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Sample records for authorities rawalpindi pakistan

  1. Differences in reporting of violence and deliberate self harm related injuries to health and police authorities, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

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    Umar Farooq

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of study was to assess differences in reporting of violence and deliberate self harm (DSH related injuries to police and emergency department (ED in an urban town of Pakistan. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Study setting was Rawalpindi city of 1.6 million inhabitants. Incidences of violence and DSH related injuries and deaths were estimated from record linkage of police and ED data. These were then compared to reported figures in both datasets. All persons reporting violence and DSH related injury to the police station, the public hospital's ED, or both in Rawalpindi city from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2008 were included. In Rawalpindi city, 1016 intentional injury victims reported to police whereas 3012 reported to ED. Comparing violence related fatality estimates (N = 56, 95% CI: 46-64, police reported 75.0% and ED reported 42.8% of them. Comparing violence related injury estimates (N = 7990, 95% CI: 7322-8565, police reported 12.1% and ED reported 33.2% of them. Comparing DSH related fatality estimates (N = 17, 95% CI: 4-30, police reported 17.7% and ED reported 47.1% of them. Comparing DSH related injury estimates (N = 809, 95% CI: 101-1516, police reported 0.5% and ED reported 39.9% of them. CONCLUSION: In Rawalpindi city, police records were more likely to be complete for violence related deaths as compared to injuries due to same mechanism. As compared to ED, police reported DSH related injuries and deaths far less than those due to other types of violence.

  2. Heavy metal contamination in vegetables grown in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) contents of various vegetables (bitter melon, tomato, eggplant, lettuce, cucumber and bell pepper) produced in Rawalpindi, Pakistan was determined using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). These plants are the basis of human nutrition in the study area. All vegetables grown at sewage water by farmers showed the highest contamination of heavy metals, followed by local market, Progressive farmers and hydroponic plant. The concentration ranges in mg/kg were (1.45 -2.55) for Cd, (3.10 to 4.92) Cr, (12.15- 20.50) Cu, (25.00-51.00) for Fe, (7.80 to 15.60) for Mn, (10.16 to 15.42) for Ni, (2.12 to 5.41) Pb and (16.58 to 24.08) for zinc. The contamination was above the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs), set out by WHO. Irregular trends in concentration were also observed in vegetables obtained from local market, progressive farmers and hydroponic plant. (author)

  3. Drinking water quality in Pakistan: a case study of Islamabad and Rawalpindi cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generally, major cities of Pakistan are facing problems of shortage of municipal water supplies as the water requirements are increasing due to rapid urbanization. The water being supplied to many cosmopolitan cities and towns is generally of poor quality. Microbial contamination of drinking water is responsible for directly or indirectly spreading major infections and parasitic diseases such as Cholera, Typhoid, Dysentery, Hepatitis, Giardiasis, Cryptosporidiosis and Guinea worm. The Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) has launched a major programme of water quality monitoring in the country to document the existing water quality status. The PCRWR has recently completed water quality assessment studies in twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. For monitoring purposes, grids of 2x2 and 3x3 km were established for Islamabad and Rawalpindi respectively. In total, thirty-nine water-sampling points were established. Apart from the groundwater samples, eight samples from surface water sources in Islamabad and one from Rawalpindi were collected. Water samples were collected in 200 ml sterilized containers during July 2001. In both cities, most of water samples except for Simly Reservoir in Islamabad, and Chitti Tanki in Rawalpindi were found fit with respect to color, odor and taste. The average EC values were 0.56 and 0.81 dS m/sup -1/ for Islamabad and Rawalpindi, respectively. The pH of collected samples varied from 7 to 8.3. Arsenic, chloride, chromium, fluoride, nitrate, sodium, and water hardness were within the safe limit. The Lead concentration however, was found within safe limits in only 21% samples. The quality of drinking water in both cities in respect of bacterial contamination was very poor. Only 25% samples in Islamabad and 13% samples in Rawalpindi were found fit for drinking purpose. Water samples collected from the points nearest to the source were free from bacterial contamination. It is concluded that the problem of bacterial

  4. Delay in diagnosis of tuberculosis in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

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    Tahseen Sabira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delay in diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB may enhance the chances of morbidity and mortality and play a key role in continuous transmission of the bacilli. The objective of this study was to describe health care seeking behavior of suspected TB patients and initial diagnostic work up prior to consultation and diagnosis at National TB Center (NTC. Findings Interviews of 252 sputum smear positive patients were taken from NTC, Rawalpindi. The duration between on-set of symptoms and start of treatment was considered as the total delay and correlated with general characteristics of TB patients. The proportion of males and females were 49.6% and 50.4% with median age of 25 and 24 years respectively. A median delay of 56 days (8 weeks was observed which was significantly associated with age, cough and fever. More than 50% of the current patients had a history of contact with previously diagnosed TB patients. The majority of patients (63% visited health care providers within three weeks of appearance of symptoms but only thirty five percent were investigated for TB diagnosis. Conclusion Cough and fever are being ignored as likely symptoms of TB by patients as well as health care providers resulting in delay. Engaging private practitioners through public private mix (PPM approach for expansion of TB diagnosis and increasing public awareness could be more beneficial to reduce delay.

  5. Awareness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in medical-students and doctors in Rawalpindi-Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the level of awareness regarding basic and practical knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and its importance in the eyes of medical/dental students and doctors. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in medical and dental colleges as well as hospitals of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, from June to September 2011. Non-probability convenience sampling was used and structured questionnaires on basic and practical knowledge of the procedure were distributed. The questionnaire had 26 items related to basic and advanced knowledge of the required skills. Doctors were divided into two groups based on their years of service and practice. Those with less than 5 years' experience were grouped as junior doctors, while rest as senior doctors. Descriptive statistics were employed to analyse the data using SPPS version 17 and Microsoft Excel. Percentages were worked out and the results were interpreted. Result: Of the 1000 questionnaires distributed, 646 (64.6%) were received duly filled and represented the study sample. Of the 646 participants, 34 (5.26%) were dentists, 424 (65.63%) were medical students, 92 (14.24%) were doctors and 96 (14.86%) were dental students. Basic knowledge of doctors was found to be better than that of dentists (n=96; 50% vs. n=8; 23%). Similarly, the advance knowledge of doctors was better than the dentists (n=53; 58% vs. n=11; 31%). The basic knowledge of junior doctors was found to be almost equal to the senior doctors (n=26; 44.75% vs. n=15; 45.5%). The advance knowledge of junior doctors was found to be better than the senior doctors (n=27; 45.37% vs. n=10; 29.48%). Among the students, 157 (37%) of the medical students had basic knowledge of CPR, while 36 (38%) dental students had basic knowledge of the topic. Medical students had more advanced knowledge (n=157; 37%) than dental students (n=34; 35%). Conclusion: The awareness of basic and advance knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills in medical

  6. Radon measurement studies in workplace buildings of the Rawalpindi region and Islamabad Capital area, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S.U.; Anwar, J. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Rafique, M. [Department of Physics, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir (Pakistan); Matiullah [Physics Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2010-02-15

    A survey concerning measurement of the indoor radon levels has been carried out in 105 workplaces of the Rawalpindi region and Islamabad Capital Territory using CR-39 based radon detectors. The main objective of this study was to assess the health hazard due to the indoor radon. CR-39 based NRPB type detectors were installed in offices/rooms located on first floors, ground floors and basements and were exposed to indoor radon for six months. The measured indoor radon concentration in the buildings surveyed ranged from 12 {+-} 5 to 293 {+-} 19 Bq m{sup -3} with an overall mean value of 64 {+-} 32 Bq m{sup -3}. The highest mean radon concentration (113 {+-} 48 Bq m{sup -3}) was observed in the offices located in basements of the Rawalpindi city. The overall average annual effective dose in the studied workplaces was estimated to be 0.61 {+-} 0.30 mSv. The mean annual effective doses in basements, ground floor and first floor were found to be 0.87 {+-} 0.34 mSv, 0.55 {+-} 0.28 mSv, and 0.47 {+-} 0.29 mSv, respectively. These values are less than the action level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  7. Diet intake trends among pregnant women in rural area of rawalpindi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract: Background: Adequate and healthy diet during pregnancy is essential for the health of both mother and new-born. This study was designed to know the health status of pregnant women and new-born by determining food taking habits of pregnant women. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on pregnant women of 2nd and 3rd trimester in a rural area of district Rawalpindi. Food frequency questionnaire and 24 hours dietary recall methods were used to identify their food consumption practices. Analysis was done by SPSS, while Nutrisurvey software was used to check the presence of Vitamin A, C, and Iron in specific fruits or vegetables. Results: A total of 110 pregnant women participated in the study. Most of them were illiterate, had low household income, and unemployed. Intake of meal frequency was according to the standards of Institute of Medicine (IOM), but food group consumption was not according to the recommendations of the United State Department of Agriculture (USDA). Most participants 102 (93.2%) knew that food is important during pregnancy. However a increase in frequency intake was observed in 63 (57.3%); while, 19 (17.3%) reported no change in food intake practices. About 67 (61%) were taking some sort of dietary supplements. Avoidance of any food 24 (22%), intake of additional food 51 (46%), craving 86 (78%), and aversion to any sort of food 42 (38%) was also identified in the study sample. No significant association was found between food group consumption, food availability and accessibility. Dietary diversity score, calculated according to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) guidelines, indicated that about half study participants were not consuming adequate food. Conclusion: Study results show that food intake practices of pregnant women in the study area were not satisfactory. (author)

  8. Physioeconomic Poverty Analysis of Grade 1 Employees of Rawalpindi City, Pakistan

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    Sabeen Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty though a universal phenomenon, is the worst challenge in the modern era, which is termed as the age of information and technology. The present study was designed to estimate the incidence of poverty for the grade I employees of Rawalpindi city. Determinants of poverty were explored by using Probit model, which was significant in the determination of the poverty status of the household. Following variables were used in the model; household size, education, experience, working individual, extra income and migration are the variables. For that objective, data from 150 household were collected through questionnaires. The results of the poverty indices showed that about twenty percent households were poor among grade 1 employees of Rawalpindi city. The result of probit models indicated that having large household size, with no extra income and migrants were increasing the probability of being poor while educational attainment and experiences did not had significant effect. On the other hand working individuals and migration were decreasing the probability of being poor.

  9. Analysis of elemental concentration using ICP-AES and pathogen indicator in drinking water of Qasim Abad, District Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

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    Sehar, Shama; Naz, Iffat; Ali, Naeem; Ahmed, Safia

    2013-02-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate drinking water quality (groundwater) from water samples taken from Qasim Abad, a locality of approximately 5,000 population, situated between twin cities Rawalpindi and Islamabad in Pakistan. The main sources of drinking water in this area are water bores which are dug upto the depth of 250-280 ft in almost every house. The study consists of the determination of physico-chemical properties, trace metals, heavy metals, rare earth elements and microbiological quality of drinking water. The data showed the variation of the investigated parameters in samples as follows: pH 6.75 to 8.70, electrical conductivity 540 to 855 μS/cm, total dissolved solids 325.46 to 515.23 ppm and dissolved oxygen 1.50 to 5.64 mg/L which are within the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality. The water samples were analysed for 30 elements (aluminium, iron, magnesium, manganese, silicon, zinc, molybdenum, titanium, chromium, nickel, tungsten, silver, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, gallium, mercury, lanthanum, niobium, neodymium, lead, selenium, samarium, tin, vanadium and zirconium) by using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The organic contamination was detected in terms of most probable number (MPN) of faecal coliforms. Overall, elemental levels were lower than the recommended values but three water bores (B-1, B-6, B-7) had higher values of iron (1.6, 2.206, 0.65 ppm), two water bores (B-1, B-6) had higher values of aluminium (0.95, 1.92 ppm), respectively, and molybdenum was higher by 0.01 ppm only in one water bore (B-11). The total number of coliforms present in water samples was found to be within the prescribed limit of the WHO except for 5 out of 11 bore water samples (B-2, B-3, B-4, B-8, B-11), which were found in the range 5-35 MPN/100 mL, a consequence of infiltration of contaminated water (sewage) through cross connection, leakage points and back siphoning. PMID:22544071

  10. Probiotics are effective in alleviating infantile colic; results of a randomized controlled trial held at benazir bhutto hospital rawalpindi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the role of probiotics in alleviating infantile colic (IC) while targeting local population. In case of a positive outcome, its use could be suggested in pediatric health care facilities. Methodology: It was a non-blinded randomized control trial conducted at the department of pediatrics, Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi from 4th October 2012 to 3rd April 2013. Through non-probability consecutive sampling we included breast-fed infants of either sex of age 3 weeks (21 days) to 3 months (90 days) diagnosed with IC based on Wessel description. We divided them into two groups i.e. group-A and B who were given probiotics containing Lactobacillus reuteri and simethicone respectively. Results: Of 90 children, 45 children were in each group. Group-A had a mean age 48 ± 17 days and group-B had a mean age 50 ± 17 days. Maximum infants were in sub-group 21 - 45 days (55.6% and 51.1% respectively) in both the groups. The male gender dominated both groups (64.4% and 57.7% respectively). Significantly large percentage (p<0.001) of infants in group-A (86.7%) reached the landmark set for the efficacy confirmation than group-B (51.1%). The mean crying time for the group-A (39 ± 53 minutes) at the end of treatment was significantly shorter (p<0.001) than that of group-B (113 ± 54 minutes). No side effect was reported in the whole sample. Conclusion: Probiotics containing Lactobacillus reuteri significantly improved symptoms in managing IC than simethicaone with no side effects. (author)

  11. Estimation of radioactivity level and associated radiological hazards of limestone and gypsum used as raw building materials in Rawalpindi/Islamabad region of Pakistan.

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    Gul, Rahmat; Ali, Safdar; Hussain, Manzur

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to asses the radioactivity level of limestone and gypsum and its associated radiological hazard due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials. Representative samples of limestone and gypsum were collected from cement factories located in the Rawalpindi/Islamabad region of Pakistan and were analysed by using an N-type high-purity germanium detector of 80 % relative efficiency. The average activity concentration of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were 60.22±3.47, 29.25±5.23 and 4.07±3.31 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in limestone and 70.86±4.1, 5.01±2.10 and 4.49±3.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in gypsum. The radiological hazard parameters radium equivalent activities, absorbed dose rate in air, external hazard index, internal hazard index, annual effective dose equivalent, gamma index and alpha index were computed. The results of the average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th and radiological hazard parameters were within the range of the reported average worldwide/United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation values. It is concluded that limestone and gypsum used in the Rawalpindi/Islamabad region does not pose any excessive radiological health hazard as a building raw materials and in industrial uses.

  12. Assessment of the dose received by students and staff in schools in the Rawalpindi region of Pakistan due to indoor radon

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    Rahman, S U; Anwar, J [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Matiullah [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2009-06-15

    Studies concerning measurements of indoor radon levels were carried out in 60 schools in the Rawalpindi region of Pakistan. In each school, six CR-39 based NRPB type radon detectors were installed and exposed to the indoor radon in two cycles (each of six months' duration). After exposure, the detectors were removed, etched in 6 M NaOH for 16 h at 80 deg. C, and the tracks were counted under an optical microscope. The measured track densities were then related to radon concentrations, from which the radiation doses were calculated. The observed radon concentrations varied from 15 to 140 Bq m{sup -3}, with an average activity concentration of 42.75 {+-} 9.28 Bq m{sup -3}. The mean annual radon effective dose equivalent was found to be 0.40 {+-} 0.09 mSv using an occupancy factor of 8 h day{sup -1}. Our results show that the indoor radon concentrations in the schools surveyed are within the permissible limits. (note)

  13. Assessment of the dose received by students and staff in schools in the Rawalpindi region of Pakistan due to indoor radon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S U; Matiullah; Anwar, J

    2009-06-01

    Studies concerning measurements of indoor radon levels were carried out in 60 schools in the Rawalpindi region of Pakistan. In each school, six CR-39 based NRPB type radon detectors were installed and exposed to the indoor radon in two cycles (each of six months' duration). After exposure, the detectors were removed, etched in 6 M NaOH for 16 h at 80 degrees C, and the tracks were counted under an optical microscope. The measured track densities were then related to radon concentrations, from which the radiation doses were calculated. The observed radon concentrations varied from 15 to 140 Bq m(-3), with an average activity concentration of 42.75 +/- 9.28 Bq m(-3). The mean annual radon effective dose equivalent was found to be 0.40 +/- 0.09 mSv using an occupancy factor of 8 h day(-1). Our results show that the indoor radon concentrations in the schools surveyed are within the permissible limits.

  14. Source, profile, and carcinogenic risk assessment for cohorts occupationally exposed to dust-bound PAHs in Lahore and Rawalpindi cities (Punjab province, Pakistan).

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    Kamal, Atif; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Martellini, Tania; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the occurrence and concentrations of PAHs in dust samples, which were collected from the traffic police cabins/working spots, located on the main busy roads of Lahore (TP-L) and Rawalpindi (TP-R) cities (Punjab province, Pakistan) and from the public transport vehicles in the same cities (named as AM-L and AM-R, respectively) were determined. The mean and median concentrations of ∑PAHs were observed in the following descending order: AM-L (1340 and 774 ng g(-1) d.w., respectively), TP-L (866 and 854 ng g(-1) d.w.), TP-R (504 and 379 ng g(-1) d.w.), and AM-R (393 and 290 ng g(-1) d.w. Source apportionment of the soil/dust-bound PAHs was also performed. In all the sampling areas, the diagnostic ratios, principal component analysis (PCA) followed by multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis indicated signatures of mixed sources of PAHs (including vehicular exhaust emission, gasoline/diesel, and coal/wood combustion). Estimated results of incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) indicated that the traffic policemen and drivers, especially those in the urban area of Lahore, were at high risk of cancer via routes of dust ingestion and dermal contact. The results of this research could be very useful for the local Government in order to control the exposure and promote actions to alleviate PAH contamination and to manage health both at work places in the big cities of Pakistan. PMID:25739839

  15. Prevalence of sensitization to food allergens and challenge proven food allergy in patients visiting allergy centers in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Muhammad; Shafique, Rubaba Hamid; Roohi, Nabila; Irfan, Muhammad; Abbas, Shahid; Ismail, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the prevalence of food allergy in the adult allergic patients of Rawalpindi and Islamabad , Pakistan, based on self-report, skin prick test (SPT) and oral food challenge test (OFC). SPT was used for the estimation of sensitization to wheat, egg, milk, beef, chicken, mutton, fish, corn, lentils, rice, soya, peanut and banana. Among 689 patients, 39.19 % showed sensitivity to one or more foods, where, sensitization to wheat (156; 22.6 %) was highest, followed by egg (148; 21.48 %) and milk (138; 20.03 %). Sensitization to various proteins ranged between 15.53-15.97 %, while lentils, corn, rice, soya and peanut sensitization was 15.4, 16, 12.5, 12 and 11.5 % respectively. Only 7.1 % patients were SPT positive for banana allergen. SPT was performed in patients with self-reported food allergy (341/689) and also with no self-reported history of food allergy (348/689). SPT results were positive in 69.8 % of the self-report group, whereas, in the patients with no self-reported food allergy 9.2 % were found sensitized to one or more tested food allergens. 101 patients were recruited for OFC, 61 % of these were confirmed of food allergy. The prevalence of food allergy in the study population was 9 %. Food specific OFC results show that wheat allergy is affecting 1.6 % (95 % CI 0.9-2.84 %) of the total allergy patients, followed by egg allergy 1.31 % (95 % CI 0.70-2.47 %). Furthermore, corn allergy, rice allergy and peanut allergy were 1.02, 0.87 and 0.73 %, respectively. In conclusion, wheat allergy is the most prevalent, followed by egg, chicken, beef and fish allergy, respectively. PMID:27563525

  16. Groundwater quality assessment and its correlation with gastroenteritis using GIS: a case study of Rawal Town, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Syed Umair; Iqbal, Javed; Hasnain, Ghalib

    2014-11-01

    Majority of the people of Pakistan get drinking water from groundwater source. Nearly 40 % of the total ailments reported in Pakistan are the result of dirty drinking water. Every summer, thousands of patients suffer from acute gastroenteritis in the Rawal Town. Therefore, a study was designed to generate a water quality index map of the Rawal Town and identify the relationship between bacteriological water quality and socio-economic indicators with gastroenteritis in the study area. Water quality and gastroenteritis patient data were collected by surveying the 262 tubewells and the major hospitals in the Rawal Town. The collected spatial data was analyzed by using ArcGIS spatial analyst (Moran's I spatial autocorrelation) and geostatistical analysis tools (inverse distance weighted, radial basis function, kriging, and cokriging). The water quality index (WQI) for the study area was computed using pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids, calcium, hardness, alkalinity, and chloride values of the 262 tubewells. The results of Moran's I spatial autocorrelation showed that the groundwater physicochemical parameters were clustered. Among IDW, radial basis function, and kriging and cokriging interpolation techniques, cokriging showed the lowest root mean square error. Cokriging was used to make the spatial distribution maps of water quality parameters. The WQI results showed that more than half of the tubewells in the Rawal Town were providing "poor" to "unfit" drinking water. The Pearson's coefficient of correlation for gastroenteritis with fecal coliform was found significant (P < 0.05) in Water and Sanitation Agency (WASA) zone 2, and with shortage of toilets, it was significant (P < 0.05) in WASA zones 1 and 3. However, it was significantly (P < 0.01) inversely related with literacy rate in WASA zones 1, 2, and 3.

  17. Spatial distribution and insecticide susceptibility status of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in dengue affected urban areas of Rawalpindi, Pakistan

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    Ali Arslan

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: The results suggested that all the field populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus existed together and showed qualitative changes in their susceptibility status. Resistance against deltamethrin and lambdacyhalothrin was not confirmed and further investigation was recommended to confirm the change in their susceptibility status. This study could help public health authorities to apply simultaneous control activities on both species due to their coexistence and also resistance management strategies should be formulated to slow down the process of development of resistance.

  18. Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Pakistan's background notes which profile the population, geography, government, and the economy contain a capsule of selected country statistics and a descriptive text. Pakistan has 117 million people distributed at 134/sq km with a growth rate of 3%. The major cities are Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Karachi, Lahore, and Faisalabad. Ethnic groups include the Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluch, and Huhajirs. 97% are Muslim. Urdu is the official language, but 65% speak Punjabi, 11% Sindhi, and 24% other languages. 26% are literate. Infant mortality is 109/1000. 54% are involved in agriculture, 33% services, and 13% in industry. A parliamentary democracy was established in 1947 with an executive, legislative, and judicial branch of government. The Islamic Democratic Alliance is the most important national party. Voting rights are for those 21 years. Seats are reserved for non-Muslims. There are 4 political subdivisions. Gross national product (GNP) was $43 billion in 1990. The economic growth rate is 5% and 2%/capita. The natural resources are arable land, natural gas, petroleum, coal, iron ore, and hydropower potential. Agricultural products include wheat, cotton, rice, and sugarcane. Industry includes textiles, fertilizer, steel products, food processing, and oil and gas products. Major trade partners are Japan, the US, the United Kingdom, and Saudi Arabia. Economic aid was $36 billion between 1947-85, of which the US contributed 3 billion between 1981-87. Major donors are id entified. The population concentration is around Karachi. Political unrest has prevailed for 26 years and includes the creation of Bangladesh in 1970 from East Pakistan. Pakistan is considered to have the resources and entrepreneurial skills to develop economically rapidly. Defense strength is characterized as the world's 11th largest. Pakistan is nonaligned, but a member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference and the UN. Relations with India have been difficult. There is a desire for a stable

  19. An all time low utilization of intrauterine contraceptive device as a birth spacing method- a qualitative descriptive study in district Rawalpindi, Pakistan

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    Khan Amna

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pakistan was among the leading countries in south Asia which started the family planning program in late 50s, forecasting the need to control the population. Despite this early intervention, fertility rate has declined but slower in Pakistan as compared to most other Asian countries. Pakistan has almost a stagnant contraceptive prevalence rate for more than a decade now, perhaps owing to the inadequate performance of the family planning programs. The provision and use of long term contraceptives such as IUCD has always been low (around 2% and associated with numerous issues. Married women who want to wait before having another child, or end childbearing altogether, are not using any long term method of contraception. Methodology A descriptive qualitative study was conducted from May to July 2012, to explore and understand the perceptions of women regarding the use of IUCDs and to understand the challenges/issues at the service provider’s end. Six FGDs with community women and 12 in-depth interviews were conducted with family planning providers. The data was analyzed using the Qualitative Content Analysis approach. Results The study revealed that the family planning clients are reluctant to use IUCDs because of a number of myths and misconceptions associated with the method. They have reservations about the provider’s capability and quality of care at the facility. Private health providers are not motivated and are reluctant to provide the IUCDs because of inadequate counseling skills, lack of competence and improper supporting infrastructure. Government programs either do not have enough supplies or trained staff to promote the IUCD utilization. Conclusion Besides a well-designed community awareness campaign, providers’ communication and counseling skills have to be enhanced, as these are major contributing factors in IUCD acceptance. Ongoing training of all family planning service providers in IUCD insertion is very

  20. Pakistan. Spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, M

    1985-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Pakistan is on demographic factors, the issue of ethnic versus national solidarity, and economic and social development. The population was estimated at 99.2 million in 1985. The birthrate was 43/1000 in 1984 and the deaths were 15/1000. The infant mortality rate is 105 infant deaths/1000 live births, and life expectancy at birth is 51 years. In 1983 the gross national product per capita was US$390. The population of Pakistan is concentrated around Karachi on the Arabian Sea and in the crescent formed by Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar. Pakistan was a British colony, part of the Indian subcontinent until partition in 1947, when Britain gave Pakistan and India their freedom. Pakistan is not a theocracy, but the military government turns to traditional Islam for affirmation of its authority. Its martial law regime, established in 1977, is headed by President Ziaul Haq. The issue of ethnic versus national solidarity has been a problem since independence. Bengali-speaking East Pakistanis felt they did not have equal power in their country whose official language was Urdu and whose capital was in West Pakistan. East and West Pakistan ended up in armed conflict with the formation of Bangladesh in 1971 as the result. Regional and ethnic conflict is exacerbated by the low rate of literacy and the low status of certain ethnic groups in Pakistan. In addition, Pakistan suffers problems typical of many developing nations: a low per capita income, a large and growing population, and a highly stratified traditional society. In 1981 doctors, engineers, and craftsmen were in short supply, but there was a surplus of 300,000 agricultural workers. Agriculture makes up 30% of the GNP and employs 55% of the work force. In Pakistan's 6th Five Year Plan, initiated in July 1983, the government acknowledged for the 1st time the extremely poor conditions for women as indicated by literacy, health, and fertility. The total fertility rate is 6.4 average births

  1. Pakistan. Spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, M

    1985-01-01

    Focus in this discussion of Pakistan is on demographic factors, the issue of ethnic versus national solidarity, and economic and social development. The population was estimated at 99.2 million in 1985. The birthrate was 43/1000 in 1984 and the deaths were 15/1000. The infant mortality rate is 105 infant deaths/1000 live births, and life expectancy at birth is 51 years. In 1983 the gross national product per capita was US$390. The population of Pakistan is concentrated around Karachi on the Arabian Sea and in the crescent formed by Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar. Pakistan was a British colony, part of the Indian subcontinent until partition in 1947, when Britain gave Pakistan and India their freedom. Pakistan is not a theocracy, but the military government turns to traditional Islam for affirmation of its authority. Its martial law regime, established in 1977, is headed by President Ziaul Haq. The issue of ethnic versus national solidarity has been a problem since independence. Bengali-speaking East Pakistanis felt they did not have equal power in their country whose official language was Urdu and whose capital was in West Pakistan. East and West Pakistan ended up in armed conflict with the formation of Bangladesh in 1971 as the result. Regional and ethnic conflict is exacerbated by the low rate of literacy and the low status of certain ethnic groups in Pakistan. In addition, Pakistan suffers problems typical of many developing nations: a low per capita income, a large and growing population, and a highly stratified traditional society. In 1981 doctors, engineers, and craftsmen were in short supply, but there was a surplus of 300,000 agricultural workers. Agriculture makes up 30% of the GNP and employs 55% of the work force. In Pakistan's 6th Five Year Plan, initiated in July 1983, the government acknowledged for the 1st time the extremely poor conditions for women as indicated by literacy, health, and fertility. The total fertility rate is 6.4 average births

  2. Air pollution monitoring in urban areas due to heavy transportation and industries: a case of rawalpindi and islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the air pollution caused by Industry and transportation in urban areas of Pakistan. Rawalpindi and Islamabad, the twin cities of Pakistan were considered for this purpose. The concentrations of major air pollutants were taken from different location according their standard time period using Air Quality Monitoring Station. Five major air pollutants were considered i.e., NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, CO, O/sub 3/ and PM/sub 2.5/. The average mean values for all pollutants were taken on monthly and four monthly bases. The concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5 were exceeding the permissible limits as define by Environmental Protection Agency of Pakistan. Other pollutants concentrations were within the standard limits. Geographic Information System was used as a tool for the representation and analysis of Environmental Impacts of air pollution. Passquill and Smith dispersion model was used to calculate the buffer zones. Some mitigation measures were also recommended to assess the environmental and health Impacts because of PM/sub 2.5/ and NO/sub 2/. (author)

  3. Emergency care outcomes of acute chemical poisoning cases in Rawalpindi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrar Rafique; Umbreen Akhtar; Umar Farooq; Mussadiq Khan; Junaid Ahmad Bhatti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the emergency care outcomes of acute chemical poisoning cases in tertiary care settings in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods: The data were extracted from an injury surveillance study conducted in the emergency departments (ED) of three tertiary care hospitals of Rawalpindi city from July 2007 to June 2008. The World Health Organization standard reporting questionnaire (one page) was used for recording information. Associations of patients' characteristics with ED care outcomes, i.e., admitted vs. discharged were assessed using logistic regression models. Results: Of 62 530 injury cases reported, chemical poisoning was identified in 434 (0.7%) cases. The most frequent patient characteristics were poisoning at home (61.9%), male gender (58.6%), involving self-harm (46.0%), and youth aged 20–29 years (43.3%). Over two-thirds of acute poisoning cases (69.0%) were admitted. Acute poisoning cases were more likely to be admitted if they were youth aged 10–19 years [odds ratio (OR)=4.41], when the poisoning occurred at home (OR=21.84), and was related to self-harm (OR=18.73) or assault (OR=7.56). Conclusions: Findings suggest that controlling access of poisonous substances in youth and at homes might reduce related ED care burden. Safety promotion agencies and emergency physicians can use these findings to develop safety messages.

  4. Leadership in Safety and Regulatory Oversight: Defining the Leadership Framework in Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'IAEA Safety Standards: Fundamental Safety Principles (1)' establishes the fundamental safety objectives, safety principles and concepts that provide the bases for the IAEA's safety standards and its safety related programme. The third principle relates to 'Leadership and management for safety'. It requires that effective leadership and management for safety must be established and sustained in organizations concerned with, and facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks. . However, regulators are finding it difficult to define a framework for leadership in safety and regulatory oversight on the basis of which competency in leadership can be developed. There have been a number of literature on competency building for nuclear regulatory staff, although they do emphasis on systematic assessment of training as a preclude for development of comprehensive training program but the competency required for leadership development in safety and regulatory oversight is not covered. This paper attempts to define a competency framework for leadership in nuclear safety and regulatory oversight in Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA). It is expected that this framework can be used (adapted/adopted) by other regulatory bodies for developing leadership in their staff. We believe that new countries embarking on nuclear power programme will especially find this interesting and useful as they will also face similar challenges as faced by Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority during its formative year. (author)

  5. Characteristics of patients with measles admitted to allied hospital rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measles, a virus borne droplet infection, is one of the leading causes of death among young children worldwide despite presence of a safe and cost-effective vaccine. Objective of our study was to identify the characteristics of measles patients admitted to Allied Hospitals, Rawalpindi. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted amongst patients admitted with measles in paediatric units of Rawalpindi Medical College Allied Hospitals, Rawalpindi. A standard proforma was used to collect data from the respondents. Results: A total of 55 patients (mean age-29.36 months) with measles were included in the study. 65.5% children were vaccinated while 34.5% were not vaccinated. Among those vaccinated 14 were male. Out of the vaccinated children 52.6% were residents of middle class areas, 31.6% lower middle class area, 10.5% upper middle class areas and 5.3% rural areas. In 55.0% of patients who were vaccinated with at least one dose of measles at nine month of age the estimated calendar months of vaccination was March to April while in 30% the overall climatic period of vaccination was of summer (May to September). Twenty one study subjects were exposed to a case of measles in the family and thirty five out of all developed at least one known complication of the disease. Pneumonia was the most common complication reported in patients (63.6%) followed by diarrhoea (27.3%). Conclusion: Majority of the patients suffering from measles were not vaccinated and the most common reason for failure to immunize children was lack of awareness. Educated and well off fathers were more likely to get their children immunized. The vaccinated children who developed measles majority were vaccinated during months of March, April and May. (author)

  6. Caustic ingestion injuries-at military hospital rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the pattern and endoscopic severity of caustic ingestion injuries presenting at Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Medical and Gastroenterology Department Military Hospital Rawalpindi from August 2012 to April 2013. Material and Methods: Patients were selected from those who presented with caustic ingestion history in Medical OPD, ER and in medical wards. After informed consent the patient underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) Endoscopy. Endoscopic findings were recorded. Results: Out of 50 patients, 21(42%) were males and 29 (58%) were females. Ingestion was accidental in 19 (38%) and was with intent of suicide or self-harm in 31(62%) patients. Mean age was 33.2 years (SD ± 13.2). All the patients were subjected to upper GI endoscopy and findings were recorded. Endoscopic findings were grade 0 in 4 (8%), Grade 1 in 6 (12%), grade 2a in 7 (14%), grade 2b in 10 (20%), grade 3a in 6 (12%) and grade 3b in 17 (34%) patients. Conclusion: Caustic ingestion injuries were seen more in younger females with predominant cause as suicidal intent. On endoscopic examination severe corrosive injuries were more frequent. (author)

  7. Evaluation of trace elemental composition of aerosols in the atmosphere of Rawalpindi and Islamabad using radio analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qadir, Muhammad Abdul, E-mail: mabdulqadir@gmail.com [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Zaidi, Jamshaid Hussain [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Nilore, Islamabad Capital Territory (Pakistan); Ahmad, Shaikh Asrar; Gulzar, Asad [Division of Science and Technology, University of Education, Township, Lahore (Pakistan); Yaseen, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, Gugrat University, Gugrat (Pakistan); Atta, Sadia; Tufail, Asma [Institute of Chemistry, University of the Punjab, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)

    2012-05-15

    Geological and anthropogenic contributions to air pollution were monitored by analyzing aerosol particulates present in the atmosphere of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, using instrumental neutron activation for trace elemental analysis. A scanning electron microscope was used to study particulate size distribution and morphology. Twenty two elements were analyzed and their likely sources were identified. It was found that 69% of the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere of Islamabad, and 52% in Rawalpindi, were of a diameter less than 3 {mu}m. The presence of Yb, Cs, Sc, Rb, Co, Eu, La, Ba, Zn and Hf indicates that a major portion of the trace elements in the aerosol particulates was due to the geological nature of the land, while Sc was considered to be arising from coal burning. The presence of Cr, Fe, Ce, Pb and Cd was attributed to anthropogenic activities at Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Unusually high concentrations of Mo and Nb were found in the atmosphere of Islamabad, based on soil derived aerosols. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discussion is made on Total suspended Particulate (TSP) matter in the atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurement of Radio active elements in the TSP by using SSNTD which was found non significant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 23 Trace element analysis of the TSPs in the atmosphere of twin cities i.e. Rawalpindi and Islamabad and their relation to their sources by using Neutron activation analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mountain of Islamabad has some unique and important deposits of Nb and Gd , this paper will help the Geological survey of Pakistan to explore their deposits. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is high level of TSPs>10 um, which is a great threat to the peoples of Islamabad.

  8. Health care waste management (HCWM) in Pakistan: current situation and training options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hospitals in Pakistan produce about 250,000 tons of waste per year. Hospital waste has been reported to be poorly handled and managed by the hospital staff and administration respectively. This leads to environmental and health consequences within hospitals as well as to outside population. Our study aimed to describe the qualitative results of observations of ten large private and public hospitals in the cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad Pakistan. Methods: The qualitative data was obtained through direct and indirect observations on hospital staff including doctors, nurses, sweepers and persons in administration and the way they handled the waste. Also direct observations of the hospitals premises inside and outside were made and noted. We also describe the process of involving the hospital staff for training. Results: Our results showed that almost all of the hospitals did not have practice of HCWM on their priority. Segregation, handling, storage, transportation and disposal of waste were below WHO and Pakistan bio-safety rules 2005 standards. The ten hospitals did not have HCWM rules and regulations in place hence the staff do not follow the best practices in this regard which causes numerous health and environmental consequences not only within the catchment area but also to patients and staff. Conclusions: Our study highlights the lack of HCWM practices within the ten public and private hospitals in two major cities in Pakistan. There is need of training of hospital staff in Pakistan. We also found that such training s are highly feasible if accompanied with incentives to participants. (author)

  9. Assessment of Safety Culture within the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afzal, Muhammad [Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Islamabad (Pakistan); Choi, Kwang Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the SC of the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA) by developing a performance indicator-based questionnaire. Aspects that potentially play important roles in developing perceptions of SC, including age, type of job, gender and duty hours of regulatory staff, are given due importance in this study. The study also identifies the strengths and weaknesses in the SC of the PNRA and can be used as a model study to assess the SC of other RBs. The questionnaire, developed to assess the SC of the PNRA, was in line with the PNRA's own defined attributes for SC. In the past, significant efforts have been made to ensure the safe operation of NPPs by improving designs and operating procedures; however, the nuclear accident at the Fukushima NPP in Japan in March 2011 revealed that the currently allotted hardware safety margins are not sufficient, and much work is needed to improve safety management in terms of SC. Initially, the concept of SC was introduced for operating organizations to ensure safe operation of NPPs; nonetheless, more recent investigations of nuclear events and accidents, especially Fukushima, and at Davis-Besse, in the US, have revealed that a strong focus is required to address and improve the SC of Regulatory Bodies (RBs). Strong SC is considered a vital tool for RBs to achieve their objectives and discharge their responsibilities in an effective and efficient manner. Though the relationship between the SC of RBs and that of operating organizations is not straight forward, it is believed that the former has a strong influence over the latter. The questionnaire was consistent in terms of the credible nature of its questions, and the response group covered different levels of PNRA staff, from managers to lower level staff. The results show that the PNRA staff have a very good understanding of the nature and significance of attributes of SC and are doing their best to exercise the same within the

  10. Monitoring urban transport air pollution and energy demand in Rawalpindi and Islamabad using leap model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabbir, Rabia; Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed [Department of Environmental Sciences, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2010-05-15

    A research associated with urban transportation was carried out in Rawalpindi and Islamabad to analyze the status of emission of air pollutants and energy demands. The study included a discussion of past trends and future scenarios in order to reduce the future emissions. A simple model of passenger transport has been developed using computer based software called Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP). The LEAP model was used to estimate total energy demand and the vehicular emissions for the base year 2000 and extrapolated till 2030 for the future predictions. Transport database in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, together with fuel consumption values for the vehicle types and emission factors of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} corresponding to the actual vehicle types, formed the basis of the transport demand, energy consumption and total emission calculations. Apart from base scenario, the model was run under three alternative scenarios to study the impact of different urban transport policy initiatives that would reduce energy demand and emissions in transport sector of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The prime objective was to arrive at an optimal transport policy, which limits the future growth of fuel consumption as well as air pollution. (author)

  11. Prevalence of undifferentiated fever in adults of Rawalpindi having primary dengue fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the study were to highlight early subclinical presentation of dengue viral infection (DVI) as an undifferentiated febrile illness. The descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Microbiology Department, Rawalpindi Medical College from March to September 2009. Stratified random sampling was used to select subjects from various urban and rural areas of Rawalpindi, and Serum IgG anti-dengue antibodies were detected by using 3rd generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Out of the total 240 subjects, 69 (28.75%) were found to be positive for anti-dengue IgG antibodies. Of the positive cases, 41 (59.4%) - comprising 31 (44.9%) urban residents - and 10 (14.4%) rural residents presented with a previous history of undifferentiated fever (p<0.05). It was concluded that primary DVI can present as subclinical form in healthy population residing in rural and urban areas of Rawalpindi, which is an alarming situation indicating the spread of disease in the study area. (author)

  12. Normal blood magnesium levels in volunteers of Rawalpindi by atomic absorption absorption technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnesium levels in whole blood samples of 67 healthy volunteers (mean 6.46 -+ 0.221; range 1.345 - 13.163 mg/dL) of Rawalpindi district have been determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. Magnesium levels of 41 male and 26 female subjects including doctors, nurses, patients attendees, medical students, sweepers and peons of Rawalpindi Medical College and Rawalpindi General Hospital revealed the normal mean blood levels of 6.088 - + 0.258 mg/dL (range 1.345 - 10.679 mg/dL)and 7.060 -+ 0.375 mg/dL (range 4.495 - 13.163 mg/dL),P<0.05 respectively. Only 10 male volunteers were smokers exhibiting 6.768 -+ 0.558 mg/dL (range 4.466 -10.679 mg/dL). Significant relationship was found in magnesium levels between males and females of poor socio-economic group (P<0.05). No relationship occurred between male smokers and non-smokers and magnesium levels in the age groups of males or females or both, when data was compared by 't' test. (author)

  13. Estimation of NO2 emissions from Lahore and Rawalpindi / Islamabad using Car MAX-DOAS observations and comparison with OMI satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Maria; Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Javed, Zeeshan; Ahmad, Noor; Wagner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    We present results of ground-based multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements performed around the cities of Lahore and Rawalpindi / Islamabad, Pakistan and also between the cities along National Highway, N5. From the car-MAX-DOAS measurements, the tropospheric vertical column density (VCD) of NO2 is retrieved based on the so called geometric approximation. Based on observations along large circles around the cities and wind data we estimate the NO2 emissions from the cities of Lahore and Rawalpindi / Islamabad. We also compare the spatial distributions of the tropospheric NO2 VCDs observed by car MAX-DOAS with collocated results from the satellite based Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We discuss the influence of the observed spatial gradients on the comparison between both data sets.

  14. Epidemiology of HIV infection in Northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, facilities for HIV screening are available since 1987. So far, 54, 170 individuals have been tested. These included 48235 blood donors, 3369 persons proceeding abroad, 561 patients of venereal diseases, 350 Lymphoma cases, 21 deportees from the UAE, 460 clinically suspected cases of AIDS, 735 persons who were worried about HIV infection and 439 family members of HIV positive cases. A total of 30 cases were positive for anti-HIV on a strict protocol, which included screening tests followed by confirmatory tests including Western blot for HIV antibodies. The mode of HIV transmission was ascertained after a detailed history of all seropostive cases. It was found that in 24 cases the virus was acquired through sexual contact with high risk persons, which was homosexual in 3, heterosexual in 17, and bisexual in 4 cases. In 4 cases, the infection was acquired through blood transfusion, one child was infected through breast feeding, whereas only in one case the exact mode of HIV transmission was unclear. Out of 30 HIV positive cases, only three cases acquired the disease within Pakistan, 20 had acquired HIV infection during their stay in the Gulf states, while few cases had it from other countries (Saudi Arabia 1, Greece 1, France 2, S E Asia 3). (author)

  15. INTRODUCTION A National park is an area set aside by a national government for the preservation of the natural environment. The World Conservation Union defines a National park as a natural area designated to protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for present and future generations. In Pakistan, the earlier ecological studies were generally observational. The earlier studies, generally appeared in 1950’s, were confined to visual description of the vegetation, and no attempts were made to recognize community types and to correlate them with the relevant environmental factors. On the contrary, advanced multivariate techniques of ordination and cluster analysis had been routinely used in Europe and other parts of the world. There are numerous ordination methods accessible in plant bionetwork, some of which have been extensively used, e.g. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA (Hill & Gauch, 1980, whereas some others only sporadically used (Zhang, 2004. A series of studies using different ordination techniques were carried out in Pakistan by Ahmad et al., 2009; Ahmad, 2009; Jabeen & Ahmad, 2009; Pirzada et al., 2009; Ahmad et al., 2010a, b; Ahmad, 2011. In Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA the floristic statistics and the environmental variables can be assimilated within the ordination (Kashian et al., 2003. Within the Ayubia National Park, the study area was the moist temperate forest in Rawalpindi, NE-Pakistan (Fig. 1, showing a high diversity of susceptible plant and animal species. The geographical location of the park is 330° 52' N and 730° 90' E (Farooque, 2002. The aim of this research was to quantify the vegetation in Ayubia National Park using ordination techniques and to determine the soilvegetation relationship to provide basic awareness for preservation of nationally significant native flora. A list of plant species present in the study area is provided in Table 1. Apart from their

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurat Ul Ann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between species diversity and overall community assemblage was identified in two differentzones in Ayubia National Park (Rawalpindi, NE-Pakistan which is recognized as protected area. CanonicalCorrespondence Analysis (CCA was used to find correlation of environmental variables with speciesabundance/richness. Results showed that in Zone 1 species were rather scattered due to the less availability oforganic matter and soil moisture as they occupy the less dense forest cover. Whereas Zone 2 showed theopposite trends. Finally the overall zones showed that maximum number of quadrats included Zone 2 speciesdue to a great forest cover with excess amount of organic matter and soil moisture. The study highlighted theimportance of dynamic nature and composition of vegetation and stressed the need of conservation of nativeflora for future generations.

  16. The Knowledge Management Activities in Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority and Development of Knowledge Portal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timely and consistent availability of knowledge and redundancy of knowledge resources are the key factors necessary for purposeful functioning of a knowledge intensive organization or KIO. The fact of knowledge being the primary asset for these KIOs has led to the invention of major knowledge retention techniques. With the evolution of information technology, several methods of preservation came into existence. Notable methods may include data mining and ware housing, networking, intranet portals, human resource systems, distant learning, simulators, advance library systems etc. All these methods excellently cover the preservation of explicit or documented knowledge. Still, the vulnerability of embodied knowledge of personnel has always been a problem for knowledge mangers and was one of the main reasons behind the participation of PNRA in the coordinated research project (CRP) arranged on IAEA platform to answer the issue and cordially confer to the remedies. PNRA is using some of the modern day techniques for explicit knowledge preservation. Like other knowledge intensive organizations, the Authority is concerned with the loss of tacit knowledge with retirements of its experts. The agency-led programme provided a deep insight into the programmes of the participating member states in exploring the remedies for catering the knowledge loss through harmonization. The participation of PNRA in the CRP primarily helped in: i. Discovering the techniques for capturing the tacit knowledge and its subsequent conversion into preserve-able explicit form; ii. Gaining know-how of economical, robust and reliable modern knowledge preservation systems in use of fellow KIOs and their feasibility of application.

  17. Ensuring Sustainable Development through Urban Planning in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Qasim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning includes land use management and environmental change. It makes arrangement for community facilities and services. Since, sustainable development has been included as a vital end product of all planning goals it also provides for balanced use of land, housing and transportation and better quality of life. Present urban planning in Pakistan is not ensuring sustainable development in Pakistan. This is tested through the case study of master planning in Rawalpindi and its implementation through housing schemes in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Large portions of provisions of master plans are not implemented. This paper explains how the urban planning will be made enabled to ensure sustainable development in Pakistan. Six numbers of housing schemes and two squatter settlements have been surveyed through questionnaires, secondary data, the opinions of the experts from related fields and site observations. Amenities and social services at far distance, very less green area, Less quantity and bad quality of water, absence of comprehensive solid waste management and sewage disposal system and nontreatment of solid waste, effluent and sewage, prevalent unhygienic conditions and air and water pollution are the existing factors effecting the sustainability. There is a need to revisit the urban planning and a comprehensive Urban and Environment Planning Law at national level and at provincial level is recommended to enable the urban planning to ensure the sustainable development in Pakistan

  18. Measurement of trace elements in drinking water of Rawalpindi and Islamabad areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc and iron were determined in potable water, supplied from Rawal Lake and Simly Dam to residential areas of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, using AAS and ICP-AES techniques. Average measured concentration of these elements were 56.58 plus minus 15.21,18.02 plus minus 4.62, 24.27 plus minus 15.01, 0.15 plus minus 0.105 and 0.34 plus minus 0.11 ppm, respectively. Median contributions of Ca, Mg, Na, Fe and Zn were 13.29%, 12.13%, 1.14%, 5.38% and 2% to our daily intake and were found to be in the safe range for human consumption as per WHO standards. A comparison with previous estimates shows no significant change in trace element contents over the years. (author)

  19. Effects of Variation in Truck Factor on Pavement Performance in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Chaudry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation coupled with heavy axle loading is the key factor in rapid road deterioration in Pakistan. The serviceability loss is further accelerated by the fact that truck drivers and owners consider overloading as a profitable practice unaware of the adverse effects of this practice. Weigh-in-motion data from two stations located between two major cities of Pakistan (Peshawar and Rawalpindi on Grand Trunk Road (N-5 were collected and analyzed. Analysis of variance and comparison of actual and designed truck factor were performed to identify the most damaging axle truck type. It was found that axle truck type 3 (single/tandem axle is most damaging among all truck types. The actual truck factor for axle truck type 3 is 6.4 times greater than design truck factor. Regression expressions of different forms were also investigated to determine the relationship between truck factor and gross vehicular weight for the specified truck types. An optimum generalization strategy was used to prevent over-generalization and ensure accuracy. For data analysis, 75% of data was used to develop regression models and remaining 25% was to validate those models. The results show that the polynomial expressions performed best and provide a robust relationship that can be employed by the highway authorities to estimate truck factor from gross vehicular weight with a high degree of confidence. It was also observed that damaging effect of various types of trucks was very severe and quite high.

  20. Seroprevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1/2 in blood donors in northern pakistan: implication for blood donor screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the seroprevalence of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus-1/2 (HTLV-1/2) in blood donors in Northern Pakistan. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Transfusion, Rawalpindi, from July to August 2013. Methodology:A total of 2100 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies during the study period, in a pool of six, on a highly sensitive, Chemiluminiscent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) based system. The screening test reactive donors were recalled, counseled and interviewed, and a fresh sample was obtained for confirmatory testing. Confirmation was performed using additional immunoassays including Line Immunoassay (LIA); with additional testing for HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. Frequency and percentages were determined. Results: Four donors (0.19%) were repeatedly screening test-reactive and were subsequently confirmed to be HTLV-1 infected by line immunoassay and HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. All four donors were male with mean age of 27 ± 6.27 years. Two (50%) of the positive donors gave history of Multiple Sexual Partners (MSP). Conclusion: HTLV-1 seroprevalence in Northern Pakistan blood donors was determined to be 0.19%. Large scale studies, including the cost effectiveness of screening blood donations for anti-HTLV-1/2 in Pakistan, are recommended. (author)

  1. Country Presentation Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill Akhtar, Khalida [Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, PS, QA/QC, 44400 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-07-01

    Pakistan is the home to three Nuclear Power Plants: - Karachi Nuclear Power Plant KANUPP: KANUPP Karachi Nuclear Power Plant is located at Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. KANUPP is a single unit Candu PHWR with a total gross capacity of 137 MW. The 137-MWe (Candu PHWR) Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) was commissioned earlier in 1972, supplied and built by Canada. It has completed its design life of 30 years and is undergoing indigenous refurbishment to enhance safety and extend its life for another 10-15 years. - Chashma Nuclear Power Plant CHASHNUPP 1: CHASNUPP-1 Chashma Nuclear Power Plant I is located at Kundian, Punjab, Pakistan. It forms part of the Chashma Nuclear Power Complex. The CHASNUPP-1 is a single unit. It was made operational in year 2000. The 325-MWe PWR, supplied and constructed by China. It has so far undergone four refueling outages. Its average capacity and availability factor for year 2004-05 were 93 % and 96.4 % respectively. - Chashma Nuclear Power Plant CHASHNUPP 2: The site is situated next to Chashma Nuclear Power Plant Unit-1. The CHASNUPP-2 will be a single-unit plant. The corresponding gross electric output of the turbine generator is 325 MWe. It is under construction, commercial operation expected {approx} 2011. Pakistan Current Nuclear Power Program: - All Nuclear Power Plants and fuel Cycle facilities operated by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). - Pakistan nuclear safety issues regulated by Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA). All Nuclear Power Plants are under IAEA Safeguards. Pakistan is member of Candu Operators Group (COG), and of World Association of Nuclear (Plant) Operators (WANO). The government of Pakistan has chalked out a comprehensive plan to expand power generation to meet the demands of the country's rapidly growing economy. Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has been given the task of increasing nuclear power generation in accordance with the country's energy security plan. Technical

  2. Pakistan stepping up expansion of refining, transportation sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-06

    This paper reports that Pakistan is taking steps to speed expansion of its refining and oil transportation infrastructure. While the country has made significant progress toward energy self-efficiency by boosting oil and gas production it still must modernize and expand an aging, inadequate refining sector to meet rapidly growing demand for refined products. Pakistan's government has disclosed plans to build two refineries in the country, one at Rawalpindi near a string of recent oil discoveries, the other somewhere in the southern part of the country, likely Karachi. At the same time, efforts are proceeding to upgrade Pakistan's refineries. In addition, Pakistani state companies continue to press joint ventures in refining and marketing with foreign companies and expand downstream ties with neighbors that are key oil and gas exporters.

  3. Organizational Environment and its Impact on Turnover Intensions in Education Sector of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ayaz Ul Haq; Asad Iqbal Khattak; Syed Neiman Raza Shah; Kashif-ur-Rehman

    2011-01-01

    It investigates the issues affecting the job satisfaction of the teachers of private colleges of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan and further the overall effect of job satisfaction on turnover intention. A questionnaire consists of 6 sections depending on the independent and dependent variables were circulated among the educational professionals. This questionnaire was based on 5 likert-type scale. Results show that culture of an organization and its reward system are having positive impact...

  4. Evaluation of Different Groundnut Arachis hypogea L. Cultivars Against Termites, Odontotermes obesus (Rambur) in Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Usman Malik; Humayun Javed; Mahmood Ayyaz

    2015-01-01

    Six groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) cultivars i.e. Golden, BARI-2000, Australian, BARD-479, ICG-7326 and 2KCGC20 were evaluated against the attack of Odontotermes obesus in terms of percentage infestation of workers and soldiers, their damage and impact on the yield. The maximum mean populations of O. obesus workers were recorded on 2KCGC20 (30.82±2.75 workers/plot) and Australian (30.65±2.92 workers/plot), followed by BARI 2000 (19.55±2.51 workers/plot), Golden (17.30±2.27 workers/plot) and B...

  5. Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase producing Cephalosporin resistant Salmonella Typhi, reported from Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Tehmina; Lodhi, Munir; Ansari, Jawad Khaliq; Andleeb, Saadia; Ahmed, Mushtaq

    2016-08-01

    Typhoid is endemic in many parts of southeast Asia. Due to the resistance of the organism to first line of antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, cotrimoxazole) as well as to fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins have been in use for the empiric treatment of typhoid for years. However an increasing incidence of Salmonella Typhi is being reported sporadically from various regions. We report a case of typhoid due to Salmonella Typhi which was non-responsive to treatment with a cephalosporin, was found to be multidrug resistant and resistant to ciprofloxacin and third generation cephalosporin as well. The patient was finally treated successfully with intravenous administration of a carbapenem. PMID:27524545

  6. Frequency of different grades of retinopathy in type-2 diabetes mellitus patients at Military Hospital Rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyse the various types of retinopathy in individuals with type 2 DM. Design: Descriptive study. Place and duration of study: Military Hospital Rawalpindi from January 2010 to July 2010 Methods: One hundred and fifty patients with type 2 DM were studied into for different types of retinopathy, based on history, clinical examination (ophthalmological) and laboratory investigations. Results: Out of 150 patients who fulfilled the criteria for study, 93(62%) were male and 57(38%) were female patients, frequency of retinopathy was 28.67%. The duration of diabetes ranged from 5 to 30 years. The frequency of retinopathy was higher in males as compared to females. The mean age of the patients was 51.10 +- 8.33 years with range 36-77 years. Proliferative retinopathy was seen more in those diabetic patients whose duration of disease was more than 10 years. They also showed poor glycaemic control in the form of raised blood glucose and HbA1C levels. Conclusion: About twenty eight percent of our diabetic patients are suffering from diabetic retinopathy. This can be controlled by early detection and effective treatment both in terms of strict glycemic control and laser photocoagulation, thus decreasing the morbidity and mortality due to this chronic disease. (author)

  7. Seroprevalence of hepatitis-b and c among the patients reporting in surgical opd at fauji foundation hospital, rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find out the seroprevalence of HbsAg and Anti HCV virus among the patients reporting in surgical OPD. This is a prospective observational study. Patients reporting to surgical OPD of Fuji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi above 20 years of age, with no previous history of seropositive Hepatitis B or C of chronic liver disease were enrolled from January 2006 to June 2006 Prevalence of Hepatitis B is 2.28% with a male predominance of 8.60%. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C is 7.56% with male predominance of 10.84%. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C is not uncommon in our country. To control its further spread public awareness and health education programs should be started at all levels. (author)

  8. Association of vitamin d deficiency with tuberculosis in adult patients reporting to a tertiary care hospital of rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the mean vitamin Dlevels in pulmonary tuberculosis patients and healthy controls and to find out the frequency and association of vitamin D deficiency in patients with tuberculosis. Study Design: Case control study. Place and Duration of Study: Pulmonology department, Military Hospital Rawalpindi from Jan 2013 to Dec 2013. Patients and Methods:Fifty two incident outdoor pulmonary tuberculosis patients were selected with 52 age and gender matched controls. Tuberculosis was diagnosed by the sputum examination through gene Xpert technique from National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad. Serum 25-hydroxvitamin D level 0.05). Conclusion: Significant vitamin D deficiency was seen in newly diagnosed TB patients. It was found that vitamin D deficiency is associated with tuberculosis, but its causal role has not been established. (author)

  9. Pakistan seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-02-01

    Public participation in the national family planning programme and the promotion of population education were the main topics discussed at the national conference of the Family Planning Association of Pakistan held at Cokilla in December. The Conference was opened by the Governor of East Pakistan, Vice-Admiral S.M. Ahsan. The Minister of Health, Dr. A.M. Malik, presided at the first session when delegates and visitors were welcomed by Begum Manzoor Quadir, President of the Pakistan Association. Experience in India, Cylon and Nepal, as well as in Pakistan was examined in relation to public participation in national programmes. At the session concerned with the promotion of a population education programme special attention was paid to a new element in the education programme, the proposals for teaching the elements of responsible parenthood and population dynamics to school children and young people. Mrs. Sarwat Rahman and Mrs. Fatema Iftekhar, members of the Pakistan Association who recently attended a prototype course in family life education at IPPF headquarters in London, addressed the conference on certain approaches to the education of young people that they consider particulary suitable for Pakistan. Dr. Malcolm Potts, Medical Secretary of the IPPF, also took part in the session on population education. He subsequently addressed meetings of doctors in three towns in East Pakistan as well as visiting urban and rural projects of the Pakistan Association and saw vasectomy clinics at work.

  10. Xmni polymorphism and disease severity in patients with beta thalassemia from northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalassemia is a heterogeneous disorder and several genetic factors influence the severity of thalassemia. An accurate and early diagnosis of a mild thalassemia genotype helps to avoid unnecessary transfusion and its complications. The aim of this study is to identify the association between XmnI polymorphism and disease severity in patients with ?-thalassemia from northern Pakistan. Methods: The cross sectional study was conducted at the Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) Rawalpindi, from September 2006 to June 2009. A total of 90 subjects including 30 with thalassemia major, 30 with thalassemia intermedia and 30 normal individuals were studied. DNA from each subject was tested for 15 ?-thalassemia mutations and the presence of XmnI polymorphism using Amplification Refractory Mutation System and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism respectively. Results: One normal and one thalassemia major subject were found to be positive for homozygous and heterozygous XmnI polymorphism respectively. Among the thalassemia intermedia group, XmnI polymorphism was found in 12/30 patients, of whom 10 were homozygous and 2 were heterozygous for it. Conclusion: XmnI polymorphism is an important genotypic factor in Pakistani population for making a prospective diagnosis of thalassemia intermedia and predicting the severity of the disease. (author)

  11. Role of genetic counselling in prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassaemia in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the response towards prenatal diagnosis (PND) of b-thalassaemia, in individuals who had not received genetic counselling and a genetically counselled population. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from March 2009 to December 2010. Methodology: Using non-probability consecutive sampling, a total of 176 individuals having thalassaemic children, were interviewed regarding PND of thalassaemia, by using a structured questionnaire. Forty two individuals were taken as controls as they had received genetic counselling for PND, whereas the remaining 134 were taken as cases. Responses towards PND were compared using chi-square test. Odds ratio was also calculated for subsequent PND utilization. Results: Seventy (52.2%) cases and 42 (100%) controls were aware of the availability of PND in Pakistan. This difference in awareness was statistically significant (p < 0.001). In the controls, 40 (95.3%) individuals were aware of the appropriate timing of the test, in contrast to 52 (39%) cases (p < 0.001). PND was used in subsequent pregnancies by 50 (37.3%) cases and 32 (80%) controls (p < 0.001). The calculated odds ratio for subsequent PND utilization was 5.37. Conclusion: The study reflects a very positive attitude of genetically counselled thalassaemia affected families towards PND. For better utilization of PND, genetic counselling services should be available at all health strata. (author)

  12. Level of awareness about breast cancer among females presenting to a general hospital in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majority of the female patients in Pakistan with breast cancer present in advance stages, unawareness being a major factor. As surgery has a limited role in the later stages of breast cancer, the surgeons lose fight against this deadly disease before the fight has even begun, early detection of breast cancer in only possible if patients are made aware and are motivated to present early. A one-year study was carried out in Rawalpindi General Hospital to find out the level of awareness about breast cancer among females presenting to a public hospital. Among 400 patients with a breast problem 84 (21 %) had breast cancer of which 73.81% were in stage III and IV. Average time lapse was 16 months. The underlying cause of delay was ignorance. Six hundred females with no breast problem were also interviewed for their knowledge about breast cancer, 69.80% were totally ignorant, 18.40% were partly aware and only 11.80% were fully aware. 87.75% had no idea about breast self-examination, 68.2% did not understand the significance of a lump in the breast and its lethal potential. Unawareness was even prevalent among the highly educated and well to do (55%) as well as among all age groups although it was less than the illiterate (82%) and lowest income group (85%). The prime source of information were friends or relatives followed by the electronic and print media with health education playing a minor role. The level of awareness about breast cancer among Pakistani females in an urban setting was dismal and majority had a careless attitude towards seeking treatment. To ensure earlier detection of breast cancer there in a dire need of educating our female population about this deadly disease through the media and health care system in Pakistan. (author)

  13. Battle against poliovirus in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Kaneez; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2013-11-01

    On 22 Feb 2013, the Polio Monitoring Cell of Pakistan announced that the 2012-2013 polio campaign ended, and that 1.6 million children could not be vaccinated due to security concerns in several regions where polio workers had been killed. Those who could not be vaccinated included 50,000 children from the Federally Administrated Tribal Area (FATA), 150,000 form Khyber Pakhtoon Khao, 400,000 from a Quetta, 400,000 from Karachi, and a small number from the Rawalpindi District. These statistics are worrying, as several districts in the large metropolitan cities of Karachi and Quetta were also excluded. The fear of advanced medicine, ideas, or complex devices is a new phenomenon in many conservative and poor countries such as Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sudan, and Somalia. To safeguard the safety of the rest of the world, the failure in the implementation of WHO guidelines for vaccination must be regulated by the UN. There are a number of reasons for the phobias surrounding vaccination, but as technology continues to evolve at such a rapid rate, those with self-determined ideologies cannot cope with such advances. They become vocal to gain popularity and prevent the use of these technologies and medicine by creating and spreading rumors and propaganda of expediency. The struggle to vaccinate children is not easily understood by anyone living in the developed world. The irrational fear of vaccines and the lack of vaccination pose a serious global health risk and must be curbed through a wide variety of pro-vaccination media and religious campaigns. PMID:24240051

  14. An Empirical Study to Investigate the Impact of Social Networking Sites on Student’s Academic Performance and Attitude in Case of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Zahid Hameed; Adnan Maqbool; Naeem Aslam; Ehsan ul Hassan; Maqsood Anwar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of study is to assess the effect of social networking sites on students’ academic performance and student’s behavior. The variables that determine the use of social networking sites as the independent variable and the dependent variables are students’ academic performance and student’s behavior. The population of this research was the university students of twin cities Rawalpindi and Islamabad (Pakistan). The data was collected through questionnaires, and sample size was 300. The ...

  15. Federalism in Pakistan, Current Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Musarrat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to elaborate the political issues and challenges faces by the federation of Pakistan during and after the Gen. Pervez Musharraf government. In this paper effort is made to discuss those issues on the biases of which politics of federalism started in the country. Pinching problems that caused disintegration to Pakistan are also discussed. Those issues are also discussed in details which are a constant threat to the “new federation of Pakistan”. Authors also focus on the 2008 elections and its consequences on Pakistan politics. All the results of this research are proved via review of the previous literature. Researchers have proved that as Pakistan has a diversified culture so federalism is best suited for its political structure. Researchers have also discussed few suggestive solutions for better bureaucracy.

  16. Prevalence of undifferentiated fever in adults of Rawalpindi having primary dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Humaira; Hayyat, Abbas; Akhtar, Naeem; Rizwan, Syeda Fatima

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to highlight early subclinical presentation of dengue viral infection (DVI) as an undifferentiated febrile illness. The descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Microbiology Department, Rawalpindi Medical College from March to September 2009. Stratified random sampling was used to select subjects from various urban and rural areas of Rawalpindi, and Serum IgG anti-dengue antibodies were detected by using 3rd generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Out of the total 240 subjects, 69 (28.75%) were found to be positive for anti-dengue IgG antibodies. Of the positive cases, 41 (59.4%) - comprising 31 (44.9%) urban residents - and 10 (14.4%) rural residents presented with a previous history of undifferentiated fever (p<0.05). It was concluded that primary DVI can present as subclinical form in healthy population residing in rural and urban areas of Rawalpindi, which is an alarming situation indicating the spread of disease in the study area. PMID:23901683

  17. Haematological and genetic features of delta beta-thalassaemia in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the hematological and genetic features of delta beta-thalassaemia in Pakistani patients. Design: Descriptive case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, PNS Shifa, Karachi and Department of Hematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January 1994 to April 2004. Patients and Methods: Thirteen individuals from six unrelated Pakistani families with a hematological diagnosis of delta beta-thalassaemia were studied. A brief clinical history, and the results of blood counts, absolute values, Hb-F, Hb-A/sub 2/, and hemoglobin electrophoresis were recorded. The DNA from each subject was first screened for the delta beta-thalassaemia mutations found in the Pakistani population. The samples were then screened for the Invl Del sup G/gamma(sup A/gamma delta beta). Results: The subjects included six heterozygote, six homozygotes and one compound heterozygote of delta beta and delta beta-thalassaemia. All heterozygote and 4/6 homozygotes were asymptomatic. One homo zygote had thalassaemia intermedia while another had transfusion dependent anemia. The mean Hb, TRBC, MCV, MCH, Hb-F and Hb-A/sub 2/ in delta beta-thalassaemia heterozygote were 11.6 g/dl, 5.37 x 1012/L, 70.9 fl, and 21.7 pg, 14% and 2.6% respectively. The same values in the four un transfused homo zygote were 10.6 g/dl, 5.34x1012/L, 69.211, and 20.8pg, 100% and 0% respectively. The mutation analysis revealed that all 13 individuals had the same Invl Del sup G/gamma(sup A/gamma delta beta). Conclusion: delta beta-thalassaemia is a rare disorder in Pakistan. Although the clinical picture is very mild its combination with delta beta-thalassaemia trait can produce a sever transfusion dependent thalassaemia. The DNA based diagnosis is possible in the prenatal as well as the postnatal period. (author)

  18. Measurement of natural radioactivity in bottled drinking water in Pakistan and consequent dose estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radioactivity was determined in 11 different brands of commonly sold bottled drinking water in the federal capital Islamabad and Rawalpindi city of Pakistan using gamma spectrometry technique. Mean concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were found to be 11.3±2.3, 5.2±0.4 and 140.9±30.6 mBq l-1, respectively. The annual cumulative effective doses due to all three natural radionuclides for different age groups of 1-5 y, 5-10 y, 10-15 y and adults (≥ 18 y) were estimated to be 4.0, 3.4, 3.1 and 4.1 μSv y-1, respectively. Among the three natural radionuclides, annual effective doses for all age groups from 226Ra were significant. Children in the age group of 1-5 y appeared to be at risk with respect to the annual effective doses from 226Ra as compared to the other age groups. Results obtained in this study are compared with the reported values from other countries of the world and it was observed that measured activity concentrations of three natural radionuclides in the bottled drinking water were lower than these values. Annual estimated effective doses for all four age groups from the intake of natural radionuclides in bottled drinking water were also found below the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended limit of 0.1 mSv y-1 as well as the average radiation dose of 0.29 mSv y-1 received per head worldwide due to ingestion of natural radionuclides assessed by UNSCEAR (2000). (authors)

  19. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Needle Stick Injuries among Registered Nurses in Public Sector Tertiary Care Hospitals of Pakistan '

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    Haris Habib

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Needle stick injuries remain the main cause of Hep B, Hep C and HIV which lead to mortality and morbidity in health care providers especially in nurses all over the world. Although needle stick injuries have been well studied in developed countries, data from developing countries is limited.Aim & Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of needle stick injuries among nurses and its associated factors in public sector tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan. Methods: This cross sectional survey was conducted in 3 major tertiary care hospitals of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Study duration was from March 2010 to May 2010 (3 months. Two Hundred and Sixteen (216 nurses were selected by simple random sampling with proportionate sampling. All those registered nurses who were working in allied hospitals of Rawalpindi and involved in clinical work were included, while all those who were on administrative positions, students, retired or on maternity leave were excluded from the study. Pre structured questionnaire was used and data was collected by questionnaire having optional choices and few open ended questions. The questionnaire was piloted among thirty nurses in a tertiary care hospital and their comments were incorporated accordingly to redesign the final questionnaire. The data was analysed using SPSS 16.Results: Sixty Seven (67% of nurses got needle stick injury during job. Almost all (99% nurses said that they didn’t report their injury because of no reporting system in their hospital (p value < 0.05. Injection and needles (72% are the most injury causing instrument and needle stick injuries mostly occurred (81% at bedside and ward (p value < 0.05. Sixty six percent (66% of nurses said that they didn’t attended any educational session, seminar or workshop related to needle stick injuries during their job. Conclusion: The frequency of needle stick injuries among nurses is quite high in public sector hospitals of Rawalpindi Pakistan. Non

  20. Association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age group and gender with prevalence of waterborne diseases in rawalpindi and islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevention of waterborne illness is of great concern all over the world. Waterborne diseases represent significant burden of diseases in the globe. Nearly 4% of diseases are attributable to water, sanitation and hygiene, and approximately 2.2 million people die every year due to diarrheal diseases worldwide. This study was carried out to find association of socio-economic features, hygienic status, age groups and gender with prevalence of water borne diseases in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. A research questionnaire was designed with questions related to demographic data, drinking water data and prevalence of water borne disease. The research questionnaire was interviewed to different respondents above 18 years of age randomly selected from different settings of Rawalpindi and Islamabad belonging to different socio-economic statuses. Data was analysed by employing cross tabulation and chi-square test with help of statistical software. The more frequent age group (47%) was 30 to 45 years. Proportion of diarrhea in females and males of middle age group were calculated as 36.11 % and 11.11 %, respectively. The second more frequent reported disease was jaundice with 15.9% of the target population being males and 16.7% females. Diarrhea was observed to be the major waterborne disease constituting 41 % of the population with poor hygiene practices. The hygienic practices were significantly associated with waterborne diseases (P = <0.001). Waterborne diseases were also, associated with financial status (P=0.02) and literacy rate (p=0.03). The current study concludes that improvement in the hygienic conditions and hygienic practices will playa pivotal role to prevent faeco-oral infections and reduce the waterborne disease burden. In targeted areas due to poor economic conditions, the population failed to achieve better hygienic practices and therefore there is a need to strengthen water filtration system and awareness of hygienic routine practices in these areas. (author)

  1. Trends in Books Publication in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, Khawaja; Shah, Syed Attaullah

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Writing and Publishing books in Pakistan is a complex undertaking; and to a large extent devoid of monetary gain. An average 1200 books were published annually during five year period from 2001 to 2005. Most books were published on Islam, Pakistan, Literature, and History. The Social Sciences, Humanities, Science and Technology are more or less been neglected by the Pakistani Authors Strong areas in Authorship: a) Books on Islam were the most favo...

  2. Viable circumstances for financial negotiations in Pakistan contracting process

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, Ejaz; Nadeem, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In Pakistan, competitive forms of procurement include only two-step sealed bidding. In the United States, negotiated procurement falls under competitive forms of procurement. Pakistan established the Pakistan Procurement Regulatory Authority (PPRA) in 2002 on the recommendations of the World Bank and enacted PPRA rules in 2004 based on the 1994 UNCITRAL model procurement law. The purpose of PPRA rules in 2004 was twofold: First, it imp...

  3. China Relief to Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey GUO

    2010-01-01

    @@ In Pakistan the rains and floods that started around July 22 have raged through Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,Balochistan,Punjab,Azad Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan.The rain and floods are now headed towards the Southern Province of Sindh.The provincial governments are bracing for huge flood waters."These are the most massive and heaviest floods in Pakistan territory since 1929,"said the ambassador of Pakistan Masood Khan at a press conference on August 6 in Beijing.

  4. Energy - efficient buildings in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan is one of the countries with the highest energy consumption for domestic use. Annual energy consumption by the domestic sector is 45.9 % of the total, while the industrial sector, consumes about 27.5%. About half of the total energy consumed is used in buildings and/or heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting appliances. The energy consumed for the same purposes in China and UK is 25 to 30 % and 40 %, respectively, even in extreme weather conditions. Energy deficiency in Pakistan is approximately 5,000 MWe, which results in worst load-shedding in summers and, lately, even in winters. Building new energy sources like dams, coal power plants and renewable energy power projects are some possible solutions, but these are time taking and need at least 2 to 6 years to complete, depending upon the nature of the project. Fast development of energy-efficient buildings is, therefore, necessary to deal with exacerbating energy-crisis and related environmental impact in Pakistan. Innovations in the prevailing building-design will help the country in reducing the energy burden. These innovations may include improved architectural designs, energy-efficient building materials, electrical appliances and implementation of building energy-efficiency codes. In 1987, the National Energy Conservation Centre (ENERCON), was established under Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, with the aim to build awareness among the masses for energy conservation, and to make policies regarding energy-conservation structures in the country. But no policy regarding building energy codes has been introduced by ENERCON till now. In collaboration with Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC), ENERCON has recently finalized the Building Energy Code of Pakistan Energy Provisions 2011 for which statutory notification is under process for necessary amendment in the building by-laws. The implementation of this Energy Code will result in 25 to 30 % of energy savings in the

  5. The Relationship between Work-Life Conflict and Employee Performance: A Study of National Database and Registration Authority Workers in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai Imtiaz Hussain

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most professionals face work-life conflicts as they move through their profession’s hierarch and progressively advanced stages. This study explores the impact of work-life conflicts on employee performance. A sample of 130 respondents was selected from the National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA.There appears to be a positive and significant relationship between work-life conflicts and performance of employees.Statistical analysis was used to see the impact of gender and marital status on the work-life conflicts and performance of employees. The results indicate that gender had no significant effect on performance and work-life conflicts whereas marital status of the respondents’ had a significant impact on the work-life conflicts.

  6. Pottery from Pakistan. A Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammage, Alix

    One of three handbooks dealing with pottery traditions from around the world, this packet draws together information about historical, ethnographic, and pottery traditions of Pakistan. The handbook begins with a brief discussion of Pakistan's land and people, a short history of Pakistan, Islamic pottery traditions, and Pakistan potters and…

  7. MEASURING SERVICE QUALITY PERCEPTIONS OF THE CUSTOMERS OF RESTAURANTS IN PAKISTAN

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    Shahab Alam Malik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to descriptively analyze different service quality attributes and ranking of services in renowned and successful restaurants. A sample of 407 customers of 10 reputed restaurants was gathered, operating in vicinity of twin cities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi of Pakistan, using abilingual survey instrument to measure service quality perceptions of customers.Five service quality attributes of restaurant staff, tips, tangibles, convenience, and food quality were used and their relationship with overall satisfaction was measured. Besides, key reasons to visit a restaurant were also inquired. Majority of the participants was comprised of private sector employees and students. Results of current study will be beneficial for the restaurants' managers in knowing customers evaluations and formulating future strategies accordingly.

  8. Consumer Preferences for Selection of Solar Home Systems in Urban Areas of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Gohar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumer preferences can lay foundation for determining key product attributes essential for the success of a product in the market, enabling the manufacturers optimally allocate resources towards imparting these critical attributes. However identification of consumer preferences especially for new products is a challenging task. This research investigated the consumer preference factors for solar home systems in Rawalpindi/Islamabad (Pakistan; applying MCDM (Multi Criteria Decision Making approach, AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process survey and analysis method is used for prioritization of the factors and comparison of decision alternatives. Fourteen factors grouped into five categories are selected. It has been found that the manufacturers have to emphasize on performance and functional attributes of these systems at this stage, the cost factors are comparatively lower in importance. Make and warranty, Environmental and Physical features are also lesser important to the early adopters.

  9. Dengue transmission based on urban environmental gradients in different cities of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Bushra; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2015-03-01

    This study focuses on the dengue transmission in different regions of Pakistan. For this purpose, the data of dengue cases for 2009-2012 from four different cities (Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lahore, and Karachi) of the country is collected, evaluated, and compiled. To identify the reasons and regions of higher risk of Dengue transmission, land use classification, analysis of climate covariates and drainage patterns was done. Analysis involves processing of SPOT 5 10 m, Landsat TM 30 m data sets, and SRTM 90 m digital elevation models by using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The results are based on the change in urbanization and population density, analysis of temperature, rainfall, and wind speed; calculation of drainage patterns including stream features, flow accumulation, and drainage density of the study areas. Results suggest that the low elevation areas with calm winds and minimum temperatures higher than the normal, rapid increase in unplanned urbanization, low flow accumulation, and higher drainage density areas favor the dengue transmission.

  10. Energy crisis in Pakistan an opportunity for renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan is facing severe energy crisis due to unprecedented increase in the energy cost at the international level and widening gap between supply and demand of energy at national level. This crisis is eroding the economic growth of the country achieved during last five years. At the same time Pakistan is located at very feasible built for harnessing the renewable energy like solar energy, wind energy and biomass. Hence the crisis of energy in Pakistan has become an opportunity for the renewable energy. In this paper the possibilities have been discussed. A practical case study of Allama Iqbal Open University Pakistan has been developed. The study has revealed that solar can be used for financial and environmental benefits at Pakistan. (author)

  11. Seroepidemiology of Bordetella pertussis infections in the twin cities of Pakistan

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    Fahad Said

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bordetella pertussis is the cause of whooping cough occurring mainly in children. The prevalence of this disease has been reduced largely due to worldwide mass vaccination with DTP vaccine. However, the immunity produced by the vaccination wanes by the passage of time. Still this disease kills around 2-4 million children annually. Adults may be a source of infection for infants and children. Furthermore, Bordetella pertussis has also been found to be associated with cases of persistent cough in adults in many countries. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the exposure of the adult population to the Bordetella pertussis by detecting IgG antibodies. Materials and Methods: We performed Seroepidemiology of Bordetella pertussis infections in multiethnic twin cities of Pakistan (Rawalpindi and Islamabad using a commercially available ELISA kit to have a picture of epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis in Pakistan. We targeted adults of age between 18-45 years (mean age 29.64 years. Results: The results of our study show a high percentage of seropositivity to Bordetella pertussis (89 percent, which indicates higher exposure to this organism and risk of infection to infants, children, adolescents and adults. Conclusion: A high percentage of seropositive individuals are alarming to health care professionals as well as policy makers. Bordetella pertussis infections may be associated with their atypical manifestation in Pakistan. Adult vaccination with DTP is recommended to reduce the risk of infection in infants and children through adult reservoirs.

  12. Seroepidemiology of Bordetella pertussis infections in the twin cities of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Syed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bordetella pertussis is the cause of whooping cough occurring mainly in children. The prevalence of this disease has been reduced largely due to worldwide mass vaccination with DTP vaccine. However, the immunity produced by the vaccination wanes by the passage of time. Still this disease kills around 2-4 million children annually. Adults may be a source of infection for infants and children. Furthermore, Bordetella pertussis has also been found to be associated with cases of persistent cough in adults in many countries. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the exposure of the adult population to the Bordetella pertussis by detecting IgG antibodies. Materials and Methods: We performed Seroepidemiology of Bordetella pertussis infections in multiethnic twin cities of Pakistan (Rawalpindi and Islamabad using a commercially available ELISA kit to have a picture of epidemiology of Bordetella pertussis in Pakistan. We targeted adults of age between 18-45 years (mean age 29.64 years. Results: The results of our study show a high percentage of seropositivity to Bordetella pertussis (89 percent, which indicates higher exposure to this organism and risk of infection to infants, children, adolescents and adults. Conclusion: A high percentage of seropositive individuals are alarming to health care professionals as well as policy makers. Bordetella pertussis infections may be associated with their atypical manifestation in Pakistan. Adult vaccination with DTP is recommended to reduce the risk of infection in infants and children through adult reservoirs.

  13. Role of Marketing Intelligence by Strategic Function in Organizational Performance: Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan Ayub

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is multifaceted; firstly, it aims to explore the extent to which marketing intelligence is utilized within corporate sector in Pakistan. Secondly, this paper measures the role of marketing intelligence by strategic function on organizational performance. Research on marketing intelligence has consequently increased and grabbed the attention of researchers and marketers to leverage marketing intelligence resulting in increased organizational performance for the last decade. The study uses exploratory approach, sample of the study consisted of 145 professionals from 30 companies related to different sectors operating in Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Structural Equation Model (SEM Technique was used to test the hypotheses. The study found a strong positive relationship between marketing intelligence by strategic function and organizational performance. The study also found that majority of corporate sector of Pakistan have incorporated and utilized marketing intelligence system. This piece of writing has thrown light on the significance of marketing intelligence and its usefulness as a marketing strategy which not only contributes in the existing body of knowledge but also has many managerial implications. The study endorsed the importance of marketing intelligence by strategic function to heading on this fast-paced competition. As for marketing managers in order to formulate policies; marketing intelligence by strategic function provides a leapfrogging approach to outer perform in the market place.

  14. Polarisation of Social Studies Textbooks in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Syed Manzar Abbas

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the evolution of the social studies curricula in Pakistan, which are of critical importance in shaping the outlook of many young Pakistanis, who are affected by this polarised discourse. The author argues that this trend of polarisation springing from dynamics of education also effectively contributes to a widening social…

  15. Household Schooling Decisions in Rural Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sawada, Yasayuki; Lokshin, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Human capital investments in Pakistan are performing poorly; school enrollment is low, the high school dropout rate is high, and there is a definite gender gap in education. The authors conducted field surveys in 25 Pakistani villages and integrated their field observations, economic theory, and econometric analysis to investigate the sequential nature of education decisions--because current ...

  16. Why Hospital Pharmacists Have Failed to Manage Antimalarial Drugs Stock-Outs in Pakistan? A Qualitative Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeeha Malik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of hospital pharmacists towards drug management and reasons underlying stock-outs of antimalarial drugs in Pakistan. Methods. A qualitative study was designed to explore the perceptions of hospital pharmacists regarding drug management and irrational use of antimalarial drugs in two major cities of Pakistan, namely, Islamabad (national capital and Rawalpindi (twin city. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 16 hospital pharmacists using indepth interview guides at a place and time convenient for the respondents. Interviews, which were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim, were evaluated by thematic content analysis and by other authors’ analysis. Results. Most of the respondents were of the view that financial constraints, inappropriate drug management, and inadequate funding were the factors contributing toward the problem of antimalarial drug stock-outs in healthcare facilities of Pakistan. The pharmacists anticipated that prescribing by nonproprietary names, training of health professionals, accepted role of hospital pharmacist in drug management, implementation of essential drug list and standard treatment guidelines for malaria in the healthcare system can minimize the problem of drug stock outs in healthcare system of Pakistan. Conclusion. The current study showed that all the respondents in the two cities agreed that hospital pharmacist has failed to play an effective role in efficient management of anti-malarial drugs stock-outs.

  17. Kyoto protocol and its implementation in pakistan: hurdles and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997 Kyoto protocol was adopted at the third session of Conference of the parties of UNFCC in Kyoto, Japan. This protocol restricts the industrialized countries and those in transition to a market economy agreed to limit or reduce their emissions. In Pakistan the government is also taking steps to reduce the pollution. This paper discusses the possible low carbon emitting electricity generation options by keeping in view the current energy scenario of Pakistan and the new energy policy announced by the Government of Pakistan for renewable energy promotion. (author)

  18. Pakistan Mission System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Pak Info was designed by OAPA to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for the Pakistan Mission. It tracks the program approval...

  19. Pakistan : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    This report is based on an assessment of accounting and auditing practices in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. It forms part of a joint initiative between the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). The assessment focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of corporate accounting and auditing practices in Pakistan and involves a review of both mandatory requirements and actual practice. The report consists of policy recommendati...

  20. Knowledge and attitude regarding Ebola virus disease among medical students of Rawalpindi: A preventable threat not yet confronted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisam, Aliya; Rana, Mariam Nadeem; Mahmood-Ur-Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude regarding Ebola virus disease (EVD) among medical students of Rawalpindi. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in a medical college of Rawalpindi from September 2014-November 2014. About 400 students were inducted with 77% (n=308) response rate. After taking informed verbal consent from students and administration, a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was circulated among students of third, fourth and final year MBBS as well as third and fourth year BDS. The data collected was entered and analyzed using SPSS 20. Results: The response rate was 77% (308/400). About 244 (79.2%) of students had heard about EVD before. One hundred and sixty four (53.2%) of the students correctly identified that no treatment is available for EVD as yet. Also 163 (52.9%) said that no vaccine was available against the virus either. Washing hands every time after touching a patient in clinics/wards was important for 151 (49.0%) while 223 (72.4%) claimed to use proper techniques to dispose off used injections. Conclusion: Students have basic knowledge regarding EVD. However, there is deficient information regarding the diagnosis and precautionary measures required to control it. PMID:27648059

  1. Understanding the Appeal of the Taliban in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Manzar Abbas Zaidi

    2010-01-01

    This article briefly explores the economics of the "Talibanization" of Pakistan within descriptive and contextual paradigms, while attempting to find a best solution to counter rising militancy in the context of realities facing the population on the ground. One such solution is the National Pakistani Counter Terrorism and Extremism Strategy (NACTES), designed to curb Taliban financing in Pakistan. The strategy is being drafted by National Counter Terrorism Authority (NACTA), the nascent home...

  2. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF; NOOR AZMI HASHIM

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study ...

  3. Perspectives of coal share in the energy economics of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government of Pakistan is committed to maximizing development efforts in the exploration and exploitation of the indigenous coal resources of the country. In this paper the government energy policy with reference to indigenous coal is reviewed and analyzed. The approaches, the efforts and the partial success for utilizing indigenous coal in thermal generation and industrial domestic utilization by the government are discussed. The possible role of coal in replacing imported energy in Pakistan is being envisaged. (author)

  4. Pakistan's Kashmir policy and strategy since 1947

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Matthew P.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis analyzes Pakistan's Kashmir policy and strategy since 1947. Pakistan has sought to obtain the accession of Kashmir for over fifty years. This policy has its origins in Pakistan's struggle for a separate state for South Asia's Muslims, its belief that India never accepted Pakistan's existence, and Pakistan's domestic cleavages and institutional weaknesses. Because these beliefs and characteristics remain today, Pakistan is unlikely to drop its claim to Kashmir. Pakistan's strategy ...

  5. Spatial and temporal analysis of ground level ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentration across the twin cities of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed; Aziz, Neelam

    2013-04-01

    The analyses presented in this paper include the concentration levels of NO2 and O3 measured during 2 successive years in twin cities (Rawalpindi and Islamabad) of Pakistan from November 2009 to March 2011. NO2 was determined using the passive sampling method, while ozone was determined by Model 400E ozone analyzer. The average NO2 and O3 concentration in twin cities of Pakistan was found to be 44 ± 6 and 18.2 ± 1.24 ppb, respectively. Results indicate that the concentration of NO2 and O3 show seasonal variations. Results also depict that NO2 and O3 concentration levels are high in areas of intense traffic flow and congestion. Rawalpindi has more elevated levels of NO2 and O3 as compared to the Islamabad due to the narrow roads, enclosing architecture of road network and congestion. Climatic variables also influenced the NO2 and O3 concentration, i.e., temperature is positively related with O3, while negatively related with NO2, relative humidity is directly related with NO2 and inversely related with O3, whereas rainfall show negative association with both NO2 and O3 concentration. Comparing the results with WHO standards reveals that NO2 concentration levels at all the sampling points are above the permissible limit, while ozone concentration is still lower than the WHO standards. Thus, there is a need to take appropriate steps to control these continuously increasing levels of NO2 and O3 before they become a serious hazard for the environment and people living in those areas.

  6. Quality status of bottled water brands in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The (PCRWR) has carried out a study to evaluate the quality of mineral water brands available in the market owing to demand of general public and consumer associations. Twenty one brands of bottled water were collected from Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Each water sample was analyzed for 24 aesthetic, physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality parameters by adopting standard analytical methods. It was observed that only 10 out of 21 brands (47.62%) were fit for drinking purpose. The remaining eleven brands (52.38%), including one imported brand, were found unsafe for human consumption. It was also concluded that present situation of water quality of bottled water is due to lack of legislation for water quality control. Hence there is a dire need for a legal organization to monitor and regulate the quality issues of bottled water industry. (author)

  7. Evolution and development of nuclear safety regime in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Pakistan a gradual evolution and development of nuclear safety regime, starting from its very early stage to a full-fledged independent authority has taken place. The evolution process took more than four decades and has been completed in six different stages, i.e. (I) with no legal basis (April 1956 - December 1965), (II) under Atomic Energy Act of 1965 (December 1965 - January 1984), (III) under the Nuclear Safety Act of 1984 (January 1984 - September 1990), (IV) with support of 1980 regulations (September 1990 - October 1994), (v) with a quasi independent regulatory board (October 1994 - January 2001) and (vi) with filly independent regulatory authority (January 2001 - Onward). This included the issuance of executive order(s) and Pakistan Nuclear Safety Committee (PNSC) ear with Nuclear Safety and Licensed Division (NSLD) as the secretariat to the establishment of formal legal entities i.e. Directorate of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (DNSRP), Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Board (PNRB), and Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority (PNRA). Today, Pakistan cna rightly claim to have full-grown independent and viable nuclear safety organization and legal system for enforcing national regulations and standards on nuclear safety. (author)

  8. Wind energy in Balochistan (Pakistan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, S.M.; Raza, S.M.; Abidi, S.B.H. (Balochistan Univ., Quetta (PK). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    The wind energy potentials in Balochistan, Pakistan are examined using 3-hourly wind data from 16 stations scattered all over the province. The speed duration and frequency curves for each observatory are represented graphically, to read the extreme wind speed and total number of hours for a particular wind speed every year. Annual mean wind speed for a period of 5 years, energy and power are determined for each location; the mean wind speed ranging from 1 to 1.8m/s and 2 to 3.2m/s for different locations are mentioned against each station. The analysis of this data indicates that the wind energy potentials in some locations are very high. These high potential areas are more useful and suitable for the use of wind energy for windmills and electricity for light for scattered populations. (author).

  9. Progress in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The government of Pakistan has announced a new hydro power policy which aims to meet the future electricity demands of the country at reasonable rated. The Ministry of Water Power Resources has organised a committee to prepare its recommendations for the new policy.The committee will also identify new projects.

  10. China and Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s 90-ton emergency humanitarian aid package arrived in Pakistan,which has recently been battered by severe floods,on August 4.The package,valued at 10 million yuan($1.5million),included 30 tons of water purifiers and medicine

  11. Empowering growth in Pakistan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid); H. Majid (Hadia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractPakistan's Vision 2025 connects a policy commitment to greater gender equality with inclusive growth. It prioritises a "good quality of life and high living standard for all citizens across regions, gender" and to "achieve an annual average growth rate of 7 to 8 per cent that is inclusiv

  12. Pakistan boosts science budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Government spending on science and technology development in Pakistan will jump by about a quarter in 2009-2010 compared with the previous fiscal year, with big increases planned for nuclear physics and higher education. In late June the country's National Assembly approved a budget of 48.2bn Pakistani rupees (Rs), or about £361m, for new science projects.

  13. Prospect of Tea Cultivation & Processing in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    HistoryIn 1958, a farmer brought some tea seeds and plants from Bangladesh (then east Pakistan), and successfully cultivated them in district Mansehra. At that time, Pakistan was self-sufficient in tea that was produced in East Pakistan. After the separation (in 1971) of East Pakistan, Pakistan diverted attention to initial work on tea production. The Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) took over the charge of tea cultivation in 1976-77 and launched a project in 1980.

  14. Enhancement of safety at nuclear facilities in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan is benefiting from nuclear technology mostly in health and energy sectors as well as agriculture and industry and has an impeccable safety record. At the national level uses of nuclear technology started in 1955 resulting in the operation of Karachi Radioisotope Center, Karachi, in December 1960. Pakistan Nuclear Safety Committee (PNSC) was formulated in 1964 with subsequent promulgation of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Ordinance in 1965 to cope with the anticipated introduction of a research reactor, namely PARR-I, and a nuclear power plant, namely KANUPP. Since then Pakistan's nuclear program has expanded to include numerous nuclear facilities of varied nature. This program has definite economic and social impacts by producing electricity, treating and diagnosing cancer patients, and introducing better crop varieties. Appropriate radiation protection includes a number of measures including database of sealed radiation sources at PAEC operated nuclear facilities, see Table l, updated during periodic physical verification of these sources, strict adherence to the BSS-115, IAEA recommended enforcement of zoning at research reactors and NPPs, etc. Pakistan is party to several international conventions and treaties, such as Convention of Nuclear Safety and Early Notification, to improve and enhance safety at its nuclear facilities. In addition Pakistan generally and PAEC particularly believes in a blend of prudent regulations and good/best practices. This is described in this paper. (Author)

  15. Pakistan research reactor and its utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 5 MW enriched uranium fuelled, light water moderated and cooled Pakistan Research reactor became critical on 21st December, 1965 and was taken to full power on 22nd June, 1966. Since then is has been operated for about 23000 hours till 30th June, 1983 without any major break down. It has been used for the studies of neutron cross-sections, nuclear structure, fission physics, structure of material, radiation damage in crystals and semiconductors, studies of geological, biological and environmental samples by neutron activation techniques, radioisotope production, neutron radiography and for training of scientists, engineers and technicians. In the paper we have described briefly the facility of Pakistan Research Reactor and the major work carried around it during the last decade. (author)

  16. Determinants of Poverty in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Huma Yousaf; Imran Ali

    2014-01-01

    This research discusses impact of macroeconomic variables on poverty in Pakistan. In this article five variables are used and two models are run. The ordinary least squares approach is applied. In first model we check the impact of budget deficit, government expenditure and unemployment on poverty in Pakistan. Budget deficit and government expenditure shows negative relationship with poverty in Pakistan while unemployment has positive relationship with poverty. In second model we check the im...

  17. Sentinel hospital-based surveillance for assessment of burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children in Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Momin Kazi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the burden and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children hospitalized with severe acute watery diarrhea in Pakistan prior to introduction of rotavirus vaccine. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of two years from 2006 - 2008 at five sentinel hospitals in the cities of Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar. Stool samples collected from children under five years of age hospitalized with severe acute watery diarrhea were tested for rotavirus antigen via enzyme immunoassay (EIA (IDEA REF K6020 Oxoid Ltd (Ely, Cambridge, United Kingdom. A subset of EIA positive stool samples were further processed for genotyping. RESULTS: 6679 children were enrolled and stool specimens of 2039 (30.5% were positive for rotavirus. Rotavirus positivity ranged from 16.3% to 39.4% in the 5 hospitals with highest positivity in Lahore. 1241 (61% of all rotavirus cases were in infants under one year of age. Among the strains examined for G-serotypes, the occurrence of G1, G2, G9 and G4 strains was found to be 28%, 24%, 14% and 13%, respectively. Among P-types, the most commonly occurring strains were P6 (31.5% followed by P8 (20% and P4 (12%. Prevalent rotavirus genotype in hospitalized children of severe diarrhea were G1P[8] 11.6% (69/593, followed by G2P[4] 10.4% (62/593, and G4P[6] 10.1% (60/593. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one third of children hospitalized with severe gastroenteritis in urban centers in Pakistan have rotavirus. Introduction of rotavirus vaccine in Pakistan's national immunization program could prevent many severe episodes and diarrheal deaths.

  18. Solid waste management - Pakistan's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discipline of 'Solid Waste Management' is as old as human civilization itself. The problem had been felt when the human beings commenced living together in the form of communities. The situation got worsened with ever-increasing population and growing industrialization. The developed nations have endeavored to tackle the issue of the industrial and municipal wastes according to the principles of engineering and environment. Most of the developing countries have not dealt with the 'Third Pollution' in the eco-friendly manner. Ironically Pakistan is facing this serious menace because of ever-expanding population (2.2% per annum) and ill management of the wastes and effluents being generated from multifarious activities. These pollutants are degrading the land, air and water resources at alarming rates. In Pakistan about 7,250 tonnes of solid waste is generated per day. Of this quantity only 60-70% is collected and the remaining quantity is allowed to burn indiscriminately or decay in situ. Unfortunately the industrial waste, animal dung and hospital waste are allowed to mix with the municipal waste, which adds to inefficiency of the existing 'Solid Waste Management System'. Scores of faecal, fly, rodent and mosquito born diseases are caused due to open dumping of the waste besides aesthetic impairment of the surroundings. None of the scientifically recognized methods of disposal is practiced. It is not based on administrative, financial, environmental and technical consideration. There is dire necessity of educating the masses to adopt clean habits and resort to generation of minimum waste. Further, nothing is waste as the so-called 'waste material' is the raw material after reuse and recycling for another process. (author)

  19. Attidue of Senior Journalist in Pakistan and Perception to the Modern and Traditional Journalism in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Masumah Esmaeily Ponkey

    2012-01-01

    In this article we will discuss the introduction of journalism and its history, specifically When journalism start in Pakistan, what is the traditional and modern journalism, attitude of senior journalists towards mass media in Pakistan ,What problems journalists are facing in Pakistan, perception of journalism in Pakistan, how can journalist can improve their work in Pakistan and final conclusion.

  20. DIGITAL PAKISTAN: OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available IT has revolutionized the social and organizational life around the globe. Given the newness of IT as a technology, there is a lot of potential that needs to be explored. It is however, argued that as IT can revolutionize the economic development, by the same coin, although its mismanagement in adoption process can end up in problems or even straight failure of the technology at the business-end. This study was conducted with reference to opportunities and challenges in the IT adoption process in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to point out the barriers that are impeding the country’s computerization process in order to provide facts to the policy makers for smooth computerization. The primary data collected through structured questionnaires was analyzed and tested through correlation, regressions analysis and t-test. Out of 10 hypotheses, 3 were accepted while in the rest null hypotheses were not substantiated. Based on primary and secondary data analysis this study has found that all independent bureaucratic, political, education and social and cultural variables are mutually correlated and have significant impact on shaping and reshaping of IT in Pakistan, while the Pakistan IT policy is inconsistent, administrative machinery attitude is negative and non cooperative, procedures are cumbersome and implementation is weak and ineffective, not to mention the lack of IT knowledge on the bureaucratic side. The political environment is instable and law and order is worse which is discouraging the investment. Moreover, physical and legal infrastructure is insufficient and the country is lacking good quality IT professionals. IT organization alignment is another serious issue in Pakistan. However, government incentives and growing interest from the private sector indicate positive attitude towards computerization of the country.

  1. DIGITAL PAKISTAN: OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT IT has revolutionized the social and organizational life around the globe. Given the newness of IT as a technology, there is a lot of potential that needs to be explored. It is however, argued that as IT can revolutionize the economic development, by the same coin, although its mismanagement in adoption process can end up in problems or even straight failure of the technology at the business-end. This study was conducted with reference to opportunities and challenges in the IT adoption process in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to point out the barriers that are impeding the country’s computerization process in order to provide facts to the policy makers for smooth computerization. The primary data collected through structured questionnaires was analyzed and tested through correlation, regressions analysis and t-test. Out of 10 hypotheses, 3 were accepted while in the rest null hypotheses were not substantiated. Based on primary and secondary data analysis this study has found that all independent bureaucratic, political, education and social and cultural variables are mutually correlated and have significant impact on shaping and reshaping of IT in Pakistan, while the Pakistan IT policy is inconsistent, administrative machinery attitude is negative and non cooperative, procedures are cumbersome and implementation is weak and ineffective, not to mention the lack of IT knowledge on the bureaucratic side. The political environment is instable and law and order is worse which is discouraging the investment. Moreover, physical and legal infrastructure is insufficient and the country is lacking good quality IT professionals. IT organization alignment is another serious issue in Pakistan. However, government incentives and growing interest from the private sector indicate positive attitude towards computerization of the country.

  2. Empowering growth in Pakistan?

    OpenAIRE

    Siegmann, Karin Astrid; Majid, Hadia

    2014-01-01

    textabstractPakistan's Vision 2025 connects a policy commitment to greater gender equality with inclusive growth. It prioritises a "good quality of life and high living standard for all citizens across regions, gender" and to "achieve an annual average growth rate of 7 to 8 per cent that is inclusive and endogenous" as its first two objectives (GoP 2014a). These commitments respond to the multiple inequalities and the increasing polarization that characterise the South Asian country. Rather t...

  3. Poverty trends in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hina, Nazli; Whitney, Edward; Mahrt, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    The official estimates of poverty in Pakistan have shown a remarkable and consistent decline in the poverty headcount during the previous decade. This paper examines trends in poverty between 2001 and 2011 using the official food energy intake and the cost of basic needs approaches, both of which are modified to allow poverty lines to vary over time and space. The latter estimates provide utility-consistent poverty lines through the imposition of revealed preference conditions in maximum entr...

  4. Entrepreneurship in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Nadeem Ul Haque

    2007-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is viewed by economists to be a combination of innovation and risk taking. When such activity thrives, high growth rates are achieved as well as opportunities offered to all segments of society, including the poor. The latter benefit form growth and employment as well as through opportunities for entrepreneurship. In Pakistan innovation and risk taking is severely inhibited by the intrusive role of government in the marketplace. From the early days of planning when protection...

  5. Energy crisis in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Malik Naseem

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited It is a universal phenomenon that the socio-economic progress of a state is significantly dependent upon the performance of the energy sector, as the energy sector drives the engine of growth and development in agricultural, industrial, and defense sectors, in addition to impacting domestic users. In Pakistan, the increasing gap between the demand for, and the supply of, energy has brought economic progress to a standstill. A number of...

  6. Biogas technology in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although biomethanation is a mature technology its implementation is paradoxically only partly a success in Pakistan. Biogas plants on family farms can be economical but seldom are so in Pakistan. Either the investment cost has been high or satisfactory performance of the process could not be maintained or in some case for a short period of time only. It is, however, concluded that biogas plants, if correctly operated and maintained, may prove to be appropriate to the technical abilities and economic capacity of Pakistani farmers. It can get a change to be disseminated in rural areas. Biogas technology is appropriate to the ecological and economic demands of the future. With the potential from existing cattle population only, 3 to 4 million family size biogas plants may be installed in Pakistan which can substitute of considerable part of rural fuel wood demand for their daily household energy requirements. A large amount of dung is burnt every year by households which if put in the biogas plant, may provide a considerable amount of energy along with organic fertilizer could be saved from being burned at the same time. On the basis of available data from the livestock excluding agriculture residue (50% collectivity-1991), in terms of fuel substitution, this would be equivalent to 1200 million litres of kerosene at worth economic value of 9021 million rupees saving in the form of gas and 821 million rupees as additional fertilizer value annually. (LN)

  7. The Role of Nuclear Power in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the energy and electricity demand in Pakistan have been steadily growing, the per capita electricity consumption at around 300 kWh is still rather small when compared to most countries. The current installed capacity is around 17,700 MW with fossil fuels providing nearly two-third of this capacity, hydro a little less than one-third and nuclear around 2.5%. A major fraction of the oil used in Pakistan has to be imported while hydro remains subject to seasonal changes. The next 20 year projections point to a serious electrical energy generation shortfall even when the contribution from indigenous gas, coal, and hydro is increased optimistically. It is estimated that a deficit of some 3000-5000 MW may exist which will have to be met from an alternate energy resource like nuclear. Two small nuclear power plants (KANUPP, a 137 MWe CANDU which has been operating safely for nearly three decades, and CHASNUPP, the newly built 325 MWe PWR supplied by China) are already on-line. KANUPP has essentially been operated without any vendor support thanks to a systematic self-reliance program. The experience gained through procuring, operating and maintaining these power plants, coupled with the need to meet the projected electrical energy shortfall which cannot be met through conventional resources, makes nuclear a very viable option, and Pakistan an ideal case to study the current and future role of nuclear in a developing country with medium sized grid. This paper will describe an overview of the experience of development of nuclear power in Pakistan. Future strategies, which involve negotiating a case for nuclear with the energy policy makers, interacting with the vendor on matters of obtaining new plants, and increasing self-reliance in the area of nuclear power technology, will also be discussed. (author)

  8. Ethno-botanical studies from northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research paper efforts have been made to document the ethno-botanical knowledge of important plant species found in Northern Pakistan. It includes Thandiani, Galiat, Kaghan, Swat, Buner, Dir, Chitral and Northern Areas of Pakistan. The area has many climatic and vegetation zones or biomes. Locals residing in mountainous areas belonging to various ethnic groups are traditionally utilizing plants over many generations; these ethnic groups have their distinct life style, belief, traditions and cultural heritage. Plant collection and data regarding traditional uses in various areas of Northern Pakistan has been done periodically in different flowering /fruiting seasons. Locals of old age belonging to various ethnic groups were personally interviewed for establishing uses of plants. Photography is done for easy identification and habitat recognition. Collected plant specimens and seeds were preserved. Plant species were dried, mounted, identified and authenticated. Seventy six species were known to have traditional and ethno botanical uses. Plants have been utilized for many generations. Ethnic groups have distinct life style and have different economic uses for these plants. Due to unsustainable exploitation of natural habitats scarcity of drug plants has occurred. As consequence some species are depleting and may become extinct in near future, e. g. Morchella esculenta, Colchicum lueteum and Viola serpens are just a few of these. Although some sporadic information is available about the flora of this region but very little documented record of the ethno-botanically important plants has been established. It is expected that this research paper will be beneficial for students, researchers, farmers, foresters and general public. On the basis of data obtained it is concluded that ethno-botanical Flora of Northern Pakistan is quite rich and is diverse, due to the difference in altitude, climate and other topographic conditions. (author)

  9. IMPACT OF CURRENCY DEVALUATION ON THE EXPORTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH AND INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Shahzad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the impact of currency devaluation on exports of three major economies of South Asian (i.e., Pakistan, Bangladesh and India over the period 1980 to 2012, by implementing the multiple regression models. Results reveales that currency devaluation encourages exports of Pakistan and Bangladesh. Lending interest rate significant negative effect in Pakistan and Bangladesh but insignificant in India. Government expenditure encouraged the export of Pakistan while not significaant in Bangladesh while depress in India. Money supply also enhanced the export of Pakistan, Bangladesh and India. Result suggest that concerned authorities should manage and use the resources properly in such a way which may assist to develop the economies.

  10. Schools for Change: A Perspective on School Improvement in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Ismat

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the deeply unsatisfactory state of public and private schooling in a developing country, Pakistan, and the half-hearted measures employed at improving these schools. In the process, the author explores the negative aspects of the ways in which change has been effected in the country's education system and why these reasons…

  11. Status of higher education in nuclear technology in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To harness the benefits of nuclear energy and the applications of radiation and radionuclides in various disciplines, a broad and deeply rooted nuclear education is essential. To cater to its needs, the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has established training institutes/centres of higher education. This paper briefly describes the programmes offered by these institutes/centres. (author)

  12. Statistical analysis of measured global insolation data for Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, I.A. (Balochistan Univ., Quetta (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics); Twidell, J.W. (Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom). Energy Studies Unit)

    1994-01-01

    The global insolation data for up to 15 years from six locations in Pakistan are analysed. In addition to simple arithmetic analysis, tables and figures of cumulative frequency distribution and number of consecutive days above certain threshold insolation values are constructed. Results are presented for monthly and annual periods for practical application when planning solar installation. (author)

  13. Kiran Libraries for Children in Prison in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinji, Tajima

    2009-01-01

    In Pakistan, there are 7,000 children in 70 jails. From observations on why children commit crime, the author offers that the core cause is poverty; 99 per cent of young prisoners belong to deprived sections of society. They do not have access to education; living in prison is difficult; the degrading and harsh treatment adversely affects the…

  14. Renewable energy technologies in Pakistan. Prospects and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf Chaudhry, M.; Raza, R.; Hayat, S.A. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Defence Road, Off Raiwind Road, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2009-08-15

    Pakistan is an energy-deficient country. This paper accentuates the importance and challenges of new era technologies. The renewable energy sources like wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy, biomass energy and fuel cell technology can be used to overcome energy shortage in Pakistan. Renewable energy sources and technologies have the potential to provide solutions to the long-standing energy problems being faced by the developing countries. The expansion of existing energy resources and exploration of new sources is an important exercise to be considered in order to sustain their development initiatives. (author)

  15. Understanding the Appeal of the Taliban in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Manzar Abbas Zaidi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly explores the economics of the "Talibanization" of Pakistan within descriptive and contextual paradigms, while attempting to find a best solution to counter rising militancy in the context of realities facing the population on the ground. One such solution is the National Pakistani Counter Terrorism and Extremism Strategy (NACTES, designed to curb Taliban financing in Pakistan. The strategy is being drafted by National Counter Terrorism Authority (NACTA, the nascent homeland security coordination body set up by the state as the primary public organ entrusted with counterterrorism, counter-extremism, and de-radicalization efforts of the state.

  16. 136 Tax Revenue, Stock Market and Economic Growth of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Javaid Attari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of capital market and fiscal policy influences in determining the nexus of economic growth in Pakistan from July 2003 to July 2012. The authors utilize ADF unit root test, Johansen Cointegration test, VECM test, Granger causality test and variance decomposition analysis to test the relationship among tax revenue, stock market and economic growth in Pakistan. Granger causality analysis is used to answer questions whether “Does tax revenue cause the economic growth?” or “Does tax revenue cause the capital market?”. The results demonstrate that there is a bidirectional casualty between tax revenue and economic growth; and a unidirectional causality from capital market to tax revenue. The estimated result shows that growth of Pakistan economy is strongly contributed from the high collection of direct tax revenue and the development of financial market activity. The findings of this paper have important implications to current and potential investors in Pakistan economy to understand the economic condition of Pakistan and to assist them in making their investment decision.

  17. Epidemiology, determinants and dynamics of cholera in pakistan: gaps and prospects for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholera is one of the notifiable endemic diseases in Pakistan, but the reporting of cholera cases is still unsatisfactory. Most of the diagnosed cases are never reported to the relevant authorities. In the year 1993 - 2005, the country did not report any single case of cholera to the WHO. The objectives of this review were to understand the epidemiology and to identify the possible determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan. Medscape, Medline, PakMedinet and PubMed, was searched, using key words, epidemiology and determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan during 1995 - 2010. Morbidity and mortality due to cholera infection during 1995 - 2010, without any language restriction. Out of 27 articles published between 1995 - 2010, 17 articles were included in the review. Vibrio cholerae O139 identified as a major cause of infection in older age group, while O1 biotype of cholera as a predominant cause of cholera among young individuals. Mainly reported determinants of cholera in Pakistan include poor sanitation and hygiene practices, increased population density in urban areas, leading to rapid and unplanned urbanization of the major cities and climate change due to increased environmental pollution in Pakistan are plausible factors for endemicity of cholera in Pakistan. Cholera reporting as a notifiable disease to the relevant departments and timely action can prevent the risk of outbreaks. There is a need to identify specific behavioral and environmental determinants responsible for outbreaks and epidemics of cholera in Pakistan which can help to design appropriate preventive and control interventions. (author)

  18. Radon awareness survey in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant progress has been made in reducing the risk from exposure to radon and its progeny all over the world as a result of efforts made by different organisations which are working together to educate public about the harmful effects of radon. During the past several surveys, it was found that uneducated people were totally ignorant of radon in Pakistan. Even a large number of science graduates knew very little about radon and its hazards. Therefore, a nationwide survey was conducted to measure general awareness and factual knowledge about radon and its health hazards. In this regard, a questionnaire was prepared and distributed among different classes of the society including students, government employees and general public throughout the country. A total of 7000 people with different educational backgrounds participated in this survey, which includes uneducated people (1000), science and humanities graduates (2000 each) and under graduate (2000). Statistical analysis, excluding uneducated people, revealed that 30.4% of the total respondents were aware of radon and 69.6% had even not heard of radon. Only ∼8.4% of the total respondents were knowledgeably aware of radon. (authors)

  19. Pakistan: Regional rivalries, local impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, Mona Kanwal; Shaikh, Farzana; Price, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    What connects Chinas to the challenges of separatism in Balochistan? Why is India important when it comes to water shortages in Pakistan? How does jihadism in Punjab an Sindh differ from religious militancy in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA)? Why do Iran and Saudi Arabia matter for the challenges faced by Pakistan in Gilgit-Baltistan? These are some of the questions that are raised and discussed in the analytical contribution of this report. Overall, the present report aims to ...

  20. Epidemiology of Transfusion Transmitted Infection among Patients with β-Thalassaemia Major in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Kiani, Rizwan; Anwar, Muhammad; Asad, Muhammad Javaid; Abbasi, Saleem; Abbas Zaheer, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Transfusion Transmitted Infections (TTIs) continue to be a major risk in transfusions in many parts of the world. The transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients are particularly at risk of acquiring TTIs. The current study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of TTIs in transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study of 1253 multitransfused thalassaemia major patients was conducted in five different centres of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Karachi. The study subjects were screened for HIV, HCV, and HBV. The screening was performed at two centres: Department of Pathology, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (SZAB) Medical University, and Blood Transfusion Services, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, from July to December 2015. The confirmatory screening was performed by Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CLIA). Results. Out of the 1253 multiple transfused patients, 317 (25.3%) were infected with TTIs. HCV was positive in 273 cases (21.7%), HBV in 38 cases (3.0%), and HIV in 6 cases (0.5%). Conclusion. HCV was the leading TTI in multitransfused thalassaemia major patients in the study. Presence of HIV in thalassaemia patients is a recent disturbing development in Pakistan. Improved regulation of blood banks including use of internationally or nationally evaluated kits will bring down the incidence of TTIs in transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients. More stringent behavioral and serological pretransfusion screening of blood for TTIs must be implemented in blood banks. PMID:27559490

  1. Job stress among community health workers: a multi-method study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Zafar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In low income countries, the task of providing primary health care is often the responsibility of community health workers. In Pakistan, community workers called Lady Health Workers (LHW deliver basic health care at the doorstep in the rural areas and urban slums. Evaluations show that it is a successful programme but point out inconsistencies in the quality of service provided. In order achieve this, it would be important to obtain the workers' viewpoint on their job-description, the problems they face and the levels of stress they encounter. Methods We conducted a multi-method study to investigate the aforementioned issues. All LHWs from one typical rural sub-district in Rawalpindi were surveyed. Focus group discussions with a sub-set of these workers were also conducted. Results About a quarter of the LHWs were found to have significant occupational stress. Factors associated with stress included having low socio-economic status and having to travel long distances for work. Inconsistent medical supplies, inadequate stipends, lack of career structure and not being equipped to communicate effectively with families were the main factors for job dissatisfaction among these workers. Recommendations Improvement in remuneration, better administration of supplies and a structured career path should be ensured for better performance of community health workers. In addition, communication skills learning should be an essential part of their training programme.

  2. Benzene exposure among auto-repair workers from workplace ambience: A pioneer study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Kamal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In Pakistan, the reports on benzene exposure among workers in chemical industries are almost non-existing due to limited research work in the field of exposure science. This study aimed to investigate such exposure in a widely adopted occupation in Rawalpindi city. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 blood samples (N = 20/group of mechanics (MCs, spray painters (PNs and control participants (CN were analyzed. The socio-economic and demographic information of workers and that of workplaces was documented using a short questionnaire. Results: We identified that the workers in spray-painting occupation are highly at risk of benzene exposure. The results showed that PNs were more at risk of exposure to benzene than MCs, and this exposure was significantly correlated with long working hours (r = 0.68, p < 0.001. Moreover, there are several limitations in workplace setups, which need to be addressed in order to mitigate workers health risk in this occupation. In addition to the reckless use of chemicals, other identified predictors of exposure included active and passive smoking, poor workplace hygiene and substandard ventilation. Conclusions: To mitigate workplace exposure, it is necessary to reduce working hours and encourage regular use of self-protective equipments and adoption of proper hygiene in chemical workplaces.

  3. Dengue transmission based on urban environmental gradients in different cities of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Bushra; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2015-03-01

    This study focuses on the dengue transmission in different regions of Pakistan. For this purpose, the data of dengue cases for 2009-2012 from four different cities (Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Lahore, and Karachi) of the country is collected, evaluated, and compiled. To identify the reasons and regions of higher risk of Dengue transmission, land use classification, analysis of climate covariates and drainage patterns was done. Analysis involves processing of SPOT 5 10 m, Landsat TM 30 m data sets, and SRTM 90 m digital elevation models by using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The results are based on the change in urbanization and population density, analysis of temperature, rainfall, and wind speed; calculation of drainage patterns including stream features, flow accumulation, and drainage density of the study areas. Results suggest that the low elevation areas with calm winds and minimum temperatures higher than the normal, rapid increase in unplanned urbanization, low flow accumulation, and higher drainage density areas favor the dengue transmission.

  4. Environmental risk factors and hotspot analysis of dengue distribution in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Bushra; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    This study is an attempt to find out the factors responsible for sudden dengue outbreak in different cities of Pakistan during 2011. For this purpose, spatio-temporal distribution of dengue in Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Lahore, and Karachi has been taken into account. According to the available data, the factors responsible for this spread includes climate covariates like rainfall, temperature, and wind speed; social covariates like population, and area of locality, and environmental risk factors like drainage pattern and geo-hydrological conditions. Reported dengue cases from localities and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 90 m digital elevation model (DEM) of study areas have been processed for hotspots, regression model and stream density in the localities of high dengue incidence. The relationship of daily dengue incidence with climate covariates during the months of July-October of the study year is analyzed. Results show that each dry spell of 2-4 days provides suitable conditions for the development and survival of dengue vectors during the wet months of July and August in the areas of high stream density and population. Very few cases have been reported in July while higher number of cases reported in the months of August, September, until late October. Hotspot analysis highlights the areas of high dengue incidence while regression analysis shows the relationship between the population and the areas of localities with the dengue incidence.

  5. Physical, chemical and microbiological analysis of the water quality of Rawal Lake, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehreen Hassan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available What better gift of nature would be than good quality water? In order to assess the quality of water of Rawal Lake, following research was carried out. Rawal lake is a source of drinking water supplied to many areas of Rawalpindi and Islamabad’ the capital city of Pakistan. Water of this lake is being highly polluted by the local communities alongside the lake through solid waste dumping. Samples of surface water were collected, tested and analyzed in the laboratory on the basis of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The results showed uncertainties in many of the selected parameters. Microbiological analysis revealed high contamination of E. coli, fecal coliform and total coliform in the samples proving it unfit for drinking. It was found that the concentration of all physical parameters such as nitrates, chloride, pH and conductivity were within the normal limits. The level of heavy metals like lead, iron, chromium etc. was also found low. Turbidity at some points exceeded the maximum acceptable limit as per WHO statement.

  6. Pakistan's nuclear programme: a net assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan may have about 100 nuclear weapons and about 200 ballistic missiles (partly for conventional use) and shows all signs of expanding its nuclear force. In the past decade, a robust set of institutions and procedures has been put into place, aimed at preventing the unauthorized use, theft or sale of nuclear weapons, materials, or technology. There is no doubt that the Pakistan military has been taking nuclear security very seriously - first and foremost because it is in its own interest - and does that in a very professional way. This analysis argues that the main risks today are not those of 'weapons falling into the wrong hands' and even less an 'Islamist takeover of the country'. They are risks of deliberate use and perhaps partial loss of control of the nuclear complex in wartime; and low-level leaks of expertise or materials, or a radiological incident in peace time. On the longer run, a weakening of State authority over the territory and a failure of governance, or of a radicalization of current policies towards the West, should not be discounted. (author)

  7. Terrorism in Pakistan: a behavioral sciences perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Rana, Mowadat Hussain; Hassan, Tariq Mahmood; Minhas, Fareed Aslam

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral science perspectives of terrorism in Pakistan. It can be argued that Pakistan has gained worldwide attention for "terrorism" and its role in the "war against terrorism". The region is well placed geopolitically for economic successes but has been plagued by terrorism in various shapes and forms. A behavioral sciences perspective of terrorism is an attempt to explain it in this part of the world as a complex interplay of historical, geopolitical, anthropological and psychosocial factors and forces. Drawing from theories by Western scholars to explain the behavioral and cognitive underpinnings of a terrorist mind, the authors highlight the peculiarities of similar operatives at individual and group levels. Thorny issues related to the ethical and human right dimensions of the topic are visited from the unique perspective of a society challenged by schisms and divergence of opinions at individual, family, and community levels. The authors have attempted to minimize the political descriptions, although this cannot be avoided entirely, because of the nature of terrorism.

  8. Predicting Bankruptcy in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul RASHID

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the financial ratios that are most significant in bankruptcy prediction for the non-financial sector of Pakistan based on a sample of companies which became bankrupt over the time period 1996-2006. Twenty four financial ratios covering four important financial attributes, namely profitability, liquidity, leverage, and turnover ratios, were examined for a five-year period prior bankruptcy. The discriminant analysis produced a parsimonious model of three variables viz. sales to total assets, EBIT to current liabilities, and cash flow ratio. Our estimates provide evidence that the firms having Z-value below zero fall into the “bankrupt” whereas the firms with Z-value above zero fall into the “non-bankrupt” category. The model achieved 76.9% prediction accuracy when it is applied to forecast bankruptcies on the underlying sample.

  9. Professor Tariq Solaija, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Dr Austin Ball, CMS Deputy Technical Coordinator, discussing a section of CMS with Mr Tariq Solaija, National Centre of Physics, Pakistan, in charge of Pakistan's contribution to the Muon detector (Resistive Plate Chambers). Photo 02: Dr Austin Ball, CMS Deputy Technical Coordinator (right) presents neutron absorber panels for the CMS detector to (right-to-left) Mr Syed Shaukat Hasan, Minister Technical, Pakistan Mission in Geneva; Mr Tariq Solaija, National Centre of Physics, Pakistan and Dr Diether Blechschmidt, Non-Member States Relations, CERN. Photo 03: Mr Syed Shaukat Hasan, Minister Technical, Pakistan Mission in Geneva; Mr Tariq Solaija, National Centre of Physics, Pakistan; Dr Diether Blechschmidt, Non-Member States Relations, CERN and Austin Ball, CMS Deputy Technical Coordinator (right) looking up to the CMS detector. Photo 04: Mr Syed Shaukat Hasan, Minister Technical, Pakistan Mission in Geneva; Mr Tariq Solaija, National Centre of Physics, Pakistan listen to a presentation of the CMS d...

  10. CERN and Pakistan consolidate their partnership

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    During the President of Pakistan's visit to CERN, the Laboratory and Pakistan decided to strengthen their collaboration. The President of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf, the Chairman of PAEC, Parvez Butt, and CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, exchange congratulations following the signing of the letter of intent to strengthen partnership between CERN and Pakistan.The President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf, during his speech in the Council Chamber. The President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf, visited CERN on 27 January this year, accompanied by an important delegation of five ministers from the Pakistani Government, the Chairman of Pakistan's Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Parvez Butt, and an eminent former Chairman of the Commission, Ishfaq Ahmad, who pioneered cooperation with CERN. Welcomed by CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, the President visited the CMS experiment to which Pakistan is making a substantial contribution. The presidential pa...

  11. Epidemiology, determinants and dynamics of cholera in Pakistan: gaps and prospects for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, Maliha; Jamali, Tanzil

    2014-11-01

    Cholera is one of the notifiable endemic diseases in Pakistan, but the reporting of cholera cases is still unsatisfactory. Most of the diagnosed cases are never reported to the relevant authorities. In the year 1993 - 2005, the country did not report any single case of cholera to the WHO. The objectives of this review were to understand the epidemiology and to identify the possible determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan. Medscape, Medline, PakMedinet and PubMed, was searched, using key words, epidemiology and determinants of cholera infection in Pakistan during 1995 - 2010. Morbidity and mortality due to cholera infection during 1995 - 2010, without any language restriction. Out of 27 articles published between 1995 - 2010, 17 articles were included in the review. Vibrio cholerae O139 identified as a major cause of infection in older age group, while O1 biotype of cholera as a predominant cause of cholera among young individuals. Mainly reported determinants of cholera in Pakistan include poor sanitation and hygiene practices, increased population density in urban areas, leading to rapid and unplanned urbanization of the major cities and climate change due to increased environmental pollution in Pakistan are plausible factors for endemicity of cholera in Pakistan. Cholera reporting as a notifiable disease to the relevant departments and timely action can prevent the risk of outbreaks. There is a need to identify specific behavioral and environmental determinants responsible for outbreaks and epidemics of cholera in Pakistan which can help to design appropriate preventive and control interventions.

  12. Challenges and Opportunities for Libraries in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiq UR, Rehman; Pervaiz, Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This paper, based on review of literature, observation, and informal conversations, discusses various challenges regarding finance, collection development, ICTs, human resources, library education, library association and research & development faced by library profession in Pakistan. The opportunities to meet these challenges have also been explored. Keywords: Library challenges and opportunities (Pakistan); Librarianship (Pakistan); Library issues; Library profession in Pa...

  13. The Pakistan Experiment and the Language Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van Schendel

    2013-01-01

    The partition of 1947 created two new independent states, India and Pakistan. The eastern part of Bengal joined Pakistan. Pakistan was a highly ambitious experiment in twentieth-century state making. And yet, from the beginning the state was beset with enormous challenges. This excerpt from a recent

  14. Study on Tax Expenditures in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Ather Maqsood; Ather, Robina

    2014-01-01

    The problems of high fiscal deficit, high current account deficit, and high inflation faced by the government of Pakistan are linked to Pakistan's weak tax revenue effort. There are concerns that revenue in Pakistan is raised in an inefficient way by favoring certain sectors and economic activities over others. The assessment of tax expenditures is often complicated because reporting and...

  15. Industrial waste management - a case study at Attock oil refinery Ltd., Rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    remote sources and in storage facilities. The implementation has been planned in different phases to achieve the goal. In first phase cooling towers blow down water (96,000 liters/day) and drinking water treatment plants back wash water is being recycled and used for fire water, washing the plants area floors and gardening purposes. The work is in progress to recycle and reuse all refinery waste water. Bioremediation is being carried out of oily sludge recovered during the cleaning of the crude oil and products storage tanks. It is the safest technique in the world for such type of hazardous waste. The above technique is also being implemented for crude oil / product spillage during transportation. The waste from refinery and hospital is being incinerated in three stage incinerator meeting NEQS and minimizing impact on the environment. It is concluded that proper management of all type of wastes, implementing cleaner production techniques to minimize waste at the source contributes not only to protect the environment but also increases the profitability and meet corporate social responsibility. (author)

  16. Earth observation for disaster risk reduction in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis investigates the role of Earth Observation (EO) for disaster risk reduction for Pakistan. It demonstrates that significant improvements are possible through the utilization of EO data for natural disaster risk reduction activities in Pakistan. In this thesis, a multi hazard approach is proposed in order to identify vulnerability and risk at district level in Pakistan. In particular, a methodology for ranking hazards, vulnerabilities and risks based on Delphi methods is developed. This method is implemented and the results are mapped for four selected hazards i.e., earthquakes, floods, cyclones and droughts. Based on the final risk rankings, the potential of EO is explored with a focus on vulnerability assessment through detailed analysis of two case studies i.e.; Flood and Cyclone/Tsunami. The study also reviews and evaluates the institutional framework of the National Disaster Management Authority of Pakistan in order to identify existing gaps and address them in view of modern technology being used globally. Results reveal that these gaps are mainly related to policies, coordination and communication of different stakeholders at the national level. The work also reviews the available Early Warning System (EWS) in Pakistan and particularly its usage during disasters. Within the context of EWS, multi-sensor satellite data have been utilized for the analysis of structure of an Arabian Sea tropical Cyclone. Results of this focal study provide useful information for operational analysis and forecasting as well as for designing disaster mitigation measures. This information may also play a major role in the development of cyclone warning strategies in the future. (author)

  17. Spatio-Temporal Extension and Spatial Analyses of Dengue from Rawalpindi, Islamabad and Swat during 2010–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Fareed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and Land-Use Land-Cover change (LULC has significantly displaced the local rainfall patterns and weather conditions in Pakistan. This has resulted in a different climate-related problem, particularly vector borne diseases. Dengue transmission has emerged as one of the most devastating and life threatening disease in Pakistan, causing hundreds of deaths since its first outbreak. This study is designed to understand and analyze the disease patterns across two distinct study regions, using Geographic Information System (GIS, Satellite Remote Sensing (RS along with climate and socio-economic and demographics datasets. The datasets have been analyzed by using GIS statistical analysis techniques. As a result, maps, tables and graphs have been plotted to estimate the most significant parameters. These parameters have been assigned a contribution weight value to prepare a model and Threat Index Map (TIM for the study areas. Finally, the model has been tested and verified against existing datasets for both study areas. This model can be used as a disease Early Warning System (EWS.

  18. Pakistan's nuclear security action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: The Government of Pakistan approved a five year plan to strengthen the nuclear security regime in the country which is being implemented since July 2006 . The objective of this Project is to strengthen and enhance the existing regulatory capabilities of PNRA to discharge its responsibilities towards safety and security of nuclear/radioactive materials and facilities. Areas of Focus: The project covers following five areas: Area-1: Management of Radioactive Sources in Category 1-3. evaluation of vulnerable facilities and supporting their efforts: The outcome of the area would be Assessment of security levels at the licensed facilities, identification of weaknesses, propagation of the security culture, up-gradation of the security effort and strengthening of PNRA effectiveness and vigilance . Area-2: Establishment of PNRA Nuclear Safety/Security Training Center: The outcome of this area would be a permanent training facility for sustainable system at national level for providing training in nuclear safety and security to manpower in PNRA and other national organizations. Area-3: National Nuclear Security Emergency Co-ordination Center (NuSECC): The outcome of this area would be the capability to assess, control, and respond and co-ordinate in case of an emergency pertaining to nuclear security. Area-4: Locating and Securing Orphan Radioactive Sources: The outcome of this area would be the establishment or restoration of regulatory control over orphan sources, disposing and putting these sources out of reach of perpetrators and saboteurs. Provision of clean metal and environment to the public. Area-5: Provision of Detection Equipment at Strategic Points: The outcome of this area would be better control of illicit trafficking of nuclear/radioactive material and prompt response to radiological emergency. (author)

  19. Renewable energy: the secure and sustainable option for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan is an energy deficient country that heavily relies on imports of fossil fuels to meet its energy requirements. Pakistan is facing severe energy challenges -indigenous oil and gas reserves are running out, energy demand is rapidly increasing, gap between demand and supply is growing, concerns about secure supply of energy are increasing and fuel cost is rising at an unprecedented rate. For sustainable development, it is crucial to ensure supply of adequate, consistent and secure supply of energy. Renewable energy resources that are sustainable are abundantly available in Pakistan in various forms such as hydel power, solar energy, wind power and biomass. To address the growing energy challenges, it has become inevitable for the country to diversify its energy market through harnessing renewable energy resources. It has been found that hydel power is one of the most significant renewable energy sources that can help Pakistan address the present as well as future energy challenges. It has been identified that solar water heating is another ready to adopt renewable energy technology that alone has the potential to meet as much as 12-15% of the country's entire energy requirements. (author)

  20. Sustainable energy development and linking renewable energy resources for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan is the second most Muslim populated country in the world. Pakistan is a developing country, and with this, growth comes higher, more energy is required. Pakistan is producing its 35.30% electricity from oil, 32.30% from gas only 30.3% electricity generated from Hydral power plants, 1.96% from nuclear, 0.04% wind and 0.01% from coal power plants. Pakistan is facing 28% of average power shortfall these days and this paper propose a plan to over come this shortfall which should be easy to implement in short span of time and must be very efficient and this should also overcome the future increase in demand of electricity. To overcome the future demands, this is the responsibility of government to search for the surrogate options for finding the energy resources. This paper focused study on improving energy efficiency with building energy efficient homes, reducing line losses and increases its production from cheap sources like Baggase, coal, solar and wind energy. (author)

  1. Commercialization of irradiated foods in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preservation of food by gamma radiation is technically feasible and economically viable under conditions existing in Pakistan. To educate the consumers, programme for dissemination of information regarding food irradiation was implemented to educate the consumers. Test marketing of irradiated products was carried out for 5-6 years and more than 8 tons of irradiated vegetables were sold to consumers who were briefed about the advantages of radiation technology. A number of condiments including pepper and chillies were irradiated on a large scale (more than 10 tons) at the Pakistan Radiation Service (PARAS) during the years 1996-1998. Comprehensive Harmonised food irradiation regulations, covering all foods in seven classes, were approved in 1996. The charges for irradiating various food commodities ranged from US$19.71/ton potatoes (0.10 kGy) to US$38.32/ton for spices (10.0 kGy). Once the techno-economic feasibility is demonstrated, huge post-harvest losses of different food commodities can be avoided. This will make the country not only self-sufficient in food, but with enough surplus for export. (author)

  2. ZAKAH ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING: PRINCIPLES, RULES AND EXPERIENCE IN PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    AKRAM KHAN, MUHAMMAD

    2003-01-01

    The paper is a case study of zakah accounting and auditing system as in vogue in Pakistan. Although there is no professional document from which to infer the accounting and auditing standards, yet the paper tries to infer the accounting and auditing standards from the Zakah Manual. The author carried out extensive interviews with the operational staff in the field to arrive at his conclusions. He casts a critical look on the existing arrangements and makes several suggestions to improve the a...

  3. Saline-sodic soils and their management in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a short review of the soil salinity problem in Pakistan and discusses briefly the measures that have been taken to tackle it. It describes a biological approach of the economic utilization of salt-affected lands by plant succession through initial colonization with salt-tolerant plant species, and describes results of the practical application of this approach and the role of nuclear techniques in these studies. (author)

  4. Marine pollution studies in Pakistan by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a comprehensive study on pollution aspects of Manora Channel-Karachi Coast, Pakistan. In addition to use of conventional non-nuclear pollution monitoring tools (Coliform population, electrical conductivity, turbidity etc.), we evaluate the role of environmental stable carbon isotope technique (delta /sup 13/C of the total dissolved inorganic carbon-TDIC) to establish marine pollution transport scenario for Manora Channel. Data shows that tidal fluctuations play a key role in distribution of contamination inventories in Manora Channel. (author)

  5. Costs and finance of higher education in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Bellew, Rosemary; DeStefano, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Using data from colleges and universities, the authors investigate the costs and effectiveness of higher education in Pakistan, identify factors that influence those costs and effectiveness, and estimate levels of study subsidies. Not surprisingly, they find that most colleges and universities are underfunded. They operate with minimal faculty, spend little on learning materials, and cannot cut costs by enrolling more students without jeopardizing the quality of education. Available resources...

  6. SOCIAL LEGAL TRANSFORMATION OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Mukhtar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan came into being in 1947. It struggled a lot during its initial days. It did not come to consensus to make a constitution until 1956 but later on military regime intervened. It is a drawback of Pakistan that laws and the constitution are not made indeed for its people rather they are made for the selfish elite who come into the power time to time without the support of the people. An unelected person cannot make a law for the betterment of the people he always do things for his own interest. Purpose - To point out weaknesses and hindrances in the social legal transformation of Pakistan and to recommend changes and best possible ways to build a highly social legal transformed society. Design/methodology/approach - The treatise is made taking into account the qualitative approach by looking into the historical prospect of social legal issues of Pakistan and to come to a conclusion to draw a better picture if followed the suggested steps. Findings - The paper includes the review of the history and weaknesses in legal transformation and comprehensive suggested steps to be followed to overcome the weaknesses and deficiencies. Research limitations/implications - The paper is limited to the social and legal aspects of the transformation in Pakistan and does not go into the deep details of politics and culture. Practical implications - Suggested steps can be followed by the legislature to make amendments in laws and to make more suitable laws which is a necessity for the better social transformation of Pakistan. Originality/Value - The research is a good piece and has an importance in its field and may help a lot in the development of the country and the region specially and the world at large generally. Keywords: Islamic rulers of the sub-continent; British India and its laws; Constitution of Pakistan 1956,1962 and 1973. Research type: The said research is a critical analysis on the development and transformation of Pakistan with respect to law

  7. IAEA Safeguards in Pakistan and Emerging Issues/Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of IAEA Safeguards in Pakistan dates back to March, 1962 when a trilateral safeguards agreement (INFCIRC/34) was signed for the supply of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1). Since then Pakistan has concluded several safeguards agreements with the Agency. All the safeguards agreements concluded by Pakistan are governed under the Safeguards Document INFCIRC/66/Rev.2, which is a model for countries not party to NPT (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons). As per this model the item-specific safeguards are applied to Pakistan's nuclear facilities. Being a 66-type country, some times, very peculiar nature of safeguards issues arise that are not common in the States with Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement (CSA) and which pose challenges for both the IAEA and the country. In Pakistan, not only nuclear material, but non-nuclear material is also subjected to safeguards under the respective Safeguards Agreement. At KANUPP, for example, the heavy water used as moderator and coolant, is under IAEA safeguards. The Suspension and Termination options of INFCIRC/66/Rev.2 are atypical from comprehensive safeguards and are utilized in Pakistan to resolve various issues. For example, the HEU plates are targeted in a safeguarded research reactor (PARR-1) for Mo-99 production, which are then separated in an unsafeguarded Moly Production Plant employing the suspension clause of INFCIRC/66/Rev.2. The Additional Protocol substantially enlarges the IAEA's ability to check for clandestine nuclear activities and facilities. The requirements of the Model Additional Protocol are basically designed for the non-nuclear-weapon states-parties to the NPT; the nuclear weapon states are, however, free to choose among or limit the application of the provisions of the Model Additional Protocol. The INFCIRC/66/Rev.2 countries (countries not party to the NPT) may analyse the impact to their programme, of adhering to the Additional Protocol. However, INFCIRC/66/Rev.2

  8. Prospects of renewable-energy sources in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    environment in Pakistan. The country can be benefited by harnessing these options of energy-generation as substitute energy in areas where sources exist. As Pakistan is an agricultural country and major part of its population lives in the rural areas, the electricity generated by renewable sources will also improve rural life, thereby reducing the urban migration that is taxing the ability of cities to cope with their own environmental problems. (author)

  9. Environmental impact of climate change in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change results in the increase or decrease in temperature and rainfall. These have significant impact on environment - impinge agricultural crop yields, affect human health, cause changes to forests and other ecosystems, and even impact our energy supply. Climate change is a global phenomenon and its impact can be observed on Pakistan's economy and environment. This paper contains details concerning the climate change and environmental impacts. It takes into account current and projected key vulnerabilities, prospects for adaptation, and the relationships between climate change mitigation and environment. The purpose of the study is to devise national policies and incentive systems combined with national level capacity-building programs to encourage demand-oriented conservation technologies. Recommendations are also made to abate the climate change related issues in country. (author)

  10. Wind and solar energy in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, S.M.; Raza, S.M. (Balochistan Univ., Quetta (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics)

    1993-04-01

    Hourly wind-speed data at four meteorological observatories (Quetta, Karachi, Peshawar, and Lahore) in Pakistan have been analysed to determine monthly and annual wind power and these are then compared with the monthly mean solar radiation energies for the period 1980-1984. The monthly average wind speeds for the four stations range from 2.5 to 4.4, 2.75 to 6.7, 0.6 to 1.7, and 0.7 to 1.6 m/sec while the solar radiation varies from 3.6 to 7.65, 3.39 to 6.31, 2.4 to 6.35, and 2.8 to 6.27 kWh/m[sup 2], respectively. (author)

  11. Determination of natural radioactivity in building materials used in the Rawalpindi/Islamabad area by γ-ray spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of sand and manufactured building materials collected from the Rawalpindi/Islamabad area have been analyzed for the primordial natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K using γ-ray spectrometry. The uranium and thorium contents have also been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The specific activities of these radionuclides in the samples are compared with those of the world averages for soil. The comparison shows that, of the nine samples analyzed, only the three brick samples have higher activities than the world averages for soil. The specific activities in these materials, having a radium equivalent activity of less than 370 Bq kg-1, when evaluated for radiological effects show that all materials meet the external γ-ray dose limitation of 1.5 mSv y-1. The γ-spectrometric and INAA techniques complemented each other well in this study

  12. Molecular epidemiology of glanders, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O'Neill, Matthew; Deshazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera; Keim, Paul

    2009-12-01

    We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines.

  13. Democracy and Education in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the potential for democratic change in educational practice in Pakistan. Using focus group discussions in urban and rural areas of Sindh and Balochistan, it builds up a picture of educational practices from policy-making to implementation level and identifies the barriers to democratic approaches in education. It suggests that…

  14. Quality Assurance for the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the safety and security of radioactive sources that are used by different establishments of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), with emphasis on the quality assurance to make their best use for the benefit of humans and to eliminate the risk of their malicious use to protect people and environment, as per IAEA recommendation. The outcome of this study identifies the strengths and good practices used in PAEC establishments for safety and security of radioactive sources. It also identifies the gaps that exist between present practices and in the codes and guidelines of the IAEA and the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority. (author)

  15. Nuclear doctrines: peculiarities of Pakistan and North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As countries which possess nuclear weapons generally associate this possession with statements which explain under which circumstances they would use these weapons - this explanation builds up what is named the nuclear doctrine - some countries like Pakistan and North Korea do not express such doctrines but only some unofficial elements of doctrine. The author reports an examination of the motivation of these both countries for such an absence of official and well-defined doctrine. As far as Pakistan is concerned, the author recalls that this country decided to acquire nuclear weapons mainly because India already possessed them. The absence of nuclear doctrine is explained by the fact that Pakistan wants to appear unpredictable, or the weak one with respect to India. It also appears that this unpredictable character could be a threat and a hazard. As far as North Korea is concerned, if nuclear doctrine is unknown, actual technical capacities are still mysterious. It appears that nuclear weapons are intended for international prestige and coercive diplomacy, but have also a role for the inner policy of the regime

  16. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear reactors generate 15% of the world's supply electric power. The substantial growth in world energy demand is inevitably continuing throughout the next century. Nuclear power which has already paid more than enough for itself and its development, will provide increasing share of electricity production both in the developed and developing countries. For Pakistan with limited natural resources such as oil, gas, and fully tapped hydel power, nuclear power is the only viable option. However, things are not simple for developing countries which embark on nuclear power program. A technical infrastructure should be established as it has been shown by the experience of Control and Instrumentation of the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant. The national report describes the program of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission in (NPP) Computers, Control and Instrumentation for design, construction, operation, and maintenance of nuclear power plants. (author)

  17. Thermal analyses of solar swimming pool heating in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotels and swimming clubs in Pakistan pay huge gas bills for heating Swimming pools in winter. Winter days in most parts of Pakistan remain sunny and unglazed low cost solar collectors may be used to extend the swimming season. Installing the pool in a wind-protected area, which receives unobstructed solar radiation, may further reduce the size of the solar collectors required to heat the swimming pools. The pools should be covered with plastic sheet to eliminate evaporative heat losses and to prevent dust and tree leaves falling in the pool. The results of the thermal analysis show that in some parts of the country, a solar exposed pool can maintain comfortable temperature simply by using a plastic sheet on the pool surface. On the other hand, there are cities where solar collector array equal to twice the surface area of the pool is required to keep desired temperature in winter. (author)

  18. A preliminaryfloristic checklist of thal desert punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The floristic survey of the Thal desert, Punjab, Pakistan was carried out during 2010 to 2013. So far, 248 species distributed across 166 genera and 38 families were identified during the report period. Besides, one species viz., Themeda triandra was recorded for the first time from Pakistan. Of them, one fern, 4 monocots and 33 dicots families were determined. The most dominating family was Poaceae that contributed 52 species (21.49%), followed by Fabaceae (34 spp., 13.05%) and Amaranthaceae and Asteraceae (17 spp., 7.02% each). The largest genera were Euphorbia (6 spp.), Cyperus, Eragrostis and Solanum (5 spp. each), Mollugo, Heliotropium and Cenchrus (4 spp. each), Acacia, Prosopis, Tephrosia, Corchorus, Boerhavia and Ziziphus (3 spp. each). This checklist consists of updated systematic families and plants names that will provide a useful starting point for further ecological and bioprospective research of the area under study. (author)

  19. Economic feasibility of small scale button mushroom production in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstract:- Mushroom is widely cultivated as a proteineous vegetable in many countries of the world including Pakistan. Its cultivation requires less space, care, equipment and cost compared to many other crops and livestock. The present study was conducted in 2010 to estimate the profitability of small scale button mushroom production at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. The cost of production methodology was used for this study. The yield and gross return of mushroom was estimated at 155.6 kg ha and Rs.77,800 ha , respectively. The results indicated the fact that mushroom production is very much remunerative to its producers as it can give maximum net return by reducing their cost of production as its cultivation is dependent on the agricultural raw material which is cheaply available. (author)

  20. Spatial variance and assessment of nitrogen dioxide pollution in major cities of Pakistan along N5-Highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Yasir; Khokhar, Muhammad Fahim; Shaiganfar, Reza; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the findings of the first car MAX-DOAS (multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy) field campaign (300km long) along the National Highway-05 (N5-Highway) of Pakistan conducted on 13 and 14 November, 2012. The main objective of the field campaign was to assess the spatial distribution of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns and corresponding concentrations along the N5-Highway from Islamabad to Lahore. Source identification of NO2 revealed that the concentrations were higher within major cities along the highway. The highest NO2 vertical column densities (NO2 VCDs) were found around two major cities of Rawalpindi and Lahore. This study also presents a comparison of NO2 VCDs measured by the ozone monitoring instrument (OMI) and car MAX-DOAS observations. The comparison revealed similar spatial distribution of the NO2 columns with both car MAX-DOAS and satellite observations, but the car MAX-DOAS observations show much more spatial details. Maximum NO2 VCD retrieved from car MAX-DOAS observations was up to an order of magnitude larger than the OMI observations in urban areas. PMID:27155404

  1. Physical analog (centrifuge) model investigation of contrasting structural styles in the Salt Range and Potwar Plateau, northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Shah; Dixon, John M.

    2015-08-01

    We use scaled physical analog (centrifuge) modeling to investigate along- and across-strike structural variations in the Salt Range and Potwar Plateau of the Himalayan foreland fold-thrust belt of Pakistan. The models, composed of interlayered plasticine and silicone putty laminae, comprise four mechanical units representing the Neoproterozoic Salt Range Formation (basal detachment), Cambrian-Eocene carapace sequence, and Rawalpindi and Siwalik Groups (Neogene molasse), on a rigid base representing the Indian craton. Pre-cut ramps simulate basement faults with various structural geometries. A pre-existing north-dipping basement normal fault under the model foreland induces a frontal ramp and a prominent fault-bend-fold culmination, simulating the Salt Range. The ramp localizes displacement on a frontal thrust that occurs out-of-sequence with respect to other foreland folds and thrusts. With a frontal basement fault terminating to the east against a right-stepping, east-dipping lateral ramp, deformation propagates further south in the east; strata to the east of the lateral ramp are telescoped in ENE-trending detachment folds, fault-propagation folds and pop-up structures above a thick basal detachment (Salt Range Formation), in contrast to translated but less-deformed strata with E-W-trending Salt-Range structures to the west. The models are consistent with Salt Range-Potwar Plateau structural style contrasts being due to basement fault geometry and variation in detachment thickness.

  2. Awareness and reported violations of the WHO International Code and Pakistan's national breastfeeding legislation; a descriptive cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faragher Brian

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National legislation in Pakistan adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes in 2002 to restrict the promotion of infant formula feeding. Our objectives were to assess health professionals' awareness of this law in urban government hospitals and describe their reports of violations, including receiving free samples, gifts and sponsorship. Methods Structured interviews were conducted with health staff between July and August 2006 at 12 urban government hospitals in Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Peshawar including paediatricians, obstetricians, nurses, resident doctors, midwives and lady health visitors (LHVs. Results Of the 427 health workers interviewed, the majority were not aware of the national breastfeeding law (70.5%; n = 301 or the International Code (79.6%; n = 340. Paediatricians, and staff who had been working for 10 years or more, were more likely to be aware of the law [OR = 7.00, 95% CI 3.12, 15.7 (paediatricians; OR = 2.48, 95% CI 1.45, 4.24 (10 years working]. More than one third (38.4%, n = 164 had received small gifts such as pens, pencils and calendars; 12.4% (n = 53 had received sponsorship for training or conferences; and 15.9% (n = 68 had received free samples of infant formula from the Companies. Staff who were aware of the law were also more likely to report receiving gifts (OR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.08, 2.51 and free samples (OR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.09, 3.19. Conclusion Most hospital health professionals were unaware of national breastfeeding legislation in Pakistan, and infant formula companies were continuing to flout the ban on gifts, free samples and sponsorship for health staff.

  3. Trends in complete denture impressions in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple materials and techniques have been reported for complete denture impressions in literature. The aim of the study was to assess the trends in complete denture impression materials and techniques among general dental practitioners (GDP) and specialists (SP) in Pakistan. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, self-designed-structured questionnaires were distributed among 500 dentists in Pakistan. The three-part questionnaire enquired about the demographic features, preferred impression materials, impression techniques and related procedures commonly used in their clinical practice. A comparison between the responses of SP and GDP was also drawn. Frequency distribution and Chi-square test were performed to compare the responses. Results: A total of 294 questionnaires were completed at a response rate of 58.8%. 75% of GDP used alginate for primary impressions and 66% of SP preferred impression compound for the same. A majority of both SP and GDP favoured the used of custom trays (SP 81%, GDP 85%) and selective pressure technique (SP 84%, GDP 53%) for final impression. However, 85% of GDP used zinc-oxide eugenol and 62% of SP favoured elastomeric materials for the same. Most of the SP and GDP used chemical cured resin custom trays (SP 54%, GDP 75%), however, 86% of SP used spaced trays and almost 60% of GDP preferred close-fitting trays. Conclusions: The practice of GDP and SP with regards to CD impression materials and techniques differed significantly. Continued education and training for GDP and SP with respect to procedures and techniques related to CD is recommended. (author)

  4. NGO field workers in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan

  5. Food irradiation development in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, I.

    The large scale trials were held to extend the storage life of potatoes, onions and dry fruits by gamma radiation. It was concluded that radiation preservation of potatoes and onions was much cheaper as compared to conventional methods. A dose of 1 kGy can control the insects in dry fruits and nuts. The consumers' acceptability and market testing performed during the last four years are also conducive to the commercialization of the technology in this country. The Government of Pakistan has accorded clearance for the irradiation of some food items like potatoes, onions, garlic and spices for human consumption. The Pakistan Radiation Services (PARAS), the commercial irradiator (200 Kci) at Lahore, has already started functioning in April, 1987. It is planned to start large scale sterilization of spices by gamma radiation in PARAS shortly.

  6. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1959 uranium was discovered in the Siwalik Sandstones to the west of Dera Ghazi Khan. Subsequent exploration by the Atomic Energy Minerals Centre of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, latterly assisted by an IAEA/UNDP project identified some 50 radioactive anomalies or groups of anomalies, in a Siwalik area 120 miles long and 30 miles wide. Most exploration work was concentrated at one locality known as Baghal Chur where two paleostream channel controlled ore shoots were investigated. Uraninite and coffinite were the ore minerals in the non-oxidised zone and tyuyamunite in the oxidised zone. Approximately 300 short tons U3O8 have been indicated in the two ore shoots in ore grading 0.12% U3O8 and a further 400 short tons are inferred in the extensions. Within Pakistan there are seven other extensive Siwalik areas, in at least one of which other radioactive anomalies have been found but which for all practical purposes remain virtually unexplored. On the basis of the areas involved and the comparison with the Dera Ghazi Khan area a Speculative Potential of 10,000 tonnes U3O8 is estimated for Pakistan. (author)

  7. Climate variability impacts on rice crop production in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climate variability has affected the agriculture production all over the globe. This concern has motivated important changes in the field of research during the last decade. Climate changes are believed to have declining effects towards crop production in Pakistan. This study carries an empirical investigation of the effects of climate change on rice crop of Pakistan by employing Vector Auto Regression (VAR) model. Annual seasonal data of the climatic variables from 1980 to 2013 has been used. Results confirmed that rising mean maximum temperature would lead to reduction in rice production while increase in mean minimum temperature would be advantageous towards rice production. Variation in mean minimum temperature brought about seven percent increase in rice productivity as shown by Variance Decomposition. Mean precipitation and mean temperature would increase rice production but simulations scenarios for 2030 confirmed that much increase in rainfall and mean temperature in long run will negatively affect rice production in future. It is therefore important to follow adequate policy action to safeguard crop productions from disastrous effects. Development of varieties resistant to high temperatures as well as droughts will definitely enhance resilience of rice crop in Pakistan. (author)

  8. PROBLEMS FACED BY THE POULTRY INDUSTRY IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Muhammad Bachal Jamali

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the problems faced by the poultry industry in Pakistan. Data were collected from 1000 respondents by using simple random techniques. A structured questionnaire was developed for the reliability and validity of data. It was revealed that The parent stock layer is increasing at rate of 120% every year, in some years like 2004, 2006, 2009, and 2010 where growth is almost 200%. On the contrary, a consistent growth rate of 135% is seen in case of broiler parent stock. The average growth rate in case of layer day old chick per week is 140% except in 2004, 2006, 2009 and 2010. It was further revealed that Government authority should take the overall responsibility to make effective human resources through co-ordination of various agencies. This agency should monitor the coordinator matter, effective HR planning and coordination is equally significant for the private and public sector in Pakistan. Especially education infrastructure should be updated based on need. In Pakistan, there is lack of poultry training institutions; it should be more than that otherwise unskilled labor will never be able to meet up the future demand of protein through poultry sector.

  9. Sustainable water resources management in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    harvesting measures like construction of big, small and mini dams, roof top rain, flood water harvesting and application of water conservation measures like propagation of high-efficiency irrigation systems, changes of cropping patterns, lining of distributaries, minor sand water courses in saline groundwater areas, identification of feasible surface and underground water storage sites and dams, and activation of water-user organizations. Other measures can be Installation of tube-wells in technically groundwater potential feasible areas, to improve flood and drought-forecasting methods, and a much wider application of conjunctive water-use approach, institutional reforms for better co-ordination and a wider formulation of a national water-policy are other priority areas. Formulation of a regulatory frame work on groundwater abstraction. It is recommended that an experts panel, be created to steer the formulation of the strategies and ensure the implementation of the water resources strategies proposed. This paper discusses water resources management measures in Pakistan and the efforts to establish efficient and sustainable management of irrigation water system. (author)

  10. Pakistan strong industrial base urged for economic progress

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A conference organized by Pakistan Nuclear Society urged that Pakistan should develop a strong industrial base and capability to export equipment for economic progress. The chairmen of PAEC pointed out that Pakistan is already showing remarkable progress in export of science-related equipment to CERN. He also asked scientists to wage a war against Pakistans inability to acquire indigenous technology (1 page).

  11. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Ismail K.

    2009-01-01

    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  12. Higher Education and Women's Empowerment in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Samina; Courtney, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarises the findings of a 2005 doctoral study by Malik which explored to what extent participation in higher education offers empowerment to women in Pakistan. A survey instrument was used to question female faculty members and female students from 10 public universities in Pakistan; 1290 students and 290 faculty members responded.…

  13. Female Suicide Rates in Ghizer, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Murad M.; Ahmed, Aziz; Khan, Sultan R.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide is an understudied subject in Pakistan. There are many social, legal, and religious sanctions against it. National rates of suicides are not known. We calculated suicide rates of women in the Ghizer District of the remote Northern Areas of Pakistan. During years 2000 to 2004, 49 women committed suicide. Taking average mean population for…

  14. Expanding the collaboration between CERN and Pakistan

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Parvez Butt, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and CERN Director General, Luciano Maiani, signed a letter of intent last week to expand collaboration. Through an agreement which should be formalized within a few months, Pakistan would make a substantial contribution to the LHC and its detectors, coordinated by the Pakistani National Centre of Physics.

  15. Pakistan : Contingent Liabilities from Public Private Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This final report is the fourth and final deliverable in Castalia's assignment, funded by the World Bank, to improve how contingent liabilities are managed in Pakistan. The report presents recommendations on how Pakistan should improve its policies and processes for issuing and managing contingent liabilities associated with public private partnerships (PPPs) in infrastructure. The content...

  16. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Pakistan, January 2012-September 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    Pakistan is one of three countries where transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress in Pakistan during January 2012-September 2013 and updates previous reports. During 2012, 58 WPV cases were reported in selected areas, compared with 198 cases throughout the country in 2011; 52 WPV cases were reported during January-September 2013, compared with 54 cases during the same period in 2012. Of the 110 WPV cases reported since January 2012, 92 cases (84%) occurred in the conflict-affected Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and in security-compromised Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Province. WPV type 3 (WPV3) was isolated from only three persons with polio in a single district in 2012; the most recent case occurred in April 2012. During August 2012-September 2013, 52 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases were detected, including 30 cases (58%) identified in FATA during January-September 2013. Approximately 350,000 children in certain districts of FATA have not received polio vaccine during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) conducted since mid-2012 because local authorities have banned polio vaccination. In some other areas of Pakistan, SIAs have been compromised by attacks targeting polio workers that started in mid-2012. Further efforts to reach children in conflict-affected and security-compromised areas, including vaccinating at transit points and conducting additional short-interval-additional-dose (SIAD) SIAs as areas become accessible, will be necessary to prevent reintroduction of WPV into other areas of Pakistan and other parts of the world. PMID:24257203

  17. The Retail Food Sector in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Retailing plays a key role in the economic development of a country. Retail is the 2nd largest industry in the US in terms of numbers of employees as well as in terms of establishment. The number of employees engaged in retail sector in one way or other way is more than 23 million and they generate revenue high than $3milion per year. Pakistan retail sector play a key role in the economy of the country. The total turnover of the retail sector in Pakistan is 17% of the GDP. Pakistan is basically an agriculture country and 62% of the total population is directly or indirectly engaged in the agriculture sector but still the agriculture sector cannot fulfil the food requirement of Pakistan and she has to import food products from other countries. An average Pakistani spends 42% of his income on food item. Pakistan is emerging market for the import of food products.

  18. The Effect of Clinical Clerkship on Students' Attitudes toward Psychiatry in Karachi, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Ayesha; Khan, Murad M.; Shakir, Murtaza; Moazam-Zaman, Riffat; Ali, Asad

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Attitudes of medical students toward a specialty is strongly related to their future choice of specialty. In developing countries like Pakistan, where there is a shortage of psychiatrists, there is a need to assess the effect of exposure to psychiatry on medical students. Methods: The authors conducted a survey of fourth-year medical…

  19. Investigation of gamma-ray activity and radiological hazards of the bricks fabricated around Lahore (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employing state of art measurement techniques and software, gamma ray activity due to /sup 224/Ra, /sup 232/Th and /sup 40/K have been measured from bricks fabricated around Lahore, Pakistan. External and internal hazards due to dose rate from radioactivity of bricks have calculated from several samples. (author)

  20. SPECIAL PROBLEMS REPORT, ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS FOR RURAL POPULATION IN PAKISTAN AND SUGGESTIONS FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALI KHAN, ANSAR

    THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES THE NEED FOR FUNCTIONAL, SEQUENTIAL PROGRAMS OF LITERACY, VOCATIONAL, LIBERAL, POLITICAL, AND HUMAN RELATIONS EDUCATION IN RURAL AREAS OF PAKISTAN. PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES ARE SEEN IN THE OCCUPATIONAL CASTE SYSTEM, FAMILY STRUCTURES, ATTITUDES TOWARD THE EDUCATION OF BOYS AND GIRLS, POOR MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION AND…

  1. Case management of malaria fever at community pharmacies in Pakistan; a threat to rational drug use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassali MA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To document the case management of uncomplicated malaria fever at community pharmacies located in the two major cities of Pakistan; Islamabad (national capital and Rawalpindi (twin city. Method: A comparative, cross-sectional study was designed to document the management of uncomplicated malaria fever at community pharmacies in twin cities of Pakistan through simulated patient visits. Visits were conducted in 238 randomly selected pharmacies to request advice for a simulated patient case of malaria. The pharmacy’s management was scored on a checklist including history taking and provision of advice and information. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare management of uncomplicated malaria fever by different types of dispensers working at community pharmacies situated at different locations in the twin cities.Results: The simulated patients were handled by salesmen (74.8%, n=178, pharmacist (5.4%, n=13 and diploma holders (19.8 %, n=47. Medication was dispensed in 83.1 % (n=198 of the visits, but only few of the treated cases were in accordance to standard treatment guidelines for malaria. However, in 14.8% (n=35 of the cases the simulated patients were directly referred to a physician. There was a significant difference observed in the process of history taking performed by different dispensers (e.g. pharmacist, pharmacy assistant, pharmacy diploma holders and salesman while no significant differences in the provision of advice by these dispensers was observed. Pharmacists were seen more frequently involved in the process of history taking if available at the community pharmacies. On the other hand, no significant differences were observed in the case management (history taking and provision of advice for the treatment of malaria fever among community pharmacies situated at different locations (e.g. near hospital/super market/small market in the twin cities.Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that

  2. Background, Assessment and Analysis of the Gender Issues in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Moheyuddin, Ghulam

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the assessment of the gender issue in Pakistan, review and analysis of the major sector depicting gender inequalities. Before continuing to the detailed analysis of the gender issues in Pakistan, it gives a bird’s eye-view of the socio-economic, political and cultural background of Pakistan. The paper explains the areas of critical gender inequalities in Pakistan and reviews the various gender indicators in Pakistan. It also discusses the current policies and the program...

  3. Population dynamics of rose aphid Macrosiphum rosae L. on different cultivars of Rosa indica L. in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research was carried out at the Pir Mehr Ali Shah-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi research field area on rose plants for rose aphid populations during 2008-09. Data were recorded on weekly basis. Nymphs, winged and wingless adults were counted from leaves (upper, middle and lower leaves), buds and flowers by visual observation from tagged plants. Aphid populations start to develop in November and its population decline with decline in temperature in December. While its population started rising again at the end of February. Significantly more aphid populations were observed on Perfecta than other varieties; however, significantly few aphids were observed on Christan Diar. These studies revealed that farmers growing roses on a commercial scale should grow Christan Diar to avoid aphid attack. Maximum average number of aphid nymph, winged and wingeless adults on leaves, buds and flowers were 11.11, 4.97 and 10.13, respectively observed on Perfecta variety. (author)

  4. Sustainable urban transport indicators: tool for evaluating transport sustainability in the mega cities of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban Transport is an important sector to accomplish the goal of sustainable development in Pakistan. This is important because of the high growth of the transport sector's energy consumption, road crashes and greenhouse gas emissions. This becomes significant in the Pakistani cities where motor vehicle fleet is growing at two to three times the rate of population. Transport Policies has resulted high growth of urban road traffic, increasing air and noise pollution throughout the country. This situation raised the question how to achieve sustainable urban transport in the mega cities of Pakistan? Development of sustainable urban transport indicators will provide an opportunity to analyze current transport policies to assess Pakistan progress towards or away from sustainability. Medium Term Development Framework (2005-10) has selected to analyze against establish sustainable urban transport indicators for Pakistan. On the basis of analysis, it has found that MWF has tried to address transport problem in a piecemeal manner, rather than adopting a holistic approach. Implementing MTDF policies on transport is not fully matched with a long term commitment to achieving sustainable development in Pakistan. (author)

  5. Quit smoking for life--social marketing strategy for youth: a case for Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Liaquat Ali; Khuwaja, Ali Khan; Nayani, Parvez; Jessani, Saleem; Khowaja, Malika Parveen; Khowaja, Saima

    2010-12-01

    Smoking is the single most avoidable risk factor for cancers. Majority of smokers know about this fact but it is difficult for them to give it up mainly in the face of widespread smoking advertisements by the tobacco industries. To reduce the prevalence of smoking and its associated cancers, immediate actions are required by public health authorities. Social marketing is an effective strategy to promote healthy attitudes and influence people to make real, sustained health behavior change by transiting through different stages which include precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. Social marketing can influence smokers to voluntarily accept, reject, modify, or abandon their smoking behavior. In Pakistan, the smoking prevalence has been increasing, necessitating effective measures. The trend of its usage has been going upwards and, according to the World Health Organization, in Pakistan, the usage of cigarette smoking is increased by 30% compared to 1998 figures. The Pakistan Pediatrics Association has estimated 1,000 to 1,200 school-going children between the ages of 6 and 16 years take up smoking every day. In Pakistan, ex-smokers in the low socioeconomic group reported spending 25% of the total household income on this habit. This paper focuses on the antismoking social marketing strategy in Pakistan with an aim to reduce smoking prevalence, especially among the youth.

  6. Quit smoking for life--social marketing strategy for youth: a case for Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Liaquat Ali; Khuwaja, Ali Khan; Nayani, Parvez; Jessani, Saleem; Khowaja, Malika Parveen; Khowaja, Saima

    2010-12-01

    Smoking is the single most avoidable risk factor for cancers. Majority of smokers know about this fact but it is difficult for them to give it up mainly in the face of widespread smoking advertisements by the tobacco industries. To reduce the prevalence of smoking and its associated cancers, immediate actions are required by public health authorities. Social marketing is an effective strategy to promote healthy attitudes and influence people to make real, sustained health behavior change by transiting through different stages which include precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. Social marketing can influence smokers to voluntarily accept, reject, modify, or abandon their smoking behavior. In Pakistan, the smoking prevalence has been increasing, necessitating effective measures. The trend of its usage has been going upwards and, according to the World Health Organization, in Pakistan, the usage of cigarette smoking is increased by 30% compared to 1998 figures. The Pakistan Pediatrics Association has estimated 1,000 to 1,200 school-going children between the ages of 6 and 16 years take up smoking every day. In Pakistan, ex-smokers in the low socioeconomic group reported spending 25% of the total household income on this habit. This paper focuses on the antismoking social marketing strategy in Pakistan with an aim to reduce smoking prevalence, especially among the youth. PMID:20238199

  7. Parabolic trough solar concentrators: a technology which can contribute towards pakistan's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilization of solar thermal energy has got prime importance in Pakistan due to the current energy scarcity and escalating cost scenario in the country. Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator is one of the most reliable technologies for utilization of solar thermal energy. In solar thermal power generation, Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrators are most successful as almost 96 percent of total solar thermal power is generated across the world by utilizing this technology. Its high reliability, operational compatibility, comparative low cost and high efficiency adds to its high value among other resources. Fortunately, Pakistan lies in the high Solar Insolation Zone; thus, a huge potential exists to benefit from this technology. This technology may cater to the Pakistan's seasonal increased electricity demand. Apart from electric power generation, this technology may also have cost-effective solutions for Pakistan's other industries, like steam generation, preheating of boiler make-up water, air-conditioning, and hot water production for food, textile, dairy and leather industries. However, economic justification of such projects would be possible only on accomplishing an indigenous technology base. Globally, this is a proven technology, but in Pakistan there is hardly any development in this field. In this study, an effort has been made by designing and fabricating an experimental Parabolic Trough Solar Water Heater by utilizing locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. On achieving encouraging results, a solar boiler (steam generator) is proposed to be manufactured locally. (author)

  8. A Fresh Start For Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    After a yearlong political standoff,the country elects a new prime minister Pakistan has been in turmoil since 2007.With deadly incidents strik- ing the country from time to time,"bombing,""assassination"and"state of emergency"have become the defining themes of its political life.The per- sistent chaos,in the final analysis,is attrib- utable to Pakistan’s elections. Various opposition forces attempted to take this opportunity to create trouble and force President Pervez Musharraf to step

  9. NGO field workers in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE

    2009-01-01

    NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas....

  10. Pakistan-beyond your expectation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jason Liu

    2004-01-01

    <正> Few Westerners know much about Pakistan beyond media reports of Islamic fundamentalism, communal violence and martial law, but it contains some of Asia’s most mind-blowing landscapes, extraordinary trekking opportunities, a multitude of cultures and a long tradition of hospitality.The China’s neighbouring country is the site of some of the earliest human settlements, home to an ancient civilisation rivalling those of Egypt and Mesopotamia, and the crucible of two of the world’s major religions, Hinduism and Buddhism. You’ll surely get more than what you expected there. .

  11. 75 FR 69742 - Designation of Three Individuals and One Entity Pursuant to Executive Order 13224

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    .... UR-RAHMAN TRUST; a.k.a. UR-RAMAT TRUST), 537/1-Z Defense Housing Area (DHA), Lahore, Pakistan; Office 22, Third Floor, al Fatah Plaza, Commerical Market, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; Room No. 22, 3rd Floor, al-Fateh Plaza, Commerical Market Road, Chandi Chowk, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; Karachi, Pakistan; Nelam...

  12. Polyester projects for India, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India's Indo Rama Synthetics (Bombay) is planning a $186-million integrated polyester fiber and filament complex at Nagpur, Maharashtra. The complex will have annual capacities for 38,000 m.t. of polyester chips by polycondensation, 25,000 m.t. of polyester staple fiber, and 12,000 m.t. of polyester blended yarn. The company is negotiating with the main world suppliers of polycondensation technology. The first stage of the project is slated to begin production by the end of this year and be fully completed by 1994. In Pakistan, National Fibers Ltd. (PNF; Karachi) has signed a deal with Zimmer (Frankfurt) for technology, procurement, construction, and support work to expand polyester staple fiber capacity from 14,000 m.t./year to 52,000 m.t./year. The technology involves a continuous polymerization process. The project also calls for improvements to PNF's existing batch plant. It is scheduled for completion by the end of 1994. Total cost of the project is estimated at Rs1.745 billion ($70 million), out of which the foreign exchange component is Rs1.05 billion. The Islamic Development Bank (Jeddah; Saudi Arabia) has already approved a $27-million slice of the financing, while the balance of the foreign exchange loan is being arranged through suppliers credit. Local currency loans will be provided by other financial institutions in Pakistan

  13. Pakistan programme thrives despite unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    In Pakistan, strikes and riots in the Korangi district of Karachi during 1995 prevented staff from finding a suitable location for the new Marie Stopes International family planning clinic. Once the clinic opened, field workers received violent threats and had to be escorted to and from work. A mobile clinic was hijacked at gun point. Nevertheless, the Pakistan program has expanded to five clinics with one more to open soon. It has established an extensive community-based distribution (CBD) network. Before the CBD project was implemented, less than 10% of couples within the target group used a modern contraceptive method. An effective information and education strategy along with high quality service provision has increased use of modern contraceptives three-fold in some areas. The program plans to expand into underserved areas of rural Sind Province and Balochistan. 4% of women in Balochistan and 9% in Sind have access to modern contraceptives. In fact, many women resort to illegal and unsafe abortion. The program aims to submit a proposal to UK's Overseas Development Administration for major funding.

  14. Aid effectiveness in education sector of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry, Mumtaz Anwar; Aman, Sughra

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of sector-specific foreign aid given to education sector and aggregate foreign aid on the national educational outcomes of Pakistan, respectively.

  15. Reforming mysticism: Sindhi separatist intellectuals in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Verkaaik

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Anthropology, Islam, and Pakistan / Magnus Marsden -- Of children and jinns : an enquiry into an unexpected friendship during uncertain times / Naveeda Khan -- The modern businessman and the Pakistani saint : the interpenetration of worlds / Katherine P. Ewing -- Islamic influences on

  16. Lagunenud valitsusega Pakistan vaevleb kriisis / Sandra Maasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maasalu, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 27. aug. 2008, lk. 7. Pakistani valitsuse lagunemisest, kui endine peaminister Navaz Sharif oma parteiga koalitsioonist lahkus. Vt. samas: Pakistani ahistavad separatistid ja majanduse allakäik. Kaart: Pakistan

  17. Violence and vulnerabilities: Afghans in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Alimia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Given that the majority of Afghans who live in Pakistan today are unlikely to return to Afghanistan, more needs to be done to address their vulnerabilities and protect them from harassment and violence.

  18. The burden of stroke in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khealani, Bhojo A; Wasay, Mohammad

    2008-11-01

    Epidemiologic literature on stroke burden, patterns of stroke is almost non existent from Pakistan. However, several hospital-based case series on the subject are available, mainly published in local medical journals. Despite the fact that true stroke incidence and prevalence of stroke in Pakistan is not known, the burden is assumed to be high because of highly prevalent stroke risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemia and smoking) in the community. High burden of these conventional stroke risk factors is further compounded by lack of awareness, poor compliance hence poor control, and inappropriate management/treatment practices. In addition certain risk factors like rheumatic valvular heart disease may be more prevalent in Pakistan. We reviewed the existing literature on stroke risk factors in community, the risk factor prevalence among stroke patients, patterns of stroke, out come of stroke, availability of diagnostic services/facilities related to stroke and resources for stroke care in Pakistan. PMID:18811747

  19. Prime Minister of Pakistan visits CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    On Saturday, 23 January 2016, CERN welcomed Mr Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, Prime Minister of Pakistan.   From left to right: Minister of Finance Mr Mohammad Ishaq Dar, Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti and CMS national contact physicist Hafeez Hoorani. Mr Muhammad Nawaz Sharif arrived at Point 5 in Cessy, where he was welcomed onto French soil by the sous-préfet of Cessy, Stéphane Donnot, and, representing CERN, Director-General Fabiola Gianotti, Directors Eckhard Elsen and Charlotte Warakaulle, and Rüdiger Voss, the adviser for relations with Pakistan. It was the first visit by a head of government of Pakistan since the country became CERN's latest Associate Member State in July 2015. The Prime Minister then had the opportunity to visit the CMS underground experimental area accompanied by the CMS Spokesperson, Tiziano Camporesi, and the CMS collaboration’...

  20. Socioeconomic correlates of mortality in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Irfan; Alam, I.

    1986-01-01

    This paper disc;usses socioeconomic mortality differentials in Pakistan on the basis of data collected in 1979 from a nationally representative sample of over lO,OOO households in a survey carried out for the Population, Labour Force and Migration (PLM) project of Pakistan Institute of Development Economics/International Labour Organization. In addition to the questionnaire on fertility, three questionnaires - Income and Expenditure, Labour Force, and Migration - were administered to each ...

  1. Demographic Transition and Youth Employment in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Arif; Nusrat Chaudhry

    2008-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that Pakistan has entered the demographic bonus phase; child dependency is declining and youth share in the total population is rising. This paper has examined youth employment in the context of demographic transition evidenced since the early 1990s. Changes in the level of educational attainment have also been analysed. The study has used the data from Pakistan Demographic Surveys and Labour Force Surveys carried out between 1990 and 2005. Findings of the study s...

  2. Economic Impacts of Inadequate Sanitation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    In Pakistan, the deterioration of the environment continues to harm livelihoods and health, increasing the vulnerability of the nation's poor. It has long been clear that lack of access to clean water and sanitation facilities has a wide variety of impacts; however, the data and evidence needed to verify the size of the burden imposed on the people of Pakistan are limited. As a result, inv...

  3. Economics of Tea Production in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Bushra Rehman; Nadeem Akmal; Muhammad Azeem Khan; Saima Rani

    2012-01-01

    Tea is one of the most important non-alcoholic beverage drinks worldwide and has been gaining further popularity as an important „health drink‟ in view of its purported medicinal value. Pakistan has the potential of producing quality tea. National Tea Research Institute NTRI plays a very important role in the production and promotion of tea cultivation in Pakistan. The study was conducted to identify the opportunities and constraints in Shinkiari Mansehra. Primary data was collected from NTRI...

  4. Economic Analysis of Islamic Banking in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Islamic banking has achieved substantial growth in Pakistan and all over the world in the last two decades or so. Despite the financial and economic crisis of 2007 and afterwards, the Islamic banking industry has witnessed exemplary and uninterrupted growth. In Pakistan, it has achieved market share of almost 9% in the banking industry. There is vast literature available on explaining the features and mechanics of Islamic banking; however, limited attention has been paid on the thorough analy...

  5. Islamic Banking in Pakistan: A Critical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Salman

    2012-01-01

    Islamic banking in Pakistan has completed one decade of operations in Pakistan and now there are 5 full-fledged Islamic banks and more than 15 conventional banks with Islamic banking windows. Due to the consistent double digit growth in total assets, the market share had steadily risen to 7% by the end of 2011. However, meaningful assessment of Islamic banking requires looking at how far they have contributed to uphold Islamic principles, values and bringing about or at least working towards ...

  6. Speech Translation into Pakistan Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Haseeb, Ahmed Abdul; Ilyas, Asim

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Context: Communication is a primary human need and language is the medium for this. Most people have the ability to listen and speak and they use different languages like Swedish, Urdu and English etc. to communicate. Hearing impaired people use signs to communicate. Pakistan Sign Language (PSL) is the preferred language of the deaf in Pakistan. Currently, human PSL interpreters are required to facilitate communication between the deaf and hearing; they are not always available, whic...

  7. Internet Banking and Customer Satisfaction in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Raza, Syed Ali; Syed Tehseen JAWAID; Hassan, Ayesha

    2013-01-01

    This study determines the effects of service quality dimensions on customer satisfaction in Pakistan by using SERVQUAL model. A survey research questionnaire of 30 items has been adopted and collects the data of 400 respondents from the users of internet banking of different bank located in Karachi city of Pakistan. Reliability analysis shows that all dimensions are reliable. Results of factor analysis confirm the grouping of adopted questioner. At last, regression analysis indicates signifi...

  8. Detection and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Biofilm Producing Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria Isolated From a Tertiary Care Hospital of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal, M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms adhere to non-living material or living tissue, and form biofilms made up of extracellular polymers/slime. Biofilm-associated microorganisms behave differently from free-floating bacteria with respect to growth rates and ability to resist antimicrobial treatments and therefore pose a public health problem. The objective of this study is to detect the prevalence of biofilm producers among Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria isolated from clinical specimens, and to study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. The study was carried out from October 2009 to March 2010, at the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College/ National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Clinical specimens were received from various wards of a tertiary care hospital. These were dealt by standard microbiological procedures. Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria isolated were subjected to biofilm detection by congo red agar method (CRA. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of those isolates, which showed positive results (slime production, was done according to the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. A total of 150 isolates were tested for the production of biofilm/slime. Among them, 81 isolates showed positive results. From these 81, 51 were Gram positive and 30 were Gram negative. All the 81(54% slime producers showed reduced susceptibility to majority of antibiotics. Bacterial biofilms are an important virulence factor associated with chronic nosocomial infection. Detection of biofilm forming organisms can help in appropriate antibiotic choice.

  9. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Afghanistan and Pakistan, January 2010-September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Indigenous transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nigeria. Among those countries, Afghanistan and Pakistan represent a common epidemiologic reservoir. This report updates previous reports (1,4) and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January 2010--September 2011, as of October 31, 2011, and planned activities during 2011--2012 to address challenges to polio eradication. In Afghanistan, WPV transmission during 2010--2011 predominantly occurred in the conflict-affected South Region and the adjacent Farah Province of the West Region. During 2010, 25 WPV cases were confirmed in Afghanistan, compared with 38 in 2009; 42 WPV cases were confirmed during January--September 2011, compared with 19 for the same period in 2010. In Pakistan, WPV transmission during 2010--2011occurred both in conflict-affected, inaccessible areas along the common border with Afghanistan and in accessible areas; 144 WPV cases were confirmed in 2010, compared with 89 in 2009, and 120 WPV cases were confirmed during January--September 2011, compared with 93 during the same period in 2010. In Pakistan, the president launched a National Emergency Action Plan for polio eradication in January 2011, emphasizing the key role and responsibility of political and health-care leaders at the district and subdistrict (union council) levels. Enhanced commitment, management, and oversight by provincial and district authorities will be needed to achieve further progress toward interruption of WPV transmission in Pakistan. Continued efforts also will be needed to enhance the safety of vaccination teams within insecure areas of both countries.

  10. Sustainable development of water resources in Pakistan and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irrigation water represents an essential input for sustaining agricultural growth in Pakistan's arid to semi arid climate. While the surface water availability for irrigation has been more or less stagnant for the last three decades, the ground water utilization also appears to have touched the peak in most of the sweet aquifers. In the present state of inaction for the water resources development, the overall water availability is in fact declining due to progressive sedimentation of the existing storages and gradual lowering of water table in fresh ground water areas. The paper discusses major water resources concerns that threaten the sustainability of Pakistan's irrigated agriculture. The paper identifies overall water scarcity, high degree of temporal variability in river flows, lack of balancing storages and declining capacity of existing storages due to natural sedimentation as the serious concerns. Over exploitation of ground water and water quality concerns also seems to be emerging threats for environmentally sustainable irrigated agriculture in this country. The salt-water intrusion and increase in soil and ground water salinity are indicators of over exploitation of ground water for irrigation. The continuous use of poor quality ground water for irrigation is considered as one of the major causes of salinity in the area of irrigated agriculture. Indiscriminate pumping of the marginal and saline ground water can add to the root zone salinity and ultimately reduce the crop yields. The paper presents various management options for development and efficient utilization of water resources for environment friendly sustainable development of irrigated agriculture in Pakistan. These include construction of additional storage, modernization of irrigation system and effective conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources. The better soil and water management practices, saline agriculture, use of biotechnology and genetic engineering can further increase

  11. Occupational accidents: a perspective of pakistan construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been observed that the construction industry is one of the notorious industry having higher rate of facilities and injuries. Resulting in higher financial losses and work hour losses, which are normally faced by this industry due to occupational accidents. Construction industry has the highest occupational accidents rate recorded throughout the world after agriculture industry. The construction work site is often a busy place having an incredibly high account of activities taking place, where everyone is moving in frenzy having particular task assigned. In such an environment, occupational accidents do occur. This paper gives information about different types of occupational accidents and their causes in the construction industry of Pakistan. A survey has been carried out to identify the types of occupational accidents often occur at construction site. The impact of each occupational accident has also been identified. The input from the different stakeholders involved on the work site was analyzed using RIW (Relative Importance Weight) method. The findings of this research show that fall from elevation, electrocution from building power and snake bite are the frequent occupational accidents occur within the work site where as fall from elevation, struck by, snake bite and electrocution from faulty tool are the occupational accident with high impact within the construction industry of Pakistan. The results also shows the final ranking of the accidents based on higher frequency and higher impact. Poor Management, Human Element and Poor Site Condition are found as the root causes leading to such occupational accidents. Hence, this paper identify that what type of occupational accidents occur at the work place in construction industry of pakistan, in order to develop the corrective actions which should be adequate enough to prevent the re-occurrence of such accidents at work site. (author)

  12. Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Pakistan’s trade indicators reflect low outward orientation, concentration on low value added activities and an undiversified product mix which out of line with the fastest growing areas of world demand. The export share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has remained low and falling—fro

  13. In Pakistan, the Problems that Money Can Bring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Shailaja

    2007-01-01

    Over the past four years, Pakistan's higher-education budget has increased more than sevenfold, to about $449-million. While that amounts to only 0.5 percent of Pakistan's gross domestic product, it is a big improvement from the days of barely enough to pay "measly salaries and basic bills." But for students, along with many of Pakistan's most…

  14. Social Incidence of the General Sales Tax in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Saadia Refaqat

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the social incidence of the general sales tax (GST) in Pakistan. The main finding of the study is that contrary to widespread perception, the social incidence of the GST in Pakistan is slightly progressive. The main reason for this counterintuitive result is that most items heavily consumed by the poor are exempt from GST in Pakistan.

  15. Effects of Globalization on Tv and Print Media in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Kheeshadeh

    2012-01-01

    In this article we focus on globalization of mass media in Pakistan, as well as the impacts of globalization on electronic media and print media. Number of international channels frequently viewed in Pakistan.also discusses effects of media on the culture of Pakistan and final conclusion.

  16. Radiation safety and inventory of sealed radiation sources in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealed radiation sources (SRS) of various types and activities are widely used in industry, medicine, agriculture, research and teaching in Pakistan. The proper maintenance of records of SRS is mandatory for users/licensees. Since 1956, more than 2000 radiation sources of different isotopes having activities of Bq to TBq have been imported. Of these, several hundred sources have been disposed of and some have been exported/returned to the suppliers. To ensure the safety and security of the sources and to control and regulate the safe use of radiation sources in various disciplines, the Directorate of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (DNSRP), the implementing arm of the regulatory authority in the country, has introduced a system for notifying, registering and licensing the use of all types of SRS. In order to update the inventory of SRS used throughout the country, the DNSRP has developed a database. (author)

  17. A review of hepatitis viral infections in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , 12.3% and 12.0% in patients with provisional diagnosis of hepatitis and 25.7% and 54% in patients with chronic liver disease respectively. This review has illustrated the high endemicity of hepatitis viral infections in Pakistan where hepatitis B and C potentially account for a serious burden of the disease. This review has triggered the launching of a network intervention for the control of hepatitis viral infectious. This review was used as the basis for the launch of hepatitis programme, but putting it into a formal review took time and the hepatitis program was initiated. (author)

  18. Current issues and future prospects of dairy sector in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this article is to explore the current status of livestock resources, their status of utilisation and the future research concepts in dairy production and milk processing in Pakistan. Advances in the areas of genetics of dairy species, cow reproduction, nutrition, dairy chemistry, milk microbiology, processing technology and milk-based functional foods, have to be applied in Pakistan since the increase in Pakistan's population from 65 to 165 million over the past 3 decades is forecasted to an increase to 234 million by 2025. The need to increase food production means that competition for land and water resources will become more intense. The ecological sustainability of already fragile systems will be further challenged. Agro-industrial byproducts and non-conventional feed resources could be used for feeding of livestock, if farmers are trained accordingly. Situation may be significantly improved if fodder conservation techniques are introduced in livestock feeding systems. Pakistan needs a competitive and profitable dairy farming industry not just for economic but also environmental and social reasons. Productivity potential of local breeds is low and an attempt to genetically improve the local cattle through cross breeding has resulted in improvement in milk yield, acceleration in growth rates and higher prices; however, its discriminate use has been also associated with decreased immunity against temperature changes, disease and nutritional and environmental stresses prevailing in the region. The long-term effects of new systems (such as extended lactations, robot milking and all-year-round housing) will call for ever more intelligent approaches to the simultaneous achievement of quality systems that minimise environmental burdens, sustain high standards of health and welfare and deliver nutritionally valuable products into well organised food supply chains. Value addition, processing, packaging and marketing of milk, meat and eggs, backed up by

  19. EFA in Pakistan: Struggle for Upgrading Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Mumtaz Ahmad

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Literacy is an instrument of stability within and among countries and thus may prove an indispensable means of effective participation in the societies and (the economies of today’s world. Eradication of illiteracy from the world is an important agenda of UNESCO, and one of the six goals of Dakar Framework of Action on Education for All. Illiteracy is also a major problem in Pakistan. The picture of illiteracy in Pakistan is grim, and although successive governments have announced various programmes to promote literacy the situation is still poor because of various political, social, economic and cultural obstacles. To sum up, it can be said that literacy is a skill necessary to acquire or transmit (information to others. It is a means not an end in itself. Keeping in view the gravity of the situation of literacy and basic education in the country, Pakistan has completed/implemented a number of actions/activities for broad-based consultations with principal actors of EFA. Furthermore, the Government of Pakistan has accomplished the preparation of provincial and national plans of action and resource mobilization for EFA planning. This paper therefore examines the efforts to decrease illiteracy in Pakistan, a signatory of the worldwide EFA movement.

  20. Chaos in power: Pakistan's electricity crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan is facing a severe electricity crisis due to a persistent and widening gap between demand and available system generating capacity. The worsening of power shortages has become a major political issue, reflecting the hardships for individuals and businesses. It threatens to undermine the credibility and legitimacy of government and to further stress the social fabric of the country. The power crisis did not emerge suddenly. It is the direct result of imprudent and reckless energy policies over the last three decades. These policies have impeded the development of cheap and abundant domestic energy sources. They have also resulted in very inefficient fuel-mix choices, compromising energy and economic security. Pakistan's energy bankruptcy is ultimately due to massive institutional and governance failure. This paper analyzes the problems confronting Pakistan's electricity sector and identifies the key elements of a potential policy response to address the country's severe power crisis. - Highlights: ► We analyze the structure, conduct, and performance of Pakistan's electricity sector. ► The causes and economic impacts of Pakistan's electricity shortages are analyzed. ► We identify the potential policy response to the power crisis

  1. Remote sensing of aerosol characteristics and radiative forcing in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    .83 (440 nm) to 0.97 (1020 nm) over Lahore and Karachi. The SSA and imaginary parts of the refractive index values reveals that absorbing aerosols due to human activities (like industries and transport) are more dominant over Lahore than Karachi. The average ARF values over Lahore and Karachi were -22.5±5.9 Wm-2 and -18±2.2 Wm-2 at the top of atmosphere and -96±13 Wm-2 and -60±6.8 Wm-2 at the surface, respectively. The corresponding average atmospheric forcing is 74.56±16.8 Wm-2 over Lahore and 41.85±6.4 Wm-2 over Karachi - indicating significant heating of atmosphere at both sites. The relationships between AOD and four other cloud parameters, namely water vapour (WV), cloud fraction (CF), cloud top temperature (CTT) and cloud top pressure (CTP) are also investigated. The analyses showed strong positive correlations between AOD and WV for all selected cities. The correlation between AOD and CF was positive for cities where the air masses were predominantly humid, but negative for those where the air masses were relatively dry and carried low aerosol abundance. AOD showed a positive correlation with CTP and CTT in the northern areas of Pakistan and a negative correlation in southern areas. Aerosol inventories were also conducted in terms of particle size distributions (N), mass (M) concentrations, and particulate matter (PM) concentrations. These M and PM concentrations were obtained for Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar from N concentrations using a native algorithm based on the Grimm model 1.109 dust monitor. PM10 and PM2.5 (24 hour average) concentrations at all sampling points were between 2 and 10 times higher than the maximum PM concentrations recommended by the WHO guidelines. Considering the high ambient aerosol concentrations, regional lung deposition of aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract was calculated using the stochastic lung deposition code IDEAL (Inhalation, Deposition and Exhalation of Aerosols in the Lung) to assess the extent of

  2. Challenges and opportunities for wind power for future energy supplies in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to rapid modernization the energy resources are depleting rapidly throughout the world while the energy demand is rising steadily. The crude oil price has soared upto $140.0 per barrel that has triggered the use of renewable energy recourses. Pakistan particular is the most energy deficient country where a shortfall of as high as 4500 MW is recorded in the recent year. The Renewable Energy Technologies (RET's) are important and had gained the prime importance these days with specific focus on solar and wind power. This paper highlights the challenges and opportunities for wind power in Pakistan. The wind potential in different areas has been explored, including a vital area of about 9700 km/sup 2/ in Sindh. Wind power is a new energy resource in Pakistan's history, uptil now main resources are Fossil Fuel contributing 65%, hydel 33% and nuclear only 2% respectively. Wind is an environment friendly resource and its appreciable contribution will be achieved in future. Paper analyses the present energy scenario through wind power in Pakistan and leads to future progress in order to secure energy security in the country. (author)

  3. Monsoon onset over selected eastern boundary cities of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagaries of monsoonal rainfall are the main cause of flooding in Pakistan which washed away standing crops in rural areas and damage the infrastructure of the cities. This study is an attempt to estimate, analyse and depict the monsoon onset characteristics over the eastern boundaries of Pakistan on the basis of available diurnal rainfall data for the period 1961-2010. For this aim pentad monsoonal rainfall calculation (in which total amount of rain should not be less than 20 mm) with the condition of at least three days of rainfall employed. Early and delayed dates are also calculated for the said period of eight stations viz Lahore, Islamabad, Khanpur, Bahawalnagar, Rohri, Chhor, Sialkot and Bahawalpur. After standardizing the data, distance method is used to plot the contours. The results reveal mean dates of monsoon onset, ranges from the end of June (27 June) to start of August (1 August). As regards, delayed and earliest starting monsoon dates, it lying from 3 of August to 17 of September and from 30 May to 25 of June respectively. It appears that delayed onset dates are rather scattered than the earliest ones. Findings of this paper may be helpful to the farmers, planners and forecasters of this discipline. (author)

  4. The Role of Photovoltaics in Energy Requirements in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review article global energy issue is discussed with specific reference to Pakistan. The energy consumption and supply from different sources like oil, gas, electricity, nuclear power, bio gas and especially from renewables is taken into account. Also discussed some suggestions for the energy requirements. Focus is given to the production of renewable energy sources like technology of photovoltaics in which solar power is converted into electricity. Solar cell is discussed including its two basic types inorganic solar cell and organic solar cell, its way of functioning, process of fabrication etc is also discussed. Organic or polymeric solar cell is discussed in detail. keeping in view the financial condition and requirement of energy for our country suggestions are given for low cost and simple processing of organic solar cells. It is also suggested that availability of all the materials required for the development of organic solar cells should be guaranteed. Interest should be developed at the university and other research organization level of Pakistan to do work on polymeric solar cells for increasing their efficiencies so that they can be practically utilized. (author)

  5. Chronic liver disease related mortality pattern in northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the mortality pattern pertaining to chronic liver disease (CLD) in Northern Pakistan. Results: There were a total of 8529 admissions in twelve months period from August 2001 to July 2002. There were 283 (3.31%) total deaths. Out of these, 160 deaths were pertaining to medical causes. Out of these medical cases, 33 (20.6%) patients had died of chronic liver disease. Other major causes of death were cerebro-vascular accident (18.7%), malignancy (18.1%) and acute myocardial infarction (10.6%). Out of 33 patients of CLD, 12 (36%) presented with acute gastrointestinal (Gl) bleeding, 9(27%) presented with Ascites and 6(18%) presented with altered mental status due to hepatic encephalopathy. Rest of them had jaundice and fever as their initial presentation. Out of these 33 patients with CLD, 23 (70%) had hepatitis C virus (HCV) as cause of their liver disease, 4 (12%) had hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, 3(9%) had both hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections and 3 (9%) had no known cause of their chronic liver disease. Conclusion: Chronic liver disease is a major cause of mortality in this part of Pakistan at a tertiary care hospital. HCV infection is the main cause of chronic liver disease followed by either HBV or a combination of these viruses. Major manifestations of CLD have been gastrointestinal bleeding, hepatic failure and portal hypertension.(author)

  6. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study will be useful to both managers in the auto industry as well as policy makers. It will help managers in the auto industry to gain a better understanding of consumer intentions and identify the factors which influence them. Policy makers in Pakistan’s auto sector would benefit from the insights of this study when developing the long overdue Auto Policy. Analysis of the data collected has revealed that the three key factors identified from studies in other Asian countries are also relevant for Pakistani auto consumers.

  7. Emergency Preparedness and Response at Nuclear Power Plants in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emergency preparedness and response arrangements at Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in Pakistan have been reevaluated in the light of Fukushima Daiichi accident. Appropriate measures have been taken to strengthen and effectively implement the on-site and off-site emergency plans. Verification of these plans is conducted through regulatory review and by witnessing periodic emergency drills and exercises conducted by the NPPs in the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements. Emergency Planning Zones (EPZs) have been revised at NPPs. A multi discipline reserve force has been formed for assistance during severe accidents. Nuclear Emergency Management System (NEMS) has been established at the national level in order to make necessary arrangements for responding to nuclear and radiological emergencies. Training programs for first responders and medical professionals have been launched. Emergencies coordination centres have been established at national and corporate levels. Public awareness program has been initiated to ensure that the surrounding population is provided with appropriate information on emergency planning and response. To share national and international operational experience, Pakistan has arranged various workshops and developed a strong link with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (author)

  8. Acute respiratory infections in Pakistan: Have we made any progress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are the leading cause of death in young children in Pakistan, responsible for 20-30% of child deaths under age 5 years. This paper summarizes the research and technical development efforts over the last 15 years which have contributed to improving the effectiveness of the case management strategy to reduce mortality from 5' pneumonia in children in Pakistan. Community intervention is viable, effective and practical. Rising antimicrobial resistance among commonly used and A low-cost oral agent is of significant concern. Appropriate monitoring and evaluation of the impact of the ARI control programme is lacking. Lack of funding for programmatic activities, lack of coordination with other child survival programs, inadequate training for community health workers and general practitioners in the private sector, lack of public awareness about seeking timely and appropriate care and insufficient planning and support for ARI in the programmatic activities at provincial and district levels are major hindrances in decreasing the burden of ARI in the country. The recent introduction of the community-based Lady Health Worker (LHW) Programme and WHO and UNICEF-sponsored integrated management of childhood illness initiative present ideal opportunities for re-emphasizing early case detection and appropriate case management of ARI. Ultimately, focusing on preventive strategies such as improving nutrition, reducing indoor pollution, improving mass vaccination, as well as introduction of new vaccines effective against important respiratory pathogens will likely have the most impact on reducing severe ARI and deaths from severe disease. (author)

  9. Institutional Assessment of Sindh Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Providing quality training that leads young people to jobs is critical for the economic and social development of the Province of Sindh, Pakistan. This working paper assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the Sindh Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority (STEVTA) as a provincial apex body in Technical Education and Vocational Training (TVET). The recent establishment of STE...

  10. Situation analysis of health care waste management in private sector hospitals in federal capital territory, islamabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deleterious and harmful effects of hospital waste on environment and human health is well documented in Pakistan. The hospital waste that may be produced as a result of patient care in hospitals, clinical settings including the diagnostic laboratories is one of the potential health hazards. It significantly contributes to the transfusion transmitted diseases and ever increasing incidence of HBV, HCV and HIV. (author)

  11. Environmental issues and energy conservation in buildings in Pakistan: role of architectural intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy shortage and environmental catastrophe is the severe problem globally and particularly important for the developing countries like Pakistan. There is a serious need to solve the problem for a sustainable building environment as the building sector has become a major consumer of energy. An attempt has been made for the building professionals and building users for adherence into their design and construction the energy conservation measures to reduce environmental problems more easily after the thorough review of the famous authors' research work and findings in this field. The ultimate aim is the establishment of awareness for the building professionals for delivering sustainable buildings in Pakistan. Through the implementation of design measures to mitigate the urban heat island, the general public can decrease their demand for energy and effectively cool the urban landscape. In addition to the economic benefits, energy conservation leads to reductions in CO/sub 2/ emissions. (author)

  12. Advisory board approves Pakistan SMC marketing plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Under a 2-year contract funded by the US Agency for International Development, PSI Marketing Associates is providing technical assistance for the development of a social marketing project in Pakistan. The national launch of a new condom, Sathi, is planned for 1987. This new social marketing of contraceptives project emphasizes child spacing and will use the slogan, "Until you want another child." As a result of the Pakistan Government's generic family planning advertising and promotion campaigns, there is a high degree of public awareness of contraception. However, this awareness is not reflected in levels of contraceptive use. A 3-month test market for Sathi (which means "companion") will take place in 2 areas representative of Pakistan's socioeconomic and ethnic composition. All printed materials (including posters, stickers, mobiles, and shop signs) will use the Sathi logo--2 birds flying into the sun. Other project materials include a 1-minute video and pamphlets for consumers, dealers, and medical professionals. PMID:12341468

  13. Advisory board approves Pakistan SMC marketing plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Under a 2-year contract funded by the US Agency for International Development, PSI Marketing Associates is providing technical assistance for the development of a social marketing project in Pakistan. The national launch of a new condom, Sathi, is planned for 1987. This new social marketing of contraceptives project emphasizes child spacing and will use the slogan, "Until you want another child." As a result of the Pakistan Government's generic family planning advertising and promotion campaigns, there is a high degree of public awareness of contraception. However, this awareness is not reflected in levels of contraceptive use. A 3-month test market for Sathi (which means "companion") will take place in 2 areas representative of Pakistan's socioeconomic and ethnic composition. All printed materials (including posters, stickers, mobiles, and shop signs) will use the Sathi logo--2 birds flying into the sun. Other project materials include a 1-minute video and pamphlets for consumers, dealers, and medical professionals.

  14. Source rock potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, H.A. (Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan))

    1991-03-01

    Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

  15. Cypsela morphology and its taxonomic significance for the tribe senecioneae (asteraceae) from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cypsela of 26 species distributed in 9 genera of the tribe Senecioneae were examined from Pakistan. Micromorphological characters of cypsela in this group are not only found useful for assessing relationship but they are also useful for the delimitation of taxa both at the generic and specific levels, except that of the genera Senecio and Doronicum which could not be clearly separated as they do not have exclusive cypsela features. (author)

  16. Stochastic modeling and generation of synthetic sequences of hourly global solar irradiation at Quetta, Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, Lalarukh [Balochistan Univ., Dept. of Mathematics, Quetta (Pakistan); Jafri, Yasmin Zahra [Balochistan Univ., Dept. of Statistics, Quetta (Pakistan)

    1999-07-01

    Using hourly global radiation data at Quetta, Pakistan for 10 yr, an Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) process is fitted. Markov Transition Matrices have also been developed. These models are used for generating synthetic sequences for hourly radiations in MJ/m{sup 2} and that the generated sequences are compared with the observed data. We found the MTM approach relatively better as a simulator compared to ARMA modeling. (Author)

  17. Pakistan's experience in application of nuclear techniques in agriculture and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of the use of nuclear techniques describes the range of activities and the practical results obtained in Pakistan so far. Agricultural research in PAEC are mutation breeding of important crops, agronomy of selected mutants, entomology, plant pathology, plant nutrition studies on macro and micro nutrients and their interactions, plant physiology and food preservation. Other activities include national and international co-operation, teaching, training and symposia. (author)

  18. The Iran-Pakistan-India Pipeline Project

    OpenAIRE

    Basit, Saira

    2008-01-01

    The planned Iran-Pakistan-India natural-gas pipeline (IPI Pipeline) has been in the Asian spotlight for many years and its full realisation would be politically ground-breaking. Its energy-supply route is planned to cross the political fault line between the two rivals Pakistan and India, who would thus be bound to cooperate with one another. In fact, planning the Pipeline is the first time in history that the two countries have ever even negotiated on a trilateral project. Additionally, intr...

  19. Supply Chain Management : importing football from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hafiz Muhammad, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    The concept of the thesis is to know how one can start a business of import and export in Finland and the steps taking place during this process. Pakistan is not in the top lists of doing import and export business but due to low labor cost,corporations prefer to do business with Pakistan. My thesis mainly consists on a business plan and supply chain management. As I have done my specialization in Supply chain management, it helped me to understand how the supply chain management and logis...

  20. Gender and Health Care Utilisation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Mubashir Ali

    2000-01-01

    This study is undertaken to test whether or not there exists gender bias in health care utilisation of sick children in Pakistan. Overall, the results are encouraging, as medical consultation has been sought for by a very high proportion (79 percent) of sick children. Moreover, there do not appear to be significant differences by gender in health care utilisation, be it curative or preventive. This is so in spite of the fact that many studies on various gender-related issues in Pakistan have ...

  1. Results of mitigation studies from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the international level, Pakistan's contractual obligations to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) include the preparation of a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions abatement program, a national communication on climate change, and the formulation of a least-cost GHG abatement action plan and strategy. Pakistan ratified the UNFCCC in June 1994. The ratification of the Convention has lead to the undertaking of activities such as the Asia Least-cost Greenhouse Gas Abatement Strategy (ALGAS) Project, which aims to build capacity in Asian countries in the preparation of GHG inventories and mitigation programs. (au)

  2. Efficiency Dynamics of Sugar Industry of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Raheman; Abdul Qayyum; Talat Afza

    2009-01-01

    Pakistan is the 15th largest producer of sugar in the world, 5th largest in terms of area under sugar cultivation and 60th in yield. The sugar industry is the 2nd largest agro based industry which comprises of 81 sugar mills. With this scenario, Pakistan has to import sugar which exposes it to the effects of shortage and rising prices in the world. The present sugar crisis has opened up new avenues for researcher to analyse the performance and efficiency of the firms in this sector. Total fac...

  3. Contributions of Pakistan in the IAEA/RCA/UNDP regional project on management of marine coastal environment and its pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, launched a five years (duration: 1998 - 2002) Joint Project on 'Better Management of the Environment and Industrial Growth Through Isotope and Radiation Technology (RAS/97/030)' in co-operation with the RCA (Regional Co-operative Agreement) office, Vienna, and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The Marine Sub-project entitled 'Management of Marine Coastal Environment and its Pollution (RAS/8/083)' is 'Output 1.2' of this joint project. Pakistan is very actively participating in activities of the IAEA/RCA/UNDP Marine Sub-Project that were planned in two Project Formulation Meetings (PFMs) held at Manila, Philippines, during 1998. In Pakistan, various activities of the national marine pollution project are being administered by the nuclear institute namely, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), in collaboration with national end user institutions. To-date, Pakistan has significantly contributed in this project, both at national level and at RCA regional level. This paper highlights the progress and some accomplishments of Pakistan, up to the year 2001, for marine pollution studies related to the IAEA/RCA regional marine sub project. (author)

  4. Potential contribution of ethanol fuel to the transport sector of Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harijan, Khanji; Memon, Mujeebuddin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro 76062 (Pakistan); Uqaili, Mohammad A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro 76062 (Pakistan); Mirza, Umar K. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)

    2009-01-15

    Pakistan is an energy-deficient country. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country is heavily dependent on the import of oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy and has been deteriorating the balance of payments situation. The country has become increasingly more dependent on fossil fuels and its energy security hangs on the fragile supply of imported oil that is subject to disruptions and price volatility. The transport sector has a 28% share in the total commercial energy consumption in Pakistan. About 1.15 million tonnes of gasoline was consumed by this sector during 2005-2006. The gasoline consumption in the transport sector is also a major source of environmental degradation especially in urban areas. Consequently, Pakistan needs to develop indigenous, environment-friendly energy resources, such as ethanol, to meet its transport sector's energy needs. Pakistan produces about 54 million tonnes of sugarcane every year. The estimated production potential of ethanol from molasses is about 500 million liters per annum. Ethanol can be used in the transport sector after blending with gasoline, in order to minimize the gasoline consumption and associated economical and environmental impacts. This paper presents the assessment of the potential contribution of ethanol in the transport sector of Pakistan. It is concluded that 5-10% of the annual gasoline consumption in transport sector could be met from ethanol by the year 2030 under different scenarios. About US$200-400 million per annum could be saved along with other environmental and health benefits by using gasol in the transport sector. (author)

  5. Potential contribution of ethanol fuel to the transport sector of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan is an energy-deficient country. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country is heavily dependent on the import of oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy and has been deteriorating the balance of payments situation. The country has become increasingly more dependent on fossil fuels and its energy security hangs on the fragile supply of imported oil that is subject to disruptions and price volatility. The transport sector has a 28% share in the total commercial energy consumption in Pakistan. About 1.15 million tonnes of gasoline was consumed by this sector during 2005-2006. The gasoline consumption in the transport sector is also a major source of environmental degradation especially in urban areas. Consequently, Pakistan needs to develop indigenous, environment-friendly energy resources, such as ethanol, to meet its transport sector's energy needs. Pakistan produces about 54 million tonnes of sugarcane every year. The estimated production potential of ethanol from molasses is about 500 million liters per annum. Ethanol can be used in the transport sector after blending with gasoline, in order to minimize the gasoline consumption and associated economical and environmental impacts. This paper presents the assessment of the potential contribution of ethanol in the transport sector of Pakistan. It is concluded that 5-10% of the annual gasoline consumption in transport sector could be met from ethanol by the year 2030 under different scenarios. About US$200-400 million per annum could be saved along with other environmental and health benefits by using gasol in the transport sector. (author)

  6. Isotopic and chemical characterization of coal in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (delta/sup 13/C PDB) and toxic/trace element concentration levels are determined for Tertiary coal samples collected from seven coal fields in Pakistan. No systematic isotope effects are found in the process of coal liquefaction from peat to Tertiary lignites and sub bituminous coal. Similarly, no age effects are observed during the Tertiary regime. The observed variations in the carbon isotopic composition of coal obtained from 'Sharigh coal field' and the 'Sor-Range/Degari coal field' in Baluchistan are attributed to the depositional environments. More sampling of stable carbon isotope analysis are required to validate these observations. Significant concentrations of toxic elements such as S, Cr, Cd and Pb in Makarwal coal may pose environmental and engineering/operational problems for thermal power plants. (author)

  7. Telemedicine as a source of universal health coverage in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for sustainable healthcare through telemedicine focuses on both changes in the access of healthcare information services as well as wider dissemination of healthcare related skills and professional expertise of medical community. Many developing countries are deficient in healthcare services and suffer from a shortage of doctors and other healthcare Professionals. In Pakistan, the inadequate allocation of doctors/specialists, infrastructures of telecommunications, roads and transport make it more difficult to provide in remote and rural areas. Where clinics and hospitals exist, they are often ill-equipped. The aim of this paper is to share knowledge about the use of telemedic solutions in the health sector in order to propose strategies and actions to formulate tactical recommendations for policy makers and advisors as well as researchers. The examples in this paper illustrate that telemedicine has clearly made an impact on healthcare. (author)

  8. Weed management: a case study from north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alien and exotic plant invasions are threatening the floral diversity around the globe and affect ecological processes. Weed invasion has been documented in North-West Pakistan. A total of 16 weeds were reported as invasive. These were Xanthium strumarium, Ipomoea eriocarpa, Alternanthera pungens, Trianthema portulacastrum, Tagetes minuta, Imperata cylindrica, Amaranthus hybridus subsp. hybridus, Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ailanthus altissima, Pistia stratiotes, Phragmites australis, Parthenium hysterophorus, Cannabis sativa, Galium aparine and Emex spinosus. Among these Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera and Ailanthus altissima are trees and were purposely introduced as they later became invasive. They were aggressive in nature and replaced or suppressed the local vegetation. Their distribution, history of invasion and management has been discussed here. The behaviour and association of the 36 problem weeds with different crops has also been outlined as they perspired from the farmers. (author)

  9. Developing a surveillance system for HIV/AIDS in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from other interventions, surveillance remains a major focus of the national response to HIV/AIDS. However, with a shift in the epidemic pattern, the existing surveillance strategies are barely insufficient and long-term structural changes are desirable. This article provides a conceptual framework for developing a scientific system for HIV surveillance in Pakistan. Second generation surveillance system including repeated cross-sectional surveys in high risk population groups are suggested to collect behavioral and serological data at regular intervals on an annual basis to monitor the epidemic trend as well as the associated behaviors. In addition, multiple data resources have been highlighted, which could be coordinated to describe the epidemic pattern in the country. This information should form the basis for national prevention planning and ought to be used for making sensible choices through which prevention efforts are most likely to reduce new infections. (author)

  10. Herbicide contamination in carrot grown in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food safety and security is a burning issue of the time whereas vegetable production is an important aspect of agriculture. Use of herbicides for vegetable production is very common in Pakistan but no proper procedure has been planned to keep optimal level of doses of herbicide under permissible limit. To estimate the pesticide residues, samples from the leading carrot producing sites were collected along with the samples from the market. The samples were processed using standard procedures and qualitative and quantitative analysis was performed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). It was concluded that all the samples were contaminated with S-metolachlor in the range of 0.45 to 0.73 mg kg-1 which was above the permissible limit (0.40 mg kg-1). (author)

  11. Soccer Ball Production for Nike in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper looks at how Nike’s soccer ball suppliers (previous and current) in Sialkot (Pakistan) fare in relation to the company’s code of ethics. While minimum required working conditions are implemented, the criteria for social and environmental compliance are not met with. The multin

  12. Status of Project Management Education in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Faisal Manzoor; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Emerging contractual delivery systems, collaborative partnerships, new management initiatives, and global product markets require professionals and students to have a broader awareness of construction methods and project management issues. This paper presents the state of the project management education in Pakistan. The analysis is based on…

  13. Pakistan : Promoting Rural Growth and Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report shows that after a decade of moderate growth but little or no long term change in rural poverty in Pakistan, agricultural output, rural incomes, rural poverty and social welfare indicators all showed marked improvements between 2001-02 and 2004-05. However, longer term trends suggest there is little reason for complacency. The agricultural GDP per capita growth rate (1999- 2000...

  14. The hawkmoth fauna of Pakistan (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafi, Muhammad Ather; Sultan, Amir; Kitching, Ian J; Pittaway, Anthony R; Markhasiov, Maxim; Khan, Muhammad Rafique; Naz, Falak

    2014-01-01

    This study represents the first complete modern account of the Sphingidae of Pakistan and takes the form of an annotated checklist, based on several national collections and those of a number of individuals. Of the 60 species and subspecies found, 14 are new records to the fauna of Pakistan, namely Agnosia orneus, Langia zenzeroides subsp. zenzeroides, Polyptychus trilineatus subsp. trilineatus, Dolbina inexacta, Ambulyx sericeipennis subsp. sericeipennis, Thamnoecha uniformis, Macroglossum belis, Macroglossum stellatarum, Cechetra scotti, Hippotion boerhaviae, Hyles euphorbiae subsp. euphorbiae, Rhagastis olivacea, Rethera brandti subsp. euteles and Theretra latreillii subsp. lucasii. Anambulyx elwesi subsp. kitchingi and Clanis deucalion subsp. thomaswitti are not recognised as valid subspecies and are synonymized with their respective nominotypical subspecies. An additional list is given of 30 taxa which may yet be found in Pakistan as they are present in neighbouring countries close to the border. Of the species/subspecies found, 24 are part of the Palaearctic fauna, 27 are part of the Oriental fauna and nine are Palaeo-Oriental/Palaeotropical. This reconfirms the transitional biogeographical position of the Pakistan fauna. PMID:24870331

  15. The Economics of Dowry Payments in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    Although there are numerous studies of the dowry phenomenon in India, research pertaining to the custom in the rest of South Asia is sparse.The aim of this paper is to study dowry payments in Pakistan.Several interpretations for dowry are distinguished using a simple theoretical framework and the pr

  16. An investigation of the relationship between depth to groundwater and malaria prevalence, Punjab, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donelly, MJ; Birley, M.H.; Konradsen, Flemming

    1997-01-01

    ground water, Malaria, disease vectors, land use, public health, Pakistan, Punjab, Bahawal Nagar......ground water, Malaria, disease vectors, land use, public health, Pakistan, Punjab, Bahawal Nagar...

  17. Food production and environmental hazards in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture is a profession, which is open to natural conditions and intense human activity. This has brought it in direct interface with the environment. The activities related to agriculture can have favorable as well as unfavorable influence on environment. Pressure of burgeoning population is demanding increased production from agriculture to feed and clothe the teeming millions. This has resulted in excessive use of soil, fertilizers and pesticides. This paper describe the effect of these productive resources on environment and human health. Agriculture is a complex phenomenon. It is open both on natural conditions and to intense human activity. Cyclones, floods, hailstorm, cold, heat and heavy rains all affect agriculture and so do the man-made activities especially those related to expanding industrial production. This has brought agriculture in direct interface with the environment. Agriculture exerts both favorable and unfavorable consequences on environment. The plants absorb carbon dioxide and act as filters to purify polluting aerial substances. Growing of crops itself brings pleasant changes in microclimate and to aesthetics. On the other hand, effluents of all kinds; sewage, industrial, farmyard, domestics are dumped onto the soil surface, which pollute water bodies and affect crop quality. Agricultural chemicals used to increase production can get into air, soil and water and pose serious threat to environment. In Pakistan, agriculture is the mainstay of national economy. It is accorded second priority after defense. Its share in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is 24%, it contributes by 35% to export earnings, employs 51% of the labour force and provides livelihood to 70% of rural population. Increased pressure of burgeoning population is, however, demanding more output from agriculture to feed and clothe the teeming millions. The productive resources on the other hand are limited and are rapidly shrinking. This has led to excessive use of soil

  18. Exploration, analysis and explanation of 'employee satisfaction' as an organization development and general improvement tool for the it sector of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan's IT industry is currently one of the top performers as compared to other industrial sectors within Pakistan. As per the findings of Ahsan (2008), despite the fact that Pakistan's IT industry is competitive (with respect to other industries within Pakistan), its true potential is yet to be unfolded. Ahsan (2008); states that Pakistan's so called competitive IT industry has to be in lined with the international performers (Particularly South Asian economies). A simple proof of this statement can be obtained from the fact that Pakistan's general economy is 1/5 of Indian economy. This must be true for IT sector of both the economies, which, unfortunately is not the case because Pakistan's IT sector is currently 1/27 of the Indian IT Sector. Ahsan (2008) believes that partial reason of this unwanted difference may be revenue models, business practices and political situations of the two countries. Other than these reasons Ahsan (2008) believes that several soft issues are also responsible for this industrial difference. Out of these soft issues 'motivation' is one such important factor. The role of motivation as an imperative soft issue for revitalizing workforce can also be reproduced for the discussion concerning the role of 'basic employee satisfaction' as an organisation's productivity and quality enhancement tool. Employees, being an integral asset of the organizations, impact organizations in accomplishment of their objectives. The impact of employee satisfaction in software industry of Pakistan is relatively less known but plays significant role. This paper analyzes the major causes of employee satisfaction and the impact of employee satisfaction on quality and productivity dimensions (particularly) in the IT organizations in Pakistan. This research presents analysis of 'Employee Satisfaction' for IT sector of Pakistan. The study not only explores but also presents detailed explanation and analysis of the subject area for the IT industry of Pakistan by

  19. Assessment of the occupational radiation exposure doses to workers at INMOL Pakistan (2007-11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of occupationally exposed medical radiation workers at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology (INMOL) (Pakistan)) has been performed. The whole-body radiation exposure doses of 120 workers in nuclear medicine (NM), radiotherapy (RT) and diagnostic radiology (DR) were measured by using the film badge dosimetry technique for the time interval (2007-11) and their results presented. The annual average effective doses in NM, RT and DR were found to be well below the permissible annual limit of 20 mSv (averaged over a period of 5 consecutive y). The declining trend observed in the annual average dose values during the time interval (2007-11) is an indication of ameliorated radiation protection practices at INMOL (Pakistan)). (authors)

  20. Factors contributing to the waste generation in building projects of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generation of construction waste is a worldwide issue that concerns not only governments but also the building actors involved in construction industry. For developing countries like Pakistan, rising levels of waste generation, due to the rapid growth of towns and cities have become critical issue. Therefore this study is aimed to detect the factors, which are the main causes of construction waste generation. Questionnaire survey has been conducted to achieve this task and RIW (Relative Importance Weight) method has been used to analyze the results of this study. The important factors contributing to the generation of construction as identified in this study are: frequent changes/ revision in design during construction process; poor scheduling; unavailability of storage; poor workmanship; poor layout; inefficient planning and scheduling of resources and lack of coordination among supervision staff deployed at site. Based on the identified factors, the study also has presented some suggestions for the reduction of construction waste in building construction projects of Pakistan. (author)

  1. Diffusion of agricultural innovation: farmers opinion on land conservation measures in pishin, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land resources in Pakistan are under severe threat of degradation due to population growth. The situation is more serious in the arid and semi-arid areas, where the natural resources, especially the water-resources, are scarce. This paper reviews the study conducted to investigate the farmers views on land conservation measures in Pishin, Pakistan. Data were collected through survey questionnaires, focus-group discussions and field observations. Increased expenditure, poor extension services and lack of awareness were found to be the major reasons behind the non-adoption of the needed conservation measures. Significant differences were found for adoption of conservation measures by household categories. The study proposes government support and proper assistance to farmers by extension agents for sustainable use of land and water resources. (author)

  2. A qualitative study exploring perspectives towards rational use of medicines in Pakistan's Malaria Control Program (MCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeeha Malik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most important global public health problems threatening the health of the population owing to prevailing socio-economic conditions and epidemiological reasons in Pakistan. This qualitative study has focused on the perspectives held towards the rational use of medicine intervention among malaria control program officials. Eight semi-structured interviews with all officials working for the malaria control program in Islamabad were conducted. The interviews, which were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim, were evaluated by thematic content analysis and by all authors. All respondents agreed on successful implementation of the malaria control program in Pakistan for controlling malaria by improving diagnostic and treatment facilities and promoting rational case management through training of prescribers. However, funding is still the major challenge faced by the program for its future implementation.

  3. White blister rusts and downy mildews from bajaur agency fata, with some new records from pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a species diversity study of Oomycyctes of Bajaur Agency FATA, Pakistan, infection of white blister rusts and downy mildews recorded on three cultivated and four wild plants. Capsella bursa-pastoris showed mixed infection of Albugo candida and Hyaloperonospora parasitica (syn: Peronospora parasitica). Similarly, A. candida and H. brassicae (syn: P. brassicae) parasitized Brassica campestris. Wilsoniana portulacae (syn: Albugo portulacae) and W. occidentalis com. nov. (syn: Albugo occidentalis) recovered from Portulaca oleracea and Spinacia oleracea, respectively. Bremia taraxaci, B. sonchicola and B. saussureae recorded on Taraxicum officinale, Sonchus sp., and Saussurea sp., respectively. All these obligate parasites are new records from Bajaur Agency, while H. parasitica, W. occidentalis, B. taraxaci, and B. saussureae on the mentioned hosts are new records from Pakistan. (author)

  4. Patterns of Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate in Northern Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoor Khan; Hidayat Ullah; Shazia Naz; Tahmeed Ullah; Hafeezullah Khan; Muhammad Tahir; Obaid Ullah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of different types of cleft lip and palate, geographical distribution and its association with consanguinity, family history and other syndromes in the Northern Pakistani population. Study design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Settings: This study was performed in Plastic and Reconstructive units of Hayat Medical Complex Peshawar Pakistan, Aman Hospital Peshawar Pakistan and Abasin Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan from November 2010 to December 20...

  5. Towards a Sustainable Islamic Microfinance Model in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Salman Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    According to SDPI estimates, poverty rate in Pakistan has roughly returned to the mid-thirties level of the 90s era. Some 58.7 million Pakistanis are classified as poor while Microfinance beneficiaries are only 2.35 million people. The progress and penetration of Islamic Microfinance is even more insignificant in relation to the enormous underdevelopment challenges faced by Pakistan. In this paper, we document the progress of Islamic Microfinance in Pakistan and build the case for its importa...

  6. Financial innovation and monetary policy transmission mechanism in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Safdar, S.; Khan, A.(Brunel University, Uxbridge, United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    In the recent past there are remarkable financial innovations in Pakistan which have the implications for the monetary policy. In Pakistan there is no or little empirical evidence on the impact of financial innovation on monetary policy transmission mechanism. In this paper we fill this gap by analyzing the impact of financial innovation on monetary policy transmission mechanism by using the interest rate channel. We use the quarterly date covering the period, 1981Q1 to 2010Q4 for Pakistan an...

  7. Changing Trade Relation of India & Pakistan: An Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Vivek Kumar Srivastava; Dr. Bhavtosh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Kautilya was the first one to write extensively on political economy. He theorized that to maintain a strong kingdom, the king must develop healthy relations with the neighbouring states through trade. When we talk about India, we can never ignore the Pakistan. India and Pakistan are the countries whose relations not only affect the economic relations of both the countries but also have some influence in the world politics. Pakistan is a neighbouring country of India. But the relationship of ...

  8. Marketing Strategy of Islamic Banking Sector In Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Muhammad; Umar, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    There has come a swift transition in the financial services in the world including Pakistan. A new mode of banking i.e. Islamic banking has been introduced and accepted widely in many countries of the world including Pakistan. Our thesis has portrayed the current situation for Islamic banking in Pakistan by investigating the current competition of the industry using porter five forces model and at macro level using PEST analysis. We have analyzed that the competition is very high in the indus...

  9. Author guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Chief Editor

    2014-01-01

    AUTHOR GUIDELINESIndian Journal of Community Health (IJCH) accepts only online submission of manuscript(s) by using Open Journal software (OJS) at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/loginOnline SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH)? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly ad...

  10. Author Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Chief Editor

    2015-01-01

    Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts). Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s).SectionsEditorial:On issues of current public health needA...

  11. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome revisited in the perspective of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    malignant syndrome; these patients can better be managed with zuclopinthixol acetate (colpixol acuphase) injections when oral medication is not feasible. These drugs should not be used in neurotic patients. The introduction of depot injections of serotonin and dopamine antagonists (SDA's) may minimize the incidence of NMS. In Pakistan, a task force should immediately be constituted to include Mental Health Ordinance (MHO) 2001 into the constitution so that the serious legal and ethical issues of the mental health care are solved, accordingly. (author)

  12. India Pakistan Trade Possibilities and Non-tariff Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Nisha Taneja

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the bilateral trade possibilities and non-tariff barriers between India and Pakistan. The study shows that there is a large untapped trade potential between the two countries. Using the potential trade approach, the study finds that the export potential from India to Pakistan is to the tune of US$ 9.5 billion while that from Pakistan to India is US$ 2.2 billion. Items having export potential from Pakistan are largely in the textile sector while items having export ...

  13. Pakistan/USAID to start CSM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Pakistan, with the assistance of funds for the US Agency for International Development (USAID), is about to start its novel approach to contraceptive social marketing (CSM). This new effort suggests a marked policy shift on the part of the Pakistan government toward intensifying its family planning activities. The program will be government-operated and supported by AID over the next 5 years with $20 million, more than double the cost of similar CSM projects elswhere. Distribution of a condom on a pilot project basis is expected to begin by December 1984. Sales of a low-dose oral contraceptive (OC) could begin in test market areas by mid-1985, with national launching of both products tentatively scheduled for January 1986. The Pakistan/USAID agreement represents the 1st time since the formation of India's Nirodh project in the late 1960s that a CSM program is being established without the involvement of either an international social marketing contractor or a country's family planning association. The Pakistan CSM program will be managed by a policy board composed of representatives from the government's Ministries of Planning, Health and Education; a resident advisor from USAID; and a local company responsible for product marketing and distribution. The approach has received a skeptical response among international social marketing experts about the program's chances for success. Their doubts extend to 2 other aspects of the proposed design: an official of the Ministry of Planning's Population and Welfare Division expects the CSM program to generate sufficient revenues to cover all operating costs following the 5-year subsidy period, while also providing attractive profit margins for the marketing/distribution company; and the government prohibits mass media advertising of contraceptives. According to AID, the issue of mass media contraceptive advertising has not yet been resolved, and a national survey will be conducted to determine what communication needs are

  14. Le Pakistan, don de l’Indus

    OpenAIRE

    Étienne, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Le Pakistan joue un rôle clé sur un échiquier géopolitique particulièrement mouvant, à la jonction du Moyen-Orient et du monde indien. Ce livre poursuit plusieurs buts : tout d’abord présenter le Pakistan dans une perspective historique. Il y a au moins cinq mille ans commence cette extraordinaire aventure qui se poursuit aujourd’hui : la transformation du désert en espace vert grâce à l’Indus et au plus formidable système de canaux d’irrigation jamais créé dans le monde. En 1987, le Pakista...

  15. Donation of CERN computing equipment to Pakistan

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    An official ceremony marking the eighth donation of CERN computing equipment to an outside institute, this time a university in Pakistan, took place on Monday, 2 March.     From left to right: Sajjad Mohsin, Dean at the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, S. M. Junaid Zaidi, Rector of CIIT, Aumair Qayyum (CIIT) and Syed Ali Zahir Bukhari (CIIT).   On this occasion, 224 servers and 30 network hubs were donated to the CIIT (COMSATS Institute of Information Technology) in Islamabad, Pakistan, where they will be used by scientists working on the LHC’s ALICE experiment. For several years now, CERN has regularly donated computing equipment that no longer meets its highly specific requirements but is still more than adequate for less exacting environments. To date, a total of 1,149 servers and 79 hubs have been donated to eight countries, namely Bulgaria, Egypt, Ghana, Morocco, the Philippines, Senegal, Serbia and now P...

  16. India-Pakistan: Contours of Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devika Mittal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Even after about 70 years of separation, India and Pakistan continue to live in the prison of the past. The rhetoric of partition is still alive in the memory of the people of both the countries. They have constructed fixed, unchanging and competing images for each other. While Pakistan became an Islamic Republic, India adopted secularism, thereby, negating the two-nation theory. The ‘differences’ along with memories of partition has made Indian and Pakistani to remain in permanent hostile situation. The leaders of the two countries try to settle their disputes but fails because of lack of support from their social and political institutions. Since its coming into power in 2014, the NDA government under the Indian Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi has managed to engage the Pakistani establishment, despite many problems between the two countries. This article tries to highlight upon the contours of relationships post-2014.

  17. Federalism in Pakistan: Of Promises and Perils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Zubair

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the case of Pakistan, which is also broadly illustrative of the issues concerning federalism and subnational empowerment in developing countries characterized by unconsolidated political systems and enhanced constitutionalism. In the course of the analysis, this paper examines the dynamics and determinants of federalist/subnational politics in Pakistan, the formal constitutional and ordinance frameworks stipulated in support of federalism and subnational governance. The analysis shall be focused on the Local Governments Ordinance of 2001 and the 18th Constitutional Amendment, as these have been the most substantive attempts at subnational constitutionalism that were instituted under opposing political systems, and the extent to which they have enabled greater prospects for a stable federation while also examining the challenges that the radical departure under the 18th Constitutional Amendment put forth.

  18. Industrial Competitiveness of Pakistan (2000-10)

    OpenAIRE

    A. R. Kemal

    2007-01-01

    Though Pakistan’s exports have increased significantly, analyses have shown that Pakistan’s industrial competitiveness is limited to a narrow range of products. This paper looks at the factors affecting Pakistan’s competitiveness ranking and relates these various factors to trends in Pakistan’s total factor productivity. In addition to looking at the components of Pakistan’s competitiveness ranking, this paper details the steps required for Pakistan to increase its global industrial competiti...

  19. Public Policy and Private Investment in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Shabib Haider; Majeed, Muhammad Tariq

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the importance of government policies in determining private investment in Pakistan. The empirical results show that public sector investment, changes in bank credit to the private sector and degree of capacity in the economy are playing an important role in the determination of private investment. The level of expected GDP also positively affected the private investment, which is consistent with flexible accelerator model. The results are also consistent with the mentione...

  20. Microbial contaminants in Pakistan: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Kanwal, Maida; Arslan, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide contamination of surface waters with microbial pathogens is of substantial health concern. These contaminants are usually transmitted by improper sanitation measures, unsafe waste disposal, excretions from patients, and physical contacts, i.e., sexual and nonsexual. Majority of these microbial pathogens have been categorized into three classes, i.e., bacteria, viruses and protozoa. Pakistan, being a developing country, is facing a noteworthy threat due to microbial contamination. In...

  1. Are Breastfeeding Patterns in Pakistan Changing?

    OpenAIRE

    Zubeda Khan

    1991-01-01

    Prolonged breastfeeding, apart from being beneficial to the child's health, helps in keeping the birth rate low. One of the effects of malnutrition in developing countries is the reduction in the period of lactation. In Pakistan, where the birth rate is already very high and the use of contraceptives limited, any reduction in the breastfeeding period may result in an increase of the birth rate. This study was undertaken to find out the recent changes in the breastfeeding pattern and their pot...

  2. Soccer Ball Production for Nike in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Siegmann, Karin Astrid

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper looks at how Nike’s soccer ball suppliers (previous and current) in Sialkot (Pakistan) fare in relation to the company’s code of ethics. While minimum required working conditions are implemented, the criteria for social and environmental compliance are not met with. The multinational’s decision to withdraw orders from the previous supplier ostensibly due to allegations of child labour and unauthorised subcontracting hit large sections of the workforce, especially rural,...

  3. Impediments Of Green Marketing In Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Siddique, Muhammad; Hayat, Khizer; Akbar, Irfan; Cheema, Khaliq Ur Rehman

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates different factors and the impact of these factors on adoption of green marketing in Pakistan. Motivational factors which are legislation, competitiveness, and ethical reasoning. Company features in which company size, internationalization, position in value chain, managerial attitude, and strategic attitude fall. Some external factors like geographical location and industrial factors also have effects on green marketing adoption. The last factor in our study is stakeho...

  4. Impact of Textile Industry on Pakistan Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Abdul Sattar Shah; Anwar Ali Shah G.Syed; Faiz. M. Shaikh

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the Impact of Textile Industry in Pakistan’s economy. Data were collected 100 textile mills, in the form of unstructured questionnaire from the textile industry of Pakistan. The main respondents of the questionnaire were senior to middle level management located in Karachi, Hyderabad, Kotri, Nooriabad, Faisalabad and Lahore the for the purpose of this study yellow pages were used for identification and address of the respondents and web site of APTMA. From the 100 e...

  5. CONSUMER PANACEA OVER INTERNET USAGE IN PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal AFSAR; Jawaria Andleeb QURESH; Asim REHMAN; Rehmat Ullah BANGASH

    2011-01-01

    The present age is the era of information technology and everywhere microwaves are scattered. Everybody wants to explore itself with this information technology and happenings taking place of Internet for the purpose of education, awareness, entertainment and especially interaction with strangers. In Pakistan, the awareness of internet usage is increasing and people are gaining knowledge about online buying and selling. Although the Internet may well empower consumers, there is a paucity of s...

  6. An Empirical "Dependent Economy" Model for Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1991-01-01

    While the “dependent economy” approach has been used extensively in theoretical work on developing countries, there is very little empirical analysis of it available in the literature. This paper specifies a dependent economy model which incorporates several developing-country features, including an explicit role for public investment and legal interest rate ceilings. The model is estimated for Pakistan and is used to analyze the country’s recent high growth-low inflation experience. In parti...

  7. Mapping the Spatial Deprivation of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Jamal; Amir Jahan Khan; Imran Ashraf Toor; Naveed Amir

    2003-01-01

    Geographical targeting may be a viable way to allocate resources for poverty alleviation in developing countries. Efficiency can be increased, and leakages to the nonpoor reduced substantially, by targeting needy areas. A national and regional database of substantial poverty maps or deprivation indices are not readily available in Pakistan. Further, existing activities of poverty alleviation are carried out on ad hoc basis in the absence of identified pockets of poverty. This paper presents i...

  8. Electricity Demand in Pakistan: A Nonlinear Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Saima Nawaz; Nasir Iqbal; Saba Anwar

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to estimate the electricity demand function for Pakistan using smooth transition autoregressive model over the period 1971-2012. The empirical results have shown that there is nonlinear relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth and also between electricity prices and consumption. The income elasticity of electricity is high while price elasticity is less than unity. Further, results have shown that the average real prices are below the optimal level....

  9. On Measuring Inclusiveness of Growth in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Saima Asghar; Sajid Amin Javed

    2011-01-01

    Using social opportunity function approach, this work assesses, firstly, the change in and access to education and employment opportunities available to the population and secondly, how equitably these opportunities are distributed. Opportunity Index (OI) and Equity Index of Opportunities (EIO) are calculated to measure and quantify the extent of progress made in these two most important socio-economic components of development. Based on data, extracted from Pakistan Social and Living Standar...

  10. Pakistan lags behind in technical textile

    OpenAIRE

    JANJHJI, NOOR ZAMAN; MEMON, NOOR AHMED

    2007-01-01

    This paper highlights and demonstrates the technical and economical impact of technical textiles in the industrially developed countries and their future contribution to the development of economics of newly developing countries, such as China, South East Asia, and North Africa etc. Pakistan still lags behind in technical textile products as neither the government nor the textile industry has made any serious efforts towards synchronizing textile products with the emerging n...

  11. Testing Onion Market Integration in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Lohano, Heman D.; Mari, Fateh M.; Rajab A. Memon

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses spatial market integration using monthly wholesale real price of onion in four regional markets located in each of the four provinces of Pakistan. Unit root test indicates that the price series in each location are stationary, and the series are represented as autoregressive model for eachlocation. The error correction model results show that the regional markets of onion have strong price linkages, and thus are spatially integrated.

  12. The size of informal economy in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Arby, Muhammad Farooq; Malik, Muhammad Jahanzeb; Hanif, Muhammad Nadim

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the size of informal economy in Pakistan by using monetary approach with some modifications, electricity consumption approach and MIMIC model. Under monetary approach, we take care of the issue of the stationarity of variables and use autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model instead of simple OLS and add education as an additional factor affecting the size of informal economy along with some other technical improvements in the standard monetary models. The electricity ...

  13. Global Competitiveness: Challenges & Solutions for Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Economy of Pakistan has shown resilience to sustain growth in recent years even with evident macroeconomic imbalances and structural problems. On the fiscal side, the country has one of the lowest taxes to GDP ratio, mounting fiscal deficit and consistently growing government borrowing. On the monetary side, the central bank has to follow the fiscal directions and keep policy rates high amidst heavy government borrowing and high levels of inflation. On the external side, the economy faces ris...

  14. Determinants of Currency Depreciation in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Saif Ullah

    2014-01-01

    The loss of value of currency of any country with respect to foreign currencies like US $ is called Currency depreciation. Since 2008, Pakistani Rupee depreciates extensively which created many problems and hinders economic growth of country. The main reason behind this sharp decline is bad economic condition, terrorism, law and order situation, decrease in foreign portfolio investment and bad performance of stock market in Pakistan. The purpose of this research study is to analyze impact of...

  15. China-Pakistan Strengthen Bilateral Custom Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Mr.Abdullah Yusuf,Secretary General/Chairman,Central Board Of Revenue of Pakistan,arrived Shenzhen on April 22 to meet with Mr.Sheng Guangzu,the Chinese Minister for Customs Administration for discussing the bilateral customs issues.During his two-day visit,China's Foreign Trade Magazine interviewed to Mr.Abdullah Yusuf in Beijing,he gave the high evaluation on this visit and China's great development in the recent years.

  16. Stock Market in Pakistan: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Javed

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the main features of the Stock market in Pakistan focussing on post-liberalization period. The aspects of the market investigated include liberalization of the market, integration the market with the world markets, trading and settlement mechanism, and corporate governance issues. Finally salient features of the market are compared to a selected set of emerging and developed markets. Pakistan’s stock market is smaller in size but is significantly more active than the marke...

  17. Customer Satisfaction and Islamic Banking in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Fouzia Ali; Hassan Raziq; Abdul Aleem; Shahrukh Latif; Arslan, M; Arsalan Shah Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this research study is to focus on the customer satisfaction towards Islamic banking in Pakistan based on the different factors including service quality, product quality offered by Islamic banks, customer care level of Islamic banks, financial benefits given to its customers, competition with conventional banks, religion and market reputation. Methodology- This study will help to understand the level of satisfaction of customers regarding Islamic Banks. In this study d...

  18. Does economic growth cause terrorism in Pakistan?

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Shahbaz; Muhammad, Nasir Malik; Muhammad, Shahbaz Shabbir

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between terrorism and economic growth for Pakistan by incorporating capital and trade openness. We used the data from 1971-2010 and have applied ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration to examine the long run relationship between the variables. The VECM Granger causality approach is used to detect the direction of causality between terrorism and economic growth. Our empirical results confirm the existence of long run relationship between economic...

  19. Pakistan - Khyber Pakhtunkhwa : Public Expenditure Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) is one of the least-developed and crisis-prone provinces in Pakistan. Located in far north of the country, the province covers 10 percent of the total land area and is a home to 13 percent of the country's population spread over seven administrative districts. Majority of the population (83 percent) is rural, averaging 7.6 members per household-well above the nation...

  20. Status of coal biotechnology in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Afzal Ghauri; M.A. Anwar; N. Akhtar; R. Haider; A. Tawab [National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad (Pakistan)

    2009-07-01

    Pakistan is endued with 185 billion tons colossal reserves of coal, but only 7.89 % of the country total energy requirements are met by coal. Most of the Pakistani coal reserves are sub-bituminous or lignitic in nature and contain 3-12 % sulphur. Existence of sulphur compounds in coal limits its industrial application due to environmental as well as technical problems. However, coal biotechnology can emerge as panacea for upgrading the huge reserves of coal in Pakistan. In general, coal biotechnology refers to biodesulphurization, biosolubilization and biogasification of coal. NIBGE has long term interests in the field of coal bioprocessing for tapping prime resources of indigenous coal. In NIBGE, lab scale experiments for coal biodesulphurization led to 90% efficiency in sulphur removal. Heap leaching was also carried out at the level of 10 and 20 tons coal heaps with 60% sulphur removal efficiency. Furthermore, a prototype of 300 tons coal heap was set up with a local cement industry and 75% microbial desulphurization was achieved. The league of indigenously isolated chemolithotrophic bacteria was involved in coal desulphurization. On the other side, for making the best use of 175 billion tons of low rank coal reserves, coal biosolubilization and subsequent biogasification is being projected. Consequently, beneficiated coal through biotechnology is supposed to contribute in energy mix of Pakistan for providing electricity requirements of the country and saving huge oil import bills.

  1. WTO REFORMS AND RICE MARKET IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bachal Jamali

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the WTO reforms and Rice market in Pakistan. Data were collected from the Primary as well secondary sources of the Rice producing countries, and data were analysis by using SPSS-18 version, A structural questionnaire was developed for reliability and validity of the data. It was revealed that from the last five years there is no visible impact on export laid growth but from last three years price shocks was observed in Pakistan, due to increases in the world rice market by 200 percent in various Asian countries. Consumers are facing the price shock problem in Pakistan and world Rice market the statistical results were similar for the alternative specification of gross margins and prices as the economic decision available. However, the price elasticities derived using the gross margins specification were about a third of those using the prices specification. The gross margin specification yielded additional information in the form of yield and input cost elasticities. The analysis indicates that there are lags which are due primarily to the difficulties and cost of rapid adjustment rather than to the time required to revise expectations. The statistical results were similar for the alternative specification of gross margins and prices as the economic decision available. However, the price elasticities derived using the gross margins additional information in the form of yield and input cost elasticities

  2. PROSPECTS OF ISLAMIC BANKING: REFLECTIONS FROM PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the growth and development phases as well as prospects of Islamic banking in Pakistan. The role of Islamic banking is explained with special regards to corporate social responsibility (CSR as now days this concept is growing vastly. Awareness in public also has been growing and people are moving towards Islamic banking system. As we live in a Muslim country so it is very essential to have some basic knowledge about the Islamic banking. In this paper growth and performance of Islamic banking is discussed and compared among the financial years from 2003 to 2010 in terms of growth parameters like assets, deposits, sources and uses of funds. The performance indicators are also discussed to evaluate the growth and performance of Islamic banking system. In the last eight years, Islamic banking paved with the rapid market share of banking services. Moreover the efforts made by the central bank in Pakistan (SBP are also remarkable in growth of Islamic banking. By seeing the present growth of Islamic banking, it is anticipated that in near future, Islamic banking with get major share in banking industry in Pakistan.

  3. Ethnomedicinal review of folklore medicinal plants belonging to family Apiaceae of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of herbs for therapeutic purpose is as old as human history. In Pakistan a major part of population is dependent on the traditional medicine derived from plants for primary health care system. The interest in the use of traditional system of medicine has gained popularity globally. The developed countries are shifting their focus to further research based on the indigenous knowledge collected from aboriginal people. The present study reviews the ethno-medicinal uses of family Apiaceae reported from Pakistan. Out of 167 species reported from Pakistan, 66 are found to be used medicinally. Most commonly treated disorders by use of Apiaceae herbal flora are gastrointestinal tract and liver disorders (28%) followed by cough, cold and respiratory tract problems (11%). The plant parts frequently used are roots (22%) followed by whole plant material (19%), leaf material (18%), fruit (13%), seed (12%), stem, flower, aerial parts (5%) and sap (1%). It is suggested to carry out similar studies for other families to explore the indigenous knowledge for the development of commercial products and to collectively document the scattered existing knowledge. (author)

  4. Progress and peril: poliomyelitis eradication efforts in Pakistan, 1994-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, James P; Zubair, Mufti; Khan, Muzaffar; Abid, Nima; Durry, Elias

    2014-11-01

    Pakistan is one of 3 countries where transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted. Numbers of confirmed polio cases have declined by >90% from preeradication levels, although outbreaks occurred during 2008-2013. During 2012 and 2013, 58 and 93 WPV cases, respectively, were reported, almost all of which were due to WPV type 1. Of the 151 WPV cases reported during 2012-2013, 123 (81%) occurred in the conflict-affected Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and in security-compromised Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. WPV type 3 was isolated from only 3 persons with polio in a single district in 2012. During August 2012-December 2013, 62 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 cases were detected, including 40 cases (65%) identified in the FATA during 2013. Approximately 350 000 children in certain districts of the FATA have not received polio vaccine during supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) conducted since mid-2012, because local authorities have banned polio vaccination. In other areas of Pakistan, SIAs have been compromised by attacks targeting polio workers, which started in mid-2012. Further efforts to reach children in conflict-affected and security-compromised areas will be necessary to prevent reintroduction of WPV into other areas of Pakistan and other parts of the world. PMID:25316830

  5. Profile of extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (ehpvo) in a tertiary care hospital in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the clinical and laboratory profile of patients with EHPVO in a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan and to differentiate EHPVO from cirrhosis of liver and to see the effect on liver function tests. This is a prospective observational study conducted at Department of Gastroenterology, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. Twenty five patients of 12-55 years of age with the features of portal hypertension were included in this study. After careful history and physical examination patients were subjected for laboratory investigations including liver function test, renal function test, blood CP, PT, APTT, HbsAg and anti HCV, other specialized procedures including endoscopy, liver biopsy and ultra sound was also done in all patients. Portal vein thrombosis was the predominant cause of EHPVO, accounting for 88% of cases. All patients were presented with upper GI bleeding, splenomegaly was observed in 88% of patients. None of the patients had clinical, biochemical or liver biopsy evidence of chronic liver disease. The diagnosis of extra hepatic portal venous obstruction and differentiation from cirrhosis can be easily made by characteristic clinical features, normal liver function tests and doppler ultrasound. Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is the predominant cause of EHPVO in Pakistani patients, as seen at this tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. (author)

  6. Potential of solar home systems in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 68% of the population of Pakistan resides in rural areas. Most of the rural households have no access to electricity and meet lighting requirements through kerosene which is a major source of indoor air pollution and other environmental and health hazards. Rural villages are scattered over a large area and located far from the main electric grids. They have low population density and requires small load. About 67% of the conventional electricity in Pakistan is generated from fossil fuels with 51% and 16% share of gas and oil respectively. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country heavily depends on imported oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy. The combustion of fossil fuels also causes serious environmental pollution. The conventional power is even not sufficient for meeting the growing demand of electricity from the existing customers. Further more the extension of existing centralized grid system to far away from grid line rural areas with very low population density and small-scattered loads are economically and technically unfeasible. Hence there are remote chances of getting grid connection to most of the rural population in the near future. This whole situation requires urgent measures on priority basis for the development of indigenous, environment friendly, renewable energy sources such as solar energy. This paper presents the assessment of potential of solar home systems (SHS) for rural electrification in Pakistan. The country lies in an excellent solar belt range and receives 16-21 MJ/m2 per day of solar radiation as an annual mean value, with 19 MJ/m2 per day over most areas of the country. It is estimated that about 7 million households in Pakistan do not have access to electricity (in 2004). Assuming that about 50% of the households in rural areas without electricity today would be electrified up to 2010, and only 25% of the remaining households could afford and would be willing to pay

  7. On 25 January Pervez Musharraf, president of Pakistan, visited CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, General Pervez Musharraf, welcomed by CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar. The president is accompanied by an important delegation of five ministers from the Pakistani Government, the Chairman of Pakistan's Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Parvez Butt, and an eminent former Chairman of the Commission, Ishfaq Ahmad, who pioneered cooperation with CERN.

  8. World Bank Client Satisfaction Study, Pakistan 2013 : Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Gallup Pakistan

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank conducted a Client Satisfaction Study (CSS) for Pakistan in 2013 to identify the client's perception of Bank's role and presence in the country. This paper includes the following sections: overall attitude towards World Bank in Pakistan; views on country partnership strategy; views and opinion about services of World Bank; World Bank access and media habits: advisory for a f...

  9. 75 FR 51615 - Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ..., 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-21020 Filed 8-20-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Executive Order 13550 of August 18, 2010 Establishment of Pakistan and Afghanistan Support... temporary organization to be known as the Pakistan and Afghanistan Support Office (PASO). Sec. 2. Purpose...

  10. Returns to Schooling, Ability and Cognitive Skills in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Monazza; Bari, Faisal; Kingdon, Geeta

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the economic outcomes of education for wage earners in Pakistan. This is done by analysing the relationship between schooling, cognitive skills and ability, on the one hand, and economic activity, occupation, sectoral choice and earnings, on the other. In Pakistan, an important question remains largely unaddressed: what…

  11. Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan. Postcolonial Studies in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, M. Ayaz

    2010-01-01

    "Education and Gendered Citizenship in Pakistan" challenges the uncritical use of the long held dictum of the development discourse that education empowers women. Situated in the post-structuralist feminist position, it argues that in its current state the educational discourse in Pakistan actually disempowers women. Through a systematic…

  12. Renewable hot dry rock geothermal energy source and its potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaigham, Nayyer Alam [Department of Geology, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Nayyar, Zeeshan Alam [Department of Applied Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Geothermal energy source, one of the viable renewable energy sources, has encouraging potential to generate full base-load electricity, which has not been explored so far in Pakistan. Though the country can be benefited by harnessing the hydro-geothermal options of energy generation in areas where sources exist, but most of these sources lie in extreme remote and inaccessible rugged mountainous ranges away from the urban-industrial centers. On the other hand, the present study shows that the HDR geothermal option is one of the most viable renewable sources considering the tectonic setup of Pakistan. Results of the study highlight the HDR geothermal energy prospects at relatively deeper depths than hydro-geothermal resources in water-free condition. The basement tectonic analyses reveal that the HDR prospects could be found even just below the urban-industrial centers of Pakistan where there are no hot springs and/or geysers like southern Indus basin in Sindh province or the Kharan trough in the western Balochistan province. Presence of high earth-skin temperature gradient trends derived from satellite temperature data and the high geothermal gradient anomalous zone derived from scanty data of bottom-hole temperatures of some of the oil and gas exploratory wells, indicates encouraging prospects for HDR energy sources in southern Indus and Thar Desert regions inclusive of Karachi synclinorium area. These high geothermal gradients have been inferred to be the result of the deep-seated southern Indus and the Thar fossil-rift structures. Moreover, the prospects of the HDR geothermal energy sources have also been inferred in the Chagai Arc region and the Kharan-Panjgur tectonic depression in the western part of Pakistan based on the analysis of integrated geophysical data. If HDR prospects are developed, they can offer the sustainable, CO{sub 2}-free and independent of time, of day, of weather or season, and the base-load energy-generation resource. (author)

  13. Gene therapy a promising treatment for breast cancer: current scenario in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women around the world. It accounts for 22.9% of all the cancers and 18% of all female cancers in the world. One million new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed every year. Pakistan has more alarming situation with 90,000 new cases and ending up into 40,000 deaths annually. The risk factor for a female to develop breast cancer as compared with male is 100 : 1. The traditional way of treatment is by surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Advanced breast cancer is very difficult to treat with any of the traditional treatment options. A new treatment option in the form of gene therapy can be a promising treatment for breast cancer. Gene therapy provides treatment option in the form of targeting mutated gene, expression of cancer markers on the surface of cells, blocking the metastasis and induction of apoptosis, etc. Gene therapy showed very promising results for treatment of various cancers. All this is being trialed, experimented and practiced outside of Pakistan. Therefore, there is an immense need that this kind of work should be started in Pakistan. There are many good research institutes as well as well-reputed hospitals in Pakistan. Presently, there is a need to develop collaboration between research institutes and hospitals, so that the basic work and clinical trials can be done to treat breast cancer patients in the country. This collaboration will prove to be very healthy and will not only strength research institute but also will be very beneficial for cancer patients. (author)

  14. Knowledge, attitude and practice of private practitioners regarding tb-dots in a rural district of Sindh, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis is prevailing in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan. Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of private practitioners (PPs) regarding tuberculosis management have been reported only in urban areas of Pakistan. This survey was conducted for the first time in a rural area of Sindh, Pakistan. This survey was conducted in January 2007 at Thatta, a rural district of Sindh, Pakistan. Study subjects were twenty-two allopathic qualified (MBBS) doctors of district Thatta, who were practicing in private setups for at least last one year. Before TB-DOTS training PPs had filled the KAP questionnaire regarding tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and management through DOTS. Survey data was analysed through SPSS version 11.05 software. On average, five TB suspects per month were seen by each PP. Only 14% of PPs advised sputum microscopy solely for pulmonary TB diagnosis, while 86% of PPs used different combination of tests (chest x-ray/sputum microscopy/ESR/tuberculin test) for TB diagnosis. Over 40% PPs did not prescribe TB treatment regimen according to TB-DOTS category. Majority PPs (85%) did not follow the treatment through sputum microscopy and instead relied on clinical improvement and x-ray clearance. Nearly 60% of TB patients at PPs clinic did not show compliance to the TB treatment and none of PPs were following the retrieval of default cases. A gross lack of PPs knowledge and right practice regarding TB diagnosis and management through DOTS was identified and needed to be addressed through providing DOTS training. (author)

  15. The political economy of trade relations between India-Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore C. Dash

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of scholarly studies in and outside South Asia suggest the linkage between trade, economic development and peace between India and Pakistan. Despite many tangible political and economic gains of expanded India-Pakistan trade, the level of trade between India and Pakistan has remained anemic over the past six decades. Why hasn’t trade grown between India and Pakistan? What are the prospects of trade expansion between these two countries? Drawing on the growing political economy literature, we have identified four facilitating conditions to explain the growth of trade flows between a given pair of countries: distance, trade complementarity, rivalry, and government strength. In this article, we examine the dynamics and implications of these four conditions for trade relations between India and Pakistan. Following this analysis, we identify several key issues - trade liberalization, market access, energy cooperation, and regional stability - that can provide impetus needed to drive these two countries toward greater trade expansion.

  16. On the Costs of Not Loving Thy Neighbour as Thyself : The trade, democracy and military expenditure explanations behind India-Pakistan rivalry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); D. Mamoon (Dawood)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe authors examine whether greater inter-state trade, democracy and reduced military spending lower belligerence between India and Pakistan. They begin with theoretical models covering the opportunity costs of conflict in terms of trade losses and security spending, as well as the costs

  17. Mercury exposure in the work place and human health: dental amalgam use in dentistry at dental teaching institutions and private dental clinics in selected cities of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaja, Mahmood A; Nawaz, Sadaf; Ali, Saeed Waqar

    2016-03-01

    During the past two decades, mercury has come under increasing scrutiny with regard to its safety both in the general population and in occupationally exposed groups. It's a growing issue of global concern because of its adverse environmental and health impacts. Very few investigations on mercury amalgam use in the dentistry sector have been carried out in South Asia and there is little data reported on mercury contamination of indoor/outdoor air at dental sites. According to an earlier SDPI study, reported in 2013, alarmingly high mercury levels were observed in air (indoor as well as outdoor) at 11 of the 34 visited dental sites (17 dental teaching institutions, 7 general hospitals & 10 dental clinics) in five main cities of Pakistan. 88% of the sites indicated indoor mercury levels in air above the USA EPA reference level of 300 ng/m3. According to our study, carried out at 38 dental teaching institutions in 12 main cities (in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh provinces) of Pakistan, respondents were of the opinion that the currently offered BDS curriculum does not effectively guide outgoing dental professionals and does not provide them adequate knowledge and training about mercury/mercury amalgam and other mercury related human health and mercury waste issues. 90% of respondents supported the review and revision of the present dental curriculum offered at dental teaching institutions in the country, at the earliest. A study has also been conducted to assess the status of mercury amalgam use in private dental clinics in Gilgit, Hunza, Peshawar, Rawalpindi and Islamabad. More than 90 private dental clinics were visited and dental professionals/private clinics in-charge were interviewed during June-July, 2015. The focus areas of the study were Hg amalgam toxicity, its waste management practices and safety measures practiced among the dental practitioners. In the light of the findings described and discussed in this brief report, to safeguard public health and

  18. Mercury exposure in the work place and human health: dental amalgam use in dentistry at dental teaching institutions and private dental clinics in selected cities of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaja, Mahmood A; Nawaz, Sadaf; Ali, Saeed Waqar

    2016-03-01

    During the past two decades, mercury has come under increasing scrutiny with regard to its safety both in the general population and in occupationally exposed groups. It's a growing issue of global concern because of its adverse environmental and health impacts. Very few investigations on mercury amalgam use in the dentistry sector have been carried out in South Asia and there is little data reported on mercury contamination of indoor/outdoor air at dental sites. According to an earlier SDPI study, reported in 2013, alarmingly high mercury levels were observed in air (indoor as well as outdoor) at 11 of the 34 visited dental sites (17 dental teaching institutions, 7 general hospitals & 10 dental clinics) in five main cities of Pakistan. 88% of the sites indicated indoor mercury levels in air above the USA EPA reference level of 300 ng/m3. According to our study, carried out at 38 dental teaching institutions in 12 main cities (in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab and Sindh provinces) of Pakistan, respondents were of the opinion that the currently offered BDS curriculum does not effectively guide outgoing dental professionals and does not provide them adequate knowledge and training about mercury/mercury amalgam and other mercury related human health and mercury waste issues. 90% of respondents supported the review and revision of the present dental curriculum offered at dental teaching institutions in the country, at the earliest. A study has also been conducted to assess the status of mercury amalgam use in private dental clinics in Gilgit, Hunza, Peshawar, Rawalpindi and Islamabad. More than 90 private dental clinics were visited and dental professionals/private clinics in-charge were interviewed during June-July, 2015. The focus areas of the study were Hg amalgam toxicity, its waste management practices and safety measures practiced among the dental practitioners. In the light of the findings described and discussed in this brief report, to safeguard public health and

  19. Pakistan: Summary Report. Education Financing and People's Aspirations in Pakistan. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, Rebecca, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted across the country in a total of 23 districts, 5 districts each in the four provinces of Pakistan, i.e. Balochistan, Punjab, Sindh, North Western Frontier Province (NWFP), and 2 districts in Azad Jammu & Kashmir (AJK). The main purpose of the paper was to unravel the intricate budgeting process in the education sector,…

  20. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINES Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/login Online SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s. http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/manuscript-preparation/preparing-for-submission.html Preparing for SubmissionGeneral PrinciplesReporting GuidelinesManuscript SectionsTitle PageAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesTablesIllustrations (FiguresUnits of MeasurementAbbreviations and Symbols 1. General PrinciplesThe text of articles reporting original research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. This so-called “IMRAD” structure is not an arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of scientific discovery. Articles often need subheadings within these sections to further organize their content. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats.Electronic formats have created opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information, cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic versions. Supplementary electronic

  1. The Green Revolution and the Gene Revolution in Pakistan: Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Evenson, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    Pakistan achieved high levels of Green Revolution Modern Variety (GRMV) adoption in the Green Revolution. Pakistan out-performed India and Bangladesh in the Green Revolution. Only China, among major countries, out-performed Pakistan in the Green Revolution. Pakistan does not have the food safety and environmental risk studies in place to support a regulatory environment for biotechnology. In effect, Pakistan is following the “precautionary principle” and applying it to science policy. This pa...

  2. Review of the idiocerine leafhoppers of Pakistan (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) with a description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Imran; Webb, M D

    2014-01-01

    The Idiocerinae of Pakistan are reviewed and a new species, Tasnimocerus sindhensis sp. nov. (Pakistan: Tandojam), is described and illustrated from Pakistan. Two new junior synonyms of Idioscopus nitidulus (Walker) are recognized: Idioscopus karachiensis Ahmed, Naheed & Ahmed syn. nov. and I. freytagi Ahmed, Naheed & Ahmed syn. nov. Idioscopus nagpurensis (Pruthi) is newly recorded from Pakistan. A checklist of Idiocerinae from Pakistan is also provided together with a key to genera and species. 

  3. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.  http://www.icmje.org/recommendations/browse/manuscript-preparation/preparing-for-submission.html Preparing for SubmissionPAGE CONTENTSGeneral PrinciplesReporting GuidelinesManuscript SectionsTitle PageAbstractIntroductionMethodsResultsDiscussionReferencesTablesIllustrations (FiguresUnits of MeasurementAbbreviations and Symbols1. General PrinciplesThe text of articles reporting original research is usually divided into Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion sections. This so-called “IMRAD” structure is not an arbitrary publication format but a reflection of the process of scientific discovery. Articles often need subheadings within these sections to further organize their content. Other types of articles, such as meta-analyses, may require different formats, while case reports, narrative reviews, and editorials may have less structured or unstructured formats.Electronic formats have created opportunities for adding details or sections, layering information, cross-linking, or extracting portions of articles in electronic versions. Supplementary electronic-only material should be submitted and sent for peer review simultaneously with the primary manuscript.2. Reporting GuidelinesReporting guidelines have been developed for different study designs; examples include CONSORT for randomized trials, STROBE for observational studies, PRISMA for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and STARD for studies of diagnostic accuracy. Journals are encouraged to ask authors to follow these guidelines because

  4. AUTHOR GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AUTHOR GUIDELINESIndian Journal of Community Health (IJCH accepts only online submission of manuscript(s by using Open Journal software (OJS at http://www.iapsmupuk.org/journal/index.php/IJCH/loginOnline SubmissionsAlready have a Username/Password for Indian Journal of Community Health (IJCH? GO TO LOGINNeed a Username/Password?GO TO REGISTRATIONNote: Registration and login are required to submit items online and to track the status of current submissions.Author GuidelinesIJCH strictly adheres on the recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as per the standard universal guidelines given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE - Recommendations for Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts. Authors are requested to visit http://www.icmje.org/index.html before making online submission of their manuscript(s.SectionsEditorial:On issues of current public health needAbout 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredInvited Commentary:Brief, provocative, opinionated communicationsOn issues of current public health needMain Text: 750-1000 words excluding referencesReferences: 5 – 10 (PubMed - Citation preferredOriginal Article:Articles from Original ResearchStructured abstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 words, IMRD formatKey Words: 5 - 8References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReview Article:On subject of public health relevanceAbstract: 250 wordsMain Text: 2500 - 3000 wordsKey Words: 3 - 4References: 20 – 25 (PubMed - Citation preferredTables / Figures: 3 – 4Short Communication / Article:Short report of a research project / outbreakMain Text : 1000 – 1200 wordsReferences: 10 – 15 (PubMed - Citation preferredTable / Figure: 01*Certificate of clearance from respective Institutional Ethical Committee (IECReport from the field

  5. Institutional Assessment of Sindh Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority

    OpenAIRE

    Janjua, Yasin; Blom, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Providing quality training that leads young people to jobs is critical for the economic and social development of the Province of Sindh, Pakistan. This working paper assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the Sindh Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority (STEVTA) as a provincial apex body in Technical Education and Vocational Training (TVET). The recent establishment of STEVTA was a major step to reduce fragmentation of training policies and programs. The paper assesses the Au...

  6. Mosses as indicators of atmospheric pollution of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn and Zn) in the vicinity of coal-fired brick kilns in north-eastern suburbs of Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of toxic elements Cd, Pb and other heavy metals has been carried out Rawalpindi - Islamabad region using the moss monitoring technique. The carpet moss samples (Hypnum Cupressiforme) were collected over an area of 196 km2 around lignite/coal-fired brick kilns for regular periods of time during 1997-1999. The elements were extracted into solution with multiacid digestion and then analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The metal contents in moss samples from sites adjacent to coal-fired brick kilns was higher as compared to samples collected from the sites away from that sources. The results obtained by the 'BIOMONITORING' technique, for the first time in this area, are presented. (author)

  7. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the Content 1.1.1   Subheading of the Content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  8. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the content 1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  9. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the content 1.1.1 Subheading of the content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Back Matter| 79 80 | STUDIES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND EDUCATION, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2014 Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v

  10. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education. To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system: First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page. Second p age and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion. Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Subheading of the Content 1.1.1 Subheading of the Content For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table. For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure. The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples:   Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www.teachingenglish.org

  11. Author Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Guidelines for Article Submission SiELE journal accepts articles on research and development in the field of teaching and learning of English, linguistics, educational development, policy and cultural studies in education.To be considered for publication, the article should be presented in the following system:First page: include a title page with the full title of the paper (must not exceed 16 words, the author(s’ name(s, affiliation(s, phone number(s and e-mail address of the corresponding author. A brief bio-data of the author(s (maximum of 100 words is provided in this page.Second page and subsequent page: Submissions should be between 4000-6000 (including abstract, table(s, figure(s and references in A4 size paper with margins as the following: top 3 cm, bottom 3 cm, right 2.5 cm and left 4 cm. The font is Times New Roman, size 12 and single spaced. The article should generally consist of the following sections: introduction, review of literature, method, findings, discussion and conclusion.Headings and subheadings should be presented as follows (provide a space between the headings and sub-headings. 1         INTRODUCTION1.1      Subheading of the content 1.1.1   Subheading of the content  For Tables, the title size is 12 and the content size is 10. Please number the tables subsequently throughout your article and the title is written above the table.For Figures, the title size is 12 and the content size (if any is 10. Please number the figures subsequently throughout your article and the title is written below the figure.The reference list should be arranged alphabetically following the guidelines of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.. See the following examples: Book: Ellis, R. (2003. Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Internet source: Andrewes, S. (2003. Group work v. whole-class activities. Retrieved October 1, 2012 from http://www

  12. Some Dimensions of Child Labour in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Younus Jafri; Raishad

    1997-01-01

    Child Labour between 5–14 years is prevalent in Pakistan. But no reliable and comprehensive data on this age group are available to tackle this issue. Though the Labour Force Survey, the main source of labour statistics, includes information on workforce above the age of 10 years, no study on the nature and extent of child labour between 10–14 years of age is available. Accordingly, this study, based on micro data of three labour force surveys from 1990-91 to 1992-93, has been carried out to ...

  13. Entrepreneurial Intentions among Business Students in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Azhar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present exploratory study is based on the ‘Entrepreneurial Intention Model’ and has its foundation in ‘Planned Behavioural Theory’. The main focus of the study is on measuring factors affecting Entrepreneurial Intentions among business students in Pakistan. Apart from demographics, the study is particularly focused on personal attraction, perceived social norms and perceived social behaviour. The paper is based on systematic sampling methodology and targets business graduates and nascent entrepreneurs. The study will provide useful implications for educational institutions within the field of business and management, and off course for government policy makers.

  14. International Competitiveness—Where Pakistan Stands?

    OpenAIRE

    Uzma Zia

    2007-01-01

    The concept of competitiveness has been widely accepted and has become a part of discussion in world-wide forums. Today global economy cannot be explained in the same manner as it was a few decades ago. Improved competitiveness of economies is a need of the day and ability to compete in the world market is of major concern. This paper attempts to assess the position of Pakistan in the International Competitiveness. As a survey paper, the concept, definition and the measurement of competitiven...

  15. PRIVATE INVESTMENT AND FISCAL POLICY IN PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    AFIA MALIK

    2013-01-01

    This paper has examined linear as well as non-linear impact of fiscal policy variables on private investment in Pakistan. The results imply that it¡¯s better to examine different aspects of fiscal policy instead of fiscal policy variables in aggregate form as the impact of fiscal policy variables in aggregate and disaggregate form do not comply with each other. Different categories of expenditures and revenues have different impact on private investment. Secondly, in most of the cases there e...

  16. Determinants of Corporate Philanthropy in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdul Majid Makki

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of corporate philanthropy and its related philosophy of corporate social responsibility have captured the attention of researchers and humanitarian groups in WTO era. Corporate donations have been considered as a critical tool to improve corporate image in a highly competitive environment. This paper explores the determinants of corporate donations based on LSE-25 index companies over the five year period 2002-06. Multiple regression techniques have been used for gauging the determinants of corporate philanthropy after collecting data from audited financial reports of companies. The study is a pioneering attempt in measuring the determinants of philanthropy in corporate sector of Pakistan.

  17. Cypsela morphology of lactuca L. and its allied genera (cichoreae-asteraceae) from pakistan and kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systematic significance of the cypsela morphology of more 30 taxa (25 species, 1 subspecies and 4 varieties) belonging to 3 genera viz. Lactuca L. Cicerbita Wallr. and Prenanthes L. from Pakistan and Kashmir has been studied by using Light Microscope (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and discussed. The morphological characters of cypsela such as size, number of ribs, number of cypsela per capitula, presence or absence of beak, number of series of pappus, color and size of pappus and carpopodium were quite useful for the delimitation of different taxa both at the generic and species level. (author)

  18. Monitoring of multiple pesticide residues in some fruits in Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and twenty samples of different fruits including apple, apricot, persimmon, chiku, citrus, grapes, guava, mango, papaya, peach, plum and pomegranate procured from different selling points of Karachi, Pakistan during 2008-2009, were analyzed for monitoring of multiple pesticide residues using GC/FID and HPLC/UV. The results showed exceeding level of contamination. On an average 62.5% samples contained residues of pesticides while 22% samples exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) as given by FAO/WHO (Anon., 2000). (author)

  19. Chemical extraction of copper from copper sulphide ores of Pakistan by roast leach method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copper ores, containing both complex sulphide minerals and those containing chalcopyrite mineral, were studied for the extraction of copper by leaching after roasting. Roasting at 650 deg. C for 30 min rendered the ore leachable in dilute sulphuric acid of 2.5% concentration. The process of metal extraction would be of hydro metallurgical importance for low to high grade sulphide and polymetallic complex sulphide ores occurring in Pakistan. The kinetic models of roasting reaction fit phase boundary as well as diffusion reaction mechanism. (author)

  20. Morpho-anatomy of stypopodium zonale (phaeophycota) from the coast of karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brown alga Stypopodium zonale (Lamouroux) Papenfuss (Dictyotales) was collected from Manora and Buleji, the coastal areas near Karachi (Pakistan) during March 2006-April 2009 and investigated for its morphology, anatomy and reproductive structures. This is the first detailed study on the Pakistani specimens of this species from these points of view, where presence or absence of intercellular spaces, cell-wall thickness of different cells and structure of surface cells were examined. In this connection the apical, middle and basal parts of the thallus were investigated anatomically. (author)

  1. Emplacement time of Salai Patai carbonatite, Malakand, Pakistan, from fission track dating of zircon and apatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qureshi, A.A.; Khan, H.A. (N.E.D., Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan). SSNTD-Lab.); Butt, K.A. (Atomic Energy Minerals Centre, Lahore (Pakistan))

    1991-01-01

    Based on fission track dating of zircon and apatite, the emplacement history of Salai Patai carbonatite has been traced. It has been estimated that the carbonatite was emplaced along the thrust plane associated with the Indian-Eurasian plate collision during the Oligocene period followed by some thermal/tectonic episode during Early Miocene. This negates the previous proposal that all carbonatites found in Pakistan are a part of a 200 km long alkaline province associated with the rifting of Peshawar Valley during Late Cretaceous or early tertiary. (author).

  2. DNA barcoding as a means for identifying medicinal plants of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA barcoding involves the generation of DNA sequencing data from particular genetic regions in an organism and the use of these sequence data to identify or 'barcode' that organism and distinguish it from other species. Here, DNA barcoding is being used to identify several medicinal plants found in Pakistan and distinguished them from other similar species. Several challenges to the successful implementation of plant DNA barcoding are presented and discussed. Despite these challenges, DNA barcoding has the potential to uniquely identify medicinal plants and provide quality control and standardization of the plant material supplied to the pharmaceutical industry. (author)

  3. An Empirical Analysis of Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Minhas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the trends in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI inflows in Pakistan and to identify the key determinants of FDI for the period of 2000-2013. The country experienced a continuous surge in FDI inflows from 2000-2008. On the contrary, the phase of 2009-2013 has been characterized by a persistent decline in FDI in Pakistan. This slump is mainly attributed to political and economic instability as wells as poor law and order situation in the country. Keeping these periods with differing results in perspective, multiple regression analysis is employed to empirically analyze the key determinants that are expected to explain variation in FDI in Pakistan. The selected variables were found significant determinants of FDI in Pakistan. Gross Domestic Product (GDP, degree of trade openness and regime of dictatorship have a significant positive effect on FDI. While, terrorism attacks foreign debt, exchange rate, political instability, and domestic capital formation are negatively significant determinants of FDI inflows in Pakistan. Considering the dynamic changes in the broad macro factors in economy, this study provides a fresh perspective on the factors that determine FDI in Pakistan. Moreover, the study findings provide important insights to policy makers to design policy measures that enhance FDI inflows in Pakistan.

  4. Biological Monitoring of Blood Naphthalene Levels as a Marker of Occupational Exposure to PAHs among Auto-Mechanics and Spray Painters in Rawalpindi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheema Iqbal U

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine exposure to chemical contaminants in workplace is a cause for concern over potential health risks to workers. In Pakistan, reports on occupational exposure and related health risks are almost non-existent, which reflects the scarce availability of survey data and criteria for determining whether an unsafe exposure has occurred. The current study was designed to evaluate blood naphthalene (NAPH levels as an indicator of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs among automobile workshop mechanics (MCs and car-spray painters (PNs. We further determined the relationship between blood NAPH levels and personal behavioural, job related parameters and various environmental factors that may further be associated with elevated risks of occupational exposures to PAHs. Methods Sixty blood samples (n = 20 for each group i.e. MC, PN and control group were collected to compare their blood NAPH levels among exposed (MCs and PNs and un-exposed (control groups. Samples were analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Data regarding demographic aspects of the subjects and their socioeconomic features were collected using a questionnaire. Subjects were also asked to report environmental hygiene conditions of their occupational environment. Results We identified automobile work areas as potential sites for PAHs exposure, which was reflected by higher blood NAPH levels among MCs. Blood NAPH levels ranged from 53.7 to 1980.6 μgL-1 and 54.1 to 892.9 μgL-1 among MCs and PNs respectively. Comparison within each group showed that smoking enhanced exposure risks several fold and both active and passive smoking were among personal parameters that were significantly correlated with log-transformed blood NAPH levels. For exposed groups, work hours and work experience were job related parameters that showed strong associations with the increase in blood NAPH levels. Poor workplace hygiene and ventilation were recognized as

  5. Financial innovation and monetary policy transmission mechanism in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safdar, S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past there are remarkable financial innovations in Pakistan which have the implications for the monetary policy. In Pakistan there is no or little empirical evidence on the impact of financial innovation on monetary policy transmission mechanism. In this paper we fill this gap by analyzing the impact of financial innovation on monetary policy transmission mechanism by using the interest rate channel. We use the quarterly date covering the period, 1981Q1 to 2010Q4 for Pakistan and for estimation we use OLS. We found that the interest rate channel of monetary policy transmission mechanism dampens by the interest rate channel.

  6. Uses and abuses of biostatistics in medical research in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Z

    1990-11-01

    Medical research in Pakistan has gained momentum over the past several years. However, the logical conclusions based on information and data are rarely witnessed. This could be due to the fact that medical researchers and doctors are unaware of Biostatistics, its logic, use and inferences to be obtained. Most researches are based on the pattern of works already done elsewhere. Following others blindly generates various snags. In the present study, research articles published during 1986 in the Journal of Pakistan Medical Association (JPMA) and Pakistan Journal of Medical Research (PJMR) are being reviewed with respect to use and abuse of Statistical Methods. PMID:2126809

  7. Hazard of NORM from phosphorite of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the radiological hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in phosphorite deposits of Pakistan, 26 samples of phosphorite were collected from the phosphorite mines near Abbottabad, and 20 samples of single superphosphate (SSP) fertilizer were obtained from the warehouses in Pakistan. Activity concentration in all the samples was assayed using HPGe detection system. Specific activity values of 238U, 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in the samples of phosphorite were 550 ± 156 (329-845), 206 ± 72 (93-362), 511 ± 189 (316-830) and 52 ± 17 (23-81) Bq kg-1, respectively; and those in SSP fertilizer due to these radionuclides were 637 ± 44 (596-687), 164 ± 24 (113-215), 589 ± 44 (521-671) and 29 ± 6 (16-45) Bq kg-1, respectively. The results were compared with that of worldwide soil. Outdoor external dose rate due to gamma rays from phosphorite was calculated to be 276 ± 94 (177-441) nGy h-1 and external dose rate in a room made of phosphorite containing material was estimated to be 706 ± 243 (455-1129) nGy h-1. The concentration of radon was measured in phosphorite mines and in the warehouses for SSP fertilizer by an active method. Protective measures have been proposed to control the pollution in the phosphorite mining and processing, and fertilizer storage areas.

  8. Economics of Tea Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Rehman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tea is one of the most important non-alcoholic beverage drinks worldwide and has been gaining further popularity as an important „health drink‟ in view of its purported medicinal value. Pakistan has the potential of producing quality tea. National Tea Research Institute NTRI plays a very important role in the production and promotion of tea cultivation in Pakistan. The study was conducted to identify the opportunities and constraints in Shinkiari Mansehra. Primary data was collected from NTRI and different farmers of Shinkiari and evaluate the farmer‟s perceptions production processing and marketing of tea. Results revealed that NTRI processing unit was working at below its full capacity and 226.59 Rs/Kg extra costs bearing due to below capacity. Tea is a high value crop of gross margin of 21340 Rs/ Acre and annually earned gross margin from other Crops wheat and maize was 6675Rs/Acre and Tea Cultivation Advantage was 14665 Rs/Acre but farmers was not interested to cultivate due to its high initial investment. Internal Rate of Return (IRR and Net Present Value (NPV were calculated for investment appraisal of the tea. Hence, there is need to promote tea cultivation on grass land area which will increase their income and livelihood and create more employment opportunities for local people.

  9. Hazard of NORM from phosphorite of Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabiha-Javied [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Tufail, M., E-mail: mtufail@pieas.edu.pk [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Asghar, M. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    In order to investigate the radiological hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in phosphorite deposits of Pakistan, 26 samples of phosphorite were collected from the phosphorite mines near Abbottabad, and 20 samples of single superphosphate (SSP) fertilizer were obtained from the warehouses in Pakistan. Activity concentration in all the samples was assayed using HPGe detection system. Specific activity values of {sup 238}U, {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in the samples of phosphorite were 550 {+-} 156 (329-845), 206 {+-} 72 (93-362), 511 {+-} 189 (316-830) and 52 {+-} 17 (23-81) Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively; and those in SSP fertilizer due to these radionuclides were 637 {+-} 44 (596-687), 164 {+-} 24 (113-215), 589 {+-} 44 (521-671) and 29 {+-} 6 (16-45) Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The results were compared with that of worldwide soil. Outdoor external dose rate due to gamma rays from phosphorite was calculated to be 276 {+-} 94 (177-441) nGy h{sup -1} and external dose rate in a room made of phosphorite containing material was estimated to be 706 {+-} 243 (455-1129) nGy h{sup -1}. The concentration of radon was measured in phosphorite mines and in the warehouses for SSP fertilizer by an active method. Protective measures have been proposed to control the pollution in the phosphorite mining and processing, and fertilizer storage areas.

  10. Hazard of NORM from phosphorite of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiha-Javied; Tufail, M; Asghar, M

    2010-04-15

    In order to investigate the radiological hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in phosphorite deposits of Pakistan, 26 samples of phosphorite were collected from the phosphorite mines near Abbottabad, and 20 samples of single superphosphate (SSP) fertilizer were obtained from the warehouses in Pakistan. Activity concentration in all the samples was assayed using HPGe detection system. Specific activity values of (238)U, (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in the samples of phosphorite were 550+/-156 (329-845), 206+/-72 (93-362), 511+/-189 (316-830) and 52+/-17 (23-81) Bq kg(-1), respectively; and those in SSP fertilizer due to these radionuclides were 637+/-44 (596-687), 164+/-24 (113-215), 589+/-44 (521-671) and 29+/-6 (16-45) Bq kg(-1), respectively. The results were compared with that of worldwide soil. Outdoor external dose rate due to gamma rays from phosphorite was calculated to be 276+/-94 (177-441) nGy h(-1) and external dose rate in a room made of phosphorite containing material was estimated to be 706+/-243 (455-1129) nGy h(-1). The concentration of radon was measured in phosphorite mines and in the warehouses for SSP fertilizer by an active method. Protective measures have been proposed to control the pollution in the phosphorite mining and processing, and fertilizer storage areas. PMID:19963319

  11. The Debt Overhang Hypothesis: Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Muhammad Imran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the debt overhang hypothesis for Pakistan in the period 1960-2007. The study examines empirically the dynamic behaviour of GDP, debt services, the employed labour force and investment using the time series concepts of unit roots, cointegration, error correlation and causality. Our findings suggest that debt-servicing has a negative impact on the productivity of both labour and capital, and that in turn has adversely affected economic growth. By severely constraining the ability of the country to service debt, this lends support to the debt-overhang hypothesis in Pakistan. The long run relation between debt services and economic growth implies that future increases in output will drain away in form of high debt service payments to lender country as external debt acts like a tax on output. More specifically, foreign creditors will benefit more from the rise in productivity than will domestic producers and labour. This suggests that domestic labour and capital are the ultimate losers from this heavy debt burden.

  12. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, A. [Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  13. Managing nuclear knowledge in developing countries. A view from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For the developing countries, managing nuclear knowledge requires both acquiring know-how from the developed countries as well as building and conserving their own knowledge resource. The rapid growth of information technology culture has made vast amounts of information and database universally accessible although some bars do indeed apply. The challenge, therefore, lies in having a continuous supply of different tiers of trained and competent professionals who can benefit from what is available and can carry on developing the indigenous capability. This presentation focuses on the issues and problems faced in meeting the above challenge. Steps taken in a developing country like Pakistan to manage nuclear knowledge will be discussed. These measures include developing an interface between the universities and the industry as well as concentrating on meeting the specific infrastructure requirements. The task is, however, becoming increasingly difficult for the developing countries because of the fall out of the lack of proper growth in the nuclear industry at the global level, and the large and long-term financial commitments associated with nuclear energy which leave the entire burden of the nuclear power program development on the public sector. (author)

  14. Homocysteine as risk factor for coronary artery disease in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistani people belong to an ethnic group which has the highest rate of coronary artery disease. There are a number of risk factors for developing the coronary artery disease (CAD). Homocysteine, a sulphur containing amino acid, has been reported to be an independent risk factor for CAD. The present study was done to find out the role of hyperhomocysteinemia in the development of coronary artery disease in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out. There were 40 angiographically diagnosed male patients of coronary artery disease between 30 - 40 years of age taken as cases and 40 age, sex and socioeconomically matched healthy subjects with normal carotid doppler study taken as controls. Fasting venous blood from cases and controls was taken in E.D.T.A vacationers. Plasma was analyzed for homo-cysteine level by enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Mean plasma concentration of homocysteine in coronary artery disease patients i.e. cases was 13.5 +- 6.8 mu mol/L and was higher than the mean for controls (10.76 +- 2.27 mu mol/L) to a significant extent. Conclusion: Hyperhomocysteinemia through inter-play with the classical cardiovascular risk factors may be aggravating the risk of coronary artery disease in Pakistani people. (author)

  15. Nocturnal asthma in school children of south punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time, the epidemiology of the childhood asthma is of considerable interest. There is an understandable concern that changes in the geographical area, lifestyle, and environment. This study was conducted to find the prevalence of nocturnal asthma, in school children of south Punjab, Pakistan. It was a cross sectional, questionnaire based, descriptive survey of the children aged 3-18 years, in randomly selected primary and secondary schools, from October 2002 to March 2003. The data was analysed with Statistical Analysis System (SAS). Of 6120 questionnaire sent to the parents/guardians, we received 3180 back (52%). Of the 3180 respondents, 1767 (56%) were for boys and 1413 (44%) were for girls. The median age was 8.25 years. Around 71% of children were between 4 to 11 years of age. The parents reported nocturnal asthma in 177 (6%) of their children with an equal prevalence in boys and girls, i.e., (3% each, rounded off to nearest whole number). Of these 177 children with nocturnal asthma, 99 (56%) were boys and 78 (44%) were girls. Of the 1767 boys and 1413 girls, the nocturnal asthma reported by parents was 6% each (99 and 78 respectively). The nocturnal asthma was not reported in 14-18 years age group of females. The asthma is taken as a stigma in our society and as such is not reported or disclosed rather denied. An extensive educational media campaign is required for awareness of the masses. (author)

  16. The role of NDT in nuclear power development in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan has two operating nuclear power plants namely, Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) which is 137 MW Candu type Canadian reactor using natural uranium fuel and the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant (CHASNUPP) which is a 300 MW PWR type Chinese built reactor using 3% enriched uranium fuel. A third nuclear power plant is being negotiated for construction. This would most probably be the twin unit of CHASNUPP and the construction might begin early next year.Non destructive testing (NDT) has an important role in the development and safe operation of the nuclear power plants by providing the Pre-Service Inspection (PSI) services during the manufacturing and installation phase, and the In-Service Inspection (ISI) services during the operation and maintenance phase. ISI of various components of nuclear power plants is an essential activity which has to be carried out either on emergency basis on as and when required basis or periodically at regular intervals described in the quality assurance QA manuals of the plant. There are numerous components and systems in the nuclear power plants working together. The failure of one system affects the performance of the whole plant. There are two main divisions, called the Nuclear Island and Conventional Island. Main components of Nuclear Island are reactor pressure vessel, reactor core, steam generators, pressurizer, primary coolant pumps and primary piping, etc. and the main components in Conventional Island are turbine, condensers, pre-heaters, moisture separators, secondary heat treatment system and piping etc. (Author)

  17. Bacterial bioremediation of aquatic cadmium 11 of area of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium Cd/sup +2/ pollution arises mainly from contamination of minerals used in agriculture and from industrial process. The usual situation is of large volume of soil and H/sub 2/O that are contaminated with low but significant concentration of Cd/sup +2/. Cadmium is one of the most dangerous heavy metal both to human health and aquatic ecosystem. Microorganisms have developed different strategies to regulate uptake and to detoxify heavy metals viz; by different mechanisms i.e. by adsorption to cell surface, by intercellular accumulation, precipitation, biosynthesis of metallothioneins to volatile compounds. Microcosm experiments in chemostat incubated at 20 deg. C showed that Cadmium Contamination does not greatly affect bacterial communities in cultures contaminated with up to 1mg CdI/sup -1/. acterial productivity remains unchanged and Cadmium- resistant strains arise quickly and in great number. The cadmium accumulation by bacteria depend on the bacterial productivity. The free bacteria can accumulate up to 1200 ppm Cadmium Where as the adhering bacteria concentrate up to 6100 ppm. At a steady state, 11-29% Cadmium is removed from the water phase of cultures. This paper includes Cd (II) removal by Bacteria from waste water of Wah Cantonment Pakistan. (author)

  18. Epidote from the Zard Mountains, Kharan, Balochistan, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Lowers, Heather; Betterton, William K.

    2013-01-01

    The authors received two unusual crystals of epidote from Rock Currier, Jewel Tunnel Imports, in 2012. The mineral specimens were collected at Zard Mountain (Zard Koh), in the central part of the Ruskoh Mountains (Rusk Koh), west of Kharan, Balochistan, Pakistan (written communication, Rock Currier, 2013). The epidote locality was most likely discovered in 2010. These epidote crystals were unusual in both form and composition. The large crystals were flat tabular and pseudohexagonal in shape which is an uncommon crystal form for a monoclinic mineral (fig. 1). Other specimens from the same locality have been described as pseudo-octahedral in shape. The two crystals range in size from 5.5 to 6.5 centimeters (2.2 to 2.6 inches) and are slightly magnetic. The epidote crystals have a core matrix that resembles a weathered igneous rock. Some micro brown- to reddish-titanite crystals were observed under a binocular microscope on the surface and core areas of the crystals (figs. 2 and 3). Other minerals observed in the core areas include feldspar, biotite, and quartz. The crystals display evidence of cluster-growth with points of attachment to other crystals. The epidotes were most likely collected in pockets of a weathered igneous-skarn deposit.

  19. Determination of 90Sr in environment of district Swat, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of 90Sr is of great interest owing to the fact that this artificially produced radionuclide has high radiological importance because of its high fission yield, chemical similarity to calcium and its relatively long biological and physical half-life. To assess the likely hazard to population, low level 90Sr in environmental samples is determined using pre-equilibrated tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) solvent and extraction-liquid scintillation procedure. 90Y is selectively extracted from nitric acid solution into TBP solvent and stripped into aqueous phase as oxalate. The activity is finally measured by low level liquid scintillation counter using Cerenkov radiation. The specific activity is found only in three vegetation samples with average value of 2.86±1.7 Bq x kg-1 of dry weight. In all other samples analyzed, the activity is below the detectable limit, i.e., 0.03 Bq. Results obtained are comparable with other areas of Pakistan. The chemical recovery of 90Y varies from 75 to 90% for soil, vegetation and water. The present study provides a general background of the detectable radionuclide for the surveyed area that will be helpful in any radiological emergency. (author)

  20. Pakistan's water resources development and the global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan's economy is dependent on irrigated agriculture. About 80% of agriculture is irrigated. It contributes 30% of GDP. Agriculture provides 55% job opportunities. This sector provides 60% of country's exports. The development of agriculture will prosper and up-lift 70% of the total population that is annually growing by 3%. The total area of Pakistan is 197.7 MA (79.6 Mha). Out of which about 103.2 MA (41.77 Mha) comprises of rugged mountains, narrow valleys and foot hills, the remaining area of 93.5 MA (37.83 Mha) consists about 54.6 MA (22.1 Mha) is currently cultivated. Remaining 22.5 MA (9.1 Mha) is lying barren lacking water for irrigation. The total surface water availability is 154.5 MAF. Population density is the highest in the canal irrigated areas in the north east of Indus Plains. The increasing population and the associated social, technical and economic activities all depend, directly or indirectly, on the exploitation of water-as a resource. The total surface water availability is 154.5 MAF. Presently water diverted at canal heads is 106 MAF. In Vision 2025 Programme WAPDA has identified to build water sector and hydropower projects such as: i) Water Sector Projects (Gomal Zam, Mirani, Raised Mangla, Satpara. Kurram Tangi Dams and Greater Thai, Kachhi and Rainee Canals) and ii) Hydropower Projects (Jinnah Barrage, Allai Khwar, Khan Khwar, Duber Khwar, Golen Gole, Neelum Jhelum and Low Head Hydropower Project). Besides the above some more projects are under various stages of planning i.e.; (i) Basha Diamer Dam Project - Feasibility Detailed Design and Tenders, (ii) Akhori Dam Project - Feasibility, (iii) Sehwan Barrage - Feasibility. (iv) Chashma Right Bank Canal Lift Scheme Feasibility and Design, (v) Bunji Hydropower Project Pre-feasibility, (vi) Dasu Hydropower Project - Pre-feasibility and Skardu Dam - Prefeasibility. While, keeping in view the planning and development activities regarding water sector and hydropower projects, the country will

  1. General elections in Pakistan: Elections yes, democracy not yet!

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Siegfried O.

    2013-01-01

    The general elections on May 11 constituted the first "regular" transfer of power between two civilian governments in Pakistan. Undoubtedly, this is a milestone in the country's chequered political history.

  2. Pakistan-China Business Seminar Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On April 18, Pakistan-China Business Seminar was held in Beijing. Over 60 Chinese entrepreneurs attended the seminar, as well as Pakistani trade delegation members, who had earlier accompanied Pakistani Premier Shaukat Aziz in their visit to China.

  3. Impact of Fiscal Autonomy on Poverty in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zahir Faridi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is an underdeveloped state with strong central government. At present there are three levels of government functioning in Pakistan i.e. the federal, provincial and the local. Due to the competence and distributional aspects, the resource allocation method always remained under discussion. Therefore, the present study focused on the role of fiscal autonomy in reducing poverty in Pakistan. Both expenditure and revenue indicators of fiscal policy are considered in this study. For the purpose of analysis, time series annual data from FY1972 to FY2010 is used. Ordinary least square technique is applied to estimate the effect of fiscal autonomy on poverty. The study concludes that the central government should transfer fiscal powers to lower tiers of government in order to reduce poverty in Pakistan.

  4. Multidimensional Measurement of Poverty in Pakistan: Provincial Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, Sarwar; Muhammad, Waqas; Amir, Aslam

    2012-01-01

    This paper has estimated multidimensional poverty for four provinces of Pakistan using Pakistan social and living standard measurement survey dataset for years 2005-06 by applying Alkire and Foster methodology. Nine dimensions were selected for this study: Housing, Electricity, Water, Asset, Sanitation, Education, Expenditure, Empowerment and Land. Results found that overall Balochistan shows the worst picture, followed by NWFP, Sindh and Punjab. In urban areas of different provinces Balochis...

  5. Brand Extenstion in Pakistan : Insights from Brand Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Durrani, Mohibullah; Hussain, Syed Abid

    2010-01-01

    Abstract There have been few studies on brand extensions in a Pakistan context. In this thesis, we study brand extensions in Pakistan from viewpoint of Brand Managers as their analysis coupled with their personal preferences can provide interesting insights for forming a successful brand extension strategy. Since T. Gamble first published an article about brand extensions (1967) there has been a growing interest for the topic. With the passage of time the inbuilt benefits of brand extensions ...

  6. Physicochemical characteristics of various milk samples available in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Imran, Mohammad; Khan, Hamayun; Hassan, Syed Shah; Khan, Rasool

    2008-01-01

    We report physicochemical characteristics of various kinds of liquid milk commercially available in Pakistan in comparison with those of fresh natural milk from animals. Milk samples were collected from local markets at Peshawar, Pakistan, and analyzed for their physical features, including moisture, total solids, specific gravity, conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity (lactic acid equivalent), and chemical components and macro-minerals, including total protein, casein, lactose, ash ...

  7. Transition of Poverty in Pakistan: Evidence from the Longitudinal Data

    OpenAIRE

    Rashida Haq

    2004-01-01

    This paper quantitatively investigates transition of poverty in Pakistan using two-period panel data set of Pakistan Socio-economic Survey. Empirical results show that the incidence, intensity, and severity of poverty have increased over time. This analysis also identifies ‘the absolute poor’, ‘the transitory poor’, and ‘the non-poor’, and suggests that ‘the absolute poor’ households have increased significantly over time. The poverty transition portrays that about onequarter of the household...

  8. Bankers’ Perceptions of El ectronic Banking in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kaleem

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic distribution channels provide alternatives for faster delivery of banking services to a wider range of customers. E-channels have gained increasing popularity and have attracted the attention of both academics and practitioners. This paper aims to collect bank employees’ perceptions of the potential benefits and risks associated with electronic banking in Pakistan. The outcomes may help the management of banks develop effective strategic planning for the future of electronic banking in developing countries like Pakistan

  9. KERJASAMA INDIA DAN PAKISTAN DALAM PENGELOLAAN SUNGAI INDUS

    OpenAIRE

    ANUGRAH, RARA

    2015-01-01

    Rara Anugrah E131 11 261, Kerjasama India dan Pakistan Dalam Pengelolaan Sungai Indus, dibawah bimbingan Bapak Muh.Nasir Badu, Ph.D sebagai pembimbing I dan Ibu Nur Isdah, S.IP, MA sebagai pembimbing II, Jurusan Ilmu Hubungan Internasional, Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik, Universitas Hasanuddin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kerjasama India dan Pakistan dalam mengelola Sungai Indus berdasarkan pada per...

  10. CSR Implementation and Concept at Unilever Pakistan : The Stakeholder Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hameed, Yasir

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies the stakeholder dialogue of a multinational company known as Unilever Pakistan working in a developing economy like Pakistan. The study required deep understanding of the area that dictated research methodology be qualitative and exploratory. Thus, case study approach was adopted that satisfied the factors of reliability and trustworthiness. The theoretical model is based on the development of literature on sustainability marked by stating CSR and stakeholder thinking.The ...

  11. Determinants of CEO compensation in Pakistan from 2007 to 2009

    OpenAIRE

    ANJAM, ZESHAN

    2010-01-01

    Most studies of the determinants of executive compensation are based on the experience of developed countries. This paper examines the relationship between firm size, firm performance and board composition on CEO compensation, in the context of an emerging and developing economy of Pakistan. Data for 83 listed firms from Lahore stock exchange, Pakistan has been used for 2007 to 2009. The findings show that firm size is one of the major determining factors of CEO compensation ra...

  12. Small and Medium Enterprises and Human Resource Practices in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Naveed R. KHAN; Marinah Awang; Che Mohd Zulkifli

    2013-01-01

    This paper presented the overview of the human resource practices in small and medium enterprises. The nature and importance of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) sector in Pakistan’s economy is unparallel. Hence this paper discussed the general views of the SMEs operating in Pakistan, the current employment sector and the HR practices in SMEs. The arguments developed in the paper supports the contention that SMEs in Pakistan have great potential for greater economic and social develop...

  13. Education, skills, and labour market outcomes: evidence from Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Kingdon, Geeta; Söderbom,Måns

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the education-earnings relationship in Pakistan, drawing on the Pakistan Integrated Household Surveys 1998/99 and 2001/02. The analysis has three main goals: to examine the labor market returns to education amongst wage-employed, self-employed and agricultural workers; to examine the labor market returns to literacy and numeracy skills for these categories of workers; and to analyze the pattern of returns to education along the earnings distribution. We also investigat...

  14. Conceptualising Terrorism Trend Patterns in Pakistan an Empirical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad  Feyyaz

    2013-01-01

    Terrorism continues to be viewed conventionally in Pakistan. However, the phenomenon has assumed a structured formation driven by rational choice perspectives. This article attempts to identify distinct trends and patterns of terrorism within prevailing environments of Pakistan. In doing so, it also examines the validity of seasonality dimensions of routine activity theory (use of summer months and earlier days of week) for terrorist acts. Eight trends are identified tentatively. Using empiri...

  15. Exploring urban male non-marital sexual behaviours in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mir, Ali M; Wajid, Abdul; Pearson, Stephen; Khan, Mumraiz; Masood, Irfan

    2013-01-01

    Background In Pakistan, sexual practices outside marriage are proscribed by law. We aimed to assess the range and magnitude of non-marital sexual behaviours of urban men, focusing on men having sex with men. Methods In this cross sectional survey undertaken in six cities of Pakistan, we interviewed 2400 men aged 16–45 years selected through a multistage systematic sampling design. Sexual behaviours were assessed through a structured questionnaire. Multivariable analysis was used to identify a...

  16. Modelling Trade, Investment, Growth and Liberalisation: Case Study of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Arshad Khan; Ayaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    This study develops an econometric model to examine the impact of tariffs liberalisation on industrial productivity and economic growth in Pakistan. The model is estimated using annual data over the period 1972–2011. To measure trade reform policy, an index for trade liberalisation is constructed. We apply channel analysis to quantify the direct and indirect impacts of trade liberalisation on the industrial productivity in Pakistan. Our result suggests that trade liberalisation promotes indus...

  17. An Examination of Knowledge Management Practices in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Javed; Muhammad Younis

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the application of knowledge management (KM) strategies and practices in the telecommunication sector organizations of Pakistan. The purpose is also to identify the negative attributes exist in knowledge management system of telecommunication sector which cause mistakes in records, ineffective time management, etc. As we know that telecommunication sector is the most leading sector in Pakistan. Today we live in a knowledge based economy. So management o...

  18. Increasing Global Competitiveness: A Case for the Pakistan Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Shamyla Chaudry

    2007-01-01

    The issue of global competitiveness is critical for developing countries. This paper looks at the drivers that influence industrial competitiveness and provides a comparison of these drivers for Pakistan, India and China. The analysis shows that Pakistan lags behind China and India in most of the main components of the industrial competitiveness index. The analysis also presents a series of micro and macro level policy recommendations aimed at increasing Pakistan’s industrial competitiveness.

  19. Gender Inequality and Trade Liberalization: A Case Study of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Naeem; Hyder, Kalim

    2006-01-01

    The main focus of this study is to explore the impact of trade liberalization on gender inequalities in Pakistan. The overall gender inequality based on three dimensions, including labour market, education and health facilities are analyzed in this paper using data from 1973 to 2005. Exports and imports to GDP ratio, per capita GDP, and number of girls’ school to number of boys’ school ratio are identified as important determinants of overall gender inequality in Pakistan and gender inequalit...

  20. Socio-economic Determinants of Household Food Insecurity in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Asghar, Zahid; Muhammad, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the determinants of food insecurity for both general and farmer households. It is based on Pakistan Social and Living standard Measurement (PSLM) 2007-08 survey conducted by the Federal Bureau of Statistics, Pakistan. After having descriptive analysis of the important determinants of food insecurity, we have used logit model to find the probability for being household secure or insecure. The model is initially fitted with 16 (for general) and 19 (for farmer households)...

  1. The policy landscape of agricultural water management in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Aberman, Noora-Lisa; Wielgosz, Benjamin; Zaidi, Fatima; Ringler, Claudia; Akram, Agha Ali; Bell, Andrew; Issermann, Maikel

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation is central to Pakistan’s agriculture; and managing the country’s canal, ground, and surface water resources in a more efficient, equitable, and sustainable way will be crucial to meeting agricultural production challenges, including increasing agricultural productivity and adapting to climate change. The water component of the International Food Policy Research Institute’s Pakistan Strategy Support Program (PSSP) is working to address these topics through high-quality researc...

  2. ETHNOMEDICINAL AND PHYTOECONOMIC ELABORATION OF LILOWNAI VALLEY, DISTRICT SHANGLA, PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Zafar Alam; Ahmad Habib; Zada Bakht; Khan Zahid; Sualeh Mohammad; Shah Muhammad Ajmal

    2012-01-01

    The flora of Pakistan and especially that of Northren Part has tremendous scope to evaluate their ethnomedicinal importance for more realistic way to justify their traditional usage and applications. Based on this, an ethnomedicinal survey was carried out in the Lilownai valley, District Shangla, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan in summer 2008 and reinvestigated during 2010-2011.The study showed that the local population not only use indigenous medicinal plants for curing various diseases but als...

  3. The Reserve Equation and The Analytics of Pakistan's Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Rubina; Mirza, M. Shahzad

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the computation and analysis of some fundamental reserve aggregates and associated monetary statistics which impart important information regarding the design and conduct of monetary policy at the State Bank of Pakistan. Specifically, we compute the data series for borrowed, unborrowed, free and drainable reserves using balance sheet data published by the State Bank of Pakistan for the period 1985-2009. Results show that Pakistan’s monetary policy revolves around managin...

  4. CPECC Contracts Oil Products Pipeline Construction in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yong

    2002-01-01

    @@ China Petroleum Engineering & Construction Corporation (CPECC), a subsidiary of CNPC, and Pak-Arab Pipeline Company (PARCO) of Pakistan have recently reached an agreement to confirm the US$317-million contract for construction a pipeline for oil products in Pakistan by CPECC. The project is called the white oil pipeline project (WOPP)running from Karachi to Mahmood Kot, the distribution center of oil products in the northwest part of the country.

  5. Child health inequalities and its dimensions in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowad Murtaza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Poverty and inequality in health is pervasive in Pakistan. The provisions and conditions of health are very dismal. A significant proportion of the population (16.34% of Pakistan is under 5 years, but Pakistan is in the bottom 5% of countries in the world in terms of spending on health and education. It is ranked the lowest in the world with sub-Sahara Africa in terms of child health equality. The objective of this study was to examine child health inequalities in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: We analyzed data from Pakistan Integrated Household Survey/Household Integrated Economic Survey 2001-2002, collected by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan. Coverage of diarrhea and immunization were used as indicators of child health. Stata 11.0 was used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution and proportions for categorical variables and mean for continuous variables were computed. Results: Children under 5 years of age account for about 16.34% of the total population, 11.76% (2.5 million of whom suffered from diarrhea in 1-month. The average duration of a diarrheal episode was 7 days. About 72% of the children who had diarrhea lived in a house without pipe-borne water supply. Around 22% children who had diarrhea had no advice or treatment. More than one-third of the households had no toilet in the house, and only 29% of the households were connected with pipe-borne drinking water. About 7.73% (1.6 million children had never been immunized. The main reason for nonimmunization was parents′ lack of knowledge and of immunization. Conclusion: Child health inequalities in Pakistan are linked with several factors such as severe poverty, illiteracy, lack of knowledge, and awareness of child healthcare, singularly inadequate provision of health services, and poor infrastructure.

  6. Impact of Fiscal Variables on Economic Development of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Khan KAKAR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of the fiscal variables on economic growth in Pakistan using time series data for the period 1980-2009. Cointegration and error correction techniques are used for this analysis and Granger causality test is used to determine the direction of causality. This study will provide help in determining the importance of fiscal policy for the development of Pakistan.

  7. Analysis and treatment of industrial wastewater through chemical coagulation-adsorption process-A case study of Clariant Pakistan limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Shah, Syed Farman; Shah, Abdul Karim; Mehdi, Ahmad; Memon, Aziza Aftab; Harijan, Khanji; Ali, Zeenat M.

    2012-05-01

    Textile dye manufacture processes are known as the most polluting chemical processes of industrial sectors of the world. Colored wastewaters along with many polluting agents are troublesome. They are heavily polluted with dyes, textile auxiliaries and chemicals. Current study applies a coupled technology for wastewater treatment. Combined coagulation-adsorption process was utilized for treatment of complex nature effluents of dyes, binder emulsion, pigments and textile chemicals plants at Clariant Pakistan. Cost effective coagulant and adsorbent was selected by using waste material from a power generation unit of Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA), Pakistan. The treated effluent could be reused. Alum+ Activated Carbon, Ferrous sulfate+ Activated Carbon, Ferric chloride + Activated Carbon. Almost complete decolourization was achieved along with reduction in COD up to 65%. Pre and post treatment, TDS, COD, Turbidity and suspended solids were improved.

  8. Isolation and 16s rdna sequence analysis of bacteria from dieback affected mango orchards in southern pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad range of microorganisms are involved in various mango plant diseases such as fungi, algae and bacteria. In order to study the role of bacteria in mango dieback, a survey of infected mango plants in southern Pakistan was carried out. A number of bacterial isolates were obtained from healthy looking and infected mango trees, and their characterization was undertaken by colony PCR and subsequent sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. These analyses revealed the presence of various genera including Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Cronobacter, Curtobacterium, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Exiguobacterium, Halotelea, Lysinibacillus, Micrococcus, Microbacterium, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Staphylococcus. It is noteworthy that several members of these genera have been reported as plant pathogens. The present study provided baseline information regarding the phytopathogenic bacteria associated with mango trees in southern Pakistan. (author)

  9. The importance of urea-molasses blocks and bypass protein in animal production: The situation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of introducing urea-molasses blocks as a dry season supplementary strategy for domestic ruminants was investigated in several on-farm and on-station experiments. These studies demonstrated the obvious advantage of using the blocks as a farm package to increase milk production in dairy cows and buffaloes and growth rates in calves and lambs under village conditions in Pakistan. Positive responses in productivity to block feeding were attributed to improved rumen efficiency caused by a sustained supply of critical microbial nutrients from continuous licking of the blocks. The studies also confirmed the economic benefits of using the blocks as a complement to conventional concentrates in lactating and growing cows and buffaloes. The need for feeding bypass protein for further increasing animal productivity was also emphasized. The block package was readily accepted by local farmers and was found easy to introduce into the existing on-farm feeding practices in Pakistan. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  10. Environmental impacts of small dams on agriculture and ground water development: a case study of Khan pur Dam, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water scarcity issues are increasing through out the world. Pakistan is also facing water crises and its water demands are increasing every day. During this research it is investigated that small dams are playing an important role for the sustainability of groundwater and agriculture. The main objective of this study was to assess the environmental impacts of small dam on agricultural and ground water. Proper planning and management of small dams may improve the sustainable agriculture in Pakistan. It is also concluded that small dams are significantly contributing towards economy, environment, local climate, recreational activities and crop production. Small dams can also be utilized for the production of electricity at local level. On the other hand, water management issues can be resolved by the involvement of local farmer's associations. Water losses through seepage, unlined channels and old irrigation methods are most critical in developing world. Considering the overall positive environmental impacts, construction of small dams must be promoted. (author)

  11. Education in Pakistan: Problems and their Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Rashid

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was meant to explore and report the problems being confronted by the education in Pakistan and suggest for the resolution of these problems. Definitely the study would be excavating the changes brought about since the independence and their consequent repercussions. There is no doubt in accepting the fact that education brings about a change in the social, political and cultural scenario of the country; though the change remains slow but it does have an impact on the society at large. It does bring about improvements in the organizational problem-solving through the use of design, structural paraphernalia, globalized need and quality based systems. Alongside it, the processes to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of recurrent system is also addressed in a most befitting manner. This article is an endeavor to look into the recurrent status of education in Pakistan. The study is a blend of qualitative and quantitative investigation more relied upon the secondary data sources. The conversation has a tilt towards configuration, admittance, excellence, future forecast and problems of education in Pakistan. It is a point to ponder that the quality has to match the quantity, and if the turnover of education is not enlightened as aspired, skilled to the level of excellence as needed, trained to benefit the individuals, groups, communities and society at large, and motivated with the least zeal to be ethically committed, such societies fail to meet their development objectives. It is the need of the time that the education should be a tool to attract the brightest youth to step forward and take part in the active development of the country. There are certain projects in vogue and new may be designed to educate others about the benefits of educational system. It may help in enhancing the educational standards, join an organization that creates educational opportunities, and improve education taking into consideration the modern and

  12. A Troubled Geostrategic Marriage: US-Pakistan Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoram Schweitzer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The targeted killing of Osama Bin Laden by the United States in early May 2011 and the complex sequence of related events, including the terrorist attack by the Pakistan-based Haqqani network on the American Embassy in Kabul in early September, have thrown the complicated relationship between the US and Pakistan into the spotlight. The two nations are deeply divided with regard to the war on terrorism, reflected in recent months by increasingly loud calls by members of Congress to end military and economic aid to Pakistan in light of suspicions and accusations by senior army officers. Nonetheless, in the midst of this sparring, the two nations, partners in the war on radical Islamic terrorism, are trying to maintain a correct relationship. This essay surveys Pakistan’s national interests and the rationale underlying its posture vis-à-vis the United States, especially regarding cooperation in the war on terrorism. It also examines the regional struggles in which Pakistan is involved, specifically, its bitter conflict with India and its relations with China. Despite the recent US criticism of Pakistani conduct and deteriorating bilateral relations, a comprehensive examination of the geostrategic regional situation and the interests of both the United States and Pakistan reveals the sensitive complexity of the arena in which Pakistan operates and the fact that American involvement is indeed bearing fruit and contributing to regional stability.

  13. Islamization and Sectarian Violence in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ahmad

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Shiā‘ah-Sunnī violence has assumed alarming proportion in Pakistan during the recent years. While there is a long history of discord and occasional violence between the two groups, a number of factors have precipitated the violence, and kept it going on. The nature of the Islamization process during the Zia regime, with its emphasis on legalistic aspects of Islam (Shaīʿatization, rather than the broader objectives (maqāṣid of Sharīʿah, was one of them. This created a feeling of being marginalized in the minorities. During this period the socioeconomic deprivation of a large section of the masses, suspension of political institutions, collapse of administrative machinery, and use of sectarian and ethnic discord for short-term political gains, created an atmosphere conducive to violence, including sectarian violence.

  14. EMOTIVE EFFORT AMONG MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwal Bilal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between work complexity, emotive effort and its effects on job satisfaction and Emotion Management related stress among medical professionals; as in accordance with ‘The Managed Heart’ by Arlie Hochschild, it is asserted that emotive toil is carried out by medical professionals. Correspondence among work complexity, emotive toil and job satisfaction are ascertained by circulating questionnaires among medical personnel. This correspondence is investigated by the use of regression analysis. Conclusions drawn on the basis of analysis disclose that emotive struggle was considerably negatively associated to job satisfaction and work complexity. The research verdicts are only restricted to the medical professionals working in different hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan

  15. Decision Making Practices In Universities Of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nadeem Anwar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision making can be regarded as an outcome of mental processes (cognitive process leading to the selection of a course of action among several alternatives. Every decision making process produces a final choice. The output can be an action or an opinion. The purpose of this descriptive survey was to explore the Decision making practices in administrative and academic matters in the universities of Pakistan. A sample of nineteen universities was selected by applying stratified random sampling technique.  The respondents, i-e members of university bodies; teachers and administrative officers were selected randomly. Three questionnaires constructed on Likert’s five-point scale were used for data collection. Data was tabulated and analyzed by using the F-ratio and Chi-square. The survey results revealed that overall decision-making practices in the universities were found unsatisfactory and, most of the decisions were made without application of management decision-making techniques.

  16. Corporate Governance- Issues and Challenges in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beenish Ameer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pakistani companies are crucial for attaining the better position in the global market by adopting the actual concept of corporate governance. Corporate governance is a worldwide phenomenon. Corporate Governance is the system of rules, practices and processes by which a company is directed and controlled. This research paper focuses on the finding & reviewing of the issues and challenges faced by corporate governance in Pakistan. Keeping in view the objectives of this study , research design was adopted to have greater accuracy and in depth analysis of the research study. Available secondary data was extensively used for the study. The investigator procures the required data through secondary survey method. Different news articles, Books and Web were used which were enumerated and recorded The causes of poor corporate governance in Pakistani companies are ineffectiveness of INED’s in Pakistani companies, a lack of understanding, inadequately trained personnel, coverage, policy etc. further adds to the reach and effectiveness of corporate governance programs.

  17. Stability of Money Demand Function in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Sarwar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The role, which money demand function plays in monetary policy formulation has attracted a lot of research studies to analyze this macroeconomic phenomenon. In the wake of current global and local economic and political upheavals, it is imperative to revisit the stability of money demand function. The study used the time series data and applied latest econometric techniques to find out the long run and short run money demand relationship. Moreover, all the three official monetary aggregates were used for finding out the most stable monetary demand relationship, which could provide correct signals for monetary policy formulation. The study found that broader monetary aggregate (M2 was the proper aggregate, which provided stable money demand function for Pakistan. The real GDP was positively related to the demand for real balances, while opportunity cost of money was negatively related. The study found that the role of financial innovation, in explaining the demand for money warrants attention in formulating monetary policy.

  18. Pakistan: opening chinks in the armour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, R

    1998-01-01

    In Pakistan, a dozen young women attended a "Girl Child Project (GCP) Supervisors Meeting" in a rural home. While this gathering hardly seems revolutionary, the young women had to take the unusual step of travelling unescorted to attend, relying on community recognition of their hard-earned status as Baiji (aunt/elder sister). Later, a effervescent leader conducted a tour of her project ward where girls do needlework, operate nursery schools, attend sewing or literacy classes, and tend a vegetable garden. At the start of her 7-year involvement with the GCP, this leader, who now inspires awe for her ability to call a public meeting, was a newly widowed mother of a baby who resented the workshops that forced her to talk to outsiders. Another role model is a leader who used the project to develop skills that landed her a full-time job as an extension worker in the National Rural Support Program. The recent arrangements for this young woman's marriage included the unprecedented agreement of her fiance to live with her widowed mother so his new bride could continue to help care for her three younger siblings. The GCP began in the early 1990s by training 500 young women who, in turn, trained others, has expanded to 10,000 girls in 200 locations, and is beginning another major expansion. While the GCP has achieved community support, it will require connections to governmental programs and nonexploitative market mechanisms in order to continue its success. This effort may be aided by the networking of the Family Planning Association of Pakistan and by the government's new educational policy that focuses on the needs of girls.

  19. K-means cluster analysis and seismicity partitioning for Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Khaista; Burton, Paul W.; Weatherill, Graeme A.

    2014-07-01

    Pakistan and the western Himalaya is a region of high seismic activity located at the triple junction between the Arabian, Eurasian and Indian plates. Four devastating earthquakes have resulted in significant numbers of fatalities in Pakistan and the surrounding region in the past century (Quetta, 1935; Makran, 1945; Pattan, 1974 and the recent 2005 Kashmir earthquake). It is therefore necessary to develop an understanding of the spatial distribution of seismicity and the potential seismogenic sources across the region. This forms an important basis for the calculation of seismic hazard; a crucial input in seismic design codes needed to begin to effectively mitigate the high earthquake risk in Pakistan. The development of seismogenic source zones for seismic hazard analysis is driven by both geological and seismotectonic inputs. Despite the many developments in seismic hazard in recent decades, the manner in which seismotectonic information feeds the definition of the seismic source can, in many parts of the world including Pakistan and the surrounding regions, remain a subjective process driven primarily by expert judgment. Whilst much research is ongoing to map and characterise active faults in Pakistan, knowledge of the seismogenic properties of the active faults is still incomplete in much of the region. Consequently, seismicity, both historical and instrumental, remains a primary guide to the seismogenic sources of Pakistan. This study utilises a cluster analysis approach for the purposes of identifying spatial differences in seismicity, which can be utilised to form a basis for delineating seismogenic source regions. An effort is made to examine seismicity partitioning for Pakistan with respect to earthquake database, seismic cluster analysis and seismic partitions in a seismic hazard context. A magnitude homogenous earthquake catalogue has been compiled using various available earthquake data. The earthquake catalogue covers a time span from 1930 to 2007 and

  20. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  1. Status and potential of small and medium power reactors in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan's interest in nuclear technology dates back to the late 1950s, when Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) was established with the responsibility of promoting peaceful uses of nuclear technology for the development of national economy. A beginning was made in the field of nuclear power generation by commissioning the 137 MW Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) in 1971. In addition to KANUPP, the other activities during this period included studies for nuclear power and sea water desalination in the coastal areas. This was followed by a series of feasibility and long term planning studies (1969-1981) to study and firm up the prospects of nuclear power in the country, using the ever-improving analytical tools and data base. An Energy and Nuclear Power Planning Study for Pakistan has just been completed as a technical cooperation project of the IAEA to provide a sound basis for the formulation of the strategy for future development of nuclear power. The successful functioning of KANUPP and the 300 MW NPP (CHASNUPP) presently being built by China have given the country great confidence and a sense of direction to plan more nuclear units in future, in the S and MR range, in a manner that would progressively lead to a high degree of self-reliance. A large number of studies have been carried out in the past all over the world to investigate the possibility of using nuclear generated heat for the purpose of desalting seawater. It is now proposed that IAEA may initiate a programme to install an International Demonstration Nuclear Desalination Plant (IDNDP) in some developing country to provide hands on experience in this field. (author)

  2. Affordable, stable and assured supply of energy for poverty alleviation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For people living in poverty, the most pressing priority is the satisfaction of basic human needs, which includes access to food, shelter, water supply and sanitation and other services that will improve their standard of living, such as health care, education, and better transport. Problems of poverty in all its dimensions can be addressed with the improved provision of energy services and it is significant that most of those without having access to modern energy services live in developing countries; like Pakistan and belong to the segment of the human population that lives in poverty. While assured and adequate energy supplies do not guarantee economic growth and employment generation, their absence typically limits growth. Although low energy consumption is not a cause of poverty, the lack of available energy services correlates closely with many poverty indicators. The link between poverty and energy should not, however, be construed simply in terms of ability of the poor to afford better energy services. Energy services constitute a sizeable share of total household expenditure in Pakistan. People living in poverty often pay a higher price per unit of energy services than do the rich. They also spend more time in obtaining these energy services and rely on resource-scarce and polluting ways of converting energy for services like cooking, drinking water, heating and lighting, all of which have associated health impacts. The production and use of energy have environmental consequences at local, regional and global levels. These impacts extend throughout the fuel cycle of an Energy Chain. Energy plays a substantial role in the everyday lives of humans. Poverty describes a condition of people who are denied the opportunities for sustainable existence. for social uplift of the people of Pakistan at large through affordable, stable, and assured supply of energy keeping in view the environmental constraints. (author)

  3. Socio-economic importance of environmentally sustainable nature tourism in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research paper deals with the nature tourism which is defined as unremunerated visits by local and foreign mountaineers, trekkers and rock climbers to the mountainous areas in Gilgit, Skardu and Chitral. Pakistan is gifted with one of the richest and unique collection of high mountains with three spectacular mountain ranges of the world Karakoram, Hindukush and Himalayas located in the Northern Areas. These ranges have more than 700 peaks above 6000 meters, with as many as 160 peaks rising above 7000 meters. Five out of the total fourteen peaks rising above eight thousand meters, namely K-2, Nanga Parbat, the Hidden Peak Gasherbrum-I, the Broad peak and the Gasherbrum-ll, situated within 20 Kms radius around famous glacial junction-Concordia in Karakoram. Nature Tourism besides being of importance to Federal Government as a source of foreign exchange earnings through royalty and trekking fees, tt is of particular importance for the local economy in the Northern Areas where nature tourists generate considerable economic activities. The Research Paper intends to study and analyze prospects and scope of Nature Tourism in Pakistan with a view to highlight dangers of environmental degradation and suggest balanced set of measures for promoting nature tourism with minimal negative environmental impact. The Research study is primarily based on secondary data collected by Ministry of Tourism during debriefing of mountaineers and trekkers, supplemented with primary data collected through self completion questionnaire and structured interview of Adventure and participants of International Conference on sustainable Tourism -New Vision and the Moving Force for Poverty Alleviation, held in Lahore on April 12 -13, 2005 Tour Operators. The analysis shows that owing to relatively small size of nature tourism environmental condition in Pakistan is not as bad as it might be in other comparable countries. Nevertheless with the growing volume of nature tourism there is a need to

  4. Size estimation, HIV prevalence and risk behaviours of female sex workers in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To provide size estimation and to determine risky behaviours and HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Pakistan, which has progressed from a low to concentrated level of HIV epidemic. Methods: A cross-sectional study (geographic mapping and integrated behavioural and biological survey-IBBS) was conducted between August 2005 to January 2006 in Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur. A detailed questionnaire and dry blood spot (DBS) specimen for HIV testing were collected by trained interviewers after informed consent. The study was ethically approved by review boards in Canada and Pakistan. Results: About 14,900 female sex workers were estimated to be functional in Sindh. A total of 1158 of them were interviewed for the study. Average age of sex workers was 27.4+- 6.7 years, and the majority 787 (67.9%) were married, and uneducated 764 (65.9%). Sindhi (26.4%) was the predominant ethnicity. Mean number of paid clients was 2.1+-1.2. Three workers were confirmed HIV positive (0.75%, 95 percent CI 0.2-2.2%) from Karachi. Condom use at last sexual act was highest (68%) among brothel-based workers from Karachi, and the lowest in Sukkur where only 1.3% street-based workers reported using a condom at last sexual act. Overall use of illicit drugs through injections was negligible. Conclusion: HIV prevalence among female sex workers in Sindh, Pakistan is low but risky behaviours are present. Well organised service delivery programmes can help promoting safer practices. (author)

  5. On 25 January Pervez Musharraf, president of Pakistan, visited CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Pervez Musharraf, president of Pakistan, visited CERN with five government ministers, Parvez Butt, president of Pakistan's Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), and an eminent former president of the Commission, Ishfaq Ahmad, who pioneered co-operation with CERN.The President of Pakistan, Pervez Musharraf, the Chairman of PAEC, Parvez Butt, and CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, exchange congratulations following the signing of the letter of intent to strengthen partnership between CERN and Pakistan.

  6. Contribution of wind energy to future electricity requirements of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan is an energy deficit country. About half of the country's population has no access to electricity and per capita supply is only 520 kWh. About 67% of the conventional electricity is generated from fossil fuels with 51% and 16% share of gas and oil respectively. It has been projected that electricity demand in Pakistan would increase at an average annual growth rate of 5% to 12% under different scenarios. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country heavily depends on imported oil. The oil import bill is a serious strain on the country's economy and has been deteriorating the balance of payment situation. Pakistan is becoming increasingly more dependent on a few sources of supply and its energy security often hangs on the fragile threat of imported oil that is subject to supply disruptions and price volatility. The production and consumption of fossil fuels also adversely affects the quality of the environment due to indiscriminate release of toxic substances. Pakistan spends huge amount on the degradation of the environment. This shows that Pakistan must develop alternate, indigenous and environment friendly energy resources such as wind energy to meet its future electricity requirements. This paper presents an overview of wind power generation potential and assessment of its contribution to future electricity requirements of Pakistan under different policy scenarios. The country has about 1050 km long coastline. The technical potential of centralized grid connected wind power and wind home systems in the coastal area of the country has been estimated as about 484 TWh and 0.135 TWh per year respectively. The study concludes that wind power could meet about 20% to 50% of the electricity demand in Pakistan by the year 2030. The development and utilization of wind power would reduce the pressure on oil imports, protect the environment from pollution and improve the socio-economic conditions of the people

  7. On 25 January Pervez Musharraf, president of Pakistan, visited CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    CERN consolidates links with Pakistan. Pervez Musharraf, president of Pakistan, visited CERN with five government ministers, Parvez Butt, president of Pakistan's Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), and an eminent former president of the Commission, Ishfaq Ahmad, who pioneered co-operation with CERN

  8. Control of some important soil-borne fungi by chitin associated with chilli (capsicum annuum l.) in lower sindh, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) belongs to the family Solanaceae is one of the most important cash crop of the southern parts of Pakistan. Capsicum is cultivated on a large scale in a lower region of Sindh, Pakistan. It is an important and profitable crop of Pakistan. Several biotic and abiotic stresses affect the productivity of chilli crop. It is infected by a number of diseases particularly soil-borne diseases. Surveys of soil-borne fungal diseases associated with chilli crop in different areas of lower Sindh, including, Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, Kunri, Samaro, Kot Ghulam uhammad and Digri, were conducted, and chilli plants showing symptoms of wilting were collected. A number of soil-borne root infecting fungi were isolated and identified, such as, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium sp., and Rhizoctonia solani, from collected disease plants. It was observed that all the major varieties of chillies (i.e., Sanam, Talhari, Ghotaki, Mexi), growing in lower Sindh, were highly susceptible to these fungi. The main objectives of the study were to examine the effectiveness of chitin for the management of soil-borne diseases of chilli plant by different methods, i.e., soil amendment and transplant root dip method. Results indicated that of the two methods, the soil amendment method was more effective while transplant root dip method was less effective. (author)

  9. Girl child marriage and its effect on fertility in Pakistan: findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muazzam; Muazzam, Sana; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Raj, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Child marriage (before 18 years) is prevalent in Pakistan, which disproportionately affects young girls in rural, low income and low education households. Our study aims to determine the association between early marriage and high fertility and poor fertility health indicators among young women in Pakistan beyond those attributed to social vulnerabilities. Nationally representative data from Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, 2006-2007, a cross-sectional observational survey, were limited to ever-married women aged 20-24 years (n = 1,560; 15% of 10,023) to identify differences in poor fertility outcomes [high fertility (three or more childbirths); rapid repeat childbirth (marriage. Associations between child marriage and fertility outcomes were assessed by calculating adjusted odds ratios (AORs) using logistic regression models after controlling for demographics, social equity indicators (education, wealth index, rural residence), contraception use, marriage duration and culture-specific factors (husband's desire for more children, son preference). Overall, 50% of ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan were married before the age of 18 years. Girl child marriage was significantly (p marriage was significantly associated with high fertility (AOR 6.62; 95% CI 3.53-12.43), rapid repeat childbirth (AOR 2.88; 95% CI 1.83-4.54), unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.90; 95% CI 1.75-4.79), and pregnancy termination (AOR 1.75; 95% CI 1.10-2.78). Girl child marriage affects half of all ever-married women aged 20-24 years in Pakistan, and increases their risk for high fertility and poor fertility health indicators, highlighting the need of increasing the age of marriage among women in Pakistan. Efforts to eliminate girl child marriage by strict law enforcement, promoting civil, sexual and reproductive health rights for women can help eliminate girl child marriage in Pakistan.

  10. Molecular characterization of Ephedra species found in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, S; Shah, M M; Ahmad, H; Swati, Z A; Shah, S H; Pervez, A; Farooq, U

    2007-12-11

    Ephedra, also known as "ma huang", is a dioecious, drought- and frost-resistant, perennial, evergreen shrub with compelling medicinal value. The genus is represented by 42 species around the world, 9 of which were provisionally reported from Pakistan. Species of the genus have a controversial taxonomy due to their overlapping morphological features. Conventional tools alone are not sufficient for characterizing the species. The objective of present study was to assess the genetic variability present in different biotypes of Ephedra growing in Pakistan using molecular markers. A total of six genotypes collected from diverse geographic zones of Pakistan were used. The DNA of all genotypes was amplified using nine randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers to study genetic variability at the molecular level. The dissimilarity coefficient matrix based on the data of 9 RAPD primers was used to construct a dendrogram which was then used to group the genotypes in clusters. Based on the dendrogram and dissimilarity coefficient matrix, the RAPD markers used here revealed a moderate to high level of genetic polymorphism (6 to 49%) among the genotypes. It was found that the collection of genotype accessions from Swat Valley in northwestern Pakistan was most distantly related to the other five collections. More molecular markers including functional genes and ribosomal spacer regions are suggested to find a better estimate of the genetic diversity present in Ephedra growing in Pakistan. The information provided here is useful for identifying valuable Ephedra variants which will be used for medicinal purposes and earning foreign currency.

  11. Viral hepatitis in Pakistan:challenges and priorities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadia; Ashraf; Aftab; Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and C are big health issues worldwide as more than 400 million people arc suffering from chronic hepatitis B and C which result in more than 1.4 million deaths each year.According to a study done by Pakistan Medical Research Council in 2007-08,7.6%Pakistani population suffered with hepatitis B and C.with around 4.8%with hepatitis C only.Government of Pakistan has taken different initiatives like vaccination,patient safety,blood screening,education and awareness about disease but still there is high prevalence of hepatitis in Pakistan.According to some studies injecting drug users have the highest prevalence of hepatilis B and C in the country.The follow-up studies and documentation of hepatitis patients was not very good which need to be improved.There is no recent large scale study on risk factors and prevalence of hepatitis B and C in Pakistan so it should be done on an urgent basis.If government set up regional laboratories for prevalence study and also a central institute for hepatitis research and treatment,the disease could be prevented in better and proper way.The treatment of hepatitis is very costly and a developing country like Pakistan cannot afford such high costs.Therefore more focus should be on preventive measures.

  12. The impact of indigenous culture on female leadership in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafta Manzoor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digging into the experiences of thirty working women, this study examined the barriers imposed by indigenous culture of Pakistan impose on these women. The study followed a qualitative research approach with phenomenological theoretical framework. Fifteen females were interviewed from urban areas and fifteen from rural areas to draw a holistic picture of indigenous culture of Pakistan and its effect on career progress of females. From the data collected, seven categories were initially developed through open coding, followed by three clusters through axial coding and lastly the study created a theoretical framework through selective coding. Findings of the study indicated that indigenous culture strongly affects the career success of working women in Pakistan. The study concluded that indigenous culture of Pakistan puts taboos on females in the form of family behavior, expectations, and the structurally enforced inferior status of females which affects their leadership skills negatively and restricts their career growth. The study concluded that indigenous culture affects career progress of females in negative way and although efforts have been done to give women equal rights in Pakistan, these efforts will become more meaningful if general perception of society about women and their role starts to change which will require awareness programs and cooperation from academic institutions and policy makers.

  13. Non-communicable diseases and injuries in Pakistan: strategic priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafar, Tazeen H; Haaland, Benjamin A; Rahman, Atif; Razzak, Junaid A; Bilger, Marcel; Naghavi, Mohsen; Mokdad, Ali H; Hyder, Adnan A

    2013-06-29

    Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, cancers, respiratory diseases, diabetes, and mental disorders, and injuries have become the major causes of morbidity and mortality in Pakistan. Tobacco use and hypertension are the leading attributable risk factors for deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and respiratory diseases. Pakistan has the sixth highest number of people in the world with diabetes; every fourth adult is overweight or obese; cigarettes are cheap; antismoking and road safety laws are poorly enforced; and a mixed public-private health-care system provides suboptimum care. Furthermore, almost three decades of exposure to sociopolitical instability, economic uncertainty, violence, regional conflict, and dislocation have contributed to a high prevalence of mental health disorders. Projection models based on the Global Burden of Disease 2010 data suggest that there will be about 3·87 million premature deaths by 2025 from cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and chronic respiratory diseases in people aged 30-69 years in Pakistan, with serious economic consequences. Modelling of risk factor reductions also indicate that Pakistan could achieve at least a 20% reduction in the number of these deaths by 2025 by targeting of the major risk factors. We call for policy and legislative changes, and health-system interventions to target readily preventable non-communicable diseases in Pakistan. PMID:23684257

  14. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication - Afghanistan and Pakistan, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Nigeria are the four remaining countries where indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission has never been interrupted. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities in Afghanistan and Pakistan during January-December 2009 and proposed activities in 2010 to address challenges. During 2009, both countries continued to conduct coordinated supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) and used multiple strategies to reach previously unreached children. These strategies included 1) use of short interval additional dose (SIAD) SIAs to administer a dose of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) within 1-2 weeks after a prior dose during negotiated periods of security; 2) systematic engagement of local leaders; 3) negotiations with conflict parties; and 4) increased engagement of nongovernmental organizations delivering basic health services. However, security problems continued to limit access by vaccination teams to large numbers of children. In Afghanistan, poliovirus transmission during 2009 predominantly occurred in 12 high-risk districts in the conflict-affected South Region; 38 WPV cases were confirmed in 2009, compared with 31 in 2008. In Pakistan, 89 WPV cases were confirmed in 2009, compared with 118 in 2008, but transmission persisted both in security-compromised areas and in accessible areas, where managerial and operational problems continued to affect immunization coverage. Continued efforts to enhance safe access of vaccination teams in insecure areas will be required for further progress toward interruption of WPV transmission in Afghanistan and Pakistan. In addition, substantial improvements in subnational accountability and oversight are needed to improve immunization activities in Pakistan.

  15. Dental anxiety among children of age between 5 to 10 years visiting a teaching dental hospital Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The assessment of dental anxiety among children will aid in dealing with management issues related to dental treatment. There is no study available from Pakistan on dental anxiety in children. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental anxiety in children attending a teaching dental hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 252 children aged between 5-10 years attending a dental clinic in a dental hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan. Dental anxiety was assessed by using the Faces Version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale. This scale uses faces as pictograms to indicate the levels of dental anxiety making it easier for children to answer the questionnaire. Results: A total of 252 children were observed for assessment of dental anxiety having mean age of 7.88±1.55 years with 123 (48.8 percentage) males and 129 (51.2 percentage) females. Out of these children 150 (59.5 percentage) had previously visited a dentist and 102 (40.5 percentage) had no experience with a dentist before; 38 percentage (95/252) of children had moderate and severe dental anxiety. Dental anxiety decreased significantly with age (p=0.0003). The difference in anxiety levels was not statistically significant between males and females and in different socio-economic status. Conclusion: This study has highlighted dental anxiety as a potential public health concern regarding children in Pakistan. Assessment of dental anxiety is a useful way to identify anxious dental patients. (author)

  16. Methods of sterilization and monitoring of sterilization across selected dental practices in karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess methods of sterilization in dental practices in Karachi and secondly to investigate methods of monitoring sterilization in dental practices in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Dental colleges, hospitals and private clinics of Karachi, Pakistan, from January to March 2013. Methodology: A total of 251 questionnaires were obtained. Descriptive statistics were computed and differences between groups were assessed through chi-square test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. P-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Autoclave, used by 155 (61.8%) dentists was the most common method of sterilization followed by more than one method, 65 (25.9%); dry heat, 24 (9.6%); and cold sterilization, 7 (2.8%). Majority of dentists, 126 (50.1%), never monitored sterilization and those who did monitored mostly monthly. Statistically significant difference was found amongst the three groups of dentists monitoring sterilization (p=0.09) and methods of sterilization (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Statistically significant difference was found in infection control practices of specialists, postgraduate trainees and general dentists regarding method of monitoring sterilization with majority of dentists never monitoring sterilization. (author)

  17. Municipal Solid Waste and its Relation with Groundwater Contamination in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Malik Muhammad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste dumping sites always pose serious environmental problems on air, soil, surface water and groundwater. Landfill leachate contains thousands of complex components and become part of groundwater after infiltration. Vicinity communities are comparatively more affected through hazard activities. Generally, it is regarded as global issue but problems are more sever in developing countries due to mismanagement and lack of related facilities. The present study investigated the landfills effects on groundwater system in Lahore city, Pakistan. Sixteen points were selected for groundwater sampling in the study area during 2010 and were analyzed for selected twelve parameters. Samples were collected to and far from three dumping sites and found in mostly samples contains high pollutants concentration than Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority (PSQCA, 2004 and arsenic concentration over World Health Organization (WHO drinking water criteria. Dumping sites impacts are in result of changing groundwater chemistry, waterborne diseases and other environmental issues. Numerous studies have been conducted but still a comprehensive research needs with boarder aspects to preserve and protect groundwater resources.

  18. Characterization of karak clay from pakistan for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, L.A. [University of Peshawar (Pakistan); Silva-Valenzuela, M.G.; Valenzuela-Diaz, F.R.; Sayeg, I.J.; Carvalho, F.M.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Clay, the most important, plentiful, and low cost naturally occurring mineral, is widely used in variety of industrial application including Pharmaceutical and cosmetic. Clay is the fine grained aluminosilicate mineral which shows the property of plasticity at appropriate water content, and becomes hard upon drying. In Pakistan there are different types of clay but till now neither of them properly identified nor characterize for specific industrial application. The objective of this work is to characterize Karak clay for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications collected from deposit located at Shagai region, District Karak, Pakistan. The clay was characterized through Xray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), trace elemental Analysis, Microbiological analysis, Cation exchange capacity (CEC), pH and swelling assays according to European, United States of America and Brazilian Pharmacopeias. Bulk Chemical analysis shows that the Aluminum oxide and silica oxide are present in large quantity which was confirmed by XRD that this sample has montmorillonite as a major while illite and kaolinite as minor clay minerals. Quartz of small quantity was also found as a non-clay mineral. After analyzing the results for sample it was concluded that the clay is a strong candidate for cosmetic purposes. (author)

  19. Etiology and pattern of maxillofacial injuries in the armed forces of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the etiology and pattern of maxillofacial injuries in the Armed Forces of Pakistan in terms of anatomical distribution of injuries. Three hundred consecutive patients of Armed Forces of Pakistan with maxillofacial injuries reporting to AFID and admitted to the hospital or treated as out-patients in the oral surgery clinic, were included in this study. Isolated nasal bone and frontal sinus fractures were excluded from the study. Anatomical distribution, frequency and etiology of fractures, rank at job and occupational as well as personal hobbies were recorded. Descriptive analyses were used to determine mean, standard deviation, percentage and range values. The most frequent bone fractured was the mandible, which accounted for 159 cases (53%). The zygomatic complex was fractured in 51 cases (17%), the maxilla in 12 cases (4 %), and the alveolar process in 21 cases (7%). The most common cause was road traffic accident (168 cases; 56%), followed by accidental fall (69 cases; 23%), gunshot injuries (27 cases; 9%), sports related injuries (15 cases; 5%), and injury associated with a fight (12 cases; 4%); there were only 9 cases of animals related injuries (3%). In this series, mandible was the most commonly fractured facial bone, while road traffic accident was the most common etiological factor. Results could be influenced by the personal and working environment. (author)

  20. Insecticides -a cure or curse and rational use of integrated pest management in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical based control in crops has increased the pest problem, disturbed the agro ecosystem and has killed the non-target and environmentally friendly organisms and misuse of insecticides has led to resistance to insecticides, resurgence of secondary pests, polluting soil, water and food with contaminates. In addition to this, irrigation and drinking water, cottonseed oil, lint and cattle feed and animal milk are also contaminated having deleterious effects on human life. To reduce chemical control, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) emerged. Its emphasis is on non-disturbance of ecosystem but to manage the insect pest populations with all the available means on economic basis. IPM approach is knowledge based with in-depth information. In spite of IPM studies and work unfortunately reliance on pesticides has not been reduced in Pakistan. Conservation/augmentation, releases of new biotic agents may disturb the ecosystem. The stress on IPM is made in the developed countries primarily due to human health factor. These societies even risk the reduction in yield in the IPM fields. Successful stories of IPM in Pakistan has not been cashed to due merits. The bottlenecks must be removed so that better results can be obtained. The main reason seems to be lack of in depth involvement of the growers in this activity. (author)

  1. Occupational exposure from external radiation used in medical practices in Pakistan by film badge dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational exposure data of workers due to external sources of radiation in various medical practices such as nuclear medicine (NM), radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology (DR) in Pakistan were collected and analysed. Whole-body doses of workers were measured by film badge dosimetry technique during 2003-2007. Annual average effective dose in NM, radio-therapy and DR varied in the range of 1.39-1.80, 1.05-1.45 and 1.22-1.71 mSv, respectively, during 2003-2007. These values are quite low and well below the annual limit of 20 mSv averaged over a period of 5 consecutive years. Nobody received the radiation dose >50 mSv in any single year over a period of 5 consecutive years; therefore, no overexposure case has been detected. Decreasing trend of annual average dose values in aforementioned categories of work during 2003-2007 indicates the improvement of radiation protection status in medical field in Pakistan. (authors)

  2. Minerals and nutritional composition of camel (camelus dromedarius) meat in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of camel meat has received little attention so far in Pakistan. It is nutritionally as good as that of the major sources of red or white meat. Camel is a desert animal but is not less than other red meat animals (beef, lamb and goat) in its composition. The proximate composition, fatty acid profile and mineral contents of the local camel (Camelus dromedarius) meat have been investigated. It contained 72.03 +- 0.014% water, 4.45 +- 0.011% ash, 5.79 +- 0.012% fat and 66.42 +- 0.534% protein. It has been found that camel meat has relatively more moisture, less fat, less ash and similar protein content than that of beef, lamb and goat [1]. It has similar mineral composition (Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, P, Mg, Cd, Cr, Co, Mo, Ni, and Pb) to beef except for sodium. Fatty acid profile for camel meat oil showed high content of palmitic acid and oleic acid. These two fatty acids are essential in human nutrition. In view of the above, it is possible that camel meat could make a greater contribution to the growing need for meat in developing countries like Pakistan. (author)

  3. Guar (cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.); a low-input and multipurpose crop of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guar or cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) is commercially grown in India, Pakistan, USA and some other countries as a vegetable, seed, fodder or green manure crop. Pakistan produces 35% of the world's total production, whereas India produces 60% and the remaining 5% is grown in USA, Mid-East and African countries (Rao, 2001). Guar is and important drought-hardy crop of the major dryland areas of the country. It is usually grown for feed, fodder, vegetable and greem manure, due to which it is considered as a multipurpose crop. It is a nutritious green-fodder concentrate and its straw is good dry-feed for livestock. The fodder of guar, as well as its grain is quite nutritive, rich in protein, fat and minerals. Its green pods are salted/roasted and consumed directly by human beings as a vegetable. It has also some useful medicinal properties and as breakfast cereal containing guar-gum reduces postprandial plasma-glucose and insulin concentration in normal body-weight humans (Fairchild et al., 1996). Therefore, tofay guar is one of the significant goreign-exchange earners of the country. Modern applications of gum have given such excellent and even amazing results that now guar is called white gold. (author)

  4. Characterization of karak clay from pakistan for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Clay, the most important, plentiful, and low cost naturally occurring mineral, is widely used in variety of industrial application including Pharmaceutical and cosmetic. Clay is the fine grained aluminosilicate mineral which shows the property of plasticity at appropriate water content, and becomes hard upon drying. In Pakistan there are different types of clay but till now neither of them properly identified nor characterize for specific industrial application. The objective of this work is to characterize Karak clay for pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications collected from deposit located at Shagai region, District Karak, Pakistan. The clay was characterized through Xray diffractometry (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), trace elemental Analysis, Microbiological analysis, Cation exchange capacity (CEC), pH and swelling assays according to European, United States of America and Brazilian Pharmacopeias. Bulk Chemical analysis shows that the Aluminum oxide and silica oxide are present in large quantity which was confirmed by XRD that this sample has montmorillonite as a major while illite and kaolinite as minor clay minerals. Quartz of small quantity was also found as a non-clay mineral. After analyzing the results for sample it was concluded that the clay is a strong candidate for cosmetic purposes. (author)

  5. National planning guidelines for environment ally sustainable development in Scotland and lessons learnt for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This piece of research work reflects the researcher's academic as well as the practical experiences of Scottish planning about the concept, issues and policy formulations. It is in the context of National Planning Policy Guidelines, originated in Scotland with particular reference to it's Fife Region. The first part reflects the general overview of Scotland followed by brief description of the region. Another part deals with the existing strategic issues in the region which are related to land and the environment notably rural planning priorities, agricultural scarce land, conservation of recreational and tourist areas, forest land potentials, landscape resources, national scenic areas, petro-chemical, industrial zones, river pollution and future land use for housing. This study has suggested National Planning Policy Guidelines to these issues. Last section deals with the lessons learnt from Scotland and appropriate application of these guidelines in case of Pakistan. The establishment of the relevant National Planning Guidelines according to our local environmental and socio-economic conditions can also play a significant role to safe guard our rural and urban landscapes and their respective environments. These broad guidelines must therefore be recommended in the broader spectrum in spatial linkage. Moreover these guidelines must therefore synthesize and articulated specifically at structure plans, master plans at district, sub district or local plans and planning processes which can lead Pakistan towards environmentally sustainable development. (author)

  6. Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined strategies to control antinematicidal -resistant gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants on organized farms in Pakistan Antinematicidal resistance has been rooted on all the continents particularly in areas where ovine and caprine are being reared intensively due to frequent annual use of broad-spectrum dewormers. Farmers rely on mono-strategic scheme by using synthetic drugs to treat their livestock which is deemed the easier way to control gastrointestinal nematode infections as compared to the other strategies. On the other hand, recurrent employment of antinematicidal chemotherapeutics has conduced to development and prevalence of resistance among nematode populations. In this regard, other advocating strategies such as grazing management, rotation of antinematicidal drugs (although it is too late), amelioration of animal immunity, genetic approaches, biological control, nutritional supplementation, avoidance of mass treatment, improvement of management, eradication of concurrent diseases, and phytotherapy should be considered too. Although, by far there are no commercialized substantial alternatives to chemotherapy, but the current substitutes could decrease the parasitic burden, which, in turn, restrict indiscriminate use of synthetic drugs. The resistance is more rampant on organized farms as compared to non organized farms in rural areas in Asian, African and South Latin American countries because tamed animal raisers in those areas depend on ethnobotanicals to treat parasitism due to high cost of allopathic drugs. Therefore, in this review, the different strategies to control the antinematicidal resistance on organized farms in Pakistan will be elaborated. (author)

  7. Mercury concentration in vegetables of Pakistan irrigated by different water sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury levels were determined in twenty samples of each vegetable i.e., Spinach (Spinacia oleracea), Lettuce (Lactuca sativa), Carrot (Daucus cariota), Capsicum (Capsicum fistulosus), Sweet pea (Lathyrus Odoratus), Potato (Solanum tuberosum) and Cabbage (Brassica oleracea), with a special reference of source of water of irrigation, i.e., tube well water, canal water and municipal sewage water. All the samples of vegetables were collected during the year 2006, 2007 and 2008 from the five districts of Pakistan viz Lahore, Kasur, Multan, Bahawalpur and R.Y. Khan. Statistical analysis such as Test of significance and multiple comparison were applied on the data obtained. The results showed that the concentration of Mercury in vegetables irrigated by canal water, sewage water and tube well water was in the range of 3.1-88.9 ppb and 9.0-130.6 ppb. It can be concluded from this study that the uptake of mercury by vegetables collected from above five districts of Pakistan was in the following order. Leafy vegetables > Root vegetables > seedy vegetables. (author)

  8. Measurement of natural radioactivity in soil from Peshawar basin of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural radioactivity in the environment may change with time due to human activities, chemical and biological changes. From the view of radiation risk to population, the knowledge of natural radioactivity levels and the measurement of collective radiation dose received by the population is very vital. Radiological constraints on soil of thickly populated Peshawar basin in northern Pakistan were assessed through radiometric assay. Soil samples collected from different locations of four districts of this basin were analysed using an HPGe gamma spectrometer. Activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in these samples was 648 ± 121 (421-996), 45 ± 7 (32-60) and 59 ± 7 (46-72) Bq kg-1, respectively that followed lognormal distribution. The average concentrations of primordial radionuclides were found to be higher than that reported for the worldwide soil. Radium equivalent activity and gamma index derived from these activity concentrations were lesser than their respective limits. The average absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose for both indoor and outdoor cases were found to be higher than the values given in the UNSCEAR 2000 report. The results of the present study were compared with those for other locations of Pakistan along with that for the world. The radiological impact of the measured data was evaluated using hazard assessment models. A thoughtful discussion of the above mentioned evaluation is also given. (author)

  9. Efforts on conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the beginning of civilization, and perhaps as early as Neanderthal man, people have used plants as medicine. Evidence indicates that people used plants to cure themselves, e.g. Chinese Emperor (2800 BC); Babylon (1770 BC); Ancient Egypt (1550 BC). Islamic and Indian physicians also wrote many works prior to 1100 AD and the Seals from the Harappan site in Pakistan (2000 BC) also indicate use of plants. New aspects of medicinal plants need to be studied. For example, we should address the question why plant diversity declines, when plants with weedy traits become more abundant. This is consequently followed by, species that have traits permitting their persistence in degraded and species-poor cosystems which are likely to carry high pathogen and vector burdens. Indigenous communities of Pakistan play a vital role in conservation of medicinal plants. Intentionally or unintentionally, people have evolved strategies for doing so in the form of rituals, beliefs and taboos. Various traditional harvesting methods described in one of the study suggest that they were efficient to utilize the natural resources. Our efforts are towards not only providing food security, nutrition and health care to the tribal people, but also to recover, record and diffuse local botanical knowledge and wisdom. (author)

  10. An Era of Climax of Cordiality in Sino-Pakistan Relations

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The paper seeks to analyze the developments between China and Pakistan since the end of Indo-Pakistan war of 1965 to 1971. After the signing of Pakistan¡¯s boundary, air and trade agreements with China, the latter continued its support to Pakistan. Their bilateral relations reached to the climax of cordiality by the exchange official visits of both leaderships and support to each other¡¯s key issues and interests. Pakistan changed its pro-West policy of casting vote in favor of Taiwan and aga...

  11. The Intellectual Capital Performance of Banking Sector in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Kamath G. Bharathi

    Full Text Available Efficiency in using of resources plays an important role in determining the strength of the organization. Efficiency measured purely on financial variables does not give the true picture especially in sectors which are intellectual capital intensive. The present paper is an attempt to measure the performance of banks in Pakistan on a new dimension of intellectual capital. This paper estimates the value added intellectual capital (VAIC of the banks in Pakistan for a 2 year period. The study concludes that the private sector banks were doing much better than all other banks in Pakistan on intellectual capital efficiency levels. The good performance is attributed to efficient usage and management of human resources.

  12. Environmental Kuznets Curve and SO2 Emission in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ismail

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC is hypothesized to examine the connection among SO2 emission, economic growth, trade liberalization, energy consumption and population density in Pakistan with annual data from 1970-2008. The co integration analysis using Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL bounds testing approach is used. The outcomes support the hypothesis both in short-run and long-run and inverted U shaped relationship is found between SO2 emission and growth. Interestingly we found trade support the environment positively and population contributes to environmental degradation in Pakistan. The energy consumption and growth are the major explanatory variables which contribute to environmental pollution in Pakistan. Moreover, the time series data analysis is utilized and the stability of variables in estimated model is also evaluated.

  13. Statistical Analysis of Factors Affecting Child Mortality in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zoya; Kamal, Asifa; Kamal, Asma

    2016-06-01

    Child mortality is a composite indicator reflecting economic, social, environmental, healthcare services, and their delivery situation in a country. Globally, Pakistan has the third highest burden of fetal, maternal, and child mortality. Factors affecting child mortality in Pakistan are investigated by using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis. Region, education of mother, birth order, preceding birth interval (the period between the previous child birth and the index child birth), size of child at birth, and breastfeeding and family size were found to be significantly important with child mortality in Pakistan. Child mortality decreased as level of mother's education, preceding birth interval, size of child at birth, and family size increased. Child mortality was found to be significantly higher in Balochistan as compared to other regions. Child mortality was low for low birth orders. Child survival was significantly higher for children who were breastfed as compared to those who were not. PMID:27354000

  14. Pakistan - Nuclear power for GHG mitigation and sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Pakistan's contribution to global GHG emissions is very small (currently only 0.3% of world-wide emissions), it shares with the world community the concerns of climate change due to the build-up of GHGs. Pakistan is committed to co-operating with global efforts to avert the potential threat of global warming and is already working towards its own socio-economic development in a sustainable manner. However, due to the country's limited technical and financial capabilities, its efforts are diluted and limited to only high priority areas of national interest. There is a large potential for expanding these efforts, if the necessary technical and financial support can be made available, and such an expansion would contribute significantly to the collective global objective of sustainable development. One such step is the reduction of GHG emissions from Pakistan's power sector by introducing advanced cleaner technologies. Nuclear power is one such technology

  15. Statistical Analysis of Factors Affecting Child Mortality in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zoya; Kamal, Asifa; Kamal, Asma

    2016-06-01

    Child mortality is a composite indicator reflecting economic, social, environmental, healthcare services, and their delivery situation in a country. Globally, Pakistan has the third highest burden of fetal, maternal, and child mortality. Factors affecting child mortality in Pakistan are investigated by using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis. Region, education of mother, birth order, preceding birth interval (the period between the previous child birth and the index child birth), size of child at birth, and breastfeeding and family size were found to be significantly important with child mortality in Pakistan. Child mortality decreased as level of mother's education, preceding birth interval, size of child at birth, and family size increased. Child mortality was found to be significantly higher in Balochistan as compared to other regions. Child mortality was low for low birth orders. Child survival was significantly higher for children who were breastfed as compared to those who were not.

  16. Physicochemical characteristics of various milk samples available in Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad IMRAN; Hamayun KHAN; Syed Shah HASSAN; Rasool KHAN

    2008-01-01

    We report physicochemical characteristics of various kinds of liquid milk commercially available in Pakistan in comparison with those of fresh natural milk from animals. Milk samples were collected from local markets at Peshawar, Pakistan,and analyzed for their physical features, including moisture, total solids, specific gravity, conductivity, viscosity and titratable acidity (lactic acid equivalent), and chemical components and macro-minerals, including total protein, casein, lactose, ash and minerals (Na, K and Mg). These items were compared with the physicochemical characteristics of the fresh natural milk samples from buffalo, cow and goat. The results were also compared with reported nutritional quality of milk from various countries and World Health Organization (WHO) standards. We found that all the physical features and chemical components of commercially available milk in Pakistan markets meet WHO's requirements, except for Na, K, Ca and Mg, which are below the standards.

  17. Pakistan flood damage mapped by UNOSAT at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    As the waters recede, the Pakistan floods are attracting less attention in the world's media. But at the CERN-based headquarters of UNOSAT, the UN Institute for Training and Research Operational Satellite Application Programme, mapping the damage caused by the floods remains the top priority as the “emergency phase” is only now beginning to level off.   Flood analysis in Pakistan from 28 July to 16 September 2010. Credits: © UNOSAT UNOSAT uses impartial, objective data to assess the specifics of a disaster: What surface area has the flood covered? How many bridges and roads have been destroyed? How many areas are impenetrable? Although there are statistical answers to these questions, UNOSAT’s assessment of the damage caused by the Pakistan floods can be simply described in one word: catastrophic. The images used by UNOSAT are taken from a variety of different sources – commercial and scientific. Once a satellite takes an image, the owne...

  18. Virtual Shopping and Impulse Purchasing Strengths and Weaknesses in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Hussain

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the perceptive of consumers doing online shopping and impulse purchasing. This study examined the behavior of thirty consumers who were asked to fill the questionnaire based on some close ended questions. The focus of this investigation was to discuss the strengths and Weaknesses of online shopping and impulse purchasing in developing country like Pakistan. Today consumers choose and buy things while sitting at home through internet and buy things impulsively. Do consumer in Pakistan are using Internet for shopping online? Do they make more impulse purchase on the Internet? Does online shopping save time? Do online shopping is more attractive or consumer feels lack of trust? Impacts of advertising are also discussed. We covered the virtual shopping weakness and strengths in our VSIPSWP (Virtual Shopping and Impulse Purchasing Strengths and Weaknesses in Pakistan Models.

  19. Hepatic cystic echinococcosis: clinical characteristics and outcomes in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Khalid; Kamani, Lubna; Chawla, Tabish; Hamid, Saeed; Jafri, Wasim

    2009-10-01

    Hepatic cystic echinococcosis (HCE) is an emerging disease in central Asia, particularly in Pakistan, due to the migration of infected people. Medical records of patients with HCE admitted between 1995 and 2006 to a tertiary care hospital were reviewed. A total of 106 patients were admitted with a mean age of 34+/-17 years; 60 (56.6%) were men, 72 (67.9%) were residing in rural areas of Pakistan and 21 (19.8%) were Afghan refugees. Twenty-seven (25.4%) had extra hepatic cysts and liver cysts. All patients received albendazole. Percutaneous aspiration, instillation and reaspirarion was done in 14 (13.2%) patients and 71 (66.9%) underwent surgery. Three (2.8%) died and 14 (13.2%) had morbidity. This is one of the largest series of HCE reported from Pakistan. HCE is mostly prevalent in rural areas and among Afghan refugees with low mortality and recurrence, but with significant morbidity. PMID:19762573

  20. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  1. Floods and flood management in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Muhammad Atiq Ur Rehman; van de Giesen, Nick

    Flooding is the most devastating natural hazard in Pakistan and the recent flooding has demonstrated its severeness. Floods are common throughout the country. However, their characteristics differ from region to region. Flooding behavior of the major basins and flood management at the national level are investigated in this article. Monsoon rainfalls are the main source of floods in the Indus Basin, while Mediterranean Waves and Cyclones, which are generated over the Arabian Sea, induce flooding in the Kharan Basin and the Makran Coastal Area. Fluvial floods in the Indus Basin have caused major economic losses. Pakistan’s government has spent vast resources on relief operations and flood works since the country came into existence in 1947. A number of provincial and federal acts, ordinances, accords, and treaties shape the national flood policy. Institutional setup for flood hazard and crisis management has evolved over the years. Nevertheless, data show no major reduction in the flood-to-damage ratio. The inter-linkage of structural and non-structural measures and their combined efficiency must be analyzed and optimized for more effective flood management.

  2. Abiding IPRs in Technological Implications for Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtaza Hussain Shaikh A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The focal objective of this article is to analyze the role of intellectual property rights in technological implications within a general context. The performance of the IPRs system and its interaction with national innovation system with some degrees of success has also been highlighted. Major encounter over subsequently decade will be to identify policies and solutions that would permit marketplace economy to flourish in the framework of this intellectual property insurrection. There has been a lot of dispute on the role of intellectual property protection regime specially in fostering innovation, technology development of a country. IPRs are expected to emboli the innovation, by rewarding inventor with a grant of domination rights over the mercantile exploitation for a specified time period. This article tries to attempts to review the role of the IPR regime in technological development and also have suggested some policy implications for country like Pakistan and some reflecting lessons for other developing countries with similar settings and common characteristics. Keywords -

  3. Taxation, Fiscal Deficit and Inflation in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Rasool Madni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policy has more controversial debate regarding its effectiveness on different macroeconomic activities of an economy. Taxation and government expenditure are two main instruments of fiscal policy. This paper is aimed to analyze and update the effects of different instruments of fiscal policy on inflation in Pakistan economy. The data time span for this study is 1979-2013. The impact of fiscal policy on inflation is analyzed by utilizing the Bounds testing procedure and ARDL approach of co-integration which is a better estimation technique for small sample size. It is found that investment negatively and significantly affect the inflation rate. The outcomes of the study show that both types of taxes (direct and indirect are causing to increase the inflation level while fiscal deficit is also one of the reasons to increase the inflation in the country. The study proposed that government should decrease the level of expenditure to reduce the level of fiscal deficit and investment have to be promoted to decrease the inflation in the country. Furthermore, it is also suggested to decrease the level of taxation for controlling inflation.

  4. Regression in polio eradication in Pakistan: A national tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwal, Sumaira; Hussain, Abrar; Mannan, Shazia; Perveen, Shazia

    2016-03-01

    Polio is one out of 200 infections results to lasting paralysis, usually in the legs. The year 2014 has been the saddest year for the Pakistan when the World was about to eliminate Polio from all over the World. In year 1994 Pakistan took the initiative to eliminate Polio from the country. The efforts were going well until 2005, when Pakistan was on the wedge to overcome the Disease. The hopes were high that soon Pakistan will become a polio-virus-free country, but the drone strikes in FATA and the rise of different militant groups as a reaction of the drone attacks in FATA made it difficult for the health workers to continue their vaccination campaigns in these areas. However various factors ruined the efforts made to eradicate Polio. In Pakistan, polio is widespread to three sections. These are Karachi, Quetta block (Quetta, Pishin and Killah Abdullah district) and FATA and Peshawar district. Numerous things are accountable for polio flourishing in these regions. These comprise near to the ground socioeconomic rank of the families, not having the knowledge concerning hazard caused by polio and disinformation by limited significant people concerning how polio vaccines fabricate damage. In 2014, only 3 countries in the world remain polio-endemic: Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan. From year 2012-2014 the number of registered Polio cases is on rise contrary to rest of the other two Polio-endemic countries. In spite of the extensive work done by Polio workers the number of Polio cases has broken the 16 year record. The situation is getting worse because it can also be threatening to the rest of the World. PMID:26968287

  5. Pakistan's rise to nuclear power and the contribution of German companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricke, Klaus-Peter

    2013-09-01

    The amendment of the Foreign Trade and Payments Act (Aussenwirtschaftsgesetz) has prompted the preparation of this paper because of concerns over potential setbacks in advances achieved over the past twenty years in regulating German exports to non-EU countries and shipments to member states of the EU and the watering down of export restrictions to correspond to the low standards in place at the EU level (with the objective of streamlining the Foreign Trade and Payments Act and nullifying special German requirements which place German exporters at a disadvantage compared with their European competitors, according to a spokesperson of the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology). This would send the wrong signal on combating proliferation. From the 1970s to 1990s the Federal Republic of Germany played an extremely negative role because it opened the doors wide to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction through lax legislation and even more slipshod enforcement. Alarmed by several scandals, in recent years the German government has taken the lead regarding this issue and it would be appropriate for it to continue to fulfill this role. The attitude of the German governments in the 1970s to 1990s as well as the attitude of the key government authorities responsible for controlling exports becomes clear through the example of the cases of illegal exports of nuclear technology to Pakistan. Until the early 1990s the legal situation was such that some acts of proliferation could not even be prosecuted because the licensing regime included only goods listed in Part 1 of the Export Control List (Ausfuhrliste Teil I). The relevant authorities - the Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft (Federal Office of Economics, BAW) and customs authorities - were neither in terms of personnel nor due to the deficiency of their computer equipment - in a position to carry out their legally prescribed duties. The maximum sentence for even the most serious proliferation violations

  6. Estimating the Long-Run Creditworthiness of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hashmi, Rimsha Karim; Qayyum, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The paper analyzes the long-run creditworthiness of Pakistan. The analysis is conducted on time series data of the years 1972-2013. Two Probit Models are estimated by Maximum Likelihood Method. Three specifications of Probit Model of long-run creditworthiness of Pakistan are estimated. These alternative specifications are due to measurement of expected net capital inflows/GDP ratio. It is found that with the inclusion of lagged net capital inflows/GDP ratio in the first Probit Model, the DS/G...

  7. Proceedings of Seminar on Emerging Environmental Issues in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seminar on emerging environmental issues in Pakistan was held from December 5-7, 1998, in Islamabad, Pakistan. The nature and magnitude of environmental contamination, and who is exposed to it, depend not only on scientific and technological factors but also reflect economic, political, social and many other influences. In the process of creating social and economic benefits to society, industrial production generates hazardous waste and chemical contaminants that impact negatively on quality of life. The main emphases in this proceedings are on different type pollution and their impacts on humane life. (A.B.)

  8. A situational analysis of HIV and AIDS in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwar Muhammad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus transmission has been reduced by protected sex and screening of blood products and other body fluids in the developed countries. It has been reported that Pakistan is at high risk of HIV/AIDS infection but presently the prevalence rate is considerably low. The number of reported cases of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan has been continuously increasing since 1987. By 2010 the total number of registered cases has reached to 6000 and this figure is on the rise with the passage of time. Some serious strategies must be implemented to control this deadly disease.

  9. Role of Incubation in Women Entrepreneurship Development in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Shahid A. Zia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Business incubation is one of the implementation tools of government’s strategy for facilitating women entrepreneurship development in Pakistan. Purpose of this study was to measure the importance and effectiveness of incubation services for women entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Study was carried out by using survey method. Tenants from a women specific incubator participated in this survey. Self-administered questionnaire measuring the importance and effectiveness of 34 incubation services was incorporated in this study. Results revealed that tenants perceived all the investigated incubation services very important for the success of their businesses. However, difference in perceived importance and perceived effectiveness, for majority of the incubation services, has been found.

  10. Consumption Pattern of Different Commodities in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Amir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the “Consumption Pattern of Different Commodities in Pakistan” using the cross-sectional data taken from the household integrated Economic survey. This paper aims to analyze that what is the impact of per capita consumption on different household income group in Pakistan. In particular, per capita consumption of eleven (11 different variables with respect to different income groups. Ordinary least square method was used for the estimation of each equation for each variable. in the purpose of estimating this, different income groups were taken and identified the exact relationship between average incomes per household to the average expenditures per household since in the estimation of equations per capita consumption of each income group calculated respect to per capita income, so the formation of different equations were determined. Per capita income (PCY becomes independent of the unit of observation. Since, each household faces the same commodity prices prevailing at the time of household survey, for the purpose of analysis, total consumption expenditure has been disaggregated in to 11 commodity groups listed in table. The table indicates that value of R- squared is high and the co-efficient have correct signs and are significant at 1 percent level of significance, at 5 percent level of significance and at 10 percent level of significance. Overall results explain that with the increase in income expenditure increase for luxuries and decrease for necessities, but it will differ in rich and poor. Finally it is found that poor people consume more on necessities and rich people consume on luxuries as their income increase.

  11. Comments on "Towards Balanced Development in Pakistan".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, E V

    1992-01-01

    Critical comment on the proposal of Professor Pyatt for balanced development in Pakistan focused on broad methodological issues. Professor Pyatt's approach proposes to balance efficiency criteria with longterm objectives of sustainable economic and human development: changing asset distribution through new investment and shifting investment returns in the social sector to households. I is a systematic attempt to compensate for deficits in human development. Policies would include "tariffisation of quota allocation of goods such as water, differential pricing to protect the poor; national conservation and polluter penalties; foreign aid shift to human maintenance expenditure; and reform of fiscal policy on income and expenditure to allow for support of social objectives." Patterns of property and institutional privilege can be effectively altered through market practices, such that wage goods could be subsidized in order to increase productivity. Constructive rethinking of assumptions underlying the balanced development argument is suggested, because of Pyatt model is contrary to the Dornbusch assumptions behind structural adjustment of the standard World Bank model. The assumption in question is that nontraditional expenditure on health, education, and the environment reduces unit labor costs. Concern is also raised about the approach to "efficiency wages" and the inputs of health and education, and food and housing, which are required to supply labor. Real wages might be conceptualized as affecting labor productivity in a more dynamic way than Professor Pyatt recognized. Use of human capital would be maximized and would be equivalent to the formation of new human capital. Wages may be construed to act like internal trade, where prices and markets are effectively interchanged so that farmers receive not only agricultural products, but also essential and nonessential consumer goods. Professor Pyatt's article is relevant to any country's development planning and

  12. Pakistan launches media blitz on AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, W

    1994-01-01

    In March 1994, the National AIDS Prevention and Control Programme in Pakistan launched its media campaign. Staffers have had to work within Islamic principles to inform the public about the risk of HIV infection and to encourage the public to adopt behavior to prevent its transmission. The media messages are not sexually explicit. They call for Pakistanis to call a hotline for or to ask medical professionals about more detailed information on AIDS. The hotline number is memorable (123). The 2 hotlines in Islamabad receive 250-300 calls/day. These hotlines deliver a recorded message with information on the significance of condoms in AIDS prevention and allows callers an opportunity to leave a telephone number or address if they want information. Staff advise callers who are concerned that they may be infected with HIV to obtain a test at 1 of 30 sites and to attend the National Institute for Health in Islamabad for more testing and counseling if the first test is positive. The hotline system will soon expand to all other major Pakistani cities. The program receives 300-400 letters/week asking for specific information. The program had workshops for journalists as its first wave of increasing AIDS awareness. The journalists followed with thoughtful articles on AIDS. Program staff spent much energy to obtain support from Islamic leaders. More media professionals have joined efforts to disseminate information through various media forums to encourage people to seek treatment for sexually transmitted diseases. The program's goal is a 55% increase in the number of people who can name at least 2 correct ways to prevent HIV transmission and an increase in condom use from 1% to 70%. The program eventually would like to increase outreach efforts by working with nongovernmental organizations and by developing videos and short stories.

  13. Determining town base socioeconomic indices to sensitize development in lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban Population is increasing tremendously across the World with many cities struggling to reduce urban divides. Lahore, the second largest city of Pakistan and a provincial capital confronted with challenge of urban divides. Socioeconomic inequalities engrossed the city and have become unrelenting in the wake of absence of an effective mechanism to ensure equity of services and development priorities. Consequently, state/cities resources are misdirected from the real and cogent use. Area based socio-economic indices help to classify areas which require for setting priorities and compatible uses. This paper highlights application of Principle Component Analysis to make socioeconomic indices (SESI) for towns of Lahore with outlined extension to union council level. (author)

  14. Impact of human resource practices on the organizational performance in nestle pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyses the contribution effect of HRM (Human Resource Management) practices such as T and D (Training and Development), R and S (Recruitment and Selection), PA (Performance Appraisal System), CPD (Career Planning and Development), CMP (Compensation) and EP (Employee Participation) on the employee performance in Nestle Pakistan. It also elaborates the impact of employee performance on the OP (Organizational Performance). The results conclude the significantly positive relationship of the HRM Practices with the OP with a considerable influence on employee performance as a mediator.300 respondents are selected for the analysis from target population of all the professionals, working on 1st and 2nd level management through random sampling. We proposed that the conceptual results of the study are highly significant for the practitioners and researchers for future research. (author)

  15. Determination of toxic metals in different brand of chocolates and candies, marketed in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In present study three toxic metals, cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) were determined in chocolates and candy samples available in local markets of Hyderabad, Pakistan. Concentrations of understudy toxic metals (TMs) were determined by electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. Validation of the methodology was performed by standard addition method and conventional acid digestion on electric hot plate to obtained TMs concentration, for comparative purpose to obtain results within the 95% confidence level. No significant differences were observed for TMs obtained from both methods (P 0.05). The concentration of Cd, Ni and Pb were observed in chocolates and candy samples is ranged as of 0.099 - 0.353, 1.45 - 4.33 and 1.11 - 2.48 mu g/g, respectively. The results indicated that cocoa-based chocolates have higher contents of TMs than milk- based chocolates and candies. (author)

  16. Peste des petits ruminants in Pakistan; past, present and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Muhammad; Irfan, Muhammad; Manzoor, Shumaila

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is considered to be one of the main constraints to enhancing the productivity of goats and sheep in regions where it is present and becoming endemic. PPR was recognized in Pakistan in early 1990s but got importance during the Participatory Disease Surveillance (PDS) of Rinderpest Eradication Campaign. Lot of research work has been initiated during last decade towards disease epidemiology, risk factor recognition, laboratory diagnosis, vaccination and demonstration of control strategies. Although there are ongoing projects working towards the progressive control of the disease in country yet there is need to have a national level control program for PPR. Also there is need to have comprehensive social economic surveys, disease hot spot recognition and identification of role of other species in disease transmission. With combined efforts of local and national authorities and political will, there is high likelihood that this devastating disease can be controlled and eventually eradicated in near future. PMID:26528398

  17. Compilation of anatomical, physiological and metabolic characteristics of Reference Asian Man in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research programme was initiated in collaboration with IAEA/RCA to establish local sex specific data and latter on to contribute to define a reference Asian man/woman in the age ran-e of 5, 10, 15, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 20-50 years in order to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure of the country. Physical data on height, weight, chest and head circumference and food consumption data of reference Pakistani man/women were collected from various socioeconomic strata residing at different ecological areas of Pakistan. The present study revealed that our daily nutritional status and all the physical parameters are significantly lower than ICRP reference man of Caucasian origin except the standing height of male. Since the anatomical organs are roughly proportional to body size so approximation can be made for internal dosimetry purposes with the same ratio as defined by those countries who experimentally established their values. (author)

  18. Pollen morphology of the family crassulaceae from pakistan and kashmir and its taxonomic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollen morphology of 28 species representing 9 genera viz., Bryophyllum, Kalanchoe, Pseudosedum, Rhodiola, Rosularia, Hylotelephium, Sedum, Tillaea and Orostachys of the family Crassulaceae from Pakistan has been studied by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, sub-oblate to oblate-spheroidal, or prolate-spheroidal to subprolate often prolate and tricolporate. Tectum mostly striate-rugulate or sub-psilate rarely reticulate-rugulate. Significant variation is found in shape and exine ornamentation and on the basis these characters family has been divided into three pollen types' viz., Rhodiola sinuata-type, Rosularia viguieri-type and Sedum hispanicum-type. Numerical analysis of based on pollen characters of 28 species was also carried out to determine the phylogenetic relationships of various genera and the species of the family Crassulaceae. (author)

  19. Medicinal folk recipes used as traditional phyto therapies in district Dera Ismail Khan, KPK, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is based on the results of an ethno medicinal research work conducted in Dera Ismail Khan (D.I. Khan) District, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa (KPK), Pakistan, during May 2006 to March 2007. The study was focused for documentation of traditional knowledge of local people about the use of medicinal folk recipes of native plants. During field survey, questionnaires were used to interview the local inhabitants, older people including men and women both, who were familiar with traditional uses of indigenous plants. In total 40 new medicinal folk recipes of 26 plant species, belonging to 19 families were recorded. These folk recipes are used as traditional phyto therapies in the area. Plant specimens were identified, preserved and vouchers were deposited in the Department of Botany, Quaid-i-University Islamabad for future references. Results were systematically arranged by alphabetic order of botanical names followed by medicinal folk recipes. English name, local name, family name and voucher no., were listed. (author)

  20. Diagnostic radiological exposure levels in six selected hospitals of Faisalabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out to determine the x ray exposure received by the patients in the six selected government and private hospitals in the city of Faisalabad, Pakistan. The objective was to assess the radiation protection status during diagnostics x ray examination in different hospitals of the city. The exposure to x rays of various organs of human body based on sex, age and weight was measured using the ion chamber pocket dosimeters. The doses received by the patients have been compared with those recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It was observed that patients and the technical staff of the hospitals were ignorant of radiation health hazards. The voltage and current parameters of x ray machines were not set properly. X ray films were not adequately processed. The x ray exposure values showed vast diversifications from organ to organ and hospital to hospital. (author)

  1. Spatial price transmission in Pakistan: The Case of Wheat and Rice Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the spatial price transmission among major wheat and rice markets of Pakistan using their monthly retail prices. For analysis Vector Error Correction Model and Co-integration approach were employed. Results showed that wheat and rice market prices are integrated. Some markets have positive or negative transmission shocks on each other due to the different geographical locations and transport infrastructure. All the wheat markets are adjusted to price changes in the long run equilibrium except few markets. Unidirectional and bidirectional causality exists between wheat and rice markets. Bad and poor infrastructure is a major impediment to price transmission among the markets. These market imperfections lead to food insecurity in the country. Government should formulate better policies and develop infrastructure towards better and efficient market function. The results of this study will help the policy makers to formulate a better policy to enhance marketing function to overcome food insecurity situation. (author)

  2. Distribution and abundance of marine debris along the coast of karachi (arabian sea), pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports the first assessment of distribution and abundance of marine debris along the coast of Karachi (Arabian Sea), Pakistan. The quadrate method was used for estimating the debris material. Total 40 quadrates were made for collecting the debris on 4 beaches: Sandspit, Buleji, Paradise Point and Korangi Creek in the year of 2012. Nine different types of debris comprising of plastics, glasses, thermopore, clothing, rubber, paper, pot pieces and cigarette filters were collected. The study revealed that, plastic was found in high quantity at all four beaches of Karachi. Other most common items were as follow: plastic at Paradise Point and Sandspit; pot pieces at Korangi Creek and rubber at Buleji. A total weight of 12277.45 g debris was recorded during the whole study period. It was also noted that Paradise Point is the dirtiest beach (5612.6 g) when compared with other studied beaches. (author)

  3. Health issues of internally displaced persons in Pakistan: preparation for disasters in future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasay, Mohammad; Mushtaq, Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Army action against terrorism in Pakistan led to the largest human migration in this century. About 3.4 million people (internally displaced persons, IDPs) were displaced. The authors visited all major camps and some houses in Mardan area and interviewed IDPs and doctors at these camps and areas to identify medical needs and current state of provision of medical care. This disaster largely represented displacement of millions of people (IDPs) including women and children to a new weather and environment in overcrowded refugee camps and houses. Influx of large number of displaced people created excessive burden for already deprived local health services. The medical issues and requirements for these IDPs living in camps were totally different from a disaster like earthquake. Global response to this disaster was slow and less effective. The need for a WHO coordination center for creating quick and urgent response for such kind of disasters in future is emphasized in this article. PMID:20496645

  4. Determination of elemental concentration in the atmosphere of PINSTECH complex, Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aerosol particulates concentration of 23 elements have been measured in the atmosphere of PINSTECH Complex, Islamabad, Pakistan. The site has been characterized as a rural site with low level of air pollution. The main aim of this study was to establish the measuring and analysing techniques before expanding the environmental pollution program to the highly polluted areas i.e. the urban atmosphere. In this work neutron activation analysis and gamma-ray spectroscopic techniques are used for the determination of elemental concentrations. Enrichment factor and binary correlation co-efficient methods are used to search for the possible anthropogenic elements. The present study revealed Br and Pb as the main anthropogenic elements in the atmosphere under study. (author)

  5. The Changing Perspective of Art Education in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Sher Ali

    2014-01-01

    The development of art education in Pakistan over the last five decades is explored through three major phases: Arts as traditional crafts together with proficiency in painting and calligraphy. Such skills; somewhat existed in academies but, were then transferred through apprenticeship system. Arts in the academies; the first turning point, that…

  6. Instructional Leadership Potential among School Principals in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niqab, Muhammad; Sharma, Sailesh; Wei, Leong Mei; Maulod, Shafinaz Bt A.

    2014-01-01

    This study highlights the pivotal role of the school principal in relation to organizational commitment and expected student outcomes in schools in Pakistan. By critically examining the available literature, and by evaluating relevant data, this study will draw attention to how successful principals manage their schools, by providing an…

  7. Perspectives of Aacademic Activities in Universities in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhtar; Tariq, Riaz H.; Topping, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    The article explores perspectives on academic activities in public sector universities in Pakistan. Seven Pakistani universities yielded 290 teachers and 568 students in the sample. Factor analysis indicated five main factors in both teacher and student data sets. Both teachers and students were dissatisfied with the performance of the…

  8. Temperament Styles of Children from Pakistan and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Callueng, Carmelo; Rizwan, Muhammad; Aftab, Sobia

    2012-01-01

    Age, gender, and cross-national differences of children ages 9 through 16 in Pakistan (n = 463) and the United States (n = 500) are examined on four bipolar temperament styles: Extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible. In general, Pakistani children prefer extroverted over introverted, practical…

  9. Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MacKerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merritt, Terence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-04-08

    This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

  10. Biodiversity and its use at taunsa barrage wildlife sanctuary, Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bibi, F.; Ali, Z.; Qaisrani, S.N.; Shelly, S.Y.; Andleeb, S.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the livelihood conditions of the peoples of three villages (Bait Qaimwala, Basti Allahwali and Jannu) and their dependency on biodiversity of Taunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary, Pakistan from 2009 to 2011. For socio-economic status, Participatory Human Resource Interaction Appra

  11. Sindh Province, Pakistan Student Assessment : SABER Country Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, Sindh Province, Pakistan joined the Russia Education Aid for Development (READ) trust fund program, the goal of which is to help countries improve their capacity to design, carry out, analyze, and use assessments for improved student learning. As part of the READ trust fund program, and in order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of its existing assessm...

  12. Punjab Province, Pakistan Student Assessment : SABER Country Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, Punjab Province, Pakistan joined the Russia Education Aid for Development (READ) trust fund program, the goal of which is to help countries improve their capacity to design, carry out, analyze, and use assessments for improved student learning. As part of the READ trust fund program, and in order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of its existing assess...

  13. Management of Higher Education Reforms in Pakistan: An Implementation Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, K.

    2008-01-01

    Higher education in Pakistan took a new turn when the Higher Education Commission replaced the old University Grants Commission in 2002. A great deal of this nation’s welfare hinges on what happens in higher education. It is not merely a question of creating a research culture, modernizing the curri

  14. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri, Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sadia; Beg, Mohammad Asim; Mahmood, Syed Faisal; Bandea, Rebecca; Sriram, Rama; Noman, Fatima; Ali, Farheen; Visvesvara, Govinda S; Zafar, Afia

    2011-02-01

    We report 13 cases of Naegleria fowleri primary amebic meningoencephalitis in persons in Karachi, Pakistan, who had no history of aquatic activities. Infection likely occurred through ablution with tap water. An increase in primary amebic meningoencephalitis cases may be attributed to rising temperatures, reduced levels of chlorine in potable water, or deteriorating water distribution systems.

  15. Cultural Diagnosis: An Empirical Investigation of Cellular Industry of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Qamar Ali; Manqoosh ur Rehman

    2011-01-01

    This study describes research in five cellular companies operating in Pakistan, aimed at identifying their current and preferred organizational culture. Using Quinn and Rohrbaugh (1983) competing values framework, the overall cultural profiles and dominant characteristics of the organizations and industry are determined through a personally administered survey employing the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI). The results indicate that hierarchy culture is dominating in cellul...

  16. Subjective well-being of the elderly in Islamabad, Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haq, Rizwan ul

    2012-01-01

    Gevoel van welzijn bij Pakistaanse ouderen Het aandeel van ouderen in de totale bevolking stijgt overal ter wereld. In ontwikkelingslanden, waaronder Pakistan, ligt de focus van onderzoekers en beleidmakers op de economische en medische situatie van ouderen. Hoe oudere mensen hun omstandigheden zelf

  17. Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication--Pakistan, January 2014-September 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Noha H; Wadood, Mufti Zubair; Safdar, Rana Muhammad; Ahmed, Nabil; Hamdi, Sabrine; Tangermann, Rudolph H; Ehrhardt, Derek

    2015-11-20

    Since Nigeria reported its last case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in July 2014, Pakistan and Afghanistan remain the only two countries where WPV transmission has never been interrupted. This report describes actions taken and progress achieved toward polio eradication in Pakistan during January 2014-September 2015 and updates previous reports. A total of 38 WPV1 cases were reported in Pakistan during January-September 2015, compared with 243 during the same period in 2014 (an 84% decline). Among WPV1 cases reported in 2015, 32 (84%) occurred in children aged FATA) and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Province. During January-September 2015, WPV1 was detected in 20% (64 of 325) of environmental samples collected, compared with 34% (98 of 294) of samples collected during the same period in 2014. The quality and scope of polio eradication activities improved considerably following the establishment of a national Emergency Operations Center, which coordinated polio eradication partners' activities. All activities are following a National Polio Eradication Emergency Action Plan that includes a rigorous action plan for the polio low transmission season (January-April). The presence of WPV1 in environmental samples in areas where no polio cases are detected highlights the need to improve surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). Focused efforts to close remaining immunity gaps by locating, tracking, and vaccinating continually missed children and improving coverage with OPV through the routine vaccination program are needed to stop WPV transmission in Pakistan. PMID:26584026

  18. Language Policy and Medium of Instruction Issue in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AMMAR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of language in Pakistan is not just related to linguistics. It has far more implications for cultural, economic, political, and social issues. The current paper studies the latest language policy of Pakistan and its implications for local languages. It then relates to the formation and implementation of a (certain steps sound language policy to root out the conflicts and ethnic clashes from time to time in the country, and to survive the language shock of majority of students in Pakistan, who are taught English as compulsory subject up to 14 years of education. The current situation of the country also correlates to the puzzling phenomenon of cultural aversive attitudes towards English language by the masses.  The current teaching methods and curriculum employed in the institutions of Pakistan, for decades, have only been successful in maintaining the gap between the privileged English related people and the hardcore anti-English sentiments. In this battle for linguistic-identity crisis and supremacy, a lot of national talent has been wasted. This paper briefly re-explores the situation of languages in the country on the first step, then it moves on to focus on the national policy, its flaws, and it possible ways out by bringing in examples from Chinese and Indian Language Policies.

  19. Socio-Economic Impact of Higher Education in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Anam Azam, Muhammad Rafiq, Fauzia Nazir

    2015-01-01

    In  this study, the socio-economic impact of higher education in Pakistan are studied. The main objective of this study was to examine and analyse the casual relationship between socio/economic impacts in higher education. The study has also highlighted the firm relationship in higher education. The findings showed that there is positive relationship in higher education.

  20. Satellite-Based Study of Glaciers Retreat in Northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Siraj

    Glaciers serve as a natural regulator of regional water supplies. About 16933 Km 2 area of glaciers is covered by Pakistan. These glaciers are enormous reservoirs of fresh water and their meltwater is an important resource which feed rivers in Pakistan. Glacier depletion, especially recent melting can affect agriculture, drinking water supplies, hydro-electric power, and ecological habitats. This can also have a more immediate impact on Pakistan's economy that depends mainly on water from glacier melt. Melting of seasonal snowfall and permanent glaciers has resulted not only in reduction of water resources but also caused flash floods in many areas of Pakistan. With the advent of satellite technology, using optical and SAR data the study of glaciers, has become possible. Using temporal data, based on calculation of snow index, band ratios and texture reflectance it has been revealed that the rate of glacier melting has increased as a consequent of global warming. Comparison of Landsat images of Batura glacier for October 1992 and October 2000 has revealed that there is a decrease of about 17 sq km in Batura glaciers. Although accurate changes in glacier extent cannot be assessed without baseline information, these efforts have been made to analyze future changes in glaciated area.

  1. Gender Representation in the Public Sector Schools Textbooks of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Hazir; Skelton, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines gender biases in school textbooks after a decade long effort by the ministry of education (MoE) Pakistan and international organisation (IOs) to eliminate all forms of gender inequality in education. The intention underpinning these initiatives was to nurture a view of gender equality based consciousness through the…

  2. A socioeconomic survey of kidney vendors in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Syed Ali Anwar; Ali, Bux; Mazhar, Farida; Zafar, Mirza Naqi; Rizvi, Syed Adibul Hasan

    2007-11-01

    In recent years, Pakistan has emerged as one of the largest centres for commerce and tourism in renal transplantation. Kidney vendors belong to Punjab in eastern Pakistan, the agricultural heartland, where 34% people live below poverty line. We report results of a socioeconomic and health survey of 239 kidney vendors. The mean age was 33.6 +/- 7.2 years (M:F 3.5:1). Mean nephrectomy period was 4.8 +/- 2.3 years. Ninety per cent of the vendors were illiterate. Sixty-nine per cent were bonded labourers who were virtual slaves to landlords, labourers 12%, housewives 8.5% and unemployed 11%. Monthly income was $US15.4 +/- 8.9 with 2-11 dependents per family. Majority (93%), vended for debt repayment with mean debt of $1311.4 +/- 819. The mean agreed sale price was $1737 +/- 262. However, they received $1377 +/- 196 after deduction for hospital and travel expenses. Postvending 88% had no economic improvement in their lives and 98% reported deterioration in general health status. Future vending was encouraged by 35% to pay off debts and freedom from bondage. This study gives a snapshot of kidney vendors from Pakistan. These impoverished people, many in bondage, are examples of modern day slavery. They will remain exploited until law against bondage is implemented and new laws are introduced to ban commerce and transplant tourism in Pakistan. PMID:17645418

  3. Labor Agency in the Football Manufacturing Industry of Sialkot, Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    be highly gendered and tends to be more constrained than facilitated by both vertical forces (the governance of GPNs) and horizontal forces (local socio-economic and labor market contexts). This is done through a case study of labor agency in the football manufacturing industry of Sialkot, Pakistan....

  4. Delegation from the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    L. to r.: Dr Hafeez Hoorani (NCP) and Dr Michel Della Negra, Spokesman, CMS experiment with a delegation from the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission: Mr Saeed Ahmed, Director SES, PAEC, Mr Muhammad Naeem, Director PWI and Mr Javed Iqleem, Deputy Chairman PAEC visiting the CMS magnet assembly hall at Point 5.

  5. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Pakistan: National Trends and Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez Bhatti, Abu Bakar; Dar, Faisal Saud; Waheed, Anum; Shafique, Kashif; Sultan, Faisal; Shah, Najmul Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranks second amongst all causes of cancer deaths globally. It is on a rise in Pakistan and might represent the most common cancer in adult males. Pakistan contributes significantly to global burden of hepatitis C, which is a known risk factor for HCC, and has one of the highest prevalence rates (>3%) in the world. In the absence of a national cancer registry and screening programs, prevalence of hepatitis and HCC only represents estimates of the real magnitude of this problem. In this review, we present various aspects of HCC in Pakistan, comparing and contrasting it with the global trends in cancer care. There is a general lack of awareness regarding risk factors of HCC in Pakistani population and prevalence of hepatitis C has increased. In addition, less common risk factors are also on a rise. Majority of patients present with advanced HCC and are not eligible for definitive treatment. We have attempted to highlight issues that have a significant bearing on HCC outcome in Pakistan. A set of strategies have been put forth that can potentially help reduce incidence and improve HCC outcome on national level. PMID:26955390

  6. Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism: Sharing Experiences in Afghanistan and Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Galasz; Syed, Mahroona Hussain; Vestenskov, David

    challenges require a development of policies and strategies. Though the roles of Denmark and Pakistan respectively are different in nature, a lot of commonalities in conceptual thoughts and actions were found between the two countries at all levels. The book at hand gathers a number of lessons identified...

  7. Gulf States and the Conflict between India and Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Shahab Ahmed

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional cultural and economic ties between the Indian subcontinent and the Gulf region have existed for several centuries now. Strengthened further, both India and Pakistan continue to have important economic and strategic ties with the countries of the Gulf. While the Gulf region offers substantial economic advantages to both, they also have the potential to make positive interventions in the bilateral conflict between India and Pakistan. The following chapter analyses the role and position of the Gulf Arab States - in particular the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, and their potential in acting as a buffer for the Indo-Pak conflict. It will evaluate the official positions of the Gulf region towards various aspects of the Indo-Pak conflict. The Gulfcountries have often voiced their positions at regional and internationalforums. An additional aspect of this relationship is that the Gulf States are also members of the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC, a pan- Islamic body which has often addressed issues of contention between India and Pakistan, particularly with respect to Kashmir. Through an academic understanding of the issues and incorporating viewpoints of experts in the area, the chapter seeks to provide fresh insights into an aspect which has the possibility of becoming a crucial incentive for peace between India and Pakistan.

  8. Comments on "Population Change in the Wake of Agricultural Improvement: Lessons for Pakistan".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, M

    1992-01-01

    The author critiques an article on Pakistan's agricultural improvement and population change. The focus of concern was the theory proposed by the Chicago/Columbia school on the relationship between income and demand for children. There is disagreement that technical change which increases labor use will lead to increases in the demand for children and increases in the total fertility rate (TFR). The author proposes that when technical change reduces labor needs, employment decreases lead to decreasing or low household income, resulting in an increased demand for children and increased TFRs. The contention is that low income, not high probabilities of employment, will raise the demand for child labor. There is also concern that demand for children is not stable across all income classes; rich parents are unlikely to rely on children's future income. The micro thinking would place the household in the position, with low adult employment and low wages, of desiring to increase income with a child's wages, which are offered in the market at lower than adult wages. This would allow employers to take advantage of the low wages of children. There is evidence that a strong, significant, and positive relationship exists between mechanization in 1961 and growth of mechanization and the decline in TFRs. There is also evidence that real wages are significantly and strongly positively related to a decrease in TFR. The implications for Pakistani policy are that increasing landlessness and agricultural unemployment have a deleterious effect on future growth and may account for high levels of TFR in Pakistan. TFRs are expected to decline when agrarian income and assets even out.

  9. Field verification of social and environmental issues of selected water sector projects in Punjab-Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irrigation helps in increasing the agricultural yield and the irrigation projects are carried out for the welfare of people. The importance of environment for sustainable development of irrigation projects has been realized. Environmental Impact Assessment is being increasingly used as a tool for appropriate environmental planning. In Pakistan, PEP A (Pakistan Environmental Protection Act),1997 establishes the framework to carry out Environmental Assessment of development projects. Various national and international agencies have developed Environmental Assessment Guidelines and Checklists for systematic evaluation of environmental impacts and their mitigation. The Social and Environmental Management Unit of Punjab Irrigation and Drainage Authority developed checklist for assessment of irrigation projects in 2007. The present study was conducted on three water sector projects namely: Concrete Lining of Dhudi Minor, Improving Nikki Deg Drain System and Rehabilitation of Khanki Barrage. The field verification of social and environmental issues of the projects was carried out according to the checklist of Social and Environmental Management Unit. The most noticeable impacts which were identified include: extended canal closure, emissions and effluents, waste generation and disposal, effect on flora, public health and safety, land acquisition, and social issues. The mitigatory measures proposed: proper project scheduling to minimize the canal closure periods, waste disposal through proper planning, preparation of detailed resettlement action plans and compensation, location of labor camps away from the settlements, avoiding unnecessary cutting of trees, and deployed machinery should be in good working condition. The recommendations of the study are to review and improve the checklists through a gradual and phased process into a more comprehensive social and environmental assessment process; capacity building of all the stake holders; collaboration between different

  10. Pakistan embarks on new campaign to reduce fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    There was both international and domestic significance in a plea for population stabilization issued by Pakistan's Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in his address at the recent Earth Summit conference in Rio de Janeiro. Speaking as both a national leader and chairman of the Group of 77, a coalition of developing countries, Sharif said that to eradicate the abject poverty under which more than a billion people in the world live today "developing countries must assume their full responsibility in limiting population growth to manageable levels." Those words may seem odd coming from the leader of a country that has been indifferent about population problems for the past 2 decades. Until Prime Minister Sharif made a public commitment to a population program last July, the last leader of Pakistan to take such action was the late President Ayub Khan in 1969. With an annual 3.1% growth rate, Pakistan's population of 122 million is projected to double in only 23 years. The average Pakistani woman has 6.1 children in her reproductive lifetime. Reduction of population growth was an issue in the October 1990 election campaign. After his Islamic Democratic Alliance won, the government named Syeda Abida Hussain, a prominent and popular politician, to the cabinet post of Minister of Family Welfare. Hussain, who is now Pakistan's Ambassador to the US, recalls that many experts felt that starting a population program would be "an impossible undertaking, "that" attitudes were not conducive to family planning and government would never support it." In a speech on World Population Day in Rio, organized by the Population Institute, she said she soon found that "the problems were managerial, not attitudinal." She maintained that the relatively low acceptance of contraception among the people of Pakistan, Bangladesh and India is not because of religion or ideology "but because they are too poor to have access to birth control." Shortly after Hussain was names Minister of Family Welfare, she

  11. Development of radiochemistry in Pakistan - 1960 to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the inception of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) in 1956, peaceful uses of atomic energy commenced for the benefit of scientific community as well as masses of Pakistan. Radiochemistry played a vital role right from the beginning. The research and development in this field accelerated soon after the criticality of the first research reactor named as Pakistan Research Reactor (PARR-1) at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), Islamabad. The first radioisotope produced at PARR-1 for application in nuclear medicine was 131I. Later on, many other radioisotopes were prepared and radiopharmaceuticals were synthesised for their use in industry and hospitals. Besides providing pure radioactive tracers for nuclear medicine, radiochemistry also enhanced the detection limit of impurities at all stages of nuclear fuel cycle for power generation. In 1983, research in the field of nuclear data measurement began. The main aim was to identify suitable conditions for the production of radionuclides for cancer diagnostics, treatment and therapy. With the establishment of a second research reactor (PARR-2) at PINSTECH, research in neutron activation analysis, radioisotope production and separation studies gained more momentum and many research articles were published. Solvent extraction, adsorption and ion-exchange were the main routes of separation in those studies. Separation of heavy metals and treatment of waste generated in a nuclear power plant are other important aspects related to environmental restoration and nuclear waste management, where radiochemistry is required. In future, work in radiochemistry will be continued on similar lines to develop novel radiopharmaceuticals, identify indigenous schemes for nuclear waste management and work out intelligent procedures for material characterization for benefit to mankind, especially the people of Pakistan. (orig.)

  12. Cooperative Development of the Pakistan Seismic Network System (PSNS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, S.; Mooney, W.; McDonald, S.

    2005-12-01

    We propose to cooperate with the Pakistan Meteorological Department for the design and construction of the new Pakistan Seismic Network System (PSNS) that has been funded by the government of Pakistan. The PSNS will consist of 12-15 broadband stations, 50 short-period stations, and 50 accelerometers. Our role will be to provide technical assistance in site selection, to prepare the Request for Proposals (RFP) from industry, and to evaluate performance. The relative importance of tsunami warnings, national earthquake and landslide hazards, and whether a largely urban or truly national network is envisioned will be determined early in the program. Final placement of stations will take many factors into consideration including proximity to faults and seismic activity, geographic accessibility, the consistency of bedrock, and various cultural or social effects. This cooperation has the potential to lead to the development of a desperately needed tsunami early warning network that could protect the Pakistani coastal population in the event of a natural disaster such as the Dec. 26, 2004 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami. The seismic hazard off the coast of Pakistan is high due to the proximity of the Makran and Sumatra subduction zones, the former of which could trigger tsunamis in Pakistan with heights of 12m within minutes. In addition to monitoring earthquake activity, the PSNS will provide seismic data of interest to the world-wide scientific community for a region in which there is little understanding of the upper crust and mantle. It will furthermore address educational outreach and diplomacy issues by providing training to Pakistani scientists in routine network operation and data processing.

  13. Energy geopolitics and Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the growing energy demands in India and its neighboring countries, Iran-Pakistan-India (IPI) gas pipeline assumes special significance. Energy-deficient countries such as India, China, and Pakistan are vying to acquire gas fields in different parts of the world. This has led to two conspicuous developments: first, they are competing against each other and secondly, a situation is emerging where they might have to confront the US and the western countries in the near future in their attempt to control energy bases. The proposed IPI pipeline is an attempt to acquire such base. However, Pakistan is playing its own game to maximize its leverages. Pakistan, which refuses to establish even normal trading ties with India, craves to earn hundreds of millions of dollars in transit fees and other annual royalties from a gas pipeline which runs from Iran's South Pars fields to Barmer in western India. Pakistan promises to subsidize its gas imports from Iran and thus also become a major forex earner. It is willing to give pipeline related 'international guarantees' notwithstanding its record of covert actions in breach of international law (such as the export of terrorism) and its reluctance to reciprocally provide India what World Trade Organization (WTO) rules obligate it to do-Most Favored Nation (MFN) status. India is looking at the possibility of using some set of norms for securing gas supply through pipeline as the European Union has already initiated a discussion on the issue. The key point that is relevant to India's plan to build a pipeline to source gas from Iran relates to national treatment for pipeline. Under the principle of national treatment which also figures in relation to foreign direct investment (FDI), the country through which a pipeline transits should provide some level of security to the transiting pipeline as it would have provided to its domestic pipelines. This paper will endeavor to analyze, first, the significance of this pipeline for India

  14. An assessment of Pakistan's urban policies 1947-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadeer, M A

    1996-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing and assessing the evolution and outcomes of Pakistan's urban policies during 1947-97. One-third of Pakistan's population live in urban areas, and the level of urbanization increased from 18% in 1951 to 32% in 1991. The rapid rate of urbanization has produced two megacities, Karachi with a population of 8-10 million and Lahore with a population of about 5 million, and 6 other cities with populations of 1 million or more. Pakistan is one of the pioneering countries in implementing physical planning and planned housing; this is reflected in its urban policies as constituted by the Five-Year Plan and national development budgets. The programs through which the policies were implemented are divided into three phases. Phase 1 (1947-70) involved the resettlement of refugees and laying of the institutional framework; core housing schemes (consisting of 1- to 2-room quarters) were the key element of the urban strategy in this period. Phase 2 (1971-78) policies were guided by the promise of mass housing, particularly for the working and lower classes. At this time, too, a set of squatter settlements known as Katchi Abadis emerged, and international organizations started funding Pakistan's urban development programs. Phase 3 (1980-95) saw the steady "privatization" of the housing and land markets and improved housing conditions, while urban policy continued to concentrate on public works, plots and construction. Despite the improvements, urban crises persist, and policies are shifting towards more complex issues of quality and the provision of new collective goods. In general, the achievements of Pakistan's urban policies have outweighed its failures, as both the rich and the poor have benefitted from them.

  15. Pakistan's rise to nuclear power and the contribution of German companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricke, Klaus-Peter

    2013-09-01

    The amendment of the Foreign Trade and Payments Act (Aussenwirtschaftsgesetz) has prompted the preparation of this paper because of concerns over potential setbacks in advances achieved over the past twenty years in regulating German exports to non-EU countries and shipments to member states of the EU and the watering down of export restrictions to correspond to the low standards in place at the EU level (with the objective of streamlining the Foreign Trade and Payments Act and nullifying special German requirements which place German exporters at a disadvantage compared with their European competitors, according to a spokesperson of the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology). This would send the wrong signal on combating proliferation. From the 1970s to 1990s the Federal Republic of Germany played an extremely negative role because it opened the doors wide to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction through lax legislation and even more slipshod enforcement. Alarmed by several scandals, in recent years the German government has taken the lead regarding this issue and it would be appropriate for it to continue to fulfill this role. The attitude of the German governments in the 1970s to 1990s as well as the attitude of the key government authorities responsible for controlling exports becomes clear through the example of the cases of illegal exports of nuclear technology to Pakistan. Until the early 1990s the legal situation was such that some acts of proliferation could not even be prosecuted because the licensing regime included only goods listed in Part 1 of the Export Control List (Ausfuhrliste Teil I). The relevant authorities - the Bundesamt fuer Wirtschaft (Federal Office of Economics, BAW) and customs authorities - were neither in terms of personnel nor due to the deficiency of their computer equipment - in a position to carry out their legally prescribed duties. The maximum sentence for even the most serious proliferation violations

  16. Evolution of Doctoral Education in Pakistan: Challenges and Successes of Doctoral Students of Education in a Public Sector University of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halai, Nelofer

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a part of the findings from a larger study undertaken to explore the experience of graduate students in education in Pakistan. Analysis of a smaller slice of data collected from students who were enrolled in the PhD and MPhil programmes of the Department of Education in a large public sector university in Northern Pakistan was…

  17. Governance and Higher Education in Pakistan: What Roles Do Boards of Governors Play in Ensuring the Academic Quality Maintenance in Public Universities versus Private Universities in Pakistan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Sidra

    2014-01-01

    There are major structural issues in the higher education system in Pakistan leading to poor governance of institutions and questionable quality of education. This paper looks at the differences in the role of boards of governors in maintaining quality of education in both the public and the private sector universities in Pakistan. After having…

  18. Motivational determinants among physicians in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souares Aurélia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Human resource crises in developing countries have been identified as a critical aspect of poor quality and low accessibility in health care. Worker motivation is an important facet of this issue. Specifically, motivation among physicians, who are an important bridge between health systems and patients, should be considered. This study aimed to identify the determinants of job motivation among physicians, a neglected perspective, especially in developing countries. Methods A stratified random sample of 360 physicians was selected from public primary, public secondary and public and private tertiary health facilities in the Lahore district, Pakistan. Pretested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires were used. For the descriptive part of this study, physicians were asked to report their 5 most important work motivators and demotivators within the context of their current jobs and in general. Responses were coded according to emergent themes and frequencies calculated. Of the 30 factors identified, 10 were classified as intrinsic, 16 as organizational and 4 as socio-cultural. Results Intrinsic and socio-cultural factors like serving people, respect and career growth were important motivators. Conversely, demotivators across setups were mostly organizational, especially in current jobs. Among these, less pay was reported the most frequently. Fewer opportunities for higher qualifications was a demotivator among primary and secondary physicians. Less personal safety and poor working conditions were important in the public sector, particularly among female physicians. Among private tertiary physicians financial incentives other than pay and good working conditions were motivators in current jobs. Socio-cultural and intrinsic factors like less personal and social time and the inability to financially support oneself and family were more important among male physicians. Conclusion Motivational determinants differed

  19. Surface Deformation in Quetta Valley, Balochistan, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Shuhab, K.; Wulamu, A.; Crupa, W.; Khan, A. S.; Kakar, D. M.; Kasi, A.

    2015-12-01

    In February 2011, several ground fissures up to ~1.8 km in length appeared in the Quetta Valley, Balochsitan, Pakistan. It is not clear what caused the sudden occurrence of these fissures. The region is tectonically active and bounded to the west by several regional strike-slip faults including the north-south striking left-lateral Chaman fault system that slips at ~10 mm per year. Several large earthquakes have occurred recently in this area, one fatal 6.4 magnitude (Mw) earthquake occurred on October 28th, 2008. Some parts of Quetta Valley are subsiding; GPS data from two stations in Quetta that span mid-2006 - 2009 recorded subsidence rates of ~10 cm per year. Although subsidence in urban areas is generally attributed to groundwater depletion, it is not clear whether ground fissures are caused by water withdrawal or related to tectonics of the region. This study is designed to quantify and assess the source of surface deformation in Quetta Valley using InSAR, GPS, seismic and earthquake centroid moment tensor data. To detect and map the spatial-temporal features of the processes that led to the surface deformation, we used two time series, i.e., 15 European Remote Sensing (ERS-1/2) satellite images from 1992 - 1999 and 27 ENVISAT images spanning 2003 - 2010. A Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique was used to investigate surface deformation. Eleven continuous-GPS stations within the InSAR antenna footprint were compared with the InSAR time series for quality control. Preliminary InSAR results revealed that the areas in and around the fissures are subsiding at 5 cm per year. Five seismic lines totaling ~60 km, acquired in 2003, were used to interpret faults beneath Holocene alluvium in the Quetta Valley. One of the blind faults is a north-south striking thrust fault mapped north into the Takatu range. However, a focal mechanism for the 2008 earthquake in this region indicated northwest

  20. Immunisation and infant mortality in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Z

    1993-01-01

    Pakistan has been engaged with the Expanded Program on Immunization since 1982. In January 1991 an evaluation was conducted in order to ascertain coverage results for children aged 12-23 months of age, tetanus toxoid coverage for mothers of infants aged 0-11 months of age, and to review management of the program at all levels. The survey was based on information provided in the mother's history of children aged 12-23 months and by the immunization card in urban and rural clusters. Coverage included 8651 households in 240 clusters, 1968 children aged 12-23 months, and 1965 mothers of infants aged 0-11 months. The results showed high coverage in Punjab, Northwest Frontier Province, and Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Tetanus toxoid coverage of mothers could be improved. Provinces which had low coverage included Sindh and Balochistan. Between 1984-85 and 1990-91 infant mortality was reduced from 106.4 deaths/1000 live births to 100.9 deaths/1000 live births. In the Punjab immunization coverage among children aged 0-11 months was 56.3% in urban areas and 93.8% in rural areas with outreach and a mobile team. Hospital administration of vaccines was lower in rural areas (4.8%) compared to urban areas (22.1%) in the Punjab. Most children were immunized through outreach or a mobile team (56.3% in urban and 93.8% in rural areas of the Punjab). Outreach in Northwest Frontier Province was 30.6% in urban areas and 70.7% in rural areas. Hospital coverage was 36.5% in urban areas and 24.4% in rural areas. Coverage in Balochistan was 64.9% by outreach, 24.7% for health centers, and 9.1% for hospitals. Among partially immunized children, 10.3% indicated lack of awareness of need and 15.0% indicated lack of awareness of need for a subsequent visit. Fear of side effects affected 3.1% of those partially vaccinated. Lack of information affected 33.0%. Motivation was a reason for 4.1%. 62.9% indicated obstacles such as distance, time, health personnel absent, busy mother, family problems, and