Full Text Available ENGLISH: In light of the reforms undertaken for the sake of the Euro, the article revisits the concept authoritarian liberalism that was introduced in 1933 by the German public law scholar Hermann Heller. This notion seeks to capture the liaison between the “strong state” and economic liberalism. The article suggests that this notion can be fruitfully used to designate the new governance of economic and monetary union. It argues, particularly, that it makes sense to speak of an authoritarian style of governance even if the latter does not wear vestiges of outright repression. Two different faces of authoritarian liberalism can be distinguished: one that looks more towards authoritarianism and another one that views authoritarian rule as a managerial strategy that is good for the economy. The article then speculates whether the European Union has been, indeed, successful because it shifts between the two. Disturbingly, there may be something deeply as well as more accidentally authoritarian about European integration. DEUTSCH: Angesichts der Reformen in der Eurozone greift dieser Beitrag den Begriff des „Autoritären Liberalismus“ wieder auf. Er wurde von Hermann Heller im Jahre 1933 verwendet, um die internen Zusammenhang zwischen dem ökonomischen Liberalismus und einem „starken Staat“ zu beschreiben. Dieser Begriff ist zur Erlangung eines angemessenen Verständnisses des neuen Regierens in der Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion heuristisch fruchtbar. Es ist sinnvoll von autoritärem Regieren auch dann zu sprechen, wenn diese nicht die äußeren Anzeichen staatlicher Repression trägt. Zwei Seiten des autoritären Liberalismus lassen sich unterscheiden. Während die eine Seite viel von Autorität an sich hält, sieht die andere Seite das autoritäre Regieren als etwas an, das gut für die Wirtschaft ist. Der Beitrag spekuliert abschließend darüber, ob die europäische Integration deswegen erfolgreich gewesen sein mag, weil sie
The author considered the small part of the population whose members score highly on both the Social Dominance Orientation scale and the Right-Wing Authoritarianism scale. Studies of these High SDO-High RWAs, culled from samples of nearly 4000 Canadian university students and over 2600 of their parents and reported in the present article, reveal that these dominating authoritarians are among the most prejudiced persons in society. Furthermore, they seem to combine the worst elements of each kind of personality, being power-hungry, unsupportive of equality, manipulative, and amoral, as social dominators are in general, while also being religiously ethnocentric and dogmatic, as right-wing authoritarians tend to be. The author suggested that, although they are small in number, such persons can have considerable impact on society because they are well-positioned to become the leaders of prejudiced right-wing political movements. PMID:15279331
This research investigated the relationship between the personality construct of right-wing authoritarianism and Baumrind's 1971 proposed parenting styles of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting. 68 youth ages 12-18 along with one of their parents participated. The children rated both parents on Buri's 1991 Parental Authority Questionnaire. One of the parents responded to Altemeyer's Right-Wing Authoritarian Scale. People with higher scores on Altemeyer's scale were more likely to prefer the authoritarian parenting style as their offspring reported (r = .33). Permissive parenting correlated negatively with the measure of authoritarianism as a personality variable (r = -.56). PMID:16673976
Hofman, Peter S.; Moon, Jeremy; Wu, Bin
This article introduces the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the seemingly oxymoronic context of Chinese “authoritarian capitalism.” Following an introduction to the emergence of authoritarian capitalism, the article considers the emergence of CSR in China using Matten and Moon’s...
Henderson Hurley, Martha; Hurley, David
This article focuses on assignments designed to enhance critical thinking skills for authoritarian personality types. This paper seeks to add to the literature by exploring instructional methods to overcome authoritarian traits that could inhibit the development of critical thinking skills. The article presents a strategy which can be employed…
Greitens, Sheena E
Why do we observe such widely differing patterns of repression and state violence under authoritarian rule? Despite a wave of recent interest in authoritarian politics, the origins, design and behavior of the coercive institutions that embody the state's monopoly on violence remain relatively unexamined. This project draws on new statistical and geographic data, elite interviews, and archival evidence from the U.S. and Asia to chronicle the origins and operation of the internal security appa...
Full Text Available The Authoritarian Personality is one of the most influential studies in social psychology, yet it has been subjected to different, often contradictory interpretations. This paper argues that the most important element of the authoritarian personality theory is the analysis of the psychological functionality of prejudice. Using psychoanalytic conceptual tools, the authors described the psychological logic behind apparently contradictory prejudices, and the function of prejudice in personal psychological 'economy'. In this way, Adorno et al. 'psychoanalyzed' both prejudice and the prejudiced. The first part of the paper presents the original research, with the particular focus on the less familiar aspects. The second part reviews the reactions to the Authoritarian Personality, and analyzes some of the better known criticisms and objections. The paper ends with the review of recent research trends inspired by Adorno et al.’s theory.
In a dyad interaction, respecting and obeying those with high status (authority) is highly valued in Chinese societies. Regarding explicit behaviors, Chinese people usually show respect to and obey authority, which we call authoritarian orientation. Previous literature has indicated that Chinese people have a high degree of authoritarian personality, which was considered a national character. However, under Confucian relationalism (Hwang, 2012a), authoritarian orientation is basically an ethical issue, and thus, should not be reduced to the contention of authoritarian personality. Based on Yang's (1993) indigenous conceptualization, Chien (2013) took an emic bottom-up approach to construct an indigenous model of Chinese authoritarian orientation; it represents a "culture-inclusive theory." However, Chien's model lacks the role of agency or intentionality. To resolve this issue and to achieve the epistemological goal of indigenous psychology (that is, "one mind, many mentalities"), this paper took the "cultural system approach" (Hwang, 2015b) to construct a culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation in order to represent the universal mind of human beings as well as the mentalities of people in a particular culture. Two theories that reflect the universal mind, the "Face and Favor model" (Hwang, 1987) and the "Mandala Model of Self" (Hwang, 2011a,c), were used as analytical frameworks for interpreting Chien's original model. The process of constructing the culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation may represent a paradigm for the construction of indigenous culture-inclusive theories while inspiring further development. Some future research directions are proposed herein. PMID:27445894
has embarked upon a technocratic ‘developmental state’ trajectory ostensibly aimed at ‘depoliticizing’ national policy and delegitimizing alternative courses. The contributors analyze the dynamics of authoritarian state-building, political ethnicity, electoral politics and state-society relations...
Meadow, Mary Jo
One hundred unmarried female students, 18 to 21 years old, took the California F Scale and the Hewer-Neubeck Marriage and Employment Questionnaire. Authoritarianism was found significantly related to acceptance or rejection of many specific reasons offered for a woman's working or not working after marriage for subjects themselves, their perceived…
In a dyad interaction, respecting and obeying those with high status (authority) is highly valued in Chinese societies. Regarding explicit behaviors, Chinese people usually show respect to and obey authority, which we call authoritarian orientation. Previous literature has indicated that Chinese people have a high degree of authoritarian personality, which was considered a national character. However, under Confucian relationalism (Hwang, 2012a), authoritarian orientation is basically an ethical issue, and thus, should not be reduced to the contention of authoritarian personality. Based on Yang's (1993) indigenous conceptualization, Chien (2013) took an emic bottom-up approach to construct an indigenous model of Chinese authoritarian orientation; it represents a “culture-inclusive theory.” However, Chien's model lacks the role of agency or intentionality. To resolve this issue and to achieve the epistemological goal of indigenous psychology (that is, “one mind, many mentalities”), this paper took the “cultural system approach” (Hwang, 2015b) to construct a culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation in order to represent the universal mind of human beings as well as the mentalities of people in a particular culture. Two theories that reflect the universal mind, the “Face and Favor model” (Hwang, 1987) and the “Mandala Model of Self” (Hwang, 2011a,c), were used as analytical frameworks for interpreting Chien's original model. The process of constructing the culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation may represent a paradigm for the construction of indigenous culture-inclusive theories while inspiring further development. Some future research directions are proposed herein. PMID:27445894
Larsen, K S; Elder, R; Bader, M; Dougard, C
This study investigated the relationship of authoritarianism and attitudes toward AIDS victims in three samples. One hundred fifty-eight students at Oregon State University participated, including 101 students from the United States, 25 from Japan, and 32 from other Asian societies. The survey instrument included the 20-item Attitudes Toward AIDS Victims (ATAV) Scale, the 18-item F Scale, the Form A, and 14-item Formal Content of Dogmatism Scale. Results showed slight but significant correlations between the ATAV and F (r = .17, p less than .044) and Formal Content of Dogmatism (r = .20, p less than .023) Scales for the United States sample. Highly significant differences were found in the predicted direction among the three samples on authoritarianism, F = 43.94, p less than .001. PMID:2325403
Ching Kwan Lee
Full Text Available Two recent publications, one by Waikeung Tam (Lingnan University and the other by Rachel Stern (UC Berkeley School of Law, offer refreshing views on law and social change under Chinese authoritarianism, a topic that has been marginalized by both the law and society and China studies literatures. After all, rule of law and state authoritarianism seem like oxymorons, especially in the People’s Republic of China, where the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution, the country’s highest law. Yet in recent years, a number of studies have spotlighted how ordinary Chinese citizens take the Chinese legal system more seriously than scholars, and these citizens’ collective mobilization of the law has compelled us to rethink the relationship among law, society, and politics. The two newly published monographs discussed here, both of which grew out of doctoral dissertations written around the same time and addressing the same phenomenon—the rise of public interest litigation—reinforce the need for such a perspectival shift. Together they show that the law has become a contested terrain with varying potential for enabling rights activism under different types of state authoritarianism in a single country: in Tam’s case, postcolonial Hong Kong, and in Stern’s case, postsocialist China...
This dissertation studies causes of civil war from a game theoretic perspective. It aims to understand not only how authoritarian leaders can strategically mitigate prospects for civil war, but also why authoritarian rulers may pursue activities that increase conflict propensity—despite the large adverse welfare consequences of civil wars. Each essay focuses primarily on one particular authoritarian survival strategy: building military capacity, extracting resources from society, and excludin...
Full Text Available Abstract The main questions to answer in this article are that “What are the possible explanations of the formation of the authoritarian personality? How is an authoritarian personality born and where are its roots?” We used from F. scale. The original F. scale was to contain 38 items and 9 key dimensions of authoritarian personality: Conventionalism, Authoritarian Submission, Authoritarian Aggression, Anti- interception, Superstition and Stereotype, Power and ‘toughness’, Destructiveness and Cynicism, Projective, heightened concerns about sex. This scale defined by Adorno at al. in 1950. The purpose of this research is to find out the level of tendency toward authoritarianism and to study the impact of variables like age, group membership, socialization of power (family structure, education system and mass media, level of education, income and occupation on authoritarianism. In this survey study a sample of 368 citizens of Isfahan (18years old and over have been interviewed. The results indicate that a significant and reserve relationship has been found between age, group membership, education system and mass media and tendency toward authoritarianism. A significant and direct relationship exists between family structure, level of education, income and occupation and tendency toward authoritarianism.
McCann, S. J. H.; Fisher, R. J.
The interactions of teacher directiveness and student authoritarianism, teacher directiveness and student dogmatism, teacher authoritarianism and student authoritarianism, and teacher dogmatism and student dogmatism were examined in terms of variance in grades and satisfaction. (JC)
Levy, Daniel C.
The relationship between the authoritarian state and higher education in Mexico is examined in this case study. Focus is on the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) since it receives 40 percent of the federal budget for higher education, which makes it a prime example of autonomy within an authoritarian political system. Using three…
Nasrollah Pour Afkari; Behzad Hakiminya; Arash Heydari; Shahrooz Foroutankia
Introduction Scientific review of the authoritarian personality began in 1950 with the pioneering work of Adorno and his colleagues. Following their attempt, extensive studies were carried out in social psychology, political science, and sociology in this field. Despite the extensive amount of research on authoritarianism in Western societies, few have been conducted in developing countries. The dimensions of this phenomenon in Third World countries can be extensive. The importance of the ...
Wilkinson, Michael A.
The historical conjuncture reached in the European Union recalls the spectre of authoritarian liberalism, with politically authoritarian forms of government emerging in defence of practices and ideas associated with economic liberalism. Offering a long view of this formation, the paper traces its relation to the project of European integration from the interwar breakdown of liberal democracy to the ongoing Euro-crisis, by way of its postwar and post-Maastricht reconstitution. Postwar Europe w...
The article approaches the Romanian social-democratic collaboration during 1938-1940 with the authoritarian monarch regime. Even though the party leaders had diverging political views, regards to the acceptance or the non-acceptance of the authoritarian regime, the influential PSDR members held leading positions within the single party and the corporate parliament and within the union structures. The positions were offered by the regime, so that the union leaders would stop instigating worker...
Cheliotis, Leonidas K.
This article offers a sympathetic appraisal of Erich Fromm’s concept of narcissism as it relates to the emergence, sustenance, and resolution of authoritarian violence. The discussion is first placed within the methodological debate over the analytic operations that are required for an adequate understanding of authoritarian violence, explaining why a psychoanalytic perspective is necessary.The focus then shifts to Fromm’s take on the Freudian concept of narcissism,before proceeding to explor...
Rippl, Susanne; Boehnke, Klaus
Examined whether the former East Germany has produced authoritarian personalities and whether there is age and gender variation on authoritarianism regardless of culture. Subjects were 552 West German, 320 East German, and 619 American adolescents. Found that all three cultures have similar proclivities to exhibit an authoritarian character…
Nasrollah Pour Afkari
Scodel, A. & Freedman, M. L. , (1956 ”Additional Observation on the Social Perceptions of Authoritarians and Nonauthoritarians ”. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, Vol. 52(1, PP. 92-95. Scodel, A. & Mussen, P. (1953 “Social perceptions of authoritarians and nonauthoritarians. ” Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, vol. 48(2, PP. 181-184. Shek,D. T. L (2006. Assessment of perceived parental psychological control in chinese adolescents in hongkong. ” Research on social work practice, V. 16, N. 383. Simons, H. W. (1966”Authoritarianism and social Perceptiveness. Journal of Social Psychology. ” vol. 68, PP (2. 291-297. Sonnak, Carina; Towell, Tony (2000. "the impostor phenomenon in british university students: relationship between self esteem, mental health, parental rearing style and socioeconomic status. Personality and individual difference, 31, 863-874. Srole, L. (1956. Social integration and certain corollaries: an exploratory study. American Sociological Review, 21(6, 709- 716. Teevan Jr, J. J. (1975. On measuring anomia: Suggested modification of the Srole scale. The Pacific Sociological Review, 18(2, 159-170. Wright, James D. (1972” The Working Class, Authoritarianism, and the War in Vietnam. ” Social Problems, Vol. 20, No. 2 , pp. 133-150. Xiao, Hong. 2000. "Class, Gender, and Parental Values in the 1990s". Gender & Society 14(6:785-803
Full Text Available The article approaches the Romanian social-democratic collaboration during 1938-1940 with the authoritarian monarch regime. Even though the party leaders had diverging political views, regards to the acceptance or the non-acceptance of the authoritarian regime, the influential PSDR members held leading positions within the single party and the corporate parliament and within the union structures. The positions were offered by the regime, so that the union leaders would stop instigating workers to go on strike, and to accept the governmental policies. The freedom of speech and the political actions were ceded to the monarch, who governed at the place of the political parties and he controlled the unions, by using the guilds.
King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L
Depression is a prevalent illness affecting youth across the nation. The study purpose was to examine depression and authoritarian parenting among youth from 12 to 17 years of age. A secondary data analysis of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health was performed in the present study. All participants in the present study were youth (N = 17,399) nationwide. The results revealed that 80.6% of youth participants reported having five or more depressive symptoms. Parenting styles based on depression significantly differed among males, females, 12-13-year-olds, 14-15-year-olds, and 16-17-year-olds. Specifically, those who reported experiencing authoritarian parenting practices were more likely to report depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts who experienced authoritative parenting practices. Emphasizing the role of the parents and teaching positive parenting practices and authoritative parenting styles may increase success of prevention programs. PMID:26939843
The relationship between oil wealth and the probability of democratization has been widely investigated through the last decades. The negative effect that oil seems to have on the probability of democratization is named the oil curse. Even though the subject has been investigated by many researchers for several years, the effect of oil on the probability of democratization in different authoritarian regime types has not yet been studied statistically. This thesis investigates how oil rents af...
Farah, Abdulkadir Osman
disempowered youth, intense media-tech application and sustained international pressure as crucial to ousting authoritarian regimes in North Africa. Delineating the role of TNGOs complements such findings. TNGO activities and responses to the Egyptian uprising in 2011 and to the ensuing coup in 2013 reveal the......Scholars differentiate the concepts of internationalism and transnationalism. While the first refers to the connectivity between macro institutions such as states, multinational corporations and other institutionalized actors within and beyond national boundaries, the second term emphasizes public...
Asbrock, Frank; Fritsche, Immo
Endorsement of authoritarian attitudes has been observed to increase under conditions of terrorist threat. However, it is not clear whether this effect is a genuine response to perceptions of personal or collective threat. We investigated this question in two experiments using German samples. In the first experiment (N = 144), both general and specific authoritarian tendencies increased after asking people to imagine that they were personally affected by terrorism. No such effect occurred when they were made to think about Germany as a whole being affected by terrorism. This finding was replicated and extended in a second experiment (N = 99), in which personal and collective threat were manipulated orthogonally. Authoritarian and ethnocentric (ingroup bias) reactions occurred only for people highly identified with their national ingroup under personal threat, indicating that authoritarian responses may operate as a group-level coping strategy for a threat to the personal self. Again, we found no effects for collective threat. In both studies, authoritarianism mediated the effects of personal threat on more specific authoritarian and ethnocentric reactions. These results suggest that the effects of terrorist threat on authoritarianism can, at least in part, be attributed to a sense of personal insecurity, raised under conditions of terrorist threat. We discuss the present findings with regard to basic sociomotivational processes (e.g., group-based control restoration, terror management) and how these may relate to recent models of authoritarianism. PMID:23390971
Riddel, Frank S.
An assessment of civic education during the authoritarian regime of Francisco Franco in Spain (1939-1975) is presented along with a comparison of the regime's efforts with those of the United States. Franco's dictatorship was characterized by authoritarian values of subordination, obedience, perpetuation of power, and maintenance of the status…
Schuler, Randall S.
Tested the hypothesis that participation would be satisfying to low-authoritarian subordinates regardless of the degree of task repetitiveness but would be satisfying to high-authoritarian subordinates only on tasks with low repetitiveness and that highly repetitive tasks would be less conducive to ego involvement than low-repetitive tasks.…
This paper will analyse the way in which recent Conservative policy, like New Labour policy before it, is being pulled in two directions at once – towards both authoritarianism and libertarianism. Analysing policy on crime and civil liberties, it will be argued that authoritarianism is once again likely to win out over libertarianism.
Dwairy, Marwan Adeeb
While in western countries, such as the US and Europe, authoritarian parenting is associated with negative psycho-social outcomes. Studies have indicated that this is not the case in collective/authoritarian cultures. It has been hypothesized that inconsistency in parenting style and culture contributes to these negative outcomes. In this study a…
Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner; Hetherington, E Mavis; Reiss, David
The purpose of the study was to determine whether well-established associations between authoritarian parenting and adolescent adjustment pertain to conservative Protestant (CP) families. Structural equation modeling was used to test paths from biological fathers' authoritarian parenting to adolescent adjustment in 65 CP versus 170 comparison families in the Nonshared Environment and Adolescent Development Study (NEAD; D. Reiss et al., 1994). The hypothesis that adolescents in CP families would be less harmed by authoritarian parenting than would adolescents in control families was partially supported: Authoritarian parenting directly predicted greater externalizing and internalizing for adolescents in control families but not for adolescents in CP families. In contrast, parents' religious affiliation failed to moderate the negative associations between authoritarian parenting and positive adjustment. Understanding family processes specific to the CP subculture is important for helping these families raise competent children. PMID:17176193
Investigated the attitudes of child care institution staff members on dimensions of authoritarianism, dogmatism, and coercion, and related attitudes to type of institution in which subject was employed and position held in the institution. (DP)
Caregiver feeding styles (CFS) represent approaches to maintaining or modifying children's eating behaviors. Authoritarian feeding involves attempts to control children's eating with little regard for their choices and preferences. In contrast, authoritative feeding involves a balance whereby parent...
Egyptian and Tunisian unions have played radically different roles in their countries’ transition from authoritarian rule since the ouster of longstanding Presidents Hosni Mubarak and Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali in early 2011. The legacy of different variations of authoritarian rule as well as the history of the respective labor movements has had significant consequences for their ability to shape post-transition politics. Whereas the Egyptian labor movement is fragmented, and control over labor ...
Edward L. Gibson
The article is an introduction to the topic featured in JPLA 2/2010 "Subnational Authoritarianism and Democratization in Latin America." It discusses the papers by Carlos Gervasoni, Agustina Giraudy, Julián Durazo Herrmann, Alfred P. Montero, and Tracy Beck Fenwick that follow in this issue. Why feature the topic "subnational authoritarianism and democratization" in the Journal of Politics in Latin America? Because despite widespread agreement that subnational jurisdictions in Latin America ...
While numerous countries in post-authoritarian South America have annulled Amnesty Laws issued under authoritarian rule and punished officials involved in repressive organs, Brazil continues to favour impunity. This attitude has recently been confirmed by the Brazilian Supreme Court’s decision to maintain the 1979 Amnesty Law granting de-facto impunity to violators of human rights during the military regime. The article considers this verdict within its historical context, and raises two ques...
Support for authoritarian approaches to parenting, including corporal punishment, is known to be elevated among individuals with low current levels of socioeconomic attainment. The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine whether authoritarian parenting dispositions are related to disadvantages in one's social background, in addition to one's present socioeconomic standing; and (2) to distinguish, in this regard, between support for spanking and other authoritarian parenting dispositions. Ordered logit models, applied to General Social Survey data concerning a nationally representative sample of US adults, are used to examine relationships of authoritarian parenting dispositions to the socioeconomic positions that respondents currently occupy and in which they were raised. It is found that support for spanking (N=10,725) and valuing of obedience (N=10,043) are inversely related to the socioeconomic status (SES) of one's family of origin, and that these associations are robust to controls for one's current SES. A disadvantaged family background is found to increase support for spanking most among those with high current SES. Strong associations (robust to controls for SES indicators) are additionally found between African-American racial identity and support for authoritarian parenting. Prior research indicates that authoritarian parenting practices such as spanking may be harmful to children. Thus, if the parenting attitudes analyzed here translate into parenting practices, then this study's findings may point to a mechanism for the intergenerational transmission of disadvantages. PMID:26585215
Full Text Available The immediacy of daily encounters with gender roles, as well as the specific features of authoritarian mediation in their social shaping, make an analysis of gendered social interaction indispensable. In this paper the analysis is centered on the concept of social character, with special emphasis on authoritarianism as a continuous determinant of the transformation of natural sex into social construct of gender. It is precisely the authoritarian personality type that is the basis for alienated gender, dominated by sexism, a “natural” belonging to the private or the public sphere of social life, suppression of individual human capacities, and reduction of choice. After a review of the theoretical conceptions of social character and authoritarianism, a historical-comparative analysis of authoritarianism is offered, where the latter is seen as an element of the social character within the perspective of the typology traditional - modern - postmodern society. It is argued in conclusion that, in spite of certain emancipatory achievements, men and women still tend to escape into the security of authoritarian alienation. Feminist theory remains a basic source for reflecting on these processes; therefore the author pleads for a wider acceptance of feminist insights as contributions to establishing a postmodern, interpretive “sociology in a new key”.
Georgiou, Stelios N; Fousiani, Kyriaki; Michaelides, Michalis; Stavrinides, Panayiotis
The purpose of the present study was to examine the existing association between cultural value orientation, authoritarian parenting, and bullying and victimization at school. The participants (N = 231) were early adolescents, randomly selected from 11 different schools in urban and rural areas of Cyprus. Participants completed self reports measuring cultural value orientation, authoritarian parenting, bullying, and victimization. These instruments were the following: the cultural value scale (CVS), the parental authority questionnaire (PAQ), and the revised bullying and victimization questionnaire (BVQ-R). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine mediation effects. It was found that vertical individualism acted as a mediator between authoritarian parenting and bullying. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between authoritarian parenting and the vertical dimensions of both cultural value orientations (individualism and collectivism), but not with the horizontal dimensions of either cultural orientation. Further, authoritarian parenting was also positively associated with bullying and victimization at school. The main contribution of the present study is the finding that vertical individualism significantly mediates the relationship between authoritarian parental style and bullying propensity. PMID:23390974
Full Text Available A humorous, an environmentally oriented and an authoritarian poster against littering were tested in a field experiment on their behavioural effectiveness. Corresponding slogans were placed on anti-littering posters designed for this study and used experimentally at four railway stations. The experimental design entailed 4 communication conditions including a control condition where no poster was presented. In each experimental run (N = 96, flyers were distributed for 30 minutes. The number of distributed flyers was counted, and the proportion of littered flyers was determined for each experimental run. It was found that the humorous and environmentally oriented posters achieved a reduction of 58% and 64%, respectively, in littering as compared with the control condition. The authoritarian poster was significantly less effective, but achieved a significant reduction of 25%. Considered together with some previous findings and theories, the results indicate that environmentally oriented and humorous anti-littering posters are more effective than authoritarian ones
Ignacio Álvarez-Ossorio Alvariño
Full Text Available Instead of hastening political change, the Syrian uprising has led to greater authoritarianism. At first, president Bashar al-Assad adopted various cosmetic reforms (a party law and constitutional referendum, which were designed more as a survival strategy than a genuine process of political liberalisation. In its first four years, the Syrian crisis has gone from being an anti-authoritarian popular uprising to a proxy war with the active presence of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Qatar and Turkey. Control of the state apparatus on the part of the Alawite minority has been instrumentalised by the Salafist and jihadist groups to intensify sectarianism and claim the establishment of an Islamic State.
Rudy, Duane; Grusec, Joan E.
Administered measures of authoritarianism, collectivism, warmth, anger, attributions for children's misbehavior, and parental feelings of control over failure to Egyptian- and Anglo-Canadians. Egyptians were higher on authoritarianism, collectivism, and anger. Men were higher on perceived control over failure. The best predictors of authoritarian…
Janssens, Jan M. A. M.
Examined relationships among childrearing, parental locus of control about childrearing, and child's behavior style. Found that parents who perceived their child's behavior as either externalizing or internalizing had a weak internal locus of control and were more authoritarian. Perceived externalizing child behavior was positively related to…
Chao, Ruth K.
This study investigated whether certain broad cultural notions, such as "chiao shun" (training children in appropriate behavior or morals) and "guan" (a positive notion expressing parental concern, caring, or involvement) better distinguish the Chinese parent from the European-American than do the concepts of "authoritarian" and "restrictive."…
Falk, Richard A.
This paper discusses five main patterns of authoritarian government rule that are currently prominent in international society. The first pattern is "Brazilianization" which has evolved as a model for rightist, capitalist elites in the more industrialized countries of the Third World (e.g. Iran, Indonesia, and Argentina). A common feature of these…
Lamborn, Susie D.; And Others
To test Maccoby and Martin's (1983) revision of Baumrind's conceptual framework, the families of approximately 4,100 14- to 18-year-olds were classified into one of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) on the basis of the adolescents' ratings of their parents on 2 dimensions: acceptance/involvement and firm control.…
The concept of complexity in decision-making can be found in several lines of conceptualization in the area of national and international decision-making. One derives from the classic works on authoritarianism and dogmatism (Adorno, et al., 1950; Rokeach, 1960). Another approach relies on the variables that pertain to group dynamics and to…
Veurink, Reginald Lee
Extensive interest in the authoritarian personality syndrome was piqued by the experience of World War II Nazi domination, and a proliferation of scientific inquiry ensued thereafter. Following an introduction providing a psychoanalytic perspective, this paper attempts to integrate the findings of original thinkers in this area with relevant…
Christopher, Andrew N.; Wojda, Mark R.
This study examined how social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) were related to two different forms of prejudice against working women: employment skepticism and traditional role preference. Three hundred forty-nine American adults completed measures of SDO, RWA, employment skepticism, traditional role preference,…
Chao, Ruth K.
Examined the child-rearing practices of immigrant Chinese and European American mothers of preschool children through questionnaires that measured parental control, authoritative-authoritarian parenting style, and the Chinese concept of child training. Chinese mothers scored significantly higher than European American mothers on the training…
Lamborn, Susie D.; And Others
Of 4,100 adolescents, those who characterized their parents as authoritative scored highest on psychosocial competence and lowest on behavioral dysfunction. The reverse was true for neglected adolescents. Adolescents from authoritarian homes scored high on obedience but low on self-perception. Adolescents from indulgent homes evidenced…
Sultan, Sarwat; Hussain, Irshad
This prospective study using self-determination theory was conducted to predict the students' motivation and academic performance based on their perceived teachers' humanistic vs. authoritarian orientations in the classrooms. The sample consisted of 300 students aged 14-18 years taken from different schools of Multan. The Pupil Control Behavior…
Full Text Available The collapse of the authoritarian regime in 1998 has made Indonesia as one of the most democratic country in Southeast Asia. To ensure the quality of democracy, in particular electoral democracy, supervision and monitoring of elections has a veryimportant role. Although the Badan Pengawas Pemilu (Bawaslu or Election Supervisory Body of Indonesiahas experienced institutional strengthening, this institution has not yet become effective in supervisingand monitoring the elections. Therefore, electionmonitoring conducted by non-state agencies, particularly the citizens become important to complement the performance of Bawaslu. This article aimsto explore how the election monitoring conducted by citizens in the aftermath of post authoritarian era,affect the quality of Indonesian democracy. This article argues that although the citizen participation in monitoring the elections is likely to decline, but thecrowd sourced method that appeared in the 2014election has succeeded in improving the quality of the electoral process as well as defending the democratic regime in Indonesia.
Pettigrew, Thomas F
Throughout my career, I have pursued three theories related to intergroup prejudice--each with a different mentor. Each theory and its supporting research help us to understand prejudice and ways to ameliorate the problem. This autobiographical review article summarizes some of the advances in these three areas during the past six decades. For authoritarianism, the article advocates removing political content from its measurement, linking it with threat and dismissive-avoidant attachment, and studying how authoritarians avoid intergroup contact. Increased work on relative deprivation made possible an extensive meta-analysis that shows the theory, when appropriately measured, has far broader effects than previously thought. Increased research attention to intergroup contact similarly made possible a meta-analysis that established the pervasive effectiveness of intergroup contact to reduce prejudice under a wide range of conditions. The article closes by demonstrating how the three theories relate to each other and contribute to our understanding of prejudice and its reduction. PMID:26361053
Su, Zheng; Meng, Tianguang
The widespread use of information and communication technology (ICT) has reshaped the public sphere in the digital era, making online forums a new channel for political participation. Using big data analytics of full records of citizen-government interactions from 2008 to early 2014 on a nationwide political forum, we find that authoritarian China is considerably responsive to citizens' demands with a rapid growth of response rate; however, government responsiveness is highly selective, conditioning on actors' social identities and the policy domains of their online demands. Results from logistic and duration models suggest that requests which made by local citizens, expressed collectively, focused on the single task issue, and are closely related to economic growth are more likely to be responded to. These strategies adopted by Chinese provincial leaders reveal the scope and selectivity of authoritarian responsiveness. PMID:27480371
Jocson, Rosanne M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Lansford, Jennifer E.
The relations of education, authoritarian childrearing attitudes, and endorsement of corporal punishment to Filipino parents' reported use of corporal punishment were examined using two waves of data. Structured interviews using self-report questionnaires were conducted with 117 mothers and 98 fathers from 120 families when their children were 8 years old, and when their children were 9 years old. Path analyses showed that, among mothers, higher education predicted lower authoritarian attitud...
Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Cheung, Hoi Yan; Wu, Joseph
Career unreadiness, covering career indecision and career myth, is an issue for universities to address. Supposedly, career unreadiness is responsible for the university student's anxiety and partly results from authoritarian parenting during the student's childhood. This is an uncharted concern for this study to clarify. The study surveyed 229 undergraduates in two universities in Hong Kong, China. It employed structural equation modelling to clarify nexuses among career unreadiness, authori...
This thesis investigates the role of political funding in two electoral authoritarian regimes in Sub-Saharan Africa. The issue of political funding has been investigated thoroughly in developed democracies in the West, but only relatively recently have scholars tried to investigate the importance of political funding in Sub-Saharan Africa and in non-democratic regimes who still hold elections. The aim of this thesis is thus to investigate what types of political funding exists in electoral au...
Weiler, Jonathan; MacWilliams, Matthew
In the nine months since New York billionaire Donald Trump launched his presidential campaign, many pundits and commentators have attributed his snowballing success to his popularity with white working class voters who also lacked a college education. Using new survey data, Jonathan Weiler and Matthew MacWilliams find that this characterization of Trump voter isn’t accurate; rather than class or education, authoritarianism is the biggest driver of support for Trump.
MacWilliams, Matthew C.
With the first primaries of the 2016 presidential election cycle looming, many in the Republican Party are becoming increasingly concerned that billionaire Donald Trump will actually be able to gain the party’s nomination, leading the party to an electoral disaster in November. Using a new national survey of American voters, Matthew C. MacWilliams finds that these fears are well-founded. Trump’s strongman rhetoric has activated and energized American authoritarians to his candidac...
Copyright © 2016 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Throughout my career, I have pursued three theories related to intergroup prejudice-each with a different mentor. Each theory and its supporting research help us to understand prejudice and ways to ameliorate the problem. This autobiographical review article summarizes some of the advances in these three areas during the past six decades. For authoritarianism, the article advocates removing political content from its measurement, linkin...
Full Text Available A casi una década de la apertura del régimen político posterior al gobierno de Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000, se hace evidente la fortaleza de los legados autoritarios que no han sido desmontados en su totalidad por los últimos dos gobiernos elegidos democráticamente. Los problemas de gobernabilidad que enfrenta el Perú, que se expresan a través de conflictos sociales (El Baguazo y casos de corrupción estatal de alto nivel (Petroaudios, se originan precisamente en la herencia autoritaria del régimen anterior. Sin embargo, el actual gobierno ha logrado entrar en una lógica de convivencia con dichos legados autoritarios, aprovechando la ausencia de una oposición cohesionada y la fragmentación de las demandas sociales movilizadas.Almost a decade from the opening of the political regime after Alberto Fujimori's administration (1990-2000, the strength of the authoritarian legacies, which have not been completely dismounted by the last two democratic governments, is evident. The challenges to governability that Peru faces are expressed by social conflicts (El Baguazo and by high-profile officials' corruption scandals (Petroaudios, originated in the authoritarian legacies of the former political regime. However, the current administration has managed to create logic of political coexistence with those authoritarian legacies, considering the opposition's lack of cohesion and the fragmentation of the mobilized social demands.
Wahler, Robert G; Cerezo, M Angeles
Ninety-two clinic-referred and nonclinical mother-child dyads in Spain and the USA were observed in their home settings under naturalistic conditions for a total of 477 hours. Children in the clinic-referred dyads were considered troubled because of conduct problems. The observations were aimed at assessing two forms of mother-child asynchrony, either of which was expected to differentiate clinic referred from nonclinical dyads. Authoritarian asynchrony was defined as a mother's indiscriminate use of aversive reactions to her child, whereas the permissive form entailed indiscriminate positive reactions. Results showed the American mothers to generate more permissive asynchrony, whereas the Spanish mothers were inclined in the authoritarian direction. Only authoritarian asynchrony differentiated the clinical versus nonclinical dyads in each country. Discussion was centered on the greater salience of aversive as opposed to positive maternal attention, and cultural differences between countries that might have accounted for the different parenting styles. PMID:16255387
Emmanuel, Nikolas G.
In this article, Nik Emmanuel explores theories of donor self-interest and failure of political conditionality in the context of France, in its relationship with Cameroon under Biya.......In this article, Nik Emmanuel explores theories of donor self-interest and failure of political conditionality in the context of France, in its relationship with Cameroon under Biya....
Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Leeson, Peter
We report longitudinal data in which we assessed the relationships between intelligence and support for two constructs that shape ideological frameworks, namely, right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO). Participants (N = 375) were assessed in Grade 7 and again in Grade 12. Verbal and numerical ability were assessed…
Robinson, Clyde C.; And Others
This study examined the psychometric characteristics of a 62-item parenting questionnaire completed by parents from the United States, Australia, China, and Russia. Factor analyses yielded three global parenting dimensions for each culture which were consistent with D. Baumrind's (1971) authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive typologies. The…
Jocson, Rosanne M.; Alampay, Liane Pena; Lansford, Jennifer E.
The relations of education, authoritarian child-rearing attitudes, and endorsement of corporal punishment to Filipino parents' reported use of corporal punishment were examined using two waves of data. Structured interviews using self-report questionnaires were conducted with 117 mothers and 98 fathers from 120 families when their children were 8…
Martinez, Isabel; Garcia, Jose Fernando
The relation between parenting styles and adolescent outcomes was analyzed in a sample of 1,198 15-18-year-old Brazilians. The adolescents were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful) on the basis of their own ratings of their parents on two dimensions: Acceptance/Involvement and…
Chan, Siu Mui
This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…
O'Reilly, Jessica; Peterson, Candida C.
Building on Vinden's pioneering research [(2001). Parenting attitudes and children's understanding of mind: A comparison of Korean American and Anglo-American families. "Cognitive Development", 16, 793-809], we examined how parents' use of authoritative versus authoritarian styles of discipline related to their…
Kemmelmeier, Markus; Wieczorkowska, Grazyna; Erb, Hans-Peter; Burnstein, Eugene
We hypothesized that in individualistic cultures, individualism predicts positive attitudes toward assisted death, whereas authoritarianism is negatively associated with favorable views of this issue. Study 1 confirmed this hypothesis in a Polish sample (n=100). Study 2, using a German sample (n=102), found the predicted relationships for forms of assisted death that involved the individual self-determination of a terminally ill patient. In Study 3 (n=72), we found experimental evidence that priming individualistic aspects of the self-concept results in more favorable views of physician-assisted suicide. Using a representative sample (n=1158), Study 4 found that across the United States, regional levels of individualism are reflected in corresponding patterns of support for assisted suicide. The discussion focuses on assisted suicide as a cultural phenomenon and explores the implications of growing levels of individualism for public opinion and policy on assisted suicide. PMID:12680373
Balčytienė, Auksė; Bajomi-Lázár, Péter; Štětka, Václav;
What are the major trends of media change in contemporary Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)? How do these media transformations relate to economic, political, social and cultural currents in the region? After a decade of democratic optimism from the early 1990s to the 2000s, why did democratic media...... Eastern Europe", held at the Department of Media, Cognition and Communication at the University of Copenhagen on April 24, 2015. Participants included Auksė Balčytienė (Professor of Journalism, and Vice Rector for Public Communication and International Relations, Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania...... influence of Russia, and the war in Ukraine? What could comparative post-communist media studies add to our analysis and understanding of the new CEE realities? These were some of the questions tackled by a recent public roundtable discussion entitled "Media, Democracy and Authoritarianism in Central and...
Angraini, Yenni; Toharudin, Toni; Folmer, Henk; Oud, Johan H L
This article analyzes the relationships among nationalism (N), individualism (I), ethnocentrism (E), and authoritarianism (A) in continuous time (CT), estimated as a structural equation model. The analysis is based on the General Election Study for Flanders, Belgium, for 1991, 1995, and 1999. We find reciprocal effects between A and E and between E and I as well as a unidirectional effect from A on I. We furthermore find relatively small, but significant, effects from both I and E on N but no effect from A on N or from N on any of the other variables. Because of its central role in the N-I-E-A complex, mitigation of authoritarianism has the largest potential to reduce the spread of nationalism, ethnocentrism, and racism in Flanders. PMID:26745672
Tan, Xuyun; Liu, Li; Zheng, Wenwen; Huang, Zhenwei
Previous research suggested that dominance orientation and authoritarianism may be associated with corruption, but little research has verified this assumption or uncovered its psychological processes. In this article, we examined empirically the relationships between social dominance orientation (SDO), right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and corrupt intention and explored the mediating role of moral outrage on these relationships. A total of 677 college students participated in the study and completed measures of SDO, RWA, moral outrage and corrupt intention. Our findings demonstrated that both SDO and RWA were positively associated with corrupt intention. Additionally, moral outrage partially mediated the relation between SDO and corrupt intention and fully mediated the relation between RWA and corrupt intention. Specifically, the results indicated that higher SDO or RWA was associated with reduced moral outrage and increased corrupt intention. This implies that the enhancement of morality and moral outrage may inhibit corrupt intention. PMID:25683842
MacWilliams, Matthew C.
Up to now, many political scientists and commentators have argued that support for Donald Trump is ‘capped’, given that he and Senator Ted Cruz (TX) are competing for the same pool of antiestablishment voters. Using new survey data from South Carolina Republican voters, Matthew C. MacWilliams finds that, along with concerns about terrorism, authoritarianism is a major predictor of people’s support for Donald Trump, and not a predictor of support for Ted Cruz. With these finding...
The thesis focuses on the role of youth members in political opposition parties in the Arab Republic of Egypt. The parties, as well as the state, are authoritarian in structure. The thesis discusses possibilities for youth participation in the upper-levels of political parties, and their subjective opinions of being included or excluded in internal debates and decision-making processes. In particular, the thesis discusses the parties’ use of internet and whether the internet arena is a space ...
Van Damme, Anjuli; Pauwels, Lieven
The purpose of this study is to investigate the interrelationships among ethnocentrism, authoritarianism, anomia, the lack of confidence in the criminal justice system, punitiveness and support for vigilantism in a cross-sectional sample of 1,078 Belgian university students enrolled at Ghent University during the academic year 2009-2010. The emphasis lies on confidence in procedural justice or perceived procedural fairness, a specific type of organisational justice perception that reflects ho...
Arne Roets; Alain Van Hiel
Previous research has shown that Right-Wing Authoritarianism and Social Dominance Orientation mediate the relationship between need for closure (NFC) and conservative beliefs and racism. These results did not apply to the NFC facet scale Decisiveness. However, the Decisiveness scale has been reported to have a questionable validity, and the recent development of a new scale inspired a reassessment of these previous studies. The present results obtained in two Flemish undergraduate samples (N ...
Torleif Halkjelsvik; Jostein Rise
We investigated how Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) were related to motivation to personally help addicted individuals and approval of public spending on addiction treatment. The study employs an attributional analysis based on Weiner’s theory of social motivation. SDO was associated with less approval of public spending on treatment and lower motivation to personally help. RWA was associated with less approval of public spending but exerted a direct p...
Full Text Available The paper discusses a particular ‘isomorphy’ between two forms of social criticism: the ‘holistic’ theoretical social critique represented by such authors as Jürgen Habermas and Axel Honneth and ‘collective social engagement’ represented by such civic movements as the ‘We Won’t Let Belgrade D(rown’ initiative in contemporary Serbia, which the paper tries to distinguish from more conventional forms of popular protest. This ‘isomorphy’, the paper argues, consists in a tension between three distinct imperatives of the justification of critique - those of normative universalism, epistemological anti-authoritarianism, and diagnosis of social domination - produced by the attempts of both the ‘holistic’ social critics and the collectively engaged actors to simultaneously respond to all three imperatives. After presenting the three types of theoretical critique that crystallize around each imperative, the paper discusses the internal tension that arises in the works of ‘holistic’ theoretical critics and then identifies the same kind of tension in the ‘We Won’t Let Belgrade D(rown’ initiative. The tension in the movement’s critique is outlined through a brief analysis of the activists’ discourse as articulated in the bulletin We Won’t Let Belgrade D(rown issued in March 2015. Since the examples also suggest that collective engagement is better than theoretical critique at keeping this tension ‘productive’, the paper finally offers some tentative thoughts on the possible reasons for this difference.
Full Text Available This examination of the mobilization-repression nexus in high-capacity authoritarian regimes draws on examples from China, Russia, Iran, and several Middle Eastern states to develop a framework for analyzing state violence and how political oppositions are organized. The study examines middle and low levels of state violence, the provincial and municipal organization of party and regime, and the police, private militias, and thugs as low-level enforcers, and focuses on: (1 the complexity of the state’s apparatus of repression and control and how different levels exercise different forms of violence against activists; (2 the creativity of the opposition’s actions to voice its demands and avoid repression and surveillance; and (3 the recursive relationship between the two, a dark dance between state and opposition with high stakes for both. Hierarchical analysis at national, provincial, and local levels, and lateral analysis across these levels, where elite interests frequently diverge, show that intersections and gaps on both axes can create lapses in social control and openings the opposition. These free spaces of speech and innovative action give rise to novel ways to keep oppositional sentiments in the public forum. The article offers several propositions for analyzing repression and state violence at various levels, and, similarly, the various ways that these free spaces occur.
Crawford, Jarret T; Brandt, Mark J; Inbar, Yoel; Mallinas, Stephanie R
Two recent experiments found evidence for what we term the social category label (SCL) effect-that the relationship between right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and prejudice against gay men and lesbians can be reduced or even eliminated when the target group is labeled "gay men and lesbians" rather than "homosexuals" (Rios, 2013). Although this appears a promising approach to reduce self-reported sexual prejudice, with both theoretical implications for the meaning of RWA itself and practical implications for question wording for assessing these attitudes, there are several reasons to further examine these findings, including (a) inconsistencies with extant evidence, (b) small sample sizes in the original 2 experiments, and (c) concerns with the RWA measures used in the 2 experiments. We tested the SCL hypothesis with a nationally representative sample (Study 1) and close and conceptual replications of Rios' (2013) 2 studies (Studies 2-5) using multiple measures of RWA and prejudice. Across 23 tests of the SCL hypothesis, we obtained 1 statistically significant and 1 marginally significant effect consistent with the hypothesis, 2 significant effects opposite the hypothesis, and 19 nonsignificant effects. A meta-analysis of evidence reported here and in Rios (2013) indicates that RWA strongly predicts antigay prejudice, with no significant variation by label. This confirms the typically robust association between RWA and antigay prejudice and confirms that the SCL effect is not robust. We discuss potential limitations of these studies, theoretical, methodological, and practical implications for our failures to replicate the original SCL studies, and future directions for examining social category label effects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26524000
Full Text Available The paper discusses a role of the remembrance policy in the reconstruction of national identity during the democratization. It includes unique theoretical consideration of this phenomenon and two case studies: post-authoritarian Spain and post-apartheid South Africa. Presented conclusions are a result of qualitative study of transitional politics of memory which focused on the use of remembrance narratives and interpretations of the past to support an establishment of new, democratic and inclusive identity. Considering these two cases, the paper offers an observation of the domination of future-oriented politics over the remembrance and dealing with the past during the transition.
Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L
The Royal College of Physicians of London published the 2013 national clinical guidelines on prolonged disorders of consciousness (PDOC) in vegetative and minimally conscious states. The guidelines acknowledge the rapidly advancing neuroscientific research and evolving therapeutic modalities in PDOC. However, the guidelines state that end-of-life decisions should be made for patients who do not improve with neurorehabilitation within a finite period, and they recommend withdrawal of clinically assisted nutrition and hydration (CANH). This withdrawal is deemed necessary because patients in PDOC can survive for years with continuation of CANH, even when a ceiling on medical care has been imposed, i.e., withholding new treatment such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation for acute life-threatening illness. The end-of-life care pathway is centered on a staged escalation of medications, including sedatives, opioids, barbiturates, and general anesthesia, concurrent with withdrawal of CANH. Agitation and distress may last from several days to weeks because of the slow dying process from starvation and dehydration. The potential problems of this end-of-life care pathway are similar to those of the Liverpool Care Pathway. After an independent review in 2013, the Department of Health discontinued the Liverpool Care pathway in England. The guidelines assert that clinicians, supported by court decisions, have become the final authority in nonconsensual withdrawal of CANH on the basis of "best interests" rationale. We posit that these guidelines lack high-quality evidence supporting: 1) treatment futility of CANH, 2) reliability of distress assessment from starvation and dehydration, 3) efficacy of pharmacologic control of this distress, and 4) proximate causation of death. Finally, we express concerns about the utilitarian-based assessment of what constitutes a person's best interests. We are disturbed by the level and the role of medical authoritarianism institutionalized by these
Steinberg, Laurence; Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Cauffman, Elizabeth
The correlates of authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful parenting were examined within a sample of 1,355 14- to 18-year-olds adjudicated of serious criminal offenses. The sample is composed primarily of poor, ethnic-minority youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods. As has been found in community samples, juvenile…
Sim, Tick N.; Chin, Jeffery E. H.
Our study sought mainly to examine interactions between mothers' and fathers' authoritative and authoritarian parenting. A total of 284 adolescents (mean age 13.5) from 2 Singapore schools contributed self-report data on their parents' parenting and various schooling aspects. Prior to testing for interactions, adolescents with two…
Julián Durazo Herrmann
Full Text Available How do subnational authoritarian enclaves emerge (or survive ina democratic transition at the federal level? How can they endure large-scalesocial protests, like the one that shook Oaxaca in 2006? While federal tolerancefor subnational authoritarian practices is a necessary condition, it isinsufficient in itself to explain why subnational political systems sustain andeventually reproduce authoritarian practices in the first place. In this article,therefore, I focus on the internal dimension of subnational authoritarianism.I argue that, because of its reliance on two distinct sources of legitimacy,Oaxaca’s neo-patrimonial domination system was able to respond to theformal democratizing pressures emanating from the federal transition withoutlosing its authoritarian nature. This process of hybridization transformedOaxacan institutions, but left social structures and the political dynamics thatemerge from them – the sources of subnational authoritarianism – almostintact. By exploring the evolution of neo-patrimonialism and hybridizationin Oaxaca from a theoretical perspective, I address the issues of change andcontinuity in the emergence of subnational authoritarian enclaves, in Mexicoand elsewhere. ¿Cómo es que algunos enclaves autoritarios subnacionales emergen (o susbsisten tras las transiciones a la democracia de sus federaciones? ¿Cómo sobreviven a movilizaciones masivas como las que conoció Oaxaca en 2006? La tolerancia federal es una condición necesaria para el desarrollo de las prácticas autoritarias subnacionales, pero es insuficiente para explicar cómo dichas prácticas aparecen y se reproducen en algunos sistemas políticos subnacionales. Por ello, en este artículo estudio la dimensión interna del autoritarismo subnacional. Arguyo que, al basarse en dos fuentes distintas de legitimidad, el sistema oaxaqueño de dominación neopatrimonial fue capaz de responder a las presiones democráticas provenientes de la federaci
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that Right-Wing Authoritarianism and Social Dominance Orientation mediate the relationship between need for closure (NFC and conservative beliefs and racism. These results did not apply to the NFC facet scale Decisiveness. However, the Decisiveness scale has been reported to have a questionable validity, and the recent development of a new scale inspired a reassessment of these previous studies. The present results obtained in two Flemish undergraduate samples (N = 164 and 162 show that both the new Decisiveness scale and the other NFC facet scales correlate with conservatism and racism, and that both these relationships are mediated by social attitudes (i.e., RWA and SDO. In the discussion it is argued that not only permanence needs, but also the urgency need reflected in Decisiveness, are important in order to understand right-wing ideology.
李小平; 杨晟宇; 李梦遥
In situations of moral dilemma - for example, when urban management officers meet street vendors -people have to decide what is fair and to choose between at least two conflicting options. They have to decide whether to apply rules or not, and their decisions may have different consequences for the people affected. Applying and not applying rules are two opposite types of moral thinking to resolve the dilemma. The former is rule-based moral thinking, and the latter is outcome-based moral thinking. In rule-based moral thinking, an act is inherently right or wrong, irrespective of specifics of the circumstances. In outcome-based moral thinking, the Tightness of an act is not determined by the degree to which it fits with principles, but by looking at the consequences of that act. Previous research has shown that people with high power are more likely to use rule-based moral thinking styles, whereas low-power individuals are more likely to rely on outcome-based moral thinking. Another concept that is potentially related to power is authoritarian personality. The hypothesis of the current research is that the effects of power priming on moral thinking style are moderated by authoritarian personality type. More specifically, we expected that when primed with high power, only individuals with high-authoritarian personality would show rule-based moral thinking. To test our hypothesis, 122 public servants from the Chinese Public Security System were recruited to participate in the present study. Participants were first divided into two groups of high and low authoritarians based on their scores on an authoritarian personality scale. They were then randomly assigned to conditions in which they were primed with either high or low power. After the power priming procedure, participants read about a classic trolley problem and indicated how they would deal with the moral dilemma. Their choices reflected either rule-based or outcome-based moral thinking style. The results showed
Full Text Available China’s rise is often interpreted as a harbinger of a new era in world politics and raises the question if such a power transition may impact upon patterns of democratic rule across the globe. There is growing interest in whether China acts as an outside stabilizer for other authoritarian regimes. This paper contributes to the emerging literature on the international dimension of autocratic rule by focusing on Chinese Latin American policy. Using the method of structured focused comparisons, we want to assess whether China’s relations towards the Latin American autocracies Cuba and Venezuela differ from those with structurally similar, but democratic cooperation partners in the region, namely Costa Rica and Chile. The guiding question is whether we can detect such a pattern of specific bilateral relationships between China and other autocracies, leading to an ‘authoritarian nexus’ in Chinese foreign policy. Resumen: ¿Un ‘nexo autoritario’? Supuesta relación especial de China con Estados autocráticos de América Latina El ascenso de China se suele interpretar como un presagio de una nueva era en la política mundial y plantea la cuestión de si dicha transición de poder podría repercutir en los patrones de la democracia en el mundo entero. La cuestión de si China actúa como estabilizador externo para otros regímenes autoritarios suscita cada vez más interés. Este artículo es una contribución a la bibliografía emergente sobre la dimensión internacional de los sistemas autocráticos enfocándose en la política chino-latinoamericana. Mediante el método de las comparaciones estructuradas y focalizadas, queremos evaluar si las relaciones de China con las autocracias latinoamericanas de Cuba y Venezuela difieren de las relaciones con otros aliados estructuralmente similares, pero democráticos en la región, como Costa Rica y Chile. La pregunta clave es si podemos detectar este patrón de relaciones bilaterales espec
Politics of the Periphery: An Introduction to Subnational Authoritarianism and Democratization in Latin America Política de la periferia. Una introducción a autoritarismo y democratización subnacional en América Latina
Edward L. Gibson
The article is an introduction to the topic featured in JPLA 2/2010 "Subnational Authoritarianism and Democratization in Latin America." It discusses the papers by Carlos Gervasoni, Agustina Giraudy, Julián Durazo Herrmann, Alfred P. Montero, and Tracy Beck Fenwick that follow in this issue. Why feature the topic “subnational authoritarianism and democratization” in the Journal of Politics in Latin America? Because despite widespread agreement that subnational jurisdictions in Latin America ...
Mavor, Kenneth I.; Louis, Winnifred R.; Sibley, Chris G.
The factor structure of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) remains a contentious issue. Although designed to measure three underlying attitude clusters, aggression, submission and conventionalism, many items are deliberately double-or triple-barrelled, to capture the covariation of the three clusters in a unidimensional scale. Additionally, although the scale is balanced, there is an item wording direction bias in the clusters; aggression items are pro-trait, and conventionalism items are con-...
Steinberg, Laurence; Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Cauffman, Elizabeth
The correlates of authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful parenting were examined within a sample of 1,355 14- to 18-year-olds adjudicated of serious criminal offenses. The sample is composed primarily of poor, ethnic-minority youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods. As has been found in community samples, juvenile offenders who describe their parents as authoritative are more psychosocially mature, more academically competent, less prone to internalized distress, and...
Full Text Available We investigated how Social Dominance Orientation (SDO and Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA were related to motivation to personally help addicted individuals and approval of public spending on addiction treatment. The study employs an attributional analysis based on Weiner’s theory of social motivation. SDO was associated with less approval of public spending on treatment and lower motivation to personally help. RWA was associated with less approval of public spending but exerted a direct positive effect on motivation to personally help. However, the latter effect was cancelled out by an indirect negative effect from an attributional process where addicted individuals were perceived as more responsible for their condition. An association between RWA and judgments of responsibility was further indicated in an investigation of positive vs. negative outcomes of addictions. RWA correlated with ratings of personal responsibility across the valence of outcomes, whereas SDO did not. In conclusion, the relation between RWA and (lack of motivation to help is partly explained by a greater emphasis on personal responsibility, and the relation between SDO and (lack of motivation to help is independent of responsibility judgments.
Full Text Available An expanded analysis of the origin of the correlation with economic deprivation found in the authors’ representative surveys of right-wing extremist attitudes (such as racism, anti-Semitism, and chauvinism, focusing on the underlying dynamics in Germany and the historical aspect of National Socialism. The growing prosperity of the West German “economic miracle” of the 1950s served a psychosocial “filling function” to block the narcissistic damage caused by confrontation with past crimes and the sense of the nation’s loss of greatness. As this prosperity vanishes for many people during the current economic crisis, the filling comes out and the narcissistic wound opens up. What emerges is both what lies underneath and what has been serving as a defense against it, which involve authoritarian dynamics. Initially, the metaphor of “narcissistic filling” will be developed through our analysis of group discussions conducted as part of our qualitative study (of 2008. The developed hypotheses will thereafter be introduced to our following representative survey (of 2010 and confirmed by means of quantitative methods.
Full Text Available While numerous countries in post-authoritarian South America have annulled Amnesty Laws issued under authoritarian rule and punished officials involved in repressive organs, Brazil continues to favour impunity. This attitude has recently been confirmed by the Brazilian Supreme Court’s decision to maintain the 1979 Amnesty Law granting de-facto impunity to violators of human rights during the military regime. The article considers this verdict within its historical context, and raises two questions which have previously attracted little attention: First, why has postauthoritarian Brazil processed the experience of the military regime so differently from its neighbouring countries, and what role did the Amnesty Law play in that difference? Second, what does this disinterest in punishment mean? This article concludes that one promising theory highlighted by political scientists – the low degree of participation in civil society in Brazil – cannot fully explain why the vast majority of Brazilians are not interested in punishment, as numerous citizens mobilized during the amnesty movement. It seems to imply that the heterogeneous antiauthoritarian alliance vanished once the Amnesty Law had been achieved. Another key finding is that the disinterest in punishment cannot be interpreted as moral support for the military regime or a sanctioning of its human rights violations, as the amnesty debate in Brazil is more complex. Resumen: Impunidad en el Brasil post-autoritario: fallo de la Corte Suprema sobre la ley de amnistíaMientras numerosos países sudamericanos han derogado las leyes de amnistía, aprobadas por pasados regímenes militares, y castigado a los oficiales de los órganos represivos, Brasil continúa favoreciendo la impunidad. Esta actitud ha sido recientemente ratificada por la Corte Suprema de Brasil, que ha mantenido la ley de amnistía de 1979, garantizando impunidad a los violadores de los derechos humanos durante el r
Haugbølle, Rikke Hostrup; Cavatorta, Francesco
one of those liberal reforms implemented to give domestic and international constituencies the sentiment that genuine liberalisation is under way in the country and it has therefore been dismissed as a façade reform. While this interpretation contains a degree of validity, this paper challenges the...... notion that the reform is exclusively about authoritarian upgrading. Perhaps unwittingly, the reform has permitted the arrival on the media scene of new social voices and actors that never had the opportunity to discuss taboo topics and this transforms public debate. While political discussions were...
Kossowska, Małgorzata; Trejtowicz, Mariusz; de Lemus, Soledad; Bukowski, Marcin; Van Hiel, Alain; Goodwin, Robin
The present study tested the role of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), terrorist threat, and sociopolitical 'climate' as predictors of support for governmental anti-terrorism policies and actions. Two dimensions of analysis were defined: the presence versus absence of al-Qaeda attacks, and adherence to surveillance versus anti-surveillance mainstream politics. In order to study the influence of these two contextual dimensions on the expression of attitudes, we selected four European countries that fall into these two dimensions--Poland, Belgium, Spain, and the UK. Results from our study provide support for the contention that attitudes towards restrictions of civil rights are related to RWA independently of the cultural context. Moreover, in the UK sample, we found that the threat of terrorism increases acceptance of limitations of civil liberties, but only among people who hold authoritarian beliefs. However, in Spain, the other country that experienced terrorist attacks, this moderation effect was not found which is interpreted in terms of differences in the sociopolitical climate in both countries. As predicted, we did not find such moderation effect in countries in which threat is relatively low (Poland and Belgium). The results are discussed with reference to the conceptual framework based on the importance of fear experiences, security-focused policies, as well as the specific cultural context in the study of reaction to terrorist threat. PMID:21492144
Full Text Available Even though prejudice toward male homosexuality is one of the main reasons for discrimination in Argentina, there is no valid measure to assess it. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Attitudes Toward Gay Men Scale (ATG and to examine the influence of sex, right wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation on anti-gay attitudes. Data were collected with a convenience sample of 436 undergraduate students from University of Buenos Aires. Analysis of the data showed adequate psychometric properties for the ATG Scale and the moderating effect of sex, right wing uthoritarianism and social dominance orientation on anti-gay attitudes. Implications of these findings were discussed.
Full Text Available L’article aborde la nature des liens entre l’homogène et l’hétérogène dans les relations juridiques et politiques du Pérou actuel. L’auteur analyse la manière dont deux tendances, l’une de sensibilité démocratique et l’autre d’essence autoritariste, se disputent le pouvoir politique. Tout d’abord, est analysée la façon dont le projet démocratique réclame, au niveau du droit, une homogénéisation, apte à assurer le pluralisme juridique et sociétal où tous les citoyens se reconnaissent dans le système juridique. Puis, est abordée la manière par laquelle l’autoritarisme impose un système juridique qui exige l’élimination de l’hétérogène au sein de la société. Du fait d’une longue tradition autoritaire dans l’histoire péruvienne, l’auteur explicite les arrangements au travers desquels celui-ci s’est aujourd’hui immiscé dans l’enceinte universitaire pour susciter le débat académique et accroître son influence politique.This article considers the nature of the ties between homogeneity and heterogeneity in juridical and political relations in contemporary Peru. The author analyzes the way in which two tendencies – one involving democratic sensibility and the other essentially authoritarian – vie over political power. First, we look to the way in which the democratic project claims – at the level of law – a homogeneity capable of supporting a legal and social pluralism in which all citizens might recognize themselves in the legal system. Next, we turn to the way in which authoritarianism imposes a legal system that demands the elimination of heterogeneity from within the society. Given a long authoritarian tradition in Peruvian history, the author clarifies the ways that vision is embedded within the contemporary academy, channeling debate and gain political influence.El artículo aborda las relaciones que se dan entre lo homogéneo y lo heterogéneo en las relaciones jur
Jarret T. Crawford
Full Text Available Employing a dual process motivational (DPM model perspective, we found that how political messages are framed influences the differential effects of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA and social dominance orientation (SDO on political candidate support in the United States. Study 1 (N = 85 found that RWA and SDO differentially predicted support for right-wing candidates who used cohesion and group status threats to frame same-sex marriage, respectively. Study 2 (N = 89 largely replicated those findings on immigration policy. In Study 3 (N = 128, the hypothesis that RWA and SDO negatively predicted support for left-wing candidates who framed same-sex marriage in terms of individual liberty and social equality, respectively, received partial support. Additional analyses indicated that the effects of RWA on candidate support in these studies were driven by specific theoretically-relevant dimensions of RWA. Together, these results indicate that candidates can enhance their appeal by strategically employing value-based political messages targeting different subsets of their constituency.
María Aidé Hernández
Full Text Available A pesar de las transformaciones políticas que han ocurrido en México durante los últimos 20 años, la cultura política del mexicano ha dejado ver pocos avances. Actualmente siguen predominando características que no fomentan una participación autónoma y propositiva que ayude al éxito de la democracia. Entre ellas destacan el conocimiento e interés por la política; la confianza interpersonal, en las instituciones y en la democracia; la tolerancia; y la competencia subjetiva. Este panorama propicia que sigan prevaleciendo rasgos autoritarios como el clientelismo y el corporativismo, los cuales no fortalecen la democracia. Los pequeños cambios culturales se han dado en el ámbito electoral, donde no sólo hay una gran aceptación a la pluralidad y competencia entre los partidos políticos: ahora los ciudadanos consideran el voto ya no como un derecho sino como un arma política.In spite of the political transformations occurred in Mexico during the last 20 years, the Mexican citizen's political culture has shown few improvements, since certain characteristics keep on prevailing and do not encourage an autonomous participation contribuing to the success of the democratic process. Some of the most relevant advances for such process are knowledge and interest in politics; confidence in the interpersonal relationships, in institutions and in democracy; tolerance; and subjective competence. Their absence favours the prevalence of authoritarian features as clientelism and corporativism. Small cultural changes have taken place in the electoral domain though, where there is a great acceptance of plurality and competition among the political parties and citizens consider suffrage not as a right but as a political weapon.
马贵梅; 樊耘; 门一; 张克勤
本文探讨中国本土情境的权威领导影响下属建言行为的影响过程，揭示“想不想”建言和“能不能”建言双元心理机制各自的作用和差异。通过267对主管和下属的配对样本，运用多层回归分析，实证结果表明，权威领导对下属的抑制型建言和促进型建言均具有消极的影响且对前者的影响程度更强；权威领导通过建设性变革责任感和组织支持感双元心理机制影响下属的建言行为；两种心理机制的作用存在差异，组织支持感代表的“能不能”建言的中介作用强于建设性变革责任感代表的“想不想”建言的中介作用。%This study investigates the mediating effect of felt responsibility for constructive change and perceived organi-zational support on the relationship between supervisor ’ s authoritarian leadership and subordinates ’ voice behavior in Chinese context, and explores the unique and different effect of dual psychological mechanisms that are “would” voice and “could” voice. Using 267 dyads survey data of subordinates and their direct supervisors, the results of multiple lin-ear regression show that authoritarian leadership hinders subordinates’ promotive and prohibitive voice behavior, and the negative relationship between authoritarian leadership and prohibitive voice is stronger;felt responsibility for constructive change and perceived organizational support mediate the relationship between authoritarian leadership and subordinates’ voice behavior;two psychological mechanisms have different effect, “could” voice mechanism which is represented by perceived organizational support has more stronger mediating effect than the “would” voice mechanism which is repre-sented by felt responsibility for constructive change.
and Angola, the book exposes shifting donor interests and rhetoric as well as the impact of foreign aid on military assistance, rural development, electoral processes and domestic politics. In the process, it raises an urgent and too often neglected question: to what extent are foreign aid programmes...
Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik
proved their influence by obstructing the creation of new ministries and regulatory commissions that would limit their powers. The heads of these business groups often outrank their counterparts in state administrative organs and bureaus that are supposed to regulate their activities. The increased role......-owned company or from a position as business leader to a position in the state apparatus or in the Party and vice versa. To conceptualize the coexistence of the contradicting forces for further enterprise autonomy and continued central control that characterizes the evolving relationship between business groups...
In December 2013, Russian President Vladimir Putin marked the 20th anniversary of the Constitution by signing an amnesty which allowed for both the liberation of nu- merous common-law prisoners serving short sentences and the early release of the two Pussy Riot members sentenced to two years in a labor camp for staging an anti- Putin performance in Moscow's Cathedral of Christ the Savior. At the same time, the Russian president granted a reprieve for Mikhail Khodorkovsky, former head of Yukos...
This time it's different. An inevitable decline in world petroleum production will keep oil product prices high, causing military conflicts and shifting wealth and power from democracies to authoritarian regimes
There is virtual agreement among geologists that world production of conventional oil will peak at some point in the future. Oil, after all, is a finite resource, while demand will only grow over time. Geologists disagree, however, exactly when the peak will occur. Using data from the International Energy Agency, the US Department of Energy, the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas, and petroleum industry sources, we argue that conventional oil production will reach a worldwide maximum within the next 5-10 years, earlier than generally estimated, thus leaving a very short time frame within which to plan for conversion to alternative sources of energy. Unless planning is initiated immediately, the United States and other Western democracies will see their positions in the global economy undercut as military conflicts over limited energy resources increase, and wealth and power are shifted to authoritarian regimes in Russia, Venezuela, Africa and the Middle East. (author)
Santos, Lincoln de Araújo
Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe uma discussão sobre as matrizes do pensamento social e autoritário e suas características marcantes na educação brasileira, identificando cronologicamente o início da República, acentuando-se o regime estabelecido a partir de 1930. O estudo das ideias sociais e de seus intelectuais, as influências ideológicas e doutrinárias que darão base aos fundamentos do pensamento autoritário social e educacional no Brasil. O regime político a partir de 1930, o Estado Novo e o projeto educacional do governo de Getúlio Vargas e seus princípios da ordem, da moral, da política e o desejo de unidade nacional. A conjunção de um elenco de intelectuais que formularam um ideal nacional a partir da função política do Estado como o condutor da modernização do país e na atuação pedagógica desta instituição. A caracterização de intelectuais que estiveram a serviço do Estado Novo e de sua ideologia, elaborando o seu projeto e tendo a educação como estratégia de propaganda. O pensamento social de Oliveira Vianna, Francisco Campos, Gustavo Capanema e as justificativas para a governabilidade e presença do regime varguista no país. O principal objetivo deste artigo é o de analisar o pensamento autoritário brasileiro e sua presença na educação brasileira.REFLECTIONS ON THE SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL THOUGHT IN BRAZIL ANDITS AUTHORITARIAN MATRICES. This article proposes a discussion about the matrices of the social and authoritarian thought and its defining characteristics in Brazilian education,identifying chronologically the beginning of the Republic, emphasizing the regime that was established in 1930. The study of social ideas and theirauthors, the ideological and doctrinal influences that will be the basis for the authoritarian, social and educational thought in Brazil. The political regime that started in 1930, the New State and the educational project of Getulio Vargas’s government including its
Politics of the Periphery: An Introduction to Subnational Authoritarianism and Democratization in Latin America Política de la periferia. Una introducción a autoritarismo y democratización subnacional en América Latina
Edward L. Gibson
Full Text Available The article is an introduction to the topic featured in JPLA 2/2010 "Subnational Authoritarianism and Democratization in Latin America." It discusses the papers by Carlos Gervasoni, Agustina Giraudy, Julián Durazo Herrmann, Alfred P. Montero, and Tracy Beck Fenwick that follow in this issue. Why feature the topic “subnational authoritarianism and democratization” in the Journal of Politics in Latin America? Because despite widespread agreement that subnational jurisdictions in Latin America vary considerably in the democratic character of their politics, political scientists are still largely in the dark about how to conceptualize and measure this situation, and have scant knowledge about mechanisms that sustain and undermine it. This collection of articles makes major headway toward clearing our methodological and theoretical ignorance of these topics. El artículo es una introducción al tema especial de JPLA 2/2010 "autoritarismo y democratización subnacional en América Latina". Discute las contribuciones de Carlos Gervasoni, Agustina Giraudy, Julián Durazo Herrmann, Alfred P. Montero y Tracy Beck Fenwick que estan unidas en esta edición. ¿Porqué presentar el tema “autoritarismo y democratización subnacional” en el Journal of Politics in Latin America? Porque a pesar del acuerdo general que en América Latina las jurisdicciones subnacionales varian considerablementes en el carácter democrático de su política, la mayoría de politólogos todavía esta insegura como conceptualizar y medir ésta situación, y tiene poco conocimiento de los mecanismos que la mantienen o subvierten. Esta colección de artículos ofrece aproximaciones metodológicas y teóricas al tema.
Though a controversial topic,competitive authoritarian regime is very popular in contemporary develo-ping countries. Mainly based on the information concerning the 13th general election of Malaysia in 2013,this paper aims to analyze how the changing Malaysian voter structure,which is driven by urbanization and generation change, affects the competitive strategy of political parties in this country and what is the future of the Malaysian competitive authoritarian regime when it meets a changing voter structure. This paper argues that the main trends of voter struc-ture will gradually undermine the long-standing Malaysian competitive authoritarian regime,but this is still a long and tough work because of the heavy historic inertia of authoritarianism.%竞争型威权体制是当今发展中国家的一种普遍政治现象，也是一个极具争议的课题。本文将主要围绕2013年马来西亚第13届大选来采取论据，分析城市化与世代更替所造成的马来西亚选民结构变迁，以及这种变迁是如何影响竞争型威权体制下的政党竞争策略，并进一步探讨这种体制本身的演化路向。本文认为当今马来西亚选民结构中的主要潮流正在推动竞争型威权体制的消解，当然由于威权体制强大的历史惯性的存在，这种消解仍将要经历一个较漫长的过程。
Estilos parentais autoritário e democrático-recíproco intergeracionais, conflito conjugal e comportamentos de externalização e internalização Intergenerational authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles, marital conflict, and externalizing and internalizing behaviors
Ebenézer A. de Oliveira
Full Text Available Modelos mediativos de risco e proteção foram testados, para prever longitudinalmente comportamentos de externalização e internalização infantis, a partir de uma atitude conjugal conflituosa e de estilos parentais intergeracionais autoritário vs. democrático-recíproco. Proveniente de duas escolas particulares e uma pública, a amostra contou com 25 meninas e 25 meninos de 4 e 5 anos, e suas respectivas mães. Correlações bivariadas de Pearson e regressões múltiplas indicaram a presença de transmissão intergeracional do estilo autoritário, mas não do democrático-recíproco, mediada por uma atitude conjugal conflituosa. O estilo autoritário materno previu tanto externalização como internalização, enquanto a atitude conjugal conflituosa previu apenas externalização. Embora significativo, o modelo aditivo não gerou efeitos longitudinais significativos de cada fator sobre externalização. Mas, ao se levar em conta a relação entre o estilo autoritário e a atitude conjugal conflituosa, efeitos principais foram encontrados para ambos os fatores. A obtenção de resultados significativos apenas no modelo de risco é considerada sob os pontos de vista teórico e metodológico.Mediational models of risk and protection were tested to predict longitudinally both externalizing and internalizing behaviors in young children, with conflicted marital attitude and transgenerational, authoritarian vs. authoritative parenting as predictors. Drawn from two private and one public schools, the sample consisted of 25 boys and 25 girls with 4 and 5 years of age, and their respective mothers. Bivariate Pearson correlations and multiple regressions showed intergenerational transmission for the authoritarian style, but not for the authoritative style, mediated by a conflicted attitude toward marriage. The maternal authoritarian style predicted both externalizing and internalizing behaviors, whereas the conflicted marital attitude predicted only
"Once regarded as mere pawns of their regimes, courts in authoraitarian states are now the subject of considerable attention within the field of comparative judicial politics. New research examines the ways in which law and courts are deployed as instruments of governance, how they structure state-society contention, and the circumstances in which courts are transformed into sites of active resistance. This new body of research constitutes an emergent field of inquiry, while simul...
Full Text Available In the absence of any kind of hegemonic aura, neoliberal practices have proved increasingly unable to garner the consent, or even the reluctant acquiescence, necessary for more ‘normal’ modes of governance. Of particular importance in the post-2007 crisis has been the growing frequency with which constitutional and legal changes, in the name of economic ‘necessity’, are seeking to reshape the purpose of the state and associated institutions. This attempted reconfiguration is three-fold: (1 the more immediate appeal to material circumstances as a reason for the state being unable, despite ‘the best will in the world’, to reverse processes such as greater socioeconomic inequality and dislocation;(2 the deeper and longer-term recalibration of what kind of activity is feasible and appropriate for ‘non-market’ institutions to engage in, diminishing expectations in the process; and (3 the reconceptualisation of the state as increasingly non-democratic through its subordination to constitutional and legal rules that are ‘necessary’ for prosperity to be achieved.
Georgiou, Stelios N.; Stavrinides, Panayiotis; Fousiani, Kyriaki
This study aimed at examining the existing relation among parenting, cultural value orientation, and bullying propensity at school. The participants (N = 231) were early adolescents randomly selected from 11 different schools in urban and rural areas of Cyprus. The results showed that a statistically significant relation exists between parental…
Belknap, Jason M.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited What role has social media played in Bahraini political movements since 2011? Does it facilitate and encourage a space for free expressions of ideas, or do the dominant groups utilize social media to promote their agendas and shape social unrest outcomes? This thesis examines how the use of social media altered the course of protests in Bahrain on the heels of the regional Arab Spring movement. Historical protest activities incorporate...
Dafydd J. Fell
Full Text Available This paper examines how Taiwan moved from being viewed as a model Asian democracy to one allegedly suffering from democratic reversal. The reasons for the declining domestic and international reputation of Taiwan’s democracy are discussed. Lastly, some key political challenges facing Taiwan’s democracy are outlined.
Chao, Ruth K.
A study was conducted to determine Asian American conceptualizations of parenting, focusing on socialization goals, parenting style, and parenting practices related to schooling, aspects of parental influences discussed by D. Darling and L. Steinberg (1993). It was suggested that the standard conceptualizations of parenting style, those of D.…
There is international consensus among scholars that democratic transitions are multicausal processes in which both internal and international variables are involved (Pridham 1991, 1995; Whitehead 1996; Schmitter 1996; Linz and Stepan 1996; Carothers 1999; Morlino and Magen 2008; Grilli di Cortona 2009). This chapter is limited, on the one hand, to the dependent variable consisting solely of the crisis/breakdown/transformation of non-democratic regimes in the Third Wave o...
Estrella Trincado Aznar
This paper shows that utilitarianism and libertarianism have a determining influence on moulding monetary theories. It compares Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarian theory with that of David Hume – a theory somehow based on the idea of usefulness – and that of Adam Smith – a libertarian theory critical of utilitarianism. Smith intended to demonstrate that, with regard to monetary issues, we could not cut free transaction costs through a hierarchy who addresses a fictional image. Conversely, Bentham a...
Apple, Michael W.
This article examines equality in education within the context of two larger conflicts--the breakdown of the largely liberal consensus that guided much educational and social policy since World War II and the growth of the new right and conservative movements. (IAH)
MATRICES SOCIOPOLÍTICAS Y PATRONES DE REFORMA EN EL CONO SUR: ENTRE LA RUTA POPULISTA Y AUTORITARIA: EL CASO URUGUAYO EN PERSPECTIVA COMPARADA Socio-political Matrices and Patterns of Reform in the South Cone: Between Populist and Authoritarian Paths: The Uruguayan Case in Comparative Perspective
Full Text Available El siguiente artículo plantea un análisis de los patrones de reforma del MSI en los países tempranamente modernizados de la región : Argentina, Chile y Uruguay. El trabajo argumenta sobre la vinculación entre las matrices sociopolíticas y los patrones de reforma, estableciendo tres rutas de reforma: la populista, la autoritaria y la democrática -institucionalizada. Estos tres países procesaron transformaciones distintas en sus modelos de desarrollo, lo que es explicado por factores socioestructurales (bases sociales de apoyo, legados de incorporación de los sectores populares, institucionales (tipo de competencia política, características organizacionales de los partidos y el cruce de las mismas (patrones de representación política. El artículo sostiene que existen ciertas configuraciones nacionales capaces de neutralizar los efectos inerciales de condiciones sociopolíticas que, inicialmente, favorecerían la reproducción del MSI o su reforma gradual: sociedades altamente modernizadas, regímenes de bienestar extendidos y sectores populares organizados. La transformación de sus bases sociales, la adaptación organizacional de los partidos de izquierdaño populistas, así como la transformación de los vínculos de representación política (secuenciadas de forma específica en cada caso explican la diferencia en los patrones de reforma seguidos. El argumento causal está basado en una narración histórico-comparada de los casos analizadosThis article analyzes the reform patterns of the ISI model in the earliestá modernized countries in Latin America: Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay. I argue that the intertwining of countries's ocio-political matrices and their patterns of reform yield three reformist routes: a populist route, an authoritarian route, and an institutionalized-democratic path. The three selected countries experienced different patterns of reform which could be explained by the effects of socio-structural factors
Full Text Available This article inserts itself into larger discussions regarding post-dictatorship memory politics in Portugal and comparative studies of similar histories of violence in Europe, particularly examinations of National-Socialism, Nazism and the Holocaust, as well as comparative studies of twentieth-century fascist dictatorships in the Iberian peninsula. In spite of the revolutionary, radical nature of the Portuguese democratisation process, studies conducted during the last four decades on the social and political (reconstructions of memory regarding the Portuguese dictatorship (1926-1974 have demonstrated that state policies regarding the past have depicted the dictatorship as one that is very similar to events in countries where the process of democratic transition was actually quite different from that of Portugal. Right-wing groups and those who self-describe as “victims” of processes of decolonisation that occurred between 1974 and 1975 have established a pattern of public debate that leaves no room for discussing the dictatorship without also referring to the 1974-1975 Revolution. This mode of debate seems to suggest that these two periods of history are indicative of a global regime phenomenon and that both the processes of decolonisation and revolution affected Portuguese society in similar ways. This paper attempts to complicate these narratives in order to question the democratic forms that emerged after the Revolution and to compare it to Salazar’s dictatorial regime.Este artículo se encuadra en una discusión más amplia sobre las políticas de la memoria de la posdictadura salazarista en Portugal, y en estudios comparados sobre historias semejantes de violencia en Europa, especialmente las relativas al nacional-socialismo, el nazismo y el Holocausto. También se refiere a los estudios comparados sobre las dictaduras fascistas en la Península Ibérica. A pesar de la naturaleza revolucionaria y radical del proceso de democratización portugués, los estudios llevados a cabo durante las últimas cuatro décadas sobre las (reconstrucciones sociales y políticas de la memoria de la dictadura portuguesa (1926-1974 demuestran que las políticas de estado han elaborado un relato de la dictadura en relación con procesos de transición a la democracia que son muy diferentes del portugués. Grupos de extrema derecha y aquéllos que se describen a sí mismos como “víctimas” del proceso de descolonización que tuvo lugar entre 1974 y 1975 han conseguido consolidar en el debate público unos argumentos que no deja espacio para discutir la dictadura sin relacionarla con la revolución de 1974-1975. Los términos de este debate sugieren que estos dos procesos históricos – descolonización y revolución – afectaron a la sociedad de manera semejante. Este texto trata de descifrar la complejidad de estos relatos para poder cuestionar las formas democráticas que emergieron tras la revolución, y compararlas con el régimen dictatorial de Salazar.
Wallace, Carolyn S.
This is a critical time for the science education community as we embark on the creation and implementation of new national science standards. The purpose of this essay is to offer insight into how the language of curriculum standards, including that found in state science standards in the United States over the past 15 years, has posed barriers…
Edson Luis de Almeida Teles
Full Text Available the objective of this article, making use of the theory of Hannah
Arendt, is to show as the disruption with regimes of exception if it effected by means of transistions, of a vision of the politics as confrontation and violence for a model of the consensus and its counterpart was to occult the divergent ways with that the social subjetividades breach with the rational model, overshadowing the interpretations of the memory in the democratic normalizationo objetivo deste artigo, fazendo uso da teoria de Hannah Arendt,
é mostrar como o rompimento com os regimes de exceção efetuou-se, por meio de transições, de uma visão da política como enfrentamento e violência, para um modelo do consenso, e sua contrapartida foi ocultar os modos divergentes com que as subjetividades sociais rompem com o modelo racional, obscurecendo as interpretações da memória na normalização democrática.
A. van Riel; A.J.H.C. Schram
A politicoeconomic model of the relationship between economic and structural variables and government popularity is developed and applied to the Weimar Republic. We obtained data from decentralized election results in the 1924 to 1933 period, using a weighted panel estimation method. Parameter estim
CARLOS MELÉNDEZ; CARLOS LEÓN
A casi una década de la apertura del régimen político posterior al gobierno de Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000), se hace evidente la fortaleza de los legados autoritarios que no han sido desmontados en su totalidad por los últimos dos gobiernos elegidos democráticamente. Los problemas de gobernabilidad que enfrenta el Perú, que se expresan a través de conflictos sociales (El Baguazo) y casos de corrupción estatal de alto nivel (Petroaudios), se originan precisamente en la herencia autoritaria del...
Canetti, Daphna; Halperin, Eran; HOBFOLL, STEVAN E.; Shapira, Oren; Hirsch-Hoefler, Sivan
Major political events such as terrorist attacks and forced relocation of citizens may have an immediate effect on attitudes towards ethnic minorities associated with these events. The psychological process that leads to political exclusionism of minority groups was examined using a field study among Israeli settlers in Gaza days prior to the Disengagement Plan adopted by the Israeli government on June 6, 2004 and enacted in August 2005. Lending credence to integrated threat theory and to the...
Chaffee, Kathryn E.; Noels, Kimberly A.; McEown, Maya Sugita
Positive psychology encompasses the study of positive outcomes, optimal functioning, and resilience in difficult circumstances. In the context of language learning, positive outcomes include academic engagement, self-determined motivation, persistence in language learning, and eventually becoming a proficient user of the language. These questionnaire studies extend previous research by addressing how these positive outcomes can be achieved even in adverse circumstances. In Study 1, the primar...
Full Text Available This paper examines the prevalent notion that that the production of knowledge, academic research and teaching can and ought to be audited and assessed in the same manner as the production of other goods and services. The emphasis on similarities between industry and the academy leads to a neglect of fundamental differences in their aims and, as a consequence, a tendency to evaluate scientific research in terms of patents and product development and colleges and universities in terms of the labour market. The article examines the idea of the free academy, on the one hand, and compares and contrasts it to the idea of free enterprise, on the other. It is argued that the view of the university as a supplier of specific solutions for pre-determined, non-scientific needs (a workforce with skills currently in demand, innovations for commercial partners, justifications for political decisions, etc undermines the public legitimacy of university science and weakens the fabric of scientific training and practice. The article proposes that the university’s main purpose must be to provide a recognized neutral, autonomous agency of rigorous, disinterested investigation and scientific education, which constitutes a necessary condition for an enlightened liberal democracy: an informed, capable and critical citizenry.
Lucileide Costa Cardoso
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to demonstrate through analysis of documents of repressive nature, the elements highlighted by the Military Justice to establish the trace of persecution of the intellectuals among other social sectors which dared to challenge the Dictatorship. The complete mapping, involving the combat strategies against the “communism”, including the knowledge of the political parties and their military staff, was accumulated by police and military sectors along the 20th century. We intended to follow, through these records, the political trajectory of the intellectual Jacob Gorender. As a journalist, he got involved in the discussion about the Brazilian participation in the World War II, joined the FEB in 1943. Before that, however, Gorender became a communist, recruited by Mario Alves in 1942. In the early 60’s, he acted as a militant and coordinator of PCB, when he decided to join PCBR, founded in 1968. The historian, in the beginning of the 1964 Strike, with his life already devastated by the Information and Security Community, experienced marginalization, imprisonment, torture and censorship of his writings among other abuses that also reached his closest friends, political companions and family members. The crossing of this amount of information with the memorial documents helps to understand the political repression tricks and the different Revolutionary projects in course.
Turan, Sevgi Adak
The aim of this study, which was inspired by François Georgeon's study of Ramadans in the late Ottoman Empire, is to analyze Ramadans in the early Republican era. By decoding the official attitude towards Ramadans, this research tries to discover to what extent the Kemalist regime regulated and transformed Ramadan, with which purposes and mechanisms it did so, and whether or not this process entailed a significant change in the publicness and socialness of Ramadan. Based on these analyses, th...
Chao, Ruth K.
This study compared standard conceptualizations for parenting style, parental involvement in school, and parents' socialization goals with alternative conceptualizations, in relation to children's academic achievement. Specifically, the study asked: (1) whether ethnicity is predictive of achievement scores when included in analyses involving the…
Pong, Suet-ling; Johnston, Jamie; Chen, Vivien
Our study re-examines the relationship between parenting and school performance among Asian students. We use two sources of data: wave I of the Adolescent Health Longitudinal Survey (Add Health), and waves I and II of the Taiwan Educational Panel Survey (TEPS). Analysis using Add Health reveals that the Asian-American/European-American difference in the parenting–school performance relationship is due largely to differential sample sizes. When we select a random sample of European-American st...
Delaney Michael Skerrett
Full Text Available The 20th century saw the Soviet and Francoist regimes enforce their respective ideologies in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking territories in Spain. In both cases, the autochthonous language suffered under the stringent control of the mechanisms of censorship and repression. In fact, Soviet and Spanish leaders—representing both extremes of the political spectrum—tried to replace the use of the autochthonous language in many sociolinguistic domains with their own—Russian and (Castilian Spanish—as these languages embodied the ideologies and the new orders that they wished to establish. This paper compares and contrasts the diverse methods of control over language carried out in Estonia and the Catalan-speaking areas of Spain in order to demonstrate that highly centralised multilingual states—whatever their political ideology—can make use of surprisingly similar means of control, ultimately depriving local linguistic communities of the ability to use and develop their own language.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.16
Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
The purpose of this work is to create a generalizable data- and theory-supported capability to better understand and anticipate (with quantifiable uncertainty): 1) how the dynamics of allegiance formations between various groups and society are impacted by active conflict and by third-party interventions and 2) how/why extremist allegiances co-evolve over time due to changing geopolitical, sociocultural, and military conditions.
What we see in Russia today is a dual media system, with independent and critical newspapers on one side vs. controlled and censored television channels on the other. The independent media are facing severe difficulties, and the accountability of the elected are nearly non-existing. The weaknesses of the judicial system allowing arbitrary exercising of the legislation against journalists, the increased control of media outlets both regional and federal, among television channels, newspapers a...
Williams, Keith L.; Wahler, Robert G.
Forty clinic-referred mothers completed questionnaires describing their children's problems, the mothers' parenting styles, and their everyday mindfulness. Psychometric analyses of the questionnaires showed mother reports to be internally consistent, except for one of the parenting style scales (i.e., permissive style). We dropped the scale and…
Pong, Suet-ling; Johnston, Jamie; Chen, Vivien
Our study re-examines the relationship between parenting and school performance among Asian students. We use two sources of data: wave I of the Adolescent Health Longitudinal Survey (Add Health), and waves I and II of the Taiwan Educational Panel Survey (TEPS). Analysis using Add Health reveals that the Asian-American/European-American difference…
This paper examines how Taiwan moved from being viewed as a model Asian democracy to one allegedly suffering from democratic reversal. The reasons for the declining domestic and international reputation of Taiwanâ€™s democracy are discussed. Lastly, some key political challenges facing Taiwanâ€™s democracy are outlined.
Ramos, Marco A
From 1966 to 1983, Argentina underwent a period of political radicalization as fascist regimes used terror to control its citizens and leftist guerrillas resorted to violence to spark revolution. During this politically volatile period, psychiatry transformed from an apolitical clinical specialty into an ideological tool used for both leftist resistance and military oppression. The largest psychiatric organization at the time, the Federación Argentina de Psiquiatras (FAP), became the center for a new politically committed brand of psychiatry in Argentina that united psychoanalysis and community psychiatry with Marxist theory. Though the military targeted and eventually dismantled the FAP and its leftist brand of psychoanalysis and community psychiatry, sectors of the government also paradoxically appropriated and reframed community-based psychiatric perspectives to pathologize leftist subversion and advance their own conservative ideology. PMID:23811712
Full Text Available The essay provides with some insights around the topic of sexual violence to women involved in politics during general Augusto Pinochet military rule (1973-1990. Not only it is meant to describe the phenomenon in quantitative and qualitative terms, but also to delve into the realm of the social actors who, in several moments and contexts, identify rape as a specific type of torture, different from other human rights violations. This practice finds its roots well before the coup, in long duration processes and especially in domestic violence, but reaches its climax after 1973, extending into politics and blurring the boundaries between public and private sphere. Elaborating this theme today, either for individuals and in the collective debate, seems to be extremely difficult and controversial: maybe it constitutes one of the most thorny issues of the ‘history of present time’ in contemporary Chile.
Fardzadeh, Haghish Ebad
For over a century, jokes have been considered serious narratives indicating shared attitudes, beliefs, or conflicts that are ripped from the community’s mind. Notably, people’s ethical attitude toward ethnic jokes has been ignored in humor studies. The purpose of the current thesis is twofold: a) developing a scale for measuring people’s ethical attitude toward ethnic humor and b) exploring sociological and psychological factors that relate to ethical attitude toward ethnic humor. In brief, ...
This article evaluates China's model of development, especially its main component, i.e. its model of governance. It suggests that China's model of development is marked by an imbalance between fast opening of the economy and the society and sluggish opening of the political system. The Chinese society has become much more open, reflected in the Chinese growing awareness of their legal rights. The Chinese economy has become highly internationalized and open, but much of Chinese politics is cl...
Seelman, Kristie L.; Walls, N. Eugene
Using a sample of 124 incoming social work graduate students, we examined whether levels of perceived incongruence with social work values and the perceived culture of a graduate social work program significantly correlate with social psychological constructs. The social psychological constructs are associated with maintenance and support for…
Since the mid-1990s more and more Argentines have been taking to the streets to express their dissatisfaction with the growing levels of poverty, social exclusion and violence. As part of this growing trend, the Movimiento del Dolor (a social movement consisting of the family members of victims of police violence) emerged as a protest against unaccountable law enforcement practices. Contrary to the expectation that, after the 1983 democratic transition, state violence against citizens would c...
Full Text Available What does democracy do or fail to do about the welfare ofNigerians? Does it matter for the performance of democracy? This paper seeks to determine the mutual impact of democracy and welfare of citizens in Nigeria. Given the state of democracy and available data, it seems that politicians at the state and local government levels are more concerned about their personal interests than those of citizens. We then problematise theoretical western democracy, sold to Nigeria, as with many other third world formerly colonized territories, after independence, but refused during colonialism, at the least for lacking in development and failing to take local conditions into consideration. Implied here are both the institutional and behavioural deficiencies that run democracy dry. The question is, is democracy affecting welfare of citizens positively? To respond in the negative as we do, means more than just a simple answer. Why is it so? With a focus on 1999 to date, a major assumption in this paper is that both the performance and stability of democracy consist in its responsiveness to the welfare citizens. Without any allusion or references to any saintly model of democracy somewhere to be copied, it is argued that the lack of involvement of citizens in election of leaders has created in political elites the loss of all sense of accountability to citizens.Besides, having found oil revenue as the sustaining power for the state, the individual tax paying citizen has been relegated, as against traditions of respect for the tax payer in more established democracies, where the running of the state is dependent on the tax payer’s money. The gap between the volume of resource allocation and development projects at the state and local government levels, as well as the ostentatiousness of politicians seem to have led us to conclude that politicians are only feeding fat on citizens’ welfare.
Full Text Available More than a regime that stormed to Argentina in the 1940s, Peronism is configured as a system of complex ideas and exceptional, a identification (as defined by Beatriz SARLO. This article focuses on the brightest stage og the Justicialism (another name for the period that was Juan Domingo Perón as its greatest exponent, the First Peronism (1946-1955 - and the construction of a policy of spreading the so-called Social Tourism, while one arm of a larger project carried forward by the powerful Central Office of Information (SI, in Spanish. This strategy was fundamentally based on the production and dissemination of posters. On the other hand, the study shows similarities and differences in this field to other regimes of the first half of the 20th century (Salazarism, Francoism, Fascism, Nazism, Stalinism and New Deal. And it shows how the vision of Michel FOUCAULT about the Disciplinary Power was largely present in the peronist Social Tourism.
In the first decade of the 21st century Indonesian television underwent drastic transformations as part of the broader socio-political changes following the fall of the New Order regime of President Suharto in 1998. As part of the reforms, Indonesia implemented regional autonomy, devolving powers fr
The study attempts to contribute to an understanding of the political economy of contemporary Southeast Asia in analytical, conceptual, empirical, and theoretical terms. It offers a critical explanation of the historical specificities of capitalist development in the region through a comparative examination of the evolution of two diverse domestic socioeconomic formations of the Philippines and Malaysia against the background of neoliberal globalization. It argues that an understanding of the...
Robben, Antonius C G M
This article uses the dual process model (DPM) in an analysis of the national mourning of tens of thousands of disappeared in Chile and Argentina by adapting the model from the individual to the collective level where society as a whole is bereaved. Perpetrators are also involved in the national mou
Developing adaptive capacity for responding to environmental change in the Arab Gulf States: Uncertainties to linking ecosystem conservation, sustainable development and society in authoritarian rentier economies
The recent assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has emphasized that understanding the institutional context in which policies are made and implemented is critical to define sustainable development paths from a climate change perspective. Nevertheless, while the importance of social, political and cultural factors is getting more recognition in some parts of the world, little is known about the human dimensions or the contexts in which they operate in the affluent oil economies of the Arabian Peninsula. Policies that implicitly subsidize or support a wasteful and environmentally destructive use of resources are still pervasive, while noteworthy environmental improvements still face formidable political and institutional constraints to the adaptation of the necessary far reaching and multisectoral approach. The principal aim of this paper is to identify some of the major shortcomings within the special context of the Arab Gulf states' socio-cultural environment in support of appropriate development pathways. Conclusions highlight that past and current policy recommendations for mitigating environmental threats are likely to be ineffective. This is because they are based on the unverified assumption that Western-derived standards of conduct, specifically the normative concept of "good governance" and "democracy", will be adopted in non-Western politico-cultural contexts.
Describimos en este artículo el contexto cooperativo y su importancia en el desarrollo del niño. Siguiendo la teoria de Piaget, estos contextos facilitan el desarrollo intelectual y moral de los niños. Trasladado a la escuela esto implica un cambio importante en la función del profesor que es la de formar individuos críticos, cooperativos y creativos.The cooperative context and its importance for the child's development are described in this article. Following the Piagetian theory, these cont...
This thesis reviews the origin and development of âInternet anti-corruptionâ, a new Chinese online phenomenon. I examine newspaper discourse covering this phenomenon, aiming to show it is discursively constructed in the press based on three typical cases occurring in 2012. The construction of legitimacy on this new phenomenon is the focus of the study. Drawing from the sociological and political perspective of power, this study uses discourse analysis theory combined with media disco...
Full Text Available Describimos en este artículo el contexto cooperativo y su importancia en el desarrollo del niño. Siguiendo la teoria de Piaget, estos contextos facilitan el desarrollo intelectual y moral de los niños. Trasladado a la escuela esto implica un cambio importante en la función del profesor que es la de formar individuos críticos, cooperativos y creativos.The cooperative context and its importance for the child's development are described in this article. Following the Piagetian theory, these contexts facilitate children's intellectual and moral development. This taken to the school environment implies an important change in the teacher's role that is the one of forming critical, cooperative and creative individuals.
Pastana, Debora Regina
Full Text Available O tema central deste artigo é o crescente investimento no combate ao crime pelos atuais governos democráticos brasileiros, o que contribui para consolidar, também entre nós, a figura do “estado punitivo”. O atual arranjo capitalista generaliza-se quase que instantaneamente em todo o globo, atrelando o sucesso dos empreendimentos econômicos à nova face da política criminal. Nesse sentido, o estado punitivo passa a caracterizar uma ambiguidade que simbolicamente é o retrato do momento político contemporâneo. Dito de outra forma, em torno desse modelo de controle misturam-se conceitos absolutamente contraditórios como democracia e autoritarismo. Inserido nas recentes reflexões sociológicas de Loïc Wacquant, David Garland, Nils Christie, Zygmunt Bauman e Giorgio Agamben, entre outros, esse tema começa a ser discutido também pela comunidade acadêmica nacional. O artigo, portanto, tem como objetivo abordar o que se convencionou chamar de “estado punitivo”, figura política que se ajusta às transformações econômicas, sociais e culturais já em curso nos últimos trinta anos e que desponta no Brasil como forma cada vez mais hegemônica de controle social
Baader, Meike S.
The subject of this paper is the construction of childhood as a time of happiness in different historical periods. It first analyses the construction of childhood as a time of happiness in the German romantic period in the eighteenth century. Secondly, the paper discusses the construction of happy mothers and children in "The Century of Childhood"…
The theoretical field of crisis management has just been established and developed since 1970s and in the past three decades, most of such theories were western-oriented and US-dominated. Inspired by Huang, Lin and Su (Taiwan) and Lee (Hong Kong)‘s explorations of cultural context in crisis communication, this thesis applied crisis communication theories to governmental practices in the mainland China examining the relevancy between theory and practice in a non-western context. The thesis spe...
Dornbusch, Sanford M.; And Others
Uses a reformation of Baumrind's typology of authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles in the context of adolescent school performance. Authoritarian and permissive parenting were negatively associated with grades; authoritative parenting was positively associated with grades. (PCB)
Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy L.
Authoritarian parenting is often shown to be associated with negative outcomes for children, including the development of maladaptive schemas. However, this is not the case for all children who experience Authoritarian parenting. Optimism is examined as a moderator in the relationship between Authoritarian parenting and maladaptive schemas that…
This thesis investigates the electoral resilience of dominant parties in electoral authoritarian regimes under conditions of economic crises. In the field of comparative politics, it is widely assumed that poor economic performance has negative effects on regime-stability - whether authoritarian or democratic. Although this finding is fairly robust across regime types and institutional varieties within regime types, empirical evidence has shown that electoral authoritarian regimes have remain...
Rafat Ghotme; Nadia García Sicard
The aim of this article is to show how the authoritarianism was renewed in Egypt after the fall of Mubarak. Through the reconstructions of actions of the principal political Egyptian actors, it will be demonstrated that the demands of democratization that arose in the “spring” of 2011 meant only a change in the personification of the authoritarianism, rather than a change of the institutionalized authoritarianism of the militaries. Furthermore, it was established that this structure has been ...
Federico R. León
Full Text Available Eleven empirical studies were uncovered in a literature review of research findings, relevant to the proposition that Peruvian workers prefer authoritarian supervision. With a basic definition of authoritarian supervisión as criterion (centralization of decision power, intolerance toward subordinate´s disagreements, rejection of subordinate´s suggestions, no evidence whatsoever favorable to the proposition was found. The data suggested that Peruvian workers have a negative attitude towaró authoritarian suppervision. The empirical evidence conceming a secondary aspect of authoritarianism, closeness of supervísíon, was ambiguous.
Modernización y estructuración global en Chile: de la génesis autoritaria a la consolidación democrática Global modernization and restructuring in Chile: from authoritarian birth to democratic maturity
De Mattos Carlos A.
Full Text Available El esquema de modernización del gobierno militar chileno fue una reacción a la crisis del modelo populista-desarrollista que imperó en Chile desde 1929. Hacia 1973, éste había llegado a una situación terminal que, en lo político, se expresaba en una situación de ingobernabilidad y, en lo económico, se reflejaba en una continua caída del producto; un aumento del déficit de cuenta corriente de la balanza de pagos; una paulatina aceleración de las tasas de inflación y el sostenido aumento de los conflictos sociales. La nueva estrategia buscaba reducir el papel económico del Estado y restablecer el libre juego de las fuerzas del mercado, mediante la descentralización, la privatización, la liberación económica, la reforma del mercado laboral y la apertura a los mercados internacionales. Independientemente de los métodos utilizados por el gobierno militar, su gestión creó un país totalmente diferente y dio lugar a un nuevo modelo de regulación, donde hay una creciente dependencia estructural de la sociedad con respecto al capital. Oponiéndose a las evaluaciones más optimistas de este proceso, el autor concluye que aún persisten algunos problemas fundamentales: la concentración del poder económico, la intensificación de las desigualdades sociales y el grave deterioro ecológico. Problemas a los que es más sensible el nuevo gobierno democrático.The modernization imposed by the military regime in Chile was a reaction to the crisis of the populist view of development which had governed policy there since 1929. By 1973, the model was in i ts death-throes; in political terms, this meant that the country had become ungovernable. In economic terms, GDPwas steadily falling and the deficit in the balance of payments in current account was steadily rising. Inflation was also rising slowly, and with it, social conflicto The new strategy sought to reduce the State's role in the economy and to give free play to market forces by decentralization,
privatization, deregulation, labour reforms and the opening up of the economy to international markets. Whatever the
methods used by the military government, Chile became a new country, with a new model for regulation in which society as a whole became increasingly dependant on capi tal. The author rejects the most optimistic valuations of the process, but concludes that there are still some deep-seated problems: the concentration of power, the intensification of social disparities and serious ecological decay; and that the new Government is more sensitive to these problems.
王燕; 张雷; 张韫; 温忠麟
Estilos parentais autoritário e democrático-recíproco intergeracionais, conflito conjugal e comportamentos de externalização e internalização Intergenerational authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles, marital conflict, and externalizing and internalizing behaviors
Ebenézer A. de Oliveira; Angela H. Marin; Fábio B. Pires; Giana B. Frizzo; Tiago Ravanello; Caroline Rossato
Modelos mediativos de risco e proteção foram testados, para prever longitudinalmente comportamentos de externalização e internalização infantis, a partir de uma atitude conjugal conflituosa e de estilos parentais intergeracionais autoritário vs. democrático-recíproco. Proveniente de duas escolas particulares e uma pública, a amostra contou com 25 meninas e 25 meninos de 4 e 5 anos, e suas respectivas mães. Correlações bivariadas de Pearson e regressões múltiplas indicaram a presença de transm...
Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.
College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…
Major conclusion from this exploratory analysis was that if the black families were viewed by white norms they appeared authoritarian, but that, unlike their white counterparts, the most authoritarian of these families produced the most self-assertive and independent girls. (Author)
This article offers an alternative model, the model of shared authority, to the traditional, authoritarian model for authority and obedience for Religious Education. This model moves away from the authoritarian model of a teacher as the authority and the students as obedient listeners in the direction of a shared authority model in which teachers…
Leung, Kwok; Lau, Sing; Lam, Wai-Lim
Investigated relationships between parenting style and adolescents' academic achievement in Hong Kong, United States, and Australia. Found cultural differences in general and academic authoritarianism and general authoritativeness. Academic achievement was negatively related to academic authoritarianism and was positively related to general…
Williams, Dana M.
The use of Native American nicknames and symbols by US college athletics is a long-standing practice that embodies various forms of authoritarian oppression. One type of authoritarianism is that of patriarchy and it has been present in the struggle over the nickname at the University of North Dakota, the "Fighting Sioux". This article explores…
Lim, Vivien K. G.; Loo, Geok Leng
Structural equation modeling results from data on 178 undergraduates and their parents in Singapore indicated that paternal job insecurity was associated positively and maternal job insecurity negatively with authoritarian parenting. Mothers' authoritarian parenting was related to young adults' self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was positively…
Gazali, E.; d'Haenens, L.S.J.; Hollander, E.H.; Menayang, V.; Hidayat, D.N.
The Reform movement that ended Suharto's 32 years of authoritarian rule brought significant changes to Indonesia. It liberated the media, the market, and civil society from state repression. But at the same time, the end of authoritarian rule brought about a vast shift to a libertarian market orient
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined similarities and differences between mothers' and fathers' attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations and progressive versus authoritarian attitudes as well as correlations between mothers' and fathers' attributions and attitudes. DESIGN: Interviews were conducted with both mothers and fathers in 88 Thai families. RESULTS: Mothers and fathers did not differ in mean levels of attributions regarding successes and failures in caregiving situations or in authoritarian or progressive attitudes. Mothers' and fathers' perceived control over failure, authoritarian attitudes, progressive attitudes, and modernity of attitudes were significantly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: This work suggests high similarities between Thai mothers and fathers in their attributions and attitudes related to parenting. PMID:21927590
Robbins, T; Anthony, D
While the presence of authoritarian "cults" in our midst raises a number of social control and "law and order" issues, current controversies over cults contain substantial elements of mystification. "Brainwashing" is an inherently subjective metaphor that is used as a rationale for persecuting unpopular movements and defining religious converts as nonautonomous zombies who can be coerced for therapeutic purposes. While "coercive persuasion" models do have some heuristic value for the analysis of indoctrination in some authoritarian groups, assumptions regarding the alleged destruction of the "free will" of converts and the status of authoritarian religiosity as a medical pathology are not warranted. PMID:24310790
El nuevo autoritarismo burocrático y el sindicalismo peronista. Análisis de la “participación” junto al gobierno militar de Onganía en la Argentina de los años sesenta: del “nuevo orden social” al “Cordobazo”
Full Text Available In the present work we reconstruct the relationship between the Peronist unionism and the new authoritarianism of 1966. We seek to analyze the general discussion concerning the union participation with authoritarian governments, and the debate within the Peronism around that relation with the military government. To do that, we focus on the development of the union group called “participacionista”, which answered positively the call of the military government. We aim to contribute to the study of the "new authoritarianism", based on his alliance with the “participacionista” union sector, and to understand its place in the Argentine union tradition.
Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-
Arvustus: Deniss Hanovs, Valdis Tēraudkalns: Ultimate Freedom - no choice. The culture of authoritarianism in Latvia, 1934-1940. (Central and Eastern Europe. Reginal perspectives in global context, Bd. 2.) Brill. Leiden-Boston 2013
Dornbusch, S M; Ritter, P L; Leiderman, P H; Roberts, D F; Fraleigh, M J
This article develops and tests a reformation of Baumrind's typology of authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles in the context of adolescent school performance. Using a large and diverse sample of San Francisco Bay Area high school students (N = 7,836), we found that both authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were negatively associated with grades, and authoritative parenting was positively associated with grades. Parenting styles generally showed the expected relation to grades across gender, age, parental education, ethnic, and family structure categories. Authoritarian parenting tended to have a stronger association with grades than did the other 2 parenting styles, except among Hispanic males. The full typology best predicted grades among white students. Pure authoritative families (high on authoritative but not high on the other 2 indices) had the highest mean grades, while inconsistent families that combine authoritarian parenting with other parenting styles had the lowest grades. PMID:3665643
Full Text Available The paper analyzes socio-psychological sources of political divisions in post-communist Serbia. Following the argument that authoritarianism is intrinsically associated with the opposition to pro-democratic political change, it is hypothesized that authoritarianism is associated with the support for the former communists, and increasingly over time for radical nationalists. The data analysis utilizes three data sets, from 1990, 1996 and 2002, that is from periods that represent three crucial stages in the development of the Serbian post-communist politics. Discriminant analysis of party preferences showed that preferences for authoritarian political options and ideological orientations were tied to authoritarianism as an individual difference variable and specific socio-structural characteristics. The paper offers an interpretation of the Serbian politics throughout 1990s in terms of a cleavage of world views.
Discusses the author's development of teaching style from a permissive to an authoritarian to an authoritative teaching style. Uses research on parenting styles to understand the college classroom and argues that a teacher's view of students affects their teaching. (CMK)
von Baer, Ena
In a number of countries in the world since the nineteenth century transitions have taken place from authoritarian to liberal democratic systems. The transformation of authoritarian and totalitarian regimes has become a central topic of political science investigations. These studies aimed at analyzing the causes, elements and the course of such transformations. But the form of dealing with the past in the transformation process was only marginally considered.In Germany, after 1945 the conce...
Marlus Heriberto Arns de Oliveira; José Renato Gaziero Cella
The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, enacted in 1988 during the democratization process of the country after the end of an authoritarian regime preceded by several others that show a non-democratic tradition in the Brazilian Republic, remained still remnants an authoritarian Patronizing and Paternalist state, the example of the final part of the Article 5, item IV, which claims to be the free expression of thought, but forbids anonymity, prohibition which deserves to be reth...
From the mid and late 1980s, the countries with fastest economic development in East Asia successively began their political transitions from authoritarian power to democracy. In Singapore, it began its transition with the government' s guidance and gradually adjusted the original structures so that the authoritarian structures were slowly shifted into a steady democratic system. As a result, it saved itself from paying both huge social and political cost , maintaining the concerted development in its society and economy.
Michael W. Apple
The secularity of the state is seen by 'authoritarian populist' religious conservatives as imposing a world-view that is out of touch with the deep religious commitments that guide their lives. In the process, authoritarian populists have taken on subaltern identities and claimed that they are the last truly dispossessed groups. To demonstrate their increasing power in educational and social policy, I situate a specific set of technologies-the Internet-within the social context of its use in ...
As an antithesis of “authoritarian enclave” which has been well-established in the comparative politics literature, “democratic enclave” points to the institution of a state or the unambiguous regulatory space in society “where the authoritarian regime’s writ is substantively limited and is replaced by an adherence to recognizably democratic norms and procedures” (Gilley 2010). In this sense, the Internet space, embodied by information and communication technologies, has great potential to pl...
中澤, 潤; 中道, 圭人; ナカザワ, ジュン; ナカミチ, ケイト; NAKAMIHCI, Keito; Nakazawa, Jun
This research examined the relationships between paternal/maternal authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive childrearing styles (based on the responsibility and control childrearing dimensions of Baumrind), and reactive and proactive aggressive behavior of their young children (N=59, aged 4-6 years). For reactive aggression, there were no differences among paternal/maternal childrearing types. For proactive aggression, authoritarian fathers have more aggressive young children than both au...
The paper contains a critical analysis o f various kinds o f anomy and oligarchic and authoritarian tendencies that have become visible within the Polish institutions of academic democracy. Oligarchy and authoritarianism in the world o f Polish sociology have their roots both in the formal socialist past and in the mechanical transferring principles of „competitive business enterprise” (Veblen) to academic and spiritual work. Anomic competition that presupposes and causes various ...
During the twentieth century, the countries of Central America were characterized by remarkably different political regimes: military-authoritarianism in Guatemala and El Salvador, progressive democracy in Costa Rica and traditional-authoritarianism in Honduras and Nicaragua. This article explains these contrasting regime outcomes by exploring the agrarian and state-building reforms pursued by political leaders during the nineteenth– and early twentieth century liberal reform period. Based on...
During the twentieth century, the countries of Central America were characterized by remarkably different political regimes: military-authoritarianism in Guatemala and El Salvador, progressive democracy in Costa Rica and traditional-authoritarianism in Honduras and Nicaragua. This article explains these contrasting regime outcomes by exploring the agrarian and state-building reforms pursued by political leaders during the nineteenth– and early twentieth century liberal reform period. Based on...
Why does a substantial portion of FDI flow into authoritarian regimes despite their weak political institutions? I argue that foreign investors invest in autocracies and democracies in pursuit of different institutional advantages. They invest in some authoritarian countries not despite the lack of credibility, but because of the availability of flexibility. Strong institutions create a credible investment environment that protects property rights better. Weak institutions create a flexible i...
The populist backlash in Central and Eastern Europe reveals the absence in the new democracies of checks and balances and of truly independent media to serve as a counterweight to creeping authoritarianism. It also shows the return of dormant strands in the region's political culture and thus its potential vulnerability to the authoritarian temptation. These developments are contributing to widespread estrangement from the postenlargement EU in the older member states. If current trends conti...
Sand, Trond Svela; Fasting, Kari; Chroni, Stilani; Knorre, Nada
Coaches can easily dominate athletes and this unbalanced power distribution may be strengthened by authoritarian behavior; i.e. negative feedback, directive communication, coach-led decision making, taskcentered role orientation, and goal orientation on performance. An unwanted risk emerges when the power is abused, which can lead to the occurrence of sexual harassment. This article examines whether authoritarian coaching behaviors may have any implications for female ath...
McCullaugh, Marcy Elisabeth
Why do some autocrats redistribute resource rents through high welfare spending, while others do not? Conventional wisdom suggests that authoritarian leaders unconstrained by institutions and with unlimited access to resource wealth would siphon off these funds for themselves and rent-seeking elites at the expense of delivering goods to citizens. Yet, welfare spending levels among the world's petroleum-rich authoritarian and hybrid regimes indicate that some rulers are more inclined than ot...
This book is a political economy study that tackles the relationship between public finance and politics in Egypt during the period 1981-2003. It analyzes how the authoritarian regime of Hosni Moubarak has adapted to its fiscal crisis and how this crisis has affected the relationships between state and society and between the different parts and levels of the state. Political economy studies on Egypt have maintained that the reproduction of authoritarianism in this country has mainly been ach...
Chirambo, Reuben Makayiko
Though Malawian democracy could still be described as in transition from authoritarianism, it has enabled an atmosphere for critical debate of and dissent against seemingly popular opinions, which was not possible during the authoritarian rule of former life president, Dr. H. K. Banda, 1964-1994. This article examines politicised cultural populism in Malawi under the dictatorship and democracy in comparative terms. President Banda, as a political populist, appropriated culture to legitimate a...
This chapter interrogates how activist social media communication in authoritarian contexts is shaped through the mutual articulation of social media user practices, business models, and technological architectures, as well as through the controlling efforts of states. It specifically focuses on social media protest activity and contention in China, Tunisia, and Iran, authoritarian states which have made a large effort to control online activity. The analysis shows that instead of blocking or...
Full Text Available The concept of civil religion has caught major attention among scholars studying the junction of religion and politics (J.-J. Rousseau, E. Durkheim, R. Bellah. The notion focuses on the phenomenon of cultural contents sacralizing and ritualizing the ruling political institutions of a society, extending support to the integration of the political and social system at a cultural level. The notion of civil religion has recently been operationalized crossculturally, but light has not been shed upon its predictors. In this paper authoritarianism is tested as a predictor of civil religion cross-culturally. Four student samples of Bosnian, Serbian, Slovenian and US students were analyzed. Very strong, significant associations between authoritarianism, as operationalized by a modified Lane scale, and civil religion were found in all cases. Moreover, upon introducing femininity, anxiety and gender into the analysis, a strong, dominant and significant impact on the part of authoritarianism was still found when civil religion was observed crossculturally. When the same predictors were applied to explaining general religiosity, authoritarianism fell short of being a significant predictor in most of the environments observed. Such results suggest an especially close link between civil religion and authoritarianism.
Norma Jo Baker
Full Text Available While much has been written on the failure of the Yeltsin presidency and the transformation of Russian society since 1991, little work has been done that illustrates the participation of established liberal democracies in supporting Yeltsin’s authoritarian, politically unresponsive ‘superpresidentialism,’ or linking this support to the authoritarian nature of the modern liberal democratic project itself. By examining Russian trade union culture and history, as well as international trade union representative involvement, this paper argues that the persistent neglect of unions in the 1990s to challenge social relations of production can be understood as paradigmatic of an authoritarian dynamic focused on the political elite rather than on their membership. With international support, the regime’s concern was with the dismantling of Soviet economic relations and social institutions. Working from the culture and history of Russian trade unions, the unions’ efforts to retain a place in the new era through a strategy of ‘social partnership,’ combined with the collapse of the social welfare system, reinforced a top-down inertia characteristic of the unions. The result, predictably, was an era marked by a politics of irresponsibility, a political ethic is not indicative of an inherent Russian authoritarianism, but that of the authoritarian nature of the liberal modernity itself.
The relationship between three parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative) and the mental health of Arab adolescents was tested. It was hypothesized that parenting style toward boys would differ from that towards girls, psychological adjustment of girls would differ from that of boys, and that the authoritarian style applied within the authoritarian Arab society is not associated with poor psychological adjustment. The Parental Authority Questionnaire, Child Attitude Toward Parents, Lipsitt's Self-Concept Scale for Children, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Psychological State Scale were administered to 431 Arab adolescents. Sex comparison revealed that the parenting style with regard to girls tends to be more authoritative and less authoritarian than with regard to boys. Girls scored higher than boys on identity disorder, anxiety disorder, and depression scales, whereas boys scored higher than girls on the behavior disorder scale. There was no significant relationship between the authoritarian parenting style and the mental health measures. A significant positive relationship exists between the authoritative parenting style and the mental health of children. Among boys, the permissive parenting style was associated with negative attitudes towards parents, lower self-esteem and increased identity, anxiety, phobia, depressive, and conduct disorders. It seems, therefore, that the effect of parenting style is culturally and gender dependent rather than universal. PMID:15446722
Marlus Heriberto Arns de Oliveira
Full Text Available The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, enacted in 1988 during the democratization process of the country after the end of an authoritarian regime preceded by several others that show a non-democratic tradition in the Brazilian Republic, remained still remnants an authoritarian Patronizing and Paternalist state, the example of the final part of the Article 5, item IV, which claims to be the free expression of thought, but forbids anonymity, prohibition which deserves to be rethought, especially on the internet, where the navigation data of people deserve protection, as well as their rights to remain anonymous, a fact which entails the need for reflection on the scope and how best to interpret the constitutional provision cited, a debate that, in the proposed article will deal think the ideas of paternalism, authoritarianism and freedom, whose focus will be about within the Internet, social networks and the Knowledge Society.
Kim, Hyesoo; Chung, Ruth H Gim
The authors examined the relationship of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting styles and the number of years in the United States with self-perception (academic competence, morality, and self-reliance) as recalled by Korean American college students (N = 144). Authoritative parenting behaviors were most common in Korean American families, followed by authoritarian behaviors, with permissive behaviors a distant 3rd. Authoritative parenting styles and the number of years lived in the United States were predictive of higher academic competence. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were predictive of lower self-reliance, whereas number of years lived in the United States was related to higher self-reliance. Those findings provide partial support for generalizing D. Baumrind's (1971) model of parenting styles to Korean American families, and the findings demonstrate the importance of considering acculturation issues in parenting studies. PMID:14719780
Ferrari, J R; Olivette, M J
Late adolescent females (N = 86; M age = 19.1 years) completed reliable and valid self-report measures on their perception of both parents' authority style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) and their own tendency toward decisional procrastination. Households where daughters perceived both parents as high authoritarian (n = 32) were significantly more likely to raise daughters with strong indecision tendencies than were parents perceived as low authoritarian (n = 23). Mothers and fathers perceived as high (n = 22) or low (n = 22) authoritative, and high (n = 32) or low (n = 24) permissive, did not produce significant differences in daughters' self-reported decisional procrastination. Results suggest that parental authority characterized by stern inflexibility and overcontrol has the greatest influence on daughters who develop chronic indecision tendencies. PMID:8266848
Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Ray, Anne E; Stapleton, Jerod; Abar, Caitlin; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Tollison, Sean; Grossbard, Joel; Larimer, Mary E
The study examined parent profiles among high school athletes transitioning to college and their association with high-risk drinking in a multi-site, randomized trial. Students (n = 587) were randomized to a control or combined parent-based and brief motivational intervention condition and completed measures at baseline and at 5- and 10-month follow-ups. Four parent profiles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, indifferent) were observed among participants. Findings indicated control participants with authoritarian parenting were at the greatest risk for heavy drinking. Alternately, students exposed to permissive or authoritarian parenting reported lower peak drinking when administered the combined intervention, compared to controls. Findings suggest the combined intervention was efficacious in reducing peak alcohol consumption among high-risk students based on athlete status and parenting profiles. PMID:24109150
Corgiat, Claudia A; Templer, Donald I
The purpose was to estimate the relation of attitude toward body elimination in 93 college students (27 men and 66 women), to authoritarian personality features, participants' perception of their mothers' parenting style, and attitudes toward cleanliness, sex, and family nudity. Subjects were administered the Body Elimination Attitude Scale, the Four-item F Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire Pertaining to Mothers, and the items "Sex is dirty," "Cleanliness is next to godliness," and "Children should never see other family members nude." Larger scores for disgust toward body elimination were associated with authoritarian personality characteristics, being less likely to describe mother's parenting style as authoritative (open communication) and more likely to describe it as authoritarian and lower scores for tolerance for family nudity. Implications for further research were suggested. PMID:12785652
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show how the authoritarianism was renewed in Egypt after the fall of Mubarak. Through the reconstructions of actions of the principal political Egyptian actors, it will be demonstrated that the demands of democratization that arose in the “spring” of 2011 meant only a change in the personification of the authoritarianism, rather than a change of the institutionalized authoritarianism of the militaries. Furthermore, it was established that this structure has been legitimized by the currently President al-Sisi through restitution or “correction” of various practices of the Mubarak era, resorting to repressive measures, the reincorporation of old mubarakists figures and a more aggressive nationalist discourse. In this study, these practices are denominated neomubarakism.
Riley, Dylan; Fernández, Juan J
What is the impact of dictatorships on postdictatorial civil societies? Bottom-up theories suggest that totalitarian dictatorships destroy civil society while authoritarian ones allow for its development. Top-down theories of civil society suggest that totalitarianism can create civil societies while authoritarianism is unlikely to. This article argues that both these perspectives suffer from a one-dimensional understanding of civil society that conflates strength and autonomy. Accordingly we distinguish these two dimensions and argue that totalitarian dictatorships tend to create organizationally strong but heteronomous civil societies, while authoritarian ones tend to create relatively autonomous but organizationally weak civil societies. We then test this conceptualization by closely examining the historical connection between dictatorship and civil society development in Italy (a posttotalitarian case) and Spain (a postauthoritarian one). Our article concludes by reflecting on the implications of our argument for democratic theory, civil society theory, and theories of regime variation. PMID:25811069
McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V; De Lisi, Richard
College students (N = 125) reported their perceptions of family relations in response to vignettes that presented 5 different parenting styles. Participants viewed family relations as most positive when parents were portrayed as authoritative or permissive and as most negative when parents were portrayed as uninvolved-neglecting or authoritarian. Student gender and parent gender effects qualified these findings. Female students reported family relations to be less positive than did male students when parents were depicted as authoritarian or as uninvolved-neglecting, and they rated family relations more positively than did male students when parents were depicted as permissive. Participants viewed family relations as more positive when mothers rather than fathers were presented as permissive and when fathers rather than mothers were depicted as authoritarian. The authors discuss the findings of the study in relation to theories of beliefs about children and implications for future parenting styles of male and female college students. PMID:18232520
Pascual-Sagastizabal, Eider; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Braza, Francisco; Vergara, Ana I; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R
This study examines the relationship between parenting style, androgen levels, and measures of physical and indirect aggression. Peer ratings of aggression were obtained from 159 eight-year-old children (89 boys and 70 girls). Parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian or permissive) were assessed using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ).Saliva samples were obtained from children and assayed for testosterone and androstenedione concentrations. A regression analysis revealed that high testosterone levels were associated with a higher level of physical aggression in boys with authoritarian mothers. Testosterone was also found to moderate the relationship between father's authoritarian parenting and physical aggression in girls, with both moderate and high levels being significant. In relation to indirect aggression, moderate and high levels of testosterone were associated with higher levels of this type of aggression in girls with permissive mothers. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the interaction of biological and psychosocial variables when investigating aggressive behavior. PMID:24954610
Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L; Thomas, David G; Kennedy, Tay S; Grant, Stephanie L; Valtr, Tabitha
Theoretical models linking maternal nutrition, depressive symptomatology, and parenting are underdeveloped. However, existing literature suggests that iron status and depressive symptomatology interact in relation to problematic parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive). Therefore, in the current study the authors investigate these interactive relations in a sample of breastfeeding mothers (n = 105) interviewed at three months postpartum. Participants completed questionnaires (from December 2008 to January 2011) regarding their depressive symptomatology and parenting styles. Iron status (i.e., hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptors, and serum ferritin concentrations) was assessed from blood samples. Significant interactions were found between iron status and depressive symptomatology in relation to authoritarian parenting style (low warmth, high punishment and directiveness). For those women with hemoglobin below 14.00 g/dL, depressive symptomatology was positively related to authoritarian parenting style (p parenting. Dietary interventions may help to eliminate relations between depressive symptoms and problematic parenting. PMID:22533896
This study examined the relationship between perceived parenting style, filial piety, and life satisfaction among Chinese young adults. A survey was administered to 395 university students in Hong Kong on their perceptions about their parents' parenting practices, filial piety beliefs, and life satisfaction. The results suggest that perceived authoritative parenting is associated with reciprocal filial piety and contributes positively to the young adults' life satisfaction. Both perceived authoritative and authoritarian parenting were associated with authoritarian filial piety, but authoritarian filial piety was not associated with young adults' life satisfaction. Due to the familial interdependence emphasized in the Chinese cultural context, Chinese adolescents' filial beliefs are related to the parenting they have experienced, and these beliefs may be associated with their psychosocial outcomes. PMID:24821523
The Introduction briefly presents the ideas behind this collection of articles, namely to analyze popular mobilization and the role of civil society, political parties, and regional organizations in relation to the developments in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) over the last years, and to...... states, the Introduction emphasizes the continued relevance of focusing on a repoliticized MENA reality. The Middle East is still on the move away from the established image of unshakeable authoritarianism attributed to the region, which made the upgrading authoritarianism paradigm seem forever relevant...
Full Text Available The main hypotesis of this article relys on the Colonial social relationship and the neoclassicists philosophy as the roots of Latin America authoritarian rule. From the concept of “natural” human being, patronizing and clientelism drove to an asymmetric relationship between authority and individuals within a corporative society. Although the Borbonism and liberalism had been strong dynamic forces, they were unsuccessful for changing such scheme and only a secularization process could timidly be carried on. For consequence, the Latin America politic modernization went on an authoritarian way, turning to populism, whereas individual became subaltern of the State; so, citizenship become indefinitely postponed
Using the Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale (DS) the researcher attempted to show that the farther an individual proceeds in his education, the less authoritarian he becomes. The population comprised 96 functional illiterates, aged 20 to 60 years; and 36 graduate students, aged 20 to 60 years. The instrument, which was validated by 7 out of 10 previous…
Hoffman, Lauren P.
The purpose of this article is to argue for a social activist stance in educational leadership that fundamentally addresses social change and human emancipation. This call for social activism is framed within neoliberal, neoconservative, and authoritarian populist discourses in the USA, which to social justice educators and leaders had devastating…
In his book, Taking Leave of Abraham. An Essay in Religion and Democracy, Troels Nørager argues that the willingness to sacrifice one's own son symbolizes the violent potential of authoritarian religion that can be seen today in terror actions. And he argues that this kind of God-relations are not...
Silva, Marc; Dorso, Erin; Azhar, Aisha; Renk, Kimberly
The current study examined the relationships among parenting styles experienced in childhood, anxiety, motivation, and academic success in college students. Results suggested that fathers' authoritative parenting was related to decreases, whereas mothers' authoritarian parenting was related to increases, in college students' anxiety. Further,…
After nearly half a century of authoritarianism characterized by Chinese nationalism and Mandarin promotion, democratization in 1990s Taiwan was accompanied by a Taiwanization movement featuring calls for the revitalization of local languages and the promotion of linguistic equality. To that end, the government began planning for local language…
After the Asian Economic Crisis in 1997 and the fall of president Suharto’s authoritarian regime in 1998, rural and urban Indonesia experienced a surge in vigilante killings and the rise of non-state forms of authorities working within the twilight of legality and illegality, catering the role of...
Colson, Myron Jamal
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship of home parental involvement practices, parental style and student achievement. Dimensions of parental involvement practices are parental instruction, parental reinforcement, parental modeling, and parental encouragement. Dimensions of parental style are authoritarian, permissive, and…
Boyes, Michael C.; Allen, Sandra G.
Examined whether adolescents of authoritative parents exhibit a greater preference for postconventional moral reasoning than do adolescents of permissive or authoritarian parents. Subjects (75 high school and 67 undergraduate students) completed Rest's Defining Issues Test and Schaefer's Child Report of Parental Behavior Inventory. Results…
Leeson, Peter; Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Ciarrochi, Joseph
We address a series of criticisms, raised by Woodley (2011), of our paper "Cognitive ability, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation: A five-year longitudinal study amongst adolescents" (Heaven, Ciarrochi, & Leeson, 2011). We argue that, while Woodley (2011) presents some interesting points, his criticisms do not alter our…
Asserts that Blood on the Forge, published in 1941 by black novelist, William Attaway, represented a literary achievement in its own right, and at the same time realistically portrayed the transition of a people from a structured, authoritarian, rural existence to an industrialized urban frontier. Attaway rejected traditional forms of agrarianism…
M. Wojcieszak; B. Smith
The uprisings after the 2009 elections in Iran generated debate on new media’s potential to affect dissent in authoritarian countries. We surveyed 2800 young, educated, metropolitan, and technologically savvy Iranians over a year after the election and during the uprisings in the Middle East and Nor
This chapter interrogates how activist social media communication in authoritarian contexts is shaped through the mutual articulation of social media user practices, business models, and technological architectures, as well as through the controlling efforts of states. It specifically focuses on soc
Hrubec, Marek; Dinka, P.
Bratislava: Vydavateľstvo Spolku slovenských spisovateľov, 2012 - (Dinka, P.), s. 209-222. (Pohľady za horizont. 11). ISBN 978-80-8061-470-6 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : authority * authoritarian * political philosophy * politics Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion
The purpose of this research was to investigate the associations between students’ bullying behaviors in Islamic private schools, Pattani province and classroom management factors (democracy, authoritarian, and permissive classroom management), family upbringing factors (strict, permissive, and democracy upbringing), environment violence factors (influence of peers violence, community violence, and parents violence), and to identify risk factors for bullying behaviors. A cross-sectional surve...
Baker, Norma Jo; Thompson, Chad D.
Higher educational practices in post-Soviet Central Asia remain predicated on an authoritarian conception of expertise rooted in an objective and universal science. While the substance of such education has changed since the Soviet era, the form of education remains rooted in Soviet-era discursive ideological practices, practices that encourage…
Olson, Robert W.
In two decades of Ba'thist rule, Syria has evolved into a centralized, one-party, secular, authoritarian nation-state, which may be destabilized in the 1980s as a result of the conflict in Lebanon and internal Islamic opposition. (RM)
Mills, Rosemary S. L.
Mothers of 3-year-old girls completed measures of parenting patterns and perceived power. Fathers and mothers assessed their daughters' fearfulness and extraversion. Found that low-power mothers appeared to assert greater or lesser control depending on their daughter's temperamental characteristics; mothers behaved in a more authoritarian manner…
Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Mueller, Stephen; Nicklas, Theresa A
The extent to which general parenting represents feeding styles in ethnically diverse populations is not well documented. Existing measures of child feeding have focused almost exclusively on specific behaviors of European-American parents. A valid and reliable instrument was developed to identify feeding styles in parents of low-income minority preschoolers. Two hundred thirty-one parents (130 Hispanic; 101 African-American) completed questionnaires on feeding practices and parenting styles. Based on self-reported feeding behavior, parents were assigned to four feeding styles (authoritarian, n=84; authoritative, n=34; indulgent, n=80; and uninvolved, n=33). Convergent validity was evaluated by relating feeding styles to independent measures of general parenting and authoritarian feeding practices. Authoritarian feeding styles were associated with higher levels of general parental control and authoritarian feeding practices. Alternatively, authoritative feeding styles were associated with higher levels of general parental responsiveness. Among the two permissive feeding styles, Hispanic parents were more likely to be indulgent, whereas African-American parents were more likely to be uninvolved. Further, differences were found among the feeding styles on an independent measure of child's body mass index. PMID:15604035
States that the inverse relation between the level of education and ethnocentrism, right-wing authoritarianism, or anti-semitism is one of the most robust empirical results to be found in survey research in Germany. Refutes the critique that the empirical result is merely an artifact of method. (CMK)
Andres, Hayward P.; Akan, Obasi H.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine if "fit" and "non-fit" between authoritarian versus demonstrator teaching and visual versus verbal learning preferences differ in impact on Chinese MBA student academic performance in a large local urban Chinese university setting. In addition, the role of Chinese cultural…
Full Text Available Value oriented education is not authoritarian, Vindoctrination in the right values chosen a priori. It is a process of inducing learning. The nub of value oriented education is to enable students to think, reason, reflect, feel, care, experience, will and act (Seshadri, 2002.
Gibson, Rich; Queen, Greg; Ross, E. Wayne; Vinson, Kevin
Ten years ago, the Rouge Forum initiated its work with this statement: "The Rouge Forum is a group of educators, students, and parents seeking a democratic society. We are concerned about questions like these: How can we teach against racism, national chauvinism and sexism in an increasingly authoritarian and undemocratic society? How can we gain…
In order for leftists to mobilize effective resistance to current economic policies, they must confront right wing groups whose chief rallying points are opposition to feminism and sexual freedom, glorification of the traditional patriarchal family, and advocacy of authoritarian moral and religious values. (Author/GC)
Slone, Michelle; Shechner, Tomer; Farah, Oula Khoury
This study examined cross-cultural differences in the moderating function of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting styles for Jewish and Arab Israeli children exposed to political violence. Respondents were parents and children aged 10-11 from 94 families (42 Arab, 52 Jewish). Parents completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions…
Smetana, Judith G.
Reports of parenting styles were assessed in 100 mostly white, middle-class, 6th, 8th, and 10th graders and their parents. Adolescents viewed their parents as more permissive and more authoritarian than parents viewed themselves, whereas parents viewed themselves as more authoritative than did adolescents. Differences were primarily over the…
Bazzul, Jesse; Kayumova, Shakhnoza
This essay's main objective is to develop a theoretical, ontological basis for critical, social justice-oriented science education. Using Deleuze and Guattari's notion of assemblages, rhizomes, and arborescent structures, this article challenges authoritarian institutional practices, as well as the subject of these practices, and offers a way for…
Fearon, Danielle D.; Copeland, Daelynn; Saxon, Terrill F.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and creativity among a sample of Jamaican students and their parents. A total of 54 parents and 66 students participated in the study. Results revealed that the authoritarian style of parenting is the most salient predictor of creativity in children and that this…
paved the way either to the strengthening or resurgence of the hegemony, both in policy and discourse, of: [a] “global war on terrorism” over historically sensitive conflict resolution mechanisms; [b] “authoritarian liberalism” over democratization; and [c] neo-liberalism over developmental statism...
In a sense, school reform is Chicago's "perestroika." As in Europe, an authoritarian, survivalist bureaucracy has collapsed, and a radical democracy is proposed as the solution to years of paralysis and backwardness. Unfortunately, the inexperienced Local School Councils lack vision and often promulgate commonplace solutions. Insistence on parent…
AlMusaileem, Muhammad Y.
This study argues for a new theory in school management based on the notion of positive containment which benefited from the integration of the main two patterns of leadership, i.e., the democratic and the authoritarian. In this theory, the school principal has to deal with one external and five internal circles of positive containments. The…
Luescher-Mamashela, Thierry M.; Mugume, Taabo
The transition from one-party rule and other forms of authoritarianism to multiparty democracy in the 1990s has had a profound impact on the organisation and role of student politics in Africa. Against the background of student involvement in African politics in the twentieth century, leading up to student participation in Africa's…
Moore, Shirley G.
Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…
Buri, John R.
Baumrind (1971) proposed three distinct patterns of parental authority (permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness) and measured these parenting styles through interviews with parents and their children and through observations of parents interacting with their children. This study was undertaken to develop a readily-accessible,…
Moore, Shirley G.
Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…
Banham, Victoria; Hanson, Jane; Higgins, Alice; Jarrett, Michelle
In Australia, an exploratory study was grounded in U. Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective of human development and his principles of reciprocity, affective tone, and developmental opportunity and developmental risk. It used D. Baumrind's (1979) work on child rearing styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) to explore the effect of…
Niesman, Cindy S.
A study examined the effect of extreme marital discord, involving abuse of the mother, on maternal parenting style and level of maternal stress. It was hypothesized that battered women experience a higher level of maternal stress and choose an authoritarian parenting style as a consequence of marital discord. Subjects were 30 mothers of children…
Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik
It is the object of considerable debate in Western scholarship whether an authoritarian political order dominated by a strong communist party can continue to exist in China given the many challenges stemming from internal reform and the impact of globalization. Will China eventually turn democratic...
Dill, Vicky Schreiber; Haberman, Martin
For students steeped in the culture of violence, classrooms may offer one last chance to experience more constructive ways of relating. Schools must help these students find new identities and increase their capacity for moral reasoning. Authoritarian responses overpower students while failing to relieve their fear, distrust, or physical pain.…
Ana Maria D’Ávila Lopes
Full Text Available This article discusses about the origins and characteristics of the Coup of 64. In order to do so, we use the interdisciplinary bibliographic research. On the first topic the origins of the coup of 64 are analyzed, highlighting the role played by political, economic and social factors that were its tangential. Then, our research comments the characteristics of the coup of 64, especially the bureaucratic authoritarian character; consensual legitimacy of civil society; the extension of the central military power; State terrorism implemented through the institutionalization of enforcement agencies to commit serious human rights violations and the authoritarian legality. By the end, it is concluded that the coup of 64 is headquartered in factual and symbolic legacy of Vargas, represented in the imaginary of elites, mainly by the figure of the former president João Goulart, coupled to polarization between capitalism and communism at the global level and at economic struggles on opening markets, remittance of foreign exchange dealing abroad and increased investment from the state to the private sector. In the same way, it verifies that Brazil singled out for its bureaucratic authoritarianism, by legitimacy - of origin - consented by the sophistication of its state terrorism, as well as, the exacerbation of its authoritarian legality. Furthermore, it stresses the nature of the coup of 64, and not “revolution” and its hybridity, due to the support of civil seizure to the achievement of power by the military segments.
A. Gerrits; K. Meijer
André Gerrits & Kirsten Meijer focus on Belarus that is stereotypically presented as Europe's last dictatorship. President Aleksandr Lukashenka has established an authoritarian order, based on political stability and a relatively high standard of living, which all in all provides more than a modicum
Abdul Gafor, K.; Kurukkan, Abidha
This paper describes the development and standardization of a measure of perceived parenting style. The four styles namely authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and negligent proposed by Baumrind (1971) are scaled based on a quadrant of high and low levels of parental responsiveness and control suggested by Maccoby and Martin (1983). The items…
Masud, Hamid; Ahmad, Muhammad Shakil; Jan, Farzand Ali; Jamil, Ahmad
The literature supports the importance of parenting styles that are necessary to fulfill the developmental needs of the children and eventually improve their quality of life. Baumrind's typology of parenting styles was used. There are many studies that examined the relationship of parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive…
Parenting style has been shown to have significant impact on a child's development. Baumrind developed the concept of three parenting styles that is still used today including: Authoritarian/controlling, authoritative/directive, and permissive. Of these, the authoritative/directive parenting style has proven the most effective with children.…
During most of the twentieth century, Mexico was governed by one of the longest-ruling authoritarian parties in the contemporary world. Even as most Latin American countries democratized in the 1980s, Mexico remained under the control of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). It was not until the 2000 presidential election that a two-party…
Nijhof, Karin S; Engels, Rutger C M E
The present study examined the role of parenting styles in the experience and expression of homesickness, and the way of coping with the feelings involved. Using a sample of 670 first year college and university students, aged 16 to 25, we tested three hypotheses: (1) authoritarian, permissive as well as uninvolved parenting are associated with the experience of homesickness, contrary to students with authoritative parents who are less likely to have feelings of homesickness; (2) students with authoritarian, permissive or uninvolved parents show their homesickness by internalizing and externalizing problems; and (3) students raised by authoritative or permissive parents use more effective coping strategies to deal with homesickness. Results indicated that students raised by authoritative and permissive parents experienced more homesickness with stronger feelings of homesickness than students raised by authoritarian or uninvolved parents. However, they hardly express homesickness by internalizing or externalizing problems when they use effective ways of coping, namely support-seeking and/or problem-solving. Students with parents endorsing an authoritarian or uninvolved parenting style, on the other hand, showed more internalizing and externalizing problems in reaction to feelings of homesickness. They also use less effective coping strategies. The results revealed the importance of a loving and accepting home environment for the development and expression of homesickness, as well as the importance of the way in which students learn to cope with their problems. PMID:17258804
Victor, Hope R.; And Others
Increasing frequency of marijuana use was found to be significantly related to increased creativity, adventuresomeness, internal sensation novelty seeking and impulsivity, and decreased authoritarianism. No differences were noted in manifest anxiety among user groups, but heavier marijuana users earned lower grades in school. (Author)
Gani, V; S Gani
The article analyzes the specific features of the development of learning motivation in elementary school students at the end of their first year. The authors investigate the effects of three teaching styles: authoritarian, democratic, and unstable. The results of the study suggest that the most efficient style for bolstering learning motivation is the democratic style, while the unstable style is the least efficient.
Gregory, Anne; Cornell, Dewey
The authors contend that zero tolerance discipline policies are inconsistent with adolescent developmental needs for authoritative, as distinguished from authoritarian, discipline. Previous research has applied the notion of authoritative parenting to teaching styles in classrooms, and a similar model of authoritative discipline can guide…
European Master in Social Work with Families and Children Existing empirical studies of parents in China found that this population presents features of authoritarian parenting style: greater parental demands and control together with lower parental responsiveness. However, when the investigation conducted on Chinese immigrants, parental practice is characterized as more authoritative style, combining high levels of controlling and responsiveness. Paradoxical findings between Chinese paren...
Colclough, Christopher; Webb, Andrew
Despite a long history of post-independence aid to education, Kenya's relationships with overseas donors have, until recently, been markedly fractious. Donors' concerns about transparency and corruption, in the context of a political regime which became increasingly authoritarian, led to sharp reductions in aid to Kenyan education during the…
Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.
Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…
Classical ballet technique is commonly taught through the use of authoritarian practices and normalizing aesthetic values, but the construction of the ballet dancer as a docile subject in opposition to an all-knowing instructor might impede ballet's progression. In this article I explore my development of a feminist or democratic ballet…
Weisel, Amatzia; Zaidman, Anat
This study examined the attitudes of 83 religious and 51 secular Israeli adolescents using Siller's Disability Factor Scale General, as well as level of dogmatism. Secular participants expressed more positive attitudes than religious participants on two attitude subscales, Generalized Rejection and Authoritarian Virtuousness, scales which express…
Huver, Rose M. E.; Otten, Roy; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
Since parental personality traits are assumed to play a role in parenting behaviors, the current study examined the relation between parental personality and parenting style among 688 Dutch parents of adolescents in the SMILE study. The study assessed Big Five personality traits and derived parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian,…
Spanish American political and economic development has historically diverged from the other Western geographic areas. The economic systems of these nations have been characterized as dependent, and their political systems have reflected instability, authoritarian rule, and fraudulent democracy. In Peru, industrial progress began in the late 19th…
Media are a crucial battleground in post-conflict reconstruction. On the one hand media may ignite tensions and induce renewed violence by spreading dangerous expressions. On the other hand free and diverse media underpin a society that tries to shift from authoritarianism to democracy. From a human
Huang, Grace H. C.; Gove, Mary
The authors were drawn to the media phenomenon created by Amy Chua's book "Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother" about her parenting experiences raising two daughters. Chua's parenting style is quite strict by US standards. The authors classify her style as Ethnic Minority, considered a subset of Authoritarian parenting style as compared to…
Harris, Albert L.; Harris, Jacqueline M.
Student, teacher, and teaching causes of mathematics anxiety are discussed. Computer-assisted instruction can reduce mathematics anxieties due to lack of confidence, negative attitudes, teacher bias, authoritarian teaching, lack of variety, lack of relationship with the real world, emphasis on memorization or on speed, or computer phobia. (MNS)
Gracia, Enrique; Fuentes, Maria C.; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol
This article analyzed perceptions of neighborhood violence of Spanish adolescents (N = 1,015) from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families, and its association with three sets of developmental outcomes (psychological, behavioral, and academic). Tests of main and interactive effects were conducted to answer research…
Pepper, Kaye; Thomas, Lisa Hamilton
This autoethnography provides insights into the experiences of a first-year elementary school principal that led to a change in leadership style from an authoritarian style to a transformational leader. Discusses changes in the school to a more positive climate that had a more positive effect on learning and working environments. (Author/LRW)
Practitioners of education in South Africa (SA) struggle painfully between the extremes of its authoritarian and deeply religious roots that prescribe blind obedience to people in authority and their elders, and the demands of open-mindedness, critical thinking and also solidarity required for democratic citizenship. A particular pedagogy was used…
Moore, Shirley G.
Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…
Mestenhauser, Josef A.
Describes an individual's experience returning to his native Czechoslovakia, 43 years after fleeing Communism. Discusses problems faced in transforming people conditioned to an authoritarian state into citizens of a democracy. Stresses that good intentions and sincerity are not enough to understand area studies and the importance of intercultural…
Innovations always have been a destiny of intellectuals engineers, scientists, visionary entrepreneurs. Current development of IT, transfer from the material resources economics to the knowledge one, from authoritarian management to a participative one, gave way to open innovations, crowd sourcing, collective thinking in management. Promising and significant technology for realization of those tendencies is Ackoff's Idealized Design.
At present, instrumental music education, defined in this paper as the teaching and learning of music through wind bands and symphony orchestras of Western origin, appears embattled. Among the many criticisms made against instrumental music education, critics claim that bands and orchestras exemplify an authoritarian model of teaching that does…
Bang, Hyeyoung; Kim, Jungsub
Praising is a crucial part of teaching performance that greatly impacts student performance and self-esteem. South Korean teachers are traditionally known to possess authoritarian attributes, whereas U.S. teachers have contradictory beliefs in terms of why and how to use praise. We used Q methodology among 16 American and 22 Korean teachers to…
Armingeon, K.; Careja, Romana
affluent countries as well as to the more authoritarian regimes. The authors do not find evidence for theories of institutional change that see institutional development as a linear function of socio-economic factors such as affluence or of domestic political power distribution. The European Union and NATO...
Media educators and researchers call for learner-centred, bottom-up pedagogical approaches, which take into account learners' own cultures, knowledge and experiences. Nevertheless, there seem to be gaps between traditional, authoritarian school culture and the interactive, creative media culture that is a significant part of youngsters' lives…
Full Text Available The spring of the indignations against the presidents of the North African states and in the Middle East has aroused worldwide interest, not only in terms of their political effects in those states, but rather in terms of how these events have been suppressed by authoritarian regimes and the effects on the global economy and geopolitics.
Spicer, André; Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan
from an undue focus on intra-academic debates; engage in author-itarian theoretical policing; feign relevance through symbolic radicalism; and repackage common sense. We take these critiques as an opportunity to offer an extended model of critical performativity that involves focusing on issues of...
An action research project in a British boys' school found the dominant school ethos to include an authoritarian style and an expectation of predetermined masculinity. The ethos was maintained by explicit and implicit encouragement of aggressive behavior. Students exhibited low self-esteem, deficit interpersonal skills, nonparticipation, and…
Rogan, John M.; Gray, Brian V.
Presents the story of one nongovernmental organization (NGO) and the role it played in reconceptualizing science education in South Africa. Describes the success of the Science Education Project (SEP) in confronting authoritarian practices of government organizations and those within its own ranks. Science education can become the Trojan horse of…
Cooperative community life-long learning centers may be the catalyst for fundamental change in the existing authoritarian education system. An outgrowth of the homeschooling movement, these cooperatively owned centers use community resources to provide a wide range of learning services to everyone regardless of age, ability, or status. (TD)
Mahamud Angulo, Kira; Groves, Tamar; Milito Barone, Cecilia Cristina; Hernández Laina, Yovana
This article explores visions of war and peace in the education system during the Spanish transition to democracy. During those years, the Spanish state was faced with the challenge of leaving its authoritarian political past behind and forging a democratic civic culture. As the concepts of war and peace are inextricably linked to those of state…
Perkinson, H. J.
Discusses the human predilection toward fanaticism; the debt that Western culture owes to fanatics; fundamental objections to fanaticism; the way that traditional educational approaches cultivate a propensity toward dogmatism, obscurantism, and authoritarianism; and possible educational methods for encouraging critical thinking. (GT)
The management of change in English and Welsh schools has been an authoritarian affair seeking to impose rather than win consent for new ways of working. While no practitioner should challenge the fact of constant change in natural and social life, school staff have had little choice in the nature and direction of changes that have significantly…
Thijs, J.T.; Verkuyten, M.J.A.M.
Among 9th-grade students (248 girls, 255 boys) from a large multiethnic school, the authors examined 2 aspects of anticipated situational engagement in relation to 3 types of hypothetical teacher behavior: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive. Furthermore, the authors investigated the moderating
Gibb, Jack R.
Examined are two types of leadership. The first type is authoritarian or paternalistic and seems appropriate to a world of machines. This is a defensive leadership built on fear and little trust between people. Techniques for control are developed which often produce undesired results such as apathy or resistance. The alternative is emergent…
Authoritarian rule in Africa has exacerbated poverty levels in six ways. Achievement of greater democracy depends upon political culture and civil society in Africa becoming more democratic; education must play a part in teaching democratic values and behaviors. Examples show how education has not furthered democracy in Botswana, Zimbabwe, and…
Christopher, Andrew N.; Mull, Melinda S.
To assess the relationship between different facets of conservative ideology and ambivalent sexism, 246 residents of two towns in southern Michigan completed a social dominance orientation scale (SDO), a right-wing authoritarianism scale (RWA), a Protestant work ethic scale (PWE), and the Glick and Fiske (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory via a…
Cristaldi, Melita; Pampanini, Giovanni
According to a progressive interpretation of human development, girls' education should form an integral part of a full democratic system. Nevertheless, girls' education is threatened and attacked in many ways in current societies, be they authoritarian or democratic societies, developing or developed ones. In this article the two authors, both…
Galbraith, Ronald E.
Although in favor of developmental psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development, the author cautions about possible results of using moral reasoning discussions in the classroom. These include: (1) indoctrination, (2) moral authoritarianism, (3) relativism, (4) the "morality as medicine" syndrome, (5) and the "doing Kohlberg"…
Van Gool, Bas; Beekers, Daan
Even if ‘good governance’ goals have dominated public policy in postcolonial polities in the last decades, their politics and public administration often continue to be marked by authoritarianism, nepotism and corruption – the very practices good governance policy was to eradicate. In this article,
Beekers, D.; Gool, van B.
Even if 'good governance' goals have dominated public policy in postcolonial polities in the last decades, their politics and public administration often continue to be marked by authoritarianism, nepotism and corruption - the very practices good governance policy was to eradicate. In this article,
Heller, Janet R.; Johnson, Helen L.
Twenty parents attending an urban community college were interviewed about how they respond to common questions children ask about sexuality. Parental responses to children's questions about sexuality were considered in relation to the authoritative and authoritarian patterns of communication identified by Baumrind (1967). The majority of parents…
Skinner, Ellen R.; Slater, Michael D.
Proposes that the impact of adolescents' reactions to antidrug messages is contingent upon the extent of adolescent rebelliousness. Studied 51 adolescents who saw 6 antidrug Public Service Advertisements (PSAs). Rebellious adolescents from the more authoritarian, conformity-oriented families who were shown antidrug PSAs considered the messages…
Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…
Participation in music is both a human right and a disability right. Music is a human need in the Darwinian (not Social Darwinian) evolutionary sense. Similarly, inclusion is an evolved capacity, beneficial to human perpetuation. The policing of music resembles authoritarian regulation of other forms of allegedly pleasurable but actually vital…
Aldhafri, Said; Alrajhi, Marwa
The current study explored the effects of two teaching styles, authoritative and authoritarian, on students' mathematics motivation. The two motivational constructs examined were intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Data were collected from 425 Omani 8th grade students (males = 202/females = 223, mean age = 13.44, SD = 0.79). Through two…
"In the last chapter of Part Three, 'The History of Parliamentary Democracy in Denmark in Comparative Perspective', Uffe Jakobsen takes up a comparative perspective to the history of European democratization. Adopting the recent processes of change, i.a. of transitions from the authoritarian rule...
Dragon, Donna A.
Often in teaching dance, methods of teaching and learning are silently embedded into dance classroom experiences. Unidentified and undisclosed pedagogic information has impacted the content of dance history; the perpetuation of authoritarian teaching practices within dance technique classes and in some dance classes deemed "somatics";…
Reflecting on the successes and challenges of his work as a prison music educator in four correctional facilities, the author suggests a framework for a music education that resists authoritarianism, allows for agency and engages with society. Focusing particularly on the societal context and consequences of prison as a place of punishment, he…
Mupinga, Emily Evellyne; Garrison, M. E. Betsy; Pierce, Sarah H.
A study of 151 mothers of elementary students identified relationships between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive) and family functioning (adaptability, cohesion). Families with balanced and moderately balanced levels of adaptability and cohesion had higher levels of authoritative parenting. Midrange balance was associated…
Nguyen, Peter V.
Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. Most Vietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity…
Aunola, Kaisa; Stattin, Hakan; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
Investigates the extents to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Respondents (N=354) identified four types of families: those with Authoritative; Authoritarian; Permissive; and Neglectful parenting styles. Results further reveal that adolescents from authoritative…
Matthias Doepke; Fabrizio Zilibotti
We develop a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between parenting styles. Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) emerge as equilibrium outcomes, and are ...
Cenkseven-Onder, Fulya; Kirdok, Oguzhan; Isik, Erkan
Introduction: The purpose of this research was to investigate career decision among high school students regarding to their parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful) and parental attachment levels. Method: With this purpose, 382 (200 females; 182 males) Turkish high school students aged 14-18 completed Career…
Conclusions: The findings of present study suggest the authoritative and permissive parenting styles as the most efficient styles and authoritarian and neglectful parenting styles as the most inefficient styles in terms of addiction susceptibility. Accordingly, efficient parenting style training to parents should be the main goal of drug demand reduction program.
Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.
Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…
Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Dickin, Katherine L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Jahns, Lisa; Mobley, Amy R
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and interacting relations of parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Participants were 144 mothers and children under 6 years of age. Mothers completed questionnaires about parenting and feeding styles and feeding practices. Researchers weighed and measured mothers and children or obtained measurements from a recent health report. Feeding practices were not directly related to child weight status. Compared to the uninvolved feeding style, authoritative and authoritarian feeding style categories were linked to lower odds of overweight. Feeding practices interacted with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to predict obesity: (1) healthful modeling was associated with 61% (OR = 0.39) reduced odds of obesity in children of authoritative mothers but with 55% (OR = 1.55) increased odds in children of non-authoritative mothers and (2) covert control was linked to 156% (OR = 2.56) increased odds of obesity in children of authoritarian mothers but with 51% (OR = 0.49) decreased odds in children of non-authoritarian mothers. Healthful modeling interacted with feeding style demandingness to predict overweight and with responsiveness to predict obesity. Findings suggest the need for research and interventions on mechanisms mediating between feeding practices and obesity in families characterized by non-authoritative parenting styles. PMID:23962403
Assadi, Seyed Mohammad; Zokaei, Nayereh; Kaviani, Hossein; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghaeli, Padideh; Gohari, Mahmood Reza; Van De Vijver, Fons J. R.
School grades, family demographics and responses to the parental authority questionnaire were assessed in 240 eighth-grade students in the southern, central and northern parts of Tehran, Iran's capital. The result showed that poorer families with traditional values had more authoritarian attitudes toward parenting than richer families with more…
Holub, Shayla C.; Tan, Cin Cin; Patel, Sanobar L.
Parents and children hold negative attitudes about obesity, but little is known about individual differences in obesity stigma. The current study examined authoritarian parenting style, beliefs about the controllability of weight and fear of fat in relation to mothers' dislike of overweight individuals. Factors related to children's weight…
Nijhof, Karin S.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
The present study examined the role of parenting styles in the experience and expression of homesickness, and the way of coping with the feelings involved. Using a sample of 670 first year college and university students, aged 16 to 25, we tested three hypotheses: (1) authoritarian, permissive as well as uninvolved parenting are associated with…
Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio
We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...
Chan, Kwok-wai; Chan, Siu-mui
Two achievement goals and three perceived parenting styles were identified in a sample of Hong Kong teacher education students. Significant correlations exist within the perceived parenting styles and the achievement goals. Parental authoritativeness was significantly and positively related to learning goal, and parental authoritarianism was…
Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun; Reiser, Mark
Relations among authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles, children's effortful control and dispositional anger/frustration, and children's social functioning were examined for 425 first and second graders (7-10 years old) in Beijing, China. Parents reported on parenting styles; parents and teachers rated children's effortful control,…
Baldwin, Debora R.; McIntyre, Anne; Hardaway, Elizabeth
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived parenting styles and levels of optimism in undergraduate college students. Sixty-three participants were administered surveys measuring dispositional optimism and perceived parental Authoritative and Authoritarian styles. Multiple regression analysis revealed that both…
Jutengren, Goran; Palmerus, Kerstin
Four specific schemas of cognitive structures that adolescents may hold concerning interpersonal disagreements with their parents were identified, each reflecting an authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or a neglecting parenting style. To examine the occurrence of such schemas across high and low levels of psychosocial adjustment, 120 Swedish…
Trinkner, Rick; Cohn, Ellen S.; Rebellon, Cesar J.; Van Gundy, Karen
Both law and society scholars and developmental psychologists have focused on the legitimacy of authority figures, although in different domains (police versus parents). The purpose of the current research is to bridge these two fields by examining the relations among parenting style (i.e., authoritarian, authoritative, permissive), the perception…
Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio
We construct a theory of intergenerational preference transmission that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (related to Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian and paternalistic altruism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing their preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive...
In this essay, I differentiate between coercive and confrontive kinds of power assertion to elucidate the significantly different effects on children's well-being of authoritarian and authoritative styles of parental authority. Although both parenting styles (in contrast to the permissive style) are equally demanding, forceful, and…
McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V.; De Lisi, Richard
College students (N = 125) reported their perceptions of family relations in response to vignettes that presented 5 different parenting styles. Participants viewed family relations as most positive when parents were portrayed as authoritative or permissive and as most negative when parents were portrayed as uninvolved-neglecting or authoritarian.…
Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Hummer, Justin F.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.
This study examined the pathways of parenting style (permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative) to alcohol consumption and consequences through the mediators of college adjustment and academic achievement (grade point average [GPA]). Participants were 289 students from a private, mid-size, West Coast university (mean age 19.01 years, 58.8%…
Buri, John R.; And Others
Research has shown variables of parental nurturance (acceptance, encouragement, support) of their children to be positively correlated with their children's self-esteem. This study investigated the effects of parental nurturance and the use of permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental discipline upon the self-esteem of college…
Maria Giulia Olivari
Full Text Available Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents’ retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES and these perceptions. Swedish, Italian and Greek adolescents (N = 702; 30.9% Swedish, 39.6% Italian and 29.5% Greek participated in the study. To test the principal effects three mixed 2(parent; mother and father*2(gender; girl and boy*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece*3(SES; low, medium and high ANOVAs were conducted separately for each parenting style. To verify the interaction effects, a mixed 2(parent; mother and father*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece*3(SES; low, medium and high ANOVA was tested on authoritative style. Regarding authoritarian and permissive two mixed 2(parent; mother and father*2(gender; girl and boy*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece ANOVAs were tested. Mothers, as compared to fathers, were perceived as more authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Moreover, boys perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than girls. Swedish parents were perceived as significantly less authoritarian than Italian and Greek parents and more permissive than Italian parents; Greek parents were perceived as less authoritarian and more permissive than Italian parents. The study provides an interesting contribution to parenting styles literature, showing how country legislation concerning family matters and SES are related the perception of parenting behaviours.
Olivari, Maria Giulia; Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth; Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina; Antonopoulou, Katerina; Confalonieri, Emanuela
Comparative research on parenting styles among Nordic and Mediterranean countries is still missing, despite the increasing number of studies on parenting styles in adolescence. This study explores similarities and differences in adolescents' retrospective perceptions of parenting styles, for both parents, in Sweden, Italy and Greece, using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. In particular, it examines the relation between parental role, adolescent gender, country of origin, SES and these perceptions. Swedish, Italian and Greek adolescents (N = 702; 30.9% Swedish, 39.6% Italian and 29.5% Greek) participated in the study. To test the principal effects three mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVAs were conducted separately for each parenting style. To verify the interaction effects, a mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece)*3(SES; low, medium and high) ANOVA was tested on authoritative style. Regarding authoritarian and permissive two mixed 2(parent; mother and father)*2(gender; girl and boy)*3(countries; Sweden, Italy and Greece) ANOVAs were tested. Mothers, as compared to fathers, were perceived as more authoritative, authoritarian and permissive. Moreover, boys perceived their parents as more authoritarian and more permissive than girls. Swedish parents were perceived as significantly less authoritarian than Italian and Greek parents and more permissive than Italian parents; Greek parents were perceived as less authoritarian and more permissive than Italian parents. The study provides an interesting contribution to parenting styles literature, showing how country legislation concerning family matters and SES are related the perception of parenting behaviours. PMID:27247655
Aryee, Samuel; Chen, Zhen Xiong; Sun, Li-Yun; Debrah, Yaw A
The authors examined antecedents of abusive supervision and the relative importance of interactional and procedural justice as mediators of the relationship between abusive supervision and the work outcomes of affective organizational commitment and individual- and organization-directed citizenship behaviors. Data were obtained from subordinate-supervisor dyads from a telecommunication company located in southeastern China. Results of moderated regression analysis revealed that authoritarian leadership style moderated the relationship between supervisors' perceptions of interactional justice and abusive supervision such that the relationship was stronger for supervisors high rather than low in authoritarian leadership style. In addition, results of structural equation modeling analysis revealed that subordinates' perceptions of interactional but not procedural justice fully mediated the relationship between abusive supervision and the work outcomes. Implications for future investigations of abusive supervision are discussed. PMID:17227160
Psychosocial maturity, gender, intellectual ability, and parenting practices were examined with a group of 344 Korean and 214 American adolescents. American adolescents reported greater self-reliance, work-orientation, and self-identity than did Korean adolescents. In addition, American girls described themselves as more mature in work orientation than did American boys, a trend reversed in the Korean culture. Intellectual ability was associated with adolescents' psychosocial maturity. Differences in parenting style were predictive of psychosocial maturity regardless of ethnic group membership. Authoritative parenting, compared to all other styles, was related to significantly higher means in adolescent maturity. Authoritarian and neglectful styles were almost always associated with lower psychosocial maturity, whereas permissive and mixed parenting styles were more advantageous than either authoritarian or neglectful parenting. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9576842
Full Text Available The dominant tradition in Western philosophy sees rationality as dictating. Thus rationality may require that we believe the best explanation and simple conceptual truths and that we infer in accordance with evident rules of inference. I argue that, given what we know about the growth of knowledge, this authoritarian concept of rationality leads to absurdities and should be abandoned. I then outline a libertarian concept of rationality, derived from Popper, which eschews the dictates and which sees a rational agent as one who questions, criticises, conjectures and experiments. I argue that, while the libertarian approach escapes the absurdities of the authoritarian, it requires two significant developments and an important clarification to be made fully consistent with itself.
Digital telecommunication technology has expanded the potential of the mobile phone to be increasingly used as a weapon against authoritarian rule and censorship. Since the content of mobile communication is unpredictable and unregulated, mobile phones have the potential to breach state-sponsored......Digital telecommunication technology has expanded the potential of the mobile phone to be increasingly used as a weapon against authoritarian rule and censorship. Since the content of mobile communication is unpredictable and unregulated, mobile phones have the potential to breach state...... be observed by various social forces that communicate their struggles with the aid of this technology, pose challenges in governance, and force the authorities to engage in new kinds of media practices....
Meetings in organizations have evolved from the infrequent, slightly authoritarian meeting of the 1950?s to today?s ubiquitous and often longwinded, every-body-has-a-right-to-speak meeting. But two important, recent trends in work and business pose new challenges. Today, organizational work is se...... changes in business and work life, the meeting has changed little. It has been poorly integrated into the organizational value chain and is rarely experienced as very important to either customers or employees.......Meetings in organizations have evolved from the infrequent, slightly authoritarian meeting of the 1950?s to today?s ubiquitous and often longwinded, every-body-has-a-right-to-speak meeting. But two important, recent trends in work and business pose new challenges. Today, organizational work is seen...
Michael W. Apple
Full Text Available The secularity of the state is seen by 'authoritarian populist' religious conservatives as imposing a world-view that is out of touch with the deep religious commitments that guide their lives. In the process, authoritarian populists have taken on subaltern identities and claimed that they are the last truly dispossessed groups. To demonstrate their increasing power in educational and social policy, I situate a specific set of technologies-the Internet-within the social context of its use in this community. I focus on the growing home-schooling movement and suggest that to understand the societal meaning and uses of these technologies, we need to examine the social movement that provides the context for their use. I also argue that we need to analyze critically the kind of labor that is required in home schooling, who is engaged in such labor, and how such labor is interpreted by the actors who perform it.
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful, and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use. The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from four multivariate factorial designs yielded only main effects of parenting styles and neighborhood risk. Adolescents from authoritative and indulgent families showed lower conduct problems than those with authoritarian and neglectful parents. Also, higher levels of perceived neighborhood risk were significantly associated with more conduct problems. There were no significant interaction effects between parenting styles and perceived neighborhood risk, but results yielded a significant interaction effect between neighborhood risk and sex. Overall, results do not support the idea that parenting styles are more effective under certain neighborhood risk conditions, and suggest that neighbourhood risk influences adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment beyond the influence of parental socialization styles.
Steinberg, L; Dornbusch, S M; Brown, B B
Using data collected from a large sample of high school students, the authors challenge three widely held explanations for the superior school performance of Asian-American adolescents, and the inferior performance of African- and Hispanic-American adolescents: group differences in (a) parenting practices, (b) familial values about education, and (c) youngsters' beliefs about the occupational rewards of academic success. They found that White youngsters benefit from the combination of authoritative parenting and peer support for achievement, whereas Hispanic youngsters suffer from a combination of parental authoritarianism and low peer support. Among Asian-American students, peer support for academic excellence offsets the negative consequences of authoritarian parenting. Among African-American youngsters, the absence of peer support for achievement undermines the positive influence of authoritative parenting. PMID:1616171
Full Text Available This article analyses the present-day transition and political context of each of the states that comprise the former Soviet region of Central Asia since their independence: the internal changes they have undergone, the creation of their own institutions and regional and international relations. This evolution, especially with regard to the deficiencies in democracy and legitimacy of the majority of the current governments, based, in many cases, on personalist, authoritarian regimes, points to an uncertain future for a region in which, too frequently, its rulers have used all the means at their disposal (persecution of political opposition, disregard for human rights, constraint of the mass media and NGOs, etc. to guarantee their continuance in power. This article also includes an analysis of the most recent events, such as the Andijan (Uzbekistan massacre, the‘revolution’ without changes in Kyrgyzstan, and the authoritarian drift of Turkmenistan, which leads to conclusions filled with uncertainties for future political scenarios.
Full Text Available In this paper we present a study of the process of cultural and social change developed in Argentina during the sixties, focusing on the appeal that authoritarianism might have had on society. Our hypothesis is that among middle classes, such appeal could have been lower than suggested in other research. From the analysis of “Columnas de la juventud” (youth columns, published by the daily newspaper La Nación –since 1965 to 1973-, we suggest that certain cultural transformations promoted by young people, were produced in a relatively short period of time –ten years-. During that interval, the representations that La Nación offered of such transformations turned from annoyance to fascination. This fact suggests that the acceptance of change in the standards of behaviour was very extended. The idea of an authoritarian society does not enable us to understand this process.
Vezhnovets', T A
The aim of this work is to study the influence of the type of interpersonal relationships between executives and subordinates in healthcare institutions on their style of resolving management decision. It was established that indulgent and autonomous style are formed against background of liberal interpersonal relationship by the following criteria, as the absence of dominant traits, expressed benevolence among executives with autonomous style, uncertainty and inexperience among executives with indulgent style. Authoritarian and marginal styles are formed against empowerment and dominance in relationship with subordinates by expressed dominance criteria, as leadership qualities among executives with authoritarian style or as a manifestation of social maladjustment among executives with marginal style. Type of interpersonal relationships determines the style of resolving management decisions, that should be considered at conducting professional selection of candidates for senior positions in healthcare institutions. PMID:25286614
Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the parenting styles which influence the Islamic personality among students from one of the secondary school in Batu Pahat district, Johor. Using strata random sampling technique, a total of 302 students from form 1 to form 6 of the secondary school was chosen as the respondents. This correlational study used questionnaire as an instrument for its data collection. The data analysis was done using the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis with the help of Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0. Descriptive analysis result shows a medium level of authoritative parenting style, high level of authoritarian parenting style and low level of permissive parenting style were practiced. Inferential analysis result shows the existence of a significant relationship between parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative and permissive and Islamic personality.
Alonso-Geta, Petra María
The aim of this paper was to establish which parenting style of Spanish families is associated with optimum children's outcomes. A random Spanish sample of 1,103 parents of children and teenagers from 6 to 14 years of age, of whom 47% were females, reported on their child-rearing practices. Families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) based on the parents' answers. Socialization outcomes were 6 indicators of interpersonal relationship quality, 9 indicators of psychological adjustment, 7 indicators of personal competence, and 12 indicators of behavior problems. Results showed that indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were associated with better outcomes than authoritarian and neglectful parenting. Overall, our results supported the idea that, in Spain, the optimum parenting style is the indulgent one, as scores in the four sets of socialization outcomes among children and teenagers from indulgent families were always equal to, or even better than, the authoritative parenting style. PMID:22748726
Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Kim, Su Yeong; Park, Irene Kim
Asian American parenting is often portrayed as highly controlling and even harsh. This study empirically tested the associations between a set of recently developed Korean ga-jung-kyo-yuk measures and several commonly used Western parenting measures to accurately describe Asian American family processes, specifically those of Korean Americans. The results show a much nuanced and detailed picture of Korean American parenting as a blend of Western authoritative and authoritarian styles with positive and-although very limited-negative parenting. Certain aspects of ga-jung-kyo-yuk are positively associated with authoritative style or authoritarian style, or even with both of them simultaneously. They were positively associated with positive parenting (warmth, acceptance, and communication) but not with harsh parenting (rejection and negative discipline). Exceptions to this general pattern were Korean traditional disciplinary practices and the later age of separate sleeping of children. The study discusses implications of these findings and provides suggestions for future research. PMID:23977415
In this article I argue that the developments of countries going through transition from authoritarian to democratic rule are always stamped by numerous references to formerly sanctioned and fully operational institutionalized violence. A perfect exemplification of this phenomenon is [post-] apartheid South Africa and its writing. In the context of the above, both the social and the literary realm of the 1990s might be perceived as resonant with Giorgio Agamben’s ‘concentrationary’, deeply di...
Hellsten, Sirkku K.
This paper examines the current security-governance-development nexus, something that is often also discussed under the concept of transitional justice (TJ). The paper analyses how the ambiguous, evolving and expanding nature of the concept of TJ affects the planning, coordination, evaluation and assessment of aid given to conflict ridden, post-conflict or (post) authoritarian societies in order to strengthen their democracy. Special attention is paid to gender justice. Illustrations are draw...
Bosire, Lydiah Kemunto; Anderson, David
Transitional justice has undergone tremendous shifts since it was first used in Latin American and Eastern European countries to address post-authoritarian and post-communist legacies of atrocity and repression. In particular, the establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC) has increased the demand for prosecutions within a field that was previously marked by compromise and non-prosecution. While there are increasing expectations that countries with unresolved claims of human righ...
von Tangen Page, Michael; Hamill, Olivia
This working paper explores the linkage between security sector reform and development assistance in countering radicalization. It is argued that security is an essential prerequisite to sustainable development. The premise of this paper is that there are important security sector reform objectives that are essential in countering radicalisation through addressing many of the underlying root causes that can create and sustain radical opposition to authoritarian or totalitarian governments in ...
Shin, Doh Chull
In East Asia, as in other regions of the world, democratic politics and free market economy have emerged as the twin goals of national development. This paper examines public's reactions to the dual or parallel transformation of authoritarian politics and crony capitalism into market democracy by considering jointly citizens’ basic orientations toward democracy and capitalism. Which subgroups are most and least supportive of the parallel development of democracy and capitalism? What factors...
URRUSTI FRENK, LUZ MARIA SINAIA
The chapters in this dissertation study political economy and development economics topics related to the decline of the Mexican Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), one of the longest-lasting authoritarian governments of the twentieth century. Chapter 1 provides an introduction linking the main topics, hypotheses, and results. Chapters 2 and 3 focus on the role of mass media diversity and unsustainable media capture, respectively, in the Mexican democratic transition. Chapter 4 examines ...
Greenough, Jenifer M.
The Taiwan question is the most important issue in US-PRC relations. A decision by the PRC to resolve the issue militarily would jeopardize major US interests in the East Asian region. Drawing largely on democratic peace theory, which asserts that democracies do not go to war with one another, some assessments of the Taiwan question argue that peaceful resolution of the reunification issue must rest on the transformation of the PRC's authoritarian political system into a democracy. This belie...
Palma, Agatha Evangeline
The 2010-2011 Jasmine Revolution brought many Tunisians who had lived their entire lives under authoritarian regime out onto the streets for the first time in protest. Tunisians of all ages and social backgrounds participated, demanding the ousting of then-dictator Zine el Abidine Ben Ali. Since his ousting, Tunisian public life has witnessed a radical transformation: with individuals having earned new forms of expression once denied to them, public space is undergoing a process of renegotiat...
The first construct of this study is leadership styles. This well-known concept has been widely explored in the research. Many different models have germinated from the different theories developed on leadership styles, and for the purpose of this research, the leadership style model approach developed by Kurt Lewin has been used as a framework or paradigm. According to this approach, their main styles are identified. These styles are known as authoritarian style, participating style and dele...
Silalahi, Yanti Nova
Parenting is parents’ parenting to shape the child's personality. Application of parents’ parenting can influence learning achievement in school, career and social life. There are 4 kinds of parenting, namely democratic, permissive, authoritarian and penelantar parenting. This study aims to determine the influence of family upbringing on students’ achievement. This study uses descriptive correlative. The samples in this study were 35 students grade XI at SMAN 2 Rantau Selatan Labuhan Batu dis...
This article analyses the emergence of new forms of social mobilisation against HIV/AIDS in China. The central authorities’ engagement and the opening to international aid have allowed people living with HIV/AIDS to take part in anti-AIDS activities. The imperatives of participative development and the history of anti-AIDS militancy stemming from a global dynamic favour HIV carriers’ quest for a democratic say despite the semi-authoritarian context.
The purpose of this research was to study leadership effectiveness. Authoritarian leadership is not always the best choice in today’s business environment. Newer generations of employees have many expectations towards their jobs, and leaders are required to consider multiple factors in order to ensure an effective work environment. This research had two objectives: to study what effective leadership means in practice and what makes an effective leader. This was done by methods of Grounded ...
This thesis tries to search for historical origins of two salient features of South Korean economic culture: authoritarianism and particularism. Contrary to prevailing opinion that these features originated from Confucianism, which was the state ideology in the Chosun dynasty, this work contends that they are rather influenced by the way how the country was modernized under foreign influences since the end of 19th century. Social Darwinism, Japanese colonial rule and Korean War caused by sepa...
Annotation The Doctoral Thesis “Political Poster as a Source of Latvia’s History, 19201940” highlights the significance of posters as an independent source of history and the opportunities its analysis provides to the research of the Latvian history. The category of political poster includes propaganda posters of party election and the authoritarian regime. In this work the practices of creation and use of posters are researched. Based on the information provided by posters, the Theses a...
Abe, Naohito; Ichiro IWASAKI
In this paper, we investigate the possible impacts of ownership structure and corporate performance on managerial turnover using a unique dataset of Russian corporations. We argue that Russia is regarded as a country with a highly authoritarian and collectivism-oriented national culture and this peculiarity is the key to disentangling the puzzle of the statistically weaker relationship between firm performance and CEO renewal in Russian firms. Standing on this viewpoint, we deal with not only...
In the last two years, the Syrian uprising has turned from a civil protest movement against an authoritarian regime into an outright civil war in which the antagonists’ affiliations and identities are increasingly framed in sectarian speech. In summer 2012, various politicians and analysts suggested a power-sharing agreement between regime and opposition representatives as a solution to break the vicious circle of escalating violence. They called it a “Syrian Taif” after the 1989 peace accord...
This thesis analyses the problematic trajectory of the Syrian Revolution 2011, which was inspired by the Arab Spring. It first evaluates the causes of the revolution during Bashar al-Asad’s era. An era was aimed to be a transition from authoritarianism to democracy and from suppression to fair openness. It second investigates the factors behind turning the Arab Spring into a Syrian winter, plunging the country into internal war and uncontrolled violence. The research is based o...
Friberg Lyme, Rune
In Sanctioning Assad's Syria Rune Friberg Lyme explores the direct and indirect repercussions of the international sanctions on Syria's institutional infrastructure, socioeconomic situation and political power structures, underpinning the regimes authoritarian rule. A comprehensive battery of international sanctions has been imposed on the Syrian regime with reference to its brutal oppression of the popular protests, erupting in early 2011. As the violence has spiralled into civil war, the sa...
The bachelor thesis on the topic of Czech aryanisation and anti--semitism in thirties is describing, on the background of historical events, displays of hate against Jews in a period of liberal first republic and authoritarian second republic. The first chapter of this thesis follows activities of anti-semites and individual Jewish streams during the first republic. One part of this chapter is composed of author's analysis about a periodical named Vlajka, which was being published by a fascis...
Dyan Mazurana; Khristopher Carlson
This paper is among the first to analyse children's experiences of reparations programmes, taking into consideration programmes from Africa, Asia and Latin America. The violence, abuse and hardship that girls and boys suffer during armed conflict and political violence under authoritarian and dictatorial regimes continues to severely affect their development long after the end of war or demise of the violent regime. They experience violations of their civil, political, social, economic and cu...
The bachelor thesis deals with processes of transition to a democracy and related formation of electoral systems during or after the collapse of authoritarian regimes in Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland. The aim is to analyze events connected with the collapse of regime and to explain the influence and the importance of electoral system selection, which helped with the creating and preservation of democracy in these countries. The first chapter deals with electoral systems. The second chapt...
Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo; Martinez Sanchez, Clara Maria Isabel; Yubero Jimenez, Santiago; GarcÍa PÉrez, Jose Fernando
The ESPA29 parental socialization scale allows for the measuring of four parental styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and negligent), considering the parents? use of different socialization practices considered in this instrument, which are grouped into two factors or two independent dimensions of paternal conduct (acceptance/involvement and strictness/imposition). The objective of this study was to analyze the factorial structure of the Brazilian version of the Scale...
Héctor Ricardo Leis
Populism is a contradictory phenomenon. Great singularities mark its history in South America. This paper will try to register the diversity of circumstances that applies to the countries of the area, for later on to concentrate its efforts in the analysis of the populism. The conclusions go beyond the particularities of thepopulism, phenomenon associated so much to authoritarian regimes as to democratic ones, in the left or right wings, with a cultural convergence in favor of antagonisms tha...
Transitional justice is concerned with the legal and social processes established to deal with the legacy of violence in post-conflict and post-authoritarian contexts. These processes are essentially “creatures of law” – they are established by statute, their work is molded and shaped by lawyers, and their outcomes are benchmarked against what is or is not acceptable in domestic and international law. Concerns have mounted in recent years about the dominance of legalism within the field and t...
The advent of information technology has generally been heralded as a force for the breakdown of authoritarian political control. Especially the Internet is seen as a forum for public information and democratization that escapes all forms of political motivated censorship. On the other side, there are few studies on the relationship between new information technology and non-liberal political structures. This thesis addresses this relationship by analyzing the political culture, and the media...
Samsu Samsu; Rusmini Rusmini
School leadership styles that affect school innovation is essential to bring schools’ changes. This study aimed to determine school leadership styles and its effect on school innovation at the senior high school level in Jambi city. This study uses ten leadership styles, they are participative, laissez faire, authoritarian, democratic, charismatic, transformational, situational, trust, grid, and three-dimensional leaderships. The framework of the research are developed by associating ten lead...
The implementation of the School Integrated Development (SID) in the Vocational High School (VHS) is quite ideal, but much of its succes depends on the activity in the VHS itself. The implementation of the SID in the VHS Bandung demonstrates the leadership style that tends to be authoritarian does not represent the intrapreneurship leadership characteristics. This conclusion shows 21 characteristics of intrapreneurship leadership with an acronym of Teknik. The training materials for candidate...
Ralph Hansmann; Nora Steimer
Diverse elements of anti-littering campaigns may be effective at addressing different causes of littering. Therefore, a complementary approach combining various elements is needed to ensure the behavioral effectiveness of corresponding campaigns. The present study investigates personal, problem-centered face-to-face conversations compared to three different types of anti-littering posters (witty, authoritarian, environmentally oriented). In total, N = 147 persons participated in the questionn...
When NATO was created in 1949 Spain could not join the organization because of the authoritarian nature of general Francisco Franco regime and its cooperation with fascist Germany and Italy during the II World War. However, the USA recognized the strategic importance of Spanish territory in the period of cold war confrontation and initiated bilateral relations with Madrid in the security policy sphere in 1953. The informal cooperation of Spanish military forces with NATO follow...
The Greek junta (1967-1974) can be seen as the as the most recent black page of modern Greek history. It is mostly remembered in terms of shocking oppression as well as for the massive antiauthoritarian student movement that took place in a global sixties context. This paper summarizes significant protest activities under the Greek junta, an authoritarian regime that was in a state of flux. Events are categorized under three broad protest waves: passive resistance/clandestine activities, elab...
Keluarga adalah kelompok dari dua atau lebih individu yang dihubungkan oleh kelahiran, pernikahan, atau adopsi (Bureau, 2005). Dalam sebuah keluarga orang tua bertanggung jawab memberi pengasuhan kepada anak. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian Diana Baumrind (dalam Sigelmen, 2002) didapati 3 jenis pola asuh yaitu, authoritarian, authoritative dan permissive. Kemudian Maccoby & Martin menambahkan satu jenis pola asuh lagi yakni, uninvolved/neglectful. Jenis pola asuh terbentuk dari dua dimensi yaitu...
This article discusses, with regards the case of Peru, the impact of the emergence of women in situations of power, particularly considering their influence on the extension (or no) of women's rights in general terms. After reviewing the variety of women in politics today, the article points out the virtues and the limitations of the pattern of including women in the personalized and authoritarian regime of President Fujimori. It also examines to what point the institutional weaknesses, lack ...
Armiko, Nanda Risto
The title of this study is "Effect of leadership style to the work culture at Personnel Board of Education and Training Gayo Lues District". The purpose of this study is to determine and analyze the effect of leadership style consists of authoritarian, democratic, and independent of culture on Personnel Board of Education and Training Gayo Lues district. The data used in this research is to use primary data and secondary data. This study population by 57 employees, with a sa...
Coralia Sulea; Violeta Rotarescu; Marian Popa; Patricia Albulescu
The current study aims at developing a Romanian version of the Toxic Leadership Scale (TLS) (Schmidt,2008), based on a five dimensions model: abusive leadership, authoritarian leadership, narcissism, self-promotionand unpredictability. The data were collected from a sample of 352 participants, based on the snowball technique.The analyses offered information about reliability, construct and criterion validity. Each scale dimension showedgood reliability (between .82 and .90), and also the glob...
Roberto-Cáez, Omar Manuel
In Latin America, the use of political violence against authoritarian regimes increased after the Cuban Revolution. In the 1970s, women began to join revolutionary movements in ever-growing numbers, to the point that the presence of female guerrillas or terrorists was no longer remarkable. The most important factors that influenced women to join insurgencies were political ideology, state and domestic violence, culture, social networks, and changes in guerilla tactics. Women took on various i...
Chua, Lynette Janice
This study is aimed at gaining a better understanding of how people fight for change collectively in societies that, unlike the United States, have less of democratic processes, and fundamental civil-political rights, and, of how law matters to their processes of doing so. It focuses on a particular minority group, gay people, in one particular society - Singapore, an Asian country with shades of authoritarianism - and explored how gay activists make sense of their grievances, strategize and ...
Liza Marini; Elvi Andriani
Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan asertivitas remaja ditinjau dari pola asuh orang tua. Perilaku asertif remaja diperlukan untuk menghadapi kuatnya pengaruh teman sebaya. Penelitian ini didasarkan pada teori Pola Asuh Orang Tua dari Baumrind yang mengasumsikan bahwa ada 4 tipe Pola Asuh Orang Tua yaitu Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive dan Uninvolved. Teori asertif yang digunakan didasarkan pada teori Asertivitas dari Eisler, Miller & Hersen, Johnson & Pinkto...
Okçu, Tuba Nur; Okcu, Tuba Nur
This thesis proposes to test the following three hypotheses: perceived political efficacy positively correlates with self-esteem; self-esteem positively correlates with perceived democratic parental attitude; and, lastly, self-esteem negatively correlates with perceived protective-demanding and perceived authoritarian parental attitudes. Two questionnaires (Q1 and Q2), each measure perceived political efficacy, selfesteem,and perceived parental attitudes. In Q2, the items of self-esteem and p...
Ahmad, Mahmud bin
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Muslim countries are often thought of as culturally backward, authoritarian, misogynistic, and poor in economic performance. The teachings of Islam, however, prescribe democratic governance and free-market economics. While Muslims, as a whole, have tremendous economic potential, many Muslims are among the world's poorest and least educated. Corrupt autocratic leaders have attempted to capitalize on the Muslim dream of building a grand ...
Dennis Drotar, Dennis
Dennis Drotar, Peggy Crawford, Margaret BonnerCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USAAbstract: Collaborative or shared decision-making between health care providers and families can facilitate treatment adherence, health outcomes, and satisfaction with care in the management of pediatric chronic illness, but raises special challenges. Barriers such as authoritarian models of medical care as well as absence of time and opportunity for dialogue limit colla...
Medical policies, state and religious missions in Rwanda (1920-1940). An authoritative design of colonial medicine? The Belgian health policy set up in mandated Rwanda after the First World War was mainly centred on some campaigns taking specifically yaws as a target. The struggle against this endemic disease (not fatal, but most disabling) was organized in a very systematic and authoritarian way. This article looks into two of those yaws campaigns, questions their runnings and alterations, ...
This book explores the relevance of anarchism for contemporary politics. The author contends that this long neglected and almost heretical political philosophy is becoming increasingly central to radical struggles and movements today, especially in the wake of the collapse of the Marxist revolutionary projects and with the terminal decline of both social democracy and political liberalism. Here the author explores new directions for anti-authoritarian thought. Seeing anarchism as a politics o...
This paper is an attempt to introduce anarchism as organized order. My thesis is that a thorough study of management and organization of anarchism is much needed in theory and praxis because it examines conditions and levels of relationships within anarchism itself. Because of practicing non-hierarchical and non-authoritarian methods and techniques, anarchism should be examined through the theory of organizations in the context of science. In doing so, I derive from Von Bertalanffy's general ...
A resurgent China nowadays looms ever larger in the public consciousness of its East Asian neighbours, with implications not just for their external relationships, but also for their domestic political dynamics. However, Japan still supplies, as it has for over a century, the benchmark of successful “catch-up” modernisation for states, including China, that see themselves as still “catching up.” For authoritarian governments keen to minimise “spiritual pollution,” Japan has also long provided...
Full Text Available The child-mother relation in infancy was found very important not only as a predictor of a child's social adaptation, personality predisposition and capacity development, but also as a prototype of establishing contacts with others later in life (Bowlby, 1975. These early attachment bondings with the child's mother are the basis for all close relationships with potential partners later in life. The survey covers the attachment factors of two parents (30 to 60 years old and their style of parenting their 14- to 15-years-old adolescent. The participants were the primary school pupils of Gorenjska and Ljubljana regions. Adult attachment style was measured with Experience in Close Relationship Questionnaire - Revised (Fraley, Waller in Brennan, 2000. The children completed 30-item Parental Authority Questionnaire for the Mother's and Father's Parenting Style (Buri, 1991. We expected that the parents with low results in Anxiety and Avoidance were the ones who mostly used the authoritative parenting style compared to the parents with higher results of Anxiety and Avoidance in their relationship. The second hypothesis was that high results in Anxiety in parental relationship would mean a more authoritarian parenting style. The results confirmed our assumptions. Parents with a secure mutual relationship mainly raised their children in an authoritative manner with lots of warmth, support and appropriate borders. The second hypothesis was confirmed for fathers only. Fathers with high Anxiety in partner relationship (fear of abandonment, feelings of uncompetency mostly raised their children in an authoritarian manner. The authoritarian manner consists of many strict borders, a lot of control and obedience. The connection of Anxiety in partnership and authoritarian parenting style was not significant for mothers.
Luyckx, Koen; Tildesley, Elizabeth A.; Soenens, Bart; Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Peterson, Missy; Duriez, Bart
This study investigated how parenting accounted for inter-individual differences in developmental trajectories of different child behaviors across childhood and adolescence. In a cohort sequential community sample of 1,049 children, latent class growth analysis was applied to three parent-reported dimensions (monitoring, positive parenting, inconsistent discipline) across 12 annual assessments (ages 6–18). Four longitudinal parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, uninvolved...
Social networking sites such as Facebook are a very integrated part of people’s lives and that means that Facebook has also become a huge advertising machine. Companies use Facebook for branding, advertising and as a customer service channel. We have seen protests on Facebook against authoritarian regimes and that is why this thesis is interested to study who holds power and has influence over others on Facebook. As Facebook has become a marketing machine this thesis focuses on company percep...
Tibor R. Machan
Milton Friedman is among those who have favored a value free, amoral defense of the free society. Here I discuss his basic reason for doing so, namely, that the claim to moral knowledge implies authoritarian politics. I argue that this is wrong because to act morally cannot require coercing people to do so–to quote Immanuel Kant, “ought” implies “can.”
This study seeks to explain the paradoxical expansion of constitutional power in Egypt over the past two decades, despite that country’s authoritarian political system. I find that the Egyptian regime established an independent constitutional court, capable of providing institutional guarantees on the security of property rights, in order to attract desperately needed private investment after the failure of its socialist-oriented development strategy.The court continued to expand its authorit...
Harbi, Tarek; Kaastrup, Mikkel
Since the military coup in 1952, Egypt has been ruled by an authoritarian regime which has proved to be remarkably resilient. International pressure for political liberalization and democratization has only led to cosmetic changes, which have given the regime a democratic façade. Oppressive laws combined with the almost continuous state of emergency in the country prevents the emergence of genuine political competition. While newer secular parties such as Kefaya and Al-Ghad have been suppress...
Qualities that can make activism possible under an authoritarian regime can become disadvantages when restrictions on the political field are eased. Under the Mubarak regime in Egypt, the March 9 Group for University Autonomy, a small group of academics, campaigned against the interference of the state security apparatus and the ruling party in academic affairs and campus life. This article suggests that the group’s survival in that context, and its ability to organize successful campaigns wi...
Johansson, Matilda; Nordin, Annelie
This paper studies the police reform in Egypt in the light of the revolution 2011. The ousting of the authoritarian president Hosni Mubarak was the beginning of the transition towards democracy. Within 15 months both parliamentary and presidential election had taken place. The political leaders were new and the transitional process had begun however the institutions where still the same and one feature of the revolution was to reform the police since the police was hated as the oppressive pow...
Berardinelli, Jonathan T.
This thesis presents an analysis of United States (U.S.) foreign policy in Egypt during the rule of Hosni Mubarak. It examines the role of U.S. foreign aid and the policy of extraordinary rendition in the perpetuation of Mubarak's authoritarian regime. The research relates the negative externalities associated with these policies to radicalization theory and illustrates how U.S. foreign policy impacts homeland security. Complementary to this discussion, the thesis examines the nature of polit...
Okalan, Müge Aknur and Erkan
Among all authoritarian Arab regimes in the Middle Eastern and North African region, Egypt can be considered as a crucial example which has attempted to take a number of steps toward political liberalization since the 1970s. As an external actor through its aid programs, bilateral agreements, direct grant programs, and partnership initiatives, the United States seemed to be working towards economic and political liberalization and democratization in Egypt. However, in spite of this seemingly ...
This article situates Egypt in the global capitalist system to understand better the causes of the uprising beyond the one that has been put forth primarily in the Western media, viz. the authoritarian, undemocratic Mubarak regime was the main source. While democracy is a critical instrument that gives people more say in the process of governance, the uprising was primarily caused by the failure of the Mubarak regime to bring economic prosperity. Indeed, poverty had increased and political re...
History of democratisation in Egypt could as best be dated back to 1970s. But little democratic progress was achieved in Sadat’s and Mubarak’s tenure until the Arap Spring. There are many handicaps before democratisation in Egypt: the elite’s stake in the authoritarian rule, widespread political extremism, structural problems within the political culture of the country in terms of democracy etc. This article ultimately argues that Egyptian democratisation process seems to be a ...
"Dissent and Revolution in a Digital Age: Social Media, Blogging and Activism in Egypt." David Faris. IB Tauris. March 2013. --- Dissent and Revolution in a Digital Age is essential reading for those interested in online activism, inasmuch as it provides a case study for Egypt as well as potentially for the rest of the world, writes Samaya Borom. This book tracks the rocky path taken by Egyptian bloggers operating in Mubarak s authoritarian regime to illustrate how the state monopoly on infor...
During the first two months of 2011, the Arab Spring reached Egypt, and toppled president Hosni Mubarak. After the dissolution of the authoritarian regime, sectarian clashes between members of the two largest communities in the country, Muslims and Coptic Christians, exploded. Before the revolution, Egyptian media was used both by the Muslim and the Christian community to incite hatred towards the other, and thus helped prolong the conflict between them. Media is an important i...
Nozimova, Shahnoza; Epkenhans, Tim
Over the past decade, the Internet has emerged as a new public sphere in the Central Asian republic of Tajikistan in particular for negotiating ‘Islam’ – religious belief, practice and morality. Whilst the authoritarian regime severely restricts the ‘traditional’ public spheres, the Internet has proven to be more resilient and elusive to government control. Blocked web pages move to other domains, and, in particular, labour migration has ‘denationalized’ public spheres. Additionally, the Inte...
An adaption of McConahay, Harder and Batts’ (1981) moderm racism scale is presented for Chilean population andits psychometric properties, (reliability and validity) are studied, along with its relationship with other relevantpsychosocial variables in studies on prejudice and ethnic discrimination (authoritarianism, religiousness, politicalposition, etc.), as well as with other forms of prejudice (gender stereotypes and homophobia). The sample consistedof 120 participants, students of psychol...
This article examines motivations behind participation in education based on interviews with Irish prisoners. It begins by considering the relationship between education and rehabilitation, especially the latter’s re-emergence in a more authoritarian form. Drawing on results from the research, this article argues that the educational approach, culture and atmosphere are particularly important in creating a learning environment in prison. It makes the case that educational spaces which allow s...
Stolz, Erwin; Burkert, Nathalie; Großschädl, Franziska; Rásky, Éva; Stronegger, Willibald J.; Freidl, Wolfgang
Background Euthanasia remains a controversial topic in both public discourses and legislation. Although some determinants of acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted death have been identified in previous studies, there is still a shortage of information whether different forms of euthanasia are supported by the same or different sub-populations and whether authoritarian personality dispositions are linked to attitudes towards euthanasia. Methods A large, representative face-to-face survey was conducted in Austria in 2014 (n = 1,971). Respondents faced three scenarios of euthanasia and one of physician assisted death differing regarding the level of specificity, voluntariness and subject, requiring either approval or rejection: (1) abstract description of euthanasia, (2) abstract description of physician-assisted suicide, (3) the case of euthanasia of a terminally-ill 79-year old cancer patient, and (4) the case of non-voluntary, physician assisted death of a severely disabled or ill neonate. A number of potential determinants for rejection ordered in three categories (socio-demographic, personal experience, orientations) including authoritarianism were tested via multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Rejection was highest in the case of the neonate (69%) and lowest for the case of the older cancer patient (35%). A consistent negative impact of religiosity on the acceptance across all scenarios and differential effects for socio-economic status, area of residence, religious confession, liberalism, and authoritarianism were found. Individuals with a stronger authoritarian personality disposition were more likely to reject physician-assisted suicide for adults but at the same time also more likely to approve of physician-assisted death of a disabled neonate. Conclusion Euthanasia in adults was supported by a partially different sub-population than assisted death of disabled neonates. PMID:25906265
This article intends to analyze the viability of a paternalistic human resources management model in companies of the formal sector, where a logic of profit maximization assumes a more demanding dimension. Paternalism is used as a metaphor to understand the relations between employers and employees as modelled on relations between parents and children. The concept demonstrates the transformation of exploitation and authoritarian relations, guided under the imperative of regulation an...
Arnulf, Jan Ketil; Gau, Jinsong; Kristoffersen, Henning
This paper explores if, and how, Chinese managers perceive Western theories of leadership and leadership development as useful in their business environment. Based on a text analysis approach analyzing term papers of 171 MBA students, this study finds that virtuous leadership is valued the most, whereas authoritarian leadership is valued the least. The respondents are oriented both towards traditional Chinese philosophy and Western leadership theories, and predominantly view...
Abstract The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of m...
In this paper, I address the issue of collective female identities in contemporary Russia. The Pussy Riot performance is regarded as a critical event that serves as a trigger for certain 'groupness'. Taking critical event perspectives avoids framing the respondents with the researcher's predetermined categories. The empirical data is collected via collective interviews with the diverse group of Moscovites. Analysis highlights the domination of an authoritarian/collectivistic interpretative re...
Muhtadie, Luma; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun
The additive and interactive relations of parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) and child temperament (anger/frustration, sadness, and effortful control) to children’s internalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 Chinese children (6 – 9 years) from Beijing. At Wave 1, parents self-reported on their parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated child temperament. At Wave 2, parents, teachers, and children rated children’s internalizing ...
Ahmad M. Mahasneh; Zohair H. Al-Zoubi; Omar T. Batayenh; Mohammad S. Jawarneh
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of (564) male and female students at the faculty of educational sciences was chosen selected. Two questionnaires on attachment styles and parenting styles were administered to the selected sample population during the academic year of 2012-2013. Results indicated significant positive correlations between the authoritative, negligent and authoritarian parenting styles...
Rodrigues, Yara; Veiga, Feliciano; María C. Fuentes; García, Fernando
This study analyzes the relationships between parenting styles and adolescent’s psychosocial adjustment (self-esteem) in the Portuguese culture. The sample was of 517 adolescents, 214 males (41.39 %), and aged 11 to 18 years. We used the Parental Socialization Scale (ESPA29) to assess the parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and negligent), and the Multidimensional Self-esteem Scale Form-5 (AF5) that assesses five dimensions of self-esteem: academic, social, emotional, fa...
Lee, Erica H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wang, Yun
The present study examined bidirectional relations between child temperament and parenting styles in a sample (n = 425) of Chinese children during elementary school period (age range = 6 to 9 years at Wave 1). Using two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data, we tested two hypotheses: (1) whether child temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) at Wave 1 predicts parenting styles (authoritative and authoritarian parenting) at Wave 2, controlling for Wave 1 parenting; and (2) ...
Anthony Smith; Johan Beckmann; Sharon Mampane
After the abolition of corporal punishment at schools, teachers have been faced with an increase in unacceptable learner behaviour and threatening situations in their classrooms. An urgent need arose to address learner discipline in innovative ways. Disciplinary hearings that deal with cases of serious misconduct represent a shift away from authoritarian control towards a corrective and restorative approach. This article presents views of educators that had acted as evidence leaders (“ELs”)...
García Pérez, José Fernando; Martínez, Isabel
The relationship of parenting styles with adolescents’ outcomes was analyzed within a sample of Spanish adolescents. A sample of 1456 teenagers from 13 to 16 years of age, of whom 54.3% were females, reported on their parents’ child-rearing practices. The teenagers’ parents were classified into one of four groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful). The adolescents were then contrasted on two different outcomes: (1) priority given to Schwartz’s selftranscendence (un...
The study examines some of the factors of socio-cultural mechanism, playback of South Korean society, namely: social values, mentality, business etiquette and language of business communication. It is proved that South Korean society hierarchical and authoritarian. The increasing role of South Korean society in the development of the globalization of world coordinates, causing interest in the mechanisms of reproduction of social and cultural component of South Korean society, which is today a...
Full Text Available The society wrestles with mass social change congruent with economic globalization and the communications revolution. This change creates new challenges for the social work profession in the areas of social and economic justice. This article analyzes the terminology of the new global era, words that signify a paradigm shift in outlook, most of them a reaction to the new authoritarianism of the age. Globalization, oppression, social exclusion, human rights, harm reduction, and restorative justice are the representative terms chosen.
This paper analyses how the online community in Singapore protested against the hanging of a Vietnamese drug trafficker in December 2005. Singapore has upheld capital punishment in the island state despite pressure from local and global civil society organisations and diplomatic channels. This paper traces how the online medium was used by the public to protest against capital punishment in the quasi–authoritarian state. The virtual community protested against the hanging by maintaining a rig...
China's economic reforms have resulted in spectacular growth and poverty reduction. However, China's institutions look ill-suited to achieve such a result, and they indeed suffer from serious shortcomings. To solve the "China puzzle," this paper analyzes China's institution—a regionally decentralized authoritarian system. The central government has control over personnel, whereas subnational governments run the bulk of the economy; and they initiate, negotiate, implement, divert, and resist r...
After the depression of 1929, in 1930s, when the idea of statism started to lead the world, the magazine “Kadro”, published by some of the Marxist intellectuals except Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu, mostly supported the intellectuality of new political regime. Therefore, the movement “Kadro” gave voice to the perspective of standing for all kinds of governmental interventions, particularly economical interference and adopted the idea of an authoritarian government. In this article, the magazine “...
Ukraine is ranked highly among emigration countries and in particular among countries supplying labor migrants to the EU and Russia. The slumping economy and deteriorating political situation with an increasing number of authoritarian traits logically evoke the question of how non-economic motivation factors impact migration aspirations in Ukraine. The worsening human rights situation in the country is, in a way, seen as a separate matter and is not always associated with migration. This arti...
Digital telecommunication technology has expanded the potential of the mobile phone to be used increasingly as a weapon against authoritarian rule and censorship. Since the content of mobile communication is unpredictable and unregulated, mobile phones have the capability to breach state-sponsored blockage of information. This in turn helps the Chinese people to maintain contact with each other, receive information from outside the country, and make political waves in an aggressive battle for...
Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Kossowska, Malgorzata
Two studies examined the moderating effects of right wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation on the relationship between terrorist images (soldiers vs. criminals) and preference for counterterrorist actions (military aggression vs. criminal prosecution). Study 1 indicated that the perception of Al-Qaeda terrorists as soldiers was related to preference for military counterterrorism, especially among people high in social dominance orientation. The relationship between the percep...
Juska, Arunas; Woolfson, Charles
This article analyzes policing political protest in post-independent Lithuania. It argues that since the early 2000s, policing of political protest as an issue has increased in importance as Lithuania has experienced political mobilization and radicalization among groups disadvantaged by post-socialist reforms. It is suggested that police responses reveal precursor tendencies towards growing authoritarianism which has become more visible in the most recent period. In 2008, the onset of deep e...
Ekici, Gülay; Gazi Üniversitesi Teknik Eğitim Fakültesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü
The first aim of this study is to provide general information about the classroom management profiles, and the second aim is to assess teachers’ classroom management profiles in the first-level elementary education with respect to different variables. In the study, authoritarian, authoritative, laissez-faire and indifferent classroom management profiles are investigated. The study population consisted of 234 first- level elementary education teachers. The reliability analysis of the Classroom...
The Bakiev family, which remained in power in Kyrgyzstan for five years, relied on formal and informal methods to rule the country and never hesitated to violate the division of power principle. To tighten their grip on power, its members held forth about their noble ancestry and distorted the past to secure the future. The Tulip Revolution, officially recognized as a popular revolution and a protest against the corrupt authoritarian regime, was described as a turning point in the country’s h...
The social demand for increased risk control is considered here as it applies to nuclear waste management. Britain's Sellafield Repository Project and France's Mediation Mission to site underground research laboratories are compared. While both management approaches show evolution away from an authoritarian model of decision making and towards implementation of a more socially responsive model, distinct methods of dealing with scientific and social uncertainty appear as well. (author)
Máximo Núñez Alarcón; Félix Moral Toranzo; Mª del Pilar Moreno Jiménez
The aim of the present paper was to build on previous research that examined the association between religion and prejudice in Christians and Muslims from inside and outside the university context. The study included 211 Christian and 121 Muslim university students and 155 Christian and 220 Muslim non-students. An instrument for evaluating religious orientation was used as well as various measures of subjective religion, religious prejudice, right-wing authoritarianism, fundamentalism, freque...
Marcelo Coutinho; Paul Freston
After a centuries-long history of oligarchical, populist, and authoritarian institutionality, in recent decades South America has begun the transition to a liberal democratic state model. This new state model harbors the contradiction of being both more democratic and less capable. In other words, it allows public participation and dissent but has less ability to respond, a role that has been largely transferred to the market, which has become globalized and more complex while experiencing di...
Michelle M Taylor-Robinson; Casper, Gretchen
Negotiating Democracy explains why some countries succeed in installing democracy after authoritarian rule and some don't. Professors Casper and Taylor argue that a new democracy is more likely to make progress toward consolidation if negotiations during the transition process are difficult rather than easy. The authors base their research on structured comparisons of the transition processes and elite bargaining in twenty-four nations: Afghanistan, Angola, Bolivia, Iran, Kenya, Liberia, Myan...
Yaman, Ayşe; Mesman, Judi; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Linting, Mariëlle
Expanding our knowledge on parenting practices of immigrant families is crucial for designing culturally sensitive parenting intervention programs in countries with high immigration rates. We investigated differences in patterns of parenting between second-generation immigrant and native families with young children. Authoritarian and authoritative control and sensitivity of second-generation Turkish immigrant mothers of 2-year-old children (n = 70) and native Dutch mothers (n = 70) were obse...
As Suharto’s authoritarian regime came to an end in 1998, the country’s business elite faced new challenges. While rent seeking had previously primarily taken place through direct relationships with and concessions from Suharto, the business elite in contemporary Indonesia operates in a setting with a higher degree of fluidity and uncertainty. This study sheds light on how the changes to the political landscape in Indonesia have affected the business elite. This is done by tracing the relatio...
Marwan Dwairy; Mona Fayad; Naima Benyaqoub
The association between parenting and child’s psychological states has been studied mainly according toBaumrind’s model of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting styles or according to Rohner’sacceptance-rejection theory. This study, in contrast, rests on the assumption that since parenting is a complex anddynamic process, it is better studied in terms of parenting profiles comprising several factors than via one or twoparenting factors. We administered a questionnaire measuri...
"Psychology and Politics: a Social Identity Perspective." Alexa Ispas. Psychology Press. December 2012. --- This book covers a wide range of political topics, such as the way in which categorising ourselves into groups influences how we perceive the social world, the implications of categorisation for social influence, and the mechanisms underlying obedience under authoritarian regimes. Yves Laberge thinks this book serves as an excellent update on the social identity perspective.
Abbott, Jason P.
The capabilities, tools and websites we associate with new information communication technologies and social media are now ubiquitous. Moreover tools that were designed to facilitate innocuous conversation and social interaction have had unforeseen political impacts. Nowhere was this more visible than during the 2011 uprisings across the Arab World. From Tunis to Cairo, and Tripoli to Damascus protest movements against authoritarian rule openly utilized social networking and file sharing tool...
The aim of this paper is to analyze the political, social and economic background of the divergence of Belarusian and Ukrainian transitions. We focus on Belarus in order to find explanation for questions such as why could Lukashenko remain the authoritarian leader of Belarus, while in Ukraine the position of the political elite had proved less stable and collapsed in 2004. On the theoretical framework of elite-sociology, we seek to determine whether the internal factors (as macroeconomic cond...
Margarita Maria Saenz.
Full Text Available This article explores those factors that produce change in the party-system, making use of theories concerning social cleavage and political agency that consider political repression and elite dynamics as independent variables. The authors examine three cases of authoritarianism in Latin America, Argentina, Brasil and Chile, to determine whether or not regime change is produced from above (via political elites or below (via society.
Veal, C. L.
Taking Soviet films from 1926 to 1945 as its frame of reference, this thesis seeks to answer the question: is autonomous voicing possible in film during a period defined by Stalin’s concentration of power and his authoritarian influence on the arts? Aviation and flight imaging in these films shares characteristics of language, and the examination of the use of aviation and flight as an expressive means reveals nuances in messaging which go beyond the official demand of Soviet Socialist Realis...
The threat posed by insecurities emanating from socio-economic and political outlets both regionally and globally at large remains a subject of contentious debates among international relations scholars. The contemporary factors of insecurity like financial crises and recessions, deadly diseases, terrorism and sectarian violence, cyber attacks, authoritarian rule / bad governance dominate the agenda of international and local actors. Notwithstanding these challenges, there have been consisten...
Prepared for an Immigration Law Practioner's Association Conference, this paper explores the way in which the religious right has taken advantage of the doubtful legitimcay of Pakistan's success regimes, both civilian and military, to engineer itself into a position where it is able to mount a constant critique of state authority. In the course of so doing it has steadily undermine the capacity of civil institutions to challege its narrow, authoritarian, and in demographic terms largely unpop...
Gunn, Geoffrey C.
Two sides of the debate on Indonesia's future turn on the tension between sustained economic growth fueled by demand for Indonesia's natural resources and the highly skewed distribution of wealth. With the Indonesia boosters forecasting a vertiginous rise of Southeast Asia's largest economy, the naysayers point to the deadweights of corruption, lack of transparency, and poor governance. With democratic electoralism revived in a post-authoritarian setting, such issues can no longer be swept un...
In the last decade, Indonesia has witnessed profound social, political and economic transformations that have transformed it from an authoritarian regime to one of the most liberal countries of the Muslim world. Currently represents the fastest growing economy in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) which the impressive growth rate significantly strengthened its position on the international markets. The main objective of this bachelor thesis is to analyze the competitiveness of...
Hong, Young Pyo
The goal of this thesis is to identify the causes of increasing anti-Americanism in South Korea. To accomplish this, three areas will be researched. First, the transformation from an authoritarian regime to a democratic government in the 1990s has provided previously unheard of democratic freedom in South Korean society. Second, the perception of inequality in the Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) and the civilian crimes committed by U.S. military personnel, since the Korean War have fuel...
Elen Geraldes; Janara Sousa
The notion of freedom of the press is inﬂ uenced by typical Modernity values and views of the world. Due to that origin one may identify as deprivers of freedom of the press the interests of news companies, censorship – explicit or concealed - and the existence of authoritarian States, which centralize or monopolize information. This article analyzes the online coverage of a massive event in the Brazilian news, the crash of ﬂ ight 1907, which occurred on September 29, 2006. Medium Theory make...
Espinoza, Guadalupe; Hokoda, Audrey; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Castaneda, Donna
Teen relationship violence is a global phenomenon associated with adverse outcomes. As in other countries, teen relationship violence is of concern in Mexico. However, few studies have examined the risk and protective factors of teen relationship violence among Mexican adolescents. The current study examined whether patriarchal beliefs and exposure to authoritarian parenting among Mexican adolescents are associated with perpetration and victimization of physical and verbal-emotional teen rela...
Thomas C. Bruneau
Spain has frequently and correctly been offered as a model of how to negotiate a democratic transition and consolidate a democracy. The transition from authoritarianism to democracy was initiated in the late 1970s and completed with the election of the Spanish Socialist Party (PSOE) in 1982. It was the forerunner in the contemporary “third wave” of democracy. A, if not the, crucial factor in the overall process of the Spanish transition was the resolution of civil–military rela...
Turkey and Spain experienced drastic changes after Second World War. Turkey started the occidentalization process, with the reforms made by Atatürk but today the country still has continued struggle somewhere between full democracy and authoritarianism. On the other hand Spain stands as a solid example of democratic consolidation. The focus of the thesis is to analyze the effects of democratic transition and consolidation to foreign policy decision making process. The idea is to properly exa...
Htun, Yee Yee
This paper presents as a qualitative research to describe and to analyze the role of civil society in democratizing development in a study of Burma. The contextualization approach for understanding my study is the concepts of civil society, democratization and development. The research explores the empirical phenomenon of the challenges of civil society organizations in Burma/Myanmar under the control of the authoritarian regime and how much civil society actors could work for civil rights an...
Full Text Available Euthanasia remains a controversial topic in both public discourses and legislation. Although some determinants of acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted death have been identified in previous studies, there is still a shortage of information whether different forms of euthanasia are supported by the same or different sub-populations and whether authoritarian personality dispositions are linked to attitudes towards euthanasia.A large, representative face-to-face survey was conducted in Austria in 2014 (n = 1,971. Respondents faced three scenarios of euthanasia and one of physician assisted death differing regarding the level of specificity, voluntariness and subject, requiring either approval or rejection: (1 abstract description of euthanasia, (2 abstract description of physician-assisted suicide, (3 the case of euthanasia of a terminally-ill 79-year old cancer patient, and (4 the case of non-voluntary, physician assisted death of a severely disabled or ill neonate. A number of potential determinants for rejection ordered in three categories (socio-demographic, personal experience, orientations including authoritarianism were tested via multiple logistic regression analyses.Rejection was highest in the case of the neonate (69% and lowest for the case of the older cancer patient (35%. A consistent negative impact of religiosity on the acceptance across all scenarios and differential effects for socio-economic status, area of residence, religious confession, liberalism, and authoritarianism were found. Individuals with a stronger authoritarian personality disposition were more likely to reject physician-assisted suicide for adults but at the same time also more likely to approve of physician-assisted death of a disabled neonate.Euthanasia in adults was supported by a partially different sub-population than assisted death of disabled neonates.
Kenneth Bunker; London School of Economics and Political Science; Patricio Navia; Universidad Diego Portales in Santiago
This article applies the debate on the recent emergence of outsider candidates in Latin America to independent presidential candidate Marco Enríquez-Ominami (ME-O) in Chile in 2009. We test five competing hypotheses to explain his electoral success. First, his support is explained by the consolidation of democracy, reflected by the disposition of voters to disregard the authoritarian/democratic-aligned candidates. Second, his support is explained by the decline of ideological identification, ...
Privatization and company law have been the most important instruments of transforming Russian enterprises. State enterprises have been privatized and modern company law governs how they function, but privatized companies have not changed their business culture. Privatization did not divide management and ownership and did not create efficient stock markets to monitor managers. Managers were able to keep their authoritarian methods inherited from socialist management and rent-seeking in the a...
Koster, Willem; Waal, Jeroen
textabstractThis article demonstrates that studies in political sociology are flawed, because they fail to distinguish between moral conservatism/progressiveness and authoritarianism/libertarianism. Such a distinction is necessary, because historically and theoretically speaking, it is the process of modernization (de-pillarization in the Dutch case) that erodes the former’s salience and, through the alienation and anomie this creates, increases the latter’s. Hypotheses derived from this theo...
After almost half a century of military rule, Myanmar is in its democratisation process gradually opening up to the outside world and re-introducing people´s right to free speech and assembly. Civil society, which was either banned or strictly controlled during the authoritarian military regime, may now have the opportunity to gain ground. It is assumed that international development organisations will play an important role in this development. However, the ambiguity and the actors’ differen...
Valiavicharska, Zhivka Venelinova
Asking what discursive conditions enabled the unchallenged reign of neoliberal capitalism in Eastern Europe after 1989, this dissertation argues that Stalinist philosophy leaves a silent yet powerful structuring legacy in post-socialist politics and intellectual discourse. Stalinist Marxism-Leninism has survived in the presumption that there is a necessary relationship between authoritarianism and politics on the left, and conversely, between democracy and free-market capitalism. Rejecting th...
The thesis highlights external influences on language development. It emphasizes the way family environment influences on children's language development. The higher position in socioeconomic structure reflects in better child's language competence. Educational orientation has a big influence on children's language development and authoritarian education in family environment does not encourage the language competence. The example of speaking in the child's family influences on child's langua...
In the case of institutions we can talk about a specific type of stress – institutional stress. Inside the groups it reveals a kind of consequences of dysfunctional conflicts determinated by professional stress: changes within the group, increasing group unity, the risk of an authoritarian leader, focus on group work and tasks, loyalty amplification. The manager and the subordinate live and work together; that is why, they need to know their mutual needs and interests. Knowing each other is a...
This article explores the burgeoning literature on modes and layers of governance and applies it to the complex of contemporary youth justice reform. Globalized neo-liberal processes of responsibilization and risk management coupled with traditional neo-conservative authoritarian strategies have dominated the political landscape. However, they also have to work alongside or within ‘new’ conceptions of social inclusion, partnership, restoration and moralization. These apparently contradictory ...
The social demand for increased risk control is considered here as it applies to nuclear waste management. Britain`s Sellafield Repository Project and France`s Mediation Mission to site underground research laboratories are compared. While both management approaches show evolution away from an authoritarian model of decision making and towards implementation of a more socially responsive model, distinct methods of dealing with scientific and social uncertainty appear as well. (author)
This paper explores the dynamics of security sector reform (SSR), a term used to refer to efforts made to reform the security structures of states emerging from conflict or authoritarianism. While "local ownership" is increasingly viewed as a necessary element of any sustainable SSR strategy, there remains a significant gap between international policy and practice in this area. In practice, the SSR agenda continues to be driven largely by international actors, with minimal input, let alone...
Book Review Editor, Christien Klaufus
Rebel Mexico: Student Unrest and Authoritarian Political Culture During the Long Sixties, by Jaime M. Pensado, 2013, and Specters of Revolution: Peasant Guerrillas in the Cold War Mexican Countryside, by Alexander Aviña, 2014; reviewed by Wil G. PanstersWe are the face of Oaxaca: Testimony and Social Movements, by Lynn Stephen, 2013; reviewed by Jaime HoogestegerMaya Exodus: Indigenous struggle for citizenship in Chiapas, by Heidi Moksnes, 2012; reviewed by Gemma van der HaarLand and Freedom:...
Jing-Horng Lu, Frank; Hsu, Yawen
Paternalistic leadership, which is a prevalent leadership style in business contexts in non-Western cultures, is characterized by three dimensions: authoritarianism, benevolence, and morality. The current study of 252 Taiwanese intercollegiate athletes (Mage=20.91 years) explored this leadership style in a sports setting and examined the extent to which the interaction of paternalistic leadership and achievement goals predicted athletes’ sportspersonship. Participants completed the Paterna...
Aznar-Lou, Ignacio; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Fernández, Ana; Luciano, Juan V; Rubio-Valera, Maria
Background Mental disorders have a huge impact on the European population. Two of the main causes of this impact are stigma and discrimination. The aim of this paper is to assess the stigma regarding mental disorder in Catalonia and to explore factors associated with stigma. Methods Cross-sectional population-based survey of a representative sample of non-institutionalized adult population (n = 1872). We evaluated attitudes (CAMI: Authoritarianism, Benevolence and Support to Community Mental ...
Gerry, C. J.; Mickiewicz, T.
Using panel data for twenty-seven post-communist economies between 1987-2003, we examine the nexus of relationships between inequality, fiscal capacity (defined as the ability to raise taxes efficiently) and the political regime. Investigating the impact of political reform we find that full political freedom is associated with lower levels of income inequality. Under more oligarchic (authoritarian) regimes, the level of inequality is conditioned by the state’s fiscal capacity....
While many expected Mitt Romney’s nomination on the Republican ticket in the 2012 presidential election to lead to a wider acceptance of Mormons in American politics, it seems to have done the opposite, writes David Smith. He argues that the perception that Mormons have an authoritarian religious agenda and that they are not ‘true Christians’ has led to a large decline in support for Mormon candidates, since 2007, especially among liberals.
This study uses a sample of 34 disinflations undertaken by thirteen Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) nations to test if political institutions impact the cost of policy induced disinflations. We find, after controlling for several of the most important covariates in the literature, that disinflations are less costly for right vs left governments and that sacrifice ratios are lower for more democratic vs authoritarian governmental regimes. This is robust to different measures of government i...
Bauer, Michael; Hanelt, Christian-Peter
"After decades of authoritarian rule increasingly self-confident citizens in North Africa and the Middle East are asking to be given political, social and economic participation rights, responsible governance and the rule of law. This civil society revolt against established government structures has differed significantly from country to country. New political systems are in the making in Tunisia and Egypt. Far-reaching political reforms have been announced in Morocco, Jordan ...
This is a PhD by practice in Transdisciplinary Documentary Film. The submission consists of a 64-minute documentary film and a 32,574 word thesis. The main period of fieldwork and filming was conducted in 2010 in Syria and the editing and subsequent research were conducted during 2011/12, after the current Syrian uprisings and conflict began. The documentary portrays two very different experiences of life in the restricted world of authoritarian Syria. Boutrus, a Christian m...
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
This presentation intends to explore why the two development models in India and China differ fundamentally but also why they share a number of similarities. The aim is to entangle the internal dynamics and mutual relations between the two countries by utilizing a critical comparative political...... economy framework as the theoretical point of departure. The focus is whether regime form per se impacts development outcomes ie whether democracy vs authoritarianism impedes or promotes wealth creation, social order and inequality....
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
This presentation explores why the two development models in India and China differ fundamentally but also why they share a number of similarities. The aim is to entangle the internal dynamics and mutual relations between the two countries by utilizing a critical comparative political economy...... framework. The overall question is whether regime form per se impacts development outcomes ie whether democracy vs authoritarianism impedes or promotes wealth creation, social order and inequality....
The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the ways in which the authoritarian regime in post-Soviet Kazakhstan maintained itself in power from 1991 until 2005. This study endeavours to uncover the palette of the regime’s methods by analysing the ways in which it went about controlling the oil industry – an industry with which the political and economical future of Kazakhstan is inseparably intertwined. The empirical section of this study investigates the interplay between the regime and...
Tibor R. Machan
Full Text Available Milton Friedman is among those who have favored a value free, amoral defense of the free society. Here I discuss his basic reason for doing so, namely, that the claim to moral knowledge implies authoritarian politics. I argue that this is wrong because to act morally cannot require coercing people to do so–to quote Immanuel Kant, “ought” implies “can.”
From the end of the 18th century, the view that youth had a political role to play spread among students in Europe. This view was directly opposed to the paternalistic authoritarian regimes governing the old universities like that at Uppsala, which had been organised as patriarchal corporations for some two hundred years. The thesis deals with the attempts of Uppsala students, despite their lack of formal power, to influence society and their own university. It focuses on the political cultur...
Parents' care pat/ern plays an important role in forming children's behavior. There were three categories of parents ' care pat/ern in children: authoritarian, permissive, and democratic. The objective of the research was to find out the correlalion between parents' care pattern and juvenile delinquency at SMA Swasta Ar-Rahman. The research used descriptive correlation method. The data were gathered by using questionnaires. The samples were 66 respondents, taken by using sim...
Rolandsen, Øystein H.; Leonardi, Cherry
The Torit Mutiny of August 1955 in southern Sudan did not trigger a civil war, but state violence and disorder escalated over the following years. We explore how the outlook and strategies of the government officials who inherited the state apparatus of the Anglo-Egyptian condominium contributed to this development. They perpetuated authoritarian and violent government practices based on a legalistic distinction between citizen and outlaw, while justifying their actions as part of a developme...
In this short and accessible book Jonathan Fenby successfully traces the huge inadequacies of the Chinese state from suffocating authoritarianism to long term economic mismanagement. The beauty of Fenby’s book is that it is superbly concise; with over 30 years’ experience of covering China, Fenby is able to distil complex ideas down to their core elements and burnish them with accompanying illustrative anecdotes. For students of Chinese politics or international relations this is a book well ...
Every communication medium – from pamphlets, newspapers, radio to television – has two-sided influences in politics. On the one side, they can buttress authoritarian governments. On the other side, their potential in democracy promotion is also magnificent and undeniable. Especially in digital age, the improvement in freedom of expression has been more and more associated with the impact of the Internet, new media and mobile phone communication. For China, while its economic development and m...
Feeley, Maureen Catherine
What explains the emergence of human and democratic rights in historically authoritarian and dependent regimes? Based on interviews with movement leaders and participants, as well as longitudinal analysis of news media, and policy and movement documents, the study's central finding is that certain fundamental human and democratic rights became more widely recognized, practiced and protected in Kenya between December 1991 and December 2002 due to the political impact of a transnational social ...
Wasisto Raharjo Jati
This article aims to analyze radicalism movement in Indonesia from Islamic-Populism perspective. In various academic studies about Islam, radicalism is perceived as an act of violence and terrorism. However, the study of radicalism was not always generating both premises. Populism sees many aggressive measure perpetuated by Muslims against the authoritarian regime is also a source of radicalism. Likewise, the absence of Muslim representation in formal politics has resulted in violence. In I...
The world is crying out for ethical and effective leadership that serves others, invests in their development and fulfills a shared vision. Among the many leadership styles (i.e., authoritarian, benevolent dictatorship, participatory, etc.) the one that best represents the ideals embodied in the human factor is servant-leadership. Servant-leadership incorporates the ideals of empowerment, total quality, team building, and participatory management, and the service ethic into a leadership philo...
UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. MONEE project
The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 paved the way for changes in every aspect of life in this region. New opportunities and new risks emerged for all members of society. The main drive for change has been bold economic and political reform - the transition from planned systems to market economies and from authoritarian regimes to more participatory societies. But the 1990s also saw a broader, worldwide transition: a change in thinking about what constitutes social progress. The 1990s represen...
HISTORICAL SOURCES ON ROMA IN SLOVENIA. In the current discussion on the status of Roma in Slovenia, the significance of historic circumstances is often neglected, although these have contributed to the shaping of certain stereotypes, thus having caused and preserved the mutual distrust between the majority population and Roma. The authorities' approach to the problem of Romain the past shows a distinctly authoritarian and paternalistic features, as they demanded accurate supply of data on th...
Full Text Available As an antithesis of “authoritarian enclave” which has been well-established in the comparative politics literature, “democratic enclave” points to the institution of a state or the unambiguous regulatory space in society “where the authoritarian regime’s writ is substantively limited and is replaced by an adherence to recognizably democratic norms and procedures” (Gilley 2010. In this sense, the Internet space, embodied by information and communication technologies, has great potential to play such a role, since its “inherited” properties of decentralization and anonymity would inevitably breach the authoritarian rules. However, a closer look at three Southeast Asian states, Malaysia, Singapore and the “New Order” Indonesia whose regimes were characterized by authoritarianism when Internet was initially developed, reveals different trajectories. In the “New Order” Indonesia and Malaysia, the governments consciously left the Internet space uncontrolled; the online media developed independently, vibrantly, and professionally, especially in the Malaysian case; and there were strong connections between online and offline contentious politics. These elements made the Internet space in Indonesia and Malaysia a successful case of democratic enclave. Based on these criteria, however, the Internet space in Singapore has not achieved similar status. This paper analyses the different outcomes of enclave creation on the cyberspace among these countries. It argues that elite conflict and the strength of civil society are the two major factors that shape the differences. In this sense, the political contexts are of great importance for the understanding of Internet’s political impacts.
Akhmad Rizal Shidiq; Philips Jusario Vermonte
We discuss Indonesia's experience in the aftermath of deep economic and political crisis in 1998 that marked an abrupt transition from authoritarian to democratic regime and provided a critical junction for political reform. Among various and oftentimes interlinked issues of reform, we focus on the impact of introduction and adoption of modern democratic elections to political Islam, especially at national level. To illustrate political development at sub-national level following decentraliza...
Ari Kuncoro; Vid Adrison; Ifa Isfandiarni
For Indonesia the fall of Suharto in 1998 brought dramatic changes in the political landscape. It signified the beginning of transformation from an authoritarian regime towards a more democratic society where the distribution power is more devolved. In this respect Indonesia follow what is called a big-bang approach in the transition. First in the agenda of socio-economic reform is decentralization which changes the relationship between the center and local governments. Next in the countryâ€™...
The dramatic shift in the management of local government in Indonesia, from the centralised, authoritarian New Order Era to the more democratic Reformation Era since 1996, met public demands for, among other things, more accountability. Decentralised local government requires a system that allows the Central Government to supervise and, at the same time, gives local governments the capacity to carry out their duties. This paper compares the institutional capacity of three regencies in ...
Bustelo Ruesta, María
Spain’s evolution from an authoritarian regime to a well established multi-governed democracy in a short period of time, has been accompanied by incredibly rapid social change and a varied (depending on the governmental period), but overall steady, consideration of gender equality as a political priority. This has also led to the rapid development and consolidation of women’s and equality machineries–state feminism–and well-established policies devoted to promoting gender equality over the la...
Rongbin Han; University of Georgia
Studies on public expression in China tend to focus on how the state and internet users (netizens) struggle over the limits of online expression. Few have systematically traced discourse competition within state-imposed boundaries, particularly how the authoritarian state has adapted to manage, rather than censor, online expression. This paper explores and evaluates the state's attempts to manipulate online expression without resorting to censorship and coercion by examining the role of inter...
Severo, Marta; Giraud, Timothée; Douay, Nicolas
International audience In the last few years, cyber-activism has become a very hot topic. In countries with authoritarian regimes, the Internet has offered new spaces of expression (Benkler, 2006). The recent emergence of social media and the Web 2.0 has increased this phenomenon. Social media offer innovative terrains of expression, less standardized and controlled. Particularly where public venues are too dangerous to express one's opinions, the blogs, Facebook pages and Twitter accounts...
Jonathan Hassid; Iowa State University
"Despite its authoritarian bent, the Chinese government quickly and actively moves to respond to public pressure over misdeeds revealed and discussed on the internet. Netizens have reacted with dismay to news about natural and man-made disasters, official corruption, abuse of the legal system and other prominent issues. Yet in spite of the sensitivity of such topics and the persistence of China's censorship apparatus, Beijing usually acts to quickly address these problems rather than sweeping...
Kuhlow, Sasha J.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Arab Spring protests in 2011 uprooted regimes, challenged authoritarian leaders, and provided protesters new tools for mobilization. The use of social media and the involvement of women in public protests indicated changing protest repertoires and movement demographics in many countries. When women protested in 2011, they mobilized both physically and virtually. Assessing the influence women exert in social movements through social...
In view of extensive democratization and decentralization reforms, Indonesia is still experiencing high levels of violence. Since the fall of the New Order authoritarian regime (1966-1998), violence has been privatized and subcontracted to civilian militia groups attached to political parties, social organizations, and political/financial mafia bosses. The thesis is concerned with analyzing the puzzling dualism of successful transition in view of conventional democracy theory and the per...
Despite its authoritarian bent, the Chinese government quickly and actively moves to respond to public pressure over misdeeds revealed and discussed on the internet. Netizens have reacted with dismay to news about natural and man-made disasters, official corruption, abuse of the legal system and other prominent issues. Yet in spite of the sensitivity of such topics and the persistence of China’s censorship apparatus, Beijing usually acts to quickly address these problems rather than sweeping ...
This article discusses the problematics of trauma, memory formation and the diverse forms of the uncanny (unheimlich) found in prison writings by Everardo Dias, Graciliano Ramos, Dyonelio Machado and Flávio Tavares, referring to different moments of suspension of rights and authoritarianism in twentieth century Brazil (the marshal law imposed in 1922-1926, followed by the Vargas and military dictatorships). In comparing these works, I reflect on questions crucial to the testimony of violence,...
In the last two decades, populist radical right (PRR) parties have been electorally very successful in Western Europe. Various scholars have argued that these parties share an ideological core that consists of a specific form of nationalism (nativism), in combination with two other attitudes (authoritarianism and populism). The aim of this research note is to assess whether this ideological core also exists as a consistent attitude among citizens. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses ...
Beck, Martin; Hueser, Simone
This article deals with the Arab Spring as a process of deep political change in the Arab world, previously the only major world area where authoritarianism persisted unchallenged for decades. While in various countries of the Arab world mass protests in 2011 forced rulers to resign, other author...... of stability is presented and discussed. Although the analysis draws heavily on rent theory, it also applies findings from transition theory and revolution theory to illuminate the current political dynamics in the Middle East....
John Reuter; David Szakonyi
Does online social media undermine authoritarianism? We examine the conditions under which online social networks can increase public awareness of electoral fraud in non-democracies. We argue that a given online social network will only increase political awareness if it is first politicized by elites. Using survey data from the 2011 Russian parliamentary elections, we show that usage of Twitter and Facebook, which were politicized by opposition elites, significantly increased respondents' pe...
Civil unrest (protests, strikes, and ``occupy'' events) is a common occurrence in both democracies and authoritarian regimes. The study of civil unrest is a key topic for political scientists as it helps capture an important mechanism by which citizenry express themselves. In countries where civil unrest is lawful, qualitative analysis has revealed that more than 75% of the protests are planned, organized, and/or announced in advance; therefore detecting future time mentions in relevant news ...
Political exile is a mechanism of institutional exclusion geared at revoking citizenship rights and removing individuals from full participation in the political and public arenas of a country. Due to its exclusionary character, the literature tends to assume a correlation between authoritarianism and exile, on the one hand, and democracy and asylum, on the other. This work challenges this view and discusses the more complex interactions between exile and democracy. Relying on qualitative cas...