WorldWideScience

Sample records for authoritarianism

  1. Authoritarian Liberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Somek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: In light of the reforms undertaken for the sake of the Euro, the article revisits the concept authoritarian liberalism that was introduced in 1933 by the German public law scholar Hermann Heller. This notion seeks to capture the liaison between the “strong state” and economic liberalism. The article suggests that this notion can be fruitfully used to designate the new governance of economic and monetary union. It argues, particularly, that it makes sense to speak of an authoritarian style of governance even if the latter does not wear vestiges of outright repression. Two different faces of authoritarian liberalism can be distinguished: one that looks more towards authoritarianism and another one that views authoritarian rule as a managerial strategy that is good for the economy. The article then speculates whether the European Union has been, indeed, successful because it shifts between the two. Disturbingly, there may be something deeply as well as more accidentally authoritarian about European integration. DEUTSCH: Angesichts der Reformen in der Eurozone greift dieser Beitrag den Begriff des „Autoritären Liberalismus“ wieder auf. Er wurde von Hermann Heller im Jahre 1933 verwendet, um die internen Zusammenhang zwischen dem ökonomischen Liberalismus und einem „starken Staat“ zu beschreiben. Dieser Begriff ist zur Erlangung eines angemessenen Verständnisses des neuen Regierens in der Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion heuristisch fruchtbar. Es ist sinnvoll von autoritärem Regieren auch dann zu sprechen, wenn diese nicht die äußeren Anzeichen staatlicher Repression trägt. Zwei Seiten des autoritären Liberalismus lassen sich unterscheiden. Während die eine Seite viel von Autorität an sich hält, sieht die andere Seite das autoritäre Regieren als etwas an, das gut für die Wirtschaft ist. Der Beitrag spekuliert abschließend darüber, ob die europäische Integration deswegen erfolgreich gewesen sein mag, weil sie

  2. Authoritarian Personality Traits Among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of an investigation into the social attitudes of the total population (800) of one English university using Adorno's F scale to measure authoritarian personality traits. (Author)

  3. Aid and Authoritarianism in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In 2013 almost half of Africa’s top aid recipients were ruled by authoritarian regimes. While the West may claim to promote democracy and human rights, in practice major bilateral and international donors, such as USAID , DFID , the World Bank and the European Commission, have seen their aid...... policies become ever more entangled with the survival of their authoritarian protégés. Local citizens thus find themselves at the receiving end of a compromise between aid agencies and government elites, in which development policies are shaped in the interests of maintaining the status quo. Aid...... and Authoritarianism in Africa sheds light on the political intricacies and moral dilemmas raised by the relationship between foreign aid and autocratic rule in Africa. Through contributions by leading experts exploring the revival of authoritarian development politics in Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, Cameroon, Mozambique...

  4. Highly dominating, highly authoritarian personalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemeyer, Bob

    2004-08-01

    The author considered the small part of the population whose members score highly on both the Social Dominance Orientation scale and the Right-Wing Authoritarianism scale. Studies of these High SDO-High RWAs, culled from samples of nearly 4000 Canadian university students and over 2600 of their parents and reported in the present article, reveal that these dominating authoritarians are among the most prejudiced persons in society. Furthermore, they seem to combine the worst elements of each kind of personality, being power-hungry, unsupportive of equality, manipulative, and amoral, as social dominators are in general, while also being religiously ethnocentric and dogmatic, as right-wing authoritarians tend to be. The author suggested that, although they are small in number, such persons can have considerable impact on society because they are well-positioned to become the leaders of prejudiced right-wing political movements. PMID:15279331

  5. Relationship of personal authoritarianism with parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Laura

    2006-02-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the personality construct of right-wing authoritarianism and Baumrind's 1971 proposed parenting styles of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting. 68 youth ages 12-18 along with one of their parents participated. The children rated both parents on Buri's 1991 Parental Authority Questionnaire. One of the parents responded to Altemeyer's Right-Wing Authoritarian Scale. People with higher scores on Altemeyer's scale were more likely to prefer the authoritarian parenting style as their offspring reported (r = .33). Permissive parenting correlated negatively with the measure of authoritarianism as a personality variable (r = -.56).

  6. Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills among Authoritarian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson Hurley, Martha; Hurley, David

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on assignments designed to enhance critical thinking skills for authoritarian personality types. This paper seeks to add to the literature by exploring instructional methods to overcome authoritarian traits that could inhibit the development of critical thinking skills. The article presents a strategy which can be employed…

  7. Intercultural Effectiveness, Authoritarianism, and Ethnic Prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesdale, Drew; Robbe, Mike de Vries; Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which intercultural effectiveness dimensions (cultural empathy, open-mindedness, social initiative, emotional stability, flexibility) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) predicted the ethnic prejudice of 166 Australian respondents toward Indigenous Australians. In

  8. Influence of Response Sets on Authoritarian and Non-Authoritarian Attitude Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, James A.; And Others

    An attempt was made to examine authoritarian and non-authoritarian scales of social attitudes and their reversals as a function of: (1) content consistency; (2) acquiescence; and (3) a tendency to use extreme categories of response. The study questioned whether Adorno's fascism (F), dogmatism (D), ethnocentrism (E), and anti-Semitism (A-S) scales…

  9. Authoritarian personality: Psychoanalysis of antisemitism and prejudices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todosijević Bojan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Authoritarian Personality is one of the most influential studies in social psychology, yet it has been subjected to different, often contradictory interpretations. This paper argues that the most important element of the authoritarian personality theory is the analysis of the psychological functionality of prejudice. Using psychoanalytic conceptual tools, the authors described the psychological logic behind apparently contradictory prejudices, and the function of prejudice in personal psychological 'economy'. In this way, Adorno et al. 'psychoanalyzed' both prejudice and the prejudiced. The first part of the paper presents the original research, with the particular focus on the less familiar aspects. The second part reviews the reactions to the Authoritarian Personality, and analyzes some of the better known criticisms and objections. The paper ends with the review of recent research trends inspired by Adorno et al.’s theory.

  10. Beyond Authoritarian Personality: The Culture-Inclusive Theory of Chinese Authoritarian Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Lung

    2016-01-01

    In a dyad interaction, respecting and obeying those with high status (authority) is highly valued in Chinese societies. Regarding explicit behaviors, Chinese people usually show respect to and obey authority, which we call authoritarian orientation. Previous literature has indicated that Chinese people have a high degree of authoritarian personality, which was considered a national character. However, under Confucian relationalism (Hwang, 2012a), authoritarian orientation is basically an ethical issue, and thus, should not be reduced to the contention of authoritarian personality. Based on Yang's (1993) indigenous conceptualization, Chien (2013) took an emic bottom-up approach to construct an indigenous model of Chinese authoritarian orientation; it represents a "culture-inclusive theory." However, Chien's model lacks the role of agency or intentionality. To resolve this issue and to achieve the epistemological goal of indigenous psychology (that is, "one mind, many mentalities"), this paper took the "cultural system approach" (Hwang, 2015b) to construct a culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation in order to represent the universal mind of human beings as well as the mentalities of people in a particular culture. Two theories that reflect the universal mind, the "Face and Favor model" (Hwang, 1987) and the "Mandala Model of Self" (Hwang, 2011a,c), were used as analytical frameworks for interpreting Chien's original model. The process of constructing the culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation may represent a paradigm for the construction of indigenous culture-inclusive theories while inspiring further development. Some future research directions are proposed herein. PMID:27445894

  11. Beyond Authoritarian Personality: The Culture-Inclusive Theory of Chinese Authoritarian Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Lung

    2016-01-01

    In a dyad interaction, respecting and obeying those with high status (authority) is highly valued in Chinese societies. Regarding explicit behaviors, Chinese people usually show respect to and obey authority, which we call authoritarian orientation. Previous literature has indicated that Chinese people have a high degree of authoritarian personality, which was considered a national character. However, under Confucian relationalism (Hwang, 2012a), authoritarian orientation is basically an ethical issue, and thus, should not be reduced to the contention of authoritarian personality. Based on Yang's (1993) indigenous conceptualization, Chien (2013) took an emic bottom-up approach to construct an indigenous model of Chinese authoritarian orientation; it represents a "culture-inclusive theory." However, Chien's model lacks the role of agency or intentionality. To resolve this issue and to achieve the epistemological goal of indigenous psychology (that is, "one mind, many mentalities"), this paper took the "cultural system approach" (Hwang, 2015b) to construct a culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation in order to represent the universal mind of human beings as well as the mentalities of people in a particular culture. Two theories that reflect the universal mind, the "Face and Favor model" (Hwang, 1987) and the "Mandala Model of Self" (Hwang, 2011a,c), were used as analytical frameworks for interpreting Chien's original model. The process of constructing the culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation may represent a paradigm for the construction of indigenous culture-inclusive theories while inspiring further development. Some future research directions are proposed herein.

  12. Authoritarianism and Attitudes Toward Working Wives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadow, Mary Jo

    One hundred unmarried female students, 18 to 21 years old, took the California F Scale and the Hewer-Neubeck Marriage and Employment Questionnaire. Authoritarianism was found significantly related to acceptance or rejection of many specific reasons offered for a woman's working or not working after marriage for subjects themselves, their perceived…

  13. [Authoritarian attitudes and violence in Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Martín, F

    1999-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Multicentric Study on Cultural Norms and Attitudes Toward Violence (Estudio Multicéntrico sobre Actitudes y Normas Culturales frente a la Violencia, the ACTIVA project) is to analyze the relationship between those attitudes that foster violence and the violent behaviors themselves. This article examines the relationship between attitudes and two components of violence: its justification and its actual occurrence. Data were collected in Madrid between October and December 1996 from a representative sample of 1,219 people, who were interviewed at home with the common questionnaire used for the ACTIVA project, with some additional questions. Overall, the sample respondents scored low on the authoritarianism scale. Persons who most strongly justified the use of violence scored higher on authoritarianism, along with those who customarily displayed a higher level of aggression. Attitudes that were more strongly authoritarian were found in low-income neighborhoods, in people who were not part of the workforce, in people with less education, and in those persons who described themselves as having a right-wing ideology. If people who are more authoritarian justify and practice violence more than others, it becomes necessary to encourage criticism of those who abuse their power and tolerance toward differences, in order to prevent such behaviors without disregarding the influence of the social variables previously mentioned.

  14. Beyond Authoritarian Personality: The Culture-Inclusive Theory of Chinese Authoritarian Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Lung

    2016-01-01

    In a dyad interaction, respecting and obeying those with high status (authority) is highly valued in Chinese societies. Regarding explicit behaviors, Chinese people usually show respect to and obey authority, which we call authoritarian orientation. Previous literature has indicated that Chinese people have a high degree of authoritarian personality, which was considered a national character. However, under Confucian relationalism (Hwang, 2012a), authoritarian orientation is basically an ethical issue, and thus, should not be reduced to the contention of authoritarian personality. Based on Yang's (1993) indigenous conceptualization, Chien (2013) took an emic bottom-up approach to construct an indigenous model of Chinese authoritarian orientation; it represents a “culture-inclusive theory.” However, Chien's model lacks the role of agency or intentionality. To resolve this issue and to achieve the epistemological goal of indigenous psychology (that is, “one mind, many mentalities”), this paper took the “cultural system approach” (Hwang, 2015b) to construct a culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation in order to represent the universal mind of human beings as well as the mentalities of people in a particular culture. Two theories that reflect the universal mind, the “Face and Favor model” (Hwang, 1987) and the “Mandala Model of Self” (Hwang, 2011a,c), were used as analytical frameworks for interpreting Chien's original model. The process of constructing the culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation may represent a paradigm for the construction of indigenous culture-inclusive theories while inspiring further development. Some future research directions are proposed herein. PMID:27445894

  15. Authoritarianism and attitudes toward AIDS victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, K S; Elder, R; Bader, M; Dougard, C

    1990-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship of authoritarianism and attitudes toward AIDS victims in three samples. One hundred fifty-eight students at Oregon State University participated, including 101 students from the United States, 25 from Japan, and 32 from other Asian societies. The survey instrument included the 20-item Attitudes Toward AIDS Victims (ATAV) Scale, the 18-item F Scale, the Form A, and 14-item Formal Content of Dogmatism Scale. Results showed slight but significant correlations between the ATAV and F (r = .17, p less than .044) and Formal Content of Dogmatism (r = .20, p less than .023) Scales for the United States sample. Highly significant differences were found in the predicted direction among the three samples on authoritarianism, F = 43.94, p less than .001. PMID:2325403

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility Under Authoritarian Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman, Peter S.; Moon, Jeremy; Wu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    through the interplay of the global and national societal pressures and mediating and even leading roles played by the State and the Party. We consider the conceptual integrity and practical prospects for “state-led society-driven” CSR and future research opportunities, including those opened up......This article introduces the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the seemingly oxymoronic context of Chinese “authoritarian capitalism.” Following an introduction to the emergence of authoritarian capitalism, the article considers the emergence of CSR in China using Matten and Moon......’s framework of explaining CSR development in terms both of a business system’s historic institutions and of the impacts of new institutionalism on corporations arising from societal pressures in their global and national environments. We find two forms of CSR in China, reflecting the “multiplexity” of its...

  17. Sociological Investigating of the Authoritarian Personality (Case Study: Isfahan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ghasemi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   The main questions to answer in this article are that “What are the possible explanations of the formation of the authoritarian personality? How is an authoritarian personality born and where are its roots?” We used from F. scale. The original F. scale was to contain 38 items and 9 key dimensions of authoritarian personality: Conventionalism, Authoritarian Submission, Authoritarian Aggression, Anti- interception, Superstition and Stereotype, Power and ‘toughness’, Destructiveness and Cynicism, Projective, heightened concerns about sex. This scale defined by Adorno at al. in 1950.   The purpose of this research is to find out the level of tendency toward authoritarianism and to study the impact of variables like age, group membership, socialization of power (family structure, education system and mass media, level of education, income and occupation on authoritarianism. In this survey study a sample of 368 citizens of Isfahan (18years old and over have been interviewed.   The results indicate that a significant and reserve relationship has been found between age, group membership, education system and mass media and tendency toward authoritarianism. A significant and direct relationship exists between family structure, level of education, income and occupation and tendency toward authoritarianism.

  18. The Interactive Relationships of Teacher Directiveness and Student Authoritarianism and Dogmatism to Grades and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, S. J. H.; Fisher, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    The interactions of teacher directiveness and student authoritarianism, teacher directiveness and student dogmatism, teacher authoritarianism and student authoritarianism, and teacher dogmatism and student dogmatism were examined in terms of variance in grades and satisfaction. (JC)

  19. University and Government in Mexico: Autonomy in an Authoritarian System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Daniel C.

    The relationship between the authoritarian state and higher education in Mexico is examined in this case study. Focus is on the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) since it receives 40 percent of the federal budget for higher education, which makes it a prime example of autonomy within an authoritarian political system. Using three…

  20. The Effect of Socio-economic Status on Authoritarianism

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrollah Pour Afkari; Behzad Hakiminya; Arash Heydari; Shahrooz Foroutankia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Scientific review of the authoritarian personality began in 1950 with the pioneering work of Adorno and his colleagues. Following their attempt, extensive studies were carried out in social psychology, political science, and sociology in this field. Despite the extensive amount of research on authoritarianism in Western societies, few have been conducted in developing countries. The dimensions of this phenomenon in Third World countries can be extensive. The importance of the ...

  1. The reconstitution of postwar Europe: lineages of authoritarian liberalism

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The historical conjuncture reached in the European Union recalls the spectre of authoritarian liberalism, with politically authoritarian forms of government emerging in defence of practices and ideas associated with economic liberalism. Offering a long view of this formation, the paper traces its relation to the project of European integration from the interwar breakdown of liberal democracy to the ongoing Euro-crisis, by way of its postwar and post-Maastricht reconstitution. Postwar Europe w...

  2. The Romanian Social Democratic Party versus the authoritarian monarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Grecu

    2014-01-01

    The article approaches the Romanian social-democratic collaboration during 1938-1940 with the authoritarian monarch regime. Even though the party leaders had diverging political views, regards to the acceptance or the non-acceptance of the authoritarian regime, the influential PSDR members held leading positions within the single party and the corporate parliament and within the union structures. The positions were offered by the regime, so that the union leaders would stop instigating worker...

  3. Violence and Narcissism: A Frommian Perspective on Destructiveness under Authoritarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas K. Cheliotis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a sympathetic appraisal of Erich Fromm’s concept of narcissism as it relates to the emergence, sustenance, and resolution of authoritarian violence. The discussion is first placed within the methodological debate over the analytic operations that are required for an adequate understanding of authoritarian violence, explaining why a psychoanalytic perspective is necessary.The focus then shifts to Fromm’s take on the Freudian concept of narcissism,before proceeding to explore in some depth his account of the symbolic mechanisms and contextual climate that must combine in practice in order for narcissistic energies to be channeled into authoritarianism and violence. Attention in this regard is paid both to the populace and governing elites. The article concludes with a short exposition of Fromm’s notion of benign narcissism, from its specific content to the conditions of its possibility.

  4. Self-reported narcissism and perceived parental permissiveness and authoritarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, A; Watson, P J; Biderman, M D; Reeves, A L

    1996-06-01

    The hypothesis that inadequate parenting promotes the development of pathological narcissism was tested in a sample of 370 undergraduate students. They responded to the O'Brien (1987) Multiphasic Narcissism Inventory (OMNI) and to measures of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness. Perceived parental permissiveness and authoritarianism served as independent predictors of greater narcissistic tendencies. The students who scored high on the OMNI were also less likely to evaluate both of their parents as having been especially strong in their use of the adjustment-promoting authoritative style. Theoretical efforts to link narcissism with inadequate parenting therefore may have merit and may deserve additional research attention. PMID:8656207

  5. Authoritarianism: Adolescents from East and West Germany and the United States Compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippl, Susanne; Boehnke, Klaus

    1995-01-01

    Examined whether the former East Germany has produced authoritarian personalities and whether there is age and gender variation on authoritarianism regardless of culture. Subjects were 552 West German, 320 East German, and 619 American adolescents. Found that all three cultures have similar proclivities to exhibit an authoritarian character…

  6. Authoritarianism and Time as Influences on Decision Making. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor, Elwood B.

    This study examined the decision-making process of prospective teachers to determine to what extent authoritarianism influences decisions about the validity of categorical syllogisms with attitudinally relevant conclusions. The Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory (MTAI) and the California F Scale were administered to 100 education students to…

  7. Civil society in Syria and Iran: activism in authoritarian contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Aarts; F. Cavatorta

    2013-01-01

    What are the dynamics of civic activism in authoritarian regimes? How do new social actors--many of them informal, "below the radar" groups--interact with these regimes? What mechanisms do the power elite employ to deal with societal dissidence? The authors of Civil Society in Syria and Iran explore

  8. A Symbolic Measure of Authoritarianism: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, H. Wayne

    1970-01-01

    Hypothesizes that the personality dimension of authoritarianism can be measured by means of symbols just as well as it is currently measured by Adorno's verbal F-scale. Pilot study confirms symbolic test of intolerance of ambiguity resulted in positive correlation. (Author/DB)

  9. The Effect of Socio-economic Status on Authoritarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Pour Afkari

    2013-02-01

    Scodel, A. & Freedman, M. L. , (1956 ”Additional Observation on the Social Perceptions of Authoritarians and Nonauthoritarians ”. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, Vol. 52(1, PP. 92-95. Scodel, A. & Mussen, P. (1953 “Social perceptions of authoritarians and nonauthoritarians. ” Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, vol. 48(2, PP. 181-184. Shek,D. T. L (2006. Assessment of perceived parental psychological control in chinese adolescents in hongkong. ” Research on social work practice, V. 16, N. 383. Simons, H. W. (1966”Authoritarianism and social Perceptiveness. Journal of Social Psychology. ” vol. 68, PP (2. 291-297. Sonnak, Carina; Towell, Tony (2000. "the impostor phenomenon in british university students: relationship between self esteem, mental health, parental rearing style and socioeconomic status. Personality and individual difference, 31, 863-874. Srole, L. (1956. Social integration and certain corollaries: an exploratory study. American Sociological Review, 21(6, 709- 716. Teevan Jr, J. J. (1975. On measuring anomia: Suggested modification of the Srole scale. The Pacific Sociological Review, 18(2, 159-170. Wright, James D. (1972” The Working Class, Authoritarianism, and the War in Vietnam. ” Social Problems, Vol. 20, No. 2 , pp. 133-150. Xiao, Hong. 2000. "Class, Gender, and Parental Values in the 1990s". Gender & Society 14(6:785-803

  10. Authoritarian parenting and youth depression: Results from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent illness affecting youth across the nation. The study purpose was to examine depression and authoritarian parenting among youth from 12 to 17 years of age. A secondary data analysis of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health was performed in the present study. All participants in the present study were youth (N = 17,399) nationwide. The results revealed that 80.6% of youth participants reported having five or more depressive symptoms. Parenting styles based on depression significantly differed among males, females, 12-13-year-olds, 14-15-year-olds, and 16-17-year-olds. Specifically, those who reported experiencing authoritarian parenting practices were more likely to report depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts who experienced authoritative parenting practices. Emphasizing the role of the parents and teaching positive parenting practices and authoritative parenting styles may increase success of prevention programs.

  11. Filial piety, authoritarian moralism, and cognitive conservatism in Chinese societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, D Y

    1994-08-01

    In the present study, I examined the role of Confucian filial piety in relation to parental attitudes, the function of personality, and social cognition, using data assembled from 11 samples of adults and students in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Results showed that (a) filial attitudes tend to be moderately associated with parental attitudes and child training that emphasize obedience and indebtedness to one's parents, impulse control, and proper conduct; (b) people endorsing traditional filial and/or child-training attitudes tend to be poorer in verbal fluency, to adopt a passive, uncritical, and uncreative orientation toward learning, to hold fatalistic, superstitious, and stereotypic beliefs, and to be authoritarian, dogmatic, and conformist; and (c) parents' attitudes rooted in filial piety tend to result in high rigidity and low cognitive complexity in their children. The results support the contention that filial piety underlies both authoritarian moralism and cognitive conservatism.

  12. Transnational NGOs between Popular Uprising and Authoritarian Regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2013-01-01

    of disempowered youth, intense media-tech application and sustained international pressure as crucial to ousting authoritarian regimes in North Africa. Delineating the role of TNGOs complements such findings. TNGO activities and responses to the Egyptian uprising in 2011 and to the ensuing coup in 2013 reveal...... movements, organizations and communities engaged in de-territorialized socio‐cultural, political and economic activities. This paper focuses on the role of transnational NGOs (TNGOs) in recent developments in Egypt. The current scholarly debate on the so‐called “Arab spring” considers the mobilization...... positions of these organizations and might eventually encourage the return to authoritarianism. After introductory remarks on the background of the uprising, the paper proceeds to theoretical discussion of transnational engagement followed by recent historical and current empirical developments...

  13. Authoritarian parenting and youth depression: Results from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent illness affecting youth across the nation. The study purpose was to examine depression and authoritarian parenting among youth from 12 to 17 years of age. A secondary data analysis of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health was performed in the present study. All participants in the present study were youth (N = 17,399) nationwide. The results revealed that 80.6% of youth participants reported having five or more depressive symptoms. Parenting styles based on depression significantly differed among males, females, 12-13-year-olds, 14-15-year-olds, and 16-17-year-olds. Specifically, those who reported experiencing authoritarian parenting practices were more likely to report depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts who experienced authoritative parenting practices. Emphasizing the role of the parents and teaching positive parenting practices and authoritative parenting styles may increase success of prevention programs. PMID:26939843

  14. The Romanian Social Democratic Party versus the authoritarian monarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Grecu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches the Romanian social-democratic collaboration during 1938-1940 with the authoritarian monarch regime. Even though the party leaders had diverging political views, regards to the acceptance or the non-acceptance of the authoritarian regime, the influential PSDR members held leading positions within the single party and the corporate parliament and within the union structures. The positions were offered by the regime, so that the union leaders would stop instigating workers to go on strike, and to accept the governmental policies. The freedom of speech and the political actions were ceded to the monarch, who governed at the place of the political parties and he controlled the unions, by using the guilds.

  15. Authoritarian reactions to terrorist threat: who is being threatened, the Me or the We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbrock, Frank; Fritsche, Immo

    2013-01-01

    Endorsement of authoritarian attitudes has been observed to increase under conditions of terrorist threat. However, it is not clear whether this effect is a genuine response to perceptions of personal or collective threat. We investigated this question in two experiments using German samples. In the first experiment (N = 144), both general and specific authoritarian tendencies increased after asking people to imagine that they were personally affected by terrorism. No such effect occurred when they were made to think about Germany as a whole being affected by terrorism. This finding was replicated and extended in a second experiment (N = 99), in which personal and collective threat were manipulated orthogonally. Authoritarian and ethnocentric (ingroup bias) reactions occurred only for people highly identified with their national ingroup under personal threat, indicating that authoritarian responses may operate as a group-level coping strategy for a threat to the personal self. Again, we found no effects for collective threat. In both studies, authoritarianism mediated the effects of personal threat on more specific authoritarian and ethnocentric reactions. These results suggest that the effects of terrorist threat on authoritarianism can, at least in part, be attributed to a sense of personal insecurity, raised under conditions of terrorist threat. We discuss the present findings with regard to basic sociomotivational processes (e.g., group-based control restoration, terror management) and how these may relate to recent models of authoritarianism. PMID:23390971

  16. Parental Inconsistency versus Parental Authoritarianism: Associations with Symptoms of Psychological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan Adeeb

    2008-01-01

    While in western countries, such as the US and Europe, authoritarian parenting is associated with negative psycho-social outcomes. Studies have indicated that this is not the case in collective/authoritarian cultures. It has been hypothesized that inconsistency in parenting style and culture contributes to these negative outcomes. In this study a…

  17. Participation with Supervisor and Subordinate Authoritarianism: A Path-Goal Theory Reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Randall S.

    1976-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that participation would be satisfying to low-authoritarian subordinates regardless of the degree of task repetitiveness but would be satisfying to high-authoritarian subordinates only on tasks with low repetitiveness and that highly repetitive tasks would be less conducive to ego involvement than low-repetitive tasks.…

  18. Authoritarian reactions to terrorist threat: who is being threatened, the Me or the We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbrock, Frank; Fritsche, Immo

    2013-01-01

    Endorsement of authoritarian attitudes has been observed to increase under conditions of terrorist threat. However, it is not clear whether this effect is a genuine response to perceptions of personal or collective threat. We investigated this question in two experiments using German samples. In the first experiment (N = 144), both general and specific authoritarian tendencies increased after asking people to imagine that they were personally affected by terrorism. No such effect occurred when they were made to think about Germany as a whole being affected by terrorism. This finding was replicated and extended in a second experiment (N = 99), in which personal and collective threat were manipulated orthogonally. Authoritarian and ethnocentric (ingroup bias) reactions occurred only for people highly identified with their national ingroup under personal threat, indicating that authoritarian responses may operate as a group-level coping strategy for a threat to the personal self. Again, we found no effects for collective threat. In both studies, authoritarianism mediated the effects of personal threat on more specific authoritarian and ethnocentric reactions. These results suggest that the effects of terrorist threat on authoritarianism can, at least in part, be attributed to a sense of personal insecurity, raised under conditions of terrorist threat. We discuss the present findings with regard to basic sociomotivational processes (e.g., group-based control restoration, terror management) and how these may relate to recent models of authoritarianism.

  19. Differential impact of fathers' authoritarian parenting on early adolescent adjustment in conservative protestant versus other families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner; Hetherington, E Mavis; Reiss, David

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether well-established associations between authoritarian parenting and adolescent adjustment pertain to conservative Protestant (CP) families. Structural equation modeling was used to test paths from biological fathers' authoritarian parenting to adolescent adjustment in 65 CP versus 170 comparison families in the Nonshared Environment and Adolescent Development Study (NEAD; D. Reiss et al., 1994). The hypothesis that adolescents in CP families would be less harmed by authoritarian parenting than would adolescents in control families was partially supported: Authoritarian parenting directly predicted greater externalizing and internalizing for adolescents in control families but not for adolescents in CP families. In contrast, parents' religious affiliation failed to moderate the negative associations between authoritarian parenting and positive adjustment. Understanding family processes specific to the CP subculture is important for helping these families raise competent children.

  20. Midlife women's generativity and authoritarianism: marriage, motherhood, and 10 years of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bill E; Duncan, Lauren E

    2007-09-01

    Generativity and authoritarianism assessed at age 52 were correlated with criterion variables assessed at age 62 in a sample of well-educated women (N = 81). Results indicated that generativity predicted positive personality characteristics, satisfaction with marriage and motherhood, and successful aging. By contrast, although authoritarianism is linked in the literature to endorsing traditional gender roles, authoritarianism was uncorrelated in the current study with happiness about marriage and was negatively related to perceptions of motherhood. Furthermore, authoritarianism was correlated with neuroticism later in life. These data suggest that midlife authoritarianism may be problematic as women transition from their 50s to their 60s. Midlife generativity, in contrast, seems to offer one path to life satisfaction.

  1. Authoritarian dynamics and unethical decision making: high social dominance orientation leaders and high right-wing authoritarianism followers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son Hing, Leanne S; Bobocel, D Ramona; Zanna, Mark P; McBride, Maxine V

    2007-01-01

    When dilemmas require trade-offs between profits and ethics, do leaders high in social dominance orientation (SDO) and followers high in right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) make decisions that are more unethical than those made by others? This issue was explored in 4 studies with female participants performing managerial role-playing tasks. First, dyads comprising a person who was either low or high in SDO and a person who was either low or high in RWA negotiated for a leadership position. People high in SDO were more likely to obtain leader positions than to obtain follower positions. No other effects were significant. Second, leaders high in SDO partnered with an agreeable (confederate) follower made decisions that were more unethical than those of leaders low in SDO. Third, followers high in RWA were more acquiescent to and supportive of an unethical (confederate) leader than were followers low in RWA. Fourth, high SDO leader-high RWA follower dyads made decisions that were more unethical than those made in role-reversed dyads because leaders had more influence. Implications of these results for conceptualizing SDO, RWA, and authoritarian dynamics are discussed.

  2. Beyond parental control and authoritarian parenting style: understanding Chinese parenting through the cultural notion of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, R K

    1994-08-01

    This study addresses a paradox in the literature involving the parenting style of Asians: Chinese parenting has often been described as "controlling" or "authoritarian". These styles of parenting have been found to be predictive of poor school achievement among European-Americans, and yet the Chinese are performing quite well in school. This study suggests that the concepts of authoritative and authoritarian are somewhat ethnocentric and do not capture the important features of Chinese child rearing, especially for explaining their school success. Immigrant Chinese and European-American mothers of preschool-aged children were administered standard measures of parental control and authoritative-authoritarian parenting style as well as Chinese child-rearing items involving the concept of "training." After controlling for their education, and their scores on the standard measures, the Chinese mothers were found to score significantly higher on the "training" ideologies. This "training" concept has important features, beyond the authoritarian concept, that may explain Chinese school success.

  3. Authoritarianism, Dogmatism and Coercion in Child Caring Institutions: A Study of Staff Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kenneth

    1974-01-01

    Investigated the attitudes of child care institution staff members on dimensions of authoritarianism, dogmatism, and coercion, and related attitudes to type of institution in which subject was employed and position held in the institution. (DP)

  4. Politics of the Periphery: An Introduction to Subnational Authoritarianism and Democratization in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Edward L. Gibson

    2010-01-01

    The article is an introduction to the topic featured in JPLA 2/2010 "Subnational Authoritarianism and Democratization in Latin America." It discusses the papers by Carlos Gervasoni, Agustina Giraudy, Julián Durazo Herrmann, Alfred P. Montero, and Tracy Beck Fenwick that follow in this issue. Why feature the topic "subnational authoritarianism and democratization" in the Journal of Politics in Latin America? Because despite widespread agreement that subnational jurisdictions in Latin America ...

  5. Impunity in Post-authoritarian Brazil : the Supreme Court's recent Verdict on the Amnesty Law

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    While numerous countries in post-authoritarian South America have annulled Amnesty Laws issued under authoritarian rule and punished officials involved in repressive organs, Brazil continues to favour impunity. This attitude has recently been confirmed by the Brazilian Supreme Court’s decision to maintain the 1979 Amnesty Law granting de-facto impunity to violators of human rights during the military regime. The article considers this verdict within its historical context, and raises two ques...

  6. Cultural value orientation and authoritarian parenting as parameters of bullying and victimization at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Stelios N; Fousiani, Kyriaki; Michaelides, Michalis; Stavrinides, Panayiotis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the existing association between cultural value orientation, authoritarian parenting, and bullying and victimization at school. The participants (N = 231) were early adolescents, randomly selected from 11 different schools in urban and rural areas of Cyprus. Participants completed self reports measuring cultural value orientation, authoritarian parenting, bullying, and victimization. These instruments were the following: the cultural value scale (CVS), the parental authority questionnaire (PAQ), and the revised bullying and victimization questionnaire (BVQ-R). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine mediation effects. It was found that vertical individualism acted as a mediator between authoritarian parenting and bullying. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between authoritarian parenting and the vertical dimensions of both cultural value orientations (individualism and collectivism), but not with the horizontal dimensions of either cultural orientation. Further, authoritarian parenting was also positively associated with bullying and victimization at school. The main contribution of the present study is the finding that vertical individualism significantly mediates the relationship between authoritarian parental style and bullying propensity.

  7. Cultural value orientation and authoritarian parenting as parameters of bullying and victimization at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Stelios N; Fousiani, Kyriaki; Michaelides, Michalis; Stavrinides, Panayiotis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the existing association between cultural value orientation, authoritarian parenting, and bullying and victimization at school. The participants (N = 231) were early adolescents, randomly selected from 11 different schools in urban and rural areas of Cyprus. Participants completed self reports measuring cultural value orientation, authoritarian parenting, bullying, and victimization. These instruments were the following: the cultural value scale (CVS), the parental authority questionnaire (PAQ), and the revised bullying and victimization questionnaire (BVQ-R). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine mediation effects. It was found that vertical individualism acted as a mediator between authoritarian parenting and bullying. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between authoritarian parenting and the vertical dimensions of both cultural value orientations (individualism and collectivism), but not with the horizontal dimensions of either cultural orientation. Further, authoritarian parenting was also positively associated with bullying and victimization at school. The main contribution of the present study is the finding that vertical individualism significantly mediates the relationship between authoritarian parental style and bullying propensity. PMID:23390974

  8. Authoritarian parenting attitudes and social origin: The multigenerational relationship of socioeconomic position to childrearing values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Support for authoritarian approaches to parenting, including corporal punishment, is known to be elevated among individuals with low current levels of socioeconomic attainment. The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine whether authoritarian parenting dispositions are related to disadvantages in one's social background, in addition to one's present socioeconomic standing; and (2) to distinguish, in this regard, between support for spanking and other authoritarian parenting dispositions. Ordered logit models, applied to General Social Survey data concerning a nationally representative sample of US adults, are used to examine relationships of authoritarian parenting dispositions to the socioeconomic positions that respondents currently occupy and in which they were raised. It is found that support for spanking (N=10,725) and valuing of obedience (N=10,043) are inversely related to the socioeconomic status (SES) of one's family of origin, and that these associations are robust to controls for one's current SES. A disadvantaged family background is found to increase support for spanking most among those with high current SES. Strong associations (robust to controls for SES indicators) are additionally found between African-American racial identity and support for authoritarian parenting. Prior research indicates that authoritarian parenting practices such as spanking may be harmful to children. Thus, if the parenting attitudes analyzed here translate into parenting practices, then this study's findings may point to a mechanism for the intergenerational transmission of disadvantages. PMID:26585215

  9. Authoritarianism as an element of social character and a factor of gendered social interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovančević Saša

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The immediacy of daily encounters with gender roles, as well as the specific features of authoritarian mediation in their social shaping, make an analysis of gendered social interaction indispensable. In this paper the analysis is centered on the concept of social character, with special emphasis on authoritarianism as a continuous determinant of the transformation of natural sex into social construct of gender. It is precisely the authoritarian personality type that is the basis for alienated gender, dominated by sexism, a “natural” belonging to the private or the public sphere of social life, suppression of individual human capacities, and reduction of choice. After a review of the theoretical conceptions of social character and authoritarianism, a historical-comparative analysis of authoritarianism is offered, where the latter is seen as an element of the social character within the perspective of the typology traditional - modern - postmodern society. It is argued in conclusion that, in spite of certain emancipatory achievements, men and women still tend to escape into the security of authoritarian alienation. Feminist theory remains a basic source for reflecting on these processes; therefore the author pleads for a wider acceptance of feminist insights as contributions to establishing a postmodern, interpretive “sociology in a new key”.

  10. The Authoritarian Constitution versus the National Renaissance Front

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin GRECU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On February 27th, 1938 the Constitution laid the ideological and theoretical foundations for the birth of the sole party, called by the new regime The National Renaissance Front (NRF and proclaimed as the only political entity in the state. The NRF was strongly militarized in all its management structures starting with the Directorate to the Superior National Council, because of its corporate-like structure according to constitutional principles and because people were only allowed and granted positions in the party, state or Parliament if they actually had a job. The constitutional order of the monarchy overwrote the stately European or native authoritarian theories by overestimating the state and minimalizing individual rights and freedom. At that time one would not know what regime people who voted for the new regime consecrated by the 27th of February 1938 Constitution had been living in and some of the parliament declarations of the regime’s representatives, when analysed critically, would try to bring light on the article ahead.

  11. The Authoritarian Personality in Emerging Adulthood: Longitudinal Analysis Using Standardized Scales, Observer Ratings, and Content Coding of the Life Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Bill E; Pratt, Michael W; Olsen, Janelle R; Alisat, Susan

    2016-04-01

    Three different methods (a standardized scale, an observer-based Q-sort, and content coding of narratives) were used to study the continuity of authoritarianism longitudinally in emerging and young adults. Authoritarianism was assessed in a Canadian sample (N = 92) of men and women at ages 19 and 32 with Altemeyer's (1996) Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) Scale. In addition, components of the authoritarian personality were assessed at age 26 through Q-sort observer methods (Block, 2008) and at age 32 through content coding of life stories. Age 19 authoritarianism predicted the Q-sort and life story measures of authoritarianism. Two hierarchical regression analyses showed that the Q-sort and life story measures of authoritarianism also predicted the RWA scale at age 32 beyond educational level and parental status, and even after the inclusion of age 19 RWA. Differences and similarities in the pattern of correlates for the Q-sort and life story measures are discussed, including the overall lack of results for authoritarian aggression. Content in narratives may be the result of emerging adult authoritarianism and may serve to maintain levels of authoritarianism in young adulthood.

  12. A Field Experiment on Behavioural Effects of Humorous, Environmentally Oriented and Authoritarian Posters against Littering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Hansmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A humorous, an environmentally oriented and an authoritarian poster against littering were tested in a field experiment on their behavioural effectiveness. Corresponding slogans were placed on anti-littering posters designed for this study and used experimentally at four railway stations. The experimental design entailed 4 communication conditions including a control condition where no poster was presented. In each experimental run (N = 96, flyers were distributed for 30 minutes. The number of distributed flyers was counted, and the proportion of littered flyers was determined for each experimental run. It was found that the humorous and environmentally oriented posters achieved a reduction of 58% and 64%, respectively, in littering as compared with the control condition. The authoritarian poster was significantly less effective, but achieved a significant reduction of 25%. Considered together with some previous findings and theories, the results indicate that environmentally oriented and humorous anti-littering posters are more effective than authoritarian ones

  13. The authoritarian castling of the Syrian regime: from popular uprising to civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Álvarez-Ossorio Alvariño

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Instead of hastening political change, the Syrian uprising has led to greater authoritarianism. At first, president Bashar al-Assad adopted various cosmetic reforms (a party law and constitutional referendum, which were designed more as a survival strategy than a genuine process of political liberalisation. In its first four years, the Syrian crisis has gone from being an anti-authoritarian popular uprising to a proxy war with the active presence of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Qatar and Turkey. Control of the state apparatus on the part of the Alawite minority has been instrumentalised by the Salafist and jihadist groups to intensify sectarianism and claim the establishment of an Islamic State.

  14. Correlates of Authoritarian Parenting in Individualist and Collectivist Cultures and Implications for Understanding the Transmission of Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Duane; Grusec, Joan E.

    2001-01-01

    Administered measures of authoritarianism, collectivism, warmth, anger, attributions for children's misbehavior, and parental feelings of control over failure to Egyptian- and Anglo-Canadians. Egyptians were higher on authoritarianism, collectivism, and anger. Men were higher on perceived control over failure. The best predictors of authoritarian…

  15. Authoritarian parenting in individualist and collectivist groups: Associations with maternal emotion and cognition and children's self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Duane; Grusec, Joan E

    2006-03-01

    Mothers and children between the ages of 7 and 12, from individualist (Western European) and collectivist (Egyptian, Iranian, Indian, and Pakistani) backgrounds, completed assessments of children's self-esteem, maternal authoritarianism, and mothers' thoughts and feelings about their children. Collectivist mothers endorsed authoritarian parenting more than did individualist mothers but did not feel or think more negatively about their children, and collectivist children were not lower in self-esteem. Within both groups, maternal negative affect and cognition were associated with lower self-esteem in children. However, maternal authoritarianism was associated with maternal negative emotion and cognition only in the individualist group. The results suggest that maternal negative thoughts and feelings, associated with authoritarianism in individualist but not collectivist groups, may be more detrimental to children's self-esteem than is authoritarianism in and of itself.

  16. The Psychological Effect of Television Characters: The Case of Archie Bunker and Authoritarian Viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.; Bowden, Elizabeth

    Reference group theory suggests that a perceived similarity between interacting individuals leads to future interaction, increased source credibility, and more frequent agreement on specific issues. This study shows how the reference group theory applies to the authoritarian television character Archie Bunker and television viewers that watch "All…

  17. Patterns of Competence and Adjustment among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamborn, Susie D.; And Others

    To test Maccoby and Martin's (1983) revision of Baumrind's conceptual framework, the families of approximately 4,100 14- to 18-year-olds were classified into one of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) on the basis of the adolescents' ratings of their parents on 2 dimensions: acceptance/involvement and firm control.…

  18. Clarification of the Authoritarian Parenting Style and Parental Control: Cultural Concepts of Chinese Child Rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth K.

    This study investigated whether certain broad cultural notions, such as "chiao shun" (training children in appropriate behavior or morals) and "guan" (a positive notion expressing parental concern, caring, or involvement) better distinguish the Chinese parent from the European-American than do the concepts of "authoritarian" and "restrictive."…

  19. Authoritarian Child Rearing, Parental Locus of Control, and the Child's Behavior Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships among childrearing, parental locus of control about childrearing, and child's behavior style. Found that parents who perceived their child's behavior as either externalizing or internalizing had a weak internal locus of control and were more authoritarian. Perceived externalizing child behavior was positively related to…

  20. Humanistic versus Authoritarian Teachers: A Reflection on Students' Academic Motivation and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sarwat; Hussain, Irshad

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study using self-determination theory was conducted to predict the students' motivation and academic performance based on their perceived teachers' humanistic vs. authoritarian orientations in the classrooms. The sample consisted of 300 students aged 14-18 years taken from different schools of Multan. The Pupil Control Behavior…

  1. The Authoritarian Personality and Marriage: An Integration of Psychoanalytic Theory and Empirical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veurink, Reginald Lee

    Extensive interest in the authoritarian personality syndrome was piqued by the experience of World War II Nazi domination, and a proliferation of scientific inquiry ensued thereafter. Following an introduction providing a psychoanalytic perspective, this paper attempts to integrate the findings of original thinkers in this area with relevant…

  2. Authoritarian Thinking, Groupthink, and Decision-Making under Stress: Are Simple Decisions Always Worse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedfeld, Peter

    The concept of complexity in decision-making can be found in several lines of conceptualization in the area of national and international decision-making. One derives from the classic works on authoritarianism and dogmatism (Adorno, et al., 1950; Rokeach, 1960). Another approach relies on the variables that pertain to group dynamics and to…

  3. Assessing Mothers' and Fathers' Authoritarian Attitudes: The Psychometric Properties of a Brief Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shears, Jeffrey K.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; McKelvey, Lorraine; Selig, James

    2008-01-01

    This study used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the structure and factor loadings of an authoritarian parenting scale. The study used data from 315 married couples who had toddlers participating in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project located in 14 communities across the United States. The sample was diverse and consisted…

  4. Beyond Parental Control and Authoritarian Parenting Style: Understanding Chinese Parenting through the Cultural Notion of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth K.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the child-rearing practices of immigrant Chinese and European American mothers of preschool children through questionnaires that measured parental control, authoritative-authoritarian parenting style, and the Chinese concept of child training. Chinese mothers scored significantly higher than European American mothers on the training…

  5. Intergenerational continuity of child abuse among adolescent mothers: authoritarian parenting, community violence, and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; Borkowski, John G; Akai, Carol E

    2012-05-01

    Among the negative sequelae of child maltreatment is increased risk for continuity of maltreatment into subsequent generations. Despite acknowledgment in the literature that the pathways toward breaking the cycle of maltreatment are likely the result of dynamic interactions of risk and protective factors across multiple ecological levels, few studies have followed high-risk samples of maltreated and nonmaltreated parents over time to evaluate such processes. In the current investigation, exposure to community violence and authoritarian parenting attitudes were evaluated as predictors of the intergenerational continuity of abuse, and the moderating effect of African American race was examined. The sample included 70 mothers and their 18-year-old children, who have been followed longitudinally since the third trimester of the adolescent mothers' pregnancy. Results revealed that among mothers with a child abuse history, higher exposure to community violence and lower authoritarian parenting attitudes were associated with increased risk for intergenerational continuity of abuse. The relation of authoritarian parenting attitudes to intergenerational continuity was moderated by race; the protective effects of authoritarian parenting were limited to the African American families only. The salience of multiple ecological levels in interrupting the intergenerational continuity of child abuse is discussed, and implications for preventive programs are highlighted.

  6. Social Dominance Orientation, Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Sexism, and Prejudice toward Women in the Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Wojda, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) were related to two different forms of prejudice against working women: employment skepticism and traditional role preference. Three hundred forty-nine American adults completed measures of SDO, RWA, employment skepticism, traditional role preference,…

  7. Influences on Authoritarian and Educational/Therapeutic Approaches to School Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Spears, William H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the use of two philosophical approaches to school violence prevention and the factors that influence the use of specific strategies. School policies, programs, and discipline strategies assessed by the School Survey of Crime and Safety (SSOCS) were categorized as authoritarian (i.e., restrict student autonomy through punitive…

  8. Patterns of Competence and Adjustment among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamborn, Susie D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Of 4,100 adolescents, those who characterized their parents as authoritative scored highest on psychosocial competence and lowest on behavioral dysfunction. The reverse was true for neglected adolescents. Adolescents from authoritarian homes scored high on obedience but low on self-perception. Adolescents from indulgent homes evidenced…

  9. Authoritarian Parenting and Asian Adolescent School Performance: Insights from the US and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pong, Suet-ling; Johnston, Jamie; Chen, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    Our study re-examines the relationship between parenting and school performance among Asian students. We use two sources of data: wave I of the Adolescent Health Longitudinal Survey (Add Health), and waves I and II of the Taiwan Educational Panel Survey (TEPS). Analysis using Add Health reveals that the Asian-American/European-American difference in the parenting–school performance relationship is due largely to differential sample sizes. When we select a random sample of European-American students comparable to the sample size of Asian-American students, authoritarian parenting also shows no effect for European-American students. Furthermore, analysis of TEPS shows that authoritarian parenting is negatively associated with children's school achievement, while authoritative parenting is positively associated. This result for Taiwanese Chinese students is similar to previous results for European-American students in the US. PMID:24850978

  10. Selective responsiveness: Online public demands and government responsiveness in authoritarian China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zheng; Meng, Tianguang

    2016-09-01

    The widespread use of information and communication technology (ICT) has reshaped the public sphere in the digital era, making online forums a new channel for political participation. Using big data analytics of full records of citizen-government interactions from 2008 to early 2014 on a nationwide political forum, we find that authoritarian China is considerably responsive to citizens' demands with a rapid growth of response rate; however, government responsiveness is highly selective, conditioning on actors' social identities and the policy domains of their online demands. Results from logistic and duration models suggest that requests which made by local citizens, expressed collectively, focused on the single task issue, and are closely related to economic growth are more likely to be responded to. These strategies adopted by Chinese provincial leaders reveal the scope and selectivity of authoritarian responsiveness. PMID:27480371

  11. Predicting Filipino Mothers' and Fathers' Reported Use of Corporal Punishment From Education, Authoritarian Attitudes, and Endorsement of Corporal Punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Jocson, Rosanne M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    The relations of education, authoritarian childrearing attitudes, and endorsement of corporal punishment to Filipino parents' reported use of corporal punishment were examined using two waves of data. Structured interviews using self-report questionnaires were conducted with 117 mothers and 98 fathers from 120 families when their children were 8 years old, and when their children were 9 years old. Path analyses showed that, among mothers, higher education predicted lower authoritarian attitud...

  12. Authoritarianism, not social class, is the dividing line between supporting and opposing Donald Trump

    OpenAIRE

    Weiler, Jonathan; MacWilliams, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    In the nine months since New York billionaire Donald Trump launched his presidential campaign, many pundits and commentators have attributed his snowballing success to his popularity with white working class voters who also lacked a college education. Using new survey data, Jonathan Weiler and Matthew MacWilliams find that this characterization of Trump voter isn’t accurate; rather than class or education, authoritarianism is the biggest driver of support for Trump.

  13. Living in a material world: political funding in electoral authoritarian regimes in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Helle, Svein-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the role of political funding in two electoral authoritarian regimes in Sub-Saharan Africa. The issue of political funding has been investigated thoroughly in developed democracies in the West, but only relatively recently have scholars tried to investigate the importance of political funding in Sub-Saharan Africa and in non-democratic regimes who still hold elections. The aim of this thesis is thus to investigate what types of political funding exists in electoral au...

  14. Donald Trump is attracting authoritarian primary voters, and it may help him to gain the nomination.

    OpenAIRE

    MacWilliams, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    With the first primaries of the 2016 presidential election cycle looming, many in the Republican Party are becoming increasingly concerned that billionaire Donald Trump will actually be able to gain the party’s nomination, leading the party to an electoral disaster in November. Using a new national survey of American voters, Matthew C. MacWilliams finds that these fears are well-founded. Trump’s strongman rhetoric has activated and energized American authoritarians to his candidac...

  15. Internalization of values and self-esteem among Brazilian teenagers from authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The relation between parenting styles and adolescent outcomes was analyzed in a sample of 1,198 15-18-year-old Brazilians. The adolescents were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful) on the basis of their own ratings of their parents on two dimensions: Acceptance/ Involvement and Strictness/Imposition. The adolescents were then contrasted along two different outcomes: (1) priority given to Schwartz Self-transcendence and Conservation values, and (2) level of Self-esteem (appraised in 5 domains: Academic, Social, Emotional, Family, and Physical). Results showed that Authoritative and Indulgent parenting is associated with the highest internalization of Self-Transcendence and Conservation values of teenagers, whereas Authoritarian parenting is associated with the lowest. On the other hand, adolescents with Indulgent parents have equal or higher levels of Self-esteem than adolescents with Authoritative parents, while adolescents raised in Authoritarian and Neglectful homes have the lowest scores in Self-Esteem.

  16. Aiding authoritarians:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Nik Emmanuel explores theories of donor self-interest and failure of political conditionality in the context of France, in its relationship with Cameroon under Biya.......In this article, Nik Emmanuel explores theories of donor self-interest and failure of political conditionality in the context of France, in its relationship with Cameroon under Biya....

  17. Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamborn, S D; Mounts, N S; Steinberg, L; Dornbusch, S M

    1991-10-01

    In order to test Maccoby and Martin's revision of Baumrind's conceptual framework, the families of approximately 4,100 14-18-year-olds were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) on the basis of the adolescents' ratings of their parents on 2 dimensions: acceptance/involvement and strictness/supervision. The youngsters were then contrasted along 4 sets of outcomes: psychosocial development, school achievement, internalized distress, and problem behavior. Results indicate that adolescents who characterize their parents as authoritative score highest on measures of psychosocial competence and lowest on measures of psychological and behavioral dysfunction; the reverse is true for adolescents who describe their parents as neglectful. Adolescents whose parents are characterized as authoritarian score reasonably well on measures indexing obedience and conformity to the standards of adults but have relatively poorer self-conceptions than other youngsters. In contrast, adolescents from indulgent homes evidence a strong sense of self-confidence but report a higher frequency of substance abuse and school misconduct and are less engaged in school. The results provide support for Maccoby and Martin's framework and indicate the need to distinguish between two types of "permissive" families: those that are indulgent and those that are neglectful.

  18. Theory of Mind at Home: Linking Authoritative and Authoritarian Parenting Styles to Children's Social Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Jessica; Peterson, Candida C.

    2014-01-01

    Building on Vinden's pioneering research [(2001). Parenting attitudes and children's understanding of mind: A comparison of Korean American and Anglo-American families. "Cognitive Development", 16, 793-809], we examined how parents' use of authoritative versus authoritarian styles of discipline related to their…

  19. Psychometric Support for a New Measure of Authoritative, Authoritarian, and Permissive Parenting Practices: Cross-Cultural Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Clyde C.; And Others

    This study examined the psychometric characteristics of a 62-item parenting questionnaire completed by parents from the United States, Australia, China, and Russia. Factor analyses yielded three global parenting dimensions for each culture which were consistent with D. Baumrind's (1971) authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive typologies. The…

  20. Cognitive Ability, Right-Wing Authoritarianism, and Social Dominance Orientation: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study amongst Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Leeson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We report longitudinal data in which we assessed the relationships between intelligence and support for two constructs that shape ideological frameworks, namely, right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO). Participants (N = 375) were assessed in Grade 7 and again in Grade 12. Verbal and numerical ability were assessed…

  1. Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

  2. Internalization of Values and Self-Esteem among Brazilian Teenagers from Authoritative, Indulgent, Authoritarian, and Neglectful Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Isabel; Garcia, Jose Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The relation between parenting styles and adolescent outcomes was analyzed in a sample of 1,198 15-18-year-old Brazilians. The adolescents were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful) on the basis of their own ratings of their parents on two dimensions: Acceptance/Involvement and…

  3. Predicting Filipino Mothers' and Fathers' Reported Use of Corporal Punishment from Education, Authoritarian Attitudes, and Endorsement of Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocson, Rosanne M.; Alampay, Liane Pena; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2012-01-01

    The relations of education, authoritarian child-rearing attitudes, and endorsement of corporal punishment to Filipino parents' reported use of corporal punishment were examined using two waves of data. Structured interviews using self-report questionnaires were conducted with 117 mothers and 98 fathers from 120 families when their children were 8…

  4. Oligarchization, de-Westernization and vulnerability: Media between democracy and authoritarianism in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balčytienė, Auksė; Bajomi-Lázár, Péter; Štětka, Václav;

    2015-01-01

    variation in the level of media freedom within and across the former communist countries? What are the direct and indirect effects of the global financial crisis on the trends of democratization vs. authoritarianism in CEE? How could eminent newly democratized countries in CEE backslide dramatically to semi......What are the major trends of media change in contemporary Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)? How do these media transformations relate to economic, political, social and cultural currents in the region? After a decade of democratic optimism from the early 1990s to the 2000s, why did democratic media...... regimes in the region become recently so vulnerable? Why would the level of media freedom and pluralism in the CEE region remain significantly more limited than in Western Europe, despite supposedly shared European values and policies, and EU membership of the countries in the region? What explains...

  5. Autoritarismo e adesão a sistemas de valores psicossociais Authoritarianism and adhesion to psychosocial values systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Santiago Barros

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as relações entre o autoritarismo e a adesão a sistemas de valores. Para tanto, utilizou-se a escala de Autoritarismo de Extrema-Direita (Altemeyer, 1981, 1988 e o Questionário de Valores Psicossociais (Pereira, Da Costa & Camino, 2005b. Com base em dados de 284 estudantes universitários de Goiânia, verificou-se que a Escala de Autoritarismo mede duas dimensões políticas: autoritarismo e tolerância. Verificou-se também que os valores religiosos estão relacionados com diminuição da tolerância, enquanto a adesão aos valores hedonistas está relacionada com o aumento da tolerância e com a diminuição do autoritarismo. Além disso, a adesão aos valores materialistas está relacionada com o aumento do autoritarismo. Esses resultados são discutidos ressaltando a importância de uma perspectiva psicossocial que leve em conta os valores contextuais como fatores importantes para a compreensão do apoio das pessoas ao autoritarismo e à democracia.The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between authoritarianism and the adhesion to values systems. Due to that, Altemeyer's (1981; 1988 Right-wing Authoritarianism Scale and the Psychosocial Value Questionnaire (Pereira, Da Costa & Camino, 2005b were used. The participants were 284 university students from Goiânia. The results showed that the Authoritarianism Scale was organized in two factors, named authoritarianism and tolerance. The results showed that religious values are negatively correlated to tolerance while hedonist values are positively correlated to this factor. The authoritarianism factor is negatively correlated to hedonist values and positively to materialist values. These results are discussed emphasizing the importance of adopting a psychosocial perspective, taking into account the broader context, in order to analyze political constructs as authoritarianism and democracy.

  6. The Relationships between Individualism, Nationalism, Ethnocentrism, and Authoritarianism in Flanders: A Continuous Time-Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angraini, Yenni; Toharudin, Toni; Folmer, Henk; Oud, Johan H L

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationships among nationalism (N), individualism (I), ethnocentrism (E), and authoritarianism (A) in continuous time (CT), estimated as a structural equation model. The analysis is based on the General Election Study for Flanders, Belgium, for 1991, 1995, and 1999. We find reciprocal effects between A and E and between E and I as well as a unidirectional effect from A on I. We furthermore find relatively small, but significant, effects from both I and E on N but no effect from A on N or from N on any of the other variables. Because of its central role in the N-I-E-A complex, mitigation of authoritarianism has the largest potential to reduce the spread of nationalism, ethnocentrism, and racism in Flanders.

  7. The Relationships between Individualism, Nationalism, Ethnocentrism, and Authoritarianism in Flanders: A Continuous Time-Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angraini, Yenni; Toharudin, Toni; Folmer, Henk; Oud, Johan H L

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationships among nationalism (N), individualism (I), ethnocentrism (E), and authoritarianism (A) in continuous time (CT), estimated as a structural equation model. The analysis is based on the General Election Study for Flanders, Belgium, for 1991, 1995, and 1999. We find reciprocal effects between A and E and between E and I as well as a unidirectional effect from A on I. We furthermore find relatively small, but significant, effects from both I and E on N but no effect from A on N or from N on any of the other variables. Because of its central role in the N-I-E-A complex, mitigation of authoritarianism has the largest potential to reduce the spread of nationalism, ethnocentrism, and racism in Flanders. PMID:26745672

  8. Donald Trump’s victories show that authoritarian voters are now in control of the Republican nomination process

    OpenAIRE

    MacWilliams, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    Up to now, many political scientists and commentators have argued that support for Donald Trump is ‘capped’, given that he and Senator Ted Cruz (TX) are competing for the same pool of antiestablishment voters. Using new survey data from South Carolina Republican voters, Matthew C. MacWilliams finds that, along with concerns about terrorism, authoritarianism is a major predictor of people’s support for Donald Trump, and not a predictor of support for Ted Cruz. With these finding...

  9. Political violence and State. Readings from René Zavaleta Mercado about authoritarian politics in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Salamanca Agudelo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a political analysis from some of the readings of René Zavaleta Mercado about authoritarian politics in Latin America. Rethinking Zavaleta allows us arguing about the regional approach of fascism as an authoritarian modality of state policy (Zavaleta, 1976, 1979. 1984, built on particular sociopolitical conditions. Modality that consequently distances itself from the hegemonic reading assigning to it the conceptual centrality of fascism as an historical phenomenon from early XX century specific to Italy and Germany. In contrast, the readings of Zavaleta allow placing the emphasis on the political question of fascism in the region. This translates in a proposal that question both the historical conditions of its formation/dissolution and the theoretical and methodological approach enabling openings for emancipatory transformation towards egalitarian and democratic ways. Thus, the central argument developed here holds that the main contribution of the author to this theoretical field is rooted in the two aforementioned points. Therefore, this work intends showing how in his analytical work (rooted in the latinoamerican Marxism tradition he realized readings not only descriptive of the historical, economic and political singularities of fascism in various contexts of emergence, but also fundamentally expressed as a political issue to examine. To the author, it implied, in consequence, thinking the conceptual work methodology for the emergence of categories and building an unorthodox approach of Marxism on the topic of the authoritarian modalities of politics, with special attention for local history and knowledge in Bolivia and Latin America. Hereafter, this article proposes discussing this reading of Zavaleta following two axes: I. In the first, from a reconstruction of the readings of fascism as an authoritarian policy modality in Latin America. And the presentation of his conceptualization about the democratic condition as a limit

  10. Explaining support for vigilantism and punitiveness: assessing the role of perceived procedural fairness, ethnocentrism, authoritarianism and anomia

    OpenAIRE

    Van Damme, Anjuli; Pauwels, Lieven

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the interrelationships among ethnocentrism, authoritarianism, anomia, the lack of confidence in the criminal justice system, punitiveness and support for vigilantism in a cross-sectional sample of 1,078 Belgian university students enrolled at Ghent University during the academic year 2009-2010. The emphasis lies on confidence in procedural justice or perceived procedural fairness, a specific type of organisational justice perception that reflects ho...

  11. Social Dominance Orientation, Right-Wing Authoritarianism, and Willingness to Help Addicted Individuals: The Role of Responsibility Judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Torleif Halkjelsvik; Jostein Rise

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) were related to motivation to personally help addicted individuals and approval of public spending on addiction treatment. The study employs an attributional analysis based on Weiner’s theory of social motivation. SDO was associated with less approval of public spending on treatment and lower motivation to personally help. RWA was associated with less approval of public spending but exerted a direct p...

  12. Internalization of values and self-esteem among Brazilian teenagers from authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The relation between parenting styles and adolescent outcomes was analyzed in a sample of 1,198 15-18-year-old Brazilians. The adolescents were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful) on the basis of their own ratings of their parents on two dimensions: Acceptance/ Involvement and Strictness/Imposition. The adolescents were then contrasted along two different outcomes: (1) priority given to Schwartz Self-transcendence and Conservation values, and (2) level of Self-esteem (appraised in 5 domains: Academic, Social, Emotional, Family, and Physical). Results showed that Authoritative and Indulgent parenting is associated with the highest internalization of Self-Transcendence and Conservation values of teenagers, whereas Authoritarian parenting is associated with the lowest. On the other hand, adolescents with Indulgent parents have equal or higher levels of Self-esteem than adolescents with Authoritative parents, while adolescents raised in Authoritarian and Neglectful homes have the lowest scores in Self-Esteem. PMID:18447078

  13. State Violence and Oppositional Protest in High-Capacity Authoritarian Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hank Johnston

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This examination of the mobilization-repression nexus in high-capacity authoritarian regimes draws on examples from China, Russia, Iran, and several Middle Eastern states to develop a framework for analyzing state violence and how political oppositions are organized. The study examines middle and low levels of state violence, the provincial and municipal organization of party and regime, and the police, private militias, and thugs as low-level enforcers, and focuses on: (1 the complexity of the state’s apparatus of repression and control and how different levels exercise different forms of violence against activists; (2 the creativity of the opposition’s actions to voice its demands and avoid repression and surveillance; and (3 the recursive relationship between the two, a dark dance between state and opposition with high stakes for both. Hierarchical analysis at national, provincial, and local levels, and lateral analysis across these levels, where elite interests frequently diverge, show that intersections and gaps on both axes can create lapses in social control and openings the opposition. These free spaces of speech and innovative action give rise to novel ways to keep oppositional sentiments in the public forum. The article offers several propositions for analyzing repression and state violence at various levels, and, similarly, the various ways that these free spaces occur.

  14. Ideological Support for the Indian Caste System: Social Dominance Orientation, Right-Wing Authoritarianism and Karma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cotterill

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the social dominance perspective to the Indian context by examining the role of belief in Karma (sanchita in the justification of the Indian caste system. Using social dominance theory (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999 and the dual process model (Duckitt, 2001 as guiding theoretical frameworks, we tested four related hypotheses within a sample of 385 Indian university students. In particular we expected that social dominance orientation (SDO and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA would both make relatively strong and independent contributions to participants’ endorsement of Karma (H1, as well as their support for antiegalitarian social policies and conventions (H2. We also predicted that endorsement of Karma, itself, would be strongly related to support for these policies, net of the influence of SDO, RWA, as well as generalized prejudice (H3. Finally, and consistent with the notion that Karma functions as a legitimizing ideology, we hypothesized that it would at least partially mediate, net of generalized prejudice, the relationships between SDO and RWA, on the one hand, and antiegalitarian and conventional social policies, on the other (H4. Results of latent variable structural equation modeling provided support for all four hypotheses. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Social critique and engagement between universalism, anti-authoritarianism and diagnosis of domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a particular ‘isomorphy’ between two forms of social criticism: the ‘holistic’ theoretical social critique represented by such authors as Jürgen Habermas and Axel Honneth and ‘collective social engagement’ represented by such civic movements as the ‘We Won’t Let Belgrade D(rown’ initiative in contemporary Serbia, which the paper tries to distinguish from more conventional forms of popular protest. This ‘isomorphy’, the paper argues, consists in a tension between three distinct imperatives of the justification of critique - those of normative universalism, epistemological anti-authoritarianism, and diagnosis of social domination - produced by the attempts of both the ‘holistic’ social critics and the collectively engaged actors to simultaneously respond to all three imperatives. After presenting the three types of theoretical critique that crystallize around each imperative, the paper discusses the internal tension that arises in the works of ‘holistic’ theoretical critics and then identifies the same kind of tension in the ‘We Won’t Let Belgrade D(rown’ initiative. The tension in the movement’s critique is outlined through a brief analysis of the activists’ discourse as articulated in the bulletin We Won’t Let Belgrade D(rown issued in March 2015. Since the examples also suggest that collective engagement is better than theoretical critique at keeping this tension ‘productive’, the paper finally offers some tentative thoughts on the possible reasons for this difference.

  16. Right-wing authoritarianism predicts prejudice equally toward "gay men and lesbians" and "homosexuals".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Brandt, Mark J; Inbar, Yoel; Mallinas, Stephanie R

    2016-08-01

    Two recent experiments found evidence for what we term the social category label (SCL) effect-that the relationship between right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and prejudice against gay men and lesbians can be reduced or even eliminated when the target group is labeled "gay men and lesbians" rather than "homosexuals" (Rios, 2013). Although this appears a promising approach to reduce self-reported sexual prejudice, with both theoretical implications for the meaning of RWA itself and practical implications for question wording for assessing these attitudes, there are several reasons to further examine these findings, including (a) inconsistencies with extant evidence, (b) small sample sizes in the original 2 experiments, and (c) concerns with the RWA measures used in the 2 experiments. We tested the SCL hypothesis with a nationally representative sample (Study 1) and close and conceptual replications of Rios' (2013) 2 studies (Studies 2-5) using multiple measures of RWA and prejudice. Across 23 tests of the SCL hypothesis, we obtained 1 statistically significant and 1 marginally significant effect consistent with the hypothesis, 2 significant effects opposite the hypothesis, and 19 nonsignificant effects. A meta-analysis of evidence reported here and in Rios (2013) indicates that RWA strongly predicts antigay prejudice, with no significant variation by label. This confirms the typically robust association between RWA and antigay prejudice and confirms that the SCL effect is not robust. We discuss potential limitations of these studies, theoretical, methodological, and practical implications for our failures to replicate the original SCL studies, and future directions for examining social category label effects. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Right-wing authoritarianism predicts prejudice equally toward "gay men and lesbians" and "homosexuals".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jarret T; Brandt, Mark J; Inbar, Yoel; Mallinas, Stephanie R

    2016-08-01

    Two recent experiments found evidence for what we term the social category label (SCL) effect-that the relationship between right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and prejudice against gay men and lesbians can be reduced or even eliminated when the target group is labeled "gay men and lesbians" rather than "homosexuals" (Rios, 2013). Although this appears a promising approach to reduce self-reported sexual prejudice, with both theoretical implications for the meaning of RWA itself and practical implications for question wording for assessing these attitudes, there are several reasons to further examine these findings, including (a) inconsistencies with extant evidence, (b) small sample sizes in the original 2 experiments, and (c) concerns with the RWA measures used in the 2 experiments. We tested the SCL hypothesis with a nationally representative sample (Study 1) and close and conceptual replications of Rios' (2013) 2 studies (Studies 2-5) using multiple measures of RWA and prejudice. Across 23 tests of the SCL hypothesis, we obtained 1 statistically significant and 1 marginally significant effect consistent with the hypothesis, 2 significant effects opposite the hypothesis, and 19 nonsignificant effects. A meta-analysis of evidence reported here and in Rios (2013) indicates that RWA strongly predicts antigay prejudice, with no significant variation by label. This confirms the typically robust association between RWA and antigay prejudice and confirms that the SCL effect is not robust. We discuss potential limitations of these studies, theoretical, methodological, and practical implications for our failures to replicate the original SCL studies, and future directions for examining social category label effects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26524000

  18. Nonconsensual withdrawal of nutrition and hydration in prolonged disorders of consciousness: authoritarianism and trustworthiness in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2014-11-07

    The Royal College of Physicians of London published the 2013 national clinical guidelines on prolonged disorders of consciousness (PDOC) in vegetative and minimally conscious states. The guidelines acknowledge the rapidly advancing neuroscientific research and evolving therapeutic modalities in PDOC. However, the guidelines state that end-of-life decisions should be made for patients who do not improve with neurorehabilitation within a finite period, and they recommend withdrawal of clinically assisted nutrition and hydration (CANH). This withdrawal is deemed necessary because patients in PDOC can survive for years with continuation of CANH, even when a ceiling on medical care has been imposed, i.e., withholding new treatment such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation for acute life-threatening illness. The end-of-life care pathway is centered on a staged escalation of medications, including sedatives, opioids, barbiturates, and general anesthesia, concurrent with withdrawal of CANH. Agitation and distress may last from several days to weeks because of the slow dying process from starvation and dehydration. The potential problems of this end-of-life care pathway are similar to those of the Liverpool Care Pathway. After an independent review in 2013, the Department of Health discontinued the Liverpool Care pathway in England. The guidelines assert that clinicians, supported by court decisions, have become the final authority in nonconsensual withdrawal of CANH on the basis of "best interests" rationale. We posit that these guidelines lack high-quality evidence supporting: 1) treatment futility of CANH, 2) reliability of distress assessment from starvation and dehydration, 3) efficacy of pharmacologic control of this distress, and 4) proximate causation of death. Finally, we express concerns about the utilitarian-based assessment of what constitutes a person's best interests. We are disturbed by the level and the role of medical authoritarianism institutionalized by these

  19. Authoritarianism and Censorship: Attitudes and Opinions of Students in the Graduate Library School of Indiana University. A Report of an Exploratory Project Conducted as a Preliminary for a Proposed Nationwide Study of American Public Librarians and Intellectual Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busha, Charles H.

    This study attempts to measure the attitudes toward intellectual freedom held by a group of future librarians and to correlate these findings with certain syndromes of authoritarianism as reported in "The Authoritarian Personality," by T. W. Adorno, and others (New York, Harper, 1950). The hypothesis is that graduate library students who express…

  20. Do Mothers' and Fathers' Authoritative and Authoritarian Parenting Interact? An Exploration on Schooling Aspects with a Singapore Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tick N.; Chin, Jeffery E. H.

    2014-01-01

    Our study sought mainly to examine interactions between mothers' and fathers' authoritative and authoritarian parenting. A total of 284 adolescents (mean age 13.5) from 2 Singapore schools contributed self-report data on their parents' parenting and various schooling aspects. Prior to testing for interactions, adolescents with two…

  1. Need for Closure Relations with Authoritarianism, Conservative Beliefs and Racism: The impact of urgency and permanence tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Roets

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that Right-Wing Authoritarianism and Social Dominance Orientation mediate the relationship between need for closure (NFC and conservative beliefs and racism. These results did not apply to the NFC facet scale Decisiveness. However, the Decisiveness scale has been reported to have a questionable validity, and the recent development of a new scale inspired a reassessment of these previous studies. The present results obtained in two Flemish undergraduate samples (N = 164 and 162 show that both the new Decisiveness scale and the other NFC facet scales correlate with conservatism and racism, and that both these relationships are mediated by social attitudes (i.e., RWA and SDO. In the discussion it is argued that not only permanence needs, but also the urgency need reflected in Decisiveness, are important in order to understand right-wing ideology.

  2. Over-time changes in adjustment and competence among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, L; Lamborn, S D; Darling, N; Mounts, N S; Dornbusch, S M

    1994-06-01

    In a previous report, we demonstrated that adolescents' adjustment varies as a function of their parents' style (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, neglectful). This 1-year follow-up was conducted in order to examine whether the observed differences are maintained over time. In 1987, an ethnically and socioeconomically heterogeneous sample of approximately 2,300 14-18-year-olds provided information used to classify the adolescents' families into 1 of 4 parenting style groups. That year, and again 1 year later, the students completed a battery of standardized instruments tapping psychosocial development, school achievement, internalized distress, and behavior problems. Differences in adjustment associated with variations in parenting are either maintained or increase over time. However, whereas the benefits of authoritative parenting are largely in the maintenance of previous levels of high adjustment, the deleterious consequences of neglectful parenting continue to accumulate.

  3. 权威人格与权力感对道德思维方式的影响%The Effects of Authoritarian Personality and Power on Moral Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小平; 杨晟宇; 李梦遥

    2012-01-01

    In situations of moral dilemma - for example, when urban management officers meet street vendors -people have to decide what is fair and to choose between at least two conflicting options. They have to decide whether to apply rules or not, and their decisions may have different consequences for the people affected. Applying and not applying rules are two opposite types of moral thinking to resolve the dilemma. The former is rule-based moral thinking, and the latter is outcome-based moral thinking. In rule-based moral thinking, an act is inherently right or wrong, irrespective of specifics of the circumstances. In outcome-based moral thinking, the Tightness of an act is not determined by the degree to which it fits with principles, but by looking at the consequences of that act. Previous research has shown that people with high power are more likely to use rule-based moral thinking styles, whereas low-power individuals are more likely to rely on outcome-based moral thinking. Another concept that is potentially related to power is authoritarian personality. The hypothesis of the current research is that the effects of power priming on moral thinking style are moderated by authoritarian personality type. More specifically, we expected that when primed with high power, only individuals with high-authoritarian personality would show rule-based moral thinking. To test our hypothesis, 122 public servants from the Chinese Public Security System were recruited to participate in the present study. Participants were first divided into two groups of high and low authoritarians based on their scores on an authoritarian personality scale. They were then randomly assigned to conditions in which they were primed with either high or low power. After the power priming procedure, participants read about a classic trolley problem and indicated how they would deal with the moral dilemma. Their choices reflected either rule-based or outcome-based moral thinking style. The results showed

  4. An ‘Authoritarian Nexus’? China’s Alleged Special Relationship with Autocratic States in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Brand

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available China’s rise is often interpreted as a harbinger of a new era in world politics and raises the question if such a power transition may impact upon patterns of democratic rule across the globe. There is growing interest in whether China acts as an outside stabilizer for other authoritarian regimes. This paper contributes to the emerging literature on the international dimension of autocratic rule by focusing on Chinese Latin American policy. Using the method of structured focused comparisons, we want to assess whether China’s relations towards the Latin American autocracies Cuba and Venezuela differ from those with structurally similar, but democratic cooperation partners in the region, namely Costa Rica and Chile. The guiding question is whether we can detect such a pattern of specific bilateral relationships between China and other autocracies, leading to an ‘authoritarian nexus’ in Chinese foreign policy. Resumen: ¿Un ‘nexo autoritario’? Supuesta relación especial de China con Estados autocráticos de América Latina El ascenso de China se suele interpretar como un presagio de una nueva era en la política mundial y plantea la cuestión de si dicha transición de poder podría repercutir en los patrones de la democracia en el mundo entero. La cuestión de si China actúa como estabilizador externo para otros regímenes autoritarios suscita cada vez más interés. Este artículo es una contribución a la bibliografía emergente sobre la dimensión internacional de los sistemas autocráticos enfocándose en la política chino-latinoamericana. Mediante el método de las comparaciones estructuradas y focalizadas, queremos evaluar si las relaciones de China con las autocracias latinoamericanas de Cuba y Venezuela difieren de las relaciones con otros aliados estructuralmente similares, pero democráticos en la región, como Costa Rica y Chile. La pregunta clave es si podemos detectar este patrón de relaciones bilaterales espec

  5. Politics of the Periphery: An Introduction to Subnational Authoritarianism and Democratization in Latin America Política de la periferia. Una introducción a autoritarismo y democratización subnacional en América Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Edward L. Gibson

    2010-01-01

    The article is an introduction to the topic featured in JPLA 2/2010 "Subnational Authoritarianism and Democratization in Latin America." It discusses the papers by Carlos Gervasoni, Agustina Giraudy, Julián Durazo Herrmann, Alfred P. Montero, and Tracy Beck Fenwick that follow in this issue. Why feature the topic “subnational authoritarianism and democratization” in the Journal of Politics in Latin America? Because despite widespread agreement that subnational jurisdictions in Latin America ...

  6. Endorsement of sexist ideology in Taiwan and the United States: social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism, and deferential family norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Despite close relationships between men and women in daily lives, gender inequality is ubiquitous and often supported by sexist ideology. The understanding of potential bases of sexist ideology is thus important. According to Duckitt's dual-process model (2001), different worldviews may explain different types of sexist ideology. Individuals who hold a "competitive world" worldview tend to endorse group-based dominance. This lends itself to the endorsement of hostile sexism, because hostile sexism is an obvious form of male dominance. Conversely, individuals who hold a "dangerous world" worldview tend to adhere to social cohesion, collective security, and social traditions. This lends itself to the endorsement of benevolent sexism, because benevolent sexism values women who conform to gender norms. As predicted by Duckitt's model, research has shown that social dominance orientation, a general orientation towards the endorsement of group-based dominance, is closely associated with hostile sexism. Furthermore, right-wing authoritarianism, which measures adherence to social traditions, is closely associated with benevolent sexism. Due to the interdependent nature of gender relationships, the current research proposed that a relationship-based belief in hierarchy, deferential family norms, and norms depicting proper manners among family members should predict the endorsement of hostile and benevolent sexism, after controlling for social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism. As predicted, according to student samples collected in Taiwan and the US, the endorsement of deferential family norms predicted the endorsement of hostile sexism and of benevolent sexism, respectively. In addition, among men and women, social dominance orientation predicted hostile sexism more strongly (as opposed to benevolent sexism), whereas right-wing authoritarianism predicted benevolent sexism more strongly (as opposed to hostile sexism). Implications regarding relationship

  7. Patterns of Competence and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Homes: A Replication in a Sample of Serious Juvenile Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Steinberg, Laurence; Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The correlates of authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful parenting were examined within a sample of 1,355 14- to 18-year-olds adjudicated of serious criminal offenses. The sample is composed primarily of poor, ethnic-minority youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods. As has been found in community samples, juvenile offenders who describe their parents as authoritative are more psychosocially mature, more academically competent, less prone to internalized distress, and...

  8. Economic Prosperity as “Narcissistic Filling”: A Missing Link Between Political Attitudes and Right-wing Authoritarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kiess

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An expanded analysis of the origin of the correlation with economic deprivation found in the authors’ representative surveys of right-wing extremist attitudes (such as racism, anti-Semitism, and chauvinism, focusing on the underlying dynamics in Germany and the historical aspect of National Socialism. The growing prosperity of the West German “economic miracle” of the 1950s served a psychosocial “filling function” to block the narcissistic damage caused by confrontation with past crimes and the sense of the nation’s loss of greatness. As this prosperity vanishes for many people during the current economic crisis, the filling comes out and the narcissistic wound opens up. What emerges is both what lies underneath and what has been serving as a defense against it, which involve authoritarian dynamics. Initially, the metaphor of “narcissistic filling” will be developed through our analysis of group discussions conducted as part of our qualitative study (of 2008. The developed hypotheses will thereafter be introduced to our following representative survey (of 2010 and confirmed by means of quantitative methods.

  9. Perceptions of sexual harassment by evidence quality, perceiver gender, feminism, and right wing authoritarianism: Debunking popular myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Gargi; Stockdale, Margaret S

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the critique in public discourse that sexual harassment (SH) victim advocates, particularly women and feminists, ignore the quality of evidence in a SH claim and are reluctant to find evidence of a false accusation. To balance the inquiry, the study also examined whether right wing authoritarians (RWAs) also ignore evidence quality and presume such claims are false accusations. Participants were 961 U.S. adults (51% female) who completed an online experiment in which they read either a gender harassment (GH) or unwanted sexual attention (USA) scenario of hostile work environment SH and rated the scenario on severity, perceived guilt of the accused, belief that the accused should receive negative job consequences, and likelihood that the claimant was making a false accusation. Scenarios varied by the strength of the evidence in support of the SH claim. Participants completed measures of identification with and support for feminism, RWA, and demographic variables. Results found that contrary to expectations, evidence had a stronger effect on women's, feminists', and feminism supporters' perceptions and to a lesser extent RWAs' perceptions of the scenarios. When evidence was weak, women and feminists, compared to others, were less supportive of the prosecution, but when evidence was strong they were more supportive of the prosecution than were others. These findings address criticisms that advocates for gender equity and victim's rights, particularly women and feminists, are unable to reach fair judgments of SH complaints. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Social Dominance Orientation, Right-Wing Authoritarianism, and Willingness to Help Addicted Individuals: The Role of Responsibility Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torleif Halkjelsvik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how Social Dominance Orientation (SDO and Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA were related to motivation to personally help addicted individuals and approval of public spending on addiction treatment. The study employs an attributional analysis based on Weiner’s theory of social motivation. SDO was associated with less approval of public spending on treatment and lower motivation to personally help. RWA was associated with less approval of public spending but exerted a direct positive effect on motivation to personally help. However, the latter effect was cancelled out by an indirect negative effect from an attributional process where addicted individuals were perceived as more responsible for their condition. An association between RWA and judgments of responsibility was further indicated in an investigation of positive vs. negative outcomes of addictions. RWA correlated with ratings of personal responsibility across the valence of outcomes, whereas SDO did not. In conclusion, the relation between RWA and (lack of motivation to help is partly explained by a greater emphasis on personal responsibility, and the relation between SDO and (lack of motivation to help is independent of responsibility judgments.

  11. Impunity in Post-authoritarian Brazil: The Supreme Court’s Recent Verdict on the Amnesty Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Schneider

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While numerous countries in post-authoritarian South America have annulled Amnesty Laws issued under authoritarian rule and punished officials involved in repressive organs, Brazil continues to favour impunity. This attitude has recently been confirmed by the Brazilian Supreme Court’s decision to maintain the 1979 Amnesty Law granting de-facto impunity to violators of human rights during the military regime. The article considers this verdict within its historical context, and raises two questions which have previously attracted little attention: First, why has postauthoritarian Brazil processed the experience of the military regime so differently from its neighbouring countries, and what role did the Amnesty Law play in that difference? Second, what does this disinterest in punishment mean? This article concludes that one promising theory highlighted by political scientists – the low degree of participation in civil society in Brazil – cannot fully explain why the vast majority of Brazilians are not interested in punishment, as numerous citizens mobilized during the amnesty movement. It seems to imply that the heterogeneous antiauthoritarian alliance vanished once the Amnesty Law had been achieved. Another key finding is that the disinterest in punishment cannot be interpreted as moral support for the military regime or a sanctioning of its human rights violations, as the amnesty debate in Brazil is more complex. Resumen: Impunidad en el Brasil post-autoritario: fallo de la Corte Suprema sobre la ley de amnistíaMientras numerosos países sudamericanos han derogado las leyes de amnistía, aprobadas por pasados regímenes militares, y castigado a los oficiales de los órganos represivos, Brasil continúa favoreciendo la impunidad. Esta actitud ha sido recientemente ratificada por la Corte Suprema de Brasil, que ha mantenido la ley de amnistía de 1979, garantizando impunidad a los violadores de los derechos humanos durante el r

  12. Homophobia in physical education and sport: the role of physical/sporting identity and attributes, authoritarian aggression, and social dominance orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Shovelton, Heather; Latner, Janet D

    2013-01-01

    We examined levels of, and reasons for, anti-gay and anti-lesbian prejudice (homophobia) in pre-service physical education (PE) and non-physical education (non-PE) university students. Participants (N = 409; 66% female; N = 199 pre-service physical educators) completed questionnaires assessing anti-gay and lesbian prejudice, authoritarianism, social dominance orientation (SDO), physical/athletic identity and self-concept, and physical attributes. ANCOVAs revealed that PE students had higher levels of anti-gay (p = .004) and lesbian prejudice than non-PE students (p = .008), respectively. Males reported greater anti-gay prejudice (p < .001), but not anti-lesbian prejudice, than females. Authoritarian aggression was positively associated with greater anti-gay (β = .49) and lesbian prejudice (β = .37) among male participants. Among females, higher authoritarian aggression and SDO was associated with greater anti-gay (β = .34 and β = .25, respectively) and lesbian (β = .26 and β = .16, respectively) prejudice. The physical identity-related constructs of athletic self-concept (β = .-15) and perceived upper body strength (β = .39) were associated with anti-gay attitudes among male participants. Physical attractiveness (β = -.29) and upper body strength (β = .29) were also associated with male participants' anti-lesbian prejudice. Regression analyses showed that the differences between PE and non-PE students in anti-gay and lesbian prejudice were largely mediated by authoritarianism and SDO. The present study is the first to examine the relationship between investment in physical/sporting identity and attributes and anti-gay and lesbian prejudice in PE/sport participants. In the present sample, anti-gay and lesbian prejudice was greater in pre-service PE students than non-PE students, but these differences appear to be explained by differences in conservative ideological traits. Additionally, physical

  13. ‘Vive la grande famille des médias tunisiens’ Media reform, authoritarian resilience and societal responses in Tunisia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Rikke Hostrup; Cavatorta, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    one of those liberal reforms implemented to give domestic and international constituencies the sentiment that genuine liberalisation is under way in the country and it has therefore been dismissed as a façade reform. While this interpretation contains a degree of validity, this paper challenges the...... notion that the reform is exclusively about authoritarian upgrading. Perhaps unwittingly, the reform has permitted the arrival on the media scene of new social voices and actors that never had the opportunity to discuss taboo topics and this transforms public debate. While political discussions were...

  14. Relationships between right-wing authoritarianism, terrorism threat, and attitudes towards restrictions of civil rights: a comparison among four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossowska, Małgorzata; Trejtowicz, Mariusz; de Lemus, Soledad; Bukowski, Marcin; Van Hiel, Alain; Goodwin, Robin

    2011-05-01

    The present study tested the role of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), terrorist threat, and sociopolitical 'climate' as predictors of support for governmental anti-terrorism policies and actions. Two dimensions of analysis were defined: the presence versus absence of al-Qaeda attacks, and adherence to surveillance versus anti-surveillance mainstream politics. In order to study the influence of these two contextual dimensions on the expression of attitudes, we selected four European countries that fall into these two dimensions--Poland, Belgium, Spain, and the UK. Results from our study provide support for the contention that attitudes towards restrictions of civil rights are related to RWA independently of the cultural context. Moreover, in the UK sample, we found that the threat of terrorism increases acceptance of limitations of civil liberties, but only among people who hold authoritarian beliefs. However, in Spain, the other country that experienced terrorist attacks, this moderation effect was not found which is interpreted in terms of differences in the sociopolitical climate in both countries. As predicted, we did not find such moderation effect in countries in which threat is relatively low (Poland and Belgium). The results are discussed with reference to the conceptual framework based on the importance of fear experiences, security-focused policies, as well as the specific cultural context in the study of reaction to terrorist threat. PMID:21492144

  15. Psychometric properties of the attitudes toward gay men scale in Argentinian context: The influence of sex, authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Etchezahar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though prejudice toward male homosexuality is one of the main reasons for discrimination in Argentina, there is no valid measure to assess it. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Attitudes Toward Gay Men Scale (ATG and to examine the influence of sex, right wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation on anti-gay attitudes. Data were collected with a convenience sample of 436 undergraduate students from University of Buenos Aires. Analysis of the data showed adequate psychometric properties for the ATG Scale and the moderating effect of sex, right wing uthoritarianism and social dominance orientation on anti-gay attitudes. Implications of these findings were discussed.

  16. Démocratie et autoritarisme dans le Pérou actuel Democracy and Authoritarianism in Contemporary Peru Democracia y autoritarismo en el Perú actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Caviglia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available L’article aborde la nature des liens entre l’homogène et l’hétérogène dans les relations juridiques et politiques du Pérou actuel. L’auteur analyse la manière dont deux tendances, l’une de sensibilité démocratique et l’autre d’essence autoritariste, se disputent le pouvoir politique. Tout d’abord, est analysée la façon dont le projet démocratique réclame, au niveau du droit, une homogénéisation, apte à assurer le pluralisme juridique et sociétal où tous les citoyens se reconnaissent dans le système juridique. Puis, est abordée la manière par laquelle l’autoritarisme impose un système juridique qui exige l’élimination de l’hétérogène au sein de la société. Du fait d’une longue tradition autoritaire dans l’histoire péruvienne, l’auteur explicite les arrangements au travers desquels celui-ci s’est aujourd’hui immiscé dans l’enceinte universitaire pour susciter le débat académique et accroître son influence politique.This article considers the nature of the ties between homogeneity and heterogeneity in juridical and political relations in contemporary Peru.  The author analyzes the way in which two tendencies – one involving democratic sensibility and the other essentially authoritarian – vie over political power. First, we look to the way in which the democratic project claims – at the level of law – a homogeneity capable of supporting a legal and social pluralism in which all citizens might recognize themselves in the legal system.  Next, we turn to the way in which authoritarianism imposes a legal system that demands the elimination of heterogeneity from within the society.  Given a long authoritarian tradition in Peruvian history, the author clarifies the ways that vision is embedded within the contemporary academy, channeling debate and gain political influence.El artículo aborda las relaciones que se dan entre lo homogéneo y lo heterogéneo en las relaciones jur

  17. EXPLICAR LA CALIDAD DEMOCRÁTICA: ¿QUÉ TAN RELEVANTES SON LAS TRADICIONES AUTORITARIAS? Explaining Democratic Quality: How Relevant is the Authoritarian Legacy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Morlino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta es una versión revisada de la lectura abierta dada por el autor el año 2004, en la conferencia de la sociedad italiana de Ciencia política en Padua. En la primera sección se discute la principal definición de democracia y calidad democrática, como estado de derecho, accountability electoral, accountability interins titucional, responsiveness, libertad y equidad/solidaridad. En la segunda parte surge una pregunta clave: si nosotros quisiéramos explicar la calidad de la democracia, ¿cuán relevantes son las tradiciones políticas previas? también son sugeridos otros factores explicativos que complementan el rol de los legados autoritarios, proponiendo pequeñas hipótesis clave. En la última sección se analiza el impacto del legado autoritario sobre la calidad de las democracias contemporáneas en países del sur de Europa como Portugal, España e Italia y el Cono Sur de Latinoamérica tal como Chile, Argentina, Uruguay y BrasilThis is the revised draft ofthe opening lecture given by the author atthe 2004 Conference of Italian Society of Political Science in Padua. Inthe first sectionthe main definitions of democracy and democratic qualities rule of law, electoral accountability, inter-ins titutional accountability, responsiveness, freedom and equality/solidarity are discussed. Inthe second a key ques tion is addressed: if we would liketo explainthe qualities of a democracy how much arethe previous politicaltraditions ofthe country relevant? Other explanatory factors, which complementthe role of an authoritarian legacy, are also sugges ted and a few key hypotheses are proposed.the final section does not provide any comprehensive explanation, but analyses ofthe impact of authoritarian legacy in a few countries of Southern Europe, such as Portugal, Spain, and Italy (but not Greece where it is not relevant and inthe Southern Cone as Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, wherethe quality of contemporary democracies is ques tioned

  18. Differential Effects of Right-Wing Authoritarianism and Social Dominance Orientation on Political Candidate Support: The Moderating Role of Message Framing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarret T. Crawford

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Employing a dual process motivational (DPM model perspective, we found that how political messages are framed influences the differential effects of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA and social dominance orientation (SDO on political candidate support in the United States. Study 1 (N = 85 found that RWA and SDO differentially predicted support for right-wing candidates who used cohesion and group status threats to frame same-sex marriage, respectively. Study 2 (N = 89 largely replicated those findings on immigration policy. In Study 3 (N = 128, the hypothesis that RWA and SDO negatively predicted support for left-wing candidates who framed same-sex marriage in terms of individual liberty and social equality, respectively, received partial support. Additional analyses indicated that the effects of RWA on candidate support in these studies were driven by specific theoretically-relevant dimensions of RWA. Together, these results indicate that candidates can enhance their appeal by strategically employing value-based political messages targeting different subsets of their constituency.

  19. Memories and traces. From Jewish exilists' authoritarian personality research via Cloninger's psychobiology of personality traits to a neurobiological approach to conflict management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    Research on personality as a useful construct to understand people's behavior in conflict situations was traced over more than fifty years, and an attempt was made to add neurobiological parameters to psycho-socio-cultural approaches. As a starting point, scientists in exile have been called to mind who had been expelled from Nazi Germany for their Jewish origins. Among them were Adorno and Frenkel-Brunswik whose extensive studies on the authoritarian personality structure were quoted. In their work, personality was defined as a more or less enduring organisation of forces within the individual helping to determine responses in various situations, which is responsible for consistency in behavior. As a next step, Cloninger's psychobiology of personality traits was presented. In his personality concept, four temperamental traits (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependency and persistence) and three character dimensions are included. Temperamental traits are heritable, developmentally stable, emotionally based, uninfluenced by social learning, and linked to specific brain biological features. The temperaments have a certain neuroendocrinological feature which can be determined. Character dimensions develop in a stagelike process from infancy to adulthood and are influenced by temperament, social learning, genetic factors, and random life events. Personality is still considered a useful theoretical approach to conflict management research and practice. A neurobiological point of view seems to be a useful supplementation in addition to traditional psycho-socio-cultural approaches. Measuring biological compounds can supply the conflict manager with an additional tool of knowledge enhancing the ability to understand and anticipate conflict behavior.

  20. The Post-Authoritarian Civil-Military Relations in Brazil%巴西后威权时期的文武关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董经胜

    2012-01-01

    To establish the democratic civil-military relation is an important factor for consolidation of the democracy in post-authoritarian Latin American countries.Since the transition from military to civil regime in 1985,the civil-military relation has not been democratic in Brazil.The possibility of military intervention in politics has not been completely excluded.However,the civil governments have taken actions to limit the power of the military to interfere with politics and to cut the political influences of the armed forces.These measures have achieved significant success in the consolidation of the newly-built democracy.%建立民主的文武关系是拉美国家后威权时期民主化巩固的重要前提。1985年巴西军政府"还政于民"之后,虽然巴西的文武关系并未实现全面的民主化,军方干预政治的可能性也未能完全排除,但各届民主政府逐步采取措施限制军方对政治的干预权力,削减军方的政治影响,取得了明显的成效,民主制度不断巩固。

  1. Planificarea economică sub monarhia autoritară din România (The economic planning under authoritarian monarchy of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin GRECU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the economic planning institution under authoritarian monarchy of Romania, 1938-1940. The Superior Economic Council, populated by specialists, had the main responsibilities of planning and economic control. The Superior Economic Council composition will be found in the structures of the National Renaissance Front as well as in the composition of the corporatist Parliament. The appointment of the Members of the The Superior Economic Council by royal decree has highlighted the monarch’s desire to have a personal institution, which would be composed of all the important representatives of the Economy, Industry and Finances. The Super Ministry, Ministry of National Economy, headed by Mitiţă Constantinescu, have the task of guidance, coordination and encouragement of the progress for the productive forces distribution of production, direction and supervision of importation, and preparation of economic laws. By the Decree of October 1939, the Ministry of National Economy may could decide the syndicalization of all enterprises, from a specific industrial branch, setting concrete tasks of production and selling of goods. The Superior Economic Council was established to coordinate the corporate economy through policies of planism and economic nationalization, but the corporate institutution of the Romanian authoritative state was the guild

  2. La democracia mexicana, presa de una cultura política con rasgos autoritarios Mexican Democracy, Overcome by a Political Culture with Authoritarian Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aidé Hernández

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de las transformaciones políticas que han ocurrido en México durante los últimos 20 años, la cultura política del mexicano ha dejado ver pocos avances. Actualmente siguen predominando características que no fomentan una participación autónoma y propositiva que ayude al éxito de la democracia. Entre ellas destacan el conocimiento e interés por la política; la confianza interpersonal, en las instituciones y en la democracia; la tolerancia; y la competencia subjetiva. Este panorama propicia que sigan prevaleciendo rasgos autoritarios como el clientelismo y el corporativismo, los cuales no fortalecen la democracia. Los pequeños cambios culturales se han dado en el ámbito electoral, donde no sólo hay una gran aceptación a la pluralidad y competencia entre los partidos políticos: ahora los ciudadanos consideran el voto ya no como un derecho sino como un arma política.In spite of the political transformations occurred in Mexico during the last 20 years, the Mexican citizen's political culture has shown few improvements, since certain characteristics keep on prevailing and do not encourage an autonomous participation contribuing to the success of the democratic process. Some of the most relevant advances for such process are knowledge and interest in politics; confidence in the interpersonal relationships, in institutions and in democracy; tolerance; and subjective competence. Their absence favours the prevalence of authoritarian features as clientelism and corporativism. Small cultural changes have taken place in the electoral domain though, where there is a great acceptance of plurality and competition among the political parties and citizens consider suffrage not as a right but as a political weapon.

  3. 权威领导影响下属建言行为的双元心理机制%Authoritarian Leadership and Employee Voice Behavior:A Dual Mediating Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马贵梅; 樊耘; 门一; 张克勤

    2014-01-01

    本文探讨中国本土情境的权威领导影响下属建言行为的影响过程,揭示“想不想”建言和“能不能”建言双元心理机制各自的作用和差异。通过267对主管和下属的配对样本,运用多层回归分析,实证结果表明,权威领导对下属的抑制型建言和促进型建言均具有消极的影响且对前者的影响程度更强;权威领导通过建设性变革责任感和组织支持感双元心理机制影响下属的建言行为;两种心理机制的作用存在差异,组织支持感代表的“能不能”建言的中介作用强于建设性变革责任感代表的“想不想”建言的中介作用。%This study investigates the mediating effect of felt responsibility for constructive change and perceived organi-zational support on the relationship between supervisor ’ s authoritarian leadership and subordinates ’ voice behavior in Chinese context, and explores the unique and different effect of dual psychological mechanisms that are “would” voice and “could” voice. Using 267 dyads survey data of subordinates and their direct supervisors, the results of multiple lin-ear regression show that authoritarian leadership hinders subordinates’ promotive and prohibitive voice behavior, and the negative relationship between authoritarian leadership and prohibitive voice is stronger;felt responsibility for constructive change and perceived organizational support mediate the relationship between authoritarian leadership and subordinates’ voice behavior;two psychological mechanisms have different effect, “could” voice mechanism which is represented by perceived organizational support has more stronger mediating effect than the “would” voice mechanism which is repre-sented by felt responsibility for constructive change.

  4. Fragmented Authoritarianism or Integrated Fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    or from a position as business leader to a position in the state apparatus or in the Party and vice versa. To conceptualize the coexistence of the contradicting forces for further enterprise autonomy and continued central control that characterizes the evolving relationship between business groups...

  5. REFLEXÕES SOBRE O PENSAMENTO SOCIAL E EDUCACIONAL NO BRASIL E SUAS MATRIZES AUTORITÁRIAS. REFLECTIONS ON THE SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL THOUGHT IN BRAZIL AND ITS AUTHORITARIAN MATRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, Lincoln de Araújo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe uma discussão sobre as matrizes do pensamento social e autoritário e suas características marcantes na educação brasileira, identificando cronologicamente o início da República, acentuando-se o regime estabelecido a partir de 1930. O estudo das ideias sociais e de seus intelectuais, as influências ideológicas e doutrinárias que darão base aos fundamentos do pensamento autoritário social e educacional no Brasil. O regime político a partir de 1930, o Estado Novo e o projeto educacional do governo de Getúlio Vargas e seus princípios da ordem, da moral, da política e o desejo de unidade nacional. A conjunção de um elenco de intelectuais que formularam um ideal nacional a partir da função política do Estado como o condutor da modernização do país e na atuação pedagógica desta instituição. A caracterização de intelectuais que estiveram a serviço do Estado Novo e de sua ideologia, elaborando o seu projeto e tendo a educação como estratégia de propaganda. O pensamento social de Oliveira Vianna, Francisco Campos, Gustavo Capanema e as justificativas para a governabilidade e presença do regime varguista no país. O principal objetivo deste artigo é o de analisar o pensamento autoritário brasileiro e sua presença na educação brasileira.REFLECTIONS ON THE SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL THOUGHT IN BRAZIL ANDITS AUTHORITARIAN MATRICES. This article proposes a discussion about the matrices of the social and authoritarian thought and its defining characteristics in Brazilian education,identifying chronologically the beginning of the Republic, emphasizing the regime that was established in 1930. The study of social ideas and theirauthors, the ideological and doctrinal influences that will be the basis for the authoritarian, social and educational thought in Brazil. The political regime that started in 1930, the New State and the educational project of Getulio Vargas’s government including its

  6. This time it's different. An inevitable decline in world petroleum production will keep oil product prices high, causing military conflicts and shifting wealth and power from democracies to authoritarian regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is virtual agreement among geologists that world production of conventional oil will peak at some point in the future. Oil, after all, is a finite resource, while demand will only grow over time. Geologists disagree, however, exactly when the peak will occur. Using data from the International Energy Agency, the US Department of Energy, the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas, and petroleum industry sources, we argue that conventional oil production will reach a worldwide maximum within the next 5-10 years, earlier than generally estimated, thus leaving a very short time frame within which to plan for conversion to alternative sources of energy. Unless planning is initiated immediately, the United States and other Western democracies will see their positions in the global economy undercut as military conflicts over limited energy resources increase, and wealth and power are shifted to authoritarian regimes in Russia, Venezuela, Africa and the Middle East. (author)

  7. Politics of the Periphery: An Introduction to Subnational Authoritarianism and Democratization in Latin America Política de la periferia. Una introducción a autoritarismo y democratización subnacional en América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward L. Gibson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an introduction to the topic featured in JPLA 2/2010 "Subnational Authoritarianism and Democratization in Latin America." It discusses the papers by Carlos Gervasoni, Agustina Giraudy, Julián Durazo Herrmann, Alfred P. Montero, and Tracy Beck Fenwick that follow in this issue. Why feature the topic “subnational authoritarianism and democratization” in the Journal of Politics in Latin America? Because despite widespread agreement that subnational jurisdictions in Latin America vary considerably in the democratic character of their politics, political scientists are still largely in the dark about how to conceptualize and measure this situation, and have scant knowledge about mechanisms that sustain and undermine it. This collection of articles makes major headway toward clearing our methodological and theoretical ignorance of these topics. El artículo es una introducción al tema especial de JPLA 2/2010 "autoritarismo y democratización subnacional en América Latina". Discute las contribuciones de Carlos Gervasoni, Agustina Giraudy, Julián Durazo Herrmann, Alfred P. Montero y Tracy Beck Fenwick que estan unidas en esta edición. ¿Porqué presentar el tema “autoritarismo y democratización subnacional” en el Journal of Politics in Latin America? Porque a pesar del acuerdo general que en América Latina las jurisdicciones subnacionales varian considerablementes  en el carácter democrático de su política, la mayoría de politólogos todavía esta insegura como conceptualizar y medir ésta situación, y tiene poco conocimiento de los mecanismos que la mantienen o subvierten. Esta colección de artículos ofrece aproximaciones metodológicas y teóricas al tema.

  8. Supervisor Authoritarian Leadership and Subordinate Proactive Behavior:Test of A Mediated-Moderation Model%主管威权领导与下属前瞻行为:一个被中介的调节模型构建与检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锐; 田晓明

    2014-01-01

    采用214份主管—下属配对调查数据,考察了威权领导这一华人企业组织中特有的领导方式对下属前瞻行为的影响,尤其是检验了下属对领导者信任的中介作用与权威主义和集体主义这两种传统价值取向的调节作用。层次回归分析结果表明:(1)威权领导与下属的前瞻行为呈显著负相关;(2)对领导者的信任在威权领导与下属前瞻行为之间起完全中介作用;(3)下属权威主义取向对威权领导与下属对领导者信任和前瞻行为之间的负向关系均具有显著的弱化效应,并且下属对领导者的信任完全中介了威权领导与下属权威主义取向之间的交互作用对前瞻行为的影响;(4)下属集体主义取向对威权领导与下属对领导者的信任之间的负向关系具有显著的增强效应。%Proactive behavior has been recognized as a positive way of behaving which can lead to the increased effectiveness of individuals and organizations. It has attracted increasing attention in western academy of management. However, empirical investigation addressing the issue in China remains quite limited. As the power difference between leaders and subordinates is very large in the context of Chinese organizations, leader-related factors should be more important and special for subordinates’ proactive behavior. In the present study, we tried to examine the influence of authoritarian leadership on proactive behavior, and investigate the mediating role of trust in supervisor as well as the moderating role of traditional values of authoritarianism and collectivism playing in the linkages between authoritarian leadership and proactive behavior. A structured questionnaire was employed as the research instrument for this study. It consisted of five scales designed to measure the variables of interest, namely proactive behavior, authoritarian leadership, trust in supervisor, authoritarianism, and collectivism. To avoid the

  9. 马来西亚竞争型威权体制的走向:以选民结构为考察视角%The Trend of the Competitive Authoritarian Regime in Malaysia-An Observation from the Perspective of Voter Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄礼伟

    2014-01-01

    Though a controversial topic,competitive authoritarian regime is very popular in contemporary develo-ping countries. Mainly based on the information concerning the 13th general election of Malaysia in 2013,this paper aims to analyze how the changing Malaysian voter structure,which is driven by urbanization and generation change, affects the competitive strategy of political parties in this country and what is the future of the Malaysian competitive authoritarian regime when it meets a changing voter structure. This paper argues that the main trends of voter struc-ture will gradually undermine the long-standing Malaysian competitive authoritarian regime,but this is still a long and tough work because of the heavy historic inertia of authoritarianism.%竞争型威权体制是当今发展中国家的一种普遍政治现象,也是一个极具争议的课题。本文将主要围绕2013年马来西亚第13届大选来采取论据,分析城市化与世代更替所造成的马来西亚选民结构变迁,以及这种变迁是如何影响竞争型威权体制下的政党竞争策略,并进一步探讨这种体制本身的演化路向。本文认为当今马来西亚选民结构中的主要潮流正在推动竞争型威权体制的消解,当然由于威权体制强大的历史惯性的存在,这种消解仍将要经历一个较漫长的过程。

  10. 威权式领导行为对下属组织公民行为的影响研究——下属权力距离的调节作用%Study on the Relationship between Authoritarian Leadership Behavior and Subordinates' Organizational Citizenship Behavior-- the Moderating Role of Subordinates' Power Distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕; 怀明云

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the moderating effects of subordinates' power distance on the relationship between authoritarian leadership behavior and subordinates' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The data of 337 pairs of leader and subordinate from service firms are collected for the hierarchical regression analysis. The results indicate that power distance moderates the relationship between authoritarian leadership behavior and subordinates' OCB through the process of subordinates' trust in leader. Specifically, when subordinates' power distance is low, authoritarian leadership behavior will reduce subordinates' OCB through reducing their trust in leader; however, when subor- dinates' power distance is high, the negative influence of authoritarian leadership on subordinates' OCB through reducing their trust in leader will be weakened, or even turn into a positive influence. This paper discusses the theoretical and practical implications of this study and points out the direction of future research.%本文采用问卷调查法,对来自于服务行业的337对领导和下属的数据进行回归分析,结果表明威权式领导行为通过影响不同权力距离取向下属对领导的信任程度而影响下属的组织公民行为。具体来说,威权式领导行为通过降低低权力距离取向下属对领导的信任程度进而减少其组织公民行为;相反,威权式领导的负面影响对于高权力距离取向下属会变弱,甚至转化为一种正面影响。文章最后讨论了本研究的理论和实践意义,指出了未来的研究方向。

  11. The Impact of Authoritarian Leadership and Benevolent Leadership on Team Creativity-Test of a Mediated Interaction Model%威权领导、仁慈领导对团队创造力--一个有中介的交互效应模型检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石冠峰; 李琨

    2014-01-01

    Team creativity has become cornerstone of organizational innovation.The stimulation effect of the style of team leadership’s behavior on team creativity has become a research hotspot,but the mechanism of authoritarian and benevolent leadership on team creativity has not been fully explored.Based on the literature research,this paper puts authoritarian leadership, benevolent leadership,team reflexivity and team creativity into the framework and construct the interaction model with intermediary.Based on the survey data of 128 teams,the writer draw the conclusion by using structural equation model and hierarchical regression analysis:authoritarian leadership has a negative effect on team creativity,benevolent leadership has a positive effect on team creativity,and they have a positive interaction on team creativity;in addition,the team reflexivity can promote team creativity effectively,and fully mediated the separate effect and interactive effect of authoritarian leadership and benevolent leadership on team creativity.This paper concludes with a discussion of the theoretical and practical significance of research,and points out the default of research and direction of study in the future.%团队创造力是组织创新的基石。领导方式对团队创造力的激发作用成为研究热点,但威权领导和仁慈领导对团队创造力的作用机制尚未得到充分诠释。基于文献研究,将威权领导、仁慈领导、团队自省性及团队创造力纳入同一框架,构建有中介的交互作用模型。基于128个团队的调研数据,运用结构方程模型和层次回归方法,研究表明:威权领导对团队创造力有消极影响,而仁慈领导对团队创造力有积极影响,两者对团队创造力有正向交互影响。此外,团队自省性能有效促进团队创造力的提升,并完成中介威权领导和仁慈领导对团队创造力的单独效应及交互效应。

  12. Estilos parentais autoritário e democrático-recíproco intergeracionais, conflito conjugal e comportamentos de externalização e internalização Intergenerational authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles, marital conflict, and externalizing and internalizing behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenézer A. de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelos mediativos de risco e proteção foram testados, para prever longitudinalmente comportamentos de externalização e internalização infantis, a partir de uma atitude conjugal conflituosa e de estilos parentais intergeracionais autoritário vs. democrático-recíproco. Proveniente de duas escolas particulares e uma pública, a amostra contou com 25 meninas e 25 meninos de 4 e 5 anos, e suas respectivas mães. Correlações bivariadas de Pearson e regressões múltiplas indicaram a presença de transmissão intergeracional do estilo autoritário, mas não do democrático-recíproco, mediada por uma atitude conjugal conflituosa. O estilo autoritário materno previu tanto externalização como internalização, enquanto a atitude conjugal conflituosa previu apenas externalização. Embora significativo, o modelo aditivo não gerou efeitos longitudinais significativos de cada fator sobre externalização. Mas, ao se levar em conta a relação entre o estilo autoritário e a atitude conjugal conflituosa, efeitos principais foram encontrados para ambos os fatores. A obtenção de resultados significativos apenas no modelo de risco é considerada sob os pontos de vista teórico e metodológico.Mediational models of risk and protection were tested to predict longitudinally both externalizing and internalizing behaviors in young children, with conflicted marital attitude and transgenerational, authoritarian vs. authoritative parenting as predictors. Drawn from two private and one public schools, the sample consisted of 25 boys and 25 girls with 4 and 5 years of age, and their respective mothers. Bivariate Pearson correlations and multiple regressions showed intergenerational transmission for the authoritarian style, but not for the authoritative style, mediated by a conflicted attitude toward marriage. The maternal authoritarian style predicted both externalizing and internalizing behaviors, whereas the conflicted marital attitude predicted only

  13. O “Toque de recolher” como um retrocesso ao autoritarismo: caminhos e tendências políticas do Conselho Tutelar em Blumenau - SC (Curfew as a return to authoritarianism: paths and political trends of the...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Marchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a proposta do “Toque de Recolher” em Blumenau através do resgate histórico das políticas públicas para a infância nos níveis local e nacional, visando discutir a atuação do Conselho Tutelar nesse processo e a natureza política e social deste órgão. O pano de fundo deste estudo são os avanços e retrocessos na democratização do Estado Brasileiro a partir da Constituição de 1988 e da implantação do Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente, nos anos 1990. A hipótese central do estudo é de que, com o esfriamento dos movimentos sociais a partir dos anos 1990, esferas públicas de negociação entre Estado e sociedade civil – o CMDCA e os Conselhos Tutelares – tendem a se transformar em órgãos do Estado para o controle autoritário de condutas individuais. Nesse contexto, surge a proposta do “Toque de Recolher” para menores como suposta solução aos problemas de segurança pública nos municípios brasileiros. Palavras-chave: Conselho Tutelar. Democracia participativa. Toque de recolher. Abstract: This article analyzes the proposal of curfew in Blumenau considering the history of childhood public policies at local and national levels in order to discuss the actions of the Guardianship Council in this process as well as the political and social nature of this institution. The background of this study is the advances and setbacks in the democratization of the Brazilian State after the Constitution of 1988, and the creation of the Children and Adolescents Statute in the 90’s. The main hypothesis of this study is that with the decrease of social movements in 90’s, public spheres of negotiation between the State and the civil society – The CMDCA (in the Portuguese acronym and the Guardianship Councils – tend to become State institutions for authoritarian control of individual behavior. In this context, emerges the proposal of the curfew for minors as an alleged solution to the problems of public

  14. THE PUTIN SYSTEM: RUSSIAN AUTHORITARIANISM TODAY

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    Armando Chaguaceda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the main trends that have characterized the re-emergence, formation and consolidation of an autocratic regime in postSoviet Russia. We revisit the developments that led Vladimir Putin to the presidency of the country; framing these events as precursors of changes in formal structures (institutional and legal and informal power mechanisms that define the current Russian political leadership. Finally, we formulated questions related to potential future scenarios involving such leadership.

  15. Reconfiguring Ethiopia: The Politics of Authoritarian Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    reconfigured Ethiopian society and state in the past two decades. Yet, as the contributors to this volume demonstrate, ‘democracy’ in Ethiopia has not changed the authority structures and the culture of centralist decision-making of the past. The political system is tightly engineered and controlled from top...... to bottom by the ruling Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Navigating between its 1991 announcements to democratise the country and its aversion to power-sharing, the EPRDF has established a de facto one-party state that enjoys considerable international support. This ruling party...

  16. Authoritarian Parenting, Power Distance, and Bullying Propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Stelios N.; Stavrinides, Panayiotis; Fousiani, Kyriaki

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at examining the existing relation among parenting, cultural value orientation, and bullying propensity at school. The participants (N = 231) were early adolescents randomly selected from 11 different schools in urban and rural areas of Cyprus. The results showed that a statistically significant relation exists between parental…

  17. Authoritarian Neoliberalism, the Occupy Movements, and IPE

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    Ian Bruff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of any kind of hegemonic aura, neoliberal practices have proved increasingly unable to garner the consent, or even the reluctant acquiescence, necessary for more ‘normal’ modes of governance. Of particular importance in the post-2007 crisis has been the growing frequency with which constitutional and legal changes, in the name of economic ‘necessity’, are seeking to reshape the purpose of the state and associated institutions. This attempted reconfiguration is three-fold: (1 the more immediate appeal to material circumstances as a reason for the state being unable, despite ‘the best will in the world’, to reverse processes such as greater socioeconomic inequality and dislocation;(2 the deeper and longer-term recalibration of what kind of activity is feasible and appropriate for ‘non-market’ institutions to engage in, diminishing expectations in the process; and (3 the reconceptualisation of the state as increasingly non-democratic through its subordination to constitutional and legal rules that are ‘necessary’ for prosperity to be achieved.

  18. Beyond Authoritarianism: A Cultural Perspective on Asian American Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth K.

    A study was conducted to determine Asian American conceptualizations of parenting, focusing on socialization goals, parenting style, and parenting practices related to schooling, aspects of parental influences discussed by D. Darling and L. Steinberg (1993). It was suggested that the standard conceptualizations of parenting style, those of D.…

  19. Social media: new spaces for contention in authoritarian systems

    OpenAIRE

    Belknap, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited What role has social media played in Bahraini political movements since 2011? Does it facilitate and encourage a space for free expressions of ideas, or do the dominant groups utilize social media to promote their agendas and shape social unrest outcomes? This thesis examines how the use of social media altered the course of protests in Bahrain on the heels of the regional Arab Spring movement. Historical protest activities incorporate...

  20. Redefining Equality: Authoritarian Populism and the Conservative Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    This article examines equality in education within the context of two larger conflicts--the breakdown of the largely liberal consensus that guided much educational and social policy since World War II and the growth of the new right and conservative movements. (IAH)

  1. Taiwan’s Democracy: Towards a Liberal Democracy or Authoritarianism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafydd J. Fell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Taiwan moved from being viewed as a model Asian democracy to one allegedly suffering from democratic reversal. The reasons for the declining domestic and international reputation of Taiwan’s democracy are discussed. Lastly, some key political challenges facing Taiwan’s democracy are outlined.

  2. The Proactive International Dimension and the Breakdown of Authoritarian Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Castaldo, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    There is international consensus among scholars that democratic transitions are multicausal processes in which both internal and international variables are involved (Pridham 1991, 1995; Whitehead 1996; Schmitter 1996; Linz and Stepan 1996; Carothers 1999; Morlino and Magen 2008; Grilli di Cortona 2009). This chapter is limited, on the one hand, to the dependent variable consisting solely of the crisis/breakdown/transformation of non-democratic regimes in the Third Wave o...

  3. MATRICES SOCIOPOLÍTICAS Y PATRONES DE REFORMA EN EL CONO SUR: ENTRE LA RUTA POPULISTA Y AUTORITARIA: EL CASO URUGUAYO EN PERSPECTIVA COMPARADA Socio-political Matrices and Patterns of Reform in the South Cone: Between Populist and Authoritarian Paths: The Uruguayan Case in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Alegre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo plantea un análisis de los patrones de reforma del MSI en los países tempranamente modernizados de la región : Argentina, Chile y Uruguay. El trabajo argumenta sobre la vinculación entre las matrices sociopolíticas y los patrones de reforma, estableciendo tres rutas de reforma: la populista, la autoritaria y la democrática -institucionalizada. Estos tres países procesaron transformaciones distintas en sus modelos de desarrollo, lo que es explicado por factores socioestructurales (bases sociales de apoyo, legados de incorporación de los sectores populares, institucionales (tipo de competencia política, características organizacionales de los partidos y el cruce de las mismas (patrones de representación política. El artículo sostiene que existen ciertas configuraciones nacionales capaces de neutralizar los efectos inerciales de condiciones sociopolíticas que, inicialmente, favorecerían la reproducción del MSI o su reforma gradual: sociedades altamente modernizadas, regímenes de bienestar extendidos y sectores populares organizados. La transformación de sus bases sociales, la adaptación organizacional de los partidos de izquierdaño populistas, así como la transformación de los vínculos de representación política (secuenciadas de forma específica en cada caso explican la diferencia en los patrones de reforma seguidos. El argumento causal está basado en una narración histórico-comparada de los casos analizadosThis article analyzes the reform patterns of the ISI model in the earliestá modernized countries in Latin America: Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay. I argue that the intertwining of countries's ocio-political matrices and their patterns of reform yield three reformist routes: a populist route, an authoritarian route, and an institutionalized-democratic path. The three selected countries experienced different patterns of reform which could be explained by the effects of socio-structural factors

  4. Openness, Right-Wing Authoritarianism, and Antigay Prejudice in College Students: A Mediational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.; Miller, Audrey K.; Amacker, Amanda M.; Burks, Alixandra C.

    2013-01-01

    Research has indicated that people who are more open to novel and diverse experiences express less prejudicial views concerning minority group members. The openness-prejudice relationship, however, may be mediated by the degree to which individuals adhere to traditional social convention and absolutist thinking patterns. Thus, informed by the…

  5. Learning from authoritarian teachers: Controlling the situation or controlling yourself can sustain motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Everhart Chaffee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive psychology encompasses the study of positive outcomes, optimal functioning, and resilience in difficult circumstances. In the context of language learning, positive outcomes include academic engagement, self-determined motivation, persistence in language learning, and eventually becoming a proficient user of the language. These questionnaire studies extend previous research by addressing how these positive outcomes can be achieved even in adverse circumstances. In Study 1, the primary and secondary control scales of interest were validated using 2468 students at a Canadian university. Study 2 examined the capacity of 100 Canadian language learners to adjust themselves to fit in with their environment, termed secondary control, and how it was related to their motivation for and engagement in language learning and their feelings of anxiety speaking in the classroom. Secondary control in the form of adjusting one’s attitude towards language learning challenges through positive reappraisals was positively associated with self-determined motivation, need satisfaction, and engagement. analyses, positive reappraisals were also found to buffer the negative effects of having a controlling instructor on students’ engagement and anxiety. These findings suggest that personal characteristics interact with the learning environment to allow students to function optimally in their language courses even when the teacher is controlling.

  6. Are Mindful Parents More Authoritative and Less Authoritarian? An Analysis of Clinic-Referred Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keith L.; Wahler, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Forty clinic-referred mothers completed questionnaires describing their children's problems, the mothers' parenting styles, and their everyday mindfulness. Psychometric analyses of the questionnaires showed mother reports to be internally consistent, except for one of the parenting style scales (i.e., permissive style). We dropped the scale and…

  7. Dictatorship and revolution: Socio-political reconstructions of collective memory in post-authoritarian Portugal

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    Loff, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article inserts itself into larger discussions regarding post-dictatorship memory politics in Portugal and comparative studies of similar histories of violence in Europe, particularly examinations of National-Socialism, Nazism and the Holocaust, as well as comparative studies of twentieth-century fascist dictatorships in the Iberian peninsula. In spite of the revolutionary, radical nature of the Portuguese democratisation process, studies conducted during the last four decades on the social and political (reconstructions of memory regarding the Portuguese dictatorship (1926-1974 have demonstrated that state policies regarding the past have depicted the dictatorship as one that is very similar to events in countries where the process of democratic transition was actually quite different from that of Portugal. Right-wing groups and those who self-describe as “victims” of processes of decolonisation that occurred between 1974 and 1975 have established a pattern of public debate that leaves no room for discussing the dictatorship without also referring to the 1974-1975 Revolution. This mode of debate seems to suggest that these two periods of history are indicative of a global regime phenomenon and that both the processes of decolonisation and revolution affected Portuguese society in similar ways. This paper attempts to complicate these narratives in order to question the democratic forms that emerged after the Revolution and to compare it to Salazar’s dictatorial regime.Este artículo se encuadra en una discusión más amplia sobre las políticas de la memoria de la posdictadura salazarista en Portugal, y en estudios comparados sobre historias semejantes de violencia en Europa, especialmente las relativas al nacional-socialismo, el nazismo y el Holocausto. También se refiere a los estudios comparados sobre las dictaduras fascistas en la Península Ibérica. A pesar de la naturaleza revolucionaria y radical del proceso de democratización portugués, los estudios llevados a cabo durante las últimas cuatro décadas sobre las (reconstrucciones sociales y políticas de la memoria de la dictadura portuguesa (1926-1974 demuestran que las políticas de estado han elaborado un relato de la dictadura en relación con procesos de transición a la democracia que son muy diferentes del portugués. Grupos de extrema derecha y aquéllos que se describen a sí mismos como “víctimas” del proceso de descolonización que tuvo lugar entre 1974 y 1975 han conseguido consolidar en el debate público unos argumentos que no deja espacio para discutir la dictadura sin relacionarla con la revolución de 1974-1975. Los términos de este debate sugieren que estos dos procesos históricos – descolonización y revolución – afectaron a la sociedad de manera semejante. Este texto trata de descifrar la complejidad de estos relatos para poder cuestionar las formas democráticas que emergieron tras la revolución, y compararlas con el régimen dictatorial de Salazar.

  8. Reconceptualization of the Authoritarian Parenting Style and Parental Control: Some Initial Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth K.

    This study compared standard conceptualizations for parenting style, parental involvement in school, and parents' socialization goals with alternative conceptualizations, in relation to children's academic achievement. Specifically, the study asked: (1) whether ethnicity is predictive of achievement scores when included in analyses involving the…

  9. Dynamic Analytical Capability to Better Understand and Anticipate Extremist Shifts Within Populations under Authoritarian Regimes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to create a generalizable data- and theory-supported capability to better understand and anticipate (with quantifiable uncertainty): 1) how the dynamics of allegiance formations between various groups and society are impacted by active conflict and by third-party interventions and 2) how/why extremist allegiances co-evolve over time due to changing geopolitical, sociocultural, and military conditions.

  10. Authoritarianism, control and vigilance: Jacob Gorender on the aim of the repression (1940-1980

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    Lucileide Costa Cardoso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to demonstrate through analysis of documents of repressive nature, the elements highlighted by the Military Justice to establish the trace of persecution of the intellectuals among other social sectors which dared to challenge the Dictatorship. The complete mapping, involving the combat strategies against the “communism”, including the knowledge of the political parties and their military staff, was accumulated by police and military sectors along the 20th century. We intended to follow, through these records, the political trajectory of the intellectual Jacob Gorender. As a journalist, he got involved in the discussion about the Brazilian participation in the World War II, joined the FEB in 1943. Before that, however, Gorender became a communist, recruited by Mario Alves in 1942. In the early 60’s, he acted as a militant and coordinator of PCB, when he decided to join PCBR, founded in 1968. The historian, in the beginning of the 1964 Strike, with his life already devastated by the Information and Security Community, experienced marginalization, imprisonment, torture and censorship of his writings among other abuses that also reached his closest friends, political companions and family members. The crossing of this amount of information with the memorial documents helps to understand the political repression tricks and the different Revolutionary projects in course.

  11. Taiwan’s Democracy: Towards a Liberal Democracy or Authoritarianism?

    OpenAIRE

    Dafydd Fell

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how Taiwan moved from being viewed as a model Asian democracy to one allegedly suffering from democratic reversal. The reasons for the declining domestic and international reputation of Taiwan’s democracy are discussed. Lastly, some key political challenges facing Taiwan’s democracy are outlined.

  12. Authoritarian Science Curriculum Standards as Barriers to Teaching and Learning: An Interpretation of Personal Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2012-01-01

    This is a critical time for the science education community as we embark on the creation and implementation of new national science standards. The purpose of this essay is to offer insight into how the language of curriculum standards, including that found in state science standards in the United States over the past 15 years, has posed barriers…

  13. Authoritative and Authoritarian-Inconsistent Teachers' Preferences for Teaching Methods and Instructional Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uibu, Krista; Kikas, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Preferences for teaching methods are influenced by several factors, including instructional goals, teacher's management style, experience and education. To discover in which ways primary school teachers with different management styles vary in their preferences for students' cognitive and social development, 128 teachers of Estonia were…

  14. Language & authoritarianism in the 20th century: The cases of Estonia and Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaney Michael Skerrett

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The 20th century saw the Soviet and Francoist regimes enforce their respective ideologies in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking territories in Spain. In both cases, the autochthonous language suffered under the stringent control of the mechanisms of censorship and repression. In fact, Soviet and Spanish leaders—representing both extremes of the political spectrum—tried to replace the use of the autochthonous language in many sociolinguistic domains with their own—Russian and (Castilian Spanish—as these languages embodied the ideologies and the new orders that they wished to establish. This paper compares and contrasts the diverse methods of control over language carried out in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking areas of Spain in order to demonstrate that highly centralised multilingual states—whatever their political ideology—can make use of surprisingly similar means of control, ultimately depriving local linguistic communities of the ability to use and develop their own language.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.16

  15. The Future of the European University:Liberal Democracy or Authoritarian Capitalism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Rider

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the prevalent notion that that the production of knowledge, academic research and teaching can and ought to be audited and assessed in the same manner as the production of other goods and services. The emphasis on similarities between industry and the academy leads to a neglect of fundamental differences in their aims and, as a consequence, a tendency to evaluate scientific research in terms of patents and product development and colleges and universities in terms of the labour market. The article examines the idea of the free academy, on the one hand, and compares and contrasts it to the idea of free enterprise, on the other. It is argued that the view of the university as a supplier of specific solutions for pre-determined, non-scientific needs (a workforce with skills currently in demand, innovations for commercial partners, justifications for political decisions, etc undermines the public legitimacy of university science and weakens the fabric of scientific training and practice. The article proposes that the university’s main purpose must be to provide a recognized neutral, autonomous agency of rigorous, disinterested investigation and scientific education, which constitutes a necessary condition for an enlightened liberal democracy: an informed, capable and critical citizenry.

  16. Authoritarian Parenting and Asian Adolescent School Performance: Insights from the US and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pong, Suet-ling; Johnston, Jamie; Chen, Vivien

    2010-01-01

    Our study re-examines the relationship between parenting and school performance among Asian students. We use two sources of data: wave I of the Adolescent Health Longitudinal Survey (Add Health), and waves I and II of the Taiwan Educational Panel Survey (TEPS). Analysis using Add Health reveals that the Asian-American/European-American difference…

  17. Weimar Woes and the Authoritarian Alternative: Politico economic Developments in Interbellum Germany.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Riel; A.J.H.C. Schram

    1997-01-01

    A politicoeconomic model of the relationship between economic and structural variables and government popularity is developed and applied to the Weimar Republic. We obtained data from decentralized election results in the 1924 to 1933 period, using a weighted panel estimation method. Parameter estim

  18. An SEM Approach to Continuous Time Modeling of Panel Data: Relating Authoritarianism and Anomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkle, Manuel C.; Oud, Johan H. L.; Davidov, Eldad; Schmidt, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Panel studies, in which the same subjects are repeatedly observed at multiple time points, are among the most popular longitudinal designs in psychology. Meanwhile, there exists a wide range of different methods to analyze such data, with autoregressive and cross-lagged models being 2 of the most well known representatives. Unfortunately, in these…

  19. An SEM Approach to Continuous Time Modeling of Panel Data: Relating Authoritarianism and Anomia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voelkle, M.C.; Oud, J.H.L.; Davidov, E.; Schmidt, P.

    2012-01-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 17(3) of Psychological Methods (see record 2012-24038-005). The supplemental materials link was missing. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Panel studies, in which the same subjects are repeatedly observed at multipl

  20. Uneven opening of China's society, economy, and politics: pro-growth authoritarian governance and protests in China

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Hongyi

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluates China's model of development, especially its main component, i.e. its model of governance. It suggests that China's model of development is marked by an imbalance between fast opening of the economy and the society and sluggish opening of the political system. The Chinese society has become much more open, reflected in the Chinese growing awareness of their legal rights. The Chinese economy has become highly internationalized and open, but much of Chinese politics is cl...

  1. From “Authoritarian Rule” to “Democracy” in Nigeria: Citizens’ Welfare a Myth or Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis Allen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available What does democracy do or fail to do about the welfare ofNigerians? Does it matter for the performance of democracy? This paper seeks to determine the mutual impact of democracy and welfare of citizens in Nigeria. Given the state of democracy and available data, it seems that politicians at the state and local government levels are more concerned about their personal interests than those of citizens. We then problematise theoretical western democracy, sold to Nigeria, as with many other third world formerly colonized territories, after independence, but refused during colonialism, at the least for lacking in development and failing to take local conditions into consideration. Implied here are both the institutional and behavioural deficiencies that run democracy dry. The question is, is democracy affecting welfare of citizens positively? To respond in the negative as we do, means more than just a simple answer. Why is it so? With a focus on 1999 to date, a major assumption in this paper is that both the performance and stability of democracy consist in its responsiveness to the welfare citizens. Without any allusion or references to any saintly model of democracy somewhere to be copied, it is argued that the lack of involvement of citizens in election of leaders has created in political elites the loss of all sense of accountability to citizens.Besides, having found oil revenue as the sustaining power for the state, the individual tax paying citizen has been relegated, as against traditions of respect for the tax payer in more established democracies, where the running of the state is dependent on the tax payer’s money. The gap between the volume of resource allocation and development projects at the state and local government levels, as well as the ostentatiousness of politicians seem to have led us to conclude that politicians are only feeding fat on citizens’ welfare.

  2. "Winning small battles, losing the war": Police violence, the Movimiento del Dolor and democracy in post-authoritarian Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denissen, M.

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s more and more Argentines have been taking to the streets to express their dissatisfaction with the growing levels of poverty, social exclusion and violence. As part of this growing trend, the Movimiento del Dolor (a social movement consisting of the family members of victims of p

  3. An ‘Abductive’ Approach to Theorization of Militant Democracy: The Case of Post-authoritarian Democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela; Moroska-Bonkiewicz, Aleksandra

    (institutional, ideological or otherwise) of speakers articulating different positions. Our focus on discourse also permits an analysis of the role of ethical and normative issues in public debate, including the process of shaping conceptions of democracy, legitimacy, liberty and human rights in both countries...

  4. Psychiatry, authoritarianism, and revolution: the politics of mental illness during military dictatorships in Argentina, 1966-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marco A

    2013-01-01

    From 1966 to 1983, Argentina underwent a period of political radicalization as fascist regimes used terror to control its citizens and leftist guerrillas resorted to violence to spark revolution. During this politically volatile period, psychiatry transformed from an apolitical clinical specialty into an ideological tool used for both leftist resistance and military oppression. The largest psychiatric organization at the time, the Federación Argentina de Psiquiatras (FAP), became the center for a new politically committed brand of psychiatry in Argentina that united psychoanalysis and community psychiatry with Marxist theory. Though the military targeted and eventually dismantled the FAP and its leftist brand of psychoanalysis and community psychiatry, sectors of the government also paradoxically appropriated and reframed community-based psychiatric perspectives to pathologize leftist subversion and advance their own conservative ideology. PMID:23811712

  5. Televising Locality : Industrial, historical and socio-cultural investigations of local television in post-authoritarian Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrawan, B.

    2015-01-01

    In the first decade of the 21st century Indonesian television underwent drastic transformations as part of the broader socio-political changes following the fall of the New Order regime of President Suharto in 1998. As part of the reforms, Indonesia implemented regional autonomy, devolving powers from the central to sub-provincial governments. The process has turned the country from one of the most centralised states in the world into one of the highly decentralised. In contrast to the author...

  6. Televising Locality : Industrial, historical and socio-cultural investigations of local television in post-authoritarian Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrawan, B.

    2015-01-01

    In the first decade of the 21st century Indonesian television underwent drastic transformations as part of the broader socio-political changes following the fall of the New Order regime of President Suharto in 1998. As part of the reforms, Indonesia implemented regional autonomy, devolving powers fr

  7. "Winning small battles, losing the war": Police violence, the Movimiento del Dolor and democracy in post-authoritarian Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Denissen, M.

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s more and more Argentines have been taking to the streets to express their dissatisfaction with the growing levels of poverty, social exclusion and violence. As part of this growing trend, the Movimiento del Dolor (a social movement consisting of the family members of victims of police violence) emerged as a protest against unaccountable law enforcement practices. Contrary to the expectation that, after the 1983 democratic transition, state violence against citizens would c...

  8. An «Embarrassing and Indecent» Topic: The Public Debate around Sexual Violence in Post-Authoritarian Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta CALANDRA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The essay provides with some insights around the topic of sexual violence to women involved in politics during general Augusto Pinochet military rule (1973-1990. Not only it is meant to describe the phenomenon in quantitative and qualitative terms, but also to delve into the realm of the social actors who, in several moments and contexts, identify rape as a specific type of torture, different from other human rights violations. This practice finds its roots well before the coup, in long duration processes and especially in domestic violence, but reaches its climax after 1973, extending into politics and blurring the boundaries between public and private sphere. Elaborating this theme today, either for individuals and in the collective debate, seems to be extremely difficult and controversial: maybe it constitutes one of the most thorny issues of the ‘history of present time’ in contemporary Chile.

  9. The Promise and Potential Pitfalls of a "Learning-Centered" Approach to Creative Social Inquiry: Lessons Learned from an Undergraduate Seminar on Authoritarianism through Literature and Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junisbai, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Political science faculty have access to a wealth of innovative pedagogies thanks to a comprehensive literature on teaching and learning in the discipline and related fields. Yet, from among the hundreds of documented possibilities, how does one go about deciding which to incorporate into a given course? Few articles have much to say in response…

  10. Contextos autoritarios y cooperativos y su repercusión en el desarrollo del sujeto Authoritarian and cooperative contexts and their effect on the subject's development

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Parrat-Dayan

    2007-01-01

    Describimos en este artículo el contexto cooperativo y su importancia en el desarrollo del niño. Siguiendo la teoria de Piaget, estos contextos facilitan el desarrollo intelectual y moral de los niños. Trasladado a la escuela esto implica un cambio importante en la función del profesor que es la de formar individuos críticos, cooperativos y creativos.The cooperative context and its importance for the child's development are described in this article. Following the Piagetian theory, these cont...

  11. Childhood and Happiness in German Romanticism, Progressive Education and in the West German Anti-Authoritarian "Kinderladen" Movement in the Context of 1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baader, Meike S.

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the construction of childhood as a time of happiness in different historical periods. It first analyses the construction of childhood as a time of happiness in the German romantic period in the eighteenth century. Secondly, the paper discusses the construction of happy mothers and children in "The Century of Childhood"…

  12. A Influence Factor of Prejudice: Authoritarian Personality%作为偏见影响因素的权威主义人格

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼; 郭永玉

    2007-01-01

    权威主义人格是Adorno等人提出的一个概念,目的是揭示偏见的人格基础.在此基础上,Altemeyer提出右翼权威主义,它包含3个成分,分别是因袭主义、权威主义服从和权威主义攻击.后有研究者认为把这些概念作为态度来看待更为合适,而决定这些态度的人格基础是社会服从与自主.权威主义者对冒犯传统价值观的行为十分敏感,视其为威胁的重要来源,而感知到威胁就有可能导致偏见的发生.

  13. Contextos autoritarios y cooperativos y su repercusión en el desarrollo del sujeto Authoritarian and cooperative contexts and their effect on the subject's development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Parrat-Dayan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Describimos en este artículo el contexto cooperativo y su importancia en el desarrollo del niño. Siguiendo la teoria de Piaget, estos contextos facilitan el desarrollo intelectual y moral de los niños. Trasladado a la escuela esto implica un cambio importante en la función del profesor que es la de formar individuos críticos, cooperativos y creativos.The cooperative context and its importance for the child's development are described in this article. Following the Piagetian theory, these contexts facilitate children's intellectual and moral development. This taken to the school environment implies an important change in the teacher's role that is the one of forming critical, cooperative and creative individuals.

  14. Estado punitivo brasileiro: a indeterminação entre democracia e autoritarismo = Brazilian punitive state: indeterminacy between democracy and authoritarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastana, Debora Regina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O tema central deste artigo é o crescente investimento no combate ao crime pelos atuais governos democráticos brasileiros, o que contribui para consolidar, também entre nós, a figura do “estado punitivo”. O atual arranjo capitalista generaliza-se quase que instantaneamente em todo o globo, atrelando o sucesso dos empreendimentos econômicos à nova face da política criminal. Nesse sentido, o estado punitivo passa a caracterizar uma ambiguidade que simbolicamente é o retrato do momento político contemporâneo. Dito de outra forma, em torno desse modelo de controle misturam-se conceitos absolutamente contraditórios como democracia e autoritarismo. Inserido nas recentes reflexões sociológicas de Loïc Wacquant, David Garland, Nils Christie, Zygmunt Bauman e Giorgio Agamben, entre outros, esse tema começa a ser discutido também pela comunidade acadêmica nacional. O artigo, portanto, tem como objetivo abordar o que se convencionou chamar de “estado punitivo”, figura política que se ajusta às transformações econômicas, sociais e culturais já em curso nos últimos trinta anos e que desponta no Brasil como forma cada vez mais hegemônica de controle social

  15. Massive Violent Death and Contested National Mourning in Post-Authoritarian Chile and Argentina : A Sociocultural Application of the Dual Process Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, Antonius C G M

    2014-01-01

    This article uses the dual process model (DPM) in an analysis of the national mourning of tens of thousands of disappeared in Chile and Argentina by adapting the model from the individual to the collective level where society as a whole is bereaved. Perpetrators are also involved in the national mou

  16. 威权政体转型中的政党与民主--印尼与韩国比较研究%Political Party and Democracy in Transition of Authoritarian Regime-Comparative Research on Indonesia and South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚辉

    2004-01-01

    政党是现代政治的产物,现代政党理论一般认为从政党政治里会自然生长出民主政治来.但是对于后发展国家来说,历史使其没有足够的时间重复西方发达国家渐进发展的道路,威权政体中政党活动对民主政治的影响要根据不同国家的具体情况.政党政治能否带来民主政治与这些国家的政党成熟程度、对法治的尊重、军队的改革特别是市民社会的发育程度有关.

  17. Authoritarian Thoughts in Traditional Culture of Indonesia%浅析印尼传统文化中的权威主义思想——以爪哇皮影戏为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏东军

    2002-01-01

    @@ 文化对政治具有巨大的影响,"一定的政治体制的形成有赖于一定的文化背景","一定的政治体制的存在和运行受到文化因素的制约".①因此从文化角度研究政治问题,日益成为学术界关注的热点.并由此衍生了一个新的名词--政治文化,这充分体现了当代学术研究的跨学科特征.

  18. Clan Politics and Corruption Shackles:Philippines’ Democracy Predicament in Post Authoritarian Era%家族政治与腐败桎梏--后威权时代菲律宾的民主困境

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王尘子

    2015-01-01

    After the fall of Marcos regime in 1986 ,the Philippines has built up a relatively perfect American democratic political system and achieved the rapid economic growth .However ,clan politics and government corruption have not been completely reversed .Fundamentally speaking ,the principal‐agent mode of American democracy is the decisive hinder factor for Philippines’ efficient governance of corruption .In the condition of little essential change , low liquidity of Philippine domestic political power structure ,and citizens’ lack of the political participation awareness ,even with perfect anti‐corruption law s , regulation system and anti‐corruption institutions , there is no guarantee that Philippines government is honest and clean .%在1986年马科斯政权倒台后,菲律宾虽然已经构建起比较完善的美式民主政治制度并实现了经济的快速增长,但家族政治和腐败泛滥的问题却未得到改善。根本而言,美式民主中“委托—代理”模式的桎梏是菲律宾无法实现高效腐败治理的决定性因素。在菲律宾国内政治权力格局没有发生本质转变、政治结构流动性较低、公民缺乏政治参与意识的情况下,即使具备比较完善的反腐败法律体系和反腐败机构设置,也无法保证政府的清正廉洁。

  19. The Relation of Parenting Style to Adolescent School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbusch, Sanford M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Uses a reformation of Baumrind's typology of authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles in the context of adolescent school performance. Authoritarian and permissive parenting were negatively associated with grades; authoritative parenting was positively associated with grades. (PCB)

  20. Boerenpartij en radikalisme ( Krimpenerwaard, Bevermeer ) 1966-1967 [Dutch farmers' party and radicalism 1966-1967

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooy, A.T.J.

    1967-01-01

    Developments in farming / attitude towards government agricultural policy / authoritarianism / anomy / political preferences / attitude towards political party 'Boerenpartij'. Data on organization and production of farms / cooperation with other farmers / opinion on investments / authoritarianism /

  1. Family Functioning and Maladaptive Schemas: The Moderating Effects of Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    Authoritarian parenting is often shown to be associated with negative outcomes for children, including the development of maladaptive schemas. However, this is not the case for all children who experience Authoritarian parenting. Optimism is examined as a moderator in the relationship between Authoritarian parenting and maladaptive schemas that…

  2. Economic crises and the electoral resilience of dominant parties: A paired comparison of Mexico and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Vaagen, Marthe

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the electoral resilience of dominant parties in electoral authoritarian regimes under conditions of economic crises. In the field of comparative politics, it is widely assumed that poor economic performance has negative effects on regime-stability - whether authoritarian or democratic. Although this finding is fairly robust across regime types and institutional varieties within regime types, empirical evidence has shown that electoral authoritarian regimes have remain...

  3. ¿Le gusta al trabajador peruano el modo autoritario de supervisión?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico R. León

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven empirical studies were uncovered in a literature review of research findings, relevant to the proposition that Peruvian workers prefer authoritarian supervision. With a basic definition of authoritarian supervisión as criterion (centralization of decision power, intolerance toward subordinate´s disagreements, rejection of subordinate´s suggestions, no evidence whatsoever favorable to the proposition was found. The data suggested that Peruvian workers have a negative attitude towaró authoritarian suppervision. The empirical evidence conceming a secondary aspect of authoritarianism, closeness of supervísíon, was ambiguous.

  4. Estilos parentais autoritário e democrático-recíproco intergeracionais, conflito conjugal e comportamentos de externalização e internalização Intergenerational authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles, marital conflict, and externalizing and internalizing behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Ebenézer A. de Oliveira; Angela H. Marin; Fábio B. Pires; Giana B. Frizzo; Tiago Ravanello; Caroline Rossato

    2002-01-01

    Modelos mediativos de risco e proteção foram testados, para prever longitudinalmente comportamentos de externalização e internalização infantis, a partir de uma atitude conjugal conflituosa e de estilos parentais intergeracionais autoritário vs. democrático-recíproco. Proveniente de duas escolas particulares e uma pública, a amostra contou com 25 meninas e 25 meninos de 4 e 5 anos, e suas respectivas mães. Correlações bivariadas de Pearson e regressões múltiplas indicaram a presença de transm...

  5. The Mediating Influence of Children's Self-Concept on the Relation between Authoritarian Parenting Style and Children's Social Behaviors%自我概念在父母专制型教养风格与儿童社会行为之间的中介效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 张雷; 张韫; 温忠麟

    2007-01-01

    通过对612名北京市中小学生及其父母的问卷调查,用LISEREL软件对数据进行分析的结果表明,父母专制型教养风格通过直接和间接两条途径,作用于儿童的社会行为发展.在间接途径中,通过儿童自我概念的中介作用,父母专制型教养风格对儿童社会行为产生系列负面效果.在直接途径中,父母专制型作风则直接对儿童的社会行为产生消极后果.

  6. Modernización y estructuración global en Chile: de la génesis autoritaria a la consolidación democrática Global modernization and restructuring in Chile: from authoritarian birth to democratic maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Mattos Carlos A.

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available El esquema de modernización del gobierno militar chileno fue una reacción a la crisis del modelo populista-desarrollista que imperó en Chile desde 1929. Hacia 1973, éste había llegado a una situación terminal que, en lo político, se expresaba en una situación de ingobernabilidad y, en lo económico, se reflejaba en una continua caída del producto; un aumento del déficit de cuenta corriente de la balanza de pagos; una paulatina aceleración de las tasas de inflación y el sostenido aumento de los conflictos sociales. La nueva estrategia buscaba reducir el papel económico del Estado y restablecer el libre juego de las fuerzas del mercado, mediante la descentralización, la privatización, la liberación económica, la reforma del mercado laboral y la apertura a los mercados internacionales. Independientemente de los métodos utilizados por el gobierno militar, su gestión creó un país totalmente diferente y dio lugar a un nuevo modelo de regulación, donde hay una creciente dependencia estructural de la sociedad con respecto al capital. Oponiéndose a las evaluaciones más optimistas de este proceso, el autor concluye que aún persisten algunos problemas fundamentales: la concentración del poder económico, la intensificación de las desigualdades sociales y el grave deterioro ecológico. Problemas a los que es más sensible el nuevo gobierno democrático.The modernization imposed by the military regime in Chile was a reaction to the crisis of the populist view of development which had governed policy there since 1929. By 1973, the model was in i ts death-throes; in political terms, this meant that the country had become ungovernable. In economic terms, GDPwas steadily falling and the deficit in the balance of payments in current account was steadily rising. Inflation was also rising slowly, and with it, social conflicto The new strategy sought to reduce the State's role in the economy and to give free play to market forces by decentralization,
    privatization, deregulation, labour reforms and the opening up of the economy to international markets. Whatever the
    methods used by the military government, Chile became a new country, with a new model for regulation in which society as a whole became increasingly dependant on capi tal. The author rejects the most optimistic valuations of the process, but concludes that there are still some deep-seated problems: the concentration of power, the intensification of social disparities and serious ecological decay; and that the new Government is more sensitive to these problems.

  7. An Exploratory Study of Socialization Effects on Black Children: Some Black-White Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1972-01-01

    Major conclusion from this exploratory analysis was that if the black families were viewed by white norms they appeared authoritarian, but that, unlike their white counterparts, the most authoritarian of these families produced the most self-assertive and independent girls. (Author)

  8. Perceptions of Parental Control and the Development of Indecision among Late Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Olivette, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Female college students (n=86) completed measures on their perception of both parents' authority style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) and their own tendency toward decisional procrastination. Households where daughters perceived both parents as high authoritarian were significantly more likely to raise daughters with strong indecision…

  9. Effects of Parental Job Insecurity and Parenting Behaviors on Youth's Self-Efficacy and Work Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Vivien K. G.; Loo, Geok Leng

    2003-01-01

    Structural equation modeling results from data on 178 undergraduates and their parents in Singapore indicated that paternal job insecurity was associated positively and maternal job insecurity negatively with authoritarian parenting. Mothers' authoritarian parenting was related to young adults' self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was positively…

  10. Becoming Co-Authors: Toward Sharing Authority in Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2009-01-01

    This article offers an alternative model, the model of shared authority, to the traditional, authoritarian model for authority and obedience for Religious Education. This model moves away from the authoritarian model of a teacher as the authority and the students as obedient listeners in the direction of a shared authority model in which teachers…

  11. Attitudes de l'adulte, climats educatifs et developpement de l'enfant (Adult Attitudes, Educational Climates, and Child Development).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaud, Gerard

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrates how different educational climates (i.e., authoritarian, permissive, and democratic) are rooted in the attitudes of the adult toward the growth process. Analyzes the impact of these climates on a child's development. Concludes that an educational model should reintroduce the authoritarian support essential for children's growth. (DMM)

  12. Establishing a middle ground for public and community broadcasting in Indonesia: An action research project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazali, E.; d'Haenens, L.S.J.; Hollander, E.H.; Menayang, V.; Hidayat, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    The Reform movement that ended Suharto's 32 years of authoritarian rule brought significant changes to Indonesia. It liberated the media, the market, and civil society from state repression. But at the same time, the end of authoritarian rule brought about a vast shift to a libertarian market orient

  13. Patriarchy and the "Fighting Sioux": A Gendered Look at Racial College Sports Nicknames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dana M.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Native American nicknames and symbols by US college athletics is a long-standing practice that embodies various forms of authoritarian oppression. One type of authoritarianism is that of patriarchy and it has been present in the struggle over the nickname at the University of North Dakota, the "Fighting Sioux". This article explores…

  14. Parenting style, individuation, and mental health of Egyptian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E

    2006-02-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. In urban communities, on the other hand, the authoritarian style was more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. The connectedness of all female adolescents with their family was stronger than that of male adolescents. The connectedness of girls was found to be more emotional and financial in villages and to be more functional in town. Female adolescents reported a higher frequency of psychological disorders. Mental health was associated with authoritative parenting, but not with authoritarian parenting. It seems that authoritarian parenting within an authoritarian culture is not as harmful as within a liberal culture.

  15. Parental authority questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.

  16. Brainwashing and the persecution of "cults".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, T; Anthony, D

    1980-03-01

    While the presence of authoritarian "cults" in our midst raises a number of social control and "law and order" issues, current controversies over cults contain substantial elements of mystification. "Brainwashing" is an inherently subjective metaphor that is used as a rationale for persecuting unpopular movements and defining religious converts as nonautonomous zombies who can be coerced for therapeutic purposes. While "coercive persuasion" models do have some heuristic value for the analysis of indoctrination in some authoritarian groups, assumptions regarding the alleged destruction of the "free will" of converts and the status of authoritarian religiosity as a medical pathology are not warranted. PMID:24310790

  17. Parental authority questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, J R

    1991-08-01

    A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness. PMID:16370893

  18. Students' anticipated situational engagement: the roles of teacher behavior, personal engagement, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2009-09-01

    Among 9th-grade students (248 girls, 255 boys) from a large multiethnic school, the authors examined 2 aspects of anticipated situational engagement in relation to 3 types of hypothetical teacher behavior: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive. Furthermore, the authors investigated the moderating roles of students' personal (trait-like) engagement and gender. Multilevel analyses showed differential effects of teacher behavior type. Anticipated situational engagement was generally highest with the authoritative teacher and lowest with the authoritarian teacher. However, students' personal engagement and gender qualified these effects. The effects of the authoritative and authoritarian teachers versus the permissive teachers on anticipated situational engagement were more positive (or less negative) for students with high versus low personal engagement. Also, the positive effects of the authoritative and permissive teachers versus the authoritarian teacher were stronger for female students than for male students. Results show that anticipated situational engagement should be understood by examining the combined influences of contextual and individual characteristics.

  19. Change in Women's Perceptions of Parental Child Rearing Attitudes in Turkey: A Three Generation Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Leyla

    1989-01-01

    Found significant differences across generations in perceptions of child rearing practices, attitudes, and beliefs. Found a decreasing emphasis on authoritarian control and an increasing emphasis on encouraging independence, open expression, and expression of affect. (PCB)

  20. [Deniss Hanovs, Valdis Tēraudkalns: Ultimate Freedom - no choice] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Deniss Hanovs, Valdis Tēraudkalns: Ultimate Freedom - no choice. The culture of authoritarianism in Latvia, 1934-1940. (Central and Eastern Europe. Reginal perspectives in global context, Bd. 2.) Brill. Leiden-Boston 2013

  1. Professionals and Power Vacuums on Demographic Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    . Demographic change is acknowledged as a policy concern within many advanced industrialize countries, but discussions about low fertility are not explicitly expressed in terms of policy objectives. Governments, sensitive to the authoritarian implications of prescriptive natalist policies, focus instead...

  2. "All in the Family" in Holland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhoit, G. Cleveland; de Bock, Harold

    1976-01-01

    Reports a study conducted in Holland that concludes that "All In The Family" isn't likely to have a reinforcement effect on persons high on parental authoritarianism, lifestyle intolerance or ethnocentrism. (MH)

  3. Language, Culture, and Power: Intercultural Bilingual Education among the Urarina of Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bartholomew

    1999-01-01

    The Peruvian national indigenous federation established a bilingual, intercultural teachers' training program to counter stereotypes of indigenous people portrayed in the authoritarian, monolingual Spanish national curriculum, and to enhance language preservation, ethnic mobilization, and cultural survival. A complementary transitional bilingual…

  4. Politics in Serbia 1990-2002: A cleavage of world views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todosijević Bojan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes socio-psychological sources of political divisions in post-communist Serbia. Following the argument that authoritarianism is intrinsically associated with the opposition to pro-democratic political change, it is hypothesized that authoritarianism is associated with the support for the former communists, and increasingly over time for radical nationalists. The data analysis utilizes three data sets, from 1990, 1996 and 2002, that is from periods that represent three crucial stages in the development of the Serbian post-communist politics. Discriminant analysis of party preferences showed that preferences for authoritarian political options and ideological orientations were tied to authoritarianism as an individual difference variable and specific socio-structural characteristics. The paper offers an interpretation of the Serbian politics throughout 1990s in terms of a cleavage of world views.

  5. "Parenting" Students: Applying Developmental Psychology to the College Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnas, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the author's development of teaching style from a permissive to an authoritarian to an authoritative teaching style. Uses research on parenting styles to understand the college classroom and argues that a teacher's view of students affects their teaching. (CMK)

  6. The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbusch, S M; Ritter, P L; Leiderman, P H; Roberts, D F; Fraleigh, M J

    1987-10-01

    This article develops and tests a reformation of Baumrind's typology of authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles in the context of adolescent school performance. Using a large and diverse sample of San Francisco Bay Area high school students (N = 7,836), we found that both authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were negatively associated with grades, and authoritative parenting was positively associated with grades. Parenting styles generally showed the expected relation to grades across gender, age, parental education, ethnic, and family structure categories. Authoritarian parenting tended to have a stronger association with grades than did the other 2 parenting styles, except among Hispanic males. The full typology best predicted grades among white students. Pure authoritative families (high on authoritative but not high on the other 2 indices) had the highest mean grades, while inconsistent families that combine authoritarian parenting with other parenting styles had the lowest grades.

  7. 父親・母親の養育態度と幼児の攻撃行動との関連

    OpenAIRE

    中澤, 潤; 中道, 圭人; ナカザワ, ジュン; ナカミチ, ケイト; NAKAMIHCI, Keito; Nakazawa, Jun

    2003-01-01

    This research examined the relationships between paternal/maternal authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive childrearing styles (based on the responsibility and control childrearing dimensions of Baumrind), and reactive and proactive aggressive behavior of their young children (N=59, aged 4-6 years). For reactive aggression, there were no differences among paternal/maternal childrearing types. For proactive aggression, authoritarian fathers have more aggressive young children than both au...

  8. Rightist Education and Godly Technology: Cultural Politics, Gender, and the Work of Home Schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W. Apple

    2011-01-01

    The secularity of the state is seen by 'authoritarian populist' religious conservatives as imposing a world-view that is out of touch with the deep religious commitments that guide their lives. In the process, authoritarian populists have taken on subaltern identities and claimed that they are the last truly dispossessed groups. To demonstrate their increasing power in educational and social policy, I situate a specific set of technologies-the Internet-within the social context of its use in ...

  9. DEMOKRACJA AKADEMICKA A TENDENCJE OLIGARCHICZNO-AUTORYTARNE W SOCJOLOGII WSPÓŁCZESNEJ

    OpenAIRE

    Kozyr-Kowalski, Stanisław

    2001-01-01

    The paper contains a critical analysis o f various kinds o f anomy and oligarchic and authoritarian tendencies that have become visible within the Polish institutions of academic democracy. Oligarchy and authoritarianism in the world o f Polish sociology have their roots both in the formal socialist past and in the mechanical transferring principles of „competitive business enterprise” (Veblen) to academic and spiritual work. Anomic competition that presupposes and causes various ...

  10. A Probe into the Singaporean Politics in its Transition Period%新加坡政治转型探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖小健; 刘郄清良

    2004-01-01

    From the mid and late 1980s, the countries with fastest economic development in East Asia successively began their political transitions from authoritarian power to democracy. In Singapore, it began its transition with the government' s guidance and gradually adjusted the original structures so that the authoritarian structures were slowly shifted into a steady democratic system. As a result, it saved itself from paying both huge social and political cost , maintaining the concerted development in its society and economy.

  11. The impact of middle-class consumption on democratization in Northeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Marmino, Marc E.

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Despite four decades of astonishing economic growth, China’s authoritarian government remains firmly entrenched in power. This fact challenges modernization theory, which anticipates that as countries become wealthier they will also become more democratic. This thesis proposes that middle-class consumption is a missing variable in the causal chain for democratization in Northeast Asian countries under authoritarian control. The study e...

  12. Crafting a Democratic Enclave on the Cyberspace: Case Studies of Malaysia, Indonesia, and Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Yangyue Liu

    2011-01-01

    As an antithesis of “authoritarian enclave” which has been well-established in the comparative politics literature, “democratic enclave” points to the institution of a state or the unambiguous regulatory space in society “where the authoritarian regime’s writ is substantively limited and is replaced by an adherence to recognizably democratic norms and procedures” (Gilley 2010). In this sense, the Internet space, embodied by information and communication technologies, has great potential to pl...

  13. Credibility and flexibility : political institutions and foreign direct investment

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yu

    2007-01-01

    Why does a substantial portion of FDI flow into authoritarian regimes despite their weak political institutions? I argue that foreign investors invest in autocracies and democracies in pursuit of different institutional advantages. They invest in some authoritarian countries not despite the lack of credibility, but because of the availability of flexibility. Strong institutions create a credible investment environment that protects property rights better. Weak institutions create a flexible i...

  14. Argent de l'Etat et politique: La sortie difficile de l'État rentier en Égypte sous Moubarak : La sortie difficile de l'Etat rentier en Egypte sous Moubarek

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Samer

    2004-01-01

    This book is a political economy study that tackles the relationship between public finance and politics in Egypt during the period 1981-2003. It analyzes how the authoritarian regime of Hosni Moubarak has adapted to its fiscal crisis and how this crisis has affected the relationships between state and society and between the different parts and levels of the state. Political economy studies on Egypt have maintained that the reproduction of authoritarianism in this country has mainly been ach...

  15. Coaching behavior : any consequences for the prevalence of sexual harassment?

    OpenAIRE

    Sand, Trond Svela; Fasting, Kari; Chroni, Stilani; Knorre, Nada

    2011-01-01

    Coaches can easily dominate athletes and this unbalanced power distribution may be strengthened by authoritarian behavior; i.e. negative feedback, directive communication, coach-led decision making, taskcentered role orientation, and goal orientation on performance. An unwanted risk emerges when the power is abused, which can lead to the occurrence of sexual harassment. This article examines whether authoritarian coaching behaviors may have any implications for female ath...

  16. From well to welfare: social spending in mineral-rich post-Soviet states

    OpenAIRE

    McCullaugh, Marcy Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Why do some autocrats redistribute resource rents through high welfare spending, while others do not? Conventional wisdom suggests that authoritarian leaders unconstrained by institutions and with unlimited access to resource wealth would siphon off these funds for themselves and rent-seeking elites at the expense of delivering goods to citizens. Yet, welfare spending levels among the world's petroleum-rich authoritarian and hybrid regimes indicate that some rulers are more inclined than ot...

  17. Social Media Activism and State Censorship

    OpenAIRE

    Poell, T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter interrogates how activist social media communication in authoritarian contexts is shaped through the mutual articulation of social media user practices, business models, and technological architectures, as well as through the controlling efforts of states. It specifically focuses on social media protest activity and contention in China, Tunisia, and Iran, authoritarian states which have made a large effort to control online activity. The analysis shows that instead of blocking or...

  18. Predicting civil religion at a cross-cultural level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrič Miran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of civil religion has caught major attention among scholars studying the junction of religion and politics (J.-J. Rousseau, E. Durkheim, R. Bellah. The notion focuses on the phenomenon of cultural contents sacralizing and ritualizing the ruling political institutions of a society, extending support to the integration of the political and social system at a cultural level. The notion of civil religion has recently been operationalized crossculturally, but light has not been shed upon its predictors. In this paper authoritarianism is tested as a predictor of civil religion cross-culturally. Four student samples of Bosnian, Serbian, Slovenian and US students were analyzed. Very strong, significant associations between authoritarianism, as operationalized by a modified Lane scale, and civil religion were found in all cases. Moreover, upon introducing femininity, anxiety and gender into the analysis, a strong, dominant and significant impact on the part of authoritarianism was still found when civil religion was observed crossculturally. When the same predictors were applied to explaining general religiosity, authoritarianism fell short of being a significant predictor in most of the environments observed. Such results suggest an especially close link between civil religion and authoritarianism.

  19. Trade Unions in the Comfort Zone: Liberal Authority in Yeltsin’s Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Jo Baker

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available While much has been written on the failure of the Yeltsin presidency and the transformation of Russian society since 1991, little work has been done that illustrates the participation of established liberal democracies in supporting Yeltsin’s authoritarian, politically unresponsive ‘superpresidentialism,’ or linking this support to the authoritarian nature of the modern liberal democratic project itself. By examining Russian trade union culture and history, as well as international trade union representative involvement, this paper argues that the persistent neglect of unions in the 1990s to challenge social relations of production can be understood as paradigmatic of an authoritarian dynamic focused on the political elite rather than on their membership. With international support, the regime’s concern was with the dismantling of Soviet economic relations and social institutions. Working from the culture and history of Russian trade unions, the unions’ efforts to retain a place in the new era through a strategy of ‘social partnership,’ combined with the collapse of the social welfare system, reinforced a top-down inertia characteristic of the unions. The result, predictably, was an era marked by a politics of irresponsibility, a political ethic is not indicative of an inherent Russian authoritarianism, but that of the authoritarian nature of the liberal modernity itself.

  20. Parenting styles and mental health of Palestinian-Arab adolescents in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan

    2004-06-01

    The relationship between three parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative) and the mental health of Arab adolescents was tested. It was hypothesized that parenting style toward boys would differ from that towards girls, psychological adjustment of girls would differ from that of boys, and that the authoritarian style applied within the authoritarian Arab society is not associated with poor psychological adjustment. The Parental Authority Questionnaire, Child Attitude Toward Parents, Lipsitt's Self-Concept Scale for Children, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Psychological State Scale were administered to 431 Arab adolescents. Sex comparison revealed that the parenting style with regard to girls tends to be more authoritative and less authoritarian than with regard to boys. Girls scored higher than boys on identity disorder, anxiety disorder, and depression scales, whereas boys scored higher than girls on the behavior disorder scale. There was no significant relationship between the authoritarian parenting style and the mental health measures. A significant positive relationship exists between the authoritative parenting style and the mental health of children. Among boys, the permissive parenting style was associated with negative attitudes towards parents, lower self-esteem and increased identity, anxiety, phobia, depressive, and conduct disorders. It seems, therefore, that the effect of parenting style is culturally and gender dependent rather than universal.

  1. Parenting styles and mental health of Palestinian-Arab adolescents in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan

    2004-06-01

    The relationship between three parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative) and the mental health of Arab adolescents was tested. It was hypothesized that parenting style toward boys would differ from that towards girls, psychological adjustment of girls would differ from that of boys, and that the authoritarian style applied within the authoritarian Arab society is not associated with poor psychological adjustment. The Parental Authority Questionnaire, Child Attitude Toward Parents, Lipsitt's Self-Concept Scale for Children, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Psychological State Scale were administered to 431 Arab adolescents. Sex comparison revealed that the parenting style with regard to girls tends to be more authoritative and less authoritarian than with regard to boys. Girls scored higher than boys on identity disorder, anxiety disorder, and depression scales, whereas boys scored higher than girls on the behavior disorder scale. There was no significant relationship between the authoritarian parenting style and the mental health measures. A significant positive relationship exists between the authoritative parenting style and the mental health of children. Among boys, the permissive parenting style was associated with negative attitudes towards parents, lower self-esteem and increased identity, anxiety, phobia, depressive, and conduct disorders. It seems, therefore, that the effect of parenting style is culturally and gender dependent rather than universal. PMID:15446722

  2. Neomubarakismo: al-Sisi y la nueva cara del autoritarismo en Egipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Ghotme

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show how the authoritarianism was renewed in Egypt after the fall of Mubarak. Through the reconstructions of actions of the principal political Egyptian actors, it will be demonstrated that the demands of democratization that arose in the “spring” of 2011 meant only a change in the personification of the authoritarianism, rather than a change of the institutionalized authoritarianism of the militaries. Furthermore, it was established that this structure has been legitimized by the currently President al-Sisi through restitution or “correction” of various practices of the Mubarak era, resorting to repressive measures, the reincorporation of old mubarakists figures and a more aggressive nationalist discourse. In this study, these practices are denominated neomubarakism.

  3. Chinese children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration: relations to parenting styles and children's social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun; Reiser, Mark

    2004-05-01

    Relations among authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles, children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration, and children's social functioning were examined for 425 first and second graders (7-10 years old) in Beijing, China. Parents reported on parenting styles; parents and teachers rated children's effortful control, anger/frustration, externalizing problems, and socially appropriate behaviors: and peers rated aggression and leadership/sociability. High effortful control and low dispositional anger/frustration uniquely predicted Chinese children's high social functioning, and the relation of anger/frustration to social functioning was moderated by effortful control. Authoritarian parenting was associated with children's low effortful control and high dispositional anger/frustration, which (especially effortful control) mediated the negative relation between authoritarian parenting and children's social functioning. Effortful control weakly mediated the positive relation of authoritative parenting to social functioning.

  4. Do Parents Know Best? Examining the Relationship Between Parenting Profiles, Prevention Efforts, and Peak Drinking in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Ray, Anne E; Stapleton, Jerod; Abar, Caitlin; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Tollison, Sean; Grossbard, Joel; Larimer, Mary E

    2011-12-01

    The study examined parent profiles among high school athletes transitioning to college and their association with high-risk drinking in a multi-site, randomized trial. Students (n = 587) were randomized to a control or combined parent-based and brief motivational intervention condition and completed measures at baseline and at 5- and 10-month follow-ups. Four parent profiles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, indifferent) were observed among participants. Findings indicated control participants with authoritarian parenting were at the greatest risk for heavy drinking. Alternately, students exposed to permissive or authoritarian parenting reported lower peak drinking when administered the combined intervention, compared to controls. Findings suggest the combined intervention was efficacious in reducing peak alcohol consumption among high-risk students based on athlete status and parenting profiles.

  5. The relationship between perceived parenting style, filial piety, and life satisfaction in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Wen

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived parenting style, filial piety, and life satisfaction among Chinese young adults. A survey was administered to 395 university students in Hong Kong on their perceptions about their parents' parenting practices, filial piety beliefs, and life satisfaction. The results suggest that perceived authoritative parenting is associated with reciprocal filial piety and contributes positively to the young adults' life satisfaction. Both perceived authoritative and authoritarian parenting were associated with authoritarian filial piety, but authoritarian filial piety was not associated with young adults' life satisfaction. Due to the familial interdependence emphasized in the Chinese cultural context, Chinese adolescents' filial beliefs are related to the parenting they have experienced, and these beliefs may be associated with their psychosocial outcomes. PMID:24821523

  6. Relation of attitude toward body elimination to parenting style and attitude toward the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corgiat, Claudia A; Templer, Donald I

    2003-04-01

    The purpose was to estimate the relation of attitude toward body elimination in 93 college students (27 men and 66 women), to authoritarian personality features, participants' perception of their mothers' parenting style, and attitudes toward cleanliness, sex, and family nudity. Subjects were administered the Body Elimination Attitude Scale, the Four-item F Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire Pertaining to Mothers, and the items "Sex is dirty," "Cleanliness is next to godliness," and "Children should never see other family members nude." Larger scores for disgust toward body elimination were associated with authoritarian personality characteristics, being less likely to describe mother's parenting style as authoritative (open communication) and more likely to describe it as authoritarian and lower scores for tolerance for family nudity. Implications for further research were suggested. PMID:12785652

  7. Interactive relations among maternal depressive symptomatology, nutrition, and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L; Thomas, David G; Kennedy, Tay S; Grant, Stephanie L; Valtr, Tabitha

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical models linking maternal nutrition, depressive symptomatology, and parenting are underdeveloped. However, existing literature suggests that iron status and depressive symptomatology interact in relation to problematic parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive). Therefore, in the current study the authors investigate these interactive relations in a sample of breastfeeding mothers (n = 105) interviewed at three months postpartum. Participants completed questionnaires (from December 2008 to January 2011) regarding their depressive symptomatology and parenting styles. Iron status (i.e., hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptors, and serum ferritin concentrations) was assessed from blood samples. Significant interactions were found between iron status and depressive symptomatology in relation to authoritarian parenting style (low warmth, high punishment and directiveness). For those women with hemoglobin below 14.00 g/dL, depressive symptomatology was positively related to authoritarian parenting style (p parenting. Dietary interventions may help to eliminate relations between depressive symptoms and problematic parenting. PMID:22533896

  8. Parenting styles and hormone levels as predictors of physical and indirect aggression in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Sagastizabal, Eider; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Braza, Francisco; Vergara, Ana I; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between parenting style, androgen levels, and measures of physical and indirect aggression. Peer ratings of aggression were obtained from 159 eight-year-old children (89 boys and 70 girls). Parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian or permissive) were assessed using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ).Saliva samples were obtained from children and assayed for testosterone and androstenedione concentrations. A regression analysis revealed that high testosterone levels were associated with a higher level of physical aggression in boys with authoritarian mothers. Testosterone was also found to moderate the relationship between father's authoritarian parenting and physical aggression in girls, with both moderate and high levels being significant. In relation to indirect aggression, moderate and high levels of testosterone were associated with higher levels of this type of aggression in girls with permissive mothers. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the interaction of biological and psychosocial variables when investigating aggressive behavior. PMID:24954610

  9. Perceptions of family relations when mothers and fathers are depicted with different parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V; De Lisi, Richard

    2007-12-01

    College students (N = 125) reported their perceptions of family relations in response to vignettes that presented 5 different parenting styles. Participants viewed family relations as most positive when parents were portrayed as authoritative or permissive and as most negative when parents were portrayed as uninvolved-neglecting or authoritarian. Student gender and parent gender effects qualified these findings. Female students reported family relations to be less positive than did male students when parents were depicted as authoritarian or as uninvolved-neglecting, and they rated family relations more positively than did male students when parents were depicted as permissive. Participants viewed family relations as more positive when mothers rather than fathers were presented as permissive and when fathers rather than mothers were depicted as authoritarian. The authors discuss the findings of the study in relation to theories of beliefs about children and implications for future parenting styles of male and female college students.

  10. Parenting styles and hormone levels as predictors of physical and indirect aggression in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Sagastizabal, Eider; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Braza, Francisco; Vergara, Ana I; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between parenting style, androgen levels, and measures of physical and indirect aggression. Peer ratings of aggression were obtained from 159 eight-year-old children (89 boys and 70 girls). Parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian or permissive) were assessed using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ).Saliva samples were obtained from children and assayed for testosterone and androstenedione concentrations. A regression analysis revealed that high testosterone levels were associated with a higher level of physical aggression in boys with authoritarian mothers. Testosterone was also found to moderate the relationship between father's authoritarian parenting and physical aggression in girls, with both moderate and high levels being significant. In relation to indirect aggression, moderate and high levels of testosterone were associated with higher levels of this type of aggression in girls with permissive mothers. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the interaction of biological and psychosocial variables when investigating aggressive behavior.

  11. The relationship between perceived parenting style, filial piety, and life satisfaction in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Wen

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived parenting style, filial piety, and life satisfaction among Chinese young adults. A survey was administered to 395 university students in Hong Kong on their perceptions about their parents' parenting practices, filial piety beliefs, and life satisfaction. The results suggest that perceived authoritative parenting is associated with reciprocal filial piety and contributes positively to the young adults' life satisfaction. Both perceived authoritative and authoritarian parenting were associated with authoritarian filial piety, but authoritarian filial piety was not associated with young adults' life satisfaction. Due to the familial interdependence emphasized in the Chinese cultural context, Chinese adolescents' filial beliefs are related to the parenting they have experienced, and these beliefs may be associated with their psychosocial outcomes.

  12. THE WIKILEAKS´S CASE AND ANONYMITY: EFFECTS ON THE INFORMATION FREEDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlus Heriberto Arns de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, enacted in 1988 during the democratization process of the country after the end of an authoritarian regime preceded by several others that show a non-democratic tradition in the Brazilian Republic, remained still remnants an authoritarian Patronizing and Paternalist state, the example of the final part of the Article 5, item IV, which claims to be the free expression of thought, but forbids anonymity, prohibition which deserves to be rethought, especially on the internet, where the navigation data of people deserve protection, as well as their rights to remain anonymous, a fact which entails the need for reflection on the scope and how best to interpret the constitutional provision cited, a debate that, in the proposed article will deal think the ideas of paternalism, authoritarianism and freedom, whose focus will be about within the Internet, social networks and the Knowledge Society.

  13. Relation of attitude toward body elimination to parenting style and attitude toward the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corgiat, Claudia A; Templer, Donald I

    2003-04-01

    The purpose was to estimate the relation of attitude toward body elimination in 93 college students (27 men and 66 women), to authoritarian personality features, participants' perception of their mothers' parenting style, and attitudes toward cleanliness, sex, and family nudity. Subjects were administered the Body Elimination Attitude Scale, the Four-item F Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire Pertaining to Mothers, and the items "Sex is dirty," "Cleanliness is next to godliness," and "Children should never see other family members nude." Larger scores for disgust toward body elimination were associated with authoritarian personality characteristics, being less likely to describe mother's parenting style as authoritative (open communication) and more likely to describe it as authoritarian and lower scores for tolerance for family nudity. Implications for further research were suggested.

  14. Indonesian Political Islam: Capitalist Development and the Legacies of the Cold War

    OpenAIRE

    Vedi R. Hadiz

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the genesis of Indonesian political Islam and its interactions with the nationalist secular state in the immediate post-colonial era while examining some of the origins of the ‘radical’ stream that has garnered much attention in the current post-authoritarian period. It puts forward the idea that, rather than an outcome of Indonesian democratisation, this stream was in fact the product of authoritarian New Order rule. The article also considers some parallels in the ...

  15. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The Introduction briefly presents the ideas behind this collection of articles, namely to analyze popular mobilization and the role of civil society, political parties, and regional organizations in relation to the developments in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) over the last years, and to...... states, the Introduction emphasizes the continued relevance of focusing on a repoliticized MENA reality. The Middle East is still on the move away from the established image of unshakeable authoritarianism attributed to the region, which made the upgrading authoritarianism paradigm seem forever relevant...

  16. Governos autoritários e câmbio nos países latino-americanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Ribeiro Lucinda

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Authoritarian governments and exchange rate policy in Latin American countries. Our aim on this paper is to identify the exchange rate policies used by Authoritarian governments in Latin America during the 170’s and 180’s. The literature shows that the focus of the exchange rate policy was on inflation control, which was not consistent with the evidence. We show on this paper that these governments aimed at a undervalued currency because of the behavior of the external balance of the countries.

  17. Psychoanalytic theory and loving God concepts: parent referencing versus self-referencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, J R; Mueller, R A

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of college students' conceptions of the wrathfulness-kindliness of God to their parents' nurturance, their parents' permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness, and the students' own self-esteem. Although parents' nurturance, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness were related to participants' conceptions of God (thus providing some support for psychoanalytic assertions), the variable of self-esteem far outweighed all other variables in accounting for the variance in God concepts. These results suggest that self-referencing explanations better account for individuals' conceptions of God than do parent referencing (i.e., psychoanalytic) explanations. PMID:8510050

  18. Centralizare versus „descentralizare”. „Reforma administrativă” de la 1938 (Centralization versus „decentralization”. „Administrative reform” from 1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin GRECU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The „decentralization” of the Romanian public administration during the authoritarian monarchy was meant to be achieved through the administrative reform from August 14, 1938, but the effect of the law consisted in an excessive centralization and militarization. Thus, the decentralization strengthened the state power, by nominating the officer corps in the administration and in the single party, the National Renaissance Front, focused decisions at the government level, at the expense of the 10 counties manufactured by the monarchical authoritarian regime.

  19. Interrogantes sobre genealogía y dinámicas de la ciudadanía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pompejano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The main hypotesis of this article relys on the Colonial social relationship and the neoclassicists philosophy as the roots of Latin America authoritarian rule. From the concept of “natural” human being, patronizing and clientelism drove to an asymmetric relationship between authority and individuals within a corporative society. Although the Borbonism and liberalism had been strong dynamic forces, they were unsuccessful for changing such scheme and only a secularization process could timidly be carried on. For consequence, the Latin America politic modernization went on an authoritarian way, turning to populism, whereas individual became subaltern of the State; so, citizenship become indefinitely postponed

  20. Meetings in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    Meetings in organizations have evolved from the infrequent, slightly authoritarian meeting of the 1950?s to today?s ubiquitous and often longwinded, every-body-has-a-right-to-speak meeting. But two important, recent trends in work and business pose new challenges. Today, organizational work is seen...

  1. Visiting the Neo-Liberal University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    2016-01-01

    At Danish universities, the governance structure is regulated by law. This structure was radically changed in 2003, abolishing the republican rule of the senate consisting of academics, students, and staff in favour of an authoritarian system assigning all executive power to the vice-chancellor...

  2. Advocating for accountability: civic-state interactions to protect refugees in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handmaker, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    In the 1950s, civic actors in South Africa mobilised against racist laws that penetrated nearly every aspect of civic life. The social justice struggle that eventually displaced white minority rule culminated in democratic elections in 1994. Following this historic transition from authoritarian rule

  3. A Triumph of Hope over Reason? Aid Accords and Education Policy in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colclough, Christopher; Webb, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Despite a long history of post-independence aid to education, Kenya's relationships with overseas donors have, until recently, been markedly fractious. Donors' concerns about transparency and corruption, in the context of a political regime which became increasingly authoritarian, led to sharp reductions in aid to Kenyan education during the…

  4. Comparison of Familial and Cognitive Factors Associated with Male and Female Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Dickinson, Kelly A.

    Studies have indicated that parental authority may or may not modify adolescent self-esteem (SE). This study drew on 343 college students to determine the relationship of adolescents' self-esteem to three familial variables: (1) parental permissiveness; (2) authoritarianism; and (3) authoritativeness, and three cognitive variables: (1) high…

  5. Student Representation and Multiparty Politics in African Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luescher-Mamashela, Thierry M.; Mugume, Taabo

    2014-01-01

    The transition from one-party rule and other forms of authoritarianism to multiparty democracy in the 1990s has had a profound impact on the organisation and role of student politics in Africa. Against the background of student involvement in African politics in the twentieth century, leading up to student participation in Africa's…

  6. The Relationship among Parenting Styles Experienced during Childhood, Anxiety, Motivation, and Academic Success in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marc; Dorso, Erin; Azhar, Aisha; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships among parenting styles experienced in childhood, anxiety, motivation, and academic success in college students. Results suggested that fathers' authoritative parenting was related to decreases, whereas mothers' authoritarian parenting was related to increases, in college students' anxiety. Further,…

  7. "Tolerating" Adolescent Needs: Moving beyond Zero Tolerance Policies in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Anne; Cornell, Dewey

    2009-01-01

    The authors contend that zero tolerance discipline policies are inconsistent with adolescent developmental needs for authoritative, as distinguished from authoritarian, discipline. Previous research has applied the notion of authoritative parenting to teaching styles in classrooms, and a similar model of authoritative discipline can guide…

  8. The Potential Role of Conflict Resolution Schemas in Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutengren, Goran; Palmerus, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Four specific schemas of cognitive structures that adolescents may hold concerning interpersonal disagreements with their parents were identified, each reflecting an authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or a neglecting parenting style. To examine the occurrence of such schemas across high and low levels of psychosocial adjustment, 120 Swedish…

  9. Parenting Styles and Adolescents' Achievement Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunola, Kaisa; Stattin, Hakan; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the extents to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Respondents (N=354) identified four types of families: those with Authoritative; Authoritarian; Permissive; and Neglectful parenting styles. Results further reveal that adolescents from authoritative…

  10. Perceived Parenting Styles on College Students' Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Debora R.; McIntyre, Anne; Hardaway, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived parenting styles and levels of optimism in undergraduate college students. Sixty-three participants were administered surveys measuring dispositional optimism and perceived parental Authoritative and Authoritarian styles. Multiple regression analysis revealed that both…

  11. Perceptions of Family Relations when Mothers and Fathers Are Depicted with Different Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V.; De Lisi, Richard

    2007-01-01

    College students (N = 125) reported their perceptions of family relations in response to vignettes that presented 5 different parenting styles. Participants viewed family relations as most positive when parents were portrayed as authoritative or permissive and as most negative when parents were portrayed as uninvolved-neglecting or authoritarian.…

  12. An Exploratory Study of the Relationships between Family Functioning and Parenting Styles: The Perceptions of Mothers of Young Grade School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupinga, Emily Evellyne; Garrison, M. E. Betsy; Pierce, Sarah H.

    2002-01-01

    A study of 151 mothers of elementary students identified relationships between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive) and family functioning (adaptability, cohesion). Families with balanced and moderately balanced levels of adaptability and cohesion had higher levels of authoritative parenting. Midrange balance was associated…

  13. Chinese Children's Effortful Control and Dispositional Anger/Frustration: Relations to Parenting Styles and Children's Social Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun; Reiser, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Relations among authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles, children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration, and children's social functioning were examined for 425 first and second graders (7-10 years old) in Beijing, China. Parents reported on parenting styles; parents and teachers rated children's effortful control,…

  14. Revisiting a neglected construct: parenting styles in a child-feeding context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Mueller, Stephen; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2005-02-01

    The extent to which general parenting represents feeding styles in ethnically diverse populations is not well documented. Existing measures of child feeding have focused almost exclusively on specific behaviors of European-American parents. A valid and reliable instrument was developed to identify feeding styles in parents of low-income minority preschoolers. Two hundred thirty-one parents (130 Hispanic; 101 African-American) completed questionnaires on feeding practices and parenting styles. Based on self-reported feeding behavior, parents were assigned to four feeding styles (authoritarian, n=84; authoritative, n=34; indulgent, n=80; and uninvolved, n=33). Convergent validity was evaluated by relating feeding styles to independent measures of general parenting and authoritarian feeding practices. Authoritarian feeding styles were associated with higher levels of general parental control and authoritarian feeding practices. Alternatively, authoritative feeding styles were associated with higher levels of general parental responsiveness. Among the two permissive feeding styles, Hispanic parents were more likely to be indulgent, whereas African-American parents were more likely to be uninvolved. Further, differences were found among the feeding styles on an independent measure of child's body mass index.

  15. Transnational NGOs and Reconstitution of Military Regime in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2014-01-01

    Among the countries of the “Arab spring” in the Middle East and North Africa only Egypt claims both a popular revolution and a coup. With a civic revolt in 2011 Egyptians mobilized resources to overthrow an authoritarian ruler. Two years later with a military coup the public fragmented...

  16. Construction and Validation of Scale of Parenting Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Gafor, K.; Kurukkan, Abidha

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development and standardization of a measure of perceived parenting style. The four styles namely authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and negligent proposed by Baumrind (1971) are scaled based on a quadrant of high and low levels of parental responsiveness and control suggested by Maccoby and Martin (1983). The items…

  17. Parent-Child Communication and Its Perceived Effects on the Young Child's Developing Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, Victoria; Hanson, Jane; Higgins, Alice; Jarrett, Michelle

    In Australia, an exploratory study was grounded in U. Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective of human development and his principles of reciprocity, affective tone, and developmental opportunity and developmental risk. It used D. Baumrind's (1979) work on child rearing styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) to explore the effect of…

  18. JiaZhang Dui ErTong FaZhan TongBan GuanXi De ZuoYong (The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  19. An Instrument for the Measurement of Parental Authority Prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.

    Baumrind (1971) proposed three distinct patterns of parental authority (permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness) and measured these parenting styles through interviews with parents and their children and through observations of parents interacting with their children. This study was undertaken to develop a readily-accessible,…

  20. The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  1. What Are Parents "Really" Saying when They Talk with Their Children about Sexuality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Janet R.; Johnson, Helen L.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty parents attending an urban community college were interviewed about how they respond to common questions children ask about sexuality. Parental responses to children's questions about sexuality were considered in relation to the authoritative and authoritarian patterns of communication identified by Baumrind (1967). The majority of parents…

  2. Examining the Predominant Parenting Style for Students in Academically Accelerated 8th Grade Math Classes as Compared to Students in Typical Math Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Melody

    2013-01-01

    Parenting style has been shown to have significant impact on a child's development. Baumrind developed the concept of three parenting styles that is still used today including: Authoritarian/controlling, authoritative/directive, and permissive. Of these, the authoritative/directive parenting style has proven the most effective with children.…

  3. Differentiating between Confrontive and Coercive Kinds of Parental Power-Assertive Disciplinary Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I differentiate between coercive and confrontive kinds of power assertion to elucidate the significantly different effects on children's well-being of authoritarian and authoritative styles of parental authority. Although both parenting styles (in contrast to the permissive style) are equally demanding, forceful, and…

  4. Effect of Sociocultural Context and Parenting Style on Scholastic Achievement among Iranian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Seyed Mohammad; Zokaei, Nayereh; Kaviani, Hossein; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghaeli, Padideh; Gohari, Mahmood Reza; Van De Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2007-01-01

    School grades, family demographics and responses to the parental authority questionnaire were assessed in 240 eighth-grade students in the southern, central and northern parts of Tehran, Iran's capital. The result showed that poorer families with traditional values had more authoritarian attitudes toward parenting than richer families with more…

  5. Revisiting the Link between Low Verbal Intelligence and Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Peter; Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Ciarrochi, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    We address a series of criticisms, raised by Woodley (2011), of our paper "Cognitive ability, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation: A five-year longitudinal study amongst adolescents" (Heaven, Ciarrochi, & Leeson, 2011). We argue that, while Woodley (2011) presents some interesting points, his criticisms do not alter our…

  6. Education management style on the performance of teachers in Arak city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Safari Aliakbari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the mostelegant and the most effective management , management training , because thistype of management, the learning process of learning, increase productivity,educational organizations, and goals of each of the courses has a lot of impact. Than the most important management practices that enhance creativity,innovation and productivity, human capital and education, we emphasized on thetechniques of management style. The study , based on the method ofanalysis-statistical, and utilization of available resources, the managementstyle of managers, motivating teachers to primary and secondary schools in thecity of Arak has paid. In other words, The aim of this study is EducationManagement Style on the Performance of Teachers in Arak City. The resultsindicate that management, school administrators, in terms of motivation,authoritarian-Charity style and very amenable to consultative style, and theinteraction parameters-influence, authoritarian - charitably style inclinedconsultative style, and the index the decision, authoritarian- benevolentstyle, and in terms of administrative and training purposes,authoritarian-Charity style and consultative style is somewhat bowed. However ,a direct relationship between management style and job satisfaction of teachersin  Arakcity schools there. The significant level of zero , which is smaller than 0.01,indicates that the correlation between two variables, management style and jobsatisfaction is significant. Thus, 99 percent, say between two variables,management style and job satisfaction , there is a correlation.

  7. Parenting Style, Individuation, and Mental Health of Egyptian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.

    2006-01-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…

  8. "Hands Up, You're Free": Composition in a Post-Oedipal World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Employs Gilles Deleuze's and Slavoj Zizek's ideas concerning the global society of control and de-oedipalization to argue that many writing pedagogies manifest an authoritarian violence that restrictively re-oedipalizes students. Suggests that educators might theorize a "post-pedagogy" that recognizes the inventive possibilities already inherent…

  9. Machismo in two cultures: relation to punitive child-rearing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyoung, Y; Zigler, E F

    1994-07-01

    The relationship of culture, personality traits, and punitive child-rearing practices to machismo was examined in 40 Guyanese and 40 Caucasian parents with children aged four to 12 years. Guyanese parents were found to adhere more strongly to machista attitudes and beliefs and to employ controlling, authoritarian, and punitive child-rearing techniques more often than did Caucasian parents.

  10. Parenting and Adolescent Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; And Others

    Research has shown variables of parental nurturance (acceptance, encouragement, support) of their children to be positively correlated with their children's self-esteem. This study investigated the effects of parental nurturance and the use of permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental discipline upon the self-esteem of college…

  11. The Rise of the Cultural Right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Ellen

    1980-01-01

    In order for leftists to mobilize effective resistance to current economic policies, they must confront right wing groups whose chief rallying points are opposition to feminism and sexual freedom, glorification of the traditional patriarchal family, and advocacy of authoritarian moral and religious values. (Author/GC)

  12. Hitler's Reich Viewed from 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, James E.

    1971-01-01

    Viewed within a context of Orwell's 1984," the author's visit to East Germany, and particularly to the Museum for German History, revealed the efforts of an authoritarian regime to manipulate the thoughts and directions of that society to its own advantage. (JB)

  13. Teaching for Moral Development in the Schools: Reason for Caution but Reason to Proceed: An Editor's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Ronald E.

    1979-01-01

    Although in favor of developmental psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development, the author cautions about possible results of using moral reasoning discussions in the classroom. These include: (1) indoctrination, (2) moral authoritarianism, (3) relativism, (4) the "morality as medicine" syndrome, (5) and the "doing Kohlberg"…

  14. Parenting with style: Altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...

  15. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...

  16. Toward a Social Ontology for Science Education: Introducing Deleuze and Guattari's Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzul, Jesse; Kayumova, Shakhnoza

    2016-01-01

    This essay's main objective is to develop a theoretical, ontological basis for critical, social justice-oriented science education. Using Deleuze and Guattari's notion of assemblages, rhizomes, and arborescent structures, this article challenges authoritarian institutional practices, as well as the subject of these practices, and offers a way for…

  17. Education, Democracy and Poverty Reduction in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Clive

    2002-01-01

    Authoritarian rule in Africa has exacerbated poverty levels in six ways. Achievement of greater democracy depends upon political culture and civil society in Africa becoming more democratic; education must play a part in teaching democratic values and behaviors. Examples show how education has not furthered democracy in Botswana, Zimbabwe, and…

  18. The Effect of Marital Violence on Maternal Parenting Style and Maternal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesman, Cindy S.

    A study examined the effect of extreme marital discord, involving abuse of the mother, on maternal parenting style and level of maternal stress. It was hypothesized that battered women experience a higher level of maternal stress and choose an authoritarian parenting style as a consequence of marital discord. Subjects were 30 mothers of children…

  19. Cognitive Overgeneralization, Parental Authority, and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; And Others

    This study examined the relationship of adolescents' self-esteem (SE) to the familial variables of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness and to the cognitive variables of high standards, self-criticism, and overgeneralization. Participants (N=99) were college students from a coeducational, liberal arts university.…

  20. Parenting Style as a Moderator of Effects of Political Violence: Cross-Cultural Comparison of Israeli Jewish and Arab Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Michelle; Shechner, Tomer; Farah, Oula Khoury

    2012-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences in the moderating function of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting styles for Jewish and Arab Israeli children exposed to political violence. Respondents were parents and children aged 10-11 from 94 families (42 Arab, 52 Jewish). Parents completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions…

  1. El Papel de los Padres en el Desarrollo de la Competencia Social (The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley G.

    Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…

  2. Wit-Rusland: dictatuur en legitimiteit tussen Rusland en Europa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Gerrits; K. Meijer

    2009-01-01

    André Gerrits & Kirsten Meijer focus on Belarus that is stereotypically presented as Europe's last dictatorship. President Aleksandr Lukashenka has established an authoritarian order, based on political stability and a relatively high standard of living, which all in all provides more than a modicum

  3. From patronage to neopatrimonialism: Postcolonial governance in Sub-Sahara Africa and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gool, Bas; Beekers, Daan

    Even if ‘good governance’ goals have dominated public policy in postcolonial polities in the last decades, their politics and public administration often continue to be marked by authoritarianism, nepotism and corruption – the very practices good governance policy was to eradicate. In this article,

  4. From patronage to neopatrimonialism : postcolonial governance in Sub-Sahara Africa and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekers, D.; Gool, van B.

    2012-01-01

    Even if 'good governance' goals have dominated public policy in postcolonial polities in the last decades, their politics and public administration often continue to be marked by authoritarianism, nepotism and corruption - the very practices good governance policy was to eradicate. In this article,

  5. Research and Activism about Girls' Education for Global Democracy: The Case of the Campaign "Etna, Volcano of Peace," Catania, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristaldi, Melita; Pampanini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    According to a progressive interpretation of human development, girls' education should form an integral part of a full democratic system. Nevertheless, girls' education is threatened and attacked in many ways in current societies, be they authoritarian or democratic societies, developing or developed ones. In this article the two authors, both…

  6. Science Education--I: The Spirit of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Victor L.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that science education must reflect that science is a way of thinking--in fact, more comprehensively, a way of being; and second and that the fundamentally antiauthoritarian spirit of science must be reconciled with education, with its built-in tendency to be authoritarian. (PR)

  7. The Predictive Role of Teaching Styles on Omani Students' Mathematics Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhafri, Said; Alrajhi, Marwa

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the effects of two teaching styles, authoritative and authoritarian, on students' mathematics motivation. The two motivational constructs examined were intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Data were collected from 425 Omani 8th grade students (males = 202/females = 223, mean age = 13.44, SD = 0.79). Through two…

  8. A Test of the Teaching-Learning Style Mesh Hypothesis in a Chinese MBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Hayward P.; Akan, Obasi H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine if "fit" and "non-fit" between authoritarian versus demonstrator teaching and visual versus verbal learning preferences differ in impact on Chinese MBA student academic performance in a large local urban Chinese university setting. In addition, the role of Chinese cultural…

  9. Interpersonal Teaching Style and Student Impression Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldren, Jeffrey; Hively, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    Assuming that learning is an inherently social process, this research explores interpersonal variables that affect teaching. Specifically, does the interpersonal teaching style affect student impressions of the instructor? Eighty-five undergraduates viewed one of three ten-minute videos that portrayed either an authoritarian, authoritative, or…

  10. College Student Values: An Historical and Conceptual Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William E.

    A historical survey of the literature and research on values and value measurement is presented. Various approaches to value study such as the Allport-Vernon-Lindsey model and the work of Adorno, et al in "The Authoritarian Personality" are discussed and analyzed. The author suggests that the models set forth in these works are not sensitive…

  11. Gadeprotesters koreografi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2006-01-01

    The chapter discusses the context and meaning of street protest in contemporary Andean society by taking an example from South Peru. Street protest, by occupying public space, is a way of acting politically especially under authoritarian rule and has become an integral part of urban spatiality....

  12. Syria: The Evolution of Party and State, 1975-1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Robert W.

    1983-01-01

    In two decades of Ba'thist rule, Syria has evolved into a centralized, one-party, secular, authoritarian nation-state, which may be destabilized in the 1980s as a result of the conflict in Lebanon and internal Islamic opposition. (RM)

  13. Relationship between Parenting Styles and Academic Performance of Adolescents: Mediating Role of Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Hamid; Ahmad, Muhammad Shakil; Jan, Farzand Ali; Jamil, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The literature supports the importance of parenting styles that are necessary to fulfill the developmental needs of the children and eventually improve their quality of life. Baumrind's typology of parenting styles was used. There are many studies that examined the relationship of parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive…

  14. Attitudes of Secular and Religious Israeli Adolescents towards Persons with Disabilities: A Multidimensional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisel, Amatzia; Zaidman, Anat

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes of 83 religious and 51 secular Israeli adolescents using Siller's Disability Factor Scale General, as well as level of dogmatism. Secular participants expressed more positive attitudes than religious participants on two attitude subscales, Generalized Rejection and Authoritarian Virtuousness, scales which express…

  15. How Mathematicians Obtain Conviction: Implications for Mathematics Instruction and Research on Epistemic Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Keith; Inglis, Matthew; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The received view of mathematical practice is that mathematicians gain certainty in mathematical assertions by deductive evidence rather than empirical or authoritarian evidence. This assumption has influenced mathematics instruction where students are expected to justify assertions with deductive arguments rather than by checking the assertion…

  16. Students’ anticipated situational engagement : the roles of teacher behaviour, personal engagement, and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, J.T.; Verkuyten, M.J.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Among 9th-grade students (248 girls, 255 boys) from a large multiethnic school, the authors examined 2 aspects of anticipated situational engagement in relation to 3 types of hypothetical teacher behavior: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive. Furthermore, the authors investigated the moderating

  17. On Punishment and Music Education: Towards a Practice for Prisons and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Reflecting on the successes and challenges of his work as a prison music educator in four correctional facilities, the author suggests a framework for a music education that resists authoritarianism, allows for agency and engages with society. Focusing particularly on the societal context and consequences of prison as a place of punishment, he…

  18. Perceptions of Vietnamese Fathers' Acculturation Levels, Parenting Styles, and Mental Health Outcomes in Vietnamese American Adolescent Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Peter V.

    2008-01-01

    Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. Most Vietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity…

  19. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between parenting styles. Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) emerge as equilibrium outcomes, and are ...

  20. Parenting Styles, Coping Strategies, and the Expression of Homesickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Karin S.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the role of parenting styles in the experience and expression of homesickness, and the way of coping with the feelings involved. Using a sample of 670 first year college and university students, aged 16 to 25, we tested three hypotheses: (1) authoritarian, permissive as well as uninvolved parenting are associated with…

  1. Private Speech in Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  2. Toward a Feminist Ballet Pedagogy: Teaching Strategies for Ballet Technique Classes in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterowitz, Gretchen

    2014-01-01

    Classical ballet technique is commonly taught through the use of authoritarian practices and normalizing aesthetic values, but the construction of the ballet dancer as a docile subject in opposition to an all-knowing instructor might impede ballet's progression. In this article I explore my development of a feminist or democratic ballet…

  3. Factors Associated with Mothers' Obesity Stigma and Young Children's Weight Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Shayla C.; Tan, Cin Cin; Patel, Sanobar L.

    2011-01-01

    Parents and children hold negative attitudes about obesity, but little is known about individual differences in obesity stigma. The current study examined authoritarian parenting style, beliefs about the controllability of weight and fear of fat in relation to mothers' dislike of overweight individuals. Factors related to children's weight…

  4. Student Teachers Investigating the Morality of Corporal Punishment in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murris, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Practitioners of education in South Africa (SA) struggle painfully between the extremes of its authoritarian and deeply religious roots that prescribe blind obedience to people in authority and their elders, and the demands of open-mindedness, critical thinking and also solidarity required for democratic citizenship. A particular pedagogy was used…

  5. REVOLUTIONS FROM NORTHERN AFRICA: A GRAND QUESTION FOR MANKIND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIPRIAN NIMARĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The spring of the indignations against the presidents of the North African states and in the Middle East has aroused worldwide interest, not only in terms of their political effects in those states, but rather in terms of how these events have been suppressed by authoritarian regimes and the effects on the global economy and geopolitics.

  6. Social Media Activism and State Censorship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Poell

    2015-01-01

    This chapter interrogates how activist social media communication in authoritarian contexts is shaped through the mutual articulation of social media user practices, business models, and technological architectures, as well as through the controlling efforts of states. It specifically focuses on soc

  7. Towards a New Theory in School Management: The Theory of Positive Containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMusaileem, Muhammad Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study argues for a new theory in school management based on the notion of positive containment which benefited from the integration of the main two patterns of leadership, i.e., the democratic and the authoritarian. In this theory, the school principal has to deal with one external and five internal circles of positive containments. The…

  8. Socialization Goals, Parenting Practices, and Peer Competence in Chinese and English Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Emma; Rao, Nirmala

    2003-01-01

    Examined relations between Hong Kong and English mothers' socialization goals and childrearing practices and their impact upon preschool peer competence. Found significant correlations between socialization toward filial piety and authoritarian practices, and valuing socioemotional development and authoritative parenting for both groups. Chinese…

  9. Conceptions of Parents, Conceptions of Self, and Conceptions of God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Mueller, Rebecca A.

    Different theorists have suggested that an individual's view of God may be related to one's view of one's father, one's mother, or one's self. A study was conducted to examine the relationship of college students' conceptions of the wrathfulness-kindliness of God to their conceptions of their father's and mother's permissiveness, authoritarianism,…

  10. Moreel conservatisme en autoritarisme theoretisch en methodisch ontward : Culturele waardeoriëntaties in de politieke sociologie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. de Koster (Willem); J. van der Waal (Jeroen)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article demonstrates that studies in political sociology are flawed, because they fail to distinguish between moral conservatism/progressiveness and authoritarianism/libertarianism. Such a distinction is necessary, because historically and theoretically speaking, it is the process o

  11. Media in Post-Conflict Transitions : Balancing Protection Against Violence and Freedom of Expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buyse, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Media are a crucial battleground in post-conflict reconstruction. On the one hand media may ignite tensions and induce renewed violence by spreading dangerous expressions. On the other hand free and diverse media underpin a society that tries to shift from authoritarianism to democracy. From a human

  12. Importing International Law in Post-Conflict States: the Role of Domestic Courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Kristjánsdóttir; A. Nollkaemper; C. Ryngaert

    2011-01-01

    States that are in transition after a violent conflict or an authoritarian past face daunting challenges in (re)establishing the rule of law. This paper contains the introduction and the conclusion of a volume that empirically examines several recent attempts which states have made to buttress the r

  13. Will politics be tweeted? New media use by Iranian youth in 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wojcieszak; B. Smith

    2014-01-01

    The uprisings after the 2009 elections in Iran generated debate on new media’s potential to affect dissent in authoritarian countries. We surveyed 2800 young, educated, metropolitan, and technologically savvy Iranians over a year after the election and during the uprisings in the Middle East and Nor

  14. Building a Gentler School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Vicky Schreiber; Haberman, Martin

    1995-01-01

    For students steeped in the culture of violence, classrooms may offer one last chance to experience more constructive ways of relating. Schools must help these students find new identities and increase their capacity for moral reasoning. Authoritarian responses overpower students while failing to relieve their fear, distrust, or physical pain.…

  15. Chinese immigrants’ parental experiences in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    European Master in Social Work with Families and Children Existing empirical studies of parents in China found that this population presents features of authoritarian parenting style: greater parental demands and control together with lower parental responsiveness. However, when the investigation conducted on Chinese immigrants, parental practice is characterized as more authoritative style, combining high levels of controlling and responsiveness. Paradoxical findings between Chinese paren...

  16. Personality and Parenting Style in Parents of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huver, Rose M. E.; Otten, Roy; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian,…

  17. The Social Effects of Advertising as Perceived by Advertising Executives, Businessmen, and the General Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surlin, Stuart H.

    This study attempts to compare the perceptions and self-reported behavior of high, middle, and low authoritarian advertising executives, business executives, and members of the general public concerning the social effects of advertising. For the advertising sample, a total of 393 men and women were selected according to their executive positions…

  18. Factors Associated with Bullying Behavior in Islamic Private Schools, Pattani Province, Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kasetchai Laeheem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the associations between students’ bullying behaviors in Islamic private schools, Pattani province and classroom management factors (democracy, authoritarian, and permissive classroom management), family upbringing factors (strict, permissive, and democracy upbringing), environment violence factors (influence of peers violence, community violence, and parents violence), and to identify risk factors for bullying behaviors. A cross-sectional surve...

  19. The State and Industrial Development in Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Douglas

    Spanish American political and economic development has historically diverged from the other Western geographic areas. The economic systems of these nations have been characterized as dependent, and their political systems have reflected instability, authoritarian rule, and fraudulent democracy. In Peru, industrial progress began in the late 19th…

  20. Roller Coaster Round-Trip to Freedom: Never Say Never.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestenhauser, Josef A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes an individual's experience returning to his native Czechoslovakia, 43 years after fleeing Communism. Discusses problems faced in transforming people conditioned to an authoritarian state into citizens of a democracy. Stresses that good intentions and sincerity are not enough to understand area studies and the importance of intercultural…

  1. Perceived Parenting Styles and Goal Orientations: A Study of Teacher Education Students in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok-wai; Chan, Siu-mui

    2005-01-01

    Two achievement goals and three perceived parenting styles were identified in a sample of Hong Kong teacher education students. Significant correlations exist within the perceived parenting styles and the achievement goals. Parental authoritativeness was significantly and positively related to learning goal, and parental authoritarianism was…

  2. Factors Related to Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in Taiwan. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…

  3. Relation of parenting styles, feeding styles and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Direct and moderated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Dickin, Katherine L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Jahns, Lisa; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and interacting relations of parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Participants were 144 mothers and children under 6 years of age. Mothers completed questionnaires about parenting and feeding styles and feeding practices. Researchers weighed and measured mothers and children or obtained measurements from a recent health report. Feeding practices were not directly related to child weight status. Compared to the uninvolved feeding style, authoritative and authoritarian feeding style categories were linked to lower odds of overweight. Feeding practices interacted with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to predict obesity: (1) healthful modeling was associated with 61% (OR = 0.39) reduced odds of obesity in children of authoritative mothers but with 55% (OR = 1.55) increased odds in children of non-authoritative mothers and (2) covert control was linked to 156% (OR = 2.56) increased odds of obesity in children of authoritarian mothers but with 51% (OR = 0.49) decreased odds in children of non-authoritarian mothers. Healthful modeling interacted with feeding style demandingness to predict overweight and with responsiveness to predict obesity. Findings suggest the need for research and interventions on mechanisms mediating between feeding practices and obesity in families characterized by non-authoritative parenting styles. PMID:23962403

  4. The Mother Tongues as Second Languages: Nationalism, Democracy and Multilingual Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    After nearly half a century of authoritarianism characterized by Chinese nationalism and Mandarin promotion, democratization in 1990s Taiwan was accompanied by a Taiwanization movement featuring calls for the revitalization of local languages and the promotion of linguistic equality. To that end, the government began planning for local language…

  5. Conservative Ideology and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Mull, Melinda S.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the relationship between different facets of conservative ideology and ambivalent sexism, 246 residents of two towns in southern Michigan completed a social dominance orientation scale (SDO), a right-wing authoritarianism scale (RWA), a Protestant work ethic scale (PWE), and the Glick and Fiske (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory via a…

  6. The mediational pathway among parenting styles, attachment styles and self-regulation with addiction susceptibility of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zeinali

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings of present study suggest the authoritative and permissive parenting styles as the most efficient styles and authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles as the most inefficient styles in terms of addiction susceptibility. Accordingly, efficient parenting style training to parents should be the main goal of drug demand reduction program.

  7. Parenting styles, coping strategies, and the expression of homesickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Karin S; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2007-10-01

    The present study examined the role of parenting styles in the experience and expression of homesickness, and the way of coping with the feelings involved. Using a sample of 670 first year college and university students, aged 16 to 25, we tested three hypotheses: (1) authoritarian, permissive as well as uninvolved parenting are associated with the experience of homesickness, contrary to students with authoritative parents who are less likely to have feelings of homesickness; (2) students with authoritarian, permissive or uninvolved parents show their homesickness by internalizing and externalizing problems; and (3) students raised by authoritative or permissive parents use more effective coping strategies to deal with homesickness. Results indicated that students raised by authoritative and permissive parents experienced more homesickness with stronger feelings of homesickness than students raised by authoritarian or uninvolved parents. However, they hardly express homesickness by internalizing or externalizing problems when they use effective ways of coping, namely support-seeking and/or problem-solving. Students with parents endorsing an authoritarian or uninvolved parenting style, on the other hand, showed more internalizing and externalizing problems in reaction to feelings of homesickness. They also use less effective coping strategies. The results revealed the importance of a loving and accepting home environment for the development and expression of homesickness, as well as the importance of the way in which students learn to cope with their problems.

  8. CROWDSOURCING BUSINESS MODEL INNOVATION USING SOCIAL MEDIA PLATFORMS

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, D

    2013-01-01

    Innovations always have been a destiny of intellectuals engineers, scientists, visionary entrepreneurs. Current development of IT, transfer from the material resources economics to the knowledge one, from authoritarian management to a participative one, gave way to open innovations, crowd sourcing, collective thinking in management. Promising and significant technology for realization of those tendencies is Ackoff's Idealized Design.

  9. Towards a Transcultural Theory of Democracy for Instrumental Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    At present, instrumental music education, defined in this paper as the teaching and learning of music through wind bands and symphony orchestras of Western origin, appears embattled. Among the many criticisms made against instrumental music education, critics claim that bands and orchestras exemplify an authoritarian model of teaching that does…

  10. Civic Education and Visions of War and Peace in the Spanish Transition to Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamud Angulo, Kira; Groves, Tamar; Milito Barone, Cecilia Cristina; Hernández Laina, Yovana

    2016-01-01

    This article explores visions of war and peace in the education system during the Spanish transition to democracy. During those years, the Spanish state was faced with the challenge of leaving its authoritarian political past behind and forging a democratic civic culture. As the concepts of war and peace are inextricably linked to those of state…

  11. Korean and American Teachers' Praising Styles and Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Hyeyoung; Kim, Jungsub

    2016-01-01

    Praising is a crucial part of teaching performance that greatly impacts student performance and self-esteem. South Korean teachers are traditionally known to possess authoritarian attributes, whereas U.S. teachers have contradictory beliefs in terms of why and how to use praise. We used Q methodology among 16 American and 22 Korean teachers to…

  12. Cultura secretului, inamic al accesului la informațiile publice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea MOGOŞ

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The act of access to public information is a modern law, essential for a society, which still holds authoritarian patterns in its communicational behavior between the administration and the citizen. But, in spite the efforts of both official institutions and civil society organizations, the culture of secrecy will not disappear suddenly, because the secrecy is deeply rooted in the collective subconscious.

  13. In Search of Third Spaces in Media Education: An Ethnographic Study from Fifth Graders' Media Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Leena

    2009-01-01

    Media educators and researchers call for learner-centred, bottom-up pedagogical approaches, which take into account learners' own cultures, knowledge and experiences. Nevertheless, there seem to be gaps between traditional, authoritarian school culture and the interactive, creative media culture that is a significant part of youngsters' lives…

  14. Developing Writing Competency in Black Students: The Double-Bind Theory and the University Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chezia Brenda

    To advocate the work of Gregory Bateson, especially his Double-Bind theory, this paper describes how the theory can be applied to particular instances and to the general experience of black students in a predominantly white, authoritarian college setting. The paper argues that miscues on the part of black students in the classroom and in writing…

  15. GOLPE CIVIL-MILITAR DE 1964: ORIGENS E NOTAS CARACTERIZADORAS / CIVIL-MILITARY COUP OF 1964: ORIGINS AND CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria D’Ávila Lopes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses about the origins and characteristics of the Coup of 64. In order to do so, we use the interdisciplinary bibliographic research. On the first topic the origins of the coup of 64 are analyzed, highlighting the role played by political, economic and social factors that were its tangential. Then, our research comments the characteristics of the coup of 64, especially the bureaucratic authoritarian character; consensual legitimacy of civil society; the extension of the central military power; State terrorism implemented through the institutionalization of enforcement agencies to commit serious human rights violations and the authoritarian legality. By the end, it is concluded that the coup of 64 is headquartered in factual and symbolic legacy of Vargas, represented in the imaginary of elites, mainly by the figure of the former president João Goulart, coupled to polarization between capitalism and communism at the global level and at economic struggles on opening markets, remittance of foreign exchange dealing abroad and increased investment from the state to the private sector. In the same way, it verifies that Brazil singled out for its bureaucratic authoritarianism, by legitimacy - of origin - consented by the sophistication of its state terrorism, as well as, the exacerbation of its authoritarian legality. Furthermore, it stresses the nature of the coup of 64, and not “revolution” and its hybridity, due to the support of civil seizure to the achievement of power by the military segments.

  16. ‘Public Interest Litigation for Refugees in South Africa and the Potential for Structural Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Handmaker (Jeff)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractA decades-long social justice struggle that eventually displaced white minority rule in South Africa culminated in democratic elections in 1994. Following this historic transition from authoritarian rule to democracy, new issues came to the fore, including the rights of refugees and migr

  17. Relation of parenting styles, feeding styles and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Direct and moderated effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Dickin, Katherine L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Jahns, Lisa; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and interacting relations of parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Participants were 144 mothers and children under 6 years of age. Mothers completed questionnaires about parenting and feeding styles and feeding practices. Researchers weighed and measured mothers and children or obtained measurements from a recent health report. Feeding practices were not directly related to child weight status. Compared to the uninvolved feeding style, authoritative and authoritarian feeding style categories were linked to lower odds of overweight. Feeding practices interacted with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to predict obesity: (1) healthful modeling was associated with 61% (OR = 0.39) reduced odds of obesity in children of authoritative mothers but with 55% (OR = 1.55) increased odds in children of non-authoritative mothers and (2) covert control was linked to 156% (OR = 2.56) increased odds of obesity in children of authoritarian mothers but with 51% (OR = 0.49) decreased odds in children of non-authoritarian mothers. Healthful modeling interacted with feeding style demandingness to predict overweight and with responsiveness to predict obesity. Findings suggest the need for research and interventions on mechanisms mediating between feeding practices and obesity in families characterized by non-authoritative parenting styles.

  18. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Creativity in a Sample of Jamaican Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Danielle D.; Copeland, Daelynn; Saxon, Terrill F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and creativity among a sample of Jamaican students and their parents. A total of 54 parents and 66 students participated in the study. Results revealed that the authoritarian style of parenting is the most salient predictor of creativity in children and that this…

  19. Perceived Neighborhood Violence, Parenting Styles, and Developmental Outcomes among Spanish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Fuentes, Maria C.; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzed perceptions of neighborhood violence of Spanish adolescents (N = 1,015) from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families, and its association with three sets of developmental outcomes (psychological, behavioral, and academic). Tests of main and interactive effects were conducted to answer research…

  20. Don't Trust Anyone over 30: Parental Legitimacy as a Mediator between Parenting Style and Changes in Delinquent Behavior over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkner, Rick; Cohn, Ellen S.; Rebellon, Cesar J.; Van Gundy, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Both law and society scholars and developmental psychologists have focused on the legitimacy of authority figures, although in different domains (police versus parents). The purpose of the current research is to bridge these two fields by examining the relations among parenting style (i.e., authoritarian, authoritative, permissive), the perception…

  1. High School Students' Career Decision-Making Pattern across Parenting Styles and Parental Attachment Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenkseven-Onder, Fulya; Kirdok, Oguzhan; Isik, Erkan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this research was to investigate career decision among high school students regarding to their parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful) and parental attachment levels. Method: With this purpose, 382 (200 females; 182 males) Turkish high school students aged 14-18 completed Career…

  2. Asian Parenting Styles and Academic Achievement: Views from Eastern and Western Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace H. C.; Gove, Mary

    2015-01-01

    The authors were drawn to the media phenomenon created by Amy Chua's book "Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother" about her parenting experiences raising two daughters. Chua's parenting style is quite strict by US standards. The authors classify her style as Ethnic Minority, considered a subset of Authoritarian parenting style as compared to…

  3. Pathways of Parenting Style on Adolescents' College Adjustment, Academic Achievement, and Alcohol Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Hummer, Justin F.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the pathways of parenting style (permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative) to alcohol consumption and consequences through the mediators of college adjustment and academic achievement (grade point average [GPA]). Participants were 289 students from a private, mid-size, West Coast university (mean age 19.01 years, 58.8%…

  4. Introduction: The 2013 Malaysian Elections: Business as Usual or Part of a Protracted Transition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ufen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For the time being, the 5 May 2013 Malaysian general election (GE13 has resulted in the preservation of an authoritarian regime that has existed since independence in 1957. Although the opposition won almost 51 per cent of the vote, the ruling coalition was able to defend a comfortable majority of seats in the Parliament.

  5. Introduction: The 2013 Malaysian Elections: Business as Usual or Part of a Protracted Transition?

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Ufen

    2013-01-01

    For the time being, the 5 May 2013 Malaysian general election (GE13) has resulted in the preservation of an authoritarian regime that has existed since independence in 1957. Although the opposition won almost 51 per cent of the vote, the ruling coalition was able to defend a comfortable majority of seats in the Parliament.

  6. A Balanced Approach to Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Based on 30 years' experience, the author advocates a balanced approach that accommodates extremes in four important areas: curriculum, teaching, structure, and classroom management. Using a whole-language approach to reading should not mean that phonics, spelling, or punctuation skills can't be taught. Authoritarian and open classroom structures…

  7. Science Education as South Africa's Trojan Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, John M.; Gray, Brian V.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the story of one nongovernmental organization (NGO) and the role it played in reconceptualizing science education in South Africa. Describes the success of the Science Education Project (SEP) in confronting authoritarian practices of government organizations and those within its own ranks. Science education can become the Trojan horse of…

  8. Fanaticism: Flight from Fallibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkinson, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the human predilection toward fanaticism; the debt that Western culture owes to fanatics; fundamental objections to fanaticism; the way that traditional educational approaches cultivate a propensity toward dogmatism, obscurantism, and authoritarianism; and possible educational methods for encouraging critical thinking. (GT)

  9. Creating Cultures of Teaching and Learning: Conveying Dance and Somatic Education Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Donna A.

    2015-01-01

    Often in teaching dance, methods of teaching and learning are silently embedded into dance classroom experiences. Unidentified and undisclosed pedagogic information has impacted the content of dance history; the perpetuation of authoritarian teaching practices within dance technique classes and in some dance classes deemed "somatics";…

  10. Classrooms as Sites of Curriculum Delivery or Meaning-Making: Whose Knowledge Counts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandell, John

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the previous government, regarding education primarily as a means to an end, showed little interest in questions of curriculum content, Gove's counter-revolution involves the enforcement of a deeply authoritarian politics of knowledge. An adequate response to such cultural and curricular conservatism needs to expose the falsity of…

  11. The Environment of Childhood Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.

    2004-01-01

    Poor children confront widespread environmental inequities. Compared with their economically advantaged counterparts, they are exposed to more family turmoil, violence, separation from their families, instability, and chaotic households. Poor children experience less social support, and their parents are less responsive and more authoritarian.…

  12. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivari, Maria Giulia; Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Confalonieri, Emanuela

    2015-05-01

    Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents' retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES and these perceptions. Swedish, Italian and Greek adolescents (N = 702; 30.9% Swedish, 39.6% Italian and 29.5% Greek) participated in the study. To test the principal effects three mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVAs were conducted separately for each parenting style. To verify the interaction effects, a mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVA was tested on authoritative style. Regarding authoritarian and permissive two mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece) ANOVAs were tested. Mothers, as compared to fathers, were perceived as more authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Moreover, boys perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than girls. Swedish parents were perceived as significantly less authoritarian than Italian and Greek parents and more permissive than Italian parents; Greek parents were perceived as less authoritarian and more permissive than Italian parents. The study provides an interesting contribution to parenting styles literature, showing how country legislation concerning family matters and SES are related the perception of parenting behaviours. PMID:27247655

  13. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giulia Olivari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents’ retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES and these perceptions. Swedish, Italian and Greek adolescents (N = 702; 30.9% Swedish, 39.6% Italian and 29.5% Greek participated in the study. To test the principal effects three mixed 2(parent; mother and father*2(gender; girl and boy*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece*3(SES; low, medium and high ANOVAs were conducted separately for each parenting style. To verify the interaction effects, a mixed 2(parent; mother and father*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece*3(SES; low, medium and high ANOVA was tested on authoritative style. Regarding authoritarian and permissive two mixed 2(parent; mother and father*2(gender; girl and boy*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece ANOVAs were tested. Mothers, as compared to fathers, were perceived as more authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Moreover, boys perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than girls. Swedish parents were perceived as significantly less authoritarian than Italian and Greek parents and more permissive than Italian parents; Greek parents were perceived as less authoritarian and more permissive than Italian parents. The study provides an interesting contribution to parenting styles literature, showing how country legislation concerning family matters and SES are related the perception of parenting behaviours.

  14. Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivari, Maria Giulia; Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Confalonieri, Emanuela

    2015-05-01

    Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents' retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES and these perceptions. Swedish, Italian and Greek adolescents (N = 702; 30.9% Swedish, 39.6% Italian and 29.5% Greek) participated in the study. To test the principal effects three mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVAs were conducted separately for each parenting style. To verify the interaction effects, a mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVA was tested on authoritative style. Regarding authoritarian and permissive two mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece) ANOVAs were tested. Mothers, as compared to fathers, were perceived as more authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Moreover, boys perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than girls. Swedish parents were perceived as significantly less authoritarian than Italian and Greek parents and more permissive than Italian parents; Greek parents were perceived as less authoritarian and more permissive than Italian parents. The study provides an interesting contribution to parenting styles literature, showing how country legislation concerning family matters and SES are related the perception of parenting behaviours.

  15. The Violent God of the Old Testament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    In his book, Taking Leave of Abraham. An Essay in Religion and Democracy, Troels Nørager argues that the willingness to sacrifice one's own son symbolizes the violent potential of authoritarian religion that can be seen today in terror actions. And he argues that this kind of God-relations are no......In his book, Taking Leave of Abraham. An Essay in Religion and Democracy, Troels Nørager argues that the willingness to sacrifice one's own son symbolizes the violent potential of authoritarian religion that can be seen today in terror actions. And he argues that this kind of God...... images of God that speak against, and present alternatives to, a theology of violence (cf. for instance the Book of Jonah and Hos. 2)....

  16. Ethnic differences in adolescent achievement. An ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, L; Dornbusch, S M; Brown, B B

    1992-06-01

    Using data collected from a large sample of high school students, the authors challenge three widely held explanations for the superior school performance of Asian-American adolescents, and the inferior performance of African- and Hispanic-American adolescents: group differences in (a) parenting practices, (b) familial values about education, and (c) youngsters' beliefs about the occupational rewards of academic success. They found that White youngsters benefit from the combination of authoritative parenting and peer support for achievement, whereas Hispanic youngsters suffer from a combination of parental authoritarianism and low peer support. Among Asian-American students, peer support for academic excellence offsets the negative consequences of authoritarian parenting. Among African-American youngsters, the absence of peer support for achievement undermines the positive influence of authoritative parenting. PMID:1616171

  17. Is Asian American Parenting Controlling and Harsh? Empirical Testing of Relationships between Korean American and Western Parenting Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Kim, Su Yeong; Park, Irene Kim

    2013-03-01

    Asian American parenting is often portrayed as highly controlling and even harsh. This study empirically tested the associations between a set of recently developed Korean ga-jung-kyo-yuk measures and several commonly used Western parenting measures to accurately describe Asian American family processes, specifically those of Korean Americans. The results show a much nuanced and detailed picture of Korean American parenting as a blend of Western authoritative and authoritarian styles with positive and-although very limited-negative parenting. Certain aspects of ga-jung-kyo-yuk are positively associated with authoritative style or authoritarian style, or even with both of them simultaneously. They were positively associated with positive parenting (warmth, acceptance, and communication) but not with harsh parenting (rejection and negative discipline). Exceptions to this general pattern were Korean traditional disciplinary practices and the later age of separate sleeping of children. The study discusses implications of these findings and provides suggestions for future research.

  18. Explorasi Hubungan antara Personaliti Islamik dan Gaya Keibubapaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOORAINI OTHMAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the parenting styles which influence the Islamic personality among students from one of the secondary school in Batu Pahat district, Johor. Using strata random sampling technique, a total of 302 students from form 1 to form 6 of the secondary school was chosen as the respondents. This correlational study used questionnaire as an instrument for its data collection. The data analysis was done using the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis with the help of Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0. Descriptive analysis result shows a medium level of authoritative parenting style, high level of authoritarian parenting style and low level of permissive parenting style were practiced. Inferential analysis result shows the existence of a significant relationship between parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative and permissive and Islamic personality.

  19. [Parenting style in Spanish parents with children aged 6 to 14].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Geta, Petra María

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish which parenting style of Spanish families is associated with optimum children's outcomes. A random Spanish sample of 1,103 parents of children and teenagers from 6 to 14 years of age, of whom 47% were females, reported on their child-rearing practices. Families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) based on the parents' answers. Socialization outcomes were 6 indicators of interpersonal relationship quality, 9 indicators of psychological adjustment, 7 indicators of personal competence, and 12 indicators of behavior problems. Results showed that indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were associated with better outcomes than authoritarian and neglectful parenting. Overall, our results supported the idea that, in Spain, the optimum parenting style is the indulgent one, as scores in the four sets of socialization outcomes among children and teenagers from indulgent families were always equal to, or even better than, the authoritative parenting style.

  20. Political exile and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis RONIGER

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Political exile is a mechanism of institutional exclusion geared at revoking citizenship rights and removing individuals from full participation in the political and public arenas of a country. Due to its exclusionary character, the literature tends to assume a correlation between authoritarianism and exile, on the one hand, and democracy and asylum, on the other. This work challenges this view and discusses the more complex interactions between exile and democracy. Relying on qualitative case analysis of individual and massive exile and on a quantitative database of presidential exile in the nineteenth and twentieth century, it shows that also democracies generate exile and that also authoritarian countries have provided sites of exile and asylum for those fleeing from their home countries.

  1. Predicting mothers' beliefs about preschool-aged children's social behavior: evidence for maternal attitudes moderating child effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, P D; Rubin, K H

    1999-01-01

    Maternal beliefs about children's social behavior may be important contributors to socialization and development, but little is known about how such beliefs form. Transactional models suggest that children's characteristics may influence parents. At 2 years of age, the shy and aggressive behaviors of 65 toddlers (28 females) were observed during interactions with an unfamiliar peer; as well, mothers described the extent to which they advocated protective and authoritarian childrearing attitudes. These variables were used to predict mothers emotions, attributions, parenting goals, and socialization strategies in response to vignettes depicting aggressive and withdrawn child behaviors 2 years later. Most child effects were moderated by maternal attitudes or gender effects. Authoritarian mothers of aggressive toddlers were most likely to report high control and anger, to blame their children for aggression, and to focus on obtaining compliance rather than teaching skills to their children. Protective mothers reported that they would use warmth and involvement to comfort withdrawn children, especially their daughters.

  2. Relations of parenting and temperament to Chinese children's experience of negative life events, coping efficacy, and externalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2008-01-01

    The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children's externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6-9 years) from Beijing. Children's experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting- and temperament-externalizing relations. Parents reported on their own parenting. Parents and teachers rated temperament. Children reported on negative life events and coping efficacy. Parents, teachers, children, or peers rated children's externalizing problems. Authoritative and authoritarian parenting and anger/frustration uniquely predicted externalizing problems. The relation between authoritarian parenting and externalizing was mediated by children's coping efficacy and negative school events. The results suggest there is some cross-cultural universality in the developmental pathways for externalizing problems.

  3. Parenting styles and learned resourcefulness of Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkel, Yeşim Deniz; Tezer, Esin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the differences among 834 high school students regarding learned resourcefulness in terms of perceived parenting style and gender. The data were gathered by administering the Parenting Style Inventory (PSI) and Rosenbaum's Self-Control Schedule (SCS). The results of ANOVA pertaining to the scores of learned resourcefulness yielded a significant main effect for parenting style groups. Neither the main effect for gender nor the gender and parenting style interaction effect was significant. The findings suggest that those who perceived their parents as authoritative had a relatively high level of learned resourcefulness as compared to those who perceived their parents as neglectful and authoritarian. Findings also indicated that those who perceived their parents as indulgent had a higher level of learned resourcefulness than those who perceived their parents as neglectful and authoritarian.

  4. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, parental bonds, depression, and alcohol problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2007-09-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental bond (positive, negative), depression, alcohol use and abuse were tested. A 2-group, multiple-indicator, multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. In general, a poor parental bond with one's father was highly predictive of depression, a well-known predictor of alcohol abuse and related problems for both genders. In contrast, a positive parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the positive effects of authoritative fathering on depression, which then decreased alcohol use problems for both genders. For women, a negative parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the effect of having an authoritarian father on depression, which increased alcohol use problems. These findings suggest that parental influences on pathways to alcohol abuse through depression (primarily through fathers for both genders) are distinct from pathways stemming from poor impulse control (with influences primarily from the same-sex parents for both genders).

  5. The 1964 coup and dictatorship in opinion polls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Patto Sá Motta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes opinion polls conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Public Opinion and Statistics (IBOPE in the context of 1964, with the objective of assessing the support to the coup and to dictatorship. The data, mostly new, indicate a contrast between the support to João Goulart, registered before the coup, and after the success of the coup, which points out to the good acceptance of authoritarian measures, including political purges. The empirical data obtained from the polls are used to consider the sources of legitimation of dictatorship that especially mobilized anticommunist representations. The analysis of the records suggests that the support to the authoritarian regime was marked by instability and oscillated throughout the initial years.

  6. Political Regimes in Central Asia: Crisis of Legitimacy, Political Violence and Uncertain Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Djalili

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the present-day transition and political context of each of the states that comprise the former Soviet region of Central Asia since their independence: the internal changes they have undergone, the creation of their own institutions and regional and international relations. This evolution, especially with regard to the deficiencies in democracy and legitimacy of the majority of the current governments, based, in many cases, on personalist, authoritarian regimes, points to an uncertain future for a region in which, too frequently, its rulers have used all the means at their disposal (persecution of political opposition, disregard for human rights, constraint of the mass media and NGOs, etc. to guarantee their continuance in power. This article also includes an analysis of the most recent events, such as the Andijan (Uzbekistan massacre, the‘revolution’ without changes in Kyrgyzstan, and the authoritarian drift of Turkmenistan, which leads to conclusions filled with uncertainties for future political scenarios.

  7. May 1939 „Electoral Campaign”: Mechanisms, Procedures and Electoral Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Grecu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The elections from 1st – 2nd of June 1939, during the authoritarian monarchy, 1938-1940, emphasised habits, methods and electoral mechanisms specific to any authoritarian regimes. The Maire was the one organising the elections, mainly because he was also making the electoral lists and in charge with the train transportation of the citizens to the voting precinct; trough the telephone network, the results of the elections were communicated to the Interior Ministry, who was to be informed at any moment about the data given by the Maire and also the voting and occasional incidents occurring during the elections. The need of control above the citizen’s vote represented the main mission of the local authorities during the day of the voting, precisely by the repression organs, The Police and the Constabulary.

  8. Mobile Communication, Popular Protests and Citizenship in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Digital telecommunication technology has expanded the potential of the mobile phone to be increasingly used as a weapon against authoritarian rule and censorship. Since the content of mobile communication is unpredictable and unregulated, mobile phones have the potential to breach state-sponsored......Digital telecommunication technology has expanded the potential of the mobile phone to be increasingly used as a weapon against authoritarian rule and censorship. Since the content of mobile communication is unpredictable and unregulated, mobile phones have the potential to breach state......-sponsored information blockage. This in turn helps the Chinese people to maintain contact with each other, receive information from outside the country, and make political waves in an aggressive battle for control over information. This paper examines spontaneous mobilization via mobile phones, with a focus on two...

  9. The relationship between parenting types and older adolescents' personality, academic achievement, adjustment, and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, L H; Schwarz, J C

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine Baumrind's T3 conceptual framework using a multiple informant design and an older adolescent population. With 178 college students and their families as participants, the present study found many of the predicted relations between parents' child-rearing style (Authoritative, Democratic, Nondirective, Nonauthoritarian-Directive, Authoritarian-Directive, and Unengaged) and their adolescent children's behavior in the 4 domains assessed: personality, adjustment, academic achievement, and substance use. The differences between parenting types on the criterion measures were not as large as reported in Baumrind's study, and significant effects were predominantly due to the poor scores from children with Unengaged and Authoritarian-Directive parents. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the Authoritative parenting type, the utility of using a typology, and areas for future research.

  10. Correlates of homophobia, transphobia, and internalized homophobia in gay or lesbian and heterosexual samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriner, Katrina; Nagoshi, Craig T; Nagoshi, Julie L

    2013-01-01

    This research assessed the correlates of homophobia and transphobia in heterosexual and homosexual individuals, based on a theory of different sources of perceived symbolic threat to social status. Compared to 310 heterosexual college students, a sample of 30 gay male and 30 lesbian college students scored lower on homophobia, transphobia, and religious fundamentalism. Mean gender differences were smaller for gay men and lesbians for homophobia, aggressiveness, benevolent sexism, masculinity, and femininity. Fundamentalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and hostile and benevolent sexism were correlated only with homophobia in lesbians, whereas fundamentalism and authoritarianism were correlated only with transphobia in gay men. Correlates of internalized homophobia were different than those found for homophobia and transphobia, which was discussed in terms of gender differences in threats to status based on sexual orientation versus gender identity.

  11. Un estudio experimental sobre el Machismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Cortada de Kohan

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Thurstome´s equal-intervals technique a scale was constructed to measure "machismo" The origins of Latin American "machismo" was analized in a social and historical context, and related to cultural traditions of Southerns Europe. Scale M, an adaptation of Adorno´s scale F (to measure authoritarianism, Holtzman´s Test Form A, and a socio-economic questionnaire were applied to two groups of Ss; 20 University students¡ and 13 workers from the "Villas Miseria" of Buenos Aires. Significant results were found, at the. 001 level for both scales M and F; students were significantly less "machistas" and authoritarians than workers. Students had higher scores in the variables FA, M, I, end P of Holtzman´s Test, and lower in At, Sx, Ax, and Ho.

  12. Autobiographical narratives and representations: the interweaving of teachers’ histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Costa Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the concepts of authority and authoritarianism through autobiographical narratives made by teachers from basic education schools in Santa Maria – RS and, through social repre - sentations. This is a bibliographical research. We made use of theSocial Representations and also the Oral History. This article is di - vided into five sections. The first one approaches the Oral History as a possibility to tell the history of the contemporary world. The second one is a discussion on the Social Representations Theory as a decryption of everyday life. Maffesoli (1998 on the third section questions what would be better to represent or to present in theconstruction of reality. The fourth section is a reflection on the te - achers’ speeches and the studied bibliography. Finally, the last sec - tion brings up teachers speeches about the concepts of educators’ authority and authoritarianism.

  13. Neighborhood Risk, Parental Socialization Styles, and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gracia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful, and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use. The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from four multivariate factorial designs yielded only main effects of parenting styles and neighborhood risk. Adolescents from authoritative and indulgent families showed lower conduct problems than those with authoritarian and neglectful parents. Also, higher levels of perceived neighborhood risk were significantly associated with more conduct problems. There were no significant interaction effects between parenting styles and perceived neighborhood risk, but results yielded a significant interaction effect between neighborhood risk and sex. Overall, results do not support the idea that parenting styles are more effective under certain neighborhood risk conditions, and suggest that neighbourhood risk influences adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment beyond the influence of parental socialization styles.

  14. [Parenting style in Spanish parents with children aged 6 to 14].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Geta, Petra María

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish which parenting style of Spanish families is associated with optimum children's outcomes. A random Spanish sample of 1,103 parents of children and teenagers from 6 to 14 years of age, of whom 47% were females, reported on their child-rearing practices. Families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) based on the parents' answers. Socialization outcomes were 6 indicators of interpersonal relationship quality, 9 indicators of psychological adjustment, 7 indicators of personal competence, and 12 indicators of behavior problems. Results showed that indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were associated with better outcomes than authoritarian and neglectful parenting. Overall, our results supported the idea that, in Spain, the optimum parenting style is the indulgent one, as scores in the four sets of socialization outcomes among children and teenagers from indulgent families were always equal to, or even better than, the authoritative parenting style. PMID:22748726

  15. Historical memory and the "Defence" of Democracy in Spain and Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela; Moroska-Bonkiewicz, Aleksandra

    of authoritarianism may also be mobilized in rejection of militant responses to extremism. The relevance of historical experiences for explaining responses to anti-system actors may thus depend on how the past is ‘remembered’ and ‘mobilised’ for political ends. In the paper, we compare Spanish and Polish strategies...... against extremism. These states experienced periods of authoritarianism, but nevertheless avoided militant styles of ‘democratic defence’ thereafter. We pay particular attention to discourses justifying strategic choices and the role of historical memory therein, as well as political resources...... (institutional or otherwise) of speakers articulating different positions. The paper deals with the theme of inequality insofar as state responses to political extremism often claim to protect citizens from actors undermining democratic commitments to political equality. Public authorities may also be motivated...

  16. [Features of interpersonal behavior among executives of healthcare institutions with different styles of resolving management decisions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezhnovets', T A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the influence of the type of interpersonal relationships between executives and subordinates in healthcare institutions on their style of resolving management decision. It was established that indulgent and autonomous style are formed against background of liberal interpersonal relationship by the following criteria, as the absence of dominant traits, expressed benevolence among executives with autonomous style, uncertainty and inexperience among executives with indulgent style. Authoritarian and marginal styles are formed against empowerment and dominance in relationship with subordinates by expressed dominance criteria, as leadership qualities among executives with authoritarian style or as a manifestation of social maladjustment among executives with marginal style. Type of interpersonal relationships determines the style of resolving management decisions, that should be considered at conducting professional selection of candidates for senior positions in healthcare institutions. PMID:25286614

  17. Rightist Education and Godly Technology: Cultural Politics, Gender, and the Work of Home Schooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Apple

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The secularity of the state is seen by 'authoritarian populist' religious conservatives as imposing a world-view that is out of touch with the deep religious commitments that guide their lives. In the process, authoritarian populists have taken on subaltern identities and claimed that they are the last truly dispossessed groups. To demonstrate their increasing power in educational and social policy, I situate a specific set of technologies-the Internet-within the social context of its use in this community. I focus on the growing home-schooling movement and suggest that to understand the societal meaning and uses of these technologies, we need to examine the social movement that provides the context for their use. I also argue that we need to analyze critically the kind of labor that is required in home schooling, who is engaged in such labor, and how such labor is interpreted by the actors who perform it.

  18. Two Concepts of Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The dominant tradition in Western philosophy sees rationality as dictating. Thus rationality may require that we believe the best explanation and simple conceptual truths and that we infer in accordance with evident rules of inference. I argue that, given what we know about the growth of knowledge, this authoritarian concept of rationality leads to absurdities and should be abandoned. I then outline a libertarian concept of rationality, derived from Popper, which eschews the dictates and which sees a rational agent as one who questions, criticises, conjectures and experiments. I argue that, while the libertarian approach escapes the absurdities of the authoritarian, it requires two significant developments and an important clarification to be made fully consistent with itself.

  19. [Features of interpersonal behavior among executives of healthcare institutions with different styles of resolving management decisions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezhnovets', T A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the influence of the type of interpersonal relationships between executives and subordinates in healthcare institutions on their style of resolving management decision. It was established that indulgent and autonomous style are formed against background of liberal interpersonal relationship by the following criteria, as the absence of dominant traits, expressed benevolence among executives with autonomous style, uncertainty and inexperience among executives with indulgent style. Authoritarian and marginal styles are formed against empowerment and dominance in relationship with subordinates by expressed dominance criteria, as leadership qualities among executives with authoritarian style or as a manifestation of social maladjustment among executives with marginal style. Type of interpersonal relationships determines the style of resolving management decisions, that should be considered at conducting professional selection of candidates for senior positions in healthcare institutions.

  20. Relations of Parenting and Temperament to Chinese Children’s Experience of Negative Life Events, Coping Efficacy, and Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2009-01-01

    The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children’s externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. Children’s experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting and temperament-externalizing relations. Parents reported on their own parenting. Parents and teachers rated temperament. Children reported on negative life events and coping efficacy. Parents, teachers, children, or peers rated children’s externalizing problems. Authoritative and authoritarian parenting and anger/frustration uniquely predicted externalizing problems. The relation between authoritarian parenting and externalizing was mediated by children’s coping efficacy and negative school events. The results suggest there is some cross-cultural universality in the developmental pathways for externalizing problems. PMID:18489409

  1. Parental authority, nurturance, and two-dimensional self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafarodi, Romin W; Wild, Nicole; Ho, Caroline

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the relations of parental permissiveness, authoritativeness, authoritarianism, and nurturance with two dimensions of self-esteem - self-liking and self-competence. In a sample of 207 two-parent families, university students and both their parents provided independent reports on all the above variables. Covariance structure analysis was used to eliminate reporter-specific bias and unreliability in predicting student self-esteem from parenting behavior. The results revealed highly redundant positive associations of mothers' and fathers' authoritativeness and nurturance with both self-liking and self-competence. The pattern of these associations suggests that the significance of parental authoritativeness for the child's self-esteem is due mainly to the nurturance it provides. Contrary to expectation, mothers' and fathers' authoritarianism was also positively associated with self-liking. As discussed, however, this is likely to be an artifact of the specific measures and testing methods used. PMID:20132455

  2. Is Asian American Parenting Controlling and Harsh? Empirical Testing of Relationships between Korean American and Western Parenting Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Kim, Su Yeong; Park, Irene Kim

    2013-03-01

    Asian American parenting is often portrayed as highly controlling and even harsh. This study empirically tested the associations between a set of recently developed Korean ga-jung-kyo-yuk measures and several commonly used Western parenting measures to accurately describe Asian American family processes, specifically those of Korean Americans. The results show a much nuanced and detailed picture of Korean American parenting as a blend of Western authoritative and authoritarian styles with positive and-although very limited-negative parenting. Certain aspects of ga-jung-kyo-yuk are positively associated with authoritative style or authoritarian style, or even with both of them simultaneously. They were positively associated with positive parenting (warmth, acceptance, and communication) but not with harsh parenting (rejection and negative discipline). Exceptions to this general pattern were Korean traditional disciplinary practices and the later age of separate sleeping of children. The study discusses implications of these findings and provides suggestions for future research. PMID:23977415

  3. Luttes enseignantes, luttes etudiantes et processus de democratie en afrique noire

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'da, Paul

    1993-11-01

    This article seeks to demonstrate the part played by African teachers and students — the spearhead of social movements and political demands — in the process of democratization in Africa since late 1989 and early 1990. The first part presents the historical context of the authoritarian concept of development, of its implementation, its hereditary practices, its failure, and all those aspects which led to the creation of social and political conflict. The second part shows how the teachers and their students, besides making corporate demands, have attacked the established order and the type of political power which has resulted in the removal of freedoms and the enduring crisis. They have turned for a solution to democracy and to the legal constitution of the State. Their struggles are part of the broader struggle of other social actors and political parties which has brought about the collapse of authoritarianism and the move towards pluralist democracy.

  4. The regime and the constitutional principles from 1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Grecu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authoritarian monarchy regime, from 1938-1940, functioned based on an exceptional status, because it was founded on a decree-law of state of siege and therefore all the power in the State was held in the hands of the army colonels and generals. By suspending the political parties, the political pluralism and the Parliament, the basic institutions of a democratic regime were abolished. Press censorship, the denying of the right to manifest and gather were assigned to the army and the militarization of the State institutions became a reality. The proclamation of the King as an absolute leader of the unique party and of the government transformed Romania into a ministerial and undemocratic monarchy, with authoritarian valence.

  5. Cultural change in Argentina during the sixties. An analysis of the daily newspaper La Nación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Agostini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a study of the process of cultural and social change developed in Argentina during the sixties, focusing on the appeal that authoritarianism might have had on society. Our hypothesis is that among middle classes, such appeal could have been lower than suggested in other research. From the analysis of “Columnas de la juventud” (youth columns, published by the daily newspaper La Nación –since 1965 to 1973-, we suggest that certain cultural transformations promoted by young people, were produced in a relatively short period of time –ten years-. During that interval, the representations that La Nación offered of such transformations turned from annoyance to fascination. This fact suggests that the acceptance of change in the standards of behaviour was very extended. The idea of an authoritarian society does not enable us to understand this process.

  6. Parental authority, nurturance, and two-dimensional self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafarodi, Romin W; Wild, Nicole; Ho, Caroline

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the relations of parental permissiveness, authoritativeness, authoritarianism, and nurturance with two dimensions of self-esteem - self-liking and self-competence. In a sample of 207 two-parent families, university students and both their parents provided independent reports on all the above variables. Covariance structure analysis was used to eliminate reporter-specific bias and unreliability in predicting student self-esteem from parenting behavior. The results revealed highly redundant positive associations of mothers' and fathers' authoritativeness and nurturance with both self-liking and self-competence. The pattern of these associations suggests that the significance of parental authoritativeness for the child's self-esteem is due mainly to the nurturance it provides. Contrary to expectation, mothers' and fathers' authoritarianism was also positively associated with self-liking. As discussed, however, this is likely to be an artifact of the specific measures and testing methods used.

  7. Antecedents and outcomes of abusive supervision: test of a trickle-down model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryee, Samuel; Chen, Zhen Xiong; Sun, Li-Yun; Debrah, Yaw A

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined antecedents of abusive supervision and the relative importance of interactional and procedural justice as mediators of the relationship between abusive supervision and the work outcomes of affective organizational commitment and individual- and organization-directed citizenship behaviors. Data were obtained from subordinate-supervisor dyads from a telecommunication company located in southeastern China. Results of moderated regression analysis revealed that authoritarian leadership style moderated the relationship between supervisors' perceptions of interactional justice and abusive supervision such that the relationship was stronger for supervisors high rather than low in authoritarian leadership style. In addition, results of structural equation modeling analysis revealed that subordinates' perceptions of interactional but not procedural justice fully mediated the relationship between abusive supervision and the work outcomes. Implications for future investigations of abusive supervision are discussed. PMID:17227160

  8. Vox populismus: a populist radical right attitude among the public?

    OpenAIRE

    Rooduijn, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, populist radical right (PRR) parties have been electorally very successful in Western Europe. Various scholars have argued that these parties share an ideological core that consists of a specific form of nationalism (nativism), in combination with two other attitudes (authoritarianism and populism). The aim of this research note is to assess whether this ideological core also exists as a consistent attitude among citizens. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses ...

  9. Political Change in the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Martin; Hueser, Simone

    This article deals with the Arab Spring as a process of deep political change in the Arab world, previously the only major world area where authoritarianism persisted unchallenged for decades. While in various countries of the Arab world mass protests in 2011 forced rulers to resign, other author...... of stability is presented and discussed. Although the analysis draws heavily on rent theory, it also applies findings from transition theory and revolution theory to illuminate the current political dynamics in the Middle East....

  10. Security sector reform and its role in challenging of radicalism

    OpenAIRE

    von Tangen Page, Michael; Hamill, Olivia

    2006-01-01

    This working paper explores the linkage between security sector reform and development assistance in countering radicalization. It is argued that security is an essential prerequisite to sustainable development. The premise of this paper is that there are important security sector reform objectives that are essential in countering radicalisation through addressing many of the underlying root causes that can create and sustain radical opposition to authoritarian or totalitarian governments in ...

  11. Stock participation in hydroelectric projects; Hacia una participacion accionaria en los proyectos hidroelectricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Scott S. [Universidad Metropolitana, Iztapalapa (Mexico). Dept. de Antropologia

    1996-12-31

    This work talks about the way the hydroelectric companies deal with the moving of people for reservoir construction. It happens trough an authoritarian way without a previous communication with the people that will be moved what make them resist. The proposal of author is make people that will be affected by the hydroelectric construction participate in the benefices it will generate. It happened in the construction of hydroelectric project in Pangue, Chile, with good results

  12. Collaborative decision-making and promoting treatment adherence in pediatric chronic illness

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Drotar, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Dennis Drotar, Peggy Crawford, Margaret BonnerCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USAAbstract: Collaborative or shared decision-making between health care providers and families can facilitate treatment adherence, health outcomes, and satisfaction with care in the management of pediatric chronic illness, but raises special challenges. Barriers such as authoritarian models of medical care as well as absence of time and opportunity for dialogue limit colla...

  13. Bidirectional Relations between Temperament and Parenting Styles in Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) ...

  14. Covenant Cog or Functional Fourth Estate. A Survey of Malaysian Journalists’ Attitudes towards their Profession

    OpenAIRE

    Rohini SREEKUMAR; Sony JALARAJAN RAJ

    2012-01-01

    In Malaysia, the idealistic notion of the news media as ‘watchdog’ is largely redundant due to the external and institutional realities associated with its functioning in a heavily regulated, monitored and controlled media system. There has been little analysis of Malaysian journalists’ perceptions of their profession. Operating within an authoritarian mediascape, Malaysian journalists have to surrender their journalistic values and principles of practice thereby pervading a culture of self-c...

  15. The Political Economy of Media and Violence in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    URRUSTI FRENK, LUZ MARIA SINAIA

    2015-01-01

    The chapters in this dissertation study political economy and development economics topics related to the decline of the Mexican Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), one of the longest-lasting authoritarian governments of the twentieth century. Chapter 1 provides an introduction linking the main topics, hypotheses, and results. Chapters 2 and 3 focus on the role of mass media diversity and unsustainable media capture, respectively, in the Mexican democratic transition. Chapter 4 examines ...

  16. Chinese Studies and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2013-01-01

    Many different conceptual approaches and models have been used to analyze contemporary Chinese history and politics. Some of the more commonly used include "totalitarianism", "two-line struggle", "clientelism", "tendency analysis", "political culture", "interest group politics", "bureaucratic...... politics", "corporatism", "civil society", "fragmented authoritarianism", etc. (Brødsgaard, 1989; Guo 2013). This paper will survey these approaches in order to place the analysis of the contemporary Chinese politics and history in a comparative perspective. A survey of the field will remind us...

  17. Cambio en el sistema de partidos post-autoritario: ¿un proceso impulsado desde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Maria Saenz.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores those factors that produce change in the party-system, making use of theories concerning social cleavage and political agency that consider political repression and elite dynamics as independent variables. The authors examine three cases of authoritarianism in Latin America, Argentina, Brasil and Chile, to determine whether or not regime change is produced from above (via political elites or below (via society.

  18. The connection between adult partner attachment and parenting styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Jurič

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The child-mother relation in infancy was found very important not only as a predictor of a child's social adaptation, personality predisposition and capacity development, but also as a prototype of establishing contacts with others later in life (Bowlby, 1975. These early attachment bondings with the child's mother are the basis for all close relationships with potential partners later in life. The survey covers the attachment factors of two parents (30 to 60 years old and their style of parenting their 14- to 15-years-old adolescent. The participants were the primary school pupils of Gorenjska and Ljubljana regions. Adult attachment style was measured with Experience in Close Relationship Questionnaire - Revised (Fraley, Waller in Brennan, 2000. The children completed 30-item Parental Authority Questionnaire for the Mother's and Father's Parenting Style (Buri, 1991. We expected that the parents with low results in Anxiety and Avoidance were the ones who mostly used the authoritative parenting style compared to the parents with higher results of Anxiety and Avoidance in their relationship. The second hypothesis was that high results in Anxiety in parental relationship would mean a more authoritarian parenting style. The results confirmed our assumptions. Parents with a secure mutual relationship mainly raised their children in an authoritative manner with lots of warmth, support and appropriate borders. The second hypothesis was confirmed for fathers only. Fathers with high Anxiety in partner relationship (fear of abandonment, feelings of uncompetency mostly raised their children in an authoritarian manner. The authoritarian manner consists of many strict borders, a lot of control and obedience. The connection of Anxiety in partnership and authoritarian parenting style was not significant for mothers.

  19. "Mobilising the community"

    OpenAIRE

    Gnep, Yuvany

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the emergence of new forms of social mobilisation against HIV/AIDS in China. The central authorities’ engagement and the opening to international aid have allowed people living with HIV/AIDS to take part in anti-AIDS activities. The imperatives of participative development and the history of anti-AIDS militancy stemming from a global dynamic favour HIV carriers’ quest for a democratic say despite the semi-authoritarian context.

  20. Das Fremde als das Eigene : Entstehung der südkoreanischen Wirtschaftskultur durch fremdbestimmte Modernisierung

    OpenAIRE

    Yim, Il-Sop

    2014-01-01

    This thesis tries to search for historical origins of two salient features of South Korean economic culture: authoritarianism and particularism. Contrary to prevailing opinion that these features originated from Confucianism, which was the state ideology in the Chosun dynasty, this work contends that they are rather influenced by the way how the country was modernized under foreign influences since the end of 19th century. Social Darwinism, Japanese colonial rule and Korean War caused by sepa...

  1. Family socialization practices: factor confirmation of the portuguese versión of a scale for their measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo; Martinez Sanchez, Clara Maria Isabel; Yubero Jimenez, Santiago; GarcÍa PÉrez, Jose Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The ESPA29 parental socialization scale allows for the measuring of four parental styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and negligent), considering the parents? use of different socialization practices considered in this instrument, which are grouped into two factors or two independent dimensions of paternal conduct (acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition). The objective of this study was to analyze the factorial structure of the Brazilian version of the Scale...

  2. Children and Reparation: Past lessons and new directions

    OpenAIRE

    Dyan Mazurana; Khristopher Carlson

    2010-01-01

    This paper is among the first to analyse children's experiences of reparations programmes, taking into consideration programmes from Africa, Asia and Latin America. The violence, abuse and hardship that girls and boys suffer during armed conflict and political violence under authoritarian and dictatorial regimes continues to severely affect their development long after the end of war or demise of the violent regime. They experience violations of their civil, political, social, economic and cu...

  3. Pengaruh Gaya Kepemimpinan Terhadap Budaya Kerja Pegawai Pada Badan Kepegawaian Pendidikan Dan Pelatihan Kabupaten Gayo Lues

    OpenAIRE

    Armiko, Nanda Risto

    2013-01-01

    The title of this study is "Effect of leadership style to the work culture at Personnel Board of Education and Training Gayo Lues District". The purpose of this study is to determine and analyze the effect of leadership style consists of authoritarian, democratic, and independent of culture on Personnel Board of Education and Training Gayo Lues district. The data used in this research is to use primary data and secondary data. This study population by 57 employees, with a sa...

  4. Scala de evaluare a conducerii toxice – adaptare romaneasca

    OpenAIRE

    Coralia Sulea; Violeta Rotarescu; Marian Popa; Patricia Albulescu

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims at developing a Romanian version of the Toxic Leadership Scale (TLS) (Schmidt,2008), based on a five dimensions model: abusive leadership, authoritarian leadership, narcissism, self-promotionand unpredictability. The data were collected from a sample of 352 participants, based on the snowball technique.The analyses offered information about reliability, construct and criterion validity. Each scale dimension showedgood reliability (between .82 and .90), and also the glob...

  5. The Most Effective Kinds of Parents on Children’s Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Parsasirat; Mona Montazeri; Fatimah Yusooff; Nasrudin Subhi; Salina Nen

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important determinant aspects of children’s outcome is parenting. The baby who is born doesn’t have any knowledge about the world so the family can be considered as a first teacher.The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between Baumrind’s three perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian & permissive) with academic achievement among Iranian high school students who were between the ages 15 to 17. The total number...

  6. Women in insurgent groups in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto-Cáez, Omar Manuel

    2014-01-01

    In Latin America, the use of political violence against authoritarian regimes increased after the Cuban Revolution. In the 1970s, women began to join revolutionary movements in ever-growing numbers, to the point that the presence of female guerrillas or terrorists was no longer remarkable. The most important factors that influenced women to join insurgencies were political ideology, state and domestic violence, culture, social networks, and changes in guerilla tactics. Women took on various i...

  7. [The formative years of a research scientist: Louis Pasteur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrichs, L L

    The article endeavors to bring back to life Pasteur's years as a teenage boy, based on his correspondence with his parents and on the philosophy homework he undertook during his school days. These materials reveal an authoritarian, moralizing young man who bore the strong mark of his education and his father's personality but who was also endowed with a spirit of curiosity, already imbued with the rational faith that would characterize the entirety of his scientific works.

  8. POPULISMO E DEMOCRACIA LIBERAL NA AMÉRICA DO SUL

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Ricardo Leis

    2008-01-01

    Populism is a contradictory phenomenon. Great singularities mark its history in South America. This paper will try to register the diversity of circumstances that applies to the countries of the area, for later on to concentrate its efforts in the analysis of the populism. The conclusions go beyond the particularities of thepopulism, phenomenon associated so much to authoritarian regimes as to democratic ones, in the left or right wings, with a cultural convergence in favor of antagonisms tha...

  9. THE INTERACTION BETWEEN PATERNALISTIC LEADERSHIP AND ACHIEVEMENT GOALS IN PREDICTING ATHLETES’ SPORTSPERSONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Jing-Horng Lu, Frank; Hsu, Yawen

    2015-01-01

    Paternalistic leadership, which is a prevalent leadership style in business contexts in non-Western cultures, is characterized by three dimensions: authoritarianism, benevolence, and morality. The current study of 252 Taiwanese intercollegiate athletes (Mage=20.91 years) explored this leadership style in a sports setting and examined the extent to which the interaction of paternalistic leadership and achievement goals predicted athletes’ sportspersonship. Participants completed the Paterna...

  10. Attitudes and intended behaviour to mental disorders and associated factors in catalan population, Spain: cross-sectional population-based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Aznar-Lou, Ignacio; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Fernández, Ana; Luciano, Juan V; Rubio-Valera, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental disorders have a huge impact on the European population. Two of the main causes of this impact are stigma and discrimination. The aim of this paper is to assess the stigma regarding mental disorder in Catalonia and to explore factors associated with stigma. Methods Cross-sectional population-based survey of a representative sample of non-institutionalized adult population (n = 1872). We evaluated attitudes (CAMI: Authoritarianism, Benevolence and Support to Community Mental ...

  11. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Zilibotti; Matthias Doepke

    2014-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissi...

  12. Parenting with style: altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing children’s preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  13. Parenting with style: Altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2012-01-01

    We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...

  14. Parenting with style: altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  15. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  16. A Decade of Transition (Russian)

    OpenAIRE

    UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. MONEE project

    2001-01-01

    The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 paved the way for changes in every aspect of life in this region. New opportunities and new risks emerged for all members of society. The main drive for change has been bold economic and political reform - the transition from planned systems to market economies and from authoritarian regimes to more participatory societies. But the 1990s also saw a broader, worldwide transition: a change in thinking about what constitutes social progress. The 1990s represen...

  17. RADICALISM IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF ISLAMIC-POPULISM: Trajectory of Political Islam in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wasisto Raharjo Jati

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to analyze radicalism movement in Indonesia from Islamic-Populism perspec­tive. In various academic studies about Islam, radicalism is perceived as an act of violence and terrorism. However, the study of radicalism was not always generating both premises. Populism sees many aggressive measure perpetuated by Muslims against the authoritarian regime is also a source of radicalism. Likewise, the absence of Muslim represen­tation in formal politics has resulted in violence. In I...

  18. Public Sphere, Politics and The Internet in Mainland China

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Every communication medium – from pamphlets, newspapers, radio to television – has two-sided influences in politics. On the one side, they can buttress authoritarian governments. On the other side, their potential in democracy promotion is also magnificent and undeniable. Especially in digital age, the improvement in freedom of expression has been more and more associated with the impact of the Internet, new media and mobile phone communication. For China, while its economic development and m...

  19. Learning to Escape: Prison Education, Rehabilitation and the Potential for Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Behan, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines motivations behind participation in education based on interviews with Irish prisoners. It begins by considering the relationship between education and rehabilitation, especially the latter’s re-emergence in a more authoritarian form. Drawing on results from the research, this article argues that the educational approach, culture and atmosphere are particularly important in creating a learning environment in prison. It makes the case that educational spaces which allow s...

  20. TatyanaLokshina (Dir., Chechnya. Zhizn’ navoine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Le Huérou

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Yet another book about the war in Chechnya? Today, the small North Caucasian Chechnya Republic is often seen as a post-conflict country, enjoying fast and blinking reconstruction and relative safety thanks to the authoritarian and paternalistic rule of its President Ramzan Kadyrov.Since 1994, despite censorship, propaganda and extremely difficult access, a considerable amount of material has been issued on the conflict. However, this material is available almost exclusively to Western readers...

  1. The Fundamental Institutions of China's Reforms and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Chenggang Xu

    2011-01-01

    China's economic reforms have resulted in spectacular growth and poverty reduction. However, China's institutions look ill-suited to achieve such a result, and they indeed suffer from serious shortcomings. To solve the "China puzzle," this paper analyzes China's institution—a regionally decentralized authoritarian system. The central government has control over personnel, whereas subnational governments run the bulk of the economy; and they initiate, negotiate, implement, divert, and resist r...

  2. THE MAGAZINE “KADRO”: THE PERSPECTIVE OF LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
    KADRO DERGİSİ: DİL VE EDEBİYAT ANLAYIŞI

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet USLU

    2012-01-01

    After the depression of 1929, in 1930s, when the idea of statism started to lead the world, the magazine “Kadro”, published by some of the Marxist intellectuals except Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu, mostly supported the intellectuality of new political regime. Therefore, the movement “Kadro” gave voice to the perspective of standing for all kinds of governmental interventions, particularly economical interference and adopted the idea of an authoritarian government. In this article, the magazine “...

  3. Migration aspirations in Ukraine: Human rights violations as migration drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Borshchevska, Yuliya

    2014-01-01

    Ukraine is ranked highly among emigration countries and in particular among countries supplying labor migrants to the EU and Russia. The slumping economy and deteriorating political situation with an increasing number of authoritarian traits logically evoke the question of how non-economic motivation factors impact migration aspirations in Ukraine. The worsening human rights situation in the country is, in a way, seen as a separate matter and is not always associated with migration. This arti...

  4. Correspondence between images of terrorists and preferred approaches to counterterrorism: the moderating role of ideological orientations.

    OpenAIRE

    Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Kossowska, Malgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examined the moderating effects of right wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation on the relationship between terrorist images (soldiers vs. criminals) and preference for counterterrorist actions (military aggression vs. criminal prosecution). Study 1 indicated that the perception of Al-Qaeda terrorists as soldiers was related to preference for military counterterrorism, especially among people high in social dominance orientation. The relationship between the percep...

  5. Policing political protest in Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Juska, Arunas; Woolfson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes policing political protest in post-independent Lithuania. It argues that since the early 2000s, policing of political protest as an issue has increased in importance as Lithuania has experienced political mobilization and radicalization among groups disadvantaged by post-socialist reforms. It is suggested that police responses reveal precursor tendencies towards growing authoritarianism which has become more visible in the most recent period. In 2008, the onset of deep e...

  6. Mobile Communication, Popular Protests and Citizenship in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Digital telecommunication technology has expanded the potential of the mobile phone to be used increasingly as a weapon against authoritarian rule and censorship. Since the content of mobile communication is unpredictable and unregulated, mobile phones have the capability to breach state-sponsored blockage of information. This in turn helps the Chinese people to maintain contact with each other, receive information from outside the country, and make political waves in an aggressive battle for...

  7. THE FAMILY IN POWER: A NEW PAST FOR AN OLD COUNTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Shukuralieva, Narciss

    2011-01-01

    The Bakiev family, which remained in power in Kyrgyzstan for five years, relied on formal and informal methods to rule the country and never hesitated to violate the division of power principle. To tighten their grip on power, its members held forth about their noble ancestry and distorted the past to secure the future. The Tulip Revolution, officially recognized as a popular revolution and a protest against the corrupt authoritarian regime, was described as a turning point in the country’s h...

  8. Levels of uncertainty, decision making and risk communication: the siting of nuclear waste in France and the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The social demand for increased risk control is considered here as it applies to nuclear waste management. Britain's Sellafield Repository Project and France's Mediation Mission to site underground research laboratories are compared. While both management approaches show evolution away from an authoritarian model of decision making and towards implementation of a more socially responsive model, distinct methods of dealing with scientific and social uncertainty appear as well. (author)

  9. Impacto diferencial de la religión en el prejuicio entre muestras cristianas y musulmanas (Differential impact of religion on prejudice in Muslim and Christian samples)

    OpenAIRE

    Máximo Núñez Alarcón; Félix Moral Toranzo; Mª del Pilar Moreno Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to build on previous research that examined the association between religion and prejudice in Christians and Muslims from inside and outside the university context. The study included 211 Christian and 121 Muslim university students and 155 Christian and 220 Muslim non-students. An instrument for evaluating religious orientation was used as well as various measures of subjective religion, religious prejudice, right-wing authoritarianism, fundamentalism, freque...

  10. Milton Friedman & the Human Good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor R. Machan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Milton Friedman is among those who have favored a value free, amoral defense of the free society. Here I discuss his basic reason for doing so, namely, that the claim to moral knowledge implies authoritarian politics. I argue that this is wrong because to act morally cannot require coercing people to do so–to quote Immanuel Kant, “ought” implies “can.”

  11. Parenting among Nepalese families in Lisbon and its effect on child integration

    OpenAIRE

    Dangol, Abhas

    2015-01-01

    Erasmus Mundus Master in Social Work with Families and Children The purpose of this study was to understand which parenting style presented by Baumrind (1967) of authoritative, authoritarian or permissive the Nepalese immigrants in Portugal are associated with, what values they transmit to their children and how does it affect child integration in schools. The aim was to know if migrating to a country with difference in culture and values brings changes in the way parenting is provided for...

  12. A cross-sectional investigation of parenting style and friendship as mediators of the relation between social class and mental health in a university community

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Mark; Kelly, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study tested a novel explanation for the positive relation between social class and mental health among university students. Students with a higher social class were expected to have experienced more authoritative and less authoritarian parenting styles; these parenting styles were expected to lead to greater friendship and social integration at university; and greater friendship and integration were expected to lead to better mental health. Method To test this model, the re...

  13. An empirical investigation on the relationship between parenting styles and employees' career adaptability

    OpenAIRE

    Najmeh Sedrpoushan; Fatemeh Rezaei; Sedigheh Shirvani

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between parenting styles and employees' career adaptability. The statistical population includes all employees in Polyacrid's Factory of Isfahan in 2012. The proposed study selects a sample of 321 employees using cluster sampling. The study has used a based on Baumrind's theorem, which maintains three groups of permissive, authoritarian and authoritative in Likert scale. The results of our study have indicated that there is definitely...

  14. Parenting styles and hormone levels as predictors of physical and indirect aggression in boys and girls

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual-Sagastizabal, Eider; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Braza, Francisco; Vergara, A.I.; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between parenting style, androgen levels, and measures of physical and indirect aggression. Peer ratings of aggression were obtained from 159 eight-year-old children (89 boys and 70 girls). Parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian or permissive) were assessed using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ).Saliva samples were obtained from children and assayed for testosterone and androstenedione concentrations. A regression analysis r...

  15. Is Asian American Parenting Controlling and Harsh? Empirical Testing of Relationships between Korean American and Western Parenting Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Kim, Su Yeong; Park, Irene Kim

    2013-01-01

    Asian American parenting is often portrayed as highly controlling and even harsh. This study empirically tested the associations between a set of recently developed Korean ga-jung-kyo-yuk measures and several commonly used Western parenting measures to accurately describe Asian American family processes, specifically those of Korean Americans. The results show a much nuanced and detailed picture of Korean American parenting as a blend of Western authoritative and authoritarian styles with pos...

  16. The influence of income, education and occupation as dimensions of one’s social class on families’ socialization-education processes

    OpenAIRE

    Şengönül, Turhan; Ege Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, İlköğretim Bölümü

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the theories and studies related to the impact of social class or socioeconomic status on socialization-education processes of families. The family stress model of economic hardship suggests that poverty has an adverse effect on parents’ emotions, behaviors, relationships, their parenting and/or socialization strategies. Parents in lower-socioeconomic status compared with middle-socioeconomic status are more likely to use a harsher, more authoritarian, parenting style a...

  17. Political Structure and Dam Conflicts: Comparing Cases in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, Ming Chee; Swain, Ashok

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that different political structures use different conflict management mechanisms to manage opposition to large hydro projects. Conflicts over the Pak Mun Dam, Thailand (a liberal democracy), and the Bakun Dam, Malaysia (a semi-authoritarian state), are the cases selected for comparison. The export oriented, fast industrialization process brought rapid development in these two countries. Large-scale water development projects, particularly big dams, have been c...

  18. The balancing role of Turkey for the influence of China in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Gur, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Today, there is a dynamic new ‘Great Game’ in Central Asia engaging multiple players and institutions who compete for influence in Central Asia, such as the Russian-dominated Collective Security Treaty Organization, the U.S.-dominated NATO Partnership for Peace Program, and the Sino-Russian-dominated Shanghai Cooperation Organization. Of all the players, China is clearly one of the most dominant. China’s authoritarian regime, domestic problems, and huge energy demands hold potential threats f...

  19. Paradoxes of participatory democracy: citizen participation, collective action and political influence in a Chilean environmental conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Spoerer, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a critical analysis of the impacts of participatory democracy in public action and collective action. Based on the study of the Barrancones environmental conflict in Chile (2007-2010), the aim is to analyze how transformations and innovations in Chilean environmental law regarding citizen participation have had an ambivalent impact. On one hand, institutional citizen participation appears to be an instrument of economic and authoritarian logic to legitimize energy policy...

  20. Political exile and democracy Exilio político y democracia

    OpenAIRE

    Roniger, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Political exile is a mechanism of institutional exclusion geared at revoking citizenship rights and removing individuals from full participation in the political and public arenas of a country. Due to its exclusionary character, the literature tends to assume a correlation between authoritarianism and exile, on the one hand, and democracy and asylum, on the other. This work challenges this view and discusses the more complex interactions between exile and democracy. Relying on qualitative cas...

  1. Exilio político y democracia

    OpenAIRE

    Roniger, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Political exile is a mechanism of institutional exclusion geared at revoking citizenship rights and removing individuals from full participation in the political and public arenas of a country. Due to its exclusionary character, the literature tends to assume a correlation between authoritarianism and exile, on the one hand, and democracy and asylum, on the other. This work challenges this view and discusses the more complex interactions between exile and democracy. Relying on qualitative cas...

  2. Aktörler Kurumsal Değişime Direnir mi? Türk Emniyet Teşkilatı Örneği / Do Actors Resist to Institutional Change? The Case of Turkish National Police

    OpenAIRE

    Koç, Oktay; Demir, İrfan

    2013-01-01

    This study examines why and how resistance to institutional change occurs, through the change of institutional logics, with a particular case in the Turkish National Police. The study mainly employs sub methods of grounded theory. Resistance to change from the logics of authoritarian law enforcement to the democratic one is studied. Three categories of resistance, as follows, motivation by contextual conditions, tendency for political struggle, and focusing on deprivation are identified. Then...

  3. Pakistan’s Crisis of Legitimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2007-01-01

    Prepared for an Immigration Law Practioner's Association Conference, this paper explores the way in which the religious right has taken advantage of the doubtful legitimcay of Pakistan's success regimes, both civilian and military, to engineer itself into a position where it is able to mount a constant critique of state authority. In the course of so doing it has steadily undermine the capacity of civil institutions to challege its narrow, authoritarian, and in demographic terms largely unpop...

  4. Translating 'Self' and 'Others' Waves of Protest Under the Greek Junta.

    OpenAIRE

    Asimakoulas, D

    2009-01-01

    The Greek junta (1967-1974) can be seen as the as the most recent black page of modern Greek history. It is mostly remembered in terms of shocking oppression as well as for the massive antiauthoritarian student movement that took place in a global sixties context. This paper summarizes significant protest activities under the Greek junta, an authoritarian regime that was in a state of flux. Events are categorized under three broad protest waves: passive resistance/clandestine activities, elab...

  5. Gambaran Pola Asuh Ibu Suku Batak pada Anak Laki-Laki dengan Gangguan Autisme

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmah, Ayunda

    2012-01-01

    Keluarga adalah kelompok dari dua atau lebih individu yang dihubungkan oleh kelahiran, pernikahan, atau adopsi (Bureau, 2005). Dalam sebuah keluarga orang tua bertanggung jawab memberi pengasuhan kepada anak. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian Diana Baumrind (dalam Sigelmen, 2002) didapati 3 jenis pola asuh yaitu, authoritarian, authoritative dan permissive. Kemudian Maccoby & Martin menambahkan satu jenis pola asuh lagi yakni, uninvolved/neglectful. Jenis pola asuh terbentuk dari dua dimensi yaitu...

  6. La emergencia de las mujeres en el poder. ¿hay cambio en Perú?

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Blondet

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses, with regards the case of Peru, the impact of the emergence of women in situations of power, particularly considering their influence on the extension (or no) of women's rights in general terms. After reviewing the variety of women in politics today, the article points out the virtues and the limitations of the pattern of including women in the personalized and authoritarian regime of President Fujimori. It also examines to what point the institutional weaknesses, lack ...

  7. Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Book Review Editor, Christien Klaufus

    2015-01-01

    Rebel Mexico: Student Unrest and Authoritarian Political Culture During the Long Sixties, by Jaime M. Pensado, 2013, and Specters of Revolution: Peasant Guerrillas in the Cold War Mexican Countryside, by Alexander Aviña, 2014; reviewed by Wil G. PanstersWe are the face of Oaxaca: Testimony and Social Movements, by Lynn Stephen, 2013; reviewed by Jaime HoogestegerMaya Exodus: Indigenous struggle for citizenship in Chiapas, by Heidi Moksnes, 2012; reviewed by Gemma van der HaarLand and Freedom:...

  8. Islam and economic growth in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Mahmud bin

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Muslim countries are often thought of as culturally backward, authoritarian, misogynistic, and poor in economic performance. The teachings of Islam, however, prescribe democratic governance and free-market economics. While Muslims, as a whole, have tremendous economic potential, many Muslims are among the world's poorest and least educated. Corrupt autocratic leaders have attempted to capitalize on the Muslim dream of building a grand ...

  9. Determinants of Public Attitudes towards Euthanasia in Adults and Physician-Assisted Death in Neonates in Austria: A National Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Stolz

    Full Text Available Euthanasia remains a controversial topic in both public discourses and legislation. Although some determinants of acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted death have been identified in previous studies, there is still a shortage of information whether different forms of euthanasia are supported by the same or different sub-populations and whether authoritarian personality dispositions are linked to attitudes towards euthanasia.A large, representative face-to-face survey was conducted in Austria in 2014 (n = 1,971. Respondents faced three scenarios of euthanasia and one of physician assisted death differing regarding the level of specificity, voluntariness and subject, requiring either approval or rejection: (1 abstract description of euthanasia, (2 abstract description of physician-assisted suicide, (3 the case of euthanasia of a terminally-ill 79-year old cancer patient, and (4 the case of non-voluntary, physician assisted death of a severely disabled or ill neonate. A number of potential determinants for rejection ordered in three categories (socio-demographic, personal experience, orientations including authoritarianism were tested via multiple logistic regression analyses.Rejection was highest in the case of the neonate (69% and lowest for the case of the older cancer patient (35%. A consistent negative impact of religiosity on the acceptance across all scenarios and differential effects for socio-economic status, area of residence, religious confession, liberalism, and authoritarianism were found. Individuals with a stronger authoritarian personality disposition were more likely to reject physician-assisted suicide for adults but at the same time also more likely to approve of physician-assisted death of a disabled neonate.Euthanasia in adults was supported by a partially different sub-population than assisted death of disabled neonates.

  10. Online Social Media and Political Awareness in Autoritarian Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    John Reuter; David Szakonyi

    2012-01-01

    Does online social media undermine authoritarianism? We examine the conditions under which online social networks can increase public awareness of electoral fraud in non-democracies. We argue that a given online social network will only increase political awareness if it is first politicized by elites. Using survey data from the 2011 Russian parliamentary elections, we show that usage of Twitter and Facebook, which were politicized by opposition elites, significantly increased respondents' pe...

  11. Self-esteem, political efficacy, and perceived parental attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Okçu, Tuba Nur; Okcu, Tuba Nur

    2007-01-01

    This thesis proposes to test the following three hypotheses: perceived political efficacy positively correlates with self-esteem; self-esteem positively correlates with perceived democratic parental attitude; and, lastly, self-esteem negatively correlates with perceived protective-demanding and perceived authoritarian parental attitudes. Two questionnaires (Q1 and Q2), each measure perceived political efficacy, selfesteem,and perceived parental attitudes. In Q2, the items of self-esteem and p...

  12. The Influence of Principals’ Leadership Styles on School Innovation in Jambi (Case Study in Several Senior High Schools in Jambi)

    OpenAIRE

    Samsu Samsu; Rusmini Rusmini

    2016-01-01

    School leadership styles that affect school innovation is essential to bring schools’ changes. This study aimed to determine school leadership styles and its effect on school innovation at the senior high school level in Jambi city. This study uses ten leadership styles, they are participative, laissez faire, authoritarian, democratic, charismatic, transformational, situational, trust, grid, and three-dimensional leaderships. The framework of the research are developed by associating ten lead...

  13. The Profile of Intrapreneurship Leadership of Vocational High School Principals

    OpenAIRE

    Husaini Usman

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of the School Integrated Development (SID) in the Vocational High School (VHS) is quite ideal, but much of its succes depends on the activity in the VHS itself. The implementation of the SID in the VHS Bandung demonstrates the leadership style that tends to be authoritarian does not represent the intrapreneurship leadership characteristics. This conclusion shows 21 characteristics of intrapreneurship leadership with an acronym of Teknik. The training materials for candidate...

  14. Indonesia in 2012: An electoral democracy in full spate

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, Geoffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Two sides of the debate on Indonesia's future turn on the tension between sustained economic growth fueled by demand for Indonesia's natural resources and the highly skewed distribution of wealth. With the Indonesia boosters forecasting a vertiginous rise of Southeast Asia's largest economy, the naysayers point to the deadweights of corruption, lack of transparency, and poor governance. With democratic electoralism revived in a post-authoritarian setting, such issues can no longer be swept un...

  15. Postavenie Indonézie v rámci ASEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Makovská, Simona

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, Indonesia has witnessed profound social, political and economic transformations that have transformed it from an authoritarian regime to one of the most liberal countries of the Muslim world. Currently represents the fastest growing economy in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) which the impressive growth rate significantly strengthened its position on the international markets. The main objective of this bachelor thesis is to analyze the competitiveness of...

  16. Makt och vanmakt i fadersväldet : Studentpolitik i Uppsala 1780-1850

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Johan

    2002-01-01

    From the end of the 18th century, the view that youth had a political role to play spread among students in Europe. This view was directly opposed to the paternalistic authoritarian regimes governing the old universities like that at Uppsala, which had been organised as patriarchal corporations for some two hundred years. The thesis deals with the attempts of Uppsala students, despite their lack of formal power, to influence society and their own university. It focuses on the political cultur...

  17. The specificity sociocultural mechanism of reproduction South Korean sociality

    OpenAIRE

    Semenyuk, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The study examines some of the factors of socio-cultural mechanism, playback of South Korean society, namely: social values, mentality, business etiquette and language of business communication. It is proved that South Korean society hierarchical and authoritarian. The increasing role of South Korean society in the development of the globalization of world coordinates, causing interest in the mechanisms of reproduction of social and cultural component of South Korean society, which is today a...

  18. Predicting Internalizing Problems in Chinese Children: the Unique and Interactive Effects of Parenting and Child Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, De Yun

    2013-01-01

    The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children’s internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children’s internalizing ...

  19. Parenting Styles and Home Obesogenic Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Ihmels; Greg Welk; Rachel Johnson; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.

    2012-01-01

    Parenting behaviors are known to have a major impact on childhood obesity but it has proven difficult to isolate the specific mechanism of influence. The present study uses Baumrind’s parenting typologies (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive) to examine associations between parenting styles and parenting practices associated with childhood obesity. Data were collected from a diverse sample of children (n = 182, ages 7–10) in an urban school district in the United States. Parenting be...

  20. Book review: Psychology and politics: a social identity perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Laberge, Yves

    2013-01-01

    "Psychology and Politics: a Social Identity Perspective." Alexa Ispas. Psychology Press. December 2012. --- This book covers a wide range of political topics, such as the way in which categorising ourselves into groups influences how we perceive the social world, the implications of categorisation for social influence, and the mechanisms underlying obedience under authoritarian regimes. Yves Laberge thinks this book serves as an excellent update on the social identity perspective.

  1. Cacophony or Empowerment? Analysing the Impact of New Information Communication Technologies and New Social Media in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    The capabilities, tools and websites we associate with new information communication technologies and social media are now ubiquitous. Moreover tools that were designed to facilitate innocuous conversation and social interaction have had unforeseen political impacts. Nowhere was this more visible than during the 2011 uprisings across the Arab World. From Tunis to Cairo, and Tripoli to Damascus protest movements against authoritarian rule openly utilized social networking and file sharing tool...

  2. The Politics of Postanarchism

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Saul

    2010-01-01

    This book explores the relevance of anarchism for contemporary politics. The author contends that this long neglected and almost heretical political philosophy is becoming increasingly central to radical struggles and movements today, especially in the wake of the collapse of the Marxist revolutionary projects and with the terminal decline of both social democracy and political liberalism. Here the author explores new directions for anti-authoritarian thought. Seeing anarchism as a politics o...

  3. Organizational norms and practices in affinity groups: an anarchist perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Crnkić, Adin

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to introduce anarchism as organized order. My thesis is that a thorough study of management and organization of anarchism is much needed in theory and praxis because it examines conditions and levels of relationships within anarchism itself. Because of practicing non-hierarchical and non-authoritarian methods and techniques, anarchism should be examined through the theory of organizations in the context of science. In doing so, I derive from Von Bertalanffy's general ...

  4. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adult Attachment Styles from Jordan University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mahasneh, Ahmad M; Zohair H. Al-Zoubi; Omar T. Batayenh; Jawarneh, Mohammad S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of (564) male and female students at the faculty of educational sciences was chosen selected. Two questionnaires on attachment styles and parenting styles were administered to the selected sample population during the academic year of 2012-2013. Results indicated significant positive correlations between the authoritative, negligent and authoritarian parenting styles...

  5. Negotiating Islam in Emerging Public Spheres in Contemporary Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Nozimova, Shahnoza; Epkenhans, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, the Internet has emerged as a new public sphere in the Central Asian republic of Tajikistan in particular for negotiating ‘Islam’ – religious belief, practice and morality. Whilst the authoritarian regime severely restricts the ‘traditional’ public spheres, the Internet has proven to be more resilient and elusive to government control. Blocked web pages move to other domains, and, in particular, labour migration has ‘denationalized’ public spheres. Additionally, the Inte...

  6. Parenting and Trajectories of Children’s Maladaptive Behaviors: A 12-year Prospective Community Study

    OpenAIRE

    Luyckx, Koen; Tildesley, Elizabeth A.; Soenens, Bart; Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Peterson, Missy; Duriez, Bart

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how parenting accounted for inter-individual differences in developmental trajectories of different child behaviors across childhood and adolescence. In a cohort sequential community sample of 1,049 children, latent class growth analysis was applied to three parent-reported dimensions (monitoring, positive parenting, inconsistent discipline) across 12 annual assessments (ages 6–18). Four longitudinal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, uninvolved...

  7. THE MODERN RACISM SCALE: PSYCHOMETRIC

    OpenAIRE

    MANUEL CÁRDENAS

    2007-01-01

    An adaption of McConahay, Harder and Batts’ (1981) moderm racism scale is presented for Chilean population andits psychometric properties, (reliability and validity) are studied, along with its relationship with other relevantpsychosocial variables in studies on prejudice and ethnic discrimination (authoritarianism, religiousness, politicalposition, etc.), as well as with other forms of prejudice (gender stereotypes and homophobia). The sample consistedof 120 participants, students of psychol...

  8. Organizational Culture and Corporate Governance in Russia : A Study of Managerial Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Naohito; Ichiro IWASAKI

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the possible impacts of ownership structure and corporate performance on managerial turnover using a unique dataset of Russian corporations. We argue that Russia is regarded as a country with a highly authoritarian and collectivism-oriented national culture and this peculiarity is the key to disentangling the puzzle of the statistically weaker relationship between firm performance and CEO renewal in Russian firms. Standing on this viewpoint, we deal with not only...

  9. Relations with People and Relations with Things: Management of Human Resources in African Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Feijó, João

    2010-01-01

    This article intends to analyze the viability of a paternalistic human resources management model in companies of the formal sector, where a logic of profit maximization assumes a more demanding dimension. Paternalism is used as a metaphor to understand the relations between employers and employees as modelled on relations between parents and children. The concept demonstrates the transformation of exploitation and authoritarian relations, guided under the imperative of regulation an...

  10. Western leadership development and Chinese managers : Exploring the need for contextualization

    OpenAIRE

    Arnulf, Jan Ketil; Gau, Jinsong; Kristoffersen, Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores if, and how, Chinese managers perceive Western theories of leadership and leadership development as useful in their business environment. Based on a text analysis approach analyzing term papers of 171 MBA students, this study finds that virtuous leadership is valued the most, whereas authoritarian leadership is valued the least. The respondents are oriented both towards traditional Chinese philosophy and Western leadership theories, and predominantly view...

  11. Linking an Integrative Behavior Model to Elements of Environmental Campaigns: An Analysis of Face-to-Face Communication and Posters against Littering

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Hansmann; Nora Steimer

    2015-01-01

    Diverse elements of anti-littering campaigns may be effective at addressing different causes of littering. Therefore, a complementary approach combining various elements is needed to ensure the behavioral effectiveness of corresponding campaigns. The present study investigates personal, problem-centered face-to-face conversations compared to three different types of anti-littering posters (witty, authoritarian, environmentally oriented). In total, N = 147 persons participated in the questionn...

  12. Stanowisko Hiszpanii wobec NATO w świetle doniesień dziennika „El Pais” z lat 1975-1996

    OpenAIRE

    Domejko-Kozera, Patrycja

    2008-01-01

    When NATO was created in 1949 Spain could not join the organization because of the authoritarian nature of general Francisco Franco regime and its cooperation with fascist Germany and Italy during the II World War. However, the USA recognized the strategic importance of Spanish territory in the period of cold war confrontation and initiated bilateral relations with Madrid in the security policy sphere in 1953. The informal cooperation of Spanish military forces with NATO follow...

  13. Striving for a balance: Nature, power, science and India′s Indira Gandhi, 1917-1984

    OpenAIRE

    Rangarajan Mahesh

    2009-01-01

    Indira Gandhi′s life (1917-1984) spanned much of the twentieth century. She was Prime Minister of the world′s largest democracy for two spells that totaled fifteen years. To this day, her environmental legacy remains one that divides critics from admirers. One sees it as a defense against ecological impoverishment, especially in her initiation of wildlife preservation and environmental conservation. The other views these as thin legitimization for an authoritarian style of funct...

  14. The crisis and fiscal policies in the peripheral countries of the Eurozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the political causes of the current financial crisis of the eurozone peripheral countries (Spain, Greece, Portugal, and Ireland) and how the crisis affects their welfare states. It examines how their profoundly conservative governments (dictatorships in Spain, Portugal, and Greece and authoritarian regime in Ireland) during the post-World War II period and the dominance of their states by right-wing forces have made these countries very vulnerable to the speculations of the financial markets.

  15. Il rapporto tra il sindacalismo rivoluzionario e le origini del fascismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masulli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Italian revolutionary syndicalism influenced the formation of the fascist ideology. For a long time, it had been a link between fascism and revolutionary circles in italy, useful for both the rise of fascist power during the early stages, and the maintaining of a revolutionary face during its authoritarian phase. But at the same time, the revolutionary syndicalism lost much of its own identity, getting lost in paths which would have contradicted some of his ideal cornerstones.

  16. Do we really have a say? Facebook and the concept of power : A study on how companies perceive their influence on Facebook.

    OpenAIRE

    Vilja, Piia

    2015-01-01

    Social networking sites such as Facebook are a very integrated part of people’s lives and that means that Facebook has also become a huge advertising machine. Companies use Facebook for branding, advertising and as a customer service channel. We have seen protests on Facebook against authoritarian regimes and that is why this thesis is interested to study who holds power and has influence over others on Facebook. As Facebook has become a marketing machine this thesis focuses on company percep...

  17. How Does Law Matter to Social Movements? A Case Study of Gay Activism in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Lynette Janice

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at gaining a better understanding of how people fight for change collectively in societies that, unlike the United States, have less of democratic processes, and fundamental civil-political rights, and, of how law matters to their processes of doing so. It focuses on a particular minority group, gay people, in one particular society - Singapore, an Asian country with shades of authoritarianism - and explored how gay activists make sense of their grievances, strategize and ...

  18. Inequality, fiscal capacity and the political regime: lessons from the post-communist transition

    OpenAIRE

    Gerry, C. J.; Mickiewicz, T.

    2006-01-01

    Using panel data for twenty-seven post-communist economies between 1987-2003, we examine the nexus of relationships between inequality, fiscal capacity (defined as the ability to raise taxes efficiently) and the political regime. Investigating the impact of political reform we find that full political freedom is associated with lower levels of income inequality. Under more oligarchic (authoritarian) regimes, the level of inequality is conditioned by the state’s fiscal capacity....

  19. Parenting with Style: Altruism and Paternalism in Intergenerational Preference Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti

    2014-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children’s choices via two channels: either by influencing children’s preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  20. Levels of uncertainty, decision making and risk communication: the siting of nuclear waste in France and the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poumadere, M

    1999-11-01

    The social demand for increased risk control is considered here as it applies to nuclear waste management. Britain`s Sellafield Repository Project and France`s Mediation Mission to site underground research laboratories are compared. While both management approaches show evolution away from an authoritarian model of decision making and towards implementation of a more socially responsive model, distinct methods of dealing with scientific and social uncertainty appear as well. (author)

  1. Neighborhood Risk, Parental Socialization Styles, and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Gracia; Mª Castillo Fuentes; Fernando García

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful), and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use). The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from four multivariate factorial designs yielded only main effects of parenting styles and neighborhood risk. Adolescents from authoritative and indulgent...

  2. WHAT HAPPENED IN THE EARLY YEARS OF DEMOCRACY: INDONESIA'S EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Akhmad Rizal Shidiq; Philips Jusario Vermonte

    2013-01-01

    We discuss Indonesia's experience in the aftermath of deep economic and political crisis in 1998 that marked an abrupt transition from authoritarian to democratic regime and provided a critical junction for political reform. Among various and oftentimes interlinked issues of reform, we focus on the impact of introduction and adoption of modern democratic elections to political Islam, especially at national level. To illustrate political development at sub-national level following decentraliza...

  3. Varieties of Governance of Public Goods Delivery in Indonesia:The Case of Roads after Decentralization and Local Democratization

    OpenAIRE

    Ari Kuncoro; Vid Adrison; Ifa Isfandiarni

    2013-01-01

    For Indonesia the fall of Suharto in 1998 brought dramatic changes in the political landscape. It signified the beginning of transformation from an authoritarian regime towards a more democratic society where the distribution power is more devolved. In this respect Indonesia follow what is called a big-bang approach in the transition. First in the agenda of socio-economic reform is decentralization which changes the relationship between the center and local governments. Next in the country’...

  4. Local Autonomy and Inter-Sector Performance-Based-Governance in Lampung Province

    OpenAIRE

    Ari Darmastuti

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic shift in the management of local government in Indonesia, from the centralised, authoritarian New Order Era to the more democratic Reformation Era since 1996, met public demands for, among other things, more accountability. Decentralised local government requires a system that allows the Central Government to supervise and, at the same time, gives local governments the capacity to carry out their duties. This paper compares the institutional capacity of three regencies in ...

  5. Sources of anti-Americanism in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Young Pyo

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to identify the causes of increasing anti-Americanism in South Korea. To accomplish this, three areas will be researched. First, the transformation from an authoritarian regime to a democratic government in the 1990s has provided previously unheard of democratic freedom in South Korean society. Second, the perception of inequality in the Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) and the civilian crimes committed by U.S. military personnel, since the Korean War have fuel...

  6. Latin American Political Outsiders, Revisited: The Case of Marco Enríquez-Ominami in Chile, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Bunker; London School of Economics and Political Science; Patricio Navia; Universidad Diego Portales in Santiago

    2013-01-01

    This article applies the debate on the recent emergence of outsider candidates in Latin America to independent presidential candidate Marco Enríquez-Ominami (ME-O) in Chile in 2009. We test five competing hypotheses to explain his electoral success. First, his support is explained by the consolidation of democracy, reflected by the disposition of voters to disregard the authoritarian/democratic-aligned candidates. Second, his support is explained by the decline of ideological identification, ...

  7. Gender Differences in the Relations among Patriarchal Beliefs, Parenting and Teen Relationship Violence in Mexican Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Hokoda, Audrey; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Castaneda, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Teen relationship violence is a global phenomenon associated with adverse outcomes. As in other countries, teen relationship violence is of concern in Mexico. However, few studies have examined the risk and protective factors of teen relationship violence among Mexican adolescents. The current study examined whether patriarchal beliefs and exposure to authoritarian parenting among Mexican adolescents are associated with perpetration and victimization of physical and verbal-emotional teen rela...

  8. Spanish Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas C. Bruneau

    2000-01-01

    Spain has frequently and correctly been offered as a model of how to negotiate a democratic transition and consolidate a democracy. The transition from authoritarianism to democracy was initiated in the late 1970s and completed with the election of the Spanish Socialist Party (PSOE) in 1982. It was the forerunner in the contemporary “third wave” of democracy. A, if not the, crucial factor in the overall process of the Spanish transition was the resolution of civil–military rela...

  9. The differential impact of women's pariticipation in the Arab Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhlow, Sasha J.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Arab Spring protests in 2011 uprooted regimes, challenged authoritarian leaders, and provided protesters new tools for mobilization. The use of social media and the involvement of women in public protests indicated changing protest repertoires and movement demographics in many countries. When women protested in 2011, they mobilized both physically and virtually. Assessing the influence women exert in social movements through social...

  10. Perceived parenting and risk for major depression in Chinese women

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, J.; Li, Y.; Cai, Y.; Chen, J.; Shen, Y.; Ni, S; Wei, Y; Qiu, Y; Zhu, X; Liu, Y; Lu, C.; Chen, C; Niu, Q.; Tang, C.; Y. Yang

    2011-01-01

    Background In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China? Method Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview. ...

  11. The relationship between mother’s parenting style and social adaptability of adolescent girls in Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Solokian, Soheila; Ashouri, Elaheh; Marofi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social adaptability is an important requirement of the social life of adolescents, which can be affected by their mother’s parenting style (PS). The purpose of this study is to compare the social adaptability in four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful) through which mothers interact with their adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This survey is a cross-sectional and analytical study on 737 adolescents that study in the all girls junior hi...

  12. Parental control mechanisms and their reflection on identity styles of Turkish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hacer Nermin Çelen; Muharrem Ersin Kuşdil

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that authoritarian parents limit their children's freedom of expression and monitor their children's behavior according to their rules. Children of authoritative families tend to have high self-esteem and refer to internalized norms. Parenting is a cultural product. In this study the model presented is limited in the sense that it does not consider the cultural diversity. We must evaluate the identity not only with perceived parenting style but also within the socio-cultura...

  13. Spectral Socialisms: Marxism-Leninism and the Future of Marxist Thought in Post-Socialist Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Valiavicharska, Zhivka Venelinova

    2011-01-01

    Asking what discursive conditions enabled the unchallenged reign of neoliberal capitalism in Eastern Europe after 1989, this dissertation argues that Stalinist philosophy leaves a silent yet powerful structuring legacy in post-socialist politics and intellectual discourse. Stalinist Marxism-Leninism has survived in the presumption that there is a necessary relationship between authoritarianism and politics on the left, and conversely, between democracy and free-market capitalism. Rejecting th...

  14. The influence of family environment on children's language development and the role of language in shaping human view of reality

    OpenAIRE

    Andrejc, Mojca

    2011-01-01

    The thesis highlights external influences on language development. It emphasizes the way family environment influences on children's language development. The higher position in socioeconomic structure reflects in better child's language competence. Educational orientation has a big influence on children's language development and authoritarian education in family environment does not encourage the language competence. The example of speaking in the child's family influences on child's langua...

  15. Making sense of the protests in Turkey (and Brazil): contesting neo-liberal urbanism in ‘Rebel Cities’

    OpenAIRE

    Gokay, B; Shain, F

    2015-01-01

    The article is organised in five parts: first, we offer a brief overview of the protests and the concept of the ‘right to the city’; second, we discuss arguments about the role of democracy and representation, and Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s authoritarian leadership style in relation to the cause of the protests; third, we put forward our case for comparing the protests with those which occurred in similarly rising economies, namely Brazil, rather than the demonstrations tha...

  16. The manager and the stress in subordinates view inside of criminal prosecution institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan ANANE

    2015-01-01

    In the case of institutions we can talk about a specific type of stress – institutional stress. Inside the groups it reveals a kind of consequences of dysfunctional conflicts determinated by professional stress: changes within the group, increasing group unity, the risk of an authoritarian leader, focus on group work and tasks, loyalty amplification. The manager and the subordinate live and work together; that is why, they need to know their mutual needs and interests. Knowing each other is a...

  17. Governing Young People: coherence and contradiction in contemporary youth justice

    OpenAIRE

    Muncie, John

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the burgeoning literature on modes and layers of governance and applies it to the complex of contemporary youth justice reform. Globalized neo-liberal processes of responsibilization and risk management coupled with traditional neo-conservative authoritarian strategies have dominated the political landscape. However, they also have to work alongside or within ‘new’ conceptions of social inclusion, partnership, restoration and moralization. These apparently contradictory ...

  18. The Gonzo lecture: counterculture in the classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Bladen, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that certain university teachers consciously struggle against authoritarian oppression in their jobs and that the emergence of a countercultural teaching communication, in the form of a ‘gonzo’ style, is one inevitable development. The author proposes ‘The Gonzo Lecture’ in the light of this style’s reported origins, etymology, development and diverse, present-day expressions. Suggestions are made for its potential research and operationalisation.

  19. Manufacturing Consent in Cyberspace: China’s “Fifty-Cent Army”

    OpenAIRE

    Rongbin Han; University of Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Studies on public expression in China tend to focus on how the state and internet users (netizens) struggle over the limits of online expression. Few have systematically traced discourse competition within state-imposed boundaries, particularly how the authoritarian state has adapted to manage, rather than censor, online expression. This paper explores and evaluates the state's attempts to manipulate online expression without resorting to censorship and coercion by examining the role of inter...

  20. Citizen protest in the online networks: the case of the China's bloody map

    OpenAIRE

    Severo, Marta; Giraud, Timothée; Douay, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    International audience In the last few years, cyber-activism has become a very hot topic. In countries with authoritarian regimes, the Internet has offered new spaces of expression (Benkler, 2006). The recent emergence of social media and the Web 2.0 has increased this phenomenon. Social media offer innovative terrains of expression, less standardized and controlled. Particularly where public venues are too dangerous to express one's opinions, the blogs, Facebook pages and Twitter accounts...