful for the solution of MHD equations in both tokamak fusion experiments and space plasmas.

  7. Shock compression of polyvinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents shock compression simulation of atactic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics. The manuscript also identifies the limits of applicability of classical molecular dynamics based shock compression simulation for PVC. The mechanism of bond dissociation under shock loading and its progression is demonstrated in this manuscript using the density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The rate of dissociation of different bonds at different shock velocities is also presented in this manuscript.

  8. GUIDE TO AUTHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions has no page chargesManuscript Submission.Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions operates an online submission and peer review system that allows authors to submit articles onlineand track their

  9. Copyright Authorization Statement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Should the article be accepted and published by Meteorological and Environmental Research,the author hereby grants exclu-sively to the editorial department of Meteorological and Environmental Research the digital reproduction

  10. Copyright Authorization Statement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Should the article be accepted and published by Meteorological and Environmental Research,the author hereby grants exclu-sively to the editorial department of Meteorological and Environmental Research the digital reproduction

  11. Instructions for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ GENERAL SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS These guidelines have been prepared in accordance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.1 Authors should familiarize themselves with these requirements before submission.

  12. Hidden force opposing ice compression

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Chang Q; Zheng, Weitao

    2012-01-01

    Coulomb repulsion between the unevenly-bound bonding and nonbonding electron pairs in the O:H-O hydrogen-bond is shown to originate the anomalies of ice under compression. Consistency between experimental observations, density functional theory and molecular dynamics calculations confirmed that the resultant force of the compression, the repulsion, and the recovery of electron-pair dislocations differentiates ice from other materials in response to pressure. The compression shortens and strengthens the longer-and-softer intermolecular O:H lone-pair virtual-bond; the repulsion pushes the bonding electron pair away from the H+/p and hence lengthens and weakens the intramolecular H-O real-bond. The virtual-bond compression and the real-bond elongation symmetrize the O:H-O as observed at ~60 GPa and result in the abnormally low compressibility of ice. The virtual-bond stretching phonons ( 3000 cm-1) softened upon compression. The cohesive energy of the real-bond dominates and its loss lowers the critical temperat...

  13. Distributed Authorization in Vanadium

    OpenAIRE

    Taly, Ankur; Shankar, Asim

    2016-01-01

    In this tutorial, we present an authorization model for distributed systems that operate with limited internet connectivity. Reliable internet access remains a luxury for a majority of the world's population. Even for those who can afford it, a dependence on internet connectivity may lead to sub-optimal user experiences. With a focus on decentralized deployment, we present an authorization model that is suitable for scenarios where devices right next to each other (such as a sensor or a frien...

  14. Author Identification in Dialnet

    OpenAIRE

    Bergasa, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    26 slides.-- Presentation delivered at the Topic Session "Identifiers". The presentation introduces the Dialnet Foundation, a public non-profit organisation founded 2009 as a Spin-off from the University of La Rioja in Spain, and the Dialnet portal whose database holds nearly 4M documents, mostly in Spanish. Authority control is one of the strategic Dialnet worklines and permanent cleaning work is done on the over 2.5M author records in cooperation with universities and other institutions....

  15. Towards Conceptual Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor, Karol; Besse, Frederic; Rezende, Danilo Jimenez; Danihelka, Ivo; Wierstra, Daan

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a simple recurrent variational auto-encoder architecture that significantly improves image modeling. The system represents the state-of-the-art in latent variable models for both the ImageNet and Omniglot datasets. We show that it naturally separates global conceptual information from lower level details, thus addressing one of the fundamentally desired properties of unsupervised learning. Furthermore, the possibility of restricting ourselves to storing only global information ab...

  16. Authority Control for INVENIO

    CERN Document Server

    Dickinson, Christopher Michael; Omar, Abou Khaled; Felber, Pascal

    This is the final report for a Bachelor project at the École d'Ingénieurs et d'Architectes (EIA-FR), in collaboration with the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) near Geneva. The official starting date for this project was June 30th 2011. All of the work described in this document was done at CERN during an internship in the IT-UDS-CDS team. The goal of the project was to add authority contro1 to INVENIO. Authority control provides a library management software with two main functions. 1. It allows the disambiguation between similar or identical terms, such as author names referring to different people. 2. It allows for the collocation of seemingly distinct information that logically belongs together, e.g. alternate names for an author or institution. In recent years, INVENIO users have seen the need to control standardized ways of managing the names of authors and institutions, journals and subjects. “Authority records” keep track of the standard way (e.g. “Curie, Marie”) as well as...

  17. Flux Limiter Lattice Boltzmann for Compressible Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峰; 许爱国; 张广财; 李英骏

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new flux limiter scheme with the splitting technique is successfully incorporated into a multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for shacked compressible flows. The proposed flux limiter scheme is efficient in decreasing the artificial oscillations and numerical diffusion around the interface. Due to the kinetic nature, some interface problems being difficult to handle at the macroscopic level can be modeled more naturally through the LB method. Numerical simulations for the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability show that with the new model the computed interfaces are smoother and more consistent with physical analysis. The growth rates of bubble and spike present a satisfying agreement with the theoretical predictions and other numerical simulations.

  18. Fast and Adaptive Lossless Onboard Hyperspectral Data Compression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranki, Nazeeh I.; Keymeulen, Didier; Kimesh, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Modern hyperspectral imaging systems are able to acquire far more data than can be downlinked from a spacecraft. Onboard data compression helps to alleviate this problem, but requires a system capable of power efficiency and high throughput. Software solutions have limited throughput performance and are power-hungry. Dedicated hardware solutions can provide both high throughput and power efficiency, while taking the load off of the main processor. Thus a hardware compression system was developed. The implementation uses a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The implementation is based on the fast lossless (FL) compression algorithm reported in Fast Lossless Compression of Multispectral-Image Data (NPO-42517), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 8 (August 2006), page 26, which achieves excellent compression performance and has low complexity. This algorithm performs predictive compression using an adaptive filtering method, and uses adaptive Golomb coding. The implementation also packetizes the coded data. The FL algorithm is well suited for implementation in hardware. In the FPGA implementation, one sample is compressed every clock cycle, which makes for a fast and practical realtime solution for space applications. Benefits of this implementation are: 1) The underlying algorithm achieves a combination of low complexity and compression effectiveness that exceeds that of techniques currently in use. 2) The algorithm requires no training data or other specific information about the nature of the spectral bands for a fixed instrument dynamic range. 3) Hardware acceleration provides a throughput improvement of 10 to 100 times vs. the software implementation. A prototype of the compressor is available in software, but it runs at a speed that does not meet spacecraft requirements. The hardware implementation targets the Xilinx Virtex IV FPGAs, and makes the use of this compressor practical for Earth satellites as well as beyond-Earth missions with hyperspectral instruments.

  19. Object-Based Image Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalz, Mark S.

    2003-01-01

    Image compression frequently supports reduced storage requirement in a computer system, as well as enhancement of effective channel bandwidth in a communication system, by decreasing the source bit rate through reduction of source redundancy. The majority of image compression techniques emphasize pixel-level operations, such as matching rectangular or elliptical sampling blocks taken from the source data stream, with exemplars stored in a database (e.g., a codebook in vector quantization or VQ). Alternatively, one can represent a source block via transformation, coefficient quantization, and selection of coefficients deemed significant for source content approximation in the decompressed image. This approach, called transform coding (TC), has predominated for several decades in the signal and image processing communities. A further technique that has been employed is the deduction of affine relationships from source properties such as local self-similarity, which supports the construction of adaptive codebooks in a self-VQ paradigm that has been called iterated function systems (IFS). Although VQ, TC, and IFS based compression algorithms have enjoyed varying levels of success for different types of applications, bit rate requirements, and image quality constraints, few of these algorithms examine the higher-level spatial structure of an image, and fewer still exploit this structure to enhance compression ratio. In this paper, we discuss a fourth type of compression algorithm, called object-based compression, which is based on research in joint segmentaton and compression, as well as previous research in the extraction of sketch-like representations from digital imagery. Here, large image regions that correspond to contiguous recognizeable objects or parts of objects are segmented from the source, then represented compactly in the compressed image. Segmentation is facilitated by source properties such as size, shape, texture, statistical properties, and spectral

  20. Convergence of Compressible Euler-Maxwell Equations to Compressible Euler-Poisson Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the convergence of time-dependent Euler-Maxwell equations to compressible Euler-Poisson equations in a torus via the non-relativistic limit is studied.The local existence of smooth solutions to both systems is proved by using energy estimates for first order symmetrizable hyperbolic systems. For well prepared initial data the convergence of solutions is rigorously justified by an analysis of asymptotic expansions up to any order. The authors perform also an initial layer analysis for general initial data and prove the convergence of asymptotic expansions up to first order.

  1. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  2. Sustainability of compressive residual stress by stress improvement processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress improvement processes are countermeasures against stress corrosion cracking in nuclear power plant components. It is necessary to confirm whether a compressive residual stress induced by stress improvement processes can be sustained under operation environment. In order to evaluate stability of the compressive residual stress in 60-year operating conditions, the 0.07% cyclic strains of 200 times at 593 K were applied to the welded specimens, then a thermal aging treatment for 1.66×106 s at 673 K was carried out. As the result, it was confirmed that the compressive residual stresses were sustained on both surfaces of the dissimilar welds of austenitic stainless steel (SUS316L) and nickel base alloy (NCF600 and alloy182) processed by laser peening (LP), water jet peening (WJP), ultrasonic shot peening (USP), shot peening (SP) and polishing under 60-year operating conditions. (author)

  3. A radiative diffusion model for laser-compression simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation diffusion package is described which can handle the transport of continuum radiation arising from free-free and free-bound transitions in a laser-compressed plasma. This model has been incorporated into MEDUSA, a two temperature, 1-D Lagrangian computer code, and numerous computer runs have been carried out to study the effect of radiative preheat on target compression. The calculations show that in compression of a 10-μg solid carbon microsphere the radiation effects reduce the final target density by up to a factor of 6. In the case of a neon filled thin glass microballoon, the radiative preheat reduces maximum neon density by a factor of 3 while the maximum shell density drops from 105 Kg/m3 to 1.8 x 104 Kg/m3. (author)

  4. Reflections on Parental Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela LUPŞAN

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The movement in the European Union territory of the family members de jure or de facto - parents married or not, on the one hand, and their children, on the other hand, the birth of litigation related to the content, exercising or limiting the parental authority in the event at least one holder of parental authority is in a Member State other than where the minor child is, and the interest of achieving a good administration of justice within the European Union, led to the development of Community instruments in the area of parental authority, which has provisions on conflicts of jurisdiction, conflict of laws, recognition and enforceability, enforcement, legal aid and cooperation between central authorities, designating the applicable law. In the first part of the study we have analyzed the rules of jurisdiction by establishing the jurisdiction of the court hearing with an application for parental responsibility, whether there are pending divorce proceeding or not. In the second part of the study, we have limited the analysis to the rules applicable to the law causes that have as object parental authority.

  5. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    General Asian Journal of Andrology ( AJA ), the official journal of the Asian Society of Andrology. invites reports of original research on all areas of andrology, both experimental and clinical, including modem, traditional, and epidemiological, from any part of the world. Short communications (including clinical practice or case report) and letters to the editor are also welcome. Review articles based primarily on authors' own research of internationally important topics are accepted. Authors are requested to submit a covering letter indicating that their manuscript represents original unpublished material that has not been and will not be published elsewhere. This restriction does not apply to results published as abstracts of communications, letters to the editor or as preliminary reports. By submitting a manuscript the authors warrant that all necessary permissions have been obtained.

  6. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    General Asian Journal of Andrology ( AJA ), the official journal of the Asian Society of Andrology, invites reports of original research on all areas of andrology, both experimental and clinical, including modem, traditional, and epidemiological, from any part of the world. Short communications (including clinical practice or case report) and letters to the editor are also welcome. Review articles based primarily on authors' own research of internationally important topics are accepted. Authors are requested to submit a covering letter indicating that their manuscript represents original unpublished material that has not been and will not be published elsewhere. This restriction does not apply to results published as abstracts of communications, letters to the editor or as preliminary reports. By submitting a manuscript the authors warrant that all necessary permissions have been obtained.

  7. Compressibility, turbulence and high speed flow

    CERN Document Server

    Gatski, Thomas B

    2013-01-01

    Compressibility, Turbulence and High Speed Flow introduces the reader to the field of compressible turbulence and compressible turbulent flows across a broad speed range, through a unique complimentary treatment of both the theoretical foundations and the measurement and analysis tools currently used. The book provides the reader with the necessary background and current trends in the theoretical and experimental aspects of compressible turbulent flows and compressible turbulence. Detailed derivations of the pertinent equations describing the motion of such turbulent flows is provided and

  8. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Submission.All submitted manuscripts should contain original research not previously published and not under consideration for publication elsewhere.Authors are recommended to use the online submission service.To submit a manuscript,please visit http://www.climatechange.cn/,and follow the instructions to upload the paper files(in word format).Authors are encouraged to suggest the names and full contact details of potential referees on the understanding that the editor has the final decision on the selection of referees.

  9. Instructions to authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This section is to be used by authors of the special issue "Social media and language learning: (revolution?" who write their text in English. Please use the model article file attached when writing your text. 1. Submission and publication principles Authors whose texts have been accepted agree to transfer the associated rights permanently to the Alsic journal. They are free to re-publish these works (in printed or electronic form subject to the following conditions: they clearly indicate t...

  10. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientif ic journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing & Media Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier and Science Press. General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s) that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals. The experiment related to crop yield should be conducted at least two locations or growing seasons with replications. All the results should be supported by appropriate statistical analyses. Scopes ? Crop Germplasm Resources ? Crop Genetics, Genomics and Molecular Biology

  11. The Reader as Author

    OpenAIRE

    Gillian Beer

    2014-01-01

    "The Reader as Author" explores how readers become co-authors of the literary experience, through the imaginative act of filling gaps or, indeed, through their resistance to authorial propositions. The “virtual witnessing” in Charles Darwin’s The Voyage of the Beagle and the companionable tone of Lewis Carroll’s Alice books—testify to the broad range of literary genres that invite readers to interact with and react to “author” texts beyond the initial writer’s control.

  12. Building indifferentiable compression functions from the PGV compression functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, P.; Bagheri, Nasour; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2016-01-01

    Preneel, Govaerts and Vandewalle (PGV) analysed the security of single-block-length block cipher based compression functions assuming that the underlying block cipher has no weaknesses. They showed that 12 out of 64 possible compression functions are collision and (second) preimage resistant. Black......, Rogaway and Shrimpton formally proved this result in the ideal cipher model. However, in the indifferentiability security framework introduced by Maurer, Renner and Holenstein, all these 12 schemes are easily differentiable from a fixed input-length random oracle (FIL-RO) even when their underlying block...

  13. Data Compression of Fingerprint Minutiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VISHAL SHRIVASTAVA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biometric techniques have usual advantages over conventional personal identification technique. Among various commercially available biometric techniques such as face, fingerprint, Iris etc., fingerprint-based techniques are the most accepted recognition system. Fingerprints are trace or impression of patterns created byfriction ridges of the skin in the fingers and thumbs. Steganography usually used in smart card is a safe technique for authenticating a person. In steganography, biometric characteristic similar to fingerprint is hidden in an picture. As the quantity of information that can be stored by means of steganography is extremely restricted, compression mechanisms are essential in order to achieve reasonably little errors when finally checking fingerprints against the encoded templates. To decrease the volume of smart card, compression can beapplied to fingerprint template in order to make it take up fewer space. This paper is presenting the minutiae based inexpensive fingerprint compression technique. In minutiae based systems, the discontinuities in the regular ridge structure of fingerprint images are acknowledged in feature extraction step. During matching, asimilarity value between the features extracted from the template and the enter fingerprint images is calculated. This similarity value is used to appear at an accept / reject decision. We present a new approach based on delta compression for robustly compressing the fingerprint templates.

  14. Compression-absorption cascade refrigeration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Sieres, Jaime; Vazquez, Manuel [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidade de Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, 36200 Vigo (Spain)

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes the study carried out to analyse a refrigeration system in cascade with a compression system at the low temperature stage and an absorption system at the high temperature stage to generate cooling at low temperatures, as well as the possibility of powering it by means of a cogeneration system. CO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} have been considered as refrigerants in the compression stage and the pair NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O in the absorption stage. The analysis has been realized by means of a mathematical model of the refrigeration system implemented in a computer program and taking into account the characteristic operating conditions of a cogeneration system with gas engines. The paper presents the results obtained regarding the performance of the refrigeration system and the adaptability between the power requirements of the refrigeration system and the power supplied by the cogeneration system taking into account the present Spanish Regulations about the use of cogeneration systems. [Author].

  15. Schwarz-based algorithms for compressible flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidriri, M.D. [ICASE, Hampton, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    To compute steady compressible flows one often uses an implicit discretization approach which leads to a large sparse linear system that must be solved at each time step. In the derivation of this system one often uses a defect-correction procedure, in which the left-hand side of the system is discretized with a lower order approximation than that used for the right-hand side. This is due to storage considerations and computational complexity, and also to the fact that the resulting lower order matrix is better conditioned than the higher order matrix. The resulting schemes are only moderately implicit. In the case of structured, body-fitted grids, the linear system can easily be solved using approximate factorization (AF), which is among the most widely used methods for such grids. However, for unstructured grids, such techniques are no longer valid, and the system is solved using direct or iterative techniques. Because of the prohibitive computational costs and large memory requirements for the solution of compressible flows, iterative methods are preferred. In these defect-correction methods, which are implemented in most CFD computer codes, the mismatch in the right and left hand side operators, together with explicit treatment of the boundary conditions, lead to a severely limited CFL number, which results in a slow convergence to steady state aerodynamic solutions. Many authors have tried to replace explicit boundary conditions with implicit ones. Although they clearly demonstrate that high CFL numbers are possible, the reduction in CPU time is not clear cut.

  16. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series G:Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer

  17. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer,

  18. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer,

  19. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science China Press and Springer,

  20. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series G:Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer,

  1. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series G: Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer,

  2. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series B: Chemistry, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to

  3. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Science in China Series D:Earth Sciences,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is com-

  4. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science China Press and Springer, is committed

  5. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science China Press and Springer, is committed to

  6. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to

  7. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series G: Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer

  8. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series G: Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press

  9. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series D:Earth Sciences,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Press and

  10. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and

  11. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series E:Technological Sciences,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China

  12. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series E:Technological Sciences,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Pr

  13. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Founation of China, and published by Science China Press and

  14. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Mathematics, a peer review mathematical journal cosponsored by Chinese Academy of Sciences and National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published monthly in both print and electronic

  15. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Mathematics,a peer review mathematical journal cosponsored by Chinese Academy of Sciences and National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published monthly in both print and electronic

  16. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science China Press and

  17. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science China Press and

  18. Instructions to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Journal of Resources and Ecology is an international journal for the publication of recent works in the related fields of natural resources and ecology. The journal was established in 2010 and is published quarterly.

  19. Instructions to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry, a quarterly journal jointly edited by the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics and the Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, is devoted to reporting new and original experimental and theoretical research in the fields of natural gas chemistry, C1 chemistry, lower hydrocarbons chemistry, and hydrogen energy sources. The manuscripts should not have been published previously in any form or have been submitted for publication elsewhere.

  20. Instructions to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry, a quarterly journal jointly edited by the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics and the Chengdu InStitute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, is devoted to reporting new and original experimental and theoretical research in the fields of natural gas chemistry, C1 chemistry, lower hydrocarbons chemistry, and hydrogen energy sources. The manuscripts should not have been published previously in any form or have been submitted for publication elsewhere.

  1. Instructions to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry, a quarterly journal jointly edited by the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics and the Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, is devoted to reporting new and original experimental and theoretical research in the fields of natural gas chemistry, C1 chemistry, lower hydrocarbons chemistry, and hydrogen energy sources. The manuscripts should not have been published previously in any form or have been submitted for publication elsewhere.

  2. Instructions to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Journal of Resources and Ecology is an international journal for the publication of recent works in the related fields of natural resources and ecology.The journal was established in 2010 and is published quarterly. Journal of Resources and Ecology will consider manuscripts in the following categories: 1)Research articles:to present primary results from a completed key research project in the related fields of natural resources and

  3. Medical image compression by using three-dimensional wavelet transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Huang, K

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes a three-dimensional (3-D) medical image compression method for computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) that uses a separable nonuniform 3-D wavelet transform. The separable wavelet transform employs one filter bank within two-dimensional (2-D) slices and then a second filter bank on the slice direction. CT and MR image sets normally have different resolutions within a slice and between slices. The pixel distances within a slice are normally less than 1 mm and the distance between slices can vary from 1 mm to 10 mm. To find the best filter bank in the slice direction, the authors use the various filter banks in the slice direction and compare the compression results. The results from the 12 selected MR and CT image sets at various slice thickness show that the Haar transform in the slice direction gives the optimum performance for most image sets, except for a CT image set which has 1 mm slice distance. Compared with 2-D wavelet compression, compression ratios of the 3-D method are about 70% higher for CT and 35% higher for MR image sets at a peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) of 50 dB, In general, the smaller the slice distance, the better the 3-D compression performance. PMID:18215935

  4. GUIDE TO AUTHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions has no page charges Manuscript Submission. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions operates an online submission and peer review system that allows authors to submit articles online and track their progress via a web interface.

  5. GUIDE TO AUTHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions has no page charges Manuscript Scbmission.Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions operates an online submission and peer review system that allows authors to submit articles online and track their progress via a web interface.to submit a manuscript,

  6. GUIDE TO AUTHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions has no page charges Manuscript Submission. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions operates an online submission and peer review system that allows authors to submit articles onlineand track their progress via a web interface. To submit a manuscript,

  7. Instruction for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Aims and scope Chinese Birds, launched from March 2010, is an international journal of ornithology jointly sponsored by Beijing Forestry University and the China Ornithological Society. The Journal intents to publish primarily peer-reviewed original articles, reviews and short communications produced by authors across the world, covering the full spectrum of subjects in ornithology,

  8. Instructions for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正Aims and scope Chinese Birds, launched from March 2010, is an international journal of ornithology jointly sponsored by Beijing Forestry University and the China Ornithological Society. The Journal intents to publish primarily peer-reviewed original articles, reviews and short communications produced by authors across the world, covering the full

  9. GUIDE TO AUTHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions has no page charges Manuscript Submission.Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions operates an online submission and peer review system that allows authors to submit articles online and track their progress via a web interface. To submit a manuscript, please visit http://www.SCAR.ac.cn/, log on, get an account, and follow

  10. GUIDE TO AUTHOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions has no page chargesManuscript Submission. Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions operates an online submission and peer review system that allows authors to submit articles onlineand track their progress via a web interface. To submit a manuscript, please visit http://www.SCAR.ac.cn/, log on, get an account, and follow the

  11. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media; Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that

  12. Compressive Sensing for MIMO Radar

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yao; Poor, H Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar systems have been shown to achieve superior resolution as compared to traditional radar systems with the same number of transmit and receive antennas. This paper considers a distributed MIMO radar scenario, in which each transmit element is a node in a wireless network, and investigates the use of compressive sampling for direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. According to the theory of compressive sampling, a signal that is sparse in some domain can be recovered based on far fewer samples than required by the Nyquist sampling theorem. The DOA of targets form a sparse vector in the angle space, and therefore, compressive sampling can be applied for DOA estimation. The proposed approach achieves the superior resolution of MIMO radar with far fewer samples than other approaches. This is particularly useful in a distributed scenario, in which the results at each receive node need to be transmitted to a fusion center for further processing.

  13. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  14. Compressive Sensing in Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Wireless communication is omnipresent today, but this development has led to frequency spectrum becoming a limited resource. Furthermore, wireless devices become more and more energy-limited, due to the demand for continual wireless communication of higher and higher amounts of information....... The need for cheaper, smarter and more energy efficient wireless devices is greater now than ever. This thesis addresses this problem and concerns the application of the recently developed sampling theory of compressive sensing in communication systems. Compressive sensing is the merging of signal...... acquisition and compression. It allows for sampling a signal with a rate below the bound dictated by the celebrated Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem. In some communication systems this necessary minimum sample rate, dictated by the Shannon-Nyquist sampling theorem, is so high it is at the limit of what...

  15. A new class of low compressibility materials: Clathrates of silicon and related materials

    OpenAIRE

    San Miguel, Alfonso; Mélinon, Patrice; Blase, Xavier; Tournus, Florent; Connétable, Damien; Reny, Édouard; Yamanaka, Shoji; Itié, Jean-Paul; Cros, Christian; Pouchard, Michel

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the high pressure properties of different silicon clathrate structures that we have investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and ab initio calculations. Compressibility transition pressures or phase transformations are interpreted as a function of the nature of the guest atom intercalation, The compressibility of the clathrate structure is in all cases close to that of silicon diamond whereas transition pressures or the high pressure phases are extremely depending on the nature o...

  16. Extended testing of compression distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1972-01-01

    During the past eight years, the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center has supported the development of an integrated water and waste management system which includes the compression distillation process for recovering useable water from urine, urinal flush water, humidity condensate, commode flush water, and concentrated wash water. This paper describes the design of the compression distillation unit, developed for this system, and the testing performed to demonstrate its reliability and performance. In addition, this paper summarizes the work performed on pretreatment and post-treatment processes, to assure the recovery of sterile potable water from urine and treated urinal flush water.

  17. Compressibility of Nickel Nanoparticle Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Dong; TANG Ling-Yun; LI Yan-Chun; LIU Jing

    2007-01-01

    We perform the high-pressure energy dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments of nickel nanoparticle chain using a synchrotron source under quasi-hydrostatic compression up to 44.7GPa. There is no phase transition over the pressure range. The bulk modulus Kg, the first pressure derivative of bulk modulus K'0 and the volume Vo are calculated from the pressure-volume data using the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. A decrease of compressibility is observed, in agreement with the Hall-Petch effect.

  18. Compressing the Inert Doublet Model

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, Nikita; Morrissey, David E; de la Puente, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Inert Doublet Model relies on a discrete symmetry to prevent couplings of the new scalars to Standard Model fermions. This stabilizes the lightest inert state, which can then contribute to the observed dark matter density. In the presence of additional approximate symmetries, the resulting spectrum of exotic scalars can be compressed. Here, we study the phenomenological and cosmological implications of this scenario. We derive new limits on the compressed Inert Doublet Model from LEP, and outline the prospects for exclusion and discovery of this model at dark matter experiments, the LHC, and future colliders.

  19. Instability of ties in compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius

    2013-01-01

    Masonry cavity walls are loaded by wind pressure and vertical load from upper floors. These loads results in bending moments and compression forces in the ties connecting the outer and the inner wall in a cavity wall. Large cavity walls are furthermore loaded by differential movements from...... the temperature gradient between the outer and the inner wall, which results in critical increase of the bending moments in the ties. Since the ties are loaded by combined compression and moment forces, the loadbearing capacity is derived from instability equilibrium equations. Most of them are iterative, since...

  20. Small helical flux compression amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, explosively compressed, magnetic flux transducers with many closely spaced helical turns are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The analysis is limited to linear operation, but takes into account load influence, proximity effects, and switching delays. The latter are due to retarded breakdown in the wire insulation and to the finite decay time of the magnetic field in the wire. More than 150 experiments showed considerable data scatter. Shots which exhibited low clocking and high amplification were in good agreement with the theory. The main conclusion is that device performance is limited not only by flux loss, but by flux remaining in the generator after compression

  1. PREPARATION OF BIOACTIVE NANOSTRUCTURE SCAFFOLD WITH IMPROVED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. EMADI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly porous scaffolds with open structure are today the best candidates for bone substitution to ensure bone oxygenation and angiogenesis. In this study, we developed a new route to enhance the compressive strength of porous hydroxyapatite scaffold made of natural bone. Briefly, the spongy bone of an adult bovine was extracted, annealed, and coated by a nanostructure bioactive glass layer to be subsequently sintered at different temperatures. The apatite formation ability on the surfaces of the coated scaffolds was investigated by standard procedures. Our results showed that the scaffold and coating microstructure consisted of the grains smaller than 100 nm. These nanostructures improved the compressive strength and bioactivity of highly porous scaffold. The results showed that with increasing the sintering temperature, the compressive strength of scaffolds increased while their in vitro bioactivity decreased.

  2. Use of compressed-air storage systems; Einsatz von Druckluftspeichersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyphely, I.; Rufer, A.; Brueckmann, Ph.; Menhardt, W.; Reller, A.

    2004-07-01

    This final report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) looks at the use of compressed air as a means of storing energy. Historical aspects are listed and compressed-air storage as an alternative to current ideas that use electrolysis and hydrogen storage is discussed. The storage efficiency advantages of compressed-air storage is stressed and the possibilities it offers for compensating the stochastic nature of electricity production from renewable energy sources are discussed. The so-called BOP (Battery with Oil-hydraulics and Pneumatics) principle for the storage of electricity is discussed and its function is described. The advantages offered by such a system are listed and the development focus necessary is discussed.

  3. Analysis on soil compressibility changes of samples stabilized with lime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Andreea CALARASU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage and control the stability of buildings located on difficult foundation soils, several techniques of soil stabilization were developed and applied worldwide. Taking into account the major significance of soil compressibility on construction durability and safety, the soil stabilization with a binder like lime is considered one of the most used and traditional methods. The present paper aims to assess the effect of lime content on soil geotechnical parameters, especially on compressibility ones, based on laboratory experimental tests, for several soil categories in admixture with different lime dosages. The results of this study indicate a significant improvement of stabilized soil parameters, such as compressibility and plasticity, in comparison with natural samples. The effect of lime stabilization is related to an increase of soil structure stability by increasing the bearing capacity.

  4. Dynamic Compression of the Spinal Cord by Paraspinal Muscles following Cervical Laminectomy: Diagnosis Using Flexion-Extension MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Linton T.; S. Scott Lollis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Flexion-extension, or kinematic, MRI has been used to identify dynamic spondylotic spinal cord compression not seen with traditional static MRI. The use of kinematic MRI to diagnose postoperative complications, specifically dynamic compression, is not as well documented. The authors describe a case of dynamic spinal cord compression by the paraspinal muscles causing worsening myelopathy following cervical laminectomy. This was only diagnosed with flexion-extension MRI. Methods....

  5. INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>AIMS AND SCOPE High Power Laser Science and Engineering(HPLaser)is an international,peer-reviewed open access journal which focuses on all aspects of high power laser science and engineering.HPLaser publishes research that seeks to uncover the underlying science and engineering in the fields of high energy density physics,high power lasers,advanced laser technology and applications,and laser components.ORIGINALITY,OPEN ACCESS LICENCE TO PUBLISH FORM AND COPYRIGHT To be considered for publication in HPLaser a manuscript cannot have been published previously,nor can it be under review for publication elsewhere.Papers with multiple authors are considered for publication in HPLaser with the assumption that all authors have approved the submitted manuscript and concur in its submission to HPLaser.For accepted articles,a Licence to Publish form must be

  6. INFORMATION FOR AUTHORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revista Ciencias Biomedicas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available REVISTA CIENCIAS BIOMEDICAS (Rev.cienc.biomed. is included in: IMBIOMED, ACADEMIC GOOGLE, ENCOLOMBIA.COM, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, DOAJ, PUBLINDEX, WORLD CAT and ACADEMIC.EDU. It receives original scientific articles about a variety of topics that keep relation with the health sciences, so much of basic as clinical application. These issues need to be inside knowledge area that could interest both undergraduate as postgraduate students, as well as professionals in the health area. The following recommendations should be considered. 1. Authorship. Each author must have contributed substantially to the successful development of the research process. According to international standards, the criteria that each author must meet are: • Substantial contributions to conception, design, data acquisition or analysis and data interpretation. • To write the article and to check it for intellectually important content. • Final approval of the version to be published. “Courtesy authors” identifications or designations will not be accepted if the researcher has not met the delineated criteria (e.g. head of school / department / research group that presents the paper. 2. Interest conflicts and funding. An author of an article to be considered may be involved in two types of interest conflicts. The first one relates directly to the work authors and the financial and personal relationships that could influence or bias the manuscript in some way. The second type of interest conflict is related to the financial backer of the research. The authors must admit and say when sending the paper if there is any interference or limitation of the financial backer with regard to the analysis and interpretation of the information, writing or manuscript submission. The existence or absence of interest conflicts must be specified at the end of the article. It must be also specified whether it has received money by way of funding, specifying the origins and codes of calls where

  7. Instructions to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Journal of Resources and Ecology is an international journal for the publication of recent works in the related fields of natural resources and ecology.The journal was established in 2010 and is published quarterly. Journal of Resources and Ecology will consider manuscripts in the following categories: 1) Research articles:to present primary results from a completed key research project in the related fields of natural resources and ecology. 2) Subject Reports:to introduce interim results from a key research project,experimental reports,and progresses in the research on specific regions or specific topics.

  8. Compressibility Effects in Turbulent Boundary Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yu-Hui; PEI Jie; CHEN Jun; SHE Zhen-Su

    2008-01-01

    Local cascade (LC) scheme and space-time correlations are used to study turbulent structures and their convection behaviour in the near-wall region of compressible boundary layers at Ma = 0.8 and 1.3. The convection velocities of fluctuating velocity components u (streamwise) and v (vertical) are investigated by statistically analysing scale-dependent ensembles of LC structures. The results suggest that u is convected with entropy perturbations while v with an isentropic process. An abnormal thin layer distinct from the conventional viscous sub-layer is discovered in the immediate vicinity of the wall (y+≤1) in supersonic flows. While in the region 1 < y+ < 30,streamwise streaks dominate velocity, density and temperature fluctuations, the abnormal thin layer is dominated by spanwise streaks in vertical velocity and density fluctuations, where pressure and density fluctuations are strongly correlated. The LC scheme is proven to be effective in studying the nature of supersonic flows and compressibility effects on wall-bounded motions.

  9. Viscoelasticity of Tendons Under Transverse Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Buckley, C; Samuel Salisbury, S T; Zavatsky, Amy B

    2016-10-01

    Tendons are highly anisotropic and also viscoelastic. For understanding and modeling their 3D deformation, information is needed on their viscoelastic response under off-axis loading. A study was made, therefore, of creep and recovery of bovine digital extensor tendons when subjected to transverse compressive stress of up to ca. 100 kPa. Preconditioned tendons were compression tested between glass plates at increasing creep loads. The creep response was anomalous: the relative rate of creep reduced with the increasing stress. Over each ca. 100 s creep period, the transverse creep deformation of each tendon obeyed a power law dependence on time, with the power law exponent falling from ca. 0.18 to an asymptote of ca. 0.058 with the increasing stress. A possible explanation is stress-driven dehydration, as suggested previously for the similar anomalous behavior of ligaments. Recovery after removal of each creep load was also anomalous. Relative residual strain reduced with the increasing creep stress, but this is explicable in terms of the reducing relative rate of creep. When allowance was made for some adhesion occurring naturally between tendon and the glass plates, the results for a given load were consistent with creep and recovery being related through the Boltzmann superposition principle (BSP). The tendon tissue acted as a pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) in contact with the glass plates: explicable in terms of the low transverse shear modulus of the tendons. PMID:27496279

  10. Instructions for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    正Aims and scope Chinese Birds, launched from March 2010, is an international journal of ornithology jointly sponsored by Beijing Forestry University and the China Ornithological Society. The Journal intents to publish primarily peer-reviewed original articles, reviews and short communications produced by authors across the world, covering the full spectrum of subjects in ornithology, including research in fossil birds. Manuscript requirements Title page

  11. Instructions for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Aims and scope Chinese Birds,launched from March 2010,is an international journal of ornithology jointly sponsored by Beijing Forestry University and the China Ornithological Society.The Journal intents to publish primarily peer-reviewed original articles,reviews and short communications produced by authors across the world,covering the full spectrum of subjects in ornithology,including research in fossil birds.

  12. Instructions for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Aims and scope Chinese Birds,launched from march 2010,is an international journal of ornithology jointly sponsored by Beijing forestry University and the china ornithological Society.the Journal intents to publish primarily peer-reviewed original articles,reviews and short communications produced by authors across the world,covering the full spectrum of subjects in ornithology,including research in fossil birds.

  13. Instructions for authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editors Editorial Board

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors must submit their papers via email to brain@edusoft.ro or they can create an account and submit their papers online, at www.brain.edusoft.ro. Submited papers must be written in DOC format (Microsoft Word document, in as clear and as simple as possible English. Preferred maximum paper length for the papers is 20 pages, including figures.The template for the paper is at this address:http://www.edusoft.ro/Template_for_BRAIN.docThe text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point Times New Roman font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses; and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end. The title will be bold 14-point, and the author will be 12-point italic. Figures have caption in bottom-center side, and tables have captions in left-top side. Use a tab for identing each paragraph and the subtitles, too. The subtitleswill be bold 12-point. Please use Microsoft Word 97-2003.We encourage the authors to use the camera ready format even for the first submission. All paper submissions will be carefully reviewed by an editor, and by the members of the scientific board or independent experts, who will provide a written feedback with comments and ratings.Authors will be notified of acceptance in maximum 3 weeks. Accepted manuscripts should be revised according to the comments of the reviewers and of the editors.For questions concerning manuscript submission, contact Mr. Bogdan Patrut by mail atbogdan@edusoft.ro.

  14. About the author

    OpenAIRE

    Olukoju, Ayodeji

    2013-01-01

    Ayodeji Olukoju is Professor and Head, Department of History, University of Lagos. A First Class Honours graduate of the University of Nigeria. Nsukka. and holder of the M.A. and Ph.D. Degrees in History of the University of Ibadan. He has authored and co-edited several books and monographs, including Maritime Trade, Port Development and Administration (Tokyo, 1996), Nigeria Peoples and Cultures (Ibadan 1997) and Positive Leadership in Colonial and Post-Colonial Africa (Ikorodu, Nigeria, 2002...

  15. Instrucions for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, Agriculturtal Science & Technology's full-texts have been included by international authority of the search tools CABI Full-text. CABI's full text repository of over 60,000 documents is continuing to grow, and has now been integrated into all our databases including CAB Abstracts, Global Health, our Internet Resources and Abstract Journals. If you have a subscription to a CABI product, you receive instant access to all correlating full text material, automatically!

  16. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals.

  17. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously published or simultaneously

  18. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals.

  19. Authentication and Authorization Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More V.N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In computer science distributed systems could be more secured with a distributed trust model based on either PKIor Kerberos. However, it becomes difficult to establish trust relationship across heterogeneous domains due todifferent actual trust mechanism and security policy as well as the intrinsic flaw of each trust model. Since Internethas been used commonly in information systems technologies, many applications need some security capabilitiesto protect against threats to the communication of information. Two critical procedures of these capabilities areauthentication and authorization. This report presents a strong authentication and authorization model using threestandard frameworks. They are PKI, PMI, and Directory. The trust in this approach is enabled by the use of publickey infrastructure (PKI which is applied for client two-factor authentication and secures the infrastructure. Weintroduce the preventive activity-based authorization policy for dynamic user privilege controls. It helps preventsuccessive unauthorized requests in a formal manner. At the core, we apply An Improved Trust Model to facilitatethe authentication with the different keys with work flow of model efficiently. Also describes the X.509 standard todefine the directory schemas of PKI and PMI to find the object classes and optional attributes.

  20. Instructions for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.Chinese Journal of Chemistry publishes original research work in all fields of chemistry, i.e. physical chemistry,inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry and analytic chemistry, etc., in the forms of Accounts, Articles,Notes and Communications. Each issue contains Graphic Abstract. Only contributions that have not been and are not to be published elsewhere will be considered. Acoounts are summary of significant recent work and new developments from the research group of the principal author. Photographs and resumes of all authors will be included. Articles and Notes are designed to report research of high scientific quality and originality that are of interest to the wide and diverse readership of the Journal with experimental details. Communications are restricted to publish results with unusual urgency, significance, and interest. In the cover letter the author should briefly state the urgency of this paper.

  1. Instructions for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Chinese Journal of Chemistry publishes original research work in all fields of chemistry, i.e. physical chemistry, inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry and analytic chemistry, etc., in the forms of Accounts, Articles, Notes and Communications. Each issue contains Graphic Abstract. Only contributions that have not been and are not to be published elsewhere will be consid ered.Accounts are reports on significant recent work and new developments from the research group of the principal author. Photographs and resumes of all authors will be included.Articles and Notes are designed to report research of high scientific quality and originality that are of interest to the wide and diverse readership of the Joumal with experimental details.Communications are restricted to publish results with unusual urgency, significance, and interest. In the cover letter the author should briefly state the urgency of this paper.

  2. Instructions to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Cellular & Molecular Immunology (CMI) is the official publication of the Chinese Society of Immunology. The Journal is published bimonthly in English and edited at the University of Science & Technology of China (USTC). Papers in all areas of cellular and molecular immunology are welcome including immunobiology, comparative immunology, immunogenetics, neuroimmunology, immunopathology, immunopharmacology, tumor immunology, infection immunology, clinical immunology, transplantation immunology, veterinary immunology and immunological techniques. All international immunologists and immunologyrelated investigators will find CMI suitable for their publications. CMI publishes articles and brief reports for original investigations. Reviews and minireviews are also accepted from authors on request by the editorial board of the journal. A paper is submitted to CMI with the understanding that it has not been and will not be published elsewhere. The submission must have the approval of all of the authors. The preferred medium of final submission to the accepting editor is on computer disk with the accompanying reviewed and revised manuscript (see'electronic manuscripts' below). Publication in CMI is taken to imply the authors' willingness to comply with reasonable requests to supply reagents such as recombinant clones and monoclonal antibodies, and sequence data in electronic form to persons lacking access to computer databases.

  3. Instructions to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Cellular & Molecular Immunology (CMI) is the official publication of the Chinese Society of Immunology. The Journal is published bimonthly in English and edited at the University of Science & Technology of China (USTC). Papers in all areas of cellular and molecular immunology are welcome including immunobiology, comparative immunology, immunogenetics, neuroimmunology, immunopathology, immunopharmacology, tumor immunology, infection immunology, clinical immunology, transplantation immunology, veterinary immunology and immunological techniques. All international immunologists and irnmunologyrelated investigators will find CMI suitable for their publications. CMI publishes articles and brief reports for original investigations. Reviews and minireviews are also accepted from authors on request by the editorial board of the journal A paper is submitted to CMI with the understanding that it has not been and will not be published elsewhere. The submission must have the approval of all of the authors. The preferred medium of final submission to the accepting editor is on computer disk with the accompanying reviewed and revised manuscript (see 'electronic manuscripts' below). Publication in CMI is taken to imply the authors' willingness to comply with reasonable requests to supply reagents such as recombinant clones and monoclonal antibodies, and sequence data in electronic form to persons lacking access to computer databases.

  4. GUIDELINES FOR AUTHORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    1 THE JOURNAL The Journal publishes original papers in all fields of sustainable development. Papers are peer-reviewed according to the generally accepted criteria for scientific work. 2 AUTHORS' RESPONSIBILITIES Authors are responsible for the originality of the work, permission to publish and permission to reproduce any cited figures, and proofreading. 3 MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION All papers must be in English. Papers are restricted to 5000 words in length. Papers with fewer than 1500 words will be considered as Short Notes. Manuscripts must be double-spaced, on one side of the paper only and on standard sized paper (e. g. European A4 - 21 by 29.6 cm). Each paper should consist of the following sections, in order: title, abstract, key words, text, acknowledgments, references, intemet references, figure captions, figures, table captions, tables and appendices (if any), photograph captions, photographs. Pages should be numbered. Author should provide e-mail of corresponding author. Title - The title should be brief but accurately descriptive of the contents. The title should be followed by authors' names,( as they are to appear in print) and institutional affiliations. The corresponding author's e-mail address should follow (or fax- number if no e-mail is available).

  5. Recrystallization Texture of Plane Strain Compressed Aluminum Single Crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong Nyung

    1996-01-01

    Butler, Blicharski and Hu found a rotated cube recrystallization texture after annealing an aluminum crystal with the (112)[111¯] and (112)[1¯1¯1] deformation texture, which was obtained by plane strain compressing the aluminum single crystal with an initial orientation of (001)[110]. The unexplained formation of the rotated recrystallization has been discussed based on a recrystallization model recently suggested by the present author.

  6. INFORMATION FOR AUTHORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revista Ciencias Biomedicas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available REVISTA CIENCIAS BIOMEDICAS (Rev.cienc.biomed. is included in: IMBIOMED, ACADEMIC GOOGLE, ENCOLOMBIA.COM, GOOGLE SCHOLAR, DOAJ, PUBLINDEX, WORLD CAT and ACADEMIC.EDU. It receives original scientific articles about a variety of topics that keep relation with the health sciences, so much of basic as clinical application. These issues need to be inside knowledge area that could interest both undergraduate as postgraduate students, as well as professionals in the health area. The following recommendations should be considered. 1. Authorship. Each author must have contributed substantially to the successful development of the research process. According to international standards, the criteria that each author must meet are: • Substantial contributions to conception, design, data acquisition or analysis and data interpretation. • To write the article and to check it for intellectually important content. • Final approval of the version to be published. “Courtesy authors” identifications or designations will not be accepted if the researcher has not met the delineated criteria (e.g. head of school / department / research group that presents the paper. 2. Interest conflicts and funding. An author of an article to be considered may be involved in two types of interest conflicts. The first one relates directly to the work authors and the financial and personal relationships that could influence or bias the manuscript in some way. The second type of interest conflict is related to the financial backer of the research. The authors must admit and say when sending the paper if there is any interference or limitation of the financial backer with regard to the analysis and interpretation of the information, writing or manuscript submission. The existence or absence of interest conflicts must be specified at the end of the article. It must be also specified whether it has received money by way of funding, specifying the origins and codes of calls where

  7. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality

  8. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series D:Earth Sciences,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Press and Springer,is committed to publishing high-quality,original results in both basic and applied research.

  9. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is com- mitted to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  10. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series A: Mathematics, a peer re-view mathematical journal cosponsored by the Chi-nese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Sci-ence in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  11. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series B:Chemistry,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Press and Springer,is committed to pub-lishing high-quality

  12. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Science in China Series B: Chemistry, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to pub- lishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  13. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series A:Mathematics,a peer review mathematical journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Press and Springer,is committed to publishing high-quality,original results in both basic and applied research.

  14. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series G: Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  15. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series B: Chemistry, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to pub- lishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  16. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  17. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series C:Life Sciences,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Press and Springer,is committed to publishing high-quality,original results in both

  18. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is com-mitted to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  19. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  20. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Science in China Series A:Mathematics,a Peer re- view mathematical journal cosponsored by the Chi- nese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Sci- ence in China Press and Springer,is committed to publishing high-quality,original results in both basic and applied research.

  1. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science China Press and Springer, is committed to pub-lishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied

  2. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is com-mitted to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  3. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is com- mitted to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  4. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series A: Mathematics, a peer- reviewed mathematical journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is commit- ted to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  5. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Science in China Series C: Life Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality,

  6. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series C:Life Sciences,an academic jour-nal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and pub-lished by Science in China Press and Springer,is committed to publishing high-quality,original results in both basic and applied research.

  7. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series A: Mathematics, a peer review mathematical journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality,

  8. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series B: Chemistry, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied

  9. Instructions to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Journal of Resources and Ecology is an international journal for the publication of recent works in the related fields of natural resources and ecology.The journal was established in 2010 and is published quarterly.Journal of Resources and Ecology will consider manuscripts in the following categories:

  10. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series C: Life Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  11. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Science in China Series A-Mathematics is a monthly mathematical journal supervised by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and co-sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and National Natural Science Foundation of China. The subject areas featured include basic mathematics, applied mathematics, computational mathematics and science engineering computation, statistics, etc.

  12. Instructions to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry has renamed as the Journal of Energy Chemistry in 2013.The Journal of Energy Chemistry is a bimonthly Journal jointly edited by the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics and the Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry,Chinese Academy of Sciences.Elsevier will publish the Journal on ScienceDirect,the online full text and

  13. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Physics,Mechanics & Astronomy,a monthly peer-reviewed academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science China Press and Springer,is committed to publishing high-quality,original results in both basic and applied research.

  14. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Science in China Series D:Earth Sciences,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Press and Springer,is committed to publishing high-quality,original results in both basic and applied research.

  15. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series B:Chemistry, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  16. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series E:Technological Sciences,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Press and Springer,is committed to publishing high-quality,original results in both

  17. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series G: Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  18. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science jn China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  19. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series B:Chemistry,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Press and Springer,is committed to publishing high-quality,original results in both basic and applied

  20. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series E: Technological Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  1. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series B: Chemistry, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to pub-lishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research. Science in

  2. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series B: Chemistry, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  3. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series B: Chemistry, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to pub-lishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  4. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series B: Chemistry, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to pub-lishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  5. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series E:Technological Sciences,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Press and Springer,is committed to publishing high-quality,original results in both basic and applied research.

  6. Instructions to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry is a quarterly Journal jointly edited by the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics and the Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Starting in 2006, Elsevier will publish the Journal on ScienceDirect, the online full text and bibliographic information resource, and take care of the Journal's international institutional print subscriptions.

  7. Instructions to Author

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry is a bimonthlyJournal jointly edited by the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics and the Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2010.Starting in 2006, Elsevier published the Journal on ScienceDirect, the online full text and bibliographic information resource, and take care of the Journal's international institutional print subscriptions.

  8. Guide to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Aims and scope With the tenet of concerning ecology and serving economy, aimed at constructing a harmonious society of man and nature, Ecological Economy focuses on the sustainable development of economy and the ecological environment, and puts attention on theories, methods and technical innovations concerning ecological/green economy, recycling/circular economy and ecological/green industry.

  9. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science China Press and Springer, is committed to pub-lishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  10. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  11. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science China Press and Springer,is committed to pub-lishing high-quality,original results in both basic and applied research.

  12. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    SCIENCE CHINA Earth Sciences, an academic journal co-sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science China Press and Springer, is committed to pub-lishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.

  13. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is com-mitted to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic

  14. Compressive passive millimeter wave imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalsami, Nachappa; Liao, Shaolin; Elmer, Thomas W; Koehl, Eugene R; Heifetz, Alexander; Raptis, Apostolos C

    2015-01-27

    A compressive scanning approach for millimeter wave imaging and sensing. A Hadamard mask is positioned to receive millimeter waves from an object to be imaged. A subset of the full set of Hadamard acquisitions is sampled. The subset is used to reconstruct an image representing the object.

  15. Grid-free compressive beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation problem involves the localization of a few sources from a limited number of observations on an array of sensors, thus it can be formulated as a sparse signal reconstruction problem and solved efficiently with compressive sensing (CS) to achieve high...

  16. Compressing spatio-temporal trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Joachim; Katajainen, Jyrki; Merrick, Damian;

    2009-01-01

    A trajectory is a sequence of locations, each associated with a timestamp, describing the movement of a point. Trajectory data is becoming increasingly available and the size of recorded trajectories is getting larger. In this paper we study the problem of compressing planar trajectories such tha...

  17. Behaviour of (Th, U)O2 microspheres under compression tests and pelletization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interrelation between the behaviour of isolated microspheres in compression tests and the microstructure of sintered pellets obtained with these microspheres, was investigated. Various batches of (Th, 5 w/o U)O2 microspheres were produced applying the so-called gel process. The production parameters were diversified both as to the composition and to the heat treatments. The resulting products underwent compression tests in an universal tension and compression machine as single microspheres and, as bulk material, were compacted and sintered. The results of the compression tests revealed the existence of two distinct classes of fragmentation behaviour. Each of these classes causes a distinct behaviour during the pelletization, too, resulting in fuel pellets with quite different microstructures. It was evidenced that there is a relationship between these differences in the microstructure and the behaviour of the single microspheres in the compression test. (Author)

  18. NOTICE TO AUTHORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@CELL RESEARCH is an international academic journal, the only one publishes papers in En glish in all branches of animal and plant cell biology in China. It is edited by Shanghai Institute of Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, published and distributed by Science Press, Beijing, China, and New York Agency, Ltd., USA, as well as by the Institute. The journal started pub lication semiannully in 1990 and changed to quarterly beginning from Volume 8, in 1998. This periodical has been accepted to be included in Index Medicus and MEDLINE on the MEDLARS system beginning from volume7(1), 1997 by National Library of Medicine, USA, and it was informed recently by Institute for Scientific Information, USA that ISI will be indexing CELL RESEARCH beginning with volume 9(1), 1999 in the following products: Science Citation Index-Expanded, available as SciSearch on Dialog or as the ISI Web of Science on the Internet-Research Alert. Manuscripts must be written in a clear and concise style. The principle criteria for acceptance are originality and scientific excelence. Papers judged by two referees and a member of the Editorial Board to be inapppropriate for the journal's scope and content will be returned to author. One original and two copies of each manuscript should be submitted. Authors are encouraged to submit text by a computer disk (3.5' disk with clearly labbled file name) in IBM compatible PC in Word, Write, under Windows prograne, Wordperfect 5.1, WPS 3.0 or Wordstar 4.0. Text sent by e mail are also welcomed. These all should be accompanied with an identical hard copy printout. Manuscripts are requested to be send to Ms. Ai Lan CHANG, Editorial office of CELL RESEARCH, Shanghai Institute of Cell Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Yue-yang Road, Shanghai 200031, China. e-mail: edto@sunm.shcnc.ac.cn. Author(s) from other countries can also send their manuscript(s) to three reginal editors in UK or USA (Dr. Jing De ZHU, Cathcart Laboratory, Division of

  19. Brief Guide for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>The Crop Journal is a bimonthly scientific journal co-sponsored by the Crop Science Society of China and the Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and China Science Publishing&Media Group Ltd.Published by Elsevier and Science Press.General Requirements Contributions submitted to The Crop Journal must be original works of the author(s)that have not been previously published or simultaneously submitted to any other journals.The experiment related to crop yield should be conducted at

  20. Guidelines for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>TYPES OF ARTICLES●FORMATS OF ARTICLES●HOW TO SUBMIT A MANUSCRIPT●PUBLICATION FEES●TYPES OF ARTICLES1.Research articles Research articles belong to the full length article type,and should include elements as follows:title,running title,and byline;correspondent footnote;abstract;introduction;materials and methods;results;discussion;acknowledgements;author contributions;references;figure legends and figures/tables.The article length should not exceed 6,000 words,and detailed requirements are in the

  1. About 13 cases of medullary metastatic compression in breast cancer; A propos de 13 cas de compression medullaire metastatique du cancer du sein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahfoud, T.; Aassab, R.; Errihani, H. [Service d' oncologie medicale, Institut national d' oncologie, Rabat (Morocco); Mahfoud, T.; Khmamouche, M.R.; Debbagh, A.; Bazine, A.; Ichou, M. [Service d' oncologie medicale, Hopital militaire d' instruction Mohammed-V, Rabat (Morocco)

    2010-10-15

    As this issue is a diagnosis and therapeutic emergency, the authors report the development of a method to take into care medullary metastatic compression of the breast cancer. This study is based on 13 patients of a Rabat hospital over 3 years. Compressions have been observed by MRI. They have been treated by cortico-therapy and radiotherapy, but also by laminectomy in one case. The authors observed a improvement in terms of symptomatology, and a neurological recovery from the fourth week after the treatment. Short communication

  2. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Science in China Series A: Mathematics, a mathematical journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research. Science in China Series A: Mathematics is published monthly in both print and electronic forms. It is indexed by Chemical Abstracts Service, Personal Alert, Cur-

  3. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series C: Life Sciences, an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and published by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research.Science in China Series C: Life Sciences is published monthly in both print and electronic forms. It is indexed by Aquatic Science & Fisheries, Abstracts, BIOBASE, BioEngineering Abstracts, Biological Abstracts, BIOSIS,

  4. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series C: Life Sciences, an academic jour-nal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China, and pub-lished by Science in China Press and Springer, is committed to publishing high-quality, original results in both basic and applied research. Science in China Series C: Life Sciences is published monthly in both print and electronic forms. It is indexed by Aquatic Science & Fisheries, Abstracts, BIOBASE, BioEngineering

  5. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Science in China Series E-Technological Sciences (Sci China Ser E-Tech Sci) is a monthly peerreviewed academic journal supervised by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and co-sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and National Natural Science Foundation of China. Its primary mission is to encourage communication of basic and innova-tive research results of high quality in the fields of techno-logical sciences. The subject areas featured include materials,

  6. Instructions to Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry has renamed as the Journal of Energy Chemistry in 2013.The Journal of Energy Chemistry is a bimonthly Journal jointly edited by the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics and the Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry,Chinese Academy of Sciences.Elsevier will publish the Journal on ScienceDirect,the online full text and bibliographic information resource,and take care of the Journal’s international institutional print subscriptions.

  7. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    正>Science in China Series G-Physics,Mechanics & Astronomy(Sci China Ser G-Phys Mech Astrori) is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal supervised by the Chinese Academy of Sciences,and co-sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and National Natural Science Foundation of China.Its primary mission is to encourage communication of basic and innovative research results of high quality in the fields of physics,mechanics and astronomy.

  8. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series D:Earth Sciences,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Press and Springer,is committed to publishing high-quality,original results in both basic and applied research.Science in China Series D:Earth Sciences is published monthly in both print and electronic forms.It is indexed by

  9. Information for authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Science in China Series C:Life Sciences,an academic journal cosponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China,and published by Science in China Press and Springer,is committed to publishing high-quality,original results in both basic and applied research.Science in China Series C:Life Sciences is published monthly

  10. Instruction for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM) is an official international journal sponsored by Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research and Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. The purpose of CHM is to provide a forum for the studies on Chinese herbal medicines, phyto- medicines, and natural products as well. The journal will accept the following contributions: letters, research articles, review papers, short

  11. Spinal cord compression in two related Ursus arctos horribilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomovsky, Stephanie A; Chen, Annie V; Roberts, Greg R; Schmidt, Carrie E; Layton, Arthur W

    2012-09-01

    Two 15-yr-old grizzly bear littermates were evaluated within 9 mo of each other with the symptom of acute onset of progressive paraparesis and proprioceptive ataxia. The most significant clinical examination finding was pelvic limb paresis in both bears. Magnetic resonance examinations of both bears showed cranial thoracic spinal cord compression. The first bear had left-sided extradural, dorsolateral spinal cord compression at T3-T4. Vertebral canal stenosis was also observed at T2-T3. Images of the second bear showed lateral spinal cord compression from T2-T3 to T4-T5. Intervertebral disk disease and associated spinal cord compression was also observed at T2-T3 and T3-T4. One grizzly bear continued to deteriorate despite reduced exercise, steroid, and antibiotic therapy. The bear was euthanized, and a necropsy was performed. The postmortem showed a spinal ganglion cyst that caused spinal cord compression at the level of T3-T4. Wallerian-like degeneration was observed from C3-T6. The second bear was prescribed treatment that consisted of a combination of reduced exercise and steroid therapy. He continued to deteriorate with these medical therapies and was euthanized 4 mo after diagnosis. A necropsy showed hypertrophy and protrusion of the dorsal longitudinal ligament at T2-T3 and T3-T4, with resulting spinal cord compression in this region. Wallerian-like degeneration was observed from C2-L1. This is one of few case reports that describes paresis in bears. It is the only case report, to the authors' knowledge, that describes spinal magnetic resonance imaging findings in a grizzly bear and also the only report that describes a cranial thoracic myelopathy in two related grizzly bears with neurologic signs.

  12. INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Chinese Medical Journal (CMJ) and its electronic version are published monthly by the Chinese Medical Association and distributed worldwide. Manuscripts are welcome from any part of the world and should be sent to the Editorial Office, Chinese Medical Journal, Chinese Medical Association, 42 Dongsi Xidajie, Beijing 100710, China. Manuscripts. Manuscripts are received with the understanding that they have not previously been published in English and are not under simultaneous consideration for another publication and electronic medium. A complete report following presentation or publication of preliminary findings elsewhere (e.g., in an abstract) can be considered. A covering letter and an introduction letter from author's institution are needed. For multicenter clinical trial, at least one person's name must accompany a group name-e.g., Zhu Wenling, for the Collaborative Study Group on Thrombolysis with China-made Recombinant Streptokinase. All persons who meet the criteria for authorship as stated in the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals are listed as authors who must make substantial contributions to: ① conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data; ② the drafting of the article or critical revision for important intellectual content; and ③ the final approval of the version to be published. All three conditions must all be met.

  13. Efficient Compression of High Resolution Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.; Schuchardt, K. L.

    2011-12-01

    resolution climate data can be massive. Those data can consume a huge amount of disk space for storage, incur significant overhead for outputting data during simulation, introduce high latency for visualization and analysis, and may even make interactive visualization and analysis impossible given the limit of the data that a conventional cluster can handle. These problems can be alleviated by with effective and efficient data compression techniques. Even though HDF5 format supports compression, previous work has mainly focused on employ traditional general purpose compression schemes such as dictionary coder and block sorting based compression scheme. Those compression schemes mainly focus on encoding repeated byte sequences efficiently and are not well suitable for compressing climate data consist mainly of distinguished float point numbers. We plan to select and customize our compression schemes according to the characteristics of high-resolution climate data. One observation on high resolution climate data is that as the resolution become higher, values of various climate variables such as temperature and pressure, become closer in nearby cells. This provides excellent opportunities for predication-based compression schemes. We have performed a preliminary estimation of compression ratios of a very simple minded predication-based compression ratio in which we compute the difference between current float point number with previous float point number and then encoding the exponent and significance part of the float point number with entropy-based compression scheme. Our results show that we can achieve higher compression ratios between 2 and 3 in lossless compression, which is significantly higher than traditional compression algorithms. We have also developed lossy compression with our techniques. We can achive orders of magnitude data reduction while ensure error bounds. Moreover, our compression scheme is much more efficient and introduces much less overhead

  14. Considerations and Algorithms for Compression of Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Jesper

    We consider compression of unordered sets of distinct elements. After a discus- sion of the general problem, we focus on compressing sets of fixed-length bitstrings in the presence of statistical information. We survey techniques from previous work, suggesting some adjustments, and propose a nove...... compression algorithm that allows transparent incorporation of various estimates for probability distribution. Our experimental results allow the conclusion that set compression can benefit from incorporat- ing statistics, using our method or variants of previously known techniques....

  15. Compression of dynamic fuzzy relation information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Mingjie; Li, Qingguo; Lang, Guangming

    2012-01-01

    This paper further investigates the data compression of fuzzy relation information systems. First, we introduce an algorithm for constructing the homomorphism between fuzzy relation information systems. Then, we discuss that how to compress the dynamic fuzzy relation information systems by utilizing the compression of the original systems. Afterwards, several illustrative examples are employed to show that the data compression of fuzzy relation information systems and dynamic fuzzy relation i...

  16. Cascaded quadratic soliton compression at 800 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Moses, Jeffrey;

    2007-01-01

    We study soliton compression in quadratic nonlinear materials at 800 nm, where group-velocity mismatch dominates. We develop a nonlocal theory showing that efficient compression depends strongly on characteristic nonlocal time scales related to pulse dispersion.......We study soliton compression in quadratic nonlinear materials at 800 nm, where group-velocity mismatch dominates. We develop a nonlocal theory showing that efficient compression depends strongly on characteristic nonlocal time scales related to pulse dispersion....

  17. Image quality (IQ) guided multispectral image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Chen, Genshe; Wang, Zhonghai; Blasch, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Image compression is necessary for data transportation, which saves both transferring time and storage space. In this paper, we focus on our discussion on lossy compression. There are many standard image formats and corresponding compression algorithms, for examples, JPEG (DCT -- discrete cosine transform), JPEG 2000 (DWT -- discrete wavelet transform), BPG (better portable graphics) and TIFF (LZW -- Lempel-Ziv-Welch). The image quality (IQ) of decompressed image will be measured by numerical metrics such as root mean square error (RMSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and structural Similarity (SSIM) Index. Given an image and a specified IQ, we will investigate how to select a compression method and its parameters to achieve an expected compression. Our scenario consists of 3 steps. The first step is to compress a set of interested images by varying parameters and compute their IQs for each compression method. The second step is to create several regression models per compression method after analyzing the IQ-measurement versus compression-parameter from a number of compressed images. The third step is to compress the given image with the specified IQ using the selected compression method (JPEG, JPEG2000, BPG, or TIFF) according to the regressed models. The IQ may be specified by a compression ratio (e.g., 100), then we will select the compression method of the highest IQ (SSIM, or PSNR). Or the IQ may be specified by a IQ metric (e.g., SSIM = 0.8, or PSNR = 50), then we will select the compression method of the highest compression ratio. Our experiments tested on thermal (long-wave infrared) images (in gray scales) showed very promising results.

  18. Compressed ethylene phase states and their importance for the production of low density polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Stoiljković Dragoslav; Damjanović Budimir; Đorđević Jovica; Špehar Danko; Jovanović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    In the last three decades the authors have published papers on the concept of the supra-molecular organization and the phase state of compressed ethylene gas and their effects on the mechanism and kinetics of free-radical ethylene polymerization. The effects on the macromolecular structure of low density polyethylene (LDPE) were also explained. The importance of the phase state of compressed ethylene on the industrial process of LDPE production are presented in this paper: The start-up of pol...

  19. Compression Strength Testing for Automotive Brake Pads Used in Earthquake Energy Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Voiculescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to calibrate a friction damper which uses automotive brake pads it is necessary to determine the compression behaviour of the friction material. This paper summarizes the experimental results obtained for a set of automotive brake pads made in Romania. These results are useful in order to determine the slip load level in a seismic energy dissipation mechanism which uses this type of friction pads. The paper presents the experimental set up and the compression behaviour curves obtained for a set of four commercial brake pads. The testing was performed by the author as a part of his research work, using a hydraulic compression press.

  20. Spinal cord compression in {beta}-thalassemia: follow-up after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Silvana Fahel da; Figueiredo, Maria Stella; Cancado, Rodolfo Delfini; Nakadakare, Fernando; Segreto, Roberto; Kerbauy, Jose [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina

    1998-12-01

    Spinal cord compression due to extramedullary hematopoiesis is a well-described bu rare syndrome encountered in several hematologic disorders, including {beta}-thalassemia. We report a case of a patient with intermediate {beta}-thalassemia and crural paraparesis due to spinal cord compression by a paravertebral extramedullary mass. She was successfully treated with low-dose radiotherapy and transfusions. After splenectomy, she was regularly followed up for over four years without transfusion or recurrence of spinal cord compression. Extramedullary hematopoiesis should be investigated in patients with hematologic disorders and spinal cord symptoms. The rapid recognition and treatment with radiotherapy can dramatically alleviate symptoms. (author)