Asbrock, Frank; Kauff, Mathias
Ethnic diversity poses a threat to authoritarians, as it indicates non-conformism to group norms and poses a threat to group conformity. According to authoritarian dynamic theory, threats elicit authoritarian reactions in people with authoritarian predispositions. In the present article we tested a mediation model derived from authoritarian dynamic theory in a sample of 171 students. As expected, authoritarian predisposition negatively predicted diversity beliefs. This effect was fully mediated by an authoritarian manifestation, that is, authoritarian aggression. The two other components of right-wing authoritarianism, authoritarian submission and conventionalism, did not mediate the effect. Results confirm contemporary research on authoritarianism and the differentiation of authoritarian predispositions and its manifestations.
Tushnet, Mark V.
Legal scholars and political theorists interested in constitutionalism as a normative concept tend to dichotomize the subject. There is liberal constitutionalism of the sort familiar in the modern West, with core commitments to human rights and self-governance implemented by means of varying institutional devices, and there is authoritarianism, rejecting human rights entirely and governed by unconstrained power-holders. This Article explores the possibility of forms of constitutionalism other...
Mollie J. Cohen
Full Text Available During the 2016 presidential election campaign in the United States, scholars argued that authoritarian visions of the family are associated with support for Donald Trump, a candidate also noted to exhibit authoritarian or illiberal tendencies. Though it is plausible that “authoritarian” citizens (defined by parenting attitudes vote for “authoritarian” candidates (defined by disrespect for democratic institutions, past research provides relatively little guide regarding this relationship. One reason is that few US candidates announce overtly authoritarian views. Latin America, by contrast, has had many such candidates. We take advantage of this variation using the 2012 AmericasBarometer, which applied a battery of authoritarian parenting attitudes. We first describe mass authoritarianism across Latin America, showing it is associated with many social attitudes. We then examine authoritarians’ voting behavior, distinguishing between support for “mano dura” (“strong arm” candidates, who are usually rightists, and for candidates threatening violations of general civil liberties, who are often leftists in Latin America. We find that authoritarians tend to vote for right-wing authoritarian candidates, while authoritarianism boosts support for candidates threatening civil liberty violations only among citizens identifying on the ideological right. Education is the most consistent determinant reducing support for both leftist and rightist authoritarian candidates.
Whitten, Norman E.
American college graduates of the post Kent State era are compared with those of the post Hitler era as to authoritarian type personality. A short rating scale, which is included in the article, administered to graduates in 1950 was again administered to graduates of the same college in 1973. The 1973 group was less authoritarian than the 1950…
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION[|]This paper has been planned as a critical response to Murat Civaner's article entitled 'Medical Ethics arguments should be concordant with scientific knowledge and certain values', published in the Autumn 2015 issue of Turkish Journal of Bioethics. It also aims to provide an evaluation of the way the authoritarian discourse manifests itself in ethical arguments.[¤]METHODS[|]For this purpose, the paper first presents the views of Orhan Hançerlioğlu on Karl Marx and Karl Popper and treats these views as a written example of such authoritarian discourse, which is essentially a problematic attitude that results from an inability to acknowledge the value-laden aspects of a given perspective. [¤]RESULTS[|]In order to show that problems in Hançerlioğlu's approach is also present in Civaner's arguments, several examples where the author did not recognize the value-laden aspects and the subjective nature of information are provided. The paper then examines the recent claim by Celal Şengör, who asserted that force feeding of feces to individuals do not qualify as torture. Based on the presentation and the justification of this reductionist claim, it is emphasized that the relationship between information and values is much more complicated than those presented by Civaner. Civaner's claim, which asserts that the concept of conscience should have no place in medical ethics arguments, is also evaluated on this basis and the dangers of excluding the moral agent in ethical evaluation are underlined. In addition, the relationship of the paternalist tradition with the perspective which I refer to as the 'macro axis' is examined. Last but not least, the paper deals with the concept of 'ethics of ethics' by using examples from national and international ethics literature and emphasizes the reason why it is important for the ethicist to become aware of her own scheme of values. [¤]DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION[|]The paper concludes that contrary
The author considered the small part of the population whose members score highly on both the Social Dominance Orientation scale and the Right-Wing Authoritarianism scale. Studies of these High SDO-High RWAs, culled from samples of nearly 4000 Canadian university students and over 2600 of their parents and reported in the present article, reveal that these dominating authoritarians are among the most prejudiced persons in society. Furthermore, they seem to combine the worst elements of each kind of personality, being power-hungry, unsupportive of equality, manipulative, and amoral, as social dominators are in general, while also being religiously ethnocentric and dogmatic, as right-wing authoritarians tend to be. The author suggested that, although they are small in number, such persons can have considerable impact on society because they are well-positioned to become the leaders of prejudiced right-wing political movements.
This research investigated the relationship between the personality construct of right-wing authoritarianism and Baumrind's 1971 proposed parenting styles of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting. 68 youth ages 12-18 along with one of their parents participated. The children rated both parents on Buri's 1991 Parental Authority Questionnaire. One of the parents responded to Altemeyer's Right-Wing Authoritarian Scale. People with higher scores on Altemeyer's scale were more likely to prefer the authoritarian parenting style as their offspring reported (r = .33). Permissive parenting correlated negatively with the measure of authoritarianism as a personality variable (r = -.56).
Liuzza, Marco Tullio; Lindholm, Torun; Hawley, Caitlin B; Gustafsson Sendén, Marie; Ekström, Ingrid; Olsson, Mats J; Olofsson, Jonas K
Authoritarianism has resurfaced as a research topic in political psychology, as it appears relevant to explain current political trends. Authoritarian attitudes have been consistently linked to feelings of disgust, an emotion that is thought to have evolved to protect the organism from contamination. We hypothesized that body odour disgust sensitivity (BODS) might be associated with authoritarianism, as chemo-signalling is a primitive system for regulating interpersonal contact and disease avoidance, which are key features also in authoritarianism. We used well-validated scales for measuring BODS, authoritarianism and related constructs. Across two studies, we found that BODS is positively related to authoritarianism. In a third study, we showed a positive association between BODS scores and support for Donald Trump, who, at the time of data collection, was a presidential candidate with an agenda described as resonating with authoritarian attitudes. Authoritarianism fully explained the positive association between BODS and support for Donald Trump. Our findings highlight body odour disgust as a new and promising domain in political psychology research. Authoritarianism and BODS might be part of the same disease avoidance framework, and our results contribute to the growing evidence that contemporary social attitudes might be rooted in basic sensory functions.
Hofman, Peter S.; Moon, Jeremy; Wu, Bin
This article introduces the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the seemingly oxymoronic context of Chinese “authoritarian capitalism.” Following an introduction to the emergence of authoritarian capitalism, the article considers the emergence of CSR in China using Matten and Moon’s...
Henderson Hurley, Martha; Hurley, David
This article focuses on assignments designed to enhance critical thinking skills for authoritarian personality types. This paper seeks to add to the literature by exploring instructional methods to overcome authoritarian traits that could inhibit the development of critical thinking skills. The article presents a strategy which can be employed…
Allyson Lucinda Benton
Full Text Available Research on the impact of participatory institutions in Latin America has not yet examined how they work in authoritarian settings. National autocrats in Mexico implemented participatory reforms during that country’s national electoral authoritarian regime. Building on research on political decentralization in authoritarian regimes, I argue that participatory institutions can be used to channel citizen demands and to incorporate citizens into authoritarian systems, thereby strengthening authoritarian rule. However, following research on democratic participatory governance, I also argue that participatory institutions will work better in this regard when designed from the bottom up rather than from the top down. Statistical analysis of patterns of municipal-level electoral authoritarian support in Mexico shows that bottom-up-designed participatory institutions implemented during electoral authoritarian rule strengthened local political control to a greater extent than top-down-designed political systems. The study supports research revealing the anti-democratic effects of participatory institutions in democratic Latin American nations.
Brandt, Mark J; Henry, P J
Authoritarianism may be endorsed in part as a means of managing and buffering psychological threats (e.g., Duckitt & Fisher, 2003; Henry, 2011). Building on this research, the authors postulated that authoritarianism should be especially prevalent among women in societies with high levels of gender inequality because they especially face more psychological threats associated with stigma compared with men. After establishing that authoritarianism is, in part, a response to rejection, a psychological threat associated with stigma (Study 1), the authors used multilevel modeling to analyze data from 54 societies to find that women endorsed authoritarian values more than men, especially in individualistic societies with high levels of gender inequality (Study 2). Results show that the threats of stigma for women are not uniform across different cultures and that the degree of stigma is related to the degree of endorsement of psychologically protective attitudes such as authoritarianism.
A communitarian approach to bioethics adds a core value to a field that is often more concerned with considerations of individual autonomy. Some interpretations of liberalism put the needs of the patient over those of the community; authoritarian communitarianism privileges the needs of society over those of the patient. Responsive communitarianism's main starting point is that we face two conflicting core values, autonomy and the common good, and that neither should be a priori privileged and that we have principles and procedure that can be used to work out this conflict but not to eliminate it. Additionally, it favours changing behaviour mainly through the creation of norms and by drawing on informal social control rather than by coercion.
Nesdale, Drew; Robbe, Mike de Vries; Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter
This study examined the extent to which intercultural effectiveness dimensions (cultural empathy, open-mindedness, social initiative, emotional stability, flexibility) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) predicted the ethnic prejudice of 166 Australian respondents toward Indigenous Australians.
Peterson, Bill E; Zurbriggen, Eileen L
The political correlates of the authoritarian personality have been well established by researchers, but important linkages to other major constructs in psychology need fuller elaboration. We present new data and review old data from our laboratories that show the myriad ways in which authoritarianism is implicated in the important domain of gender roles. We show that women and men high in authoritarianism live in rigidly gendered worlds where male and female roles are narrowly defined, attractiveness is based on traditional conceptions of masculinity and femininity, and conventional sexual mores are prescribed. As a construct, authoritarianism is not just relevant for understanding people's politics, but it also affects the most personal of domains--romantic partnerships, lifestyle goals, and basic attitudes about male and female relationships. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This dissertation addresses the argument that there may not be room for cooperation in relations with (and in between) states with authoritarian systems of rule because international conflicts may strengthen their hold on power. To this end, it asks 1) whether authoritarian regimes benefit in terms of their duration in power from conflict, 2) whether conflicts stabilize domestic politics by moderating the violence involved during regime transitions (in terms of how they fall), and also 3) whe...
In a dyad interaction, respecting and obeying those with high status (authority) is highly valued in Chinese societies. Regarding explicit behaviors, Chinese people usually show respect to and obey authority, which we call authoritarian orientation. Previous literature has indicated that Chinese people have a high degree of authoritarian personality, which was considered a national character. However, under Confucian relationalism (Hwang, 2012a), authoritarian orientation is basically an ethical issue, and thus, should not be reduced to the contention of authoritarian personality. Based on Yang's (1993) indigenous conceptualization, Chien (2013) took an emic bottom-up approach to construct an indigenous model of Chinese authoritarian orientation; it represents a "culture-inclusive theory." However, Chien's model lacks the role of agency or intentionality. To resolve this issue and to achieve the epistemological goal of indigenous psychology (that is, "one mind, many mentalities"), this paper took the "cultural system approach" (Hwang, 2015b) to construct a culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation in order to represent the universal mind of human beings as well as the mentalities of people in a particular culture. Two theories that reflect the universal mind, the "Face and Favor model" (Hwang, 1987) and the "Mandala Model of Self" (Hwang, 2011a,c), were used as analytical frameworks for interpreting Chien's original model. The process of constructing the culture-inclusive theory of authoritarian orientation may represent a paradigm for the construction of indigenous culture-inclusive theories while inspiring further development. Some future research directions are proposed herein.
Reifen Tagar, Michal; Federico, Christopher M; Lyons, Kristen E; Ludeke, Steven; Koenig, Melissa A
In the research reported here, we examined whether individual differences in authoritarianism have expressions in early childhood. We expected that young children would be more responsive to cues of deviance and status to the extent that their parents endorsed authoritarian values. Using a sample of 43 preschoolers and their parents, we found support for both expectations. Children of parents high in authoritarianism trusted adults who adhered to convention (vs. adults who did not) more than did children of parents low in authoritarianism. Furthermore, compared with children of parents low in authoritarianism, children of parents high in authoritarianism gave greater weight to a status-based "adult = reliable" heuristic in trusting an ambiguously conventional adult. Findings were consistent using two different measures of parents' authoritarian values. These findings demonstrate that children's trust-related behaviors vary reliably with their parents' orientations toward authority and convention, and suggest that individual differences in authoritarianism express themselves well before early adulthood.
Lyle, Keith B; Grillo, Michael C
Individuals differ in the consistency with which they use one hand over the other to perform everyday activities. Some individuals are very consistent, habitually using a single hand to perform most tasks. Others are relatively inconsistent, and hence make greater use of both hands. More- versus less-consistent individuals have been shown to differ in numerous aspects of personality and cognition. In several respects consistent-handed individuals resemble authoritarian individuals. For example, both consistent-handedness and authoritarianism have been linked to cognitive inflexibility. Therefore we hypothesised that consistent-handedness is an external marker for authoritarianism. Confirming our hypothesis, we found that consistent-handers scored higher than inconsistent-handers on a measure of submission to authority, were more likely to identify with a conservative political party (Republican), and expressed less-positive attitudes towards out-groups. We propose that authoritarianism may be influenced by the degree of interaction between the left and right brain hemispheres, which has been found to differ between consistent- and inconsistent-handed individuals.
Sabrina de Regt
Full Text Available To date, few studies have been conducted on trendsin authoritarian attitudes,despite the importance of this research in our understanding of undemocraticmovements in society. Studies that have surveyed trends in authoritarianism arealready rather outdated, often based on student samples and conducted in only alimited number of countries. Furthermore, until now, no study had tested whetherthe meaning of authoritarianism is invariant acrosstime. Using theEuropeanValues Study,we examined trends in authoritarianism in 31 European countriesover the last decade (1999-2008, based on representative samples. It was foundthat in many Western European countries, with the exception of the Netherlands,authoritarianism declined significantly over the last decade. However, in some,mostly Eastern European countries, levels of authoritarianism actually increasedsignificantly during the last decade. Changing levels of authoritarianism werelinked to extreme-right and anti-democratic sentiment in European societies.
Ballou, Kathryn A; Landreneau, Kandace J
The aim of this article is to increase understanding of the mechanisms of the continuation of elite hegemonic control of a highly valued social system--American health care. White, male physicians and administrators achieved control of the health care industry and its workers, including nurses, at the start of the 20th century. Using critical theorists' work on authoritarianism and incorporating gender analysis, the authors describe the health care system from a critical social- psychological perspective. The authors discuss the meaning and presence of authoritarian hierarchy and gender effects in today's health system through a critical analysis of the profession of medicine, the profession of nursing, corporate and bureaucratic health care, and patients or consumers. It is concluded that the social-psychological behavior of the American health care system has profound implications that must be taken into account in any recommendations for change.
Murray, Damian R; Schaller, Mark; Suedfeld, Peter
According to a "parasite stress" hypothesis, authoritarian governments are more likely to emerge in regions characterized by a high prevalence of disease-causing pathogens. Recent cross-national evidence is consistent with this hypothesis, but there are inferential limitations associated with that evidence. We report two studies that address some of these limitations, and provide further tests of the hypothesis. Study 1 revealed that parasite prevalence strongly predicted cross-national differences on measures assessing individuals' authoritarian personalities, and this effect statistically mediated the relationship between parasite prevalence and authoritarian governance. The mediation result is inconsistent with an alternative explanation for previous findings. To address further limitations associated with cross-national comparisons, Study 2 tested the parasite stress hypothesis on a sample of traditional small-scale societies (the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample). Results revealed that parasite prevalence predicted measures of authoritarian governance, and did so even when statistically controlling for other threats to human welfare. (One additional threat-famine-also uniquely predicted authoritarianism.) Together, these results further substantiate the parasite stress hypothesis of authoritarianism, and suggest that societal differences in authoritarian governance result, in part, from cultural differences in individuals' authoritarian personalities.
Odencrantz, Joana Catherine
This dissertation explores the impact of an authoritarian state on the university as represented by the Faculty of Economics and Political Science at Cairo University in Cairo, Egypt. I examine how academics negotiate their tasks of acquiring, disseminating and producing knowledge within the confines of an authoritarian state. "The 2003 Arab…
Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G
This study explored the relations of gender and adult attachment styles to college students' scores on several measures of authoritarian attitudes (e.g., right-wing authoritarianism, ethnocentrism, homophobia, and religious fundamentalism). A multivariate analysis of authoritarian attitudes yielded significant main and interaction effects involving students' gender and their (categorical) attachment style scores. Relative to women, men reported higher levels of homophobia, ethnocentrism, and right-wing authoritarianism. Gender differences in homophobia were additionally conditioned by participants' adult attachment styles: Men with dismissing styles evidenced the highest levels of homophobia, whereas women with dismissing styles demonstrated the lowest levels; that is, a fear of intimacy seemed to contribute to homophobic attitudes found among heterosexual men. This was the first U.S. study of the relationship between adult attachment styles and right-wing authoritarianism, and further investigation is warranted.
This book takes stock of political reform in Ethiopia and the transformation of Ethiopian society since the adoption of multi-party politics and ethnic federalism in 1991. Decentralization, attempted democratization via ethno-national representation, and partial economic liberalization have...... reconfigured Ethiopian society and state in the past two decades. Yet, as the contributors to this volume demonstrate, ‘democracy’ in Ethiopia has not changed the authority structures and the culture of centralist decision-making of the past. The political system is tightly engineered and controlled from top...... has embarked upon a technocratic ‘developmental state’ trajectory ostensibly aimed at ‘depoliticizing’ national policy and delegitimizing alternative courses. The contributors analyze the dynamics of authoritarian state-building, political ethnicity, electoral politics and state-society relations...
This is a short summary of research undertaken to find if there is a degree of correlation between a measure of filial piety and a measure of authoritarianism exhibited by Chinese as opposed to Americans. (JH)
Nasrollah Pour Afkari; Behzad Hakiminya; Arash Heydari; Shahrooz Foroutankia
Introduction Scientific review of the authoritarian personality began in 1950 with the pioneering work of Adorno and his colleagues. Following their attempt, extensive studies were carried out in social psychology, political science, and sociology in this field. Despite the extensive amount of research on authoritarianism in Western societies, few have been conducted in developing countries. The dimensions of this phenomenon in Third World countries can be extensive. The importance of the ...
Full Text Available Based on findings indicating that authoritarians express greater intolerance in situations where diversity is more apparent, Stenner (2005 proposes that democracies may sabotage their stability by allowing the unbridled expression of societal pluralism. She therefore suggests that pluralism in democracies be suppressed in order to pacify authoritarians and the threat their unbridled intolerance may pose to the stability of these countries. Based on data from the World and European Values Surveys, I examined 75,478 individuals across 75 countries to determine if authoritarians are indeed more intolerant in more democratic societies; a key assumption upon which Stenner’s suggestion rests. While authoritarianism was more strongly and negatively related to tolerance in more democratic countries, authoritarians in more democratic countries were more tolerant than were authoritarians in more autocratic countries. I argue that Stenner’s concern may be valid if we strictly consider rapid pluralization within a single generation within consolidating democracies, but for established democracies, her concern appears unwarranted.
Full Text Available This article will briefly introduce the concept of authoritarian personality as its team of authors T. W. Adorno, E. Frenkel-Brunswik, D. J. Levinson and R. N. Sanford, presented it, describe the contemporary influence of the concept and focus on possible implications for the study of non-democratic regimes. The reader will also learn about findings of political psychology and reflections about the concept of authoritarianism, including the approaches of S. Freud, E. Fromm, A. Maslow and others. The following text is based on the theoretical conclusions of political psychology, which by applying its scholarly perspective can uncover some contexts of the study of non-democratic regimes.
Farah, Abdulkadir Osman
of disempowered youth, intense media-tech application and sustained international pressure as crucial to ousting authoritarian regimes in North Africa. Delineating the role of TNGOs complements such findings. TNGO activities and responses to the Egyptian uprising in 2011 and to the ensuing coup in 2013 reveal...... positions of these organizations and might eventually encourage the return to authoritarianism. After introductory remarks on the background of the uprising, the paper proceeds to theoretical discussion of transnational engagement followed by recent historical and current empirical developments...
This article systematically investigates the relationship between internet use and protests in authoritarian states and democracies. It argues that unlike in democracies, internet use has facilitated the occurrence of protests in authoritarian regimes, developing a theoretical rationale for this
Nielson, Rex P.
Lygia Fagundes Telles's novel "As meninas" portrays the oppressive social atmosphere of Brazil's authoritarian military dictatorship in a way that few other novels accomplish. Though the novel eschews the documentary "romance-reportagem" mode famously adopted by other writers from the period, "As meninas" provides a…
Aarts, P.; Cavatorta, F.
What are the dynamics of civic activism in authoritarian regimes? How do new social actors--many of them informal, "below the radar" groups--interact with these regimes? What mechanisms do the power elite employ to deal with societal dissidence? The authors of Civil Society in Syria and Iran explore
only contributed to corruption, violent conflict, poverty, human rights abuses and the throttling of social justice. The contradiction in Africa's democratisation is further shown by the increasing metamorphoses of many African ruling political parties into what can be called 'democratic authoritarianism'. The process of this met-.
Full Text Available The article approaches the Romanian social-democratic collaboration during 1938-1940 with the authoritarian monarch regime. Even though the party leaders had diverging political views, regards to the acceptance or the non-acceptance of the authoritarian regime, the influential PSDR members held leading positions within the single party and the corporate parliament and within the union structures. The positions were offered by the regime, so that the union leaders would stop instigating workers to go on strike, and to accept the governmental policies. The freedom of speech and the political actions were ceded to the monarch, who governed at the place of the political parties and he controlled the unions, by using the guilds.
Ho, D Y
In the present study, I examined the role of Confucian filial piety in relation to parental attitudes, the function of personality, and social cognition, using data assembled from 11 samples of adults and students in Hong Kong and Taiwan. Results showed that (a) filial attitudes tend to be moderately associated with parental attitudes and child training that emphasize obedience and indebtedness to one's parents, impulse control, and proper conduct; (b) people endorsing traditional filial and/or child-training attitudes tend to be poorer in verbal fluency, to adopt a passive, uncritical, and uncreative orientation toward learning, to hold fatalistic, superstitious, and stereotypic beliefs, and to be authoritarian, dogmatic, and conformist; and (c) parents' attitudes rooted in filial piety tend to result in high rigidity and low cognitive complexity in their children. The results support the contention that filial piety underlies both authoritarian moralism and cognitive conservatism.
King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L
Depression is a prevalent illness affecting youth across the nation. The study purpose was to examine depression and authoritarian parenting among youth from 12 to 17 years of age. A secondary data analysis of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health was performed in the present study. All participants in the present study were youth (N = 17,399) nationwide. The results revealed that 80.6% of youth participants reported having five or more depressive symptoms. Parenting styles based on depression significantly differed among males, females, 12-13-year-olds, 14-15-year-olds, and 16-17-year-olds. Specifically, those who reported experiencing authoritarian parenting practices were more likely to report depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts who experienced authoritative parenting practices. Emphasizing the role of the parents and teaching positive parenting practices and authoritative parenting styles may increase success of prevention programs.
Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Cheung, Hoi Yan; Wu, Joseph
Career unreadiness, covering career indecision and career myth, is an issue for universities to address. Supposedly, career unreadiness is responsible for the university student's anxiety and partly results from authoritarian parenting during the student's childhood. This is an uncharted concern for this study to clarify. The study surveyed 229 undergraduates in two universities in Hong Kong, China. It employed structural equation modelling to clarify nexuses among career unreadiness, authoritarian parenting and anxiety, after minimising their measurement errors. Career unreadiness mediated the negative effect of authoritarian parenting on anxiety. Nevertheless, authoritarian parenting still maintained a negative direct effect on anxiety, after controlling for career unreadiness. The findings imply that reducing undergraduates' career unreadiness is justifiable to prevent their anxiety. Such a reduction would benefit from neutralising the demands of authoritarian parenting. More fundamentally, diverting authoritarian parenting is advisable.
Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Cheung, Hoi Yan; Wu, Joseph
Career unreadiness, covering career indecision and career myth, is an issue for universities to address. Supposedly, career unreadiness is responsible for the university student's anxiety and partly results from authoritarian parenting during the student's childhood. This is an uncharted concern for this study to clarify. The study surveyed 229 undergraduates in two universities in Hong Kong, China. It employed structural equation modelling to clarify nexuses among career unreadiness, authoritarian parenting and anxiety, after minimising their measurement errors. Career unreadiness mediated the negative effect of authoritarian parenting on anxiety. Nevertheless, authoritarian parenting still maintained a negative direct effect on anxiety, after controlling for career unreadiness. The findings imply that reducing undergraduates' career unreadiness is justifiable to prevent their anxiety. Such a reduction would benefit from neutralising the demands of authoritarian parenting. More fundamentally, diverting authoritarian parenting is advisable. PMID:25431512
Full Text Available Purpose of the article: This article analyses cluster emergence in post-authoritarian countries with immature socio-economic context by adapting the approach of industrial clusters as industrial ecosystems and analysing cluster emergence cases. Methodology/methods: Review of scientific literature, case analysis. Scientific aim: This article presents different scenarios of cluster emergence based on cases of industrial clusters in a Lithuanian context and provides solutions for cluster emergence in post-authoritarian countries. Findings: The analysis of scientific literature revealed the following solutions of cluster emergence in postauthoritarian contexts: 1 Large firm(s acting as anchors for attracting smaller companies into cluster; 2 Cluster emergence as a means to serve the needs of large customer outside the cluster; 3 Cluster emergence via local business entrepreneurs; 4 Cluster emergence via local science representatives; 5 Cluster emergence through adapting historically formed regional knowledge and networks; 6 Government as the main agent for change. The analysis of industrial clusters emergence in Lithuania revealed four different combinations of planned/ unplanned non-equilibrium phenomena and the first explicit/inexplicit initiatives toward the emergence of selforganising industrial systems by analysing the cases of cluster emergence in Lithuanian context. These cases highlighted the importance of leaders-initiators that were local large or simply very experienced enterprises, groups of managers of small and medium sized enterprises, mediators-communication facilitators from nonbusiness enterprises. These actors helped to cope with unplanned and planned non-equilibrium phenomena. Conclusions: Since the empirical analysis concentrated only in the first stage of cluster emergence of postauthoritarian context, a further research is needed to take a deeper look at the development of industrial clusters as industrial ecosystems in post-authoritarian
Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Kennedy, Tay Seacord; Page, Melanie C; Topham, Glade L; Harrist, Amanda W
Our goal was to identify how parental feeding practices from the nutrition literature link to general parenting styles from the child development literature to understand how to target parenting practices to increase effectiveness of interventions. Stand-alone parental feeding practices could be targeted independently. However, parental feeding practices linked to parenting styles require interventions treating underlying family dynamics as a whole. To predict parenting styles from feeding practices and to test three hypotheses: restriction and pressure to eat are positively related whereas responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are negatively related to an authoritarian parenting style; responsibility, monitoring, modeling, and encouraging are positively related whereas restriction and pressure to eat are negatively related to an authoritative parenting style; a permissive parenting style is negatively linked with all six feeding practices. Baseline data of a randomized-controlled intervention study. Two hundred thirty-nine parents (93.5% mothers) of first-grade children (134 boys, 105 girls) enrolled in rural public schools. Parental responses to encouraging and modeling questionnaires and the Child Feeding Questionnaire, as well as parenting styles measured by the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses. Feeding practices explained 21%, 15%, and 8% of the variance in authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting, respectively. Restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring (negative) significantly predicted an authoritarian style (Hypothesis 1); responsibility, restriction (negative), monitoring, and modeling predicted an authoritative style (Hypothesis 2); and modeling (negative) and restriction significantly predicted a permissive style (Hypothesis 3). Parental feeding practices with young children predict general parenting styles. Interventions that fail to address underlying parenting styles
Schuler, Randall S.
Tested the hypothesis that participation would be satisfying to low-authoritarian subordinates regardless of the degree of task repetitiveness but would be satisfying to high-authoritarian subordinates only on tasks with low repetitiveness and that highly repetitive tasks would be less conducive to ego involvement than low-repetitive tasks.…
Ghazinejad, Parvaneh; Ruitenberg, Claudia
Based on the experiences of one of the authors teaching philosophy for children (P4C) in Iran, the paper asks whether respecting children's rationality, in the form of cultivating their ability and disposition to think critically, is in their best interest in an authoritarian context such as Iran. It argues that, in authoritarian contexts, respect…
Recent research on history teaching has begun to focus on political motivation. This paper is the result of the author's dissertation, which investigates Latvian history teaching under the authoritarian regimes of Ulmanis and Stalin. It reveals the effects of authoritarianism on goals, curriculum, teaching materials and methods, and the teacher's…
Asbrock, Frank; Fritsche, Immo
Endorsement of authoritarian attitudes has been observed to increase under conditions of terrorist threat. However, it is not clear whether this effect is a genuine response to perceptions of personal or collective threat. We investigated this question in two experiments using German samples. In the first experiment (N = 144), both general and specific authoritarian tendencies increased after asking people to imagine that they were personally affected by terrorism. No such effect occurred when they were made to think about Germany as a whole being affected by terrorism. This finding was replicated and extended in a second experiment (N = 99), in which personal and collective threat were manipulated orthogonally. Authoritarian and ethnocentric (ingroup bias) reactions occurred only for people highly identified with their national ingroup under personal threat, indicating that authoritarian responses may operate as a group-level coping strategy for a threat to the personal self. Again, we found no effects for collective threat. In both studies, authoritarianism mediated the effects of personal threat on more specific authoritarian and ethnocentric reactions. These results suggest that the effects of terrorist threat on authoritarianism can, at least in part, be attributed to a sense of personal insecurity, raised under conditions of terrorist threat. We discuss the present findings with regard to basic sociomotivational processes (e.g., group-based control restoration, terror management) and how these may relate to recent models of authoritarianism.
Dwairy, Marwan Adeeb
While in western countries, such as the US and Europe, authoritarian parenting is associated with negative psycho-social outcomes. Studies have indicated that this is not the case in collective/authoritarian cultures. It has been hypothesized that inconsistency in parenting style and culture contributes to these negative outcomes. In this study a…
This article investigates the attitude to communism, National Socialism, Fascism, and authoritarian conservatism in the Swedish Catholic Church’s journal Credo from 1922 to 1945. The comparative approach has made it possible to see how the journal distinguished between the various forms of authoritarian ideologies in Europe during this period. The article shows that the Catholic Church in Sweden took a very negative view of communism (the Soviet Union and the Spanish Republic) and strongly co...
Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner; Hetherington, E Mavis; Reiss, David
The purpose of the study was to determine whether well-established associations between authoritarian parenting and adolescent adjustment pertain to conservative Protestant (CP) families. Structural equation modeling was used to test paths from biological fathers' authoritarian parenting to adolescent adjustment in 65 CP versus 170 comparison families in the Nonshared Environment and Adolescent Development Study (NEAD; D. Reiss et al., 1994). The hypothesis that adolescents in CP families would be less harmed by authoritarian parenting than would adolescents in control families was partially supported: Authoritarian parenting directly predicted greater externalizing and internalizing for adolescents in control families but not for adolescents in CP families. In contrast, parents' religious affiliation failed to moderate the negative associations between authoritarian parenting and positive adjustment. Understanding family processes specific to the CP subculture is important for helping these families raise competent children. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
Muñoz, José M; Braza, Paloma; Carreras, Rosario; Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Pascual-Sagastizábal, Eider; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R
A maternal authoritarian style has been related to the development of physical aggression during childhood and later future social problems; however, not too many studies have detected other than individual or family factors that may buffer this maternal effect. This work examines whether daycare center attendance may moderate the relationships between a mother authoritarian style and physical aggression. The study sample was 72 (40 girls) kindergarten children from Spain. Parents were asked to complete two questionnaires focused on individual family characteristics and parenting styles. At age 5, children physical aggression was assessed by direct observation at playtime; aggression scores at 6 was obtained by a peer-rated questionnaire. A least squared multiple regression was performed after controlling for children's level of physical aggression at 5, child sex and siblings. A positive contribution of maternal authoritarian style on physical aggression was detected. Daycare center attendance appears to attenuate the effect of the mother's authoritarian style on physical aggression, only in boys.
Thompson, Anne; Hollis, Chris; Dagger, David Richards
This study examines the associations, and possible causal relationship, between mothers' authoritarian attitudes to discipline and child behaviour using cross-sectional and prospective data from a large population sample surveyed in the 1970 British Cohort Study. Results show a clear linear relationship between the degree of maternal approval of authoritarian child-rearing attitudes and the rates of conduct problems at age 5 and age 10. This association is independent of the confounding effects of socio-economic status and maternal psychological distress. Maternal authoritarian attitudes independently predicted the development of conduct problems 5 years later at age 10. The results of this longitudinal study suggest that authoritarian parenting attitudes expressed by mothers may be of significance in the development of conduct problems.
Full Text Available Based on goal setting theory, this study explores the positive effect and influencing process of authoritarian leadership on employee performance, as well as the moderating role of individual power distance in this process. Data from 211 supervisor-subordinate dyads in Chinese organizations indicates that authoritarian leadership is positively associated with employee performance, and learning goal orientation mediates this relationship. Furthermore, power distance moderates the effect of authoritarian leadership on learning goal orientation, such that the effect was stronger when individual power distance was higher. The indirect effect of authoritarian leadership on employee performance via learning goal orientation is also moderated by power distance. Theoretical and managerial implications and future directions are also discussed.
Crouch, Julie L; Irwin, Lauren M; Milner, Joel S; Skowronski, John J; Rutledge, Ericka; Davila, America L
The present study examined the associations between authoritarian parenting beliefs, attributions of hostile intent, negative affect, and harsh parenting practices. General population parents (N=183; 31.1% fathers) completed self-report measures of authoritarian parenting beliefs and read vignettes describing children engaging in transgressions. Following each vignette, parents indicated the extent to which they would attribute hostile intent to the child, feel negative affect, and respond with harsh parenting practices (e.g., yelling, hitting). As hypothesized, parents who subscribed to higher levels of authoritarian beliefs attributed more hostile intent to the child and expected to feel more negative affect in response to the transgressions. In turn, higher levels of hostile attributions and negative affect were associated with increased likelihood of harsh parenting practices. Results from a path analysis revealed that the association between authoritarian parenting beliefs and harsh parenting practices was fully explained by attributions of hostile intent and negative affect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study is part of an emerging literature that aims to shed light on China's development finance activities in Africa using quantitative estimation techniques. This paper empirically investigates whether African authoritarian regimes receive more Chinese development assistance than democratic
... for the rule of law and human rights, accountability and transparency. This thesis compares the intelligence systems of Argentina, Romania, and El Salvador under their different regimes, authoritarian as well as democratic...
Wang, Honglei; Guan, Bichen
Based on goal setting theory, this study explores the positive effect and influencing process of authoritarian leadership on employee performance, as well as the moderating role of individual power distance in this process. Data from 211 supervisor-subordinate dyads in Chinese organizations indicates that authoritarian leadership is positively associated with employee performance, and learning goal orientation mediates this relationship. Furthermore, power distance moderates the effect of authoritarian leadership on learning goal orientation, such that the effect was stronger when individual power distance was higher. The indirect effect of authoritarian leadership on employee performance via learning goal orientation is also moderated by power distance. Theoretical and managerial implications and future directions are also discussed.
Mu?oz, Jos? M.; Braza, Paloma; Carreras, Rosario; Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Pascual-Sagastiz?bal, Eider; Cardas, Jaione; S?nchez-Mart?n, Jos? R.
A maternal authoritarian style has been related to the development of physical aggression during childhood and later future social problems; however, not too many studies have detected other than individual or family factors that may buffer this maternal effect. This work examines whether daycare center attendance may moderate the relationships between a mother authoritarian style and physical aggression. The study sample was 72 (40 girls) kindergarten children from Spain. Parents were asked ...
According to Stepan, a regime can promote either type of policy. See Alfred F. Stepan, State and Society: Peru in Comparative Perspective (Princeton...respectively as a positive measure to reduce the budget deficit. See "Tercer Informe del Presidente Miguel de la Madrid," El Mercado de Valores 45, 35 (2...Demand-Making and CIlentelistic Participation In Peru ," in Authoritarianism and Corporatism In Latin America ed. James M. Malloy (Authoritarianism and
Georgiou, Stelios N; Fousiani, Kyriaki; Michaelides, Michalis; Stavrinides, Panayiotis
The purpose of the present study was to examine the existing association between cultural value orientation, authoritarian parenting, and bullying and victimization at school. The participants (N = 231) were early adolescents, randomly selected from 11 different schools in urban and rural areas of Cyprus. Participants completed self reports measuring cultural value orientation, authoritarian parenting, bullying, and victimization. These instruments were the following: the cultural value scale (CVS), the parental authority questionnaire (PAQ), and the revised bullying and victimization questionnaire (BVQ-R). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to examine mediation effects. It was found that vertical individualism acted as a mediator between authoritarian parenting and bullying. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between authoritarian parenting and the vertical dimensions of both cultural value orientations (individualism and collectivism), but not with the horizontal dimensions of either cultural orientation. Further, authoritarian parenting was also positively associated with bullying and victimization at school. The main contribution of the present study is the finding that vertical individualism significantly mediates the relationship between authoritarian parental style and bullying propensity.
Full Text Available The immediacy of daily encounters with gender roles, as well as the specific features of authoritarian mediation in their social shaping, make an analysis of gendered social interaction indispensable. In this paper the analysis is centered on the concept of social character, with special emphasis on authoritarianism as a continuous determinant of the transformation of natural sex into social construct of gender. It is precisely the authoritarian personality type that is the basis for alienated gender, dominated by sexism, a “natural” belonging to the private or the public sphere of social life, suppression of individual human capacities, and reduction of choice. After a review of the theoretical conceptions of social character and authoritarianism, a historical-comparative analysis of authoritarianism is offered, where the latter is seen as an element of the social character within the perspective of the typology traditional - modern - postmodern society. It is argued in conclusion that, in spite of certain emancipatory achievements, men and women still tend to escape into the security of authoritarian alienation. Feminist theory remains a basic source for reflecting on these processes; therefore the author pleads for a wider acceptance of feminist insights as contributions to establishing a postmodern, interpretive “sociology in a new key”.
Support for authoritarian approaches to parenting, including corporal punishment, is known to be elevated among individuals with low current levels of socioeconomic attainment. The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine whether authoritarian parenting dispositions are related to disadvantages in one's social background, in addition to one's present socioeconomic standing; and (2) to distinguish, in this regard, between support for spanking and other authoritarian parenting dispositions. Ordered logit models, applied to General Social Survey data concerning a nationally representative sample of US adults, are used to examine relationships of authoritarian parenting dispositions to the socioeconomic positions that respondents currently occupy and in which they were raised. It is found that support for spanking (N=10,725) and valuing of obedience (N=10,043) are inversely related to the socioeconomic status (SES) of one's family of origin, and that these associations are robust to controls for one's current SES. A disadvantaged family background is found to increase support for spanking most among those with high current SES. Strong associations (robust to controls for SES indicators) are additionally found between African-American racial identity and support for authoritarian parenting. Prior research indicates that authoritarian parenting practices such as spanking may be harmful to children. Thus, if the parenting attitudes analyzed here translate into parenting practices, then this study's findings may point to a mechanism for the intergenerational transmission of disadvantages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cribbs, Sarah E; Austin, D Mark
This study highlights the importance of examining the influence of personality measures, specifically authoritarianism, on negative racial stereotyping, even in an era of alleged color blindness. The authors examine the relationship of various demographic variables and authoritarianism with negative racial stereotyping in a sample of White urban respondents. Current literature suggests that age, sex, marital status, religious identification, religious service attendance, education level, income, political affiliation, level of authoritarianism, and the demographic composition in an individual's local population all affect racial stereotyping. The evidence presented, using path analysis, suggests that some demographic characteristics influence the level of negative racial stereotyping. While the effects of most included demographic characteristics were statistically significant, others, which continually resurface in the literature, remained insignificant (such as the demographic composition of the respondent's area). The results of this study challenge the loss of traditional prejudice with color blindness and point to the importance of authoritarianism as a mediating factor in negative racial stereotyping. The authors conclude the greatest indicators of negative racial stereotyping included in this study are authoritarianism, education, and income, while many other demographics - such as marital status, religious identification and attendance, and political affiliation - have indirect influences through authoritarianism.
del Valle, Hernan; Healy, Sean
The relationship between humanitarian agencies and authoritarian states is of growing concern to Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), given the recurring difficulties experienced in negotiating access and implementing operations in such contexts. The effort to negotiate and gain approval from states to operate on their territory prompts reflection on the sources of legitimacy for action. Drawing on direct field examples in two countries only very rarely examined--Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan--this paper explores MSF's attempts to offer live-saving medical care there. It shows that successful access negotiations hinged heavily on demonstrating added value (medical relevance) while simultaneously building relationships with authorities, identifying possible allies within health ministries, and hoping that such measures could promote a level of acceptance or trust needed to operate. It is clear that the operational space achieved is bound to remain limited and fragile, and that many compromises have to be considered and judged against ethical principles and the overall impact of the intervention. © 2013 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
Peterson, Bill E; Pratt, Michael W; Olsen, Janelle R; Alisat, Susan
Three different methods (a standardized scale, an observer-based Q-sort, and content coding of narratives) were used to study the continuity of authoritarianism longitudinally in emerging and young adults. Authoritarianism was assessed in a Canadian sample (N = 92) of men and women at ages 19 and 32 with Altemeyer's (1996) Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) Scale. In addition, components of the authoritarian personality were assessed at age 26 through Q-sort observer methods (Block, 2008) and at age 32 through content coding of life stories. Age 19 authoritarianism predicted the Q-sort and life story measures of authoritarianism. Two hierarchical regression analyses showed that the Q-sort and life story measures of authoritarianism also predicted the RWA scale at age 32 beyond educational level and parental status, and even after the inclusion of age 19 RWA. Differences and similarities in the pattern of correlates for the Q-sort and life story measures are discussed, including the overall lack of results for authoritarian aggression. Content in narratives may be the result of emerging adult authoritarianism and may serve to maintain levels of authoritarianism in young adulthood. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
David R Cole
Full Text Available When analysing authoritarianism in pedagogy, one is immediately faced with a question: How real is the authoritarianism that one is describing? There is an inevitable «loop» or mode of reciprocation between the object of investigation; i.e. authoritarianism, and one’s own subjective projections about what authoritarianism is, how one has felt it in the past, and connected it to education. Certainly, societies in the West have, in general, changed in their attitudes to pedagogic authoritarianism since the 1960s and 1970s, perhaps under the influence of the mores of post-War, mass education. This article takes two paths of explication to these changes, one through the combined work of Deleuze and Guattari, the other through the critical realism of Roy Bhaskar. The theoretical and intellectual work of Deleuze and Guattari points to and makes plain the ways in which authoritarianism in education is continually under threat and being undermined by a myriad of «minor» forces, for example, exemplified by the relations between the authoritarian teacher and his/her students. In contrast, the critical realism of Roy Bhaskar enacts a critical and realist investigation into authoritarianism in pedagogy, as the name of his approach implies. The point of this analysis is not to simply compare the two approaches, but to try to understand the reality of the authoritarianism in pedagogy that we are presently confronted with in variant degrees and at different levels.
Schaubroeck, John M; Shen, Yimo; Chong, Sinhui
Although authoritarian leadership is viewed pejoratively in the literature, in general it is not strongly related to important follower outcomes. We argue that relationships between authoritarian leadership and individual employee outcomes are mediated by perceived insider status, yet in different ways depending on work unit power distance climate and individual role breadth self-efficacy. Results from technology company employees in China largely supported our hypothesized model. We observed negative indirect effects of authoritarian leadership on job performance, affective organizational commitment, and intention to stay among employees in units with relatively low endorsement of power distance, whereas the indirect relationships were not significant among employees in relatively high power distance units. These conditional indirect effects of authoritarian leadership on performance and intention to stay were significantly stronger among employees with relatively high role breadth self-efficacy. We discuss how the model and findings promote understanding of how, and under what circumstances, authoritarian leadership may influence followers' performance and psychological connections to their organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Over the past decades an authoritarian-libertarian value dimension has become increasingly important to electoral behaviour across western countries. Previous analyses have shown that education is the most important social antecedent of individuals' positions on this value dimension; high education groups tend towards the libertarian pole and low education groups tend towards the authoritarian pole. It remains an open question, however, what aspects of education cause this relationship. The article examines a range of explanatory models: a psychodynamic, a cognitive, a socialization, and an allocation effects model. The results strongly favour the socialization model in which the relationship between education and authoritarian-libertarian values is explained as a result of differences in the value sets transferred to students in different educational milieus. The value differences between the educational groups should thus not be seen as reflecting economic differences between the groups but rather as the result of a more fundamental value conflict.
Full Text Available This article draws parallels between Tsar Nicholas I and current Russian President Vladimir Putin with respect to their use of nationalism to justify statist policies and political authoritarianism. Building upon insights by Alexander Gerschenkron about the economic development of “backwards” states, it argues that both Nicholas and Putin have rhetorically used Western concepts such as nationalism and democracy to legitimize their rule but have modified them to give them more statist content. Under Nicholas, this was exemplified in the tripartite (Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality Official Nationality policy. Putin has emphasized patriotism, power, and statism to justify centralization of power and authoritarian policies. Putin's policies and rhetoric are strong analogs to those of Nicholas. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to explain state-inspired Russian nationalism and how it has been aligned with authoritarian politics, as well as specifying similarities between present and past in Russia.
Ignacio Álvarez-Ossorio Alvariño
Full Text Available Instead of hastening political change, the Syrian uprising has led to greater authoritarianism. At first, president Bashar al-Assad adopted various cosmetic reforms (a party law and constitutional referendum, which were designed more as a survival strategy than a genuine process of political liberalisation. In its first four years, the Syrian crisis has gone from being an anti-authoritarian popular uprising to a proxy war with the active presence of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Qatar and Turkey. Control of the state apparatus on the part of the Alawite minority has been instrumentalised by the Salafist and jihadist groups to intensify sectarianism and claim the establishment of an Islamic State.
Peter P. Mollinga
Full Text Available This introductory article of the special section introduces the central question that the section addresses: do water policy dynamics in (semi-authoritarian states have specific features as compared to other state forms? The article situates the question in the post-Cold War global water governance dynamics, argues that the state is a useful and required entry point for water policy analysis, explores the meaning of (semi-authoritarian as a category, and finally introduces the three papers, which are on China, South Africa and Vietnam.
LeCuyer, Elizabeth A; Swanson, Dena Phillips
Research suggests that higher levels of authoritarian parenting exist in African American (AA) families than in European American (EA) families, and that authoritarian attitudes may be associated with more positive outcomes in AA families than EA families. However, less is known about authoritarian attitudes and children's development within AA families. This within-group study of 50 African American mothers and their 3-year-old children examined associations between maternal authoritarian attitudes, observed maternal limit-setting strategies, and children's self-regulation during a limit-setting interaction. The findings indicate that while AA families may hold more authoritarian attitudes than EA families, the direction of effect of authoritarian attitudes on children's outcomes appears to be the same in both ethnic groups. In this sample, when examining AA authoritarian attitudes relative to those of other AA mothers, less or lower authoritarian attitudes were associated with authoritative limit-setting behavior (firm limits within the context of overall warmth and responsiveness) and better children's self-regulation.
LeCuyer, Elizabeth A.; Swanson, Dena Phillips
Research suggests that higher levels of authoritarian parenting exist in African American (AA) families than in European American (EA) families, and that authoritarian attitudes may be associated with more positive outcomes in AA families than EA families. However, less is known about authoritarian attitudes and children's development within AA families. This within-group study of 50 African American mothers and their 3-year-old children examined associations between maternal authoritarian attitudes, observed maternal limit-setting strategies, and children's self-regulation during a limit-setting interaction. The findings indicate that while AA families may hold more authoritarian attitudes than EA families, the direction of effect of authoritarian attitudes on children's outcomes appears to be the same in both ethnic groups. In this sample, when examining AA authoritarian attitudes relative to those of other AA mothers, less or lower authoritarian attitudes were associated with authoritative limit-setting behavior (firm limits within the context of overall warmth and responsiveness) and better children's self-regulation. PMID:28408794
Rudy, Duane; Grusec, Joan E.
Administered measures of authoritarianism, collectivism, warmth, anger, attributions for children's misbehavior, and parental feelings of control over failure to Egyptian- and Anglo-Canadians. Egyptians were higher on authoritarianism, collectivism, and anger. Men were higher on perceived control over failure. The best predictors of authoritarian…
Rudy, Duane; Grusec, Joan E
Mothers and children between the ages of 7 and 12, from individualist (Western European) and collectivist (Egyptian, Iranian, Indian, and Pakistani) backgrounds, completed assessments of children's self-esteem, maternal authoritarianism, and mothers' thoughts and feelings about their children. Collectivist mothers endorsed authoritarian parenting more than did individualist mothers but did not feel or think more negatively about their children, and collectivist children were not lower in self-esteem. Within both groups, maternal negative affect and cognition were associated with lower self-esteem in children. However, maternal authoritarianism was associated with maternal negative emotion and cognition only in the individualist group. The results suggest that maternal negative thoughts and feelings, associated with authoritarianism in individualist but not collectivist groups, may be more detrimental to children's self-esteem than is authoritarianism in and of itself. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
Christopher, Andrew N.; Wojda, Mark R.
This study examined how social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) were related to two different forms of prejudice against working women: employment skepticism and traditional role preference. Three hundred forty-nine American adults completed measures of SDO, RWA, employment skepticism, traditional role preference,…
Patton, Cheryl M.
Traditional higher education instruction involves an authoritarian educator who is charged with delivering information in lecture format to passive students. Within the past few decades, a new approach has gained popularity. Active learning allows the students to become more involved in their own learning. The educator becomes more of a…
Duriez, B.; Klimstra, T.A.; Luyckx, K.; Beyers, W.; Soenens, B.
Because the authoritarian personality was introduced to explain the rise of fascism during World War II, research focused on its ability to predict prejudice, leaving its associations with well-being largely unexplored. Studies that did examine these associations yielded inconsistent results, and
Chao, Ruth K.
Examined the child-rearing practices of immigrant Chinese and European American mothers of preschool children through questionnaires that measured parental control, authoritative-authoritarian parenting style, and the Chinese concept of child training. Chinese mothers scored significantly higher than European American mothers on the training…
Surlin, Stuart H.; Bowden, Elizabeth
Reference group theory suggests that a perceived similarity between interacting individuals leads to future interaction, increased source credibility, and more frequent agreement on specific issues. This study shows how the reference group theory applies to the authoritarian television character Archie Bunker and television viewers that watch…
Lamborn, Susie D.; And Others
Of 4,100 adolescents, those who characterized their parents as authoritative scored highest on psychosocial competence and lowest on behavioral dysfunction. The reverse was true for neglected adolescents. Adolescents from authoritarian homes scored high on obedience but low on self-perception. Adolescents from indulgent homes evidenced…
O'Reilly, Jessica; Peterson, Candida C.
Building on Vinden's pioneering research [(2001). Parenting attitudes and children's understanding of mind: A comparison of Korean American and Anglo-American families. "Cognitive Development", 16, 793-809], we examined how parents' use of authoritative versus authoritarian styles of discipline related to their children's development of…
Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; Borkowski, John G; Akai, Carol E
Among the negative sequelae of child maltreatment is increased risk for continuity of maltreatment into subsequent generations. Despite acknowledgment in the literature that the pathways toward breaking the cycle of maltreatment are likely the result of dynamic interactions of risk and protective factors across multiple ecological levels, few studies have followed high-risk samples of maltreated and nonmaltreated parents over time to evaluate such processes. In the current investigation, exposure to community violence and authoritarian parenting attitudes were evaluated as predictors of the intergenerational continuity of abuse, and the moderating effect of African American race was examined. The sample included 70 mothers and their 18-year-old children, who have been followed longitudinally since the third trimester of the adolescent mothers' pregnancy. Results revealed that among mothers with a child abuse history, higher exposure to community violence and lower authoritarian parenting attitudes were associated with increased risk for intergenerational continuity of abuse. The relation of authoritarian parenting attitudes to intergenerational continuity was moderated by race; the protective effects of authoritarian parenting were limited to the African American families only. The salience of multiple ecological levels in interrupting the intergenerational continuity of child abuse is discussed, and implications for preventive programs are highlighted.
Shears, Jeffrey K.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; McKelvey, Lorraine; Selig, James
This study used confirmatory factor analysis to examine the structure and factor loadings of an authoritarian parenting scale. The study used data from 315 married couples who had toddlers participating in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project located in 14 communities across the United States. The sample was diverse and consisted…
This paper analyzes the role of the judiciary in Syria’s strongly authoritarian setting wherein ‘the rule by law’ serves as a tool of repression; qualities that have far-reaching implications for foreign assistance programs on judicial reform, the rule of law and reform generally. Firstly, the paper
Party politics in the former Soviet Union is fundamentally different from party politics in Western democracies in many ways. Since 1991, two crucial aspects of party politics in the less-than-democratic former Soviet republics have been the impact of authoritarian practices on party politics and
Janssens, Jan M. A. M.
Examined relationships among childrearing, parental locus of control about childrearing, and child's behavior style. Found that parents who perceived their child's behavior as either externalizing or internalizing had a weak internal locus of control and were more authoritarian. Perceived externalizing child behavior was positively related to…
Sultan, Sarwat; Hussain, Irshad
This prospective study using self-determination theory was conducted to predict the students' motivation and academic performance based on their perceived teachers' humanistic vs. authoritarian orientations in the classrooms. The sample consisted of 300 students aged 14-18 years taken from different schools of Multan. The Pupil Control Behavior…
Johnson, Kathryn A; Cohen, Adam B
The Big Gods model focuses on belief in an authoritarian God as a psychological mechanism that inhibits antisocial behavior and facilitates the formation of tight, cohesive groups. Recent empirical evidence suggests, however, that belief in a benevolent God is more likely to inspire helping and inclusivity. Both kinds of beliefs are necessary to explain the development of large-scale societies.
Lamborn, Susie D.; And Others
To test Maccoby and Martin's (1983) revision of Baumrind's conceptual framework, the families of approximately 4,100 14- to 18-year-olds were classified into one of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) on the basis of the adolescents' ratings of their parents on 2 dimensions: acceptance/involvement and firm control.…
Lyons, Taylor; Carhart-Harris, Robin L
Previous research suggests that classical psychedelic compounds can induce lasting changes in personality traits, attitudes and beliefs in both healthy subjects and patient populations. Here we sought to investigate the effects of psilocybin on nature relatedness and libertarian-authoritarian political perspective in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). This open-label pilot study with a mixed-model design studied the effects of psilocybin on measures of nature relatedness and libertarian-authoritarian political perspective in patients with moderate to severe TRD ( n=7) versus age-matched non-treated healthy control subjects ( n=7). Psilocybin was administered in two oral dosing sessions (10 mg and 25 mg) 1 week apart. Main outcome measures were collected 1 week and 7-12 months after the second dosing session. Nature relatedness and libertarian-authoritarian political perspective were assessed using the Nature Relatedness Scale (NR-6) and Political Perspective Questionnaire (PPQ-5), respectively. Nature relatedness significantly increased ( t(6)=-4.242, p=0.003) and authoritarianism significantly decreased ( t(6)=2.120, p=0.039) for the patients 1 week after the dosing sessions. At 7-12 months post-dosing, nature relatedness remained significantly increased ( t(5)=-2.707, p=0.021) and authoritarianism remained decreased at trend level ( t(5)=-1.811, p=0.065). No differences were found on either measure for the non-treated healthy control subjects. This pilot study suggests that psilocybin with psychological support might produce lasting changes in attitudes and beliefs. Although it would be premature to infer causality from this small study, the possibility of drug-induced changes in belief systems seems sufficiently intriguing and timely to deserve further investigation.
Jiang, Hongyan; Chen, Yang; Sun, Peizhen; Yang, Jun
This study investigated the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees’ deviant workplace behaviors (DWB), as well as the mediating effects of psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 391 manufacturing workers in a northern city of China. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the theory-driven models. The results showed that the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees’ DWB was mediated by organizational cynicism. Moreover, this relationship was also sequentially mediated by psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. This research unveiled psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism as underlying mechanism that explained the link between authoritarian leadership and employees’ DWB. PMID:28536550
Jiang, Hongyan; Chen, Yang; Sun, Peizhen; Yang, Jun
This study investigated the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees' deviant workplace behaviors (DWB), as well as the mediating effects of psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 391 manufacturing workers in a northern city of China. Structural equation modeling was performed to test the theory-driven models. The results showed that the relationship between authoritarian leadership and employees' DWB was mediated by organizational cynicism. Moreover, this relationship was also sequentially mediated by psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism. This research unveiled psychological contract violation and organizational cynicism as underlying mechanism that explained the link between authoritarian leadership and employees' DWB.
Елена Борисовна Григорьева
Full Text Available The article examines the influence of the authoritarian syndrome on the process of legitimization of various bodies and institutions of government, in particular, to establish and maintain a personal type of legitimation. The author offers the analysis of prospects for the transformation of Russian political regime, namely the transfer from the personal type of legitimacy of the political system to the structural type. It shows the dynamics of components of the authoritarian syndrome is widely spread in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1992 to 2012. The article describes a new approach to the authoritarianism, along with cultural, neo-institutional, institutional explanation of the reasons supporting the communication, trust, and an uncritical attitude to the president, stands authoritarian syndrome.
Full Text Available The collapse of the authoritarian regime in 1998 has made Indonesia as one of the most democratic country in Southeast Asia. To ensure the quality of democracy, in particular electoral democracy, supervision and monitoring of elections has a veryimportant role. Although the Badan Pengawas Pemilu (Bawaslu or Election Supervisory Body of Indonesiahas experienced institutional strengthening, this institution has not yet become effective in supervisingand monitoring the elections. Therefore, electionmonitoring conducted by non-state agencies, particularly the citizens become important to complement the performance of Bawaslu. This article aimsto explore how the election monitoring conducted by citizens in the aftermath of post authoritarian era,affect the quality of Indonesian democracy. This article argues that although the citizen participation in monitoring the elections is likely to decline, but thecrowd sourced method that appeared in the 2014election has succeeded in improving the quality of the electoral process as well as defending the democratic regime in Indonesia.
Benga Olla, Marice; Catharina Daulima, Novy Helena; Eka Putri, Yossie Susanti
To explore families' experiences who use an authoritarian parenting style in caring for school-age children. This was a qualitative study employing a phenomenological approach. The sampling method was to interview parents of school-age children living in the Central Maluku district in Indonesia. The findings of this study generated the following themes: (1) parents strictly controlled their children to achieve the parental values and expectations, (2) children failed to meet the parental values and expectations, and (3) problems experienced by the children were the results of the parenting style. This study suggested nursing professionals provide adequate information for parents with respect to parenting styles that may facilitate the optimal growth and development of the children. Future studies pertinent to cultural factors associated with authoritarian parenting were also suggested to better understand the cultural context of this parenting style. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Pong, Suet-ling; Johnston, Jamie; Chen, Vivien
Our study re-examines the relationship between parenting and school performance among Asian students. We use two sources of data: wave I of the Adolescent Health Longitudinal Survey (Add Health), and waves I and II of the Taiwan Educational Panel Survey (TEPS). Analysis using Add Health reveals that the Asian-American/European-American difference in the parenting–school performance relationship is due largely to differential sample sizes. When we select a random sample of European-American students comparable to the sample size of Asian-American students, authoritarian parenting also shows no effect for European-American students. Furthermore, analysis of TEPS shows that authoritarian parenting is negatively associated with children's school achievement, while authoritative parenting is positively associated. This result for Taiwanese Chinese students is similar to previous results for European-American students in the US. PMID:24850978
Pettigrew, Thomas F
Throughout my career, I have pursued three theories related to intergroup prejudice--each with a different mentor. Each theory and its supporting research help us to understand prejudice and ways to ameliorate the problem. This autobiographical review article summarizes some of the advances in these three areas during the past six decades. For authoritarianism, the article advocates removing political content from its measurement, linking it with threat and dismissive-avoidant attachment, and studying how authoritarians avoid intergroup contact. Increased work on relative deprivation made possible an extensive meta-analysis that shows the theory, when appropriately measured, has far broader effects than previously thought. Increased research attention to intergroup contact similarly made possible a meta-analysis that established the pervasive effectiveness of intergroup contact to reduce prejudice under a wide range of conditions. The article closes by demonstrating how the three theories relate to each other and contribute to our understanding of prejudice and its reduction.
Pong, Suet-Ling; Johnston, Jamie; Chen, Vivien
Our study re-examines the relationship between parenting and school performance among Asian students. We use two sources of data: wave I of the Adolescent Health Longitudinal Survey (Add Health), and waves I and II of the Taiwan Educational Panel Survey (TEPS). Analysis using Add Health reveals that the Asian-American/European-American difference in the parenting-school performance relationship is due largely to differential sample sizes. When we select a random sample of European-American students comparable to the sample size of Asian-American students, authoritarian parenting also shows no effect for European-American students. Furthermore, analysis of TEPS shows that authoritarian parenting is negatively associated with children's school achievement, while authoritative parenting is positively associated. This result for Taiwanese Chinese students is similar to previous results for European-American students in the US.
Full Text Available This article surveys the effects of state hydrocarbon rents—defined as government income from oil and natural gas—on authoritarian survival and the onset of democracy. We also examine the association of changing state hydrocarbon rents with state spending and taxation based on a new collection of historical data, the Global State Revenues and Expenditures dataset. Using these novel data, we provide evidence that increasing state rents from oil and gas hinder democratization by reducing citizens’ tax burden. However, an increase in the oil and gas income flowing directly into state coffers does not appear to lower the average risk of ouster by rival authoritarian elites. We have found no evidence of the systematic distributional effects of state hydrocarbon income on regime survival.
McCann, Stewart J H
The author tested the claim that authoritarians desire exceptionally strong punishment for rapists. Given data on 55,966 felons sentenced in 32 U.S. states in 1986 for homicide, rape, assault, robbery, burglary, larceny, and drug offenses (D. A. Bowers & J. L. Waltman, 1993) and given state conservatism scores of 141,798 respondents to 122 1976-1988 CBS and The New York Times national telephone polls (R. Erikson, G. Wright, & J. McIver, 1993) as proxies for authoritarianism, regression analyses showed state conservatism accounted for 18.9%, F(1, 18) = 7.11, p < .01, of the rape sentence length variance when sentence lengths for the 7 other offenses were controlled for and 12.5%, F(1, 27) = 8.16, p < .01, with means substituted for missing data. In both analyses, state conservatism and rape sentence length were positively correlated.
Su, Zheng; Meng, Tianguang
The widespread use of information and communication technology (ICT) has reshaped the public sphere in the digital era, making online forums a new channel for political participation. Using big data analytics of full records of citizen-government interactions from 2008 to early 2014 on a nationwide political forum, we find that authoritarian China is considerably responsive to citizens' demands with a rapid growth of response rate; however, government responsiveness is highly selective, conditioning on actors' social identities and the policy domains of their online demands. Results from logistic and duration models suggest that requests which made by local citizens, expressed collectively, focused on the single task issue, and are closely related to economic growth are more likely to be responded to. These strategies adopted by Chinese provincial leaders reveal the scope and selectivity of authoritarian responsiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Raquel Ojeda García
Full Text Available This investigation raises the question of whether Mauritania should be considered an authoritarian regime. The explanatory variable used is not the only factor, but in Mauritania’s case it is one that has been given little attention. It is an analysis of the party system and its level of institutionalisation through five indicators: the social rooting of the parties; personalism and the profile of the leader; the level of volatility; the calling and participation of the opposition parties in the boycott of the elections and the ultimate acceptance by those parties of their results. It starts from the premise that representative democracy is built on a party political structure and draws conclusions about the low level of institutionalisation of the party system and the authoritarianism of the Mauritanian regime.
Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Cheung, Hoi Yan; Wu, Joseph
Career unreadiness, covering career indecision and career myth, is an issue for universities to address. Supposedly, career unreadiness is responsible for the university student's anxiety and partly results from authoritarian parenting during the student's childhood. This is an uncharted concern for this study to clarify. The study surveyed 229 undergraduates in two universities in Hong Kong, China. It employed structural equation modelling to clarify nexuses among career unreadiness, authori...
confirmed in 2011. After revolutionary public pressure based on mounting dissatisfaction with the authoritarian regime’s rule, Egyptian president...Lützeler, “Germany Today, or the Atlantic Dream,” in Kulturpolitik und Politik der Kultur/Cultural Politics and the Politics of Culture, ed. Helen Fehervary...Pargeter, The Muslim Brotherhood: The Burden of Tradition ( Saint Paul: Saqi Books, 2010), 31–36. Calvert, Sayyid Qutb, 229, 274–276. Zollner, Muslim
Full Text Available A synergistic movement is taking place in American society combining authoritarian populism, the neoliberal transformation of the university, and anti-intellectualism. In the first part of this paper, I pin my notion of intellectualism (and hence anti-intellectualism to a specific frame of reference, namely the German notion of "Bildung" as it is discussed in writings of Nietzsche and Adorno, which I associate loosely with the traditional American liberal arts model of higher education. In the second part of the paper, I outline the neoliberal assault on the liberal arts, rooting my analysis in Wendy Brown’s work, which is influenced by Foucault. In the third part of the paper, I describe the relationship of this anti-intellectualism to the rise of populism and the threat of authoritarianism in the United States. In the final section I tie the discussion into the general analysis of Horkheimer and Adorno’s analysis of fascist tendencies in liberal-democracies, emphasizing the continued relevance of their ideas to contemporary developments in education and beyond. Keywords: Liberal arts; Neoliberalism; Intellectuals; Populism; Authoritarianism.
Full Text Available In the aftermath of the 2016 U.S. election, researchers, policymakers and the general public are grappling with the notion that the 45th president of the United States may very well owe his electoral victory to a sophisticated propaganda effort masterminded by the Kremlin. This article synthesizes existing research on Russia’s domestic information controls, its internet policy at the global level (notably via internet governance processes, and the country’s resurgence as a major geopolitical player to argue that policymakers as well as the general public should consider these themes holistically, particularly as they formulate responses to what many see as the Russian threat to Western liberal democracy. Russia may have lost the Cold War, but it is now waging information warfare against the liberal democracies of Europe and North America in a sophisticated bid to win the next round. Russia does not view internet governance, cybersecurity, and media policy as separate domains. Rather, all the areas covered by those disciplines fall under “information security” for Russian foreign policy. The paper begins by tracing the history of information controls within what is now the Russian Federation before discussing the role of information and internet policy in Russian foreign policy, drawing connections between the Russian government’s control and manipulation of information—including its internet policy—in the domestic and international arenas. Next, it discusses the spread of networked authoritarianism and suggests that a “geopolitics of information” will become increasingly necessary in the coming years. Just as networked authoritarianism establishes strategic infrastructures to control the message domestically and intervene in global media systems, liberal democracies need to rethink media and communication infrastructures to ensure they foster pluralist, rights-respecting societies that are resilient to authoritarianism and
Crowson, Howard Michael; Brandes, Joyce A
Historically, much of the research on right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation has proceeded from the assumption that they are unidimensional. Recently, researchers have begun to seriously consider the possibility that they are multidimensional in nature and should be measured as such. Several studies have examined the unique relationships between right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation facets and social and political outcome measures of interest. However, there have been no efforts to include the full slate of right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation facets as predictors in the same model. This is problematic when investigating the discriminant validity of these facets, given the potential empirical overlap among the facets both within and across scales. We included facets of right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation as predictors of U.S. voters' intentions to vote for Hillary Clinton versus Donald Trump in the 2016 Presidential Election. Data were collected in September 2016. We found evidence for the discriminant validity of several of the right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation facets.
Full Text Available Decisions on decentralization versus centralization come as a result of strategic choices made by politicians after weighing their costs and benefits. In authoritarian regimes, the highest-priority political task is that of restraining political competition and securing power in the hands of the incumbent. This task incentivizes politicians to restrict political decentralization (or at least block reforms promoting such decentralization. At the same time, external economic pressures (e.g. globalization place the task of national competitiveness in the global markets on the agenda, and increase incentives for fiscal and administrative decentralization. Thus, political and economic pressures create contradicting incentives, and in weighing costs and benefits, politicians in different authoritarian regimes make different choices that lead to variation in the form, degree and success of decentralization/centralization policies. In this article we compare authoritarian decentralization in Russia and Kazakhstan.
Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando
The relation between parenting styles and adolescent outcomes was analyzed in a sample of 1,198 15-18-year-old Brazilians. The adolescents were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful) on the basis of their own ratings of their parents on two dimensions: Acceptance/ Involvement and Strictness/Imposition. The adolescents were then contrasted along two different outcomes: (1) priority given to Schwartz Self-transcendence and Conservation values, and (2) level of Self-esteem (appraised in 5 domains: Academic, Social, Emotional, Family, and Physical). Results showed that Authoritative and Indulgent parenting is associated with the highest internalization of Self-Transcendence and Conservation values of teenagers, whereas Authoritarian parenting is associated with the lowest. On the other hand, adolescents with Indulgent parents have equal or higher levels of Self-esteem than adolescents with Authoritative parents, while adolescents raised in Authoritarian and Neglectful homes have the lowest scores in Self-Esteem.
McCann, Stewart J H
On the basis of K. Stenner's (2005) authoritarian dynamic theory, it was hypothesized that the number of death sentences and executions would be higher in more threatened conservative states than in less threatened conservative states, and would be lower in more threatened liberal states than in less threatened liberal states. Threat was based on state homicide rate, violent crime rate, and non-White percentage of population. Conservatism was based on state voter ideological identification, Democratic and Republican Party elite liberalism-conservatism, policy liberalism-conservatism, religious fundamentalism, degree of economic freedom, and 2004 presidential election results. For 1977-2004, with controls for state population and years with a death penalty provision, the interactive hypothesis received consistent support using the state conservatism composite and voter ideological identification alone. As well, state conservatism was related to death penalties and executions, but state threat was not. The temporal stability of the findings was demonstrated with a split-half internal replication using the periods 1977-1990 and 1991-2004. The interactive hypothesis and the results also are discussed in the context of other threat-authoritarianism theories and terror management theory. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved
Speed, Brittany C.; Nelson, Brady; Bress, Jennifer N.; Hajcak, Greg
Abstract Parenting styles are robust predictors of offspring outcomes, yet little is known about their neural underpinnings. In this study, 44 parent-adolescent dyads (Mage of adolescent = 12.9) completed a laboratory guessing task while EEG was continuously recorded. In the task, each pair member received feedback about their own monetary wins and losses and also observed the monetary wins and losses of the other member of the pair. We examined the association between self-reported parenting style and parents’ electrophysiological responses to watching their adolescent winning and losing money, dubbed the observational Reward Positivity (RewP) and observational feedback negativity (FN), respectively. Self-reported authoritarian parenting predicted reductions in parents’ observational RewP but not FN. This predictive relationship remained after adjusting for sex of both participants, parents’ responsiveness to their own wins, and parental psychopathology. ‘Exploratory analyses found that permissive parenting was associated with a blunting of the adolescents’ response to their parents’ losses’. These findings suggest that parents’ rapid neural responses to their child’s successes may relate to the harsh parenting behaviors associated with authoritarian parenting. PMID:27613780
Levinson, Amanda R; Speed, Brittany C; Nelson, Brady; Bress, Jennifer N; Hajcak, Greg
Parenting styles are robust predictors of offspring outcomes, yet little is known about their neural underpinnings. In this study, 44 parent-adolescent dyads (Mage of adolescent = 12.9) completed a laboratory guessing task while EEG was continuously recorded. In the task, each pair member received feedback about their own monetary wins and losses and also observed the monetary wins and losses of the other member of the pair. We examined the association between self-reported parenting style and parents' electrophysiological responses to watching their adolescent winning and losing money, dubbed the observational Reward Positivity (RewP) and observational feedback negativity (FN), respectively. Self-reported authoritarian parenting predicted reductions in parents' observational RewP but not FN. This predictive relationship remained after adjusting for sex of both participants, parents' responsiveness to their own wins, and parental psychopathology. 'Exploratory analyses found that permissive parenting was associated with a blunting of the adolescents' response to their parents' losses'. These findings suggest that parents' rapid neural responses to their child's successes may relate to the harsh parenting behaviors associated with authoritarian parenting. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available In this paper, we explored the in-group and outer-group social distance towards sex workers and its relations to authoritarianism, social dominance orientation and self-respect. The sample consisted of 92 participants from the general population and 45 female sex workers (age 18-50. The instruments used were the Bogardus social distance scale, the Authoritarianism scale UPA-S, the Social dominance orientation scale and the Rosenberg self-respect scale. The results indicate a rather high social distance towards sex workers, including the distance by the general population being higher than the distance of the sex workers towards their own group. The correlation of authoritarianism and social distance was significant, as was the correlation between authoritarian aggressiveness and stoicism and social distance. The relationship between social dominance orientation and self-respect and social distance in our research has been statistically insignificant, however it demonstrates the expected trends. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179002: Efekti egzistencijalne nesigurnosti na pojedinca i porodicu u Srbiji
Chan, Siu Mui
This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…
This article investigates how China's economic cooperation affects authoritarian persistence elsewhere. For the period 1998-2008, the article assesses quantitatively whether the effects of economic cooperation from China vary, conditioned by the regime type of the recipient. The analysis finds that
Jocson, Rosanne M.; Alampay, Liane Pena; Lansford, Jennifer E.
The relations of education, authoritarian child-rearing attitudes, and endorsement of corporal punishment to Filipino parents' reported use of corporal punishment were examined using two waves of data. Structured interviews using self-report questionnaires were conducted with 117 mothers and 98 fathers from 120 families when their children were 8…
Sim, Tick N.; Chin, Jeffery E. H.
Our study sought mainly to examine interactions between mothers' and fathers' authoritative and authoritarian parenting. A total of 284 adolescents (mean age 13.5) from 2 Singapore schools contributed self-report data on their parents' parenting and various schooling aspects. Prior to testing for interactions, adolescents with two authoritative…
Using longitudinal data from the 1970 British Cohort Study, this study explored conditions under which the effects of risk factors for low educational attainment might be moderated. Two different risk factors, hyperactivity and maternal authoritarian parenting attitudes, were studied. The results showed that on the whole these two risk factors…
Martinez, Isabel; Garcia, Jose Fernando
The relation between parenting styles and adolescent outcomes was analyzed in a sample of 1,198 15-18-year-old Brazilians. The adolescents were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful) on the basis of their own ratings of their parents on two dimensions: Acceptance/Involvement and…
Robinson, Clyde C.; And Others
This study examined the psychometric characteristics of a 62-item parenting questionnaire completed by parents from the United States, Australia, China, and Russia. Factor analyses yielded three global parenting dimensions for each culture which were consistent with D. Baumrind's (1971) authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive typologies. The…
Florentino Moreno Martín
December 1996 from a representative sample of 1219 people, who were interviewed at home with the common questionnaire used for the ACTIVA project, with some additional questions. Overall, the sample respondents scored low on the authoritarianism scale. Persons who most strongly justified the use of violence scored higher on authoritarianism, along with those who customarily displayed a higher level of aggression. Attitudes that were more strongly authoritarian were found in low-income neighborhoods, in people who were not part of the workforce, in people with less education, and in those persons who described themselves as having a right-wing ideology. If people who are more authoritarian justify and practice violence more than others, it becomes necessary to encourage criticism of those who abuse their power and tolerance toward differences, in order to prevent such behaviors without disregarding the influence of the social variables previously mentioned.
Hai Hong NGUYEN
Full Text Available Unlike communist parties in the former Soviet Union and Eastern and Central Europe, the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV has overcome crises to remain in power for the last 30 years and will most likely continue ruling in the coming decades. Strategies and tactics undertaken by the CPV are found to be identical to those canvassed in the extant literature on the durability of authoritarian regimes around the world. The present paper argues that the CPV’s regime has been resilient thus far because it has successfully restored and maintained public trust, effectively constrained its opposition at home, and cleverly reduced external pressures. To support this argument, the analysis electively focuses on four aspects: (1 economic performance, (2 political flexibility, (3 repression of the opposition, and (4 expansion of international relations.
David Adam Banks
Full Text Available This essay proposes that those seeking to build counter-power institutions and communities learn to think in terms of what I call “recursivity.” Recursivity is an anti-authoritarian metric that helps bring about a sensitivity to feedback loops at multiple levels of organization. I begin by describing how technological systems and the socio-economic order co-constitute one-another around efficiency metrics. I then go on to define recursivity as social conditions that contain within them all of the parts and practices for their maturation and expansion, and show how organizations that demonstrate recursivity, like the historical English commons, have been marginalized or destroyed all together. Finally, I show how the ownership of property is inherently antithetical to the closed loops of recursivity. All of this is bookended by a study of urban planning’s recursive beginnings.
In South Korea, the Green Revolution has been commonly understood as the development and dissemination of new rice varieties ('Tongil' rice) and the rapid increase of rice yield in the 1970s. However, revolutionary success in agriculture was not the only green revolution South Korea experienced; another green revolution lay in the success of reforestation projects. In the 1970s, South Korea's forest greening was closely related to its agricultural revolution in several ways. Therefore, South Korea's Green Revolution was an intrinsically linked double feature of agriculture and forestry. This two-pronged revolution was initiated by scientific research - yet accomplished by the strong administrative mobilization of President Park Chung Hee's regime. The process of setting goals and meeting them through a military-like strategy in a short time was made possible under the authoritarian regime, known as 'Yushin', though the administration failed to fully acknowledge scientific expertise in the process of pushing to achieve goals.
This article examines the professional and public response to the television play Through the Night , which aired on BBC1 in December 1975. One of the first British mass media portrayals of a woman's experience being treated for breast cancer, this play attracted a large audience and considerable attention from both critics and everyday viewers. My analysis of the play draws on sources documenting expert responses to the play in its production stages, as well as critics' and viewers' responses to what the play said about breast cancer treatment in particular, and about Britons' experiences of medical institutions more broadly. Together, I argue, these sources help us see how Through the Night 's critique of what one expert called 'the machinery of authoritarian care' reverberated with and supported the efforts of professionals anxious to improve patient experience, and how it crystallised the concerns of activists and everyday viewers.
Balčytienė, Auksė; Bajomi-Lázár, Péter; Štětka, Václav
What are the major trends of media change in contemporary Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)? How do these media transformations relate to economic, political, social and cultural currents in the region? After a decade of democratic optimism from the early 1990s to the 2000s, why did democratic media...... and Eastern Europe", held at the Department of Media, Cognition and Communication at the University of Copenhagen on April 24, 2015. Participants included Auksė Balčytienė (Professor of Journalism, and Vice Rector for Public Communication and International Relations, Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania...... influence of Russia, and the war in Ukraine? What could comparative post-communist media studies add to our analysis and understanding of the new CEE realities? These were some of the questions tackled by a recent public roundtable discussion entitled "Media, Democracy and Authoritarianism in Central...
Ekaterina A. Antyukhova
Full Text Available The article explores the use of mechanisms in bringing down authoritarian political regimes in the Middle East and North Africa with the "Arab spring" in focus. The technique of "non-violent" methods of fight suggested by "godfather" of the "Arab spring" Gene Sharp is analyzed. It is noted that the distinctive features of his system were planned, determined and dynamic actions of protest forces. A special place in the article is devoted to the study of the role of non-governmental organizations in selecting and training protest leaders and activists and in creating a network of supporters of prodemocratic movements. The article examines the role of the Internet and cyber technologies used by the opposition during protest rallies. Non-violence as means of bringing down the existing power turned out to be an alternative to armed resistance. The key role of non-violent actions consisted in changing the point of view of anti-government forces, demonstrating that the public solidarity could make the regime overthrow possible. It is noted that the latest information means gave the process of political changes due activity and focus which was followed by the information actions designed to discredit the government in place and form the corresponding public opinion. Mediatization of politics promoted the creation of a dense information veil retouching a real picture. The overall system of methods used during the "the Arab spring" indicates that the mechanism of overthrowing authoritarian regimes and its technologies came from Western culture and were borrowed by Arab activists.
Haugbølle, Rikke Hostrup; Cavatorta, Francesco
Abstract The concept of authoritarian upgrading introduced by Heydemann significantly contributes to explain how Arab authoritarian rulers have been able to maintain their grip on power while introducing a number of liberal reforms. The media reform in Tunisia has been widely interpreted indeed...... the notion that the reform is exclusively about authoritarian upgrading. Perhaps unwittingly, the reform has permitted the arrival on the media scene of new social voices and actors that never had the opportunity to discuss taboo topics and this transforms public debate. While political discussions were...
Tan, Xuyun; Liu, Li; Zheng, Wenwen; Huang, Zhenwei
Previous research suggested that dominance orientation and authoritarianism may be associated with corruption, but little research has verified this assumption or uncovered its psychological processes. In this article, we examined empirically the relationships between social dominance orientation (SDO), right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and corrupt intention and explored the mediating role of moral outrage on these relationships. A total of 677 college students participated in the study and completed measures of SDO, RWA, moral outrage and corrupt intention. Our findings demonstrated that both SDO and RWA were positively associated with corrupt intention. Additionally, moral outrage partially mediated the relation between SDO and corrupt intention and fully mediated the relation between RWA and corrupt intention. Specifically, the results indicated that higher SDO or RWA was associated with reduced moral outrage and increased corrupt intention. This implies that the enhancement of morality and moral outrage may inhibit corrupt intention. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Angraini, Yenni; Toharudin, Toni; Folmer, Henk; Oud, Johan H L
This article analyzes the relationships among nationalism (N), individualism (I), ethnocentrism (E), and authoritarianism (A) in continuous time (CT), estimated as a structural equation model. The analysis is based on the General Election Study for Flanders, Belgium, for 1991, 1995, and 1999. We find reciprocal effects between A and E and between E and I as well as a unidirectional effect from A on I. We furthermore find relatively small, but significant, effects from both I and E on N but no effect from A on N or from N on any of the other variables. Because of its central role in the N-I-E-A complex, mitigation of authoritarianism has the largest potential to reduce the spread of nationalism, ethnocentrism, and racism in Flanders.
Jocson, Rosanne M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Lansford, Jennifer E
The relations of education, authoritarian childrearing attitudes, and endorsement of corporal punishment to Filipino parents' reported use of corporal punishment were examined using two waves of data. Structured interviews using self-report questionnaires were conducted with 117 mothers and 98 fathers from 120 families when their children were 8 years old, and when their children were 9 years old. Path analyses showed that, among mothers, higher education predicted lower authoritarian attitudes, which in turn predicted lower reports of corporal punishment use. Among fathers, higher education predicted lower endorsement of corporal punishment, which in turn predicted lower reports of its use. Results suggest that education has an indirect relation to use of corporal punishment through parenting cognitions, and highlight distinctions in Filipino mothers' and fathers' parenting roles.
Charles-Toussaint, Gifflene C; Crowson, H Michael
International students provide a variety of benefits to higher education institutions within the United States (J. J. Lee, 2007; J. J. Lee & C. Rice, 2007). Despite these benefits, many international students experience prejudice and discrimination by American students. The purpose of the present study was to examine several potential predictors of prejudice against international students: perceptions of international students as symbolic and realistic threats, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. A simultaneous regression analysis that the authors based on 188 students at a Southwestern university revealed that perceptions of symbolic and realistic threats and social dominance orientation were each positive and significant predictors of prejudice. Mediation analyses suggested that the effects of right-wing authoritarianism on prejudice is fully mediated through perceived symbolic threat and partially mediated by realistic threat.
Full Text Available This articles discusses and contextualises tripleC’s republication of Franz L. Neumann’s essay Anxiety and Politics. It provides some background information on Neumann’s life and works. The essay ascertains that in the age of new nationalisms, rising right-wing authoritarianism and authoritarian capitalism, Franz L Neumann’s works can help us to critically understand contemporary society.
Wood, Erin E.; Kennison, Shelia M.
We investigated how mothers’ parenting behaviors and personal characteristics were related to risk-taking by young children. We tested contrasting predictions from evolutionary and social role theories with the former predicting higher risk-taking by boys compared to girls and the latter predicting that mothers would influence children’s gender role development with risk-taking occurring more in children parented with higher levels of harshness (i.e., authoritarian parenting style). In our st...
Katherine Salamanca Agudelo
Full Text Available This paper is a political analysis from some of the readings of René Zavaleta Mercado about authoritarian politics in Latin America. Rethinking Zavaleta allows us arguing about the regional approach of fascism as an authoritarian modality of state policy (Zavaleta, 1976, 1979. 1984, built on particular sociopolitical conditions. Modality that consequently distances itself from the hegemonic reading assigning to it the conceptual centrality of fascism as an historical phenomenon from early XX century specific to Italy and Germany. In contrast, the readings of Zavaleta allow placing the emphasis on the political question of fascism in the region. This translates in a proposal that question both the historical conditions of its formation/dissolution and the theoretical and methodological approach enabling openings for emancipatory transformation towards egalitarian and democratic ways. Thus, the central argument developed here holds that the main contribution of the author to this theoretical field is rooted in the two aforementioned points. Therefore, this work intends showing how in his analytical work (rooted in the latinoamerican Marxism tradition he realized readings not only descriptive of the historical, economic and political singularities of fascism in various contexts of emergence, but also fundamentally expressed as a political issue to examine. To the author, it implied, in consequence, thinking the conceptual work methodology for the emergence of categories and building an unorthodox approach of Marxism on the topic of the authoritarian modalities of politics, with special attention for local history and knowledge in Bolivia and Latin America. Hereafter, this article proposes discussing this reading of Zavaleta following two axes: I. In the first, from a reconstruction of the readings of fascism as an authoritarian policy modality in Latin America. And the presentation of his conceptualization about the democratic condition as a limit
This dissertation seeks to shed light on labor politics in authoritarian settings by examining the ways in which labor conflicts and unions affected the making and implementation of labor policy in post-reform China. Western observers would argue that the absence of trade union independence and pluralism in countries like China is the cause of weak labor protection. Contrary to conventional wisdom, I show that in the absence of democratic elections, trade union independence and pluralism, lab...
Russo, Silvia; Manzi, Claudia; Roccato, Michele
Exposure to societal threat can elicit an increase in right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). In this study, using a quasi-experimental vignette design (Italian community sample, N = 86), we tested the moderating role of self-concept clarity (SCC). A moderated regression showed that manipulated societal threat to safety fostered RWA only among low SCC scorers. It is concluded that SCC is an important resource for individuals facing threat conditions.
Erin E. Wood
Full Text Available We investigated how mothers’ parenting behaviors and personal characteristics were related to risk-taking by young children. We tested contrasting predictions from evolutionary and social role theories with the former predicting higher risk-taking by boys compared to girls and the latter predicting that mothers would influence children’s gender role development with risk-taking occurring more in children parented with higher levels of harshness (i.e., authoritarian parenting style. In our study, mothers reported their own gender roles and parenting styles as well as their children’s risk-taking and activities related to gender roles. The results were only partially consistent with the two theories, as the amount of risk-taking by sons and daughters did not differ significantly and risk-taking by daughters, but not sons, was positively related to mothers’ use of the authoritarian parenting style and the girls’ engagement in masculine activities. Risk-taking by sons was not predicted by any combination of mother-related variables. Overall, mothers who were higher in femininity used more authoritative and less authoritarian parenting styles. Theoretical implications as well as implications for predicting and reducing children’s risk-taking are discussed.
Ruffman, Ted; Wilson, Marc; Henry, Julie D; Dawson, Abigail; Chen, Yan; Kladnitski, Natalie; Myftari, Ella; Murray, Janice; Halberstadt, Jamin; Hunter, John A
This study examined the correlates of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) in older adults. Participants were given tasks measuring emotion recognition, executive functions and fluid IQ and questionnaires measuring RWA, perceived threat and social dominance orientation. Study 1 established higher age-related RWA across the age span in more than 2,600 New Zealanders. Studies 2 to 4 found that threat, education, social dominance and age all predicted unique variance in older adults' RWA, but the most consistent predictor was emotion recognition, predicting unique variance in older adults' RWA independent of all other variables. We argue that older adults' worse emotion recognition is associated with a more general change in social judgment. Expression of extreme attitudes (right- or left-wing) has the potential to antagonize others, but worse emotion recognition means that subtle signals will not be perceived, making the expression of extreme attitudes more likely. Our findings are consistent with other studies showing that worsening emotion recognition underlies age-related declines in verbosity, understanding of social gaffes, and ability to detect lies. Such results indicate that emotion recognition is a core social insight linked to many aspects of social cognition. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The introduction of democratic elections in Indonesia after the downfall of Soeharto’s authoritarian New Order regime in 1998 has triggered intensive scholarly debates about the competitiveness, credibility and representativeness of these ballots. The main focus of such discussions has understandably been on the primary actors in the elections – parties, individual candidates and voters. But this concentration on voting behaviour and electoral outcomes has shifted attention away from another development that is at least as significant in shaping Indonesia’s new democracy: that is, the remarkable proliferation of opinion pollsters and political consultants. The central role of opinion polls in post-Soeharto politics – and the diversity of views expressed in them – have challenged many of the conventional wisdoms held about the Indonesian electorate. The picture that emerges from the rapid spread of opinion polls in recent years, and from their profound impact on the political elite, points to an increasingly sophisticated (and diversified electorate. The rise of opinion polls as key elements in electoral politics has been so fast and so consequential that Indonesia now faces the same dilemmas typically associated with the dominance of pollsters in consolidated Western democracies. This article discusses the implications of the rising importance of opinion polling for Indonesia’s consolidating democracy.
Full Text Available This examination of the mobilization-repression nexus in high-capacity authoritarian regimes draws on examples from China, Russia, Iran, and several Middle Eastern states to develop a framework for analyzing state violence and how political oppositions are organized. The study examines middle and low levels of state violence, the provincial and municipal organization of party and regime, and the police, private militias, and thugs as low-level enforcers, and focuses on: (1 the complexity of the state’s apparatus of repression and control and how different levels exercise different forms of violence against activists; (2 the creativity of the opposition’s actions to voice its demands and avoid repression and surveillance; and (3 the recursive relationship between the two, a dark dance between state and opposition with high stakes for both. Hierarchical analysis at national, provincial, and local levels, and lateral analysis across these levels, where elite interests frequently diverge, show that intersections and gaps on both axes can create lapses in social control and openings the opposition. These free spaces of speech and innovative action give rise to novel ways to keep oppositional sentiments in the public forum. The article offers several propositions for analyzing repression and state violence at various levels, and, similarly, the various ways that these free spaces occur.
Full Text Available This paper is a theoretically driven case study of the authoritarian populist reign of VMRO-DPMNE and its leader Nikola Gruevski in Macedonia since 2006. At the beginning, I assess the strengths and identify the pitfalls of the dominant approach to studying populism that sees populist politics as democratic illiberalism. Then I argue that this approach should be complemented with a discourse theoretical methodology that renders us more sensitive to the diachronic dimensions of the rise of Gruevski’s populism and its origins. The crucial concept I use to account for the durability of Gruvski’s reign is hegemony, which helps us to understand two important aspects of his populism. The specificity of his populism is in managing to change the political imagination of the majority of ethnic Macedonians, to create ‘the people’ and allow it to reclaim its place in history by providing channels for material, symbolic and emotional incorporation into the system of social classes that were traditionally excluded from society. This ‘democratic’ move came at a price: the nascent liberal and institutional channels for political participation in Macedonia’s young democracy were dismissed and new subalternity created. In demonstrating my findings, the paper includes a historical perspective of how the conditions allowing the rise of populism in Macedonia were created, as well as a discourse analysis of five paradigmatic speeches given by Gruevski.
Full Text Available This paper extends the social dominance perspective to the Indian context by examining the role of belief in Karma (sanchita in the justification of the Indian caste system. Using social dominance theory (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999 and the dual process model (Duckitt, 2001 as guiding theoretical frameworks, we tested four related hypotheses within a sample of 385 Indian university students. In particular we expected that social dominance orientation (SDO and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA would both make relatively strong and independent contributions to participants’ endorsement of Karma (H1, as well as their support for antiegalitarian social policies and conventions (H2. We also predicted that endorsement of Karma, itself, would be strongly related to support for these policies, net of the influence of SDO, RWA, as well as generalized prejudice (H3. Finally, and consistent with the notion that Karma functions as a legitimizing ideology, we hypothesized that it would at least partially mediate, net of generalized prejudice, the relationships between SDO and RWA, on the one hand, and antiegalitarian and conventional social policies, on the other (H4. Results of latent variable structural equation modeling provided support for all four hypotheses. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.
Frosch, Dominick L; May, Suepattra G; Rendle, Katharine A S; Tietbohl, Caroline; Elwyn, Glyn
Relatively little is known about why some patients are reluctant to engage in a collaborative discussion with physicians about their choices in health care. To explore this issue further, we conducted six focus-group sessions with forty-eight people in the San Francisco Bay Area. In the focus groups, we found that participants voiced a strong desire to engage in shared decision making about treatment options with their physicians. However, several obstacles inhibit those discussions. These include the fact that even relatively affluent and well-educated patients feel compelled to conform to socially sanctioned roles and defer to physicians during clinical consultations; that physicians can be authoritarian; and that the fear of being categorized as "difficult" prevents patients from participating more fully in their own health care. We argue that physicians may not be aware of a need to create a safe environment for open communication to facilitate shared decision making. Rigorous measures of patient engagement, and of the degree to which health care decisions truly reflect patient preferences, are needed to advance shared decision making in clinical practice.
Lema, Adrian; Ruby, Kristian
The Chinese grid-connected wind energy sector has undergone a number of fundamental changes during its 20 years of existence. The scope of this article is to track the reforms of the energy bureaucracy and its policy approach on the one hand and changes in wind energy installations on the other. By comparing three historically distinct phases of wind energy in China it is shown how policy reforms have changed largely from a state of 'fragmented authoritarianism' towards policy coordination. In the initial phase (1986-1993), wind energy was expanding very slowly with disjointed policy making and in the incremental phase (1994-1999), the energy authorities were in dispute over the strategy and launched conflicting policy initiatives with poor results in wind energy output. The latest coordinated phase (2000-2006), however, developed a coherent renewable energy agenda and policy regime for the wind power sector. It is found that this phase with coordinated market regulations and incentives has helped give birth to a take-off in Chinese wind energy installations and substantial cost reductions, although the latter is threatening the profitability of wind farms. The article contributes to the academic debate over the role of policy making in renewable energy development and argues that China should continue, and improve, the coordination of regulations and incentives
One would be hard-pressed nowadays to find any practitioners and scholars in the field of post-disaster reconstruction who would argue against the virtues of community participation. In practice, however, the legacy of community participation has been mixed. This paper pursues this line of inquiry by examining the manifestations of participation in three communities affected by Typhoon Haiyan that struck the Philippines on 8 November 2013. The findings suggest that different governance logics emerge in each of the three case studies: authoritarian; communitarian; and deliberative. These logics promote particular understandings of who should participate in the reconstruction process and the appropriate scope of action for citizens to express discontent, provide feedback, and perform democratic agency. The paper contends that design interventions in participatory procedures, as well as contingencies in wider social contexts, shape the character and legacies of community participation. It concludes by comparing the legacies of these three 'governance enclaves' and imagining possibilities for participatory politics in post-disaster settings. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.
Crawford, Jarret T; Brandt, Mark J; Inbar, Yoel; Mallinas, Stephanie R
Two recent experiments found evidence for what we term the social category label (SCL) effect-that the relationship between right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and prejudice against gay men and lesbians can be reduced or even eliminated when the target group is labeled "gay men and lesbians" rather than "homosexuals" (Rios, 2013). Although this appears a promising approach to reduce self-reported sexual prejudice, with both theoretical implications for the meaning of RWA itself and practical implications for question wording for assessing these attitudes, there are several reasons to further examine these findings, including (a) inconsistencies with extant evidence, (b) small sample sizes in the original 2 experiments, and (c) concerns with the RWA measures used in the 2 experiments. We tested the SCL hypothesis with a nationally representative sample (Study 1) and close and conceptual replications of Rios' (2013) 2 studies (Studies 2-5) using multiple measures of RWA and prejudice. Across 23 tests of the SCL hypothesis, we obtained 1 statistically significant and 1 marginally significant effect consistent with the hypothesis, 2 significant effects opposite the hypothesis, and 19 nonsignificant effects. A meta-analysis of evidence reported here and in Rios (2013) indicates that RWA strongly predicts antigay prejudice, with no significant variation by label. This confirms the typically robust association between RWA and antigay prejudice and confirms that the SCL effect is not robust. We discuss potential limitations of these studies, theoretical, methodological, and practical implications for our failures to replicate the original SCL studies, and future directions for examining social category label effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Nørup Sørensen, Camilla Tenna
Is it possible for authoritarian states such as China, Russia, and Iran to combine the soft power narratives directed primarily towards an international audience with the narratives directed primarily towards a domestic audience that are aimed at maintaining regime security? To investigate...... this question, this article analyses the 2015 military parade in Beijing, using this case to highlight and discuss the constraints on Chinese leaders’ efforts to project soft power. The key finding is that soft power will continue to be the weak link in China’s pursuit of a great power position and status...
Steinberg, Laurence; Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Cauffman, Elizabeth
The correlates of authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful parenting were examined within a sample of 1,355 14- to 18-year-olds adjudicated of serious criminal offenses. The sample is composed primarily of poor, ethnic-minority youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods. As has been found in community samples, juvenile offenders who describe their parents as authoritative are more psychosocially mature, more academically competent, less prone to internalized distress, and less prone to externalizing problems than their peers,whereas those who describe their parents as neglectful are less mature, less competent, and more troubled. Juvenile offenders who characterize their parents as either authoritarian or indulgent typically score somewhere between the two extremes, although those from authoritarian homes are consistently better functioning than those from indulgent homes. These patterns did not vary as a function of adolescents' ethnicity or gender.
Hans De Witte
adopted the attitudes (and life style of white collar workers, from whom they can no longer be distinguished. Lipset’s hypothesis of the ‘authoritarianism of the working class’, on the other hand, states that blue collar workers more strongly endorse a conservative attitude on socio-cultural matters and a progressive stand concerning socio-economic issues. Both hypotheses are tested using data from a small scale survey (N = 135 among unskilled blue collar workers and lower- and mid-level white collar workers from different large companies in the region of Leuven, Belgium. The results indicate that the interviewed unskilled blue collar workers still hold a set of attitudes that distinguishes them from the interviewed white collar workers. So, the ‘embourgeoisement’ thesis was refuted. Instead, the unskilled blue collar workers were more conservative on a socio-cultural level, and more progressive concerning socio-economic issues. These results are in line with Lipset’s ‘authoritarianism of the working class’ hypothesis.
The Role of Parliaments in Times of Transition: The Impact of Participatory Politics on Social Cohesion and the Quality of Governance in Post-Authoritarian Settings This contribution presents the theoretical basis for the normative preference given to electoral politics and investigates the insti......The Role of Parliaments in Times of Transition: The Impact of Participatory Politics on Social Cohesion and the Quality of Governance in Post-Authoritarian Settings This contribution presents the theoretical basis for the normative preference given to electoral politics and investigates...
Voelkle, M.C.; Oud, J.H.L.; Davidov, E.; Schmidt, P.
Reports an error in "An SEM approach to continuous time modeling of panel data: Relating authoritarianism and anomia" by Manuel C. Voelkle, Johan H. L. Oud, Eldad Davidov and Peter Schmidt (Psychological Methods, 2012[Jun], Vol 17, 176-192). The supplemental materials link was missing. All
De Amezola, Gonzalo
This paper aims to demonstrate that two traditionally opposed approaches--the official view and a revisionist approach--conflate in defence of authoritarianism in the teaching of History. The main focus is on school textbooks published between 1956, the year when an educational reform was introduced following President Peron's overthrow, and 1983,…
Cross, Jennifer Riedl; Cross, Tracy L.; Finch, Holmes
Social dominance orientation (SDO), right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), and socially desirable responding were examined among a sample of self-identified supporters of gifted education (N = 341), 70% of whom had an official role in gifted education as researchers, teachers, or gifted-talented (G/T) trainers. The sample was primarily female, White,…
Steinberg, Laurence; Blatt-Eisengart, Ilana; Cauffman, Elizabeth
The correlates of authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful parenting were examined within a sample of 1,355 14- to 18-year-olds adjudicated of serious criminal offenses. The sample is composed primarily of poor, ethnic-minority youth living in impoverished urban neighborhoods. As has been found in community samples, juvenile…
Julián Durazo Herrmann
Full Text Available How do subnational authoritarian enclaves emerge (or survive ina democratic transition at the federal level? How can they endure large-scalesocial protests, like the one that shook Oaxaca in 2006? While federal tolerancefor subnational authoritarian practices is a necessary condition, it isinsufficient in itself to explain why subnational political systems sustain andeventually reproduce authoritarian practices in the first place. In this article,therefore, I focus on the internal dimension of subnational authoritarianism.I argue that, because of its reliance on two distinct sources of legitimacy,Oaxaca’s neo-patrimonial domination system was able to respond to theformal democratizing pressures emanating from the federal transition withoutlosing its authoritarian nature. This process of hybridization transformedOaxacan institutions, but left social structures and the political dynamics thatemerge from them – the sources of subnational authoritarianism – almostintact. By exploring the evolution of neo-patrimonialism and hybridizationin Oaxaca from a theoretical perspective, I address the issues of change andcontinuity in the emergence of subnational authoritarian enclaves, in Mexicoand elsewhere. ¿Cómo es que algunos enclaves autoritarios subnacionales emergen (o susbsisten tras las transiciones a la democracia de sus federaciones? ¿Cómo sobreviven a movilizaciones masivas como las que conoció Oaxaca en 2006? La tolerancia federal es una condición necesaria para el desarrollo de las prácticas autoritarias subnacionales, pero es insuficiente para explicar cómo dichas prácticas aparecen y se reproducen en algunos sistemas políticos subnacionales. Por ello, en este artículo estudio la dimensión interna del autoritarismo subnacional. Arguyo que, al basarse en dos fuentes distintas de legitimidad, el sistema oaxaqueño de dominación neopatrimonial fue capaz de responder a las presiones democráticas provenientes de la federaci
Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of great turbulence characterized by cognitive, emotional, social and physical changes. Family environment and role of peers is extremely crucial in the development of an adolescent. Presenting here is a brief case of 15 year old boy who was referred for counseling by his parents for lack of concentration in studies. In the counseling sessions with the boy and his parents it was found that the boy was psychologically disturbed as he was teased at school by his peers. In addition his father had an authoritarian parenting style which was adding to his troubles resulting in low academic scores. The boy’s scores on “The Study Habits Inventory” were lower, indicating poor study habits which includes study concentration. The counsellors used an eclectic approach for the boy and his parents, to develop a healthy family environment, which improved his self-esteem and study habits.
Jasper Van Assche
Full Text Available Testifying to the gap in fundamental research on positive intergroup outcomes, we investigated reconciliation attitudes in a non-violent intergroup context (i.e., the linguistic conflict in Belgium. By incorporating both important predictors of negative outgroup attitudes (i.e., individual differences in rigid cognitive styles and authoritarian ideologies, and important predictors of reconciliation (i.e., intergroup emotions, we aimed to contribute to a more comprehensive theoretical framework for the analysis of intergroup relations. We recruited one Flemish ('N' = 310 and one Walloon ('N' = 365 undergraduate students sample to test the proposed model. Structural equation analyses with maximum likelihood estimation were conducted using the Lavaan package. In both samples, similar patterns were found. More in particular, the need for cognitive closure appeared to be the basic predictor of right-wing attitudes (i.e., right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation and essentialist thinking, which were then associated with less outgroup empathy and trust, and more outgroup anger. Furthermore, outgroup trust and empathy were positively related to reconciliation. Interestingly, some differences between the Flemish and Walloon sample were found, such as the direct effects of need for closure and social dominance orientation in the first sample, and the non-significant effects of essentialism in the latter sample. Considering the ongoing public and political debate about the linguistic conflict in Belgium, these findings shed a new light on how individual differences relate to specific outgroup emotions, and how these are associated with important intergroup outcomes in the face of intergroup conflict.
Guidetti, Margherita; Carraro, Luciana; Castelli, Luigi
Research on adult populations has widely investigated the deep differences that characterize individuals who embrace either conservative or liberal views of the world. More recently, research has started to investigate these differences at very early stages of life. One major goal is to explore how parental political ideology may influence children's characteristics that are known to be associated to different ideological positions. In the present work, we further investigate the relations between parents' ideology and children cognitive processing strategies within the framework of political ideology as motivated social cognition (Jost et al., 2003) and the dual process model of political ideology (Duckitt et al., 2002). Specifically, epistemic (implicit attitudes toward order vs. chaos), existential (negativity and threat bias), and relational needs (conformity measure) were assessed in pre-school children (N = 106; 4–6 years). For each child at least one parent completed both the Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and the Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) measures. Interestingly, results indicated that mothers' and fathers' responses had unique associations with children's socio-cognitive motivations, and different findings emerged in relation to the two facets of parental authoritarianism, namely dominance (i.e., SDO) and submission (i.e., RWA). More specifically, children's existential needs appeared to be more related to mothers' RWA scores, whereas children's epistemic needs appeared to be more related to fathers' SDO. Finally, parents' RWA and SDO scores appeared to have opposite effects on children's relational needs: children's conformity increased at increasing levels of mothers' RWA and decreased at increasing levels of fathers' SDO. Overall, however, results were relatively weak and several links between the responses of parents and their children were not significant, suggesting caution in drawing strong conclusions about the impact of parents
Full Text Available Although the Talang Sari tragedy as a part of the representation of Indonesian Muslim oppression during the authoritarian regime, it is relatively lesser known for Indonesian public. The avoidance of the most Indonesian Muslim who did not support it is one of those facts. Indeed, they did a less attention to talk and to articulate the case to the public. This paper intends to revisit the case of the Talang Sari as one of the unsolved human rights violation during the authoritarian regime. It is not only exploring the case and also examining the context of violence, but also tracing dynamic of the case during and post of authoritarian regime by the emergence of Islah agreement as cultural impu- nity to forget the past for many victims. The questions deals with in this paper are following: what kind of conditions that made the Talang Sari was happen- ing in East Lampung in 1989, South Sumatra during the Suharto presidency? How did the Suharto regime control the discourse of the tragedy in Indone- sian public that eventually encourage most Indonesian Muslim did not actively respond the killings? Although the reformasi era gives an opportunity break silences by asking justice to the current Indonesian government on hu- man rights violation, why those cases, especially the Talang Sari, are unsolved? This paper divided into three parts to answering the questions. Firstly, it is to understand the case of Talang Sari by discussing the context of the New Order’s policy on Indonesian Muslim and its political ideology. Secondly, it is to read deeply mass media in making discourse on the case as one of the triggers for most Indonesian Muslim did not respond it. Thirdly, it is to analyze the Islah agreement (reconciliation in Islamic term as the primary factor that contrib- uted why cultural impunity has seemingly embedded to bring justice to the victims of violence generally in the post of Suharto regime. Meskipun Peristiwa Talang Sari sebagai bagian dari
Full Text Available China’s rise is often interpreted as a harbinger of a new era in world politics and raises the question if such a power transition may impact upon patterns of democratic rule across the globe. There is growing interest in whether China acts as an outside stabilizer for other authoritarian regimes. This paper contributes to the emerging literature on the international dimension of autocratic rule by focusing on Chinese Latin American policy. Using the method of structured focused comparisons, we want to assess whether China’s relations towards the Latin American autocracies Cuba and Venezuela differ from those with structurally similar, but democratic cooperation partners in the region, namely Costa Rica and Chile. The guiding question is whether we can detect such a pattern of specific bilateral relationships between China and other autocracies, leading to an ‘authoritarian nexus’ in Chinese foreign policy. Resumen: ¿Un ‘nexo autoritario’? Supuesta relación especial de China con Estados autocráticos de América Latina El ascenso de China se suele interpretar como un presagio de una nueva era en la política mundial y plantea la cuestión de si dicha transición de poder podría repercutir en los patrones de la democracia en el mundo entero. La cuestión de si China actúa como estabilizador externo para otros regímenes autoritarios suscita cada vez más interés. Este artículo es una contribución a la bibliografía emergente sobre la dimensión internacional de los sistemas autocráticos enfocándose en la política chino-latinoamericana. Mediante el método de las comparaciones estructuradas y focalizadas, queremos evaluar si las relaciones de China con las autocracias latinoamericanas de Cuba y Venezuela difieren de las relaciones con otros aliados estructuralmente similares, pero democráticos en la región, como Costa Rica y Chile. La pregunta clave es si podemos detectar este patrón de relaciones bilaterales espec
Poteat, V Paul; Spanierman, Lisa B
Among 342 white college students, we examined the effects of social dominance orientation (SDO), right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), and racial color-blindness on modern racism attitudes. Structural equation modeling was used to test the indirect effects of SDO and RWA on modern racism attitudes through color-blind racial attitudes. We found strong indirect effects of SDO and RWA on modern racism through racial color-blindness. We did not find support for an alternative model, in which we tested racial color-blindness as a moderator of the effects of SDO and RWA on modern racism. Findings suggest that highly dominant and authoritarian white students endorse color-blind racial attitudes, although likely for different reasons. In turn, this predicts their modern racism attitudes. These findings indicate racial color-blindness is important to address as part of anti-racism education.
Prior research indicates that consistent-handedness is associated with decreased access to right hemisphere processing and consequent decreased cognitive flexibility. Handedness differences on three dimensions of personality related to cognitive flexibility were investigated. Experiment 1 found that consistent-handedness was associated with decreased sensation seeking. Experiment 2 found that consistent-handedness was associated with increased Right Wing Authoritarianism. Experiment 3 found that consistent-handedness was associated with increased sensitivity to disgust. Prior research has shown associations between decreased sensation seeking, increased authoritarianism, and increased disgust sensitivity, and consistent-handedness appears to underlie all of these associations. Personality researchers are encouraged to include handedness as a factor in analyses, as failure to do so can lead to systematic mis-estimation of sex differences due to the over-representation of females among consistent-handers.
Despite close relationships between men and women in daily lives, gender inequality is ubiquitous and often supported by sexist ideology. The understanding of potential bases of sexist ideology is thus important. According to Duckitt's dual-process model (2001), different worldviews may explain different types of sexist ideology. Individuals who hold a "competitive world" worldview tend to endorse group-based dominance. This lends itself to the endorsement of hostile sexism, because hostile sexism is an obvious form of male dominance. Conversely, individuals who hold a "dangerous world" worldview tend to adhere to social cohesion, collective security, and social traditions. This lends itself to the endorsement of benevolent sexism, because benevolent sexism values women who conform to gender norms. As predicted by Duckitt's model, research has shown that social dominance orientation, a general orientation towards the endorsement of group-based dominance, is closely associated with hostile sexism. Furthermore, right-wing authoritarianism, which measures adherence to social traditions, is closely associated with benevolent sexism. Due to the interdependent nature of gender relationships, the current research proposed that a relationship-based belief in hierarchy, deferential family norms, and norms depicting proper manners among family members should predict the endorsement of hostile and benevolent sexism, after controlling for social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism. As predicted, according to student samples collected in Taiwan and the US, the endorsement of deferential family norms predicted the endorsement of hostile sexism and of benevolent sexism, respectively. In addition, among men and women, social dominance orientation predicted hostile sexism more strongly (as opposed to benevolent sexism), whereas right-wing authoritarianism predicted benevolent sexism more strongly (as opposed to hostile sexism). Implications regarding relationship
Dmitry S. Grigoryev
Full Text Available Objective. The article describes a short version of the dual process model scales by J. Duckitt that allow elaborating on an integrated exploratory approach for the assessment of authoritarianism. Background. This area of research is not widespread in Russia in contrast to foreign social psychology. Unfortunately, there are only a few studies in Russia that advance our understanding of the indicated problems, and these few studies likely put more questions than give answers. It can be partly explained by the lack of appropriate available, reliable and valid measures in Russian. Dual process model for the study of authoritarianism offers the scales designed to measure: (1 right-wing authoritarianism that reflects the motivation and attitudes to maintain and preservation of the social cohesion, order, stability, and collective security; (2 social dominance orientation that reflects the motivation and attitudes to maintain and preservation of the dominance and superiority; (3 dangerous worldview that reflects views of the social world as the dangerous and threatening; and (4 competitive worldview that reflects views of the social world as the competitive and ferocious. Design. The data for the analysis were collected in the survey of 241 participants, mostly residents of Moscow (Central Federal District, Russia, and Ulyanovsk (Volga Federal District, Russia. Using confirmatory factor analysis the four measurement models containing the different number of dimensions of the short version of the dual process model scales were tested. Also, cross-validation was performed (N = 576. Results. The tested measurement models had acceptable reliability and validity indices. However, the best fit was shown by the model with multidimensional structure in which all the subfactors were as separate constructs. Conclusion. The short version of scales was successfully compiled, the measures can be considered a reliable and valid measure to study of authoritarianism
Etchezahar, Edgardo; CIIPME Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.; Ungaretti, Joaquín; CIIPME Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires, Argentina.; Prado Gascó, Vicente; Universidad Europea de Valencia, Valencia, España; Brusino, Silvina; CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.
Even though prejudice toward male homosexuality is one of the main reasons for discrimination in Argentina, there is no valid measure to assess it. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Attitudes Toward Gay Men Scale (ATG) and to examine the influence of sex, right wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation on anti-gay attitudes. Data were collected with a convenience sample of 436 undergraduate students from University of Buenos Aires. Analysis ...
The Role of Parliaments in Times of Transition: The Impact of Participatory Politics on Social Cohesion and the Quality of Governance in Post-Authoritarian Settings This contribution presents the theoretical basis for the normative preference given to electoral politics and investigates...... the institutional prerequisites if competitive electoral politics are to lead to better governance outcomes and greater social stability. Examining why these preconditions are largely lacking in the Arab world, this contribution investigates what could be done to redress these shortcomings....
The Chinese Communist Party government has been forcefully promoting its jihua shengyu (planned fertility) program, known as the "one-child policy," for more than three decades. A distinctive authoritarian model of population governance has been developed. A pertinent question to be asked is whether China's one-child policy and the authoritarian model of population governance have a future. The answer must be no; they do not. Although there are many demographic, economic, and social rationales for terminating the one-child policy, the most fundamental reason for opposing its continuation is drawn from ethics. The key ethical rationale offered for the policy is that it promotes the common social good, not only for China and the Chinese people but for the whole human family. The major irony associated with this apparently convincing justification is that, although designed to improve living standards and help relieve poverty and underdevelopment, the one-child policy and the application of the authoritarian model have instead caused massive suffering to Chinese people, especially women, and made them victims of state violence. A lesson from China--one learned at the cost of individual and social suffering on an enormous scale--is that an essential prerequisite for the pursuit of the common good is the creation of adequate constraints on state power.
Bhattacharya, Gargi; Stockdale, Margaret S
This study examined the critique in public discourse that sexual harassment (SH) victim advocates, particularly women and feminists, ignore the quality of evidence in a SH claim and are reluctant to find evidence of a false accusation. To balance the inquiry, the study also examined whether right wing authoritarians (RWAs) also ignore evidence quality and presume such claims are false accusations. Participants were 961 U.S. adults (51% female) who completed an online experiment in which they read either a gender harassment (GH) or unwanted sexual attention (USA) scenario of hostile work environment SH and rated the scenario on severity, perceived guilt of the accused, belief that the accused should receive negative job consequences, and likelihood that the claimant was making a false accusation. Scenarios varied by the strength of the evidence in support of the SH claim. Participants completed measures of identification with and support for feminism, RWA, and demographic variables. Results found that contrary to expectations, evidence had a stronger effect on women's, feminists', and feminism supporters' perceptions and to a lesser extent RWAs' perceptions of the scenarios. When evidence was weak, women and feminists, compared to others, were less supportive of the prosecution, but when evidence was strong they were more supportive of the prosecution than were others. These findings address criticisms that advocates for gender equity and victim's rights, particularly women and feminists, are unable to reach fair judgments of SH complaints. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Amaya Álvez Marín
Full Text Available International law, since the 1990s has come to recognize indigenous peoples’ demands. Since then, indigenous people have acquired the status of international legal subject. For Chile, this should have marked a significant departure. The 1990s inaugurated not only the end of the cold war and thus the renewed relevance of international law, but also the return to democratic rule. Following global trends, Chile started to confront the violation of human rights occurring during the dictatorship. But Chile’s colonial past and the demands of indigenous peoples continue to be ignored. We argue that the legacies of authoritarianism in the Chilean practice of international law, explain in part the inability to respond to these demands. We conclude exploring the possibility of disciplinary renewal in in light of the end of the political consensus that marked the Chilean transition to democracy. It remains to be seen if these shifts will render Chilean international lawyers more receptive to indigenous peoples’ demands.
Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Guerra, Rita; Simão, Cláudia
The Leave campaign in the U.K., which advocated exiting the European Union, emphasized anxiety over immigration and the need to take control of the U.K.'s borders. Citizens who expressed concerns about immigration to the U.K. were more likely to vote to leave. Two correlational studies examined the previously unexplored question of whether the Brexit vote and support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum were linked to individual predictors of prejudice toward foreigners: British collective narcissism (a belief in national greatness), right wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. The results converged to indicate that all three variables were independently related to the perceived threat of immigrants and, via this variable, to the Brexit vote and a support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum. These variables explained the variance in the perceived threat of immigrants and support for the Brexit vote over and above other previously examined predictors such as age, education, or ethnicity, as well as, national identification and national attachment. PMID:29230185
Golec de Zavala, Agnieszka; Guerra, Rita; Simão, Cláudia
The Leave campaign in the U.K., which advocated exiting the European Union, emphasized anxiety over immigration and the need to take control of the U.K.'s borders. Citizens who expressed concerns about immigration to the U.K. were more likely to vote to leave. Two correlational studies examined the previously unexplored question of whether the Brexit vote and support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum were linked to individual predictors of prejudice toward foreigners: British collective narcissism (a belief in national greatness), right wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. The results converged to indicate that all three variables were independently related to the perceived threat of immigrants and, via this variable, to the Brexit vote and a support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum. These variables explained the variance in the perceived threat of immigrants and support for the Brexit vote over and above other previously examined predictors such as age, education, or ethnicity, as well as, national identification and national attachment.
Agnieszka Golec de Zavala
Full Text Available The Leave campaign in the U.K., which advocated exiting the European Union, emphasized anxiety over immigration and the need to take control of the U.K.'s borders. Citizens who expressed concerns about immigration to the U.K. were more likely to vote to leave. Two correlational studies examined the previously unexplored question of whether the Brexit vote and support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum were linked to individual predictors of prejudice toward foreigners: British collective narcissism (a belief in national greatness, right wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation. The results converged to indicate that all three variables were independently related to the perceived threat of immigrants and, via this variable, to the Brexit vote and a support for the outcome of the E.U. referendum. These variables explained the variance in the perceived threat of immigrants and support for the Brexit vote over and above other previously examined predictors such as age, education, or ethnicity, as well as, national identification and national attachment.
Scarcella, Akimi; Page, Ruairi; Furtado, Vivek
Currently, terrorism and suicide bombing are global psychosocial processes that attracts a growing number of psychological and psychiatric contributions to enhance practical counter-terrorism measures. The present study is a systematic review that explores the methodological quality reporting and the psychometric soundness of the instruments developed to identify risk factors of terrorism, extremism, radicalisation, authoritarianism and fundamentalism. A systematic search strategy was established to identify instruments and studies developed to screen individuals at risk of committing extremist or terrorist offences using 20 different databases across the fields of law, medicine, psychology, sociology and politics. Information extracted was consolidated into two different tables and a 26-item checklist, reporting respectively background information, the psychometric properties of each tool, and the methodological quality markers of these tools. 37 articles met our criteria, which included a total of 4 instruments to be used operationally by professionals, 17 tools developed as research measures, and 9 inventories that have not been generated from a study. Just over half of the methodological quality markers required for a transparent methodological description of the instruments were reported. The amount of reported psychological properties was even fewer, with only a third of them available across the different studies. The category presenting the least satisfactory results was that containing the 4 instruments to be used operationally by professionals, which can be explained by the fact that half of them refrained from publishing the major part of their findings and relevant guidelines. A great number of flaws have been identified through this systematic review. The authors encourage future researchers to be more thorough, comprehensive and transparent in their methodology. They also recommend the creation of a multi-disciplinary joint working group in order to
Sørensen, Camilla T. N.
Is it possible for authoritarian states such as China, Russia and Iran to combine the soft power narratives directed primarily towards an international audience with the narratives directed primarily towards a domestic audience and aimed at maintaining regime security? To investigate this question...... further, this article analyses the 2015 military parade in Beijing and uses this case to highlight and discuss the constraints on the Chinese leaders’ efforts to project soft power. The key finding is that soft power will continue to be the weak link in China’s pursuit for a great power position...
Chylíková, Johana; Buchtík, Martin
Roč. 7, č. 1 (2016) ISSN 2067-2640 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10320S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015060 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : authoritarianism * RWA Scale * Construct Validity Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography https://docs. google .com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxqcnNwb25lfGd4OjU3YmQ1YmM1MmVjM2RlNTc
O'Brien, Kerry S; Shovelton, Heather; Latner, Janet D
We examined levels of, and reasons for, anti-gay and anti-lesbian prejudice (homophobia) in pre-service physical education (PE) and non-physical education (non-PE) university students. Participants (N = 409; 66% female; N = 199 pre-service physical educators) completed questionnaires assessing anti-gay and lesbian prejudice, authoritarianism, social dominance orientation (SDO), physical/athletic identity and self-concept, and physical attributes. ANCOVAs revealed that PE students had higher levels of anti-gay (p = .004) and lesbian prejudice than non-PE students (p = .008), respectively. Males reported greater anti-gay prejudice (p Authoritarian aggression was positively associated with greater anti-gay (β = .49) and lesbian prejudice (β = .37) among male participants. Among females, higher authoritarian aggression and SDO was associated with greater anti-gay (β = .34 and β = .25, respectively) and lesbian (β = .26 and β = .16, respectively) prejudice. The physical identity-related constructs of athletic self-concept (β = .-15) and perceived upper body strength (β = .39) were associated with anti-gay attitudes among male participants. Physical attractiveness (β = -.29) and upper body strength (β = .29) were also associated with male participants' anti-lesbian prejudice. Regression analyses showed that the differences between PE and non-PE students in anti-gay and lesbian prejudice were largely mediated by authoritarianism and SDO. The present study is the first to examine the relationship between investment in physical/sporting identity and attributes and anti-gay and lesbian prejudice in PE/sport participants. In the present sample, anti-gay and lesbian prejudice was greater in pre-service PE students than non-PE students, but these differences appear to be explained by differences in conservative ideological traits. Additionally, physical identity and athletic attributes based around masculine
You deserve a trip to Disney Land! Thanks to my parents, Kathleen and Donald Anderson for continuing advice and support. Thanks also to my parents...PARADIGM? Turkey has long stood as a favored example of modern, secular, and democratic government in the Middle East and the Muslim World . However, recent...ambition and party politics, and its military no longer appears able to act against such ambition. Meanwhile, the rest of the Muslim world observes
Full Text Available Even though prejudice toward male homosexuality is one of the main reasons for discrimination in Argentina, there is no valid measure to assess it. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Attitudes Toward Gay Men Scale (ATG and to examine the influence of sex, right wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation on anti-gay attitudes. Data were collected with a convenience sample of 436 undergraduate students from University of Buenos Aires. Analysis of the data showed adequate psychometric properties for the ATG Scale and the moderating effect of sex, right wing uthoritarianism and social dominance orientation on anti-gay attitudes. Implications of these findings were discussed.
Full Text Available The article analyzes the economic planning institution under authoritarian monarchy of Romania, 1938-1940. The Superior Economic Council, populated by specialists, had the main responsibilities of planning and economic control. The Superior Economic Council composition will be found in the structures of the National Renaissance Front as well as in the composition of the corporatist Parliament. The appointment of the Members of the The Superior Economic Council by royal decree has highlighted the monarch’s desire to have a personal institution, which would be composed of all the important representatives of the Economy, Industry and Finances. The Super Ministry, Ministry of National Economy, headed by Mitiţă Constantinescu, have the task of guidance, coordination and encouragement of the progress for the productive forces distribution of production, direction and supervision of importation, and preparation of economic laws. By the Decree of October 1939, the Ministry of National Economy may could decide the syndicalization of all enterprises, from a specific industrial branch, setting concrete tasks of production and selling of goods. The Superior Economic Council was established to coordinate the corporate economy through policies of planism and economic nationalization, but the corporate institutution of the Romanian authoritative state was the guild
Jarret T. Crawford
Full Text Available Employing a dual process motivational (DPM model perspective, we found that how political messages are framed influences the differential effects of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA and social dominance orientation (SDO on political candidate support in the United States. Study 1 (N = 85 found that RWA and SDO differentially predicted support for right-wing candidates who used cohesion and group status threats to frame same-sex marriage, respectively. Study 2 (N = 89 largely replicated those findings on immigration policy. In Study 3 (N = 128, the hypothesis that RWA and SDO negatively predicted support for left-wing candidates who framed same-sex marriage in terms of individual liberty and social equality, respectively, received partial support. Additional analyses indicated that the effects of RWA on candidate support in these studies were driven by specific theoretically-relevant dimensions of RWA. Together, these results indicate that candidates can enhance their appeal by strategically employing value-based political messages targeting different subsets of their constituency.
Research on personality as a useful construct to understand people's behavior in conflict situations was traced over more than fifty years, and an attempt was made to add neurobiological parameters to psycho-socio-cultural approaches. As a starting point, scientists in exile have been called to mind who had been expelled from Nazi Germany for their Jewish origins. Among them were Adorno and Frenkel-Brunswik whose extensive studies on the authoritarian personality structure were quoted. In their work, personality was defined as a more or less enduring organisation of forces within the individual helping to determine responses in various situations, which is responsible for consistency in behavior. As a next step, Cloninger's psychobiology of personality traits was presented. In his personality concept, four temperamental traits (novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependency and persistence) and three character dimensions are included. Temperamental traits are heritable, developmentally stable, emotionally based, uninfluenced by social learning, and linked to specific brain biological features. The temperaments have a certain neuroendocrinological feature which can be determined. Character dimensions develop in a stagelike process from infancy to adulthood and are influenced by temperament, social learning, genetic factors, and random life events. Personality is still considered a useful theoretical approach to conflict management research and practice. A neurobiological point of view seems to be a useful supplementation in addition to traditional psycho-socio-cultural approaches. Measuring biological compounds can supply the conflict manager with an additional tool of knowledge enhancing the ability to understand and anticipate conflict behavior.
Dhont, Kristof; Makwana, Arti P.
Abstract Previous research has obtained mixed findings as to whether feelings of self‐worth are positively or negatively related to right‐wing ideological beliefs and prejudice. We propose to clarify the link between self‐worth and ideology by distinguishing between narcissistic and non‐narcissistic self‐evaluations as well as between different dimensions of ideological attitudes. Four studies, conducted in three different socio‐political contexts: the UK (Study 1, N = 422), the US (Studies 2 and 3, Ns = 471 and 289, respectively), and Poland (Study 4, N = 775), investigated the associations between narcissistic and non‐narcissistic self‐evaluations, social dominance orientation (SDO), right‐wing authoritarianism (RWA), and ethnic prejudice. Confirming our hypotheses, the results consistently showed that after controlling for self‐esteem, narcissistic self‐evaluation was positively associated with SDO (accounting for RWA), yet negatively associated with RWA (accounting for SDO). These associations were similar after controlling for psychopathy and Machiavellianism (Study 3) as well as collective narcissism and Big Five personality characteristics (Study 4). Studies 2–4 additionally demonstrated that narcissistic self‐evaluation was indirectly positively associated with prejudice through higher SDO (free of RWA) but indirectly negatively associated with prejudice through lower RWA (free of SDO). Implications for understanding the role of self‐evaluation in right‐wing ideological attitudes and prejudice are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Personality published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Association of Personality Psychology PMID:28983151
Full Text Available Trust towards unrelated individuals is often conditioned by information about previous social interactions that can be derived from either personal or vicarious experience (e.g., reputation. Intergroup stereotypes can be operationalized as expectations about other groups' traits/attitudes/behaviors that heavily influence our behavioral predictions when interacting with them. In this study we investigated the role of perceived social dimensions of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM-Warmth (W and Competence (C-in affecting trusting behavior towards different European national group members during the Trust Game. Given the well-known role of ideological attitudes in regulating stereotypes, we also measured individual differences in right-wing authoritarianism (RWA. In Experiment 1, we designed an online survey to study one-shot intergroup trust decisions by employing putative members of the European Union states which were also rated along SCM dimensions. We found that low-RWA participants' trusting behavior was driven by perceived warmth (i.e., the dimension signaling the benevolence of social intentions when interacting with low-C groups. In Experiment 2, we investigated the dynamics of trust in a multiple-round version of the European Trust Game. We found that in low-RWA participants trusting behavior decreased over time when interacting with high-W groups (i.e., expected to reciprocate trust, but did not change when interacting with low-W groups (i.e., expected not to reciprocate trust. Moreover, we found that high-RWA participants' trusting behavior decreased when facing low-W groups but not high-W ones. This suggests that low-RWA individuals employ reputational priors but are also permeable to external evidence when learning about others' trustworthiness. In contrast, high-RWA individuals kept relying on stereotypes despite contextual information. These results confirm the pivotal role played by reputational priors triggered by perceived
Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik
or from a position as business leader to a position in the state apparatus or in the Party and vice versa. To conceptualize the coexistence of the contradicting forces for further enterprise autonomy and continued central control that characterizes the evolving relationship between business groups...... and the Party-state, I suggest the notion of integrated fragmentation....
and Angola, the book exposes shifting donor interests and rhetoric as well as the impact of foreign aid on military assistance, rural development, electoral processes and domestic politics. In the process, it raises an urgent and too often neglected question: to what extent are foreign aid programmes...
Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik
proved their influence by obstructing the creation of new ministries and regulatory commissions that would limit their powers. The heads of these business groups often outrank their counterparts in state administrative organs and bureaus that are supposed to regulate their activities. The increased role...... of these business leaders prompts the question of whether we are seeing the development of distinct interest groups that could challenge Party and state authority and create a fragmented polity. However, through the nomenklatura system the Party has an important instrument of control to wield over business groups....... Through this system the Party controls the appointment and promotion of the heads of the most important state-owned enterprises. The nomenklatura system also enables the Party to rotate leaders in big business from a position as CEO in one company to a similar position in another state-owned company...
Santos, Lincoln de Araújo
Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe uma discussão sobre as matrizes do pensamento social e autoritário e suas características marcantes na educação brasileira, identificando cronologicamente o início da República, acentuando-se o regime estabelecido a partir de 1930. O estudo das ideias sociais e de seus intelectuais, as influências ideológicas e doutrinárias que darão base aos fundamentos do pensamento autoritário social e educacional no Brasil. O regime político a partir de 1930, o Estado Novo e o projeto educacional do governo de Getúlio Vargas e seus princípios da ordem, da moral, da política e o desejo de unidade nacional. A conjunção de um elenco de intelectuais que formularam um ideal nacional a partir da função política do Estado como o condutor da modernização do país e na atuação pedagógica desta instituição. A caracterização de intelectuais que estiveram a serviço do Estado Novo e de sua ideologia, elaborando o seu projeto e tendo a educação como estratégia de propaganda. O pensamento social de Oliveira Vianna, Francisco Campos, Gustavo Capanema e as justificativas para a governabilidade e presença do regime varguista no país. O principal objetivo deste artigo é o de analisar o pensamento autoritário brasileiro e sua presença na educação brasileira.REFLECTIONS ON THE SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL THOUGHT IN BRAZIL ANDITS AUTHORITARIAN MATRICES. This article proposes a discussion about the matrices of the social and authoritarian thought and its defining characteristics in Brazilian education,identifying chronologically the beginning of the Republic, emphasizing the regime that was established in 1930. The study of social ideas and theirauthors, the ideological and doctrinal influences that will be the basis for the authoritarian, social and educational thought in Brazil. The political regime that started in 1930, the New State and the educational project of Getulio Vargas’s government including its
This time it's different. An inevitable decline in world petroleum production will keep oil product prices high, causing military conflicts and shifting wealth and power from democracies to authoritarian regimes
Leder, Frederic; Shapiro, Judith N.
There is virtual agreement among geologists that world production of conventional oil will peak at some point in the future. Oil, after all, is a finite resource, while demand will only grow over time. Geologists disagree, however, exactly when the peak will occur. Using data from the International Energy Agency, the US Department of Energy, the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas, and petroleum industry sources, we argue that conventional oil production will reach a worldwide maximum within the next 5-10 years, earlier than generally estimated, thus leaving a very short time frame within which to plan for conversion to alternative sources of energy. Unless planning is initiated immediately, the United States and other Western democracies will see their positions in the global economy undercut as military conflicts over limited energy resources increase, and wealth and power are shifted to authoritarian regimes in Russia, Venezuela, Africa and the Middle East. (author)
This time it's different. An inevitable decline in world petroleum production will keep oil product prices high, causing military conflicts and shifting wealth and power from democracies to authoritarian regimes
Leder, Frederic [2742 Sturges Highway, Westport, CT 06880 (United States); Shapiro, Judith N. [796 Sport Hill Road, Easton, CT 06612 (United States)
There is virtual agreement among geologists that world production of conventional oil will peak at some point in the future. Oil, after all, is a finite resource, while demand will only grow over time. Geologists disagree, however, exactly when the peak will occur. Using data from the International Energy Agency, the US Department of Energy, the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas, and petroleum industry sources, we argue that conventional oil production will reach a worldwide maximum within the next 5-10 years, earlier than generally estimated, thus leaving a very short time frame within which to plan for conversion to alternative sources of energy. Unless planning is initiated immediately, the United States and other Western democracies will see their positions in the global economy undercut as military conflicts over limited energy resources increase, and wealth and power are shifted to authoritarian regimes in Russia, Venezuela, Africa and the Middle East. (author)
Politics of the Periphery: An Introduction to Subnational Authoritarianism and Democratization in Latin America Política de la periferia. Una introducción a autoritarismo y democratización subnacional en América Latina
Edward L. Gibson
Full Text Available The article is an introduction to the topic featured in JPLA 2/2010 "Subnational Authoritarianism and Democratization in Latin America." It discusses the papers by Carlos Gervasoni, Agustina Giraudy, Julián Durazo Herrmann, Alfred P. Montero, and Tracy Beck Fenwick that follow in this issue. Why feature the topic “subnational authoritarianism and democratization” in the Journal of Politics in Latin America? Because despite widespread agreement that subnational jurisdictions in Latin America vary considerably in the democratic character of their politics, political scientists are still largely in the dark about how to conceptualize and measure this situation, and have scant knowledge about mechanisms that sustain and undermine it. This collection of articles makes major headway toward clearing our methodological and theoretical ignorance of these topics. El artículo es una introducción al tema especial de JPLA 2/2010 "autoritarismo y democratización subnacional en América Latina". Discute las contribuciones de Carlos Gervasoni, Agustina Giraudy, Julián Durazo Herrmann, Alfred P. Montero y Tracy Beck Fenwick que estan unidas en esta edición. ¿Porqué presentar el tema “autoritarismo y democratización subnacional” en el Journal of Politics in Latin America? Porque a pesar del acuerdo general que en América Latina las jurisdicciones subnacionales varian considerablementes en el carácter democrático de su política, la mayoría de politólogos todavía esta insegura como conceptualizar y medir ésta situación, y tiene poco conocimiento de los mecanismos que la mantienen o subvierten. Esta colección de artículos ofrece aproximaciones metodológicas y teóricas al tema.
Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh
Full Text Available Richard C. Bush’s Hong Kong in the shadow of China: Living with the Leviathan (2016 represents an important study on post-“Handover” Hong Kong focusing on the making of the 2014 Occupy Campaign and Umbrella Movement and the impact on the coming development in politics, governance and economy of Hong Kong, taking into consideration China’s Hong Kong policy and the response of the Hong Kong people as well as the perspectives of Taiwan and the United States. This article, while reviewing the book, also provides a detailed analysis of the wider implications of the issues the author of the book has raised as regards Hong Kong – as China’s policy approach towards Hong Kong and by extension Taiwan and the struggle of the Hong Kong people, as well as the Taiwan people, to protect the political freedom and democratic rights they aspire to maintain (in the case of Hong Kong and that they have fought hard to secure (in Taiwan have impacts that reach far beyond Hong Kong and Taiwan in the light of the PRC’s current relentless global projection, riding on the wave of her economic miracle, of her hard and so-called “soft” power in a through an intricate nexus of her domestic and foreign policies that not only serves to strengthen domestic governance and enhance international influence but also involves extraterritorial actions to maintain CCP’s one-party authoritarianism.
Estilos parentais autoritário e democrático-recíproco intergeracionais, conflito conjugal e comportamentos de externalização e internalização Intergenerational authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles, marital conflict, and externalizing and internalizing behaviors
Ebenézer A. de Oliveira
Full Text Available Modelos mediativos de risco e proteção foram testados, para prever longitudinalmente comportamentos de externalização e internalização infantis, a partir de uma atitude conjugal conflituosa e de estilos parentais intergeracionais autoritário vs. democrático-recíproco. Proveniente de duas escolas particulares e uma pública, a amostra contou com 25 meninas e 25 meninos de 4 e 5 anos, e suas respectivas mães. Correlações bivariadas de Pearson e regressões múltiplas indicaram a presença de transmissão intergeracional do estilo autoritário, mas não do democrático-recíproco, mediada por uma atitude conjugal conflituosa. O estilo autoritário materno previu tanto externalização como internalização, enquanto a atitude conjugal conflituosa previu apenas externalização. Embora significativo, o modelo aditivo não gerou efeitos longitudinais significativos de cada fator sobre externalização. Mas, ao se levar em conta a relação entre o estilo autoritário e a atitude conjugal conflituosa, efeitos principais foram encontrados para ambos os fatores. A obtenção de resultados significativos apenas no modelo de risco é considerada sob os pontos de vista teórico e metodológico.Mediational models of risk and protection were tested to predict longitudinally both externalizing and internalizing behaviors in young children, with conflicted marital attitude and transgenerational, authoritarian vs. authoritative parenting as predictors. Drawn from two private and one public schools, the sample consisted of 25 boys and 25 girls with 4 and 5 years of age, and their respective mothers. Bivariate Pearson correlations and multiple regressions showed intergenerational transmission for the authoritarian style, but not for the authoritative style, mediated by a conflicted attitude toward marriage. The maternal authoritarian style predicted both externalizing and internalizing behaviors, whereas the conflicted marital attitude predicted only
Full Text Available In the absence of any kind of hegemonic aura, neoliberal practices have proved increasingly unable to garner the consent, or even the reluctant acquiescence, necessary for more ‘normal’ modes of governance. Of particular importance in the post-2007 crisis has been the growing frequency with which constitutional and legal changes, in the name of economic ‘necessity’, are seeking to reshape the purpose of the state and associated institutions. This attempted reconfiguration is three-fold: (1 the more immediate appeal to material circumstances as a reason for the state being unable, despite ‘the best will in the world’, to reverse processes such as greater socioeconomic inequality and dislocation;(2 the deeper and longer-term recalibration of what kind of activity is feasible and appropriate for ‘non-market’ institutions to engage in, diminishing expectations in the process; and (3 the reconceptualisation of the state as increasingly non-democratic through its subordination to constitutional and legal rules that are ‘necessary’ for prosperity to be achieved.
Robert Jungk's book 'The Atom State' forms the basis for this article, which begins with a general discussion and criticism of such government sponsored reports as the Rasmussen report. The utilisation by the nuclear industry of modern PR methods is also criticised. Specifically, Bruno Kreisky and the Austrian Minister of the Economy, Herta Firnberg, are accused of attempting, through a secret project, to mislead the public and exercise unethical influence. It is maintained that the existence of a nuclear industry will necessitate control measures which lead to a totalitarian regime. (JIW)
Georgiou, Stelios N.; Stavrinides, Panayiotis; Fousiani, Kyriaki
This study aimed at examining the existing relation among parenting, cultural value orientation, and bullying propensity at school. The participants (N = 231) were early adolescents randomly selected from 11 different schools in urban and rural areas of Cyprus. The results showed that a statistically significant relation exists between parental…
for " lebensraum " and have voiced many of the same sentiments espoused by the Neo-Nazis in Germany. They are not very powerful yet but represent the...talked of the need for " lebensraum " and have voiced many of the same sentiments espoused by the Neo-Nazis in Germany. They are not very powerful yet...departure, the HDF was glad to see them go. Their leaders have talked of the need for " lebensraum " and have voiced many of the same sentiments espoused
Quimpo, Nathan Gilbert
Over the past decade, and especially over the past few years, political corruption, fraud and violence in the Philippines have reached such alarming levels that many Filipinos have grown despondent, even cynical, about their country's political system. Exploring the suitability of the concepts of 'predatory state' and 'patrimonial oligarchic state' to the Philippines, I find that the regime rather than the state is the more appropriate unit of analysis. I argue that the predatory regime, cont...
Heydemann, S; Leenders, R.
The spread of protests throughout the Arab world can be viewed as the product of social learning by Arab citizens—a wave effect facilitated by the rapid diffusion of ideas, discourses, and practices from one country to another and their adaptation to local contexts. Yet it less commonly recognized
Primo de Rivera and Portugal, 1923-1931: From “The Spanish Danger” to Longing for Authoritarian Spain | Primo de Rivera y Portugal, 1923-1931: del “peligro español” a la nostalgia de la España autoritaria
Juan Carlos Jiménez Redondo
Full Text Available Spain had been traditionally considered by Portuguese nationalism as the greatest threat to national independence and sovereignty. While this perception derived from the old undeniable annexationist Spanish attempts, from 1919 onwards, however, Spanish policy towards Portugal was characterized by full respect and an attitude of non-interference in Portuguese internal affairs. Primo de Rivera strengthened this shift by means of the pro-alliance concept policy that Spanish and Portuguese reactionary and conservative thinking identified with the basis for a political and ideological project of domestic and international regeneration clearly authoritarian. This ideological convergence introduced a radical change in the image of Spain in Portugal which eventually defined itself through the imposed dictatorships of Franco and Salazar. | El imaginario nacionalista portugués había situado a España como la gran amenaza a su independencia y soberanía nacional. Si hasta 1919 esa percepción se basó en indudables tentaciones anexionistas españolas, a partir de esa fecha la política portuguesa de España se caracterizó por el respeto y la no injerencia en los asuntos internos lusos. Primo de Rivera afianzó esta evolución con una política basada en ese ideal aliancista que el pensamiento conservador y reaccionario español y portugués estaba definiendo como base de un proyecto político e ideológico de regeneración interna e internacional, de clara tendencia autoritaria. Esta convergencia ideológica inició un cambio radical de la imagen de España en Portugal, que acabó por definirse con la definitiva imposición de las dictaduras salazarista y franquista.
reduction of fuel and food subsidies.223 Suharto managed to devalue the Rupiah twice, which helped Indonesian exports on the world market . Indonesia...is based on comparative case studies of South Korea’s and Indonesia’s contemporary political-economic trajectories. These two countries shared a...countries seeking political and economic reforms can learn from the mistakes and successes of the two case studies . 14. SUBJECT TERMS developmental state
Full Text Available Since the democratic restoration in 1990, Chilean politics are marked by political stability, macroeconomic prosperity, and a dramatic reduction of poverty. The government has realized these successes without creating real participatory mechanisms or citizens’ involvement. That is a unique case in the Latin American context and challenges the widespread conviction that citizens’ active participation is a necessary tool to deepen democracy and to include the poor in society. This article explores a series of historical, sociological, and political factors that can help to understand why the current Chilean democracy has not created such channels of citizens’ participation. The Chilean case illustrates that participatory governance is only one way of achieving the goals of a democratic society and that citizens’ participation may be inappropriate if there is a risk of political destabilization and if it is unwanted by a majority of the population. Resumen: Democracia local y participación en el Chile post-autoritarioDesde el retorno de la democracia en 1990, la política chilena se ha caracterizado por la estabilidad política, la prosperidad macroeconómica y una fuerte reducción de la pobreza. El gobierno ha logrado estos tres éxitos sin crear ningún mecanismo de participación real o de participación ciudadana. Este es un caso único en el contexto latinoamericano y pone en cuestión la difundida creencia de que la participación activa de los ciudadanos es una herramienta necesaria para profundizar la democracia e integrar a los pobres en la sociedad. Este artículo explora una serie de factores históricos, sociológicos y políticos que pueden ayudar a entender porqué la actual democracia chilena no ha creado esos canales de participación ciudadana. El caso chileno ilustra que la gobernabilidad participativa es sólo un modo de alcanzar los objetivos de una sociedad democrática y que la participación de los ciudadanos puede ser inapropiada si existe el riesgo de desestabilización política y si no es deseada por la mayoría de la población.
Aug 31, 2006 ... agencies are loyal to the President and the party. These have created a grossly uneven political playing field, pose a sever security dilemma ..... Having lost most of the support of its youth and women's wings to the. MDC, ZANU-PF enlisted the services of its former freedom fighters, generally referred to as ...
Dafydd J. Fell
Full Text Available This paper examines how Taiwan moved from being viewed as a model Asian democracy to one allegedly suffering from democratic reversal. The reasons for the declining domestic and international reputation of Taiwan’s democracy are discussed. Lastly, some key political challenges facing Taiwan’s democracy are outlined.
An earlier version of this paper was presented at the Global Social Justice in Theory and. Practice Conference, organised by the .... The concept of social justice is not new in human social relations. Craig (2007) notes that the ...... and political enlighten- ment programmes, to complement the work of media and civil society ...
Hamilton, V. Lee
Examined socialist citizens' views of military crimes of obedience, their attitudes toward political dissent, and predictors of each. No relationship was found between respondents' attitudes about disobedience and their responses about political dissent. However, greater education was associated both with claiming that one would disobey and with…
coup", the Erdogan-led government marks this day as the "Day of Democracy and National Unity" whilst toughening the conditions of the state of emergency that has caused massive dismissals and imprisonments of academics, civil servants, activists, journalists and politicians. The commemoration events...... of these neo-Orwellian rites. Notwithstanding the evidences of corruption, massacres of civilians in the Kurdish towns, and deep-rooted relations with the allegedly perpetuator of the putsch, i.e. the Fetullah Gülen movement, the President Erdogan imposes a ritualistic and transcendental "democracy...
appearing to be a 'reincarnation' of the one-party system and military rule that held sway for about three to four decades in Africa (from the 1960s). In the process of this transformation, African ruling parties have been grossly destabilising opposition and perceived dissenters through clientelism, patronage politics and ...
government, particularly in the executive and the legislative branches. They claim that the ... than a dollar a day pay a small fee to give their ..... relationship. Democracy demands that individuals exercise their freedom of choice and expression, and in exercising this right, they must use. The sustained record of corruption ...
Chao, Ruth K.
A study was conducted to determine Asian American conceptualizations of parenting, focusing on socialization goals, parenting style, and parenting practices related to schooling, aspects of parental influences discussed by D. Darling and L. Steinberg (1993). It was suggested that the standard conceptualizations of parenting style, those of D.…
Affouneh, Saida; Hargreaves, Eleanore
Drawing on pictures, written sentences and interview contributions, this article explores some Palestinian children's perspectives in order to gain insights into some children's classroom fear in the light of its potential influence on learning. After presenting some existing research indicating a negative relationship between fear and young…
The majority of Zimbabweans are now accustomed to electoral fraud as practised by the ruling Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) led by President Mugabe. Elections are generally not conducted in a manner that can be deemed to be free, fair and transparent. The major electoral malpractices ...
2014, occasionally slowed or softened Erdoğan’s tendencies. For example, as recently as February 2014, then President Gul returned a bill championed...aspects of the bill . Former Foreign Minister and current Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu is also an influential member of the GoT who has demonstrated a...Trajectory: The GoT is evolving. Joseph Nye , a political scientist who coined the phrase ‘soft power’, assessed that Turkey’s reduction of its once
The Political Impact of Social Media on the Arab Gulf: Saudi Arabia and Bahrain,” E-International Relations Students , November 16, 2015, http://www.e...qualities of the island, high Internet penetration rates and cell phone usage further enabled the impact that social media had in Bahrain. This... Social media use in protest activities will likely continue to be a topic of discussion as Internet usage rates increase around the world.126 Its use
Full Text Available Este ensaio trata dos espaços do poder autoritário nas administrações públicas do Brasil. Parte-se da estrutura administrativa assim como dos espaços de seus escritórios sob a influência da monografia Princípios de administração cientifica do engenheiro mecânico Frederick Taylor na Estrada de Ferro Noroeste do Brasil. No entanto, já se conhecia as gestões autoritárias desde a vinda da família Real Portuguesa ao país quando trouxeram o modelo administrativo no formato de uma Burocracia. O advento do organograma e do fluxograma para gerenciar espaços da produção social sempre se pautou pelo desenho da extrema divisão do trabalho associada a práticas de controles e vigilância. A separação entre os que mandam dos que obedecem foi a tônica desta divisão do trabalho. Mesmo quando o taylorismo foi substituído por outras teorias ditas democráticas, como a Teoria das Relações Humanas, o intuito sempre foi intensificar a exploração da força de trabalho através da destituição de seu poder. A prática das organizações administrativas desenhadas por organogramas de extrema divisão do trabalho tem servido para separar os que mandam dos que executam auxiliadas por fluxogramas direcionados ao curso das informações que mantém desinformados os que obedecem e informados os que decidem e dificultando o acesso dos primeiros aos segundos. É possível dizer que esta pratica autoritária de gestão persiste ainda hoje nas administrações públicas brasileiras.
Voelkle, M.C.; Oud, J.H.L.; Davidov, E.; Schmidt, P.
[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 17(3) of Psychological Methods (see record 2012-24038-005). The supplemental materials link was missing. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Panel studies, in which the same subjects are repeatedly observed at
Chao, Ruth K.
This study investigated whether certain broad cultural notions, such as "chiao shun" (training children in appropriate behavior or morals) and "guan" (a positive notion expressing parental concern, caring, or involvement) better distinguish the Chinese parent from the European-American than do the concepts of…
Chao, Ruth K.
This study compared standard conceptualizations for parenting style, parental involvement in school, and parents' socialization goals with alternative conceptualizations, in relation to children's academic achievement. Specifically, the study asked: (1) whether ethnicity is predictive of achievement scores when included in analyses involving the…
Kathryn Everhart Chaffee
Full Text Available Positive psychology encompasses the study of positive outcomes, optimal functioning, and resilience in difficult circumstances. In the context of language learning, positive outcomes include academic engagement, self-determined motivation, persistence in language learning, and eventually becoming a proficient user of the language. These questionnaire studies extend previous research by addressing how these positive outcomes can be achieved even in adverse circumstances. In Study 1, the primary and secondary control scales of interest were validated using 2468 students at a Canadian university. Study 2 examined the capacity of 100 Canadian language learners to adjust themselves to fit in with their environment, termed secondary control, and how it was related to their motivation for and engagement in language learning and their feelings of anxiety speaking in the classroom. Secondary control in the form of adjusting one’s attitude towards language learning challenges through positive reappraisals was positively associated with self-determined motivation, need satisfaction, and engagement. analyses, positive reappraisals were also found to buffer the negative effects of having a controlling instructor on students’ engagement and anxiety. These findings suggest that personal characteristics interact with the learning environment to allow students to function optimally in their language courses even when the teacher is controlling.
Kim, Yeonwoo; Calzada, Esther J.; Barajas-Gonzalez, R. Gabriela; Huang, Keng-Yen; Brotman, Laurie M.; Castro, Ashley; Pichardo, Catherine
Early academic achievement has been shown to predict high school completion, but there have been few studies of the predictors of early academic success focused on Latino students. Using longitudinal data from 750 Mexican and Dominican American families, this study examined a cultural model of parenting and early academic achievement. While Latino…
Chaffee, Kathryn E.; Noels, Kimberly A.; McEown, Maya Sugita
Positive psychology encompasses the study of positive outcomes, optimal functioning, and resilience in difficult circumstances. In the context of language learning, positive outcomes include academic engagement, self-determined motivation, persistence in language learning, and eventually becoming a proficient user of the language. These…
This case study is primarily based on my PhD research conducted on Egyptian Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) and their political educational activities. I was interested in analysing three important notions: how informal political education provided through CSOs plays a role in aiding social change and developing critical consciousness, how the Egyptian state attempts to repress CSOs and their political educational activities, and how CSOs are trying to overcome such hindrances. My fieldwor...
The NGO boom of the 1990s was matched by mounting literature on the influence of NGOs on world politics. The 1998 inaugural issue of "Current Issues in Comparative Education" ("CICE")--"Are NGOs Overrated?"--brought these debates into the very center of international and comparative education. The journal issue inspired a fascinating conversation…
Frosch, D.L.; May, S.G.; Rendle, K.A.; Tietbohl, C.; Elwyn, G.
Relatively little is known about why some patients are reluctant to engage in a collaborative discussion with physicians about their choices in health care. To explore this issue further, we conducted six focus-group sessions with forty-eight people in the San Francisco Bay Area. In the focus
Uibu, Krista; Kikas, Eve
Preferences for teaching methods are influenced by several factors, including instructional goals, teacher's management style, experience and education. To discover in which ways primary school teachers with different management styles vary in their preferences for students' cognitive and social development, 128 teachers of Estonia were…
Lucileide Costa Cardoso
Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to demonstrate through analysis of documents of repressive nature, the elements highlighted by the Military Justice to establish the trace of persecution of the intellectuals among other social sectors which dared to challenge the Dictatorship. The complete mapping, involving the combat strategies against the “communism”, including the knowledge of the political parties and their military staff, was accumulated by police and military sectors along the 20th century. We intended to follow, through these records, the political trajectory of the intellectual Jacob Gorender. As a journalist, he got involved in the discussion about the Brazilian participation in the World War II, joined the FEB in 1943. Before that, however, Gorender became a communist, recruited by Mario Alves in 1942. In the early 60’s, he acted as a militant and coordinator of PCB, when he decided to join PCBR, founded in 1968. The historian, in the beginning of the 1964 Strike, with his life already devastated by the Information and Security Community, experienced marginalization, imprisonment, torture and censorship of his writings among other abuses that also reached his closest friends, political companions and family members. The crossing of this amount of information with the memorial documents helps to understand the political repression tricks and the different Revolutionary projects in course.
Pong, Suet-ling; Johnston, Jamie; Chen, Vivien
Our study re-examines the relationship between parenting and school performance among Asian students. We use two sources of data: wave I of the Adolescent Health Longitudinal Survey (Add Health), and waves I and II of the Taiwan Educational Panel Survey (TEPS). Analysis using Add Health reveals that the Asian-American/European-American difference in the parenting–school performance relationship is due largely to differential sample sizes. When we select a random sample of European-American st...
Full Text Available This article inserts itself into larger discussions regarding post-dictatorship memory politics in Portugal and comparative studies of similar histories of violence in Europe, particularly examinations of National-Socialism, Nazism and the Holocaust, as well as comparative studies of twentieth-century fascist dictatorships in the Iberian peninsula. In spite of the revolutionary, radical nature of the Portuguese democratisation process, studies conducted during the last four decades on the social and political (reconstructions of memory regarding the Portuguese dictatorship (1926-1974 have demonstrated that state policies regarding the past have depicted the dictatorship as one that is very similar to events in countries where the process of democratic transition was actually quite different from that of Portugal. Right-wing groups and those who self-describe as “victims” of processes of decolonisation that occurred between 1974 and 1975 have established a pattern of public debate that leaves no room for discussing the dictatorship without also referring to the 1974-1975 Revolution. This mode of debate seems to suggest that these two periods of history are indicative of a global regime phenomenon and that both the processes of decolonisation and revolution affected Portuguese society in similar ways. This paper attempts to complicate these narratives in order to question the democratic forms that emerged after the Revolution and to compare it to Salazar’s dictatorial regime.Este artículo se encuadra en una discusión más amplia sobre las políticas de la memoria de la posdictadura salazarista en Portugal, y en estudios comparados sobre historias semejantes de violencia en Europa, especialmente las relativas al nacional-socialismo, el nazismo y el Holocausto. También se refiere a los estudios comparados sobre las dictaduras fascistas en la Península Ibérica. A pesar de la naturaleza revolucionaria y radical del proceso de democratización portugués, los estudios llevados a cabo durante las últimas cuatro décadas sobre las (reconstrucciones sociales y políticas de la memoria de la dictadura portuguesa (1926-1974 demuestran que las políticas de estado han elaborado un relato de la dictadura en relación con procesos de transición a la democracia que son muy diferentes del portugués. Grupos de extrema derecha y aquéllos que se describen a sí mismos como “víctimas” del proceso de descolonización que tuvo lugar entre 1974 y 1975 han conseguido consolidar en el debate público unos argumentos que no deja espacio para discutir la dictadura sin relacionarla con la revolución de 1974-1975. Los términos de este debate sugieren que estos dos procesos históricos – descolonización y revolución – afectaron a la sociedad de manera semejante. Este texto trata de descifrar la complejidad de estos relatos para poder cuestionar las formas democráticas que emergieron tras la revolución, y compararlas con el régimen dictatorial de Salazar.
Voelkle, Manuel C.; Oud, Johan H. L.; Davidov, Eldad; Schmidt, Peter
Panel studies, in which the same subjects are repeatedly observed at multiple time points, are among the most popular longitudinal designs in psychology. Meanwhile, there exists a wide range of different methods to analyze such data, with autoregressive and cross-lagged models being 2 of the most well known representatives. Unfortunately, in these…
34traditional" political structures and " neo -traditional" political structures or what Hisham Sharabi has termed "neopatriarchy."S In neither stereotypical...agrarian mode of production makes agrarian societies Malthusian in nature; the more offspring, the more production. Third, the existence of a stored surplus...system in the West expanded partially at the expense of pre-capitalist systems. Through colonialism and neo - colonialism, the West subjected pre
Gonzalez Reyes, Alfredo
Mexico’s pursue and implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was a pro-growth policy strategy that deepened Mexico’s economic liberalization process at a time of crisis and macroeconomic stabilization. In that context, NAFTA constituted a commitment device to investment that ensured continuity to both the stabilization and the liberalization processes. NAFTA was po...
Francisco José Alves
Only in 1985, with the election by the Congress of the civilian opposition leader Tancredo Neves for the presidency the country would officially leave dictatorship behind. Unfortunately, Tancredo Neves would die before taking the presidency and his vice-president, a representative of the old and most backwards oligarchies of the country politically tied to the supporters of Military Dictatorship. Only in November of 1989, the country would have its first presidential elections after 29 years of dictatorship.
Full Text Available This paper examines the prevalent notion that that the production of knowledge, academic research and teaching can and ought to be audited and assessed in the same manner as the production of other goods and services. The emphasis on similarities between industry and the academy leads to a neglect of fundamental differences in their aims and, as a consequence, a tendency to evaluate scientific research in terms of patents and product development and colleges and universities in terms of the labour market. The article examines the idea of the free academy, on the one hand, and compares and contrasts it to the idea of free enterprise, on the other. It is argued that the view of the university as a supplier of specific solutions for pre-determined, non-scientific needs (a workforce with skills currently in demand, innovations for commercial partners, justifications for political decisions, etc undermines the public legitimacy of university science and weakens the fabric of scientific training and practice. The article proposes that the university’s main purpose must be to provide a recognized neutral, autonomous agency of rigorous, disinterested investigation and scientific education, which constitutes a necessary condition for an enlightened liberal democracy: an informed, capable and critical citizenry.
Beatriz Urías Horcasitas
Full Text Available This article examines Rodulfo Brito Foucher’s views on autoritharianism and violence. Brito Foucher was an important political opponent under Cárdenas’ rule. He also was a conservative ideologist who envisioned a “necessary dictature” as an alternative that would put an end to Mexico’s decline and corruption. In the essays he published in 1938, Brito Foucher relates specific political events —linked to Tomás Garrido Canabal’s regime in Tabasco between 1924 and 1935— to the rejection of the revolution that put in place a dictatorship disguised into a democratic regime. Reviewing Brito Foucher’s arguments allows one to reexamine from a new perspective the meaning of two key-concepts within the history of Mexico’s social thinking in the 20th century.
.... ROK President Park Chung Hee seized control of political power by coup in 1961. Until he was assassinated in 1979, he acted both as dictator of South Korea's political order and as the founder of South Korean economic take-off...
Wong, Stan Hok-Wui; Zeng, Yu
Candidate appearance is a significant predictor of election outcomes in democracies because voters often make inference of competence based on facial appearance. Do inferences of competence from faces matter in autocracies? In this article, we study the effects of candidate appearance on the selection of three types of Chinese officials: (1) rural deputies elected to a local people's congress (LPC), (2) urban deputies elected to the LPC, and (3) unelected mayors and bureaucrats. We find that facial competence cues are relevant only to the votes received by rural LPC candidates. Our findings suggest the importance of information accessibility in political selection. In particular, the "selectorate" of mayors and bureaucrats do not need facial appearance cues because they have access to substantive information about the quality of political candidates. Our findings provide a possible explanation for the resilience of some autocracies: they are able to identify talent through an informative, albeit non-electoral, selection mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
The purpose of this work is to create a generalizable data- and theory-supported capability to better understand and anticipate (with quantifiable uncertainty): 1) how the dynamics of allegiance formations between various groups and society are impacted by active conflict and by third-party interventions and 2) how/why extremist allegiances co-evolve over time due to changing geopolitical, sociocultural, and military conditions.
van Riel, A.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Komlos, J.; Eddie, S.
A politicoeconomic model of the relationship between economic and structural variables and government popularity is developed and applied to the Weimar Republic. We obtained data from decentralized election results in the 1924 to 1933 period, using a weighted panel estimation method. Parameter
Zhu, X.; Zhang, L.; Ran, R.; Mol, A.P.J.
The poor enforcement and effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) on construction and investment projects in China has long been blamed for not preventing environmental pollution and degradation. At the same time, freezing EIA approval of all new projects in an administrative region,
Tang, Xiao; Chen, Weiwei
Given its serious impacts on the public’s health, air pollution in China is a matter of strong public concern, particularly in reference to malodorous waste gas. Petition letters related to atmospheric pollution accounted for about 40% of the total petition cases. However, scholarly views differ on whether the Chinese government responds to public opinion on the environment and seeks to improve its environmental governance behavior. For this study, data from national surveys on the public’s environmental satisfaction administered during the period 2011–2015 were analyzed to determine whether the public’s dissatisfaction with the state of the environment in a given year resulted in increased investments by provincial governments in pollution governance during the following year. The study’s findings revealed that governmental behavior in response to public opinion on the environment was selective within the field of environmental governance, with provincial governments being inclined to invest more in waste gas pollution control than in water pollution control. Furthermore, results from this study show that the Chinese government tends to put more efforts into the environmental field where it could more easily achieve short-term benefits. PMID:29401701
sent into temporary hibernation in the wake of 9/11. But Russian bears always awake from hibernation eventually. Putin’s second term would bear ...Though Putin would remain estranged from the key levers of national power and prestige until the end of the 1990s, he would, nevertheless, bear witness...policy from Putin’s state would take a temporary hibernation in light of (then) current events. By the end of his first term and into his second
Cramer, Robert J.; Miller, Audrey K.; Amacker, Amanda M.; Burks, Alixandra C.
Research has indicated that people who are more open to novel and diverse experiences express less prejudicial views concerning minority group members. The openness-prejudice relationship, however, may be mediated by the degree to which individuals adhere to traditional social convention and absolutist thinking patterns. Thus, informed by the…
Full Text Available Given its serious impacts on the public’s health, air pollution in China is a matter of strong public concern, particularly in reference to malodorous waste gas. Petition letters related to atmospheric pollution accounted for about 40% of the total petition cases. However, scholarly views differ on whether the Chinese government responds to public opinion on the environment and seeks to improve its environmental governance behavior. For this study, data from national surveys on the public’s environmental satisfaction administered during the period 2011–2015 were analyzed to determine whether the public’s dissatisfaction with the state of the environment in a given year resulted in increased investments by provincial governments in pollution governance during the following year. The study’s findings revealed that governmental behavior in response to public opinion on the environment was selective within the field of environmental governance, with provincial governments being inclined to invest more in waste gas pollution control than in water pollution control. Furthermore, results from this study show that the Chinese government tends to put more efforts into the environmental field where it could more easily achieve short-term benefits.
Tang, Xiao; Chen, Weiwei; Wu, Tian
Given its serious impacts on the public's health, air pollution in China is a matter of strong public concern, particularly in reference to malodorous waste gas. Petition letters related to atmospheric pollution accounted for about 40% of the total petition cases. However, scholarly views differ on whether the Chinese government responds to public opinion on the environment and seeks to improve its environmental governance behavior. For this study, data from national surveys on the public's environmental satisfaction administered during the period 2011-2015 were analyzed to determine whether the public's dissatisfaction with the state of the environment in a given year resulted in increased investments by provincial governments in pollution governance during the following year. The study's findings revealed that governmental behavior in response to public opinion on the environment was selective within the field of environmental governance, with provincial governments being inclined to invest more in waste gas pollution control than in water pollution control. Furthermore, results from this study show that the Chinese government tends to put more efforts into the environmental field where it could more easily achieve short-term benefits.
Pong, Suet-ling; Johnston, Jamie; Chen, Vivien
Our study re-examines the relationship between parenting and school performance among Asian students. We use two sources of data: wave I of the Adolescent Health Longitudinal Survey (Add Health), and waves I and II of the Taiwan Educational Panel Survey (TEPS). Analysis using Add Health reveals that the Asian-American/European-American difference…
Williams, Keith L.; Wahler, Robert G.
Forty clinic-referred mothers completed questionnaires describing their children's problems, the mothers' parenting styles, and their everyday mindfulness. Psychometric analyses of the questionnaires showed mother reports to be internally consistent, except for one of the parenting style scales (i.e., permissive style). We dropped the scale and…
Investigates whether religion may actually contribute to intolerance, discrimination, suffering, and bloodshed in the world. The author offers study findings that suggest relationships among religious fundamentalism, quest, right-wing authorization, and prejudice. It is suggested that it is how people hold their religious beliefs, rather than the…
Full Text Available More than a regime that stormed to Argentina in the 1940s, Peronism is configured as a system of complex ideas and exceptional, a identification (as defined by Beatriz SARLO. This article focuses on the brightest stage og the Justicialism (another name for the period that was Juan Domingo Perón as its greatest exponent, the First Peronism (1946-1955 - and the construction of a policy of spreading the so-called Social Tourism, while one arm of a larger project carried forward by the powerful Central Office of Information (SI, in Spanish. This strategy was fundamentally based on the production and dissemination of posters. On the other hand, the study shows similarities and differences in this field to other regimes of the first half of the 20th century (Salazarism, Francoism, Fascism, Nazism, Stalinism and New Deal. And it shows how the vision of Michel FOUCAULT about the Disciplinary Power was largely present in the peronist Social Tourism.
exports.”14 In addition, the chaebol (South Korean business groups) were important actors as exporters. Park encouraged chaebols to accumulate capital...Fall of Chaebols (Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003). 18 conducted instruction and provided supervision companies, and if a...Transformation of Korean Business Groups: The Rise and Fall of Chaebols . 43Cumings, The Origins and Development of the Northeast Asian Political Economy
Thi Thu Trang, “Vietnam’s Ruler Transformation,” in Rethinking Vietnam , ed. Duncan McCargo (New York: Routledge, 2004), 113. 156 Clarke, The Social ... socialism in South Vietnam . Since Le Duan, the General Secretary of the VCP bore in mind that the country should accomplish stable communism in unified...had a strategic interest in checking China. Historically, Vietnam had been involved in Chinese culture for such a long time, and suffered from a
In recent decades, neoliberal reforms have spread across Latin America. Despite different accounts showing the adverse social impact of these reforms, what seems lacking are historical analyses of why and how neoliberal policies occurred in this region. For instance, there are only rare accounts of how dictatorships in the 1970s prepared the…
Full Text Available This article describes the legislative process of the Administrative Department of the state of São Paulo (DAESP during the Estado Novo dictatorship and seeks to answer three questions: i what were its real attributions? ii what was its place among the state-level government agencies? iii what was its role in the dictatorial regime's public decision-making structure? Ordering and interpreting information on the DAESP's deliberative process will allow us to establish whether or not it exercised power (understood as the capacity by those who controlled it to impose their preferences, what was the magnitude of this power, what type of power was exercised, over what and whom. The frequency of its meetings, the coordination of the agendas of the dictatorial State's apparatuses involved in the decision chain, the activism of each councillor of DAESP and a sample of the legal opinions produced by it between 1939-1947 were all analysed. The findings can be summarised into three propositions: i DAESP was not a decision-making arena per se as it did not make important decisions, but instead produced a huge amount of decisions regarding the formal aspects of the decree-laws issued by the Interventoria Federal (appointed governors; ii therefore, the president of the DAESP did not have greater political or bureaucratic power than the interventor, and iii although the Department mimicked some legislative routines, it cannot be considered a substitute of the state legislature.
Since the mid-1990s more and more Argentines have been taking to the streets to express their dissatisfaction with the growing levels of poverty, social exclusion and violence. As part of this growing trend, the Movimiento del Dolor (a social movement consisting of the family members of victims of
In the first decade of the 21st century Indonesian television underwent drastic transformations as part of the broader socio-political changes following the fall of the New Order regime of President Suharto in 1998. As part of the reforms, Indonesia implemented regional autonomy, devolving powers
out by the Italian fascism and the Brazilian “Estado Novo”, to understand the constitutional legitimacy for the parliament’s dismissal and the collaboration of renowned lawyers for codemaking, but without the ultimate control of popular representation. Analyzing the historical documents as the code-drafts and the criminal historiography, this paper concludes that in Italy, the parliament itself has abdicated its competence by a delegation of powers to the government and in Brazil, the 1937 coup d’État imposed a new constitution in which the x legislative competence fully to the Executive Power. Furthermore, both the regimes used intellectual legitimacy by jurists.
Ramos, Marco A
From 1966 to 1983, Argentina underwent a period of political radicalization as fascist regimes used terror to control its citizens and leftist guerrillas resorted to violence to spark revolution. During this politically volatile period, psychiatry transformed from an apolitical clinical specialty into an ideological tool used for both leftist resistance and military oppression. The largest psychiatric organization at the time, the Federación Argentina de Psiquiatras (FAP), became the center for a new politically committed brand of psychiatry in Argentina that united psychoanalysis and community psychiatry with Marxist theory. Though the military targeted and eventually dismantled the FAP and its leftist brand of psychoanalysis and community psychiatry, sectors of the government also paradoxically appropriated and reframed community-based psychiatric perspectives to pathologize leftist subversion and advance their own conservative ideology.
Kestere, Iveta; Kalke, Baiba
The ideal of the Soviet teacher can be revealed in Soviet mass media, but historians are challenged by the question "what was the actual reality"? Therefore, we addressed the reality of the Soviet school using two research questions: (1) What teacher image was cultivated by Soviet propaganda, and what did the average teacher actually…
Kilic B. Kanat
Full Text Available The diversionary theory of war has been considered one of the most contested theories that link domestic and external conflicts. Thus far scholarship in this field has focused on one-time single diversionary attacks, which led to the temporary deflection of attention from domestic problems to external ones. This study intends to bring revisions to the assumptions in the center of diversionary theory and demonstrate these through a well-known but underutilized case. This article intends to show that leaders have not one single option but rather a repertoire of different foreign policy actions in their possession to divert the attention of domestic public. In addition to the use of force, leaders can also use the threat to use force and other less violent means to create a rally round the flag effect. Secondly, this study will show that, unlike the presumptions of the previous studies, leaders can use multiple different diversionary strategies within a short period of time if the initial diversionary action does not create intended outcomes and if they are still willing to use externalization to boost his approval rating and divert public attention from present problems. These two contributions to the theory will be demonstrated in the case of Saddam Hussein’s attacks to Kuwait and Israel during the first Gulf War.
Samruddhi Karnik; Neha Sahasrabudhe
Adolescence is a period of great turbulence characterized by cognitive, emotional, social and physical changes. Family environment and role of peers is extremely crucial in the development of an adolescent. Presenting here is a brief case of 15 year old boy who was referred for counseling by his parents for lack of concentration in studies. In the counseling sessions with the boy and his parents it was found that the boy was psychologically disturbed as he was teased at school by ...
Baader, Meike S.
The subject of this paper is the construction of childhood as a time of happiness in different historical periods. It first analyses the construction of childhood as a time of happiness in the German romantic period in the eighteenth century. Secondly, the paper discusses the construction of happy mothers and children in "The Century of…
Full Text Available Describimos en este artículo el contexto cooperativo y su importancia en el desarrollo del niño. Siguiendo la teoria de Piaget, estos contextos facilitan el desarrollo intelectual y moral de los niños. Trasladado a la escuela esto implica un cambio importante en la función del profesor que es la de formar individuos críticos, cooperativos y creativos.The cooperative context and its importance for the child's development are described in this article. Following the Piagetian theory, these contexts facilitate children's intellectual and moral development. This taken to the school environment implies an important change in the teacher's role that is the one of forming critical, cooperative and creative individuals.
Robben, Antonius C G M
This article uses the dual process model (DPM) in an analysis of the national mourning of tens of thousands of disappeared in Chile and Argentina by adapting the model from the individual to the collective level where society as a whole is bereaved. Perpetrators are also involved in the national mourning process as members of a bereaved society. This article aims to (a) demonstrate the DPMs significance for the analysis of national mourning in post-conflict societies and (b) explain oscillations between loss orientation and restoration orientation in coping with massive losses that seem contradictory from a grief work perspective.
Developing adaptive capacity for responding to environmental change in the Arab Gulf States: Uncertainties to linking ecosystem conservation, sustainable development and society in authoritarian rentier economies
The recent assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has emphasized that understanding the institutional context in which policies are made and implemented is critical to define sustainable development paths from a climate change perspective. Nevertheless, while the importance of social, political and cultural factors is getting more recognition in some parts of the world, little is known about the human dimensions or the contexts in which they operate in the affluent oil economies of the Arabian Peninsula. Policies that implicitly subsidize or support a wasteful and environmentally destructive use of resources are still pervasive, while noteworthy environmental improvements still face formidable political and institutional constraints to the adaptation of the necessary far reaching and multisectoral approach. The principal aim of this paper is to identify some of the major shortcomings within the special context of the Arab Gulf states' socio-cultural environment in support of appropriate development pathways. Conclusions highlight that past and current policy recommendations for mitigating environmental threats are likely to be ineffective. This is because they are based on the unverified assumption that Western-derived standards of conduct, specifically the normative concept of "good governance" and "democracy", will be adopted in non-Western politico-cultural contexts.
Pastana, Debora Regina
Full Text Available O tema central deste artigo é o crescente investimento no combate ao crime pelos atuais governos democráticos brasileiros, o que contribui para consolidar, também entre nós, a figura do estado punitivo. O atual arranjo capitalista generaliza-se quase que instantaneamente em todo o globo, atrelando o sucesso dos empreendimentos econômicos à nova face da política criminal. Nesse sentido, o estado punitivo passa a caracterizar uma ambiguidade que simbolicamente é o retrato do momento político contemporâneo. Dito de outra forma, em torno desse modelo de controle misturam-se conceitos absolutamente contraditórios como democracia e autoritarismo. Inserido nas recentes reflexões sociológicas de Loïc Wacquant, David Garland, Nils Christie, Zygmunt Bauman e Giorgio Agamben, entre outros, esse tema começa a ser discutido também pela comunidade acadêmica nacional. O artigo, portanto, tem como objetivo abordar o que se convencionou chamar de estado punitivo, figura política que se ajusta às transformações econômicas, sociais e culturais já em curso nos últimos trinta anos e que desponta no Brasil como forma cada vez mais hegemônica de controle social
.... The revolutionary struggle shaped general Indonesian acceptance of the authoritarian rule. However, by 1997 Indonesia's authoritarian rule was faced with a serious problem of legitimacy and governability...
Dornbusch, Sanford M.; And Others
Uses a reformation of Baumrind's typology of authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles in the context of adolescent school performance. Authoritarian and permissive parenting were negatively associated with grades; authoritative parenting was positively associated with grades. (PCB)
O. D. Grossman
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the problems of existence of authoritarian regimes. The ambiguity of the resulting data determines the importance of the considered research. Authoritarianism is quite complicated socio-political phenomenon. For this reason, there are a lot of typologies and special features of authoritarianism as a political regime. Authoritarianism is not only a political regime, but it is also a set of social and political characteristics. Some countries, where the authoritarian tendencies dominate, are economically developed, and they have a competitive economy, but other countries, which are steeped in a reactionary authoritarian, do not develop properly. From the materials of this article it should be concluded that the political regime in Russia is principally authoritarian, or to be specific it is liberal authoritarian regime. This political regime has been established for the whole history of our country, and it is supported by paternalistic political culture and special mindset our nation.
Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy L.
Authoritarian parenting is often shown to be associated with negative outcomes for children, including the development of maladaptive schemas. However, this is not the case for all children who experience Authoritarian parenting. Optimism is examined as a moderator in the relationship between Authoritarian parenting and maladaptive schemas that…
.... This latter phenomenon has been accompanied by an increasingly authoritarian political system under the control of President Vladimir Putin, in which former intelligence officers play key roles...
Wehrey, Frederic; Green, Jerrold D; Nichiporuk, Brian; Nader, Alireza; Hansell, Lydia; Nafisi, Rasool; Bohandy, S. R
.... Bound together by the shared experience of war and the socialization of military service, the Pasdaran have articulated a populist, authoritarian, and assertive vision for the Islamic Republic...
Seznee, Jean F
... of expression, and participation like power sharing and meaningful elections. If liberalization alone takes place, the authoritarian regime evolves only into competitive oligarchies which control the country...
Estilos parentais autoritário e democrático-recíproco intergeracionais, conflito conjugal e comportamentos de externalização e internalização Intergenerational authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles, marital conflict, and externalizing and internalizing behaviors
Ebenézer A. de Oliveira; Angela H. Marin; Fábio B. Pires; Giana B. Frizzo; Tiago Ravanello; Caroline Rossato
Modelos mediativos de risco e proteção foram testados, para prever longitudinalmente comportamentos de externalização e internalização infantis, a partir de uma atitude conjugal conflituosa e de estilos parentais intergeracionais autoritário vs. democrático-recíproco. Proveniente de duas escolas particulares e uma pública, a amostra contou com 25 meninas e 25 meninos de 4 e 5 anos, e suas respectivas mães. Correlações bivariadas de Pearson e regressões múltiplas indicaram a presença de transm...
Modernización y estructuración global en Chile: de la génesis autoritaria a la consolidación democrática Global modernization and restructuring in Chile: from authoritarian birth to democratic maturity
De Mattos Carlos A.
Full Text Available El esquema de modernización del gobierno militar chileno fue una reacción a la crisis del modelo populista-desarrollista que imperó en Chile desde 1929. Hacia 1973, éste había llegado a una situación terminal que, en lo político, se expresaba en una situación de ingobernabilidad y, en lo económico, se reflejaba en una continua caída del producto; un aumento del déficit de cuenta corriente de la balanza de pagos; una paulatina aceleración de las tasas de inflación y el sostenido aumento de los conflictos sociales. La nueva estrategia buscaba reducir el papel económico del Estado y restablecer el libre juego de las fuerzas del mercado, mediante la descentralización, la privatización, la liberación económica, la reforma del mercado laboral y la apertura a los mercados internacionales. Independientemente de los métodos utilizados por el gobierno militar, su gestión creó un país totalmente diferente y dio lugar a un nuevo modelo de regulación, donde hay una creciente dependencia estructural de la sociedad con respecto al capital. Oponiéndose a las evaluaciones más optimistas de este proceso, el autor concluye que aún persisten algunos problemas fundamentales: la concentración del poder económico, la intensificación de las desigualdades sociales y el grave deterioro ecológico. Problemas a los que es más sensible el nuevo gobierno democrático.The modernization imposed by the military regime in Chile was a reaction to the crisis of the populist view of development which had governed policy there since 1929. By 1973, the model was in i ts death-throes; in political terms, this meant that the country had become ungovernable. In economic terms, GDPwas steadily falling and the deficit in the balance of payments in current account was steadily rising. Inflation was also rising slowly, and with it, social conflicto The new strategy sought to reduce the State's role in the economy and to give free play to market forces by decentralization,
privatization, deregulation, labour reforms and the opening up of the economy to international markets. Whatever the
methods used by the military government, Chile became a new country, with a new model for regulation in which society as a whole became increasingly dependant on capi tal. The author rejects the most optimistic valuations of the process, but concludes that there are still some deep-seated problems: the concentration of power, the intensification of social disparities and serious ecological decay; and that the new Government is more sensitive to these problems.
Člověk „dobrý“ a/nebo „zlý“? Antropologická varianta výchovy mezi autoritářstvím a liberalitou/ Human being: Good and/or evil? Anthropological position between authoritarian and liberal approach to education
Full Text Available Cílem této studie je ukázat implikace antropologického předporozumění lidské povahy pro etické vychovatelství. První část práce prezentuje rozdíl mezi ontologickým a morálním aspektem lidské povahy, tj. rozlišuje mezi tím, jak člověk jest (ontologie a jak by měl být (morálka. Druhá část srovnává tři, resp. čtyři antropologické varianty odpovědí na tyto otázky – antropologický pesimismus, optimismus, realismus, existencialismus. Třetí část ukazuje eticko-výchovné implikace těchto odpovědí. Na základě rozlišení ontologické a morální komplexity lidské povahy je doloženo, že antropologický realismus vede k autentické pedagogické humanizaci, zatímco pesimismus vede k autoritářské výchově a optimismus k liberální výchově. Antropologický realismus skýtá největší edukační potenciál pro funkční etické vychovatelství, které si klade za cíl formovat autentickou humanitu.
Lim, Vivien K. G.; Loo, Geok Leng
Structural equation modeling results from data on 178 undergraduates and their parents in Singapore indicated that paternal job insecurity was associated positively and maternal job insecurity negatively with authoritarian parenting. Mothers' authoritarian parenting was related to young adults' self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was positively…
Basow, Susan A.; Johnson, Kelly
Investigated how self-esteem, self-discrepancy, and gender-attribute importance related to homophobia in predominantly white college women, noting sex role attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, and extent of contact with homosexuals. The only significant predictor of homophobia was authoritarian attitudes. Other correlations included belief in sex…
Erik, Baekkeskov; Rubin, Olivier
China and other authoritarian states notoriously keep mum about disasters. Yet two recent but dissimilar Chinese responses to infectious disease epidemics show that authoritarian crisis management can shift from secrecy to openness. China maintained prolonged secrecy during 2003 SARS, yet was open...
generic traits that describe toxic leadership. Broad characteristics of narcissism and cynicism are further reduced to descriptors of selfishness...abuse and tyranny. The persistent abusiveness, authoritarianism, narcissism and unpredictability can be displayed in two categories of toxicity...retention failure to the toxic leadership climate. These leaders are maladjusted, emphasizing narcissism and authoritarianism.25 The primary indicators of
Møller, Fenja Søndergaard
directly but assumed to be embedded in the monarchical regime type, and the results show that alternative covariates are unable to fully explain the monarchical peace. Moreover, the study finds that horizontal discrimination increases the risk of intrastate conflict in authoritarian republics...... but that discrimination has no effect in monarchies. Future conflict studies should therefore consider legitimacy connected to authoritarian regime types....
Major conclusion from this exploratory analysis was that if the black families were viewed by white norms they appeared authoritarian, but that, unlike their white counterparts, the most authoritarian of these families produced the most self-assertive and independent girls. (Author)
Tis’Ina, Nur Arofah; Suroso
. The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation betweenauthoritarian parentig and conformity with school bullying on MTs X Sidoarjostudents, using quantitative method. Subjects were 65 MTs students. Researchvariables were measured using school bullying scale, authoritarian parenting scaleand conformity scale. Data were analyzed using regression analysis. The resultsshowed that authoritarian parenting and conformity significantly associated withschool bullying. Separately, authoritar...
.... For half a century, authoritarianism was dominant in Indonesia, but like all dictatorships, Indonesia subsequently had to return to democracy. Pressures from within the authoritarian government and Indonesian society dictated the democratization process. However, the long term prospects for unstable democracy remain unclear.
Strengthening ethical political leadership is trepiditious, given the deeply engraved status quo that appeals to political elites who command power and benefi t from the system through semi-democratic, semi-authoritarian and authoritarian regime types. Using an interdisciplinary approach of peace and confl ict studies, the ...
This article offers an alternative model, the model of shared authority, to the traditional, authoritarian model for authority and obedience for Religious Education. This model moves away from the authoritarian model of a teacher as the authority and the students as obedient listeners in the direction of a shared authority model in which teachers…
Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.
College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…
Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E
Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. In urban communities, on the other hand, the authoritarian style was more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. The connectedness of all female adolescents with their family was stronger than that of male adolescents. The connectedness of girls was found to be more emotional and financial in villages and to be more functional in town. Female adolescents reported a higher frequency of psychological disorders. Mental health was associated with authoritative parenting, but not with authoritarian parenting. It seems that authoritarian parenting within an authoritarian culture is not as harmful as within a liberal culture.
Robbins, T; Anthony, D
While the presence of authoritarian "cults" in our midst raises a number of social control and "law and order" issues, current controversies over cults contain substantial elements of mystification. "Brainwashing" is an inherently subjective metaphor that is used as a rationale for persecuting unpopular movements and defining religious converts as nonautonomous zombies who can be coerced for therapeutic purposes. While "coercive persuasion" models do have some heuristic value for the analysis of indoctrination in some authoritarian groups, assumptions regarding the alleged destruction of the "free will" of converts and the status of authoritarian religiosity as a medical pathology are not warranted.
A notícia-acontecimento como face de uma ideologia da solução autoritária: a crise política no contexto do golpe de 1964 no Brasil segundo o diário argentino Clarín = The news-fact as the face of an ideology for an authoritarian solution: the political crisis in the context of 1964 coup in Brazil according to Argentine daily Clarín
Silveira, Helder Gordim da
Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a forma pela qual o diário argentino Clarín relatou/ representou o golpe civil-militar de 1964 no Brasil enquanto notícia/acontecimento, buscando enfatizar como o discurso jornalístico, mobilizando imagens e interpretações recorrentes, possivelmente atuou como um importante componente de uma ideologia da solução autoritária frente à crise política e institucional que crescia na região desde, pelo menos, a década de 1950
Found significant differences across generations in perceptions of child rearing practices, attitudes, and beliefs. Found a decreasing emphasis on authoritarian control and an increasing emphasis on encouraging independence, open expression, and expression of affect. (PCB)
W. de Koster (Willem); J. van der Waal (Jeroen)
textabstractThis article demonstrates that studies in political sociology are flawed, because they fail to distinguish between moral conservatism/progressiveness and authoritarianism/libertarianism. Such a distinction is necessary, because historically and theoretically speaking, it is the process
Schøjtler, Gitte; Delmar, Charlotte
. Method: Qualitative research and interviews based on a hermeneutic phenomenological conceptual framework. Analysis: Hermeneutical content interpretation based on Kvale and Brinkmann's recommendations. Results: The following main themes emerged from the analysis: «upcoming euthanasia», «authoritarian...
Farah, Abdulkadir Osman
Following decades of postcolonial dictatorships and authoritarianism, many African countries have experienced expanded efforts by transnational organizations—from both top down and bottom up—aimed at alleviating poverty and improving security. This article provides a partial inventory...
Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-
Arvustus: Deniss Hanovs, Valdis Tēraudkalns: Ultimate Freedom - no choice. The culture of authoritarianism in Latvia, 1934-1940. (Central and Eastern Europe. Reginal perspectives in global context, Bd. 2.) Brill. Leiden-Boston 2013
Seznee, Jean F
In his classic book on democratizationi Robert Dahl argues that democracy can occur in authoritarian regimes when there is an increase in both liberalization, such as freedom of association or freedom...
Seznec, Jean F
In his classic book on democratization Robert Dahl argues that democracy can occur in authoritarian regimes when there is an increase in both liberalization, such as freedom of association or freedom...
The Peruvian national indigenous federation established a bilingual, intercultural teachers' training program to counter stereotypes of indigenous people portrayed in the authoritarian, monolingual Spanish national curriculum, and to enhance language preservation, ethnic mobilization, and cultural survival. A complementary transitional bilingual…
Poell, T.; Trottier, D.; Fuchs, C.
This chapter interrogates how activist social media communication in authoritarian contexts is shaped through the mutual articulation of social media user practices, business models, and technological architectures, as well as through the controlling efforts of states. It specifically focuses on
Authoritarian management from above can no longer impose controls on subordinates. Participative management is now essential to improve organizational efficiency, release individual and group initiative, and make a fundamental improvement in the climate of British industrial relations. (MS)
Discusses the author's development of teaching style from a permissive to an authoritarian to an authoritative teaching style. Uses research on parenting styles to understand the college classroom and argues that a teacher's view of students affects their teaching. (CMK)
Hobart, Charles W.
A study of student attitudes toward family size, use of contraceptives, authoritarian, permissive approaches to childrearing, parental responsibilities of the husband and wife and divorce. Hypotheses concerning determinants of these attitudes are also tested. (JC)
.... This study investigates to what extent and under what conditions US military engagement activities are associated with either liberalizing or authoritarian trends during the years 1972-2000 in three...
LeCuyer, Elizabeth A; Swanson, Dena P; Cole, Robert; Kitzman, Harriet
The effect of maternal attitudes and limit-setting strategies on children's self-regulation (measured as committed compliance) was compared in 151 African-American (AA) and 108 European-American (EA) mothers and their 3-year-old children. There were no ethnic differences in children's compliance, however ethnicity moderated the relationship between maternal authoritarian attitudes and children's compliance. Higher authoritarian attitudes predicted less children's compliance in the EA sample, but greater compliance in the AA sample. Observational limit-setting data revealed that in both ethnic groups, maternal authoritarian attitudes influenced children's self-regulation through maternal use of lower-power (gentle) verbal strategies, fewer physical strategies, and judicious use of higher-power verbal strategies. The findings indicate that the meaning and purpose of authoritarian attitudes varies across these mothers' socio-cultural contexts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Since September 11, democracy has come to dominate the discourse as authoritarian Middle East regimes, even if they are friendly to Western interests, are perceived to be at the root of the existing...
Dacus, Andrew P
.... The bipolar global balance of power, which defined our nation's defensive strategy for more than 30 years, was replaced with the uncertainty of failed nation-states, rogue authoritarian regimes...
Guadalupe Jr, Fernando
.... This consideration results in a multi-dimensional view that allows one to understand the cultural leadership traits, such as Bonapartism, present in Panama and the challenges semi-authoritarian regimes pose to the US...
Hong, Young P
.... To accomplish this, three areas will be researched. First, the transformation from an authoritarian regime to a democratic government in the 1990s has provided previously unheard of democratic freedom in South Korean society...
.... As 2009 began, there was renewed maneuvering by opponents of Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki who view him as authoritarian and might try to replace him, particularly if his party had fared poorly...
... Freedom Day, we remember that for all the raw power of authoritarian regimes, it is ultimately citizens... continues to march with those who are reaching for freedom around the world. Today, let us remember that our...
Full Text Available management axiom "form must follow function", has thwarted many attempts at adaptive management. This provides the third lesson. Recognition that authoritarian, command-and-control, bureaucracies respond too slowly to survive in changing environments has led...
Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni
. Demographic change is acknowledged as a policy concern within many advanced industrialize countries, but discussions about low fertility are not explicitly expressed in terms of policy objectives. Governments, sensitive to the authoritarian implications of prescriptive natalist policies, focus instead...
Herwijnen, Van Ineke R.; Borg, Van Der Joanne A.M.; Naguib, Marc; Beerda, Bonne
Parents interact with children following specific styles, known to influence child development. These styles represent variations in the dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness, resulting in authoritarian, authoritative, permissive or uninvolved parenting. Given the similarities in the parent
El Hafiz, Subhan; Almaududi, Abul A’la
Authoritarian Parenting style often judged as disturbing parenting style for development of the children. However, some of research shown inconsistency which is the parenting style also could give positive impact or have no effect. The purpose of this research was to exlpore the role of authoritarian parenting style to the development of the emotional maturity that expected to be moderated by patience competency. Participants of this research were 200teenagers, 119 female and 81 male, who are...
The aim of this study was to examine three distinct parenting styles and their effect on children’s behavioural patterns, as perceived by the child. The parenting styles, based on Baumrind’s typologies of authoritative, authoritarian and permissive parenting, were measured as well as the children’s self-rated internal and external symptoms. Results indicated that there was a relationship between authoritarian parenting and all aspects of internal symptoms (depression, loneliness and self-este...
Greffrath, Wynand; Duvenhage, André
This article is concerned with the Arab Spring as an example of regime change in authoritarian contexts. It investigates whether the institutional characteristics of authoritarian regimes may have influenced the development and outcomes of revolutionary instability in the affected states of the region. The causes and dynamics of the Arab Spring are evaluated theoretically according to the particular regime characteristics encountered in the geopolitical span of the phenomenon. Theoretical per...
Rohmatun Rohmatun; Taufik Taufik
This research is aimed at investigating the correlation between selfefficacy and authoritarian parenting style toward student s’ academic procrastination. The subject of this research is 150 students of faculty of of Psychology, Medicine, and Economy of Sultan Agung Islamic University who are working on the final project. The major hypothesis proposed in the research is that there is a correlation between self-efficacy and authoritarian parenting style with students’ academic procrastination...
The populist backlash in Central and Eastern Europe reveals the absence in the new democracies of checks and balances and of truly independent media to serve as a counterweight to creeping authoritarianism. It also shows the return of dormant strands in the region's political culture and thus its potential vulnerability to the authoritarian temptation. These developments are contributing to widespread estrangement from the postenlargement EU in the older member states. If current trends conti...
The purpose of this study was to determine the role of parenting on social anxiety in adolescents. This study involved 230 adolescents with authoritarian parenting with an average 30.37. Retrieval of data using Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), Liebowitz Anxiety Scale- Children and Adolecents (LSAS-CA). Significance test shows F count 107.678. Significant conclusion of this model and can be used to predict the role of authoritarian parenting to social anxiety in adolescents. The result ...
Full Text Available This research is aimed at investigating the correlation between selfefficacy and authoritarian parenting style toward student s’ academic procrastination. The subject of this research is 150 students of faculty of of Psychology, Medicine, and Economy of Sultan Agung Islamic University who are working on the final project. The major hypothesis proposed in the research is that there is a correlation between self-efficacy and authoritarian parenting style with students’ academic procrastination. The minor hypotheses are as follows: (1 there is a negative correlation between self-efficacy with academic procrastination; and (2 there is a positive correlation between authoritarian parenting style with academic procrastination. This research used three of scale for the data collection namely academic procrastination scale, self-efficacy scale and authoritarian parenting stale scale. The statistic analysis used in the research is regression to test major hypothesis and the parsial analysis to test minor hypothesis. The research results show that (1 there is correlation between self-efficacy and authoritarian pareting style with students’ academic procrastination; (2 there is a significant negative correla tion between self-efficacy with academic procrastination toward college students; and (3 there is a significant positive correlation between authoritarian parenting style with academic procrastination toward college sudents.
Vila-Badia, Regina; Martínez-Zambrano, Francisco; Arenas, Otilia; Casas-Anguera, Emma; García-Morales, Esther; Villellas, Raúl; Martín, José Ramón; Pérez-Franco, María Belén; Valduciel, Tamara; Casellas, Diana; García-Franco, Mar; Miguel, Jose; Balsera, Joaquim; Pascual, Gemma; Julia, Eugènia; Ochoa, Susana
To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention for reducing social stigma towards mental illness in adolescents. The effect of gender and knowledge of someone with mental illness was measured. Two hundred and eighty secondary school students were evaluated using the Community Attitudes towards Mental Illness (CAMI) questionnaire. The schools were randomized and some received the intervention and others acted as the control group. The programme consisted of providing information via a documentary film and of contact with healthcare staff in order to reduce the social stigma within the school environment. The intervention was effective in reducing the CAMI authoritarianism and social restrictiveness subscales. The intervention showed significant changes in girls in terms of authoritarianism and social restrictiveness, while boys only showed significant changes in authoritarianism. Following the intervention, a significant reduction was found in authoritarianism and social restrictiveness in those who knew someone with mental illness, and only in authoritarianism in those who did not know anyone with mental illness. The intervention was effective to reduce social stigma towards people with mental illness, especially in the area of authoritarianism. Some differences were found depending on gender and whether or not the subjects knew someone with mental illness.
Fuentes, M J; Salas, M D; Bernedo, I M; García-Martín, M A
Few studies have analysed the effects of the parenting style used by foster carers on children's behaviour problems. This study examines the role played by the quality of the emotional relationship with foster carers and the kind of discipline they use as regard internalizing and externalizing problems among foster children. Participants were 104 foster children (56 boys and 48 girls) and their respective foster families. The Child Behaviour Checklist, the Affect and Communication Scale, and the Rules and Demands Scale were completed by foster parents. A series of linear regression analyses were performed using the stepwise method. The main findings were as follows: an authoritarian parenting style explained the internalizing problems presented by foster children (11% of the variance); criticism/rejection, authoritarian parenting and permissive parenting explained externalizing problems (37% of the variance); and criticism/rejection and authoritarian parenting explained total problems (29% of the variance). These results indicate that criticism/rejection on the part of foster parents, as well as the use of inappropriate parenting styles (authoritarian and permissive), has an important effect in relation to the behaviour problems of foster children. This highlights the key role that foster carers play in terms of tackling the behaviour problems that foster children present. The findings also suggest that preparation for fostering should focus especially on ways of helping foster parents both to acquire positive parenting strategies and to avoid authoritarian and permissive parenting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The concept of civil religion has caught major attention among scholars studying the junction of religion and politics (J.-J. Rousseau, E. Durkheim, R. Bellah. The notion focuses on the phenomenon of cultural contents sacralizing and ritualizing the ruling political institutions of a society, extending support to the integration of the political and social system at a cultural level. The notion of civil religion has recently been operationalized crossculturally, but light has not been shed upon its predictors. In this paper authoritarianism is tested as a predictor of civil religion cross-culturally. Four student samples of Bosnian, Serbian, Slovenian and US students were analyzed. Very strong, significant associations between authoritarianism, as operationalized by a modified Lane scale, and civil religion were found in all cases. Moreover, upon introducing femininity, anxiety and gender into the analysis, a strong, dominant and significant impact on the part of authoritarianism was still found when civil religion was observed crossculturally. When the same predictors were applied to explaining general religiosity, authoritarianism fell short of being a significant predictor in most of the environments observed. Such results suggest an especially close link between civil religion and authoritarianism.
The relationship between three parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative) and the mental health of Arab adolescents was tested. It was hypothesized that parenting style toward boys would differ from that towards girls, psychological adjustment of girls would differ from that of boys, and that the authoritarian style applied within the authoritarian Arab society is not associated with poor psychological adjustment. The Parental Authority Questionnaire, Child Attitude Toward Parents, Lipsitt's Self-Concept Scale for Children, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Psychological State Scale were administered to 431 Arab adolescents. Sex comparison revealed that the parenting style with regard to girls tends to be more authoritative and less authoritarian than with regard to boys. Girls scored higher than boys on identity disorder, anxiety disorder, and depression scales, whereas boys scored higher than girls on the behavior disorder scale. There was no significant relationship between the authoritarian parenting style and the mental health measures. A significant positive relationship exists between the authoritative parenting style and the mental health of children. Among boys, the permissive parenting style was associated with negative attitudes towards parents, lower self-esteem and increased identity, anxiety, phobia, depressive, and conduct disorders. It seems, therefore, that the effect of parenting style is culturally and gender dependent rather than universal.
This study examined the relationship between perceived parenting style, filial piety, and life satisfaction among Chinese young adults. A survey was administered to 395 university students in Hong Kong on their perceptions about their parents' parenting practices, filial piety beliefs, and life satisfaction. The results suggest that perceived authoritative parenting is associated with reciprocal filial piety and contributes positively to the young adults' life satisfaction. Both perceived authoritative and authoritarian parenting were associated with authoritarian filial piety, but authoritarian filial piety was not associated with young adults' life satisfaction. Due to the familial interdependence emphasized in the Chinese cultural context, Chinese adolescents' filial beliefs are related to the parenting they have experienced, and these beliefs may be associated with their psychosocial outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Nara Maria Carlos de Santana
Full Text Available This article takes as its starting point the idea of modernity in Brazil and its deployment in Brazilian society by means of an authoritarian project that values the “whitening” of the country. In this sense, we will discuss, albeit briefly, the concept of modernity. To explain the phenomenon of modernity through authoritarianism, we will focus on the concept of authoritarian nationalism. The racial issue is the focal point of the discussion, so we will present a synthesis of Brazilian social thought from the mid-19th century to the 1930s, in order to deal with the idea of eugenics in Brazil and the reception of European racist theories in that country.
Marlus Heriberto Arns de Oliveira
Full Text Available The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, enacted in 1988 during the democratization process of the country after the end of an authoritarian regime preceded by several others that show a non-democratic tradition in the Brazilian Republic, remained still remnants an authoritarian Patronizing and Paternalist state, the example of the final part of the Article 5, item IV, which claims to be the free expression of thought, but forbids anonymity, prohibition which deserves to be rethought, especially on the internet, where the navigation data of people deserve protection, as well as their rights to remain anonymous, a fact which entails the need for reflection on the scope and how best to interpret the constitutional provision cited, a debate that, in the proposed article will deal think the ideas of paternalism, authoritarianism and freedom, whose focus will be about within the Internet, social networks and the Knowledge Society.
Riley, Dylan; Fernández, Juan J
What is the impact of dictatorships on postdictatorial civil societies? Bottom-up theories suggest that totalitarian dictatorships destroy civil society while authoritarian ones allow for its development. Top-down theories of civil society suggest that totalitarianism can create civil societies while authoritarianism is unlikely to. This article argues that both these perspectives suffer from a one-dimensional understanding of civil society that conflates strength and autonomy. Accordingly we distinguish these two dimensions and argue that totalitarian dictatorships tend to create organizationally strong but heteronomous civil societies, while authoritarian ones tend to create relatively autonomous but organizationally weak civil societies. We then test this conceptualization by closely examining the historical connection between dictatorship and civil society development in Italy (a posttotalitarian case) and Spain (a postauthoritarian one). Our article concludes by reflecting on the implications of our argument for democratic theory, civil society theory, and theories of regime variation.
Ferrari, J R; Olivette, M J
Late adolescent females (N = 86; M age = 19.1 years) completed reliable and valid self-report measures on their perception of both parents' authority style (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive) and their own tendency toward decisional procrastination. Households where daughters perceived both parents as high authoritarian (n = 32) were significantly more likely to raise daughters with strong indecision tendencies than were parents perceived as low authoritarian (n = 23). Mothers and fathers perceived as high (n = 22) or low (n = 22) authoritative, and high (n = 32) or low (n = 24) permissive, did not produce significant differences in daughters' self-reported decisional procrastination. Results suggest that parental authority characterized by stern inflexibility and overcontrol has the greatest influence on daughters who develop chronic indecision tendencies.
McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V; De Lisi, Richard
College students (N = 125) reported their perceptions of family relations in response to vignettes that presented 5 different parenting styles. Participants viewed family relations as most positive when parents were portrayed as authoritative or permissive and as most negative when parents were portrayed as uninvolved-neglecting or authoritarian. Student gender and parent gender effects qualified these findings. Female students reported family relations to be less positive than did male students when parents were depicted as authoritarian or as uninvolved-neglecting, and they rated family relations more positively than did male students when parents were depicted as permissive. Participants viewed family relations as more positive when mothers rather than fathers were presented as permissive and when fathers rather than mothers were depicted as authoritarian. The authors discuss the findings of the study in relation to theories of beliefs about children and implications for future parenting styles of male and female college students.
Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Ray, Anne E; Stapleton, Jerod; Abar, Caitlin; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Tollison, Sean; Grossbard, Joel; Larimer, Mary E
The study examined parent profiles among high school athletes transitioning to college and their association with high-risk drinking in a multi-site, randomized trial. Students ( n = 587) were randomized to a control or combined parent-based and brief motivational intervention condition and completed measures at baseline and at 5- and 10-month follow-ups. Four parent profiles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, indifferent) were observed among participants. Findings indicated control participants with authoritarian parenting were at the greatest risk for heavy drinking. Alternately, students exposed to permissive or authoritarian parenting reported lower peak drinking when administered the combined intervention, compared to controls. Findings suggest the combined intervention was efficacious in reducing peak alcohol consumption among high-risk students based on athlete status and parenting profiles.
Solomon, Mildred Z; Jennings, Bruce
Across the world, an authoritarian and exclusionary form of populism is gaining political traction. Historically, some populist movements have been democratic and based on a sense of inclusive justice and the common good. But the populism on the rise at present speaks and acts otherwise. It is challenging constitutional democracies. The polarization seen in authoritarian populism goes beyond the familiar left-right political spectrum and generates disturbing forms of extremism, including the so-called alternative right in the United States and similar ethnic and nationalistic political movements in other countries. The field of bioethics will be profoundly affected if authoritarian populism displaces constitutional democracy. But the field has a significant contribution to make to rebuilding the communal and civic foundations upon which constitutional democracy rests. © 2017 The Hastings Center.
Kim, Hyesoo; Chung, Ruth H Gim
The authors examined the relationship of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting styles and the number of years in the United States with self-perception (academic competence, morality, and self-reliance) as recalled by Korean American college students (N = 144). Authoritative parenting behaviors were most common in Korean American families, followed by authoritarian behaviors, with permissive behaviors a distant 3rd. Authoritative parenting styles and the number of years lived in the United States were predictive of higher academic competence. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were predictive of lower self-reliance, whereas number of years lived in the United States was related to higher self-reliance. Those findings provide partial support for generalizing D. Baumrind's (1971) model of parenting styles to Korean American families, and the findings demonstrate the importance of considering acculturation issues in parenting studies.
Pascual-Sagastizabal, Eider; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Braza, Francisco; Vergara, Ana I; Cardas, Jaione; Sánchez-Martín, José R
This study examines the relationship between parenting style, androgen levels, and measures of physical and indirect aggression. Peer ratings of aggression were obtained from 159 eight-year-old children (89 boys and 70 girls). Parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian or permissive) were assessed using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ).Saliva samples were obtained from children and assayed for testosterone and androstenedione concentrations. A regression analysis revealed that high testosterone levels were associated with a higher level of physical aggression in boys with authoritarian mothers. Testosterone was also found to moderate the relationship between father's authoritarian parenting and physical aggression in girls, with both moderate and high levels being significant. In relation to indirect aggression, moderate and high levels of testosterone were associated with higher levels of this type of aggression in girls with permissive mothers. Our results highlight the importance of taking into account the interaction of biological and psychosocial variables when investigating aggressive behavior. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Langer, Shelby L; Seburg, Elisabeth; JaKa, Meghan M; Sherwood, Nancy E; Levy, Rona L
Using baseline data from a randomized controlled pediatric obesity prevention trial, this study sought to examine general parenting style as a potential moderator of the association between feeding-specific parenting practices and child dietary intake. Four hundred and twenty-one parent-child dyads served as participants (49% girls and 93% mothers). Children were, on average, 6.6 years old and either overweight or at-risk for overweight (mean BMI percentile = 84.9). Data were collected in participants' homes. Study staff measured children's height and weight. Parents completed questionnaires designed to assess general parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive) and child feeding practices (restriction and monitoring). Child dietary intake was assessed using a 24-h recall system. Outcomes were daily servings of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and unhealthy snacks. Results were as follows: Permissive parenting was inversely associated with fruit and vegetable consumption, and parental monitoring was inversely associated with SSB consumption. There were no other main effects of parenting style or feeding practice on child dietary consumption. Authoritarian parenting moderated the association between restriction and SSB intake (a marginally significant effect after correcting for multiple comparisons). Restriction was inversely associated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was high but unassociated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was low. Findings indicate that the parenting practice of monitoring child dietary intake was associated with more healthful consumption regardless of parenting style; interventions may thus benefit from encouraging parental monitoring. The parenting strategy of restricting child dietary intake, in contrast, was associated with lower SSB intake in the context of higher parental authoritarianism but inconsequential in the context of lower parental authoritarianism. This exploratory
Langer, Shelby L.; Seburg, Elisabeth; JaKa, Meghan M.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Levy, Rona L.
Using baseline data from a randomized controlled pediatric obesity prevention trial, this study sought to examine general parenting style as a potential moderator of the association between feeding-specific parenting practices and child dietary intake. Four hundred and twenty-one parent-child dyads served as participants (49% girls and 93% mothers). Children were, on average, 6.6 years old and either overweight or at-risk for overweight (mean BMI percentile = 84.9). Data were collected in participants’ homes. Study staff measured children’s height and weight. Parents completed questionnaires designed to assess general parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive) and child feeding practices (restriction and monitoring). Child dietary intake was assessed using a 24-hour recall system. Outcomes were daily servings of fruits and vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), and unhealthy snacks. Results were as follows: Permissive parenting was inversely associated with fruit and vegetable consumption, and parental monitoring was inversely associated with SSB consumption. There were no other main effects of parenting style or feeding practice on child dietary consumption. Authoritarian parenting moderated the association between restriction and SSB intake (a marginally significant effect after correcting for multiple comparisons). Restriction was inversely associated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was high but unassociated with SSB consumption when authoritarianism was low. Findings indicate that the parenting practice of monitoring child dietary intake was associated with more healthful consumption regardless of parenting style; interventions may thus benefit from encouraging parental monitoring. The parenting strategy of restricting child dietary intake, in contrast, was associated with lower SSB intake in the context of higher parental authoritarianism but inconsequential in the context of lower parental authoritarianism. This
Full Text Available The „decentralization” of the Romanian public administration during the authoritarian monarchy was meant to be achieved through the administrative reform from August 14, 1938, but the effect of the law consisted in an excessive centralization and militarization. Thus, the decentralization strengthened the state power, by nominating the officer corps in the administration and in the single party, the National Renaissance Front, focused decisions at the government level, at the expense of the 10 counties manufactured by the monarchical authoritarian regime.
During the last decade marked by financial and ecological crises, precarity, migration and the return of authoritarian conditions, there has been a marked occult revival in both the arts and the broader popular culture. This paper examines the occult art-activism against Trump and place it in a w......During the last decade marked by financial and ecological crises, precarity, migration and the return of authoritarian conditions, there has been a marked occult revival in both the arts and the broader popular culture. This paper examines the occult art-activism against Trump and place...
Full Text Available The educative relationship represents all social ties are established between the teacher and the learner at the school, whose main interest is to achieve global education goals not limited only to education. Among the styles and types of known educational relationships, there is the authoritarian characterized by a degree of physical and moral violence between the two partners. We want through this article to study this relationship in some educational institutions falling in the wilaya of Constantine, and to know its impact on the lives of students. So what are the realities and characteristics of this authoritarian relationship?
Buri, J R; Mueller, R A
We investigated the relationship of college students' conceptions of the wrathfulness-kindliness of God to their parents' nurturance, their parents' permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness, and the students' own self-esteem. Although parents' nurturance, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness were related to participants' conceptions of God (thus providing some support for psychoanalytic assertions), the variable of self-esteem far outweighed all other variables in accounting for the variance in God concepts. These results suggest that self-referencing explanations better account for individuals' conceptions of God than do parent referencing (i.e., psychoanalytic) explanations.
-based medicine (EBM), which has challenged the entire strategy of medical treatment from the point of view of a self-critical, anti-authoritarian and hereby also (it has been claimed) a more democratic medical practice. Previously, the challenges arose out of the patient rights perspective. EBM, by contrast......The authoritarian standpoint in medicine has been under challenge by various groups and researchers since the 1980s. The challenges have been ethical, political and medical, with patient movements at the forefront. Over the past decade, however, a deep challenge has been posed by evidence...
Farah, Abdulkadir Osman
Among the countries of the “Arab spring” in the Middle East and North Africa only Egypt claims both a popular revolution and a coup. With a civic revolt in 2011 Egyptians mobilized resources to overthrow an authoritarian ruler. Two years later with a military coup the public fragmented into antag......Among the countries of the “Arab spring” in the Middle East and North Africa only Egypt claims both a popular revolution and a coup. With a civic revolt in 2011 Egyptians mobilized resources to overthrow an authoritarian ruler. Two years later with a military coup the public fragmented...
Pratt, Mercedes; Hoffmann, Debra; Taylor, Maija; Musher-Eizenman, Dara
This study explored differences in mothers' and fathers' food parenting strategies, specifically coercive control, structure, and autonomy promotion, and whether parenting style and parental responsibility for food parenting related to the use of these strategies. Parents of children aged 2.5-7.5 years ( N = 497) reported about their parenting practices and food parenting strategies. Parenting style accounted for the majority of the variance in food parenting. Fathers were more authoritarian than mothers. Authoritarian and permissive parenting practices were related to more coercive strategies. Mothers reported more food parenting responsibility. Responsibility was related to less coercive practices and more autonomy promotion and structure.
Keshavarz, Somayeh; Baharudin, Rozumah; Mounts, Nina S
The authors investigated the moderating role of father's education on the associations between perceived paternal parenting styles and locus of control among 382 Malaysian adolescents with an average age of 14.27. Data were collected by means of adolescents' self-report using standardized instruments (i.e., parental authority questionnaire and Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale for Children). Results revealed that there were significant negative relationships between fathers' authoritative parenting style (r = -.243, p authoritarian parenting style (r = -.130, p authoritarian parenting and locus of control (b = -0.147, p parents' education when assessing the links between parenting styles and adolescents' locus of control.
Fuemmeler, Bernard F.; Yang, Chongming; Costanzo, Phil; Hoyle, Rick H.; Ph.D.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Williams, Redford B.; Østbye, Truls
Objective Parenting styles such as authoritarian, disengaged, or permissive are thought to be associated with greater adolescent obesity risk than an authoritative style. This study assessed the relationship between parenting styles and changes in body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods The study included self-reported data from adolescents in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Factor mixture modeling, a data-driven approach, was used to classify participants into parenting style groups based on measures of acceptance and control. Latent growth modeling (LGM) identified patterns of developmental changes in BMI. After a number of potential cofounders were controlled for, parenting style variables were entered as predictors of BMI trajectories. Analyses were also conducted for males and females of three racial/ethnic groups (Hispanic, black, white) to assess whether parenting styles were differentially associated with BMI trajectories in these 6 groups. Results Parenting styles were classified into 4 groups: authoritarian, disengaged, permissive, and balanced. Compared with the balanced parenting style, authoritarian and disengaged parenting styles were associated with a less steep average BMI increase (linear slope) over time, but also less leveling off (quadratic) of BMI over time. Differences in BMI trajectories were observed for various genders and races, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Adolescents who reported having parents with authoritarian or disengaged parenting styles had greater increases in BMI as they transitioned to young adulthood despite having a lower BMI trajectory through adolescence. PMID:22545979
Christopher, Andrew N.; Mull, Melinda S.
To assess the relationship between different facets of conservative ideology and ambivalent sexism, 246 residents of two towns in southern Michigan completed a social dominance orientation scale (SDO), a right-wing authoritarianism scale (RWA), a Protestant work ethic scale (PWE), and the Glick and Fiske (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory via a…
The findings of the study indicate that authentic participation of children is limited in the school context. One of the key barriers to participation seems to be a hierarchical and authoritarian school management style. The ethos of control, discipline and authority stifles the process of child participation at the school. The main ...
The Ecological Clubs for Children Organization (ECCO) is an umbrella-body founded to serve the needs of a network of. Children's Clubs in the poorer rural sector of the Cape Prov- ince. These clubs have as their primary goal the .... and well-disciplined Std. 8 pupils from a rather authoritarian city high school. We arrived in ...
Baker, Norma Jo; Thompson, Chad D.
Higher educational practices in post-Soviet Central Asia remain predicated on an authoritarian conception of expertise rooted in an objective and universal science. While the substance of such education has changed since the Soviet era, the form of education remains rooted in Soviet-era discursive ideological practices, practices that encourage…
While the syntactic and grammatical perspective, which predominates in the educational context, presents language as an institutionalized, authoritarian and self-contained system, Saussurean linguistics provides a view of language as a complex, self-contained, technical system, as such reflecting the nature of modern ...
Megathlin, William Latimer
The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of 80 hours of facilitation training on the communication of empathy, respect, and genuineness; the dimension of authoritarianism; the interpersonal areas of inclusion, control, and affection; attitude ratings; and the personality factors of anxiety, alert poise, extraversion, and independence of…
The 2002 Arab Human Development Report identified a fundamental "freedom deficit" in the Arab World evident in the widespread authoritarianism and lack of democracy throughout the region. This grant will allow researchers Samir Makdisi and Ibrahim Elbadawi to investigate the reasons why such a freedom deficit exists ...
Pollack, Robert H.; Brown, Idalyn S.
Current data on the widespread nature of sexual activity among unmarried teenagers and young adults and the rise in unplanned pregnancy among these groups offer evidence of a lack of knowledge about reproduction and contraception. Male (N=75) and female (N=78) university students participated in a study of the effects of authoritarianism,…
Shrake, Eunai Kim
Focusing on Korean Americans, this study examined the overall pattern of adolescents' perceptions of their parents and its effects on adolescent problem behaviors. Analyses of survey data from 218 Korean American adolescents indicated that these adolescents perceived their parents as "authoritarian yet warm," and that this parenting…
Niesman, Cindy S.
A study examined the effect of extreme marital discord, involving abuse of the mother, on maternal parenting style and level of maternal stress. It was hypothesized that battered women experience a higher level of maternal stress and choose an authoritarian parenting style as a consequence of marital discord. Subjects were 30 mothers of children…
In this essay, I differentiate between coercive and confrontive kinds of power assertion to elucidate the significantly different effects on children's well-being of authoritarian and authoritative styles of parental authority. Although both parenting styles (in contrast to the permissive style) are equally demanding, forceful, and…
Assadi, Seyed Mohammad; Zokaei, Nayereh; Kaviani, Hossein; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghaeli, Padideh; Gohari, Mahmood Reza; Van De Vijver, Fons J. R.
School grades, family demographics and responses to the parental authority questionnaire were assessed in 240 eighth-grade students in the southern, central and northern parts of Tehran, Iran's capital. The result showed that poorer families with traditional values had more authoritarian attitudes toward parenting than richer families with more…
Gracia, Enrique; Fuentes, Maria C.; Garcia, Fernando; Lila, Marisol
This article analyzed perceptions of neighborhood violence of Spanish adolescents (N = 1,015) from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families, and its association with three sets of developmental outcomes (psychological, behavioral, and academic). Tests of main and interactive effects were conducted to answer research…
Nov 26, 2012 ... It was hypothesized that parenting styles vary across. Arab countries, with parenting style in traditional countries such as Yemen and Saudi Arabia tending to be more authoritarian than parenting styles in modern ... parent-reports in the CBCL, the potential effects of parental biases must be considered.
Slone, Michelle; Shechner, Tomer; Farah, Oula Khoury
This study examined cross-cultural differences in the moderating function of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting styles for Jewish and Arab Israeli children exposed to political violence. Respondents were parents and children aged 10-11 from 94 families (42 Arab, 52 Jewish). Parents completed the Parenting Styles and Dimensions…
Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Dickin, Katherine L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine; Jahns, Lisa; Mobley, Amy R
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the direct and interacting relations of parenting styles, feeding styles, and feeding practices to child overweight and obesity. Participants were 144 mothers and children under 6 years of age. Mothers completed questionnaires about parenting and feeding styles and feeding practices. Researchers weighed and measured mothers and children or obtained measurements from a recent health report. Feeding practices were not directly related to child weight status. Compared to the uninvolved feeding style, authoritative and authoritarian feeding style categories were linked to lower odds of overweight. Feeding practices interacted with authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles to predict obesity: (1) healthful modeling was associated with 61% (OR = 0.39) reduced odds of obesity in children of authoritative mothers but with 55% (OR = 1.55) increased odds in children of non-authoritative mothers and (2) covert control was linked to 156% (OR = 2.56) increased odds of obesity in children of authoritarian mothers but with 51% (OR = 0.49) decreased odds in children of non-authoritarian mothers. Healthful modeling interacted with feeding style demandingness to predict overweight and with responsiveness to predict obesity. Findings suggest the need for research and interventions on mechanisms mediating between feeding practices and obesity in families characterized by non-authoritative parenting styles. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Holub, Shayla C.; Tan, Cin Cin; Patel, Sanobar L.
Parents and children hold negative attitudes about obesity, but little is known about individual differences in obesity stigma. The current study examined authoritarian parenting style, beliefs about the controllability of weight and fear of fat in relation to mothers' dislike of overweight individuals. Factors related to children's weight…
Zubatsky, Max; Berge, Jerica; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
The main purpose of this study was to identify the longitudinal association between specific parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and neglectful) and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. The current study uses longitudinal data from a 5-year study to examine the associations between parenting style and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents. Data from adolescents (n = 2516) participating in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study from 31 Minnesota schools, were used in the analysis. Time 1 data were collected using in-class assessments of adolescents from Minneapolis/St. Paul schools, and Time 2 data were collected using mailed surveys 5 years later. General Linear Models were used to predict adolescent-reported disordered eating behaviors at Time 2 from adolescent-reported parenting style at Time 1. Adolescent boys and girls who had authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of extreme weight control behaviors 5 years later compared to adolescents with authoritative, permissive, or neglectful mothers. Adolescent girls with authoritarian mothers at Time 1 had a higher probability of engaging in binge-eating behaviors at Time 2 compared to adolescent girls with authoritative or permissive mothers. There were no significant associations between paternal parenting style and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Although authoritarian parenting style served as a possible risk factor for disordered eating behaviors in adolescents, the findings were not conclusive. Future studies should investigate further the association between parenting style and weight control behaviors in adolescents.
The relationship between authoritarian parenting style and marital adjustment was very low, positive and insignificant. The relationship between permissive parenting style and marital adjustment was also very low, positive and insignificant. There was a low, positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting ...
Thompson, Aaron M.
To attain academic goals, school personnel must effectively manage 20% of students who engage in the disruptive behaviors that interrupt instruction, create teacher stress, and contribute to poor student outcomes. Without effective strategies, school personnel often respond to disruptive students with ineffective authoritarian tactics,…
AlMusaileem, Muhammad Y.
This study argues for a new theory in school management based on the notion of positive containment which benefited from the integration of the main two patterns of leadership, i.e., the democratic and the authoritarian. In this theory, the school principal has to deal with one external and five internal circles of positive containments. The…
schools 39 natural sciences, 22 mathematics, 34 so department teachers were ... the students and the parents to learning; teachers' tend lack of teachers' .... Teaching styles in many places, however, remain traditional, teacher-centered and fairly rigid or even authoritarian. (Carron and Chau, 1996; Amenu, 2005). There is a.
Post-conflict and post-authoritarian societies can experience high levels of violence as they transition to new and fragile democracies. Building on findings from the two previous phases (004382 and 101688), researchers will further examine transition contexts in South Africa and extend the study to Kenya and Zimbabwe.
Full Text Available Leading authoritarianism on religious interpretation which is almost practiced by religious organizations or religious groups, in the name of God, is one of Khaled Abou El-Fadl’s academic questions. By using hermeneutical method, Khaled attempts to reconstruct contemporary despotism and authoritarianism in the field of religious interpretation. The main focus of Khaled’s idea is that authority in Islamic law is different from authoritarianism. It is to avoid tyranny within authoritative interpretation. Khaled offers a negotiative hermeneutics which notices that meaning is an interactive result between the author, text and reader. The negotiative hermeneutics a la Khaled tries to connect the limitless opening of the text and the arbitrary closing of the text. This method suggests the dialog between traditions, communities of interpreters, scientific disciplines, and civilizations. The result of this concept is that to counter religious authoritarianism, exclusivism, puritanism, and anarchy. This article aims for looking Khaled Abou El-Fadl’s way of thinking in relation with religious interpretation which is almost used by religious organization or group. The main frame of this paper is to look on how hermeneutical method proposed by Khaled gives a new innovation in seeing the development of Islamic studies
Chen, Fu-mei; Luster, Tom
This study examined authoritative and authoritarian parenting and specific parenting practices among Chinese mothers with preschoolers. The final sample consisted of 463 mothers with their 3 to 7 year-olds from 11 preschools, in Taiwan. Mothers completed a Chinese translation of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire that assessed their parenting…
This paper also examined the effects which the boundary discord had on ... resting, roosting or feeding. Also, territory or land is the immovable ground and sub-soil, as well as, movable objects which .... However, Federal arrangement created a contradiction between liberal oriented Eritrea and feudal/authoritarian Ethiopia.
Ward, James E.
Viewed within a context of Orwell's 1984," the author's visit to East Germany, and particularly to the Museum for German History, revealed the efforts of an authoritarian regime to manipulate the thoughts and directions of that society to its own advantage. (JB)
Haas, de M.
This article examines the security policy of the Central Asian (CA) states, by comparing theory (security documents) with practice (the actual security challenges). The lack of CA regional (security) cooperation and authoritarian rule puts political and economic stability at stake. The internal and
Masud, Hamid; Ahmad, Muhammad Shakil; Jan, Farzand Ali; Jamil, Ahmad
The literature supports the importance of parenting styles that are necessary to fulfill the developmental needs of the children and eventually improve their quality of life. Baumrind's typology of parenting styles was used. There are many studies that examined the relationship of parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian and permissive…
Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Hummer, Justin F.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.
This study examined the pathways of parenting style (permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative) to alcohol consumption and consequences through the mediators of college adjustment and academic achievement (grade point average [GPA]). Participants were 289 students from a private, mid-size, West Coast university (mean age 19.01 years, 58.8%…
Previous studies associated conduct disorder among adolescents with great societal damage. It has been shown by researchers to have multifactorial causation which includes numerous facets of family unit. This study examined mother and fathers' parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and demographic ...
Huang, Grace H. C.; Gove, Mary
The authors were drawn to the media phenomenon created by Amy Chua's book "Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother" about her parenting experiences raising two daughters. Chua's parenting style is quite strict by US standards. The authors classify her style as Ethnic Minority, considered a subset of Authoritarian parenting style as compared to…
Dean, Lynn M.
How parents interact with their children impacts many crucial facets of children's lives. Over the last 4 decades, researchers have identified four different parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and disengaged. Hundreds of studies conducted all over the world, have identified correlations between parenting style and many…
power and responsibilities. Thus the political class continues to dispose and demonstrate known military attributes and values in issues that are characteristically civil and democratic. Authoritarianism tendencies continue to shape the character of politics as reflective in limited regard for the constitution and the illiberal ...
Çarkoğlu, Ali; Krouwel, A.P.M.; Yildrim, Kerem
This paper charts the nature of political cleavage between major parties in post-Arab Spring elections in five Mediterranean region countries, with data from online opt-in surveys. We compare the Moroccan elections, held under a consolidated authoritarian regime, with the transitional cases of
Ana Maria D’Ávila Lopes
Full Text Available This article discusses about the origins and characteristics of the Coup of 64. In order to do so, we use the interdisciplinary bibliographic research. On the first topic the origins of the coup of 64 are analyzed, highlighting the role played by political, economic and social factors that were its tangential. Then, our research comments the characteristics of the coup of 64, especially the bureaucratic authoritarian character; consensual legitimacy of civil society; the extension of the central military power; State terrorism implemented through the institutionalization of enforcement agencies to commit serious human rights violations and the authoritarian legality. By the end, it is concluded that the coup of 64 is headquartered in factual and symbolic legacy of Vargas, represented in the imaginary of elites, mainly by the figure of the former president João Goulart, coupled to polarization between capitalism and communism at the global level and at economic struggles on opening markets, remittance of foreign exchange dealing abroad and increased investment from the state to the private sector. In the same way, it verifies that Brazil singled out for its bureaucratic authoritarianism, by legitimacy - of origin - consented by the sophistication of its state terrorism, as well as, the exacerbation of its authoritarian legality. Furthermore, it stresses the nature of the coup of 64, and not “revolution” and its hybridity, due to the support of civil seizure to the achievement of power by the military segments.
Bang, Hyeyoung; Kim, Jungsub
Praising is a crucial part of teaching performance that greatly impacts student performance and self-esteem. South Korean teachers are traditionally known to possess authoritarian attributes, whereas U.S. teachers have contradictory beliefs in terms of why and how to use praise. We used Q methodology among 16 American and 22 Korean teachers to…
An action research project in a British boys' school found the dominant school ethos to include an authoritarian style and an expectation of predetermined masculinity. The ethos was maintained by explicit and implicit encouragement of aggressive behavior. Students exhibited low self-esteem, deficit interpersonal skills, nonparticipation, and…
Surlin, Stuart H.
This study attempts to compare the perceptions and self-reported behavior of high, middle, and low authoritarian advertising executives, business executives, and members of the general public concerning the social effects of advertising. For the advertising sample, a total of 393 men and women were selected according to their executive positions…
the military is impermeable to its influence. By his definition all militaries have an “ethic” that is “ concrete , permanent, and universal.”54...authoritarian regimes might be influenced by general principles that Linz describes as “mentalities,” these do not comprise a concrete vision of the
Webster, Colin; Silova, Iveta; Moyer, Amy; McAllister, Suzanne
As the former socialist countries of Southeastern/Central Europe and the former Soviet Union have embarked on their journeys from authoritarian to democratic societies in the early 1990s, education systems across the region have experienced major changes. From curriculum revision to education finance reforms, virtually no aspect of the education…
The major obstacles to political reform and structural diversification in the five Central Asian economies are internal and external geopolitical factors and deeply embedded institutional weaknesses within each country, particularly in areas where economic management interacts with authoritarian political systems and imperfect legal institutions.
This article discusses three questions: what is the purpose of ‘democratic’ institutions and practices in Russia's authoritarian political system; how do these institutions and practices resonate with Russian public opinion; and how do they relate to the international democracy-promotion effort in
The goal of this article is to reveal how through school theatre activities under authoritarian rule, changes took place in pupil knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviour regarding culture, namely, how the process of cultural learning occurs. I use a historical case study, specifically the case of the Valmiera School Theatre, which was the…
Over the past decade, television broadcasting has become central in shaping public attitudes in the Middle East. Against a backdrop of authoritarian governments, political instability, war and pervasive foreign military intervention, broadcasting has emerged as a platform for expressing views and opinions that might ...
Wojcieszak, M.; Smith, B.
The uprisings after the 2009 elections in Iran generated debate on new media’s potential to affect dissent in authoritarian countries. We surveyed 2800 young, educated, metropolitan, and technologically savvy Iranians over a year after the election and during the uprisings in the Middle East and
Full Text Available For the time being, the 5 May 2013 Malaysian general election (GE13 has resulted in the preservation of an authoritarian regime that has existed since independence in 1957. Although the opposition won almost 51 per cent of the vote, the ruling coalition was able to defend a comfortable majority of seats in the Parliament.
Cristaldi, Melita; Pampanini, Giovanni
According to a progressive interpretation of human development, girls' education should form an integral part of a full democratic system. Nevertheless, girls' education is threatened and attacked in many ways in current societies, be they authoritarian or democratic societies, developing or developed ones. In this article the two authors, both…
European Master in Social Work with Families and Children Existing empirical studies of parents in China found that this population presents features of authoritarian parenting style: greater parental demands and control together with lower parental responsiveness. However, when the investigation conducted on Chinese immigrants, parental practice is characterized as more authoritative style, combining high levels of controlling and responsiveness. Paradoxical findings between Chinese paren...
... authoritarianism of the religious mode into the sunlit skies of logic, coherence and purposeful (systematic) development and power. This rise is traced from its early beginnings in the philosophical musings of the Pre-Socratics, through the intuitive and pragmatic thoughts of Francis Bacon, and the illumining starting point to ...
I examine Wiredu's views that (1) ethnophilosophy cannot be considered a legitimate philosophy because it has the feature of authoritarianism, and that (2) this feature of African tradition will not allow modern philosophy to flourish because it prevents individuals from rationally and critically examining beliefs. The ability to ...
Hechter, Michael Norman; Pfaff, Steven; Underwood, Patrick
Rebellious collective action is rare, but it can occur when subordinates are severely discontented and other circumstances are favorable. The possibility of rebellion is a check sometimes the only check on authoritarian rule. Although mutinies in which crews seized control of their vessels were r...
Weiss, Laura H.; Schwarz, J. Conrad
Examined the relations between parents' child-rearing style and their older adolescent children's behavior with a sample of 178 college students and their families. Found that students from Nondirective homes had significantly higher SAT scores than students from Authoritarian-Directive and Democratic homes. Students from Unengaged homes had the…
the American travellers’ encounters with this landscape through the codes of the American Gothic and Western genres. Thus, the novels frame their investigations of the legacy of authoritarianism, the possibility of cross-cultural encounters and the consequences of globalisation in literary modes...
Classroom management may be the most fundamental and most difficult task the teacher performs. A search of the literature reveals at least five rather different definitions of classroom management that represent particular philosophical approaches: 1) the authoritarian approach, 2) the permissive approach, 3) the behavior modification approach, 4)…
Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom
This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in Taiwan. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…
Pearson, Emma; Rao, Nirmala
Examined relations between Hong Kong and English mothers' socialization goals and childrearing practices and their impact upon preschool peer competence. Found significant correlations between socialization toward filial piety and authoritarian practices, and valuing socioemotional development and authoritative parenting for both groups. Chinese…
Gao, J; Li, Y; Cai, Y; Chen, J; Shen, Y; Ni, S; Wei, Y; Qiu, Y; Zhu, X; Liu, Y; Lu, C; Chen, C; Niu, Q; Tang, C; Yang, Y; Wang, Q; Cui, W; Xia, J; Liu, T; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Guo, Z; Pan, J; Chen, H; Luo, Y; Sun, L; Xiao, X; Chen, Q; Zhao, X; He, F; Lv, L; Guo, L; Liu, L; Li, H; Shi, S; Flint, J; Kendler, K S; Tao, M
In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China? Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview. Factor analysis of the PBI revealed three factors for both mothers and fathers: warmth, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. Lower warmth and protectiveness and higher authoritarianism from both mother and father were significantly associated with risk for recurrent MD. Parental warmth was positively correlated with parental protectiveness and negatively correlated with parental authoritarianism. When examined together, paternal warmth was more strongly associated with lowered risk for MD than maternal warmth. Furthermore, paternal protectiveness was negatively and maternal protectiveness positively associated with risk for MD. Although the structure of received parenting is very similar in China and Western countries, the association with MD is not. High parental protectiveness is generally pathogenic in Western countries but protective in China, especially when received from the father. Our results suggest that cultural factors impact on patterns of parenting and their association with MD.
Fung, Heidi; Li, Jin; Lam, Chi Kwan
Parental disciplining of their misbehaving children continues to draw much research attention. Baumrind's typology of parenting styles has been frequently used to classify Chinese parenting as more authoritarian. Although influential, research tends predominantly to focus on abstract characterization. Yet, parenting is a practice informed by…
Kristjánsdóttir, E.; Nollkaemper, A.; Ryngaert, C.
States that are in transition after a violent conflict or an authoritarian past face daunting challenges in (re)establishing the rule of law. This paper contains the introduction and the conclusion of a volume that empirically examines several recent attempts which states have made to buttress the
This essay addresses an important variable in Nigerian politics, namely, ethnicity and the ways in which it affects the conduct of national affairs. It represents an effort at theorizing the role and place of ethnicity in the transition from authoritarianism in a multi-ethnic setting such as that represented by Nigeria. Drawing on ...
Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Mueller, Stephen; Nicklas, Theresa A
The extent to which general parenting represents feeding styles in ethnically diverse populations is not well documented. Existing measures of child feeding have focused almost exclusively on specific behaviors of European-American parents. A valid and reliable instrument was developed to identify feeding styles in parents of low-income minority preschoolers. Two hundred thirty-one parents (130 Hispanic; 101 African-American) completed questionnaires on feeding practices and parenting styles. Based on self-reported feeding behavior, parents were assigned to four feeding styles (authoritarian, n=84; authoritative, n=34; indulgent, n=80; and uninvolved, n=33). Convergent validity was evaluated by relating feeding styles to independent measures of general parenting and authoritarian feeding practices. Authoritarian feeding styles were associated with higher levels of general parental control and authoritarian feeding practices. Alternatively, authoritative feeding styles were associated with higher levels of general parental responsiveness. Among the two permissive feeding styles, Hispanic parents were more likely to be indulgent, whereas African-American parents were more likely to be uninvolved. Further, differences were found among the feeding styles on an independent measure of child's body mass index.
authoritarian regime paved the way for the future power of chaebols (corporate conglomerates). This is significant because the...connection between the family-style chaebols and bureaucratic politics have been credited to be one of the main causes for South...country’s rapid economic growth. Working in conjunction with these fundamental weaknesses is the excessive expansion by the chaebols
This article examines motivations behind participation in education based on interviews with Irish prisoners. It begins by considering the relationship between education and rehabilitation, especially the latter's re-emergence in a more authoritarian form. Drawing on results from the research, this article argues that the educational approach,…
... exclusively women authored anthology on liberation war history offers an inventory of a gender based trajectory of memory, thus making gender one of the vital political resources in the nation's democratization agenda as well as in contesting historical authoritarianism and reconfiguring historical and political discourse.
Media are a crucial battleground in post-conflict reconstruction. On the one hand media may ignite tensions and induce renewed violence by spreading dangerous expressions. On the other hand free and diverse media underpin a society that tries to shift from authoritarianism to democracy. From a human
Practitioners of education in South Africa (SA) struggle painfully between the extremes of its authoritarian and deeply religious roots that prescribe blind obedience to people in authority and their elders, and the demands of open-mindedness, critical thinking and also solidarity required for democratic citizenship. A particular pedagogy was used…
Namphande, Peter; Clarke, Linda; Farren, Sean; McCully, Alan
In countries that embraced democracy after the fall of communism, education became a particular focus for policy change, particularly within their citizenship programmes. Schools that had been used to inculcate obedience to and unfailing support for authoritarian regimes were now being required to adopt citizenship programmes incorporating…
A journey which Saviane develops in three phases: in Il passo lungo as the individual discovery of the anima against the authoritarianism of the Ego; in Mare verticale as an ongoing historical process predisposed towards the liberation of a few from the zoological dimension of the herd; in Eutanasia di un amore as the ...
Saviane develops in three phases: in Il passo lungo as the individual discovery of the anima against the authoritarianism of the Ego; in Mare verticale as an ongoing historical process predisposed towards the liberation. ─ of a few ─ from the zoological dimension of the herd; in Eutanasia di un amore as the appropriation of ...
28 Aug 2001 ... development of each student, and to the moral, social, cultural, political ... social reproduction as determined by the dominant culture. T. Education selects and channels learners according to potential. T. Quality of education is measured ... standards and a 'commonculture', authoritarian populist religious.
Apple, Michael W.
In this article, the author examines the ways in which the claim to subaltern status has led to a partial withdrawal from state-run institutions and to a practice of schooling that is meant to equip the children of authoritarian populist parents both with an armor to defend what these groups believe is their threatened culture and with a set of…
Lake, Robert; Kress, Tricia
Within the current U.S. sociopolitical context of rampant violence, increasing levels of racism and xenophobia in society and the rise of authoritarianism in schools, a new and fresh confluence of Maxine Greene and Paulo Freire's work revitalizes and expands the concept of radical hope. Their educational philosophies enable one to see beyond…
Legal mechanisms governing the state of emergency can play an important role in authoritarian rule and post-revolutionary transition periods. Egypt has experienced the terror of a regime empowered by emergency law. In Tunisia, emergency law was not so much an issue before but rather after the
Cowell, Catherine R.
The author contrasts the views of two theorists on leadership and communications, Raymond B. Cattell and Kurt Lewin. Cattell takes the authoritarian view that leaders are born, not made, and proposes the application of eugenic measures to develop the leaders that society needs, also stressing the importance of research to help to identify leaders.…
Critics frequently accuse China of acting as a patron for autocratic states. But does Chinese engagement actually increase the stability of authoritarian clients? This article demonstrates that Chinese bilateral interactions have little effect on the longevity of autocratic regimes. Analyses of
Shin, Jung Cheol; Kim, Hoon-Ho; Choi, Hong-Sam
This article briefly overviews the student movement working for political democratisation during the authoritarian governments in South Korea. The article focuses on how student activism has changed as a reflection of political developments from the dictatorship through to the civilian democratic governments. Further, it analyses how tuition-fee…
This article examines innovative modes of interrogating spectacles of State power in postcolonial dictatorship novels. Authoritarian power in the postcolonial public sphere perpetuates itself through practices that reiterate the prerogatives of State reason, national progress, national unity and the indispensability of the ...
Zhang, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; He, G.
Given its past as a so-called information-poor and authoritarian country, China has recently made remarkable progress in information disclosure and environmental transparency. Since enacting the Open Government Information Regulations and the Environmental Information Disclosure Measures in 2008,
Australian education experienced a change in the rhetoric underlying educational administration in the 1980s, reflecting a corporate management approach. It is proposed that this change is actually a return to traditional, authoritarian administration. The situation in Victoria is offered as illustration. (MSE)
Over the past month, hundreds of thousands of citizens in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia have mobilized to demand greater government accountability and legitimacy. People have demonstrated in the streets, often risking their lives calling for authoritarian leaders to step down. These movements have spread throughout the ...
In the light of the 2011 Arab spring that revealed to the whole world more about the legitimacy crisis, authoritarian rule, dynasty politics and bad governance in that region, this paper review the role of citizen in a revolution. In spite of the numerous advances in the Arab region, recent growth did not create enough jobs for the ...
and digital media as the ‘repertoire of contention.’ Third, the agenda scrutinizes the adoption of mundane expressions of contentious challenges to authoritarian regimes, as they allow for the circumvention of the heavy censorship of collective action mobilization. Mundane expressions have thereby emerged...
Bullion, Stuart James
Reflecting and influencing foreign policy, the mass media are important, if nontraditional, diplomatic channels. The role the news media assume, ranging from neutral to participant, depends largely on the society within which it operates. Journalists in authoritarian governments, for example, who rely on press releases and briefings of foreign…
The recent drug scare has intensified some programs' social control functions. Through drug abuse prevention programs in particular, schools have encouraged the accumulation of social skills as a means to ensure success, and they have increasingly applied authoritarian sanctions along with psychological manipulations in an attempt to regulate…
nearly perfect parents. These leaders are recognised as apostles by virtue of ... The apostolic leaders command the general respect and admiration of local church leaders who lead and exercise authority .... This model places ordinary Christians at the mercy of authoritarian leaders and their fanciful interpretations. 2.1 The ...
Participation in music is both a human right and a disability right. Music is a human need in the Darwinian (not Social Darwinian) evolutionary sense. Similarly, inclusion is an evolved capacity, beneficial to human perpetuation. The policing of music resembles authoritarian regulation of other forms of allegedly pleasurable but actually vital…
Buri, John R.; Mueller, Rebecca A.
Different theorists have suggested that an individual's view of God may be related to one's view of one's father, one's mother, or one's self. A study was conducted to examine the relationship of college students' conceptions of the wrathfulness-kindliness of God to their conceptions of their father's and mother's permissiveness, authoritarianism,…
Buri, John R.; And Others
This study examined the relationship of adolescents' self-esteem (SE) to the familial variables of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness and to the cognitive variables of high standards, self-criticism, and overgeneralization. Participants (N=99) were college students from a coeducational, liberal arts university.…
Buri, John R.
Baumrind (1971) proposed three distinct patterns of parental authority (permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness) and measured these parenting styles through interviews with parents and their children and through observations of parents interacting with their children. This study was undertaken to develop a readily-accessible,…
Buri, John R.; And Others
Research has shown variables of parental nurturance (acceptance, encouragement, support) of their children to be positively correlated with their children's self-esteem. This study investigated the effects of parental nurturance and the use of permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental discipline upon the self-esteem of college…
Buri, John R.; Dickinson, Kelly A.
Studies have indicated that parental authority may or may not modify adolescent self-esteem (SE). This study drew on 343 college students to determine the relationship of adolescents' self-esteem to three familial variables: (1) parental permissiveness; (2) authoritarianism; and (3) authoritativeness, and three cognitive variables: (1) high…
There was significant interaction of adolescent impulsivity, authoritative parenting and marital satisfaction on parent-adolescent conflict. The results as well revealed that authoritarian parenting is significantly related to parent-adolescent conflict. It is therefore suggested that a good conflict management mechanism be put in ...
Pinquart, Martin; Kauser, Rubina
The study tested whether associations of parenting styles with internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and academic achievement vary between ethnic groups in western countries, between different regions of the globe, and by level of collectivism/individualism of individual countries. A systematic search in electronic databases and cross referencing identified 428 studies that were included in the random-effects meta-analysis. More ethnic and regional similarities than differences were identified. In western countries, associations of authoritative parenting with academic achievement were stronger in non-Hispanic, White families than in Asian minorities. In these countries, associations of authoritarian parenting with academic achievement were less negative in Hispanic families than in non-Hispanic, White families. Authoritative parenting was associated with at least 1 positive child outcome and authoritarian parenting was associated with at least 1 negative outcome in all regions of the globe, with some regional variation. Finally, associations of authoritarian parenting with child outcomes were weaker in countries with a higher individualism score, as were associations of authoritative parenting with academic performance. Parents across the globe could be recommended to behave authoritatively, although authoritarian and permissive parenting is, to some extent, tolerable in a few cultural contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the results of research concerning empirical description of the parenting and its influences on religious behavior and students’ study results in the subject of PAI (Pendidikan Agama Islam/Islamic Education. The research method used is qualitative and quantitative methods. The population of the research is all students and their parents in the fifth grade of elementary school in one group of Pulau Kijang, in Reteh Subdistrict, Indragiri Hilir, Riau. The sampling used the technique of cluster sampling for 80 students and 80 parents. The results of the research show that the parenting determines the height and low of students’ religious behavior and PAI study results. Students who have high and average religious behavior are educated by the parents having the authoritative parenting, while the students having low religious behavior are those who are educated by authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, authoritarian-authoritative combination, and authoritative-permissive combination parentings. Meanwhile, students who have the high study results are educated by the parents having the authoritative parenting, while the students whose study results are average are educated by the authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, authoritarian-authoritative combination, and authoritative-permissive combination parentings.
Silva, Marc; Dorso, Erin; Azhar, Aisha; Renk, Kimberly
The current study examined the relationships among parenting styles experienced in childhood, anxiety, motivation, and academic success in college students. Results suggested that fathers' authoritative parenting was related to decreases, whereas mothers' authoritarian parenting was related to increases, in college students' anxiety. Further,…
Gregory, Anne; Cornell, Dewey
The authors contend that zero tolerance discipline policies are inconsistent with adolescent developmental needs for authoritative, as distinguished from authoritarian, discipline. Previous research has applied the notion of authoritative parenting to teaching styles in classrooms, and a similar model of authoritative discipline can guide…
The overarching goal of this study is to examine the efforts of Chinese NGOs to prevent and/or control industrial pollution risks and then use the findings of this research to study the nature of civil regulation in, and beyond, China’s authoritarian setting. It first argues that 'regulation through
Asserts that we need a greater shift toward the personal and an active recognition for interpretation of authentic curriculum texts as art in our teaching practices. Argues that educational authoritarianism can only lead to the eventual and diminishing returns in our schools and institutions. Contains 23 references. (VWC)
units and is considered to advocate the values of 'unity in diversity' or. 'shared rule and ..... Somalia and Niger, and is the fourth worst jailer of journalists in the world and second worst in Africa (Alemayehu 2016). Seen from the Ethiopian government's authoritarian policy perspective, being an honest journalist is terrorism ...
Ethnicity and Transition to Democracy in Nigeria: Explaining the Passing of Authoritarian Rule in a Multi-ethnic Society · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Okechukwu Ibeanu, 45-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajps.v5i2.27310 ...
The author recapitulates various conceptions of narcissism that are in psychoanalytic discussion and attempts to set up a new theoretical frame for the socio-psychological topoi "authoritarian character" and "narcissistic personality" by means of Kohut's conceptions of the "grandiose self" and the "idealized parental imago". Based on M. Mahler's observations, Kernberg's critique of Kohut is rejected.
Spicer, André; Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan
from an undue focus on intra-academic debates; engage in author-itarian theoretical policing; feign relevance through symbolic radicalism; and repackage common sense. We take these critiques as an opportunity to offer an extended model of critical performativity that involves focusing on issues...
José María HERNÁNDEZ DÍAZ
Full Text Available Trough the scientific use of a list of Spanisk handbooks of the postwar period, which were used in the primary and secondary school, during the first «franquismo », we know the peculiar idea about Europe within the authoritarian regime. Sometimes the Spanish fascism refuse Europe, but often aspire to the ideological conquest of the European people.
In the 1930s, one of several small anti-parliamentarian, more or less authoritarian movements in Denmark was “Dansk Samling” (Danish Unity, see note 3), by its critics labeled as fascist or even nazi, in its self-understanding above all Christian and national and thus strongly opposed to any import...
In particular, it examines three theoretical tensions in post-apartheid education policy and practice — those between human capital theory and social reproduction, between modernisation and bureaucratic disorganisation, and between democracy and peace and authoritarianism and violence. It concludes by attempting to ...
Authoritarian teaching did not encourage creativity, questioning or deviation from the norm, and has had a devastating impact on intellectual, artistic and practical creativity across the continent ... The uncertainties engendered by such encounters are factors that currently limit maximum creative development on the continent.
den Ban and Hawkins, 1996). Technology, according to Yates (1995), can be transferred primarily through authoritarian imposition and through voluntary adoption or emulation. Adoption by voluntary methods depends solely on the effectiveness of demonstration, which may be very rapid or slow. Gowing (2002) asserted ...
Interference by extended family members, especially husbands' mothers, and male authoritarian roles emerged as hindrances to effective communication between couples. The implications for HIV prevention regarding gender differences and the role of families in couples' communication are discussed. African Journal of ...
... authoritarian rule with a fresh breath of freedom. We know that work is not yet complete. Even as the light of... what they look like, where they worship, or who they love. And it can continue by extending a hand to..., dignity, and the rule of law, just as we do. When President Dwight D. Eisenhower first marked this day, he...
Deyoung, Y; Zigler, E F
The relationship of culture, personality traits, and punitive child-rearing practices to machismo was examined in 40 Guyanese and 40 Caucasian parents with children aged four to 12 years. Guyanese parents were found to adhere more strongly to machista attitudes and beliefs and to employ controlling, authoritarian, and punitive child-rearing techniques more often than did Caucasian parents.
Gerrits, A.; Meijer, K.
André Gerrits & Kirsten Meijer focus on Belarus that is stereotypically presented as Europe's last dictatorship. President Aleksandr Lukashenka has established an authoritarian order, based on political stability and a relatively high standard of living, which all in all provides more than a modicum
Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.
Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…
After nearly half a century of authoritarianism characterized by Chinese nationalism and Mandarin promotion, democratization in 1990s Taiwan was accompanied by a Taiwanization movement featuring calls for the revitalization of local languages and the promotion of linguistic equality. To that end, the government began planning for local language…
Commemorative rituals consolidate solidarity by reaffirming one's secular faith and by enhancing emotional energy even without value consensus. Yet, state rituals, especially the ones organized by an authoritarian state, are usually shrugged off and mocked by its citizens. What made the state-sponsored national commemoration so effective? The…
This paper explores a curriculum paradox that may arise for teachers in post-authoritarian regimes if a radically new curriculum, designed to prepare learners for democratic citizenship, requires them to be autonomous professionals. If teachers were originally schooled and trained under the old regime to follow the orders inscribed in syllabi and…
Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…
Classical ballet technique is commonly taught through the use of authoritarian practices and normalizing aesthetic values, but the construction of the ballet dancer as a docile subject in opposition to an all-knowing instructor might impede ballet's progression. In this article I explore my development of a feminist or democratic ballet…
Leung, Patrick W. L.; Kwan, Kim S. F.
Surveyed Hong Kong high schoolers to test model stipulating motivational orientations as mediators between parenting styles and self-perceived academic competence: authoritarian parenting leading to extrinsic motivation, authoritative parenting to intrinsic motivation, and neglectful parenting to amotivation, and each motivation in turn related to…
Dusek, Jerome B.; Danko, Maribeth
A study of 107 15- and 17-year olds examined the relationship between adolescents' general coping styles (problem focused, emotion focused, or cognitive) and their perceptions of parental child-rearing practices (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful). Findings were consistent with the view that parents' child-rearing techniques…
freely circulating labor force, let the market determine the enterprise wage level. 2. Implement "an anti- corruption wage system" for state...allocations, stamp out favouritism and authoritarianism, and pre- vent "insider" connections as well as speculation by ministry staff. Xie also revealed the
Alterator, Scott; Deed, Craig
The "open classroom" emerged as a reaction against the industrial-era enclosed and authoritarian classroom. Although contemporary school architecture continues to incorporate and express ideas of openness, more research is needed about how teachers adapt to new and different built contexts. Our purpose is to identify teacher reaction to…
IDRC is helping to rebuild. Afghanistan's research community, which has been devastated by decades of conflict and authoritarian rule. IDRC began supporting research in Afghanistan in 1973, but was soon forced to limit its involvement. This support resumed in earnest with the fall of the Taliban government in 2001.
Precisely, 250 parents having children that are 0-12 years were interviewed with the aid of questionnaire schedule. The study tested only two hypotheses. ... in child's upbringing in every Nigerian society. Keywords: Socio-cultural factors, Child's upbringing, Authoritarian parenting style and Binary Logistic regression.
Dadlez, Eva M.
Describes a natural language searching strategy for retrieving current material which has bearing on George Orwell's "1984," and identifies four main themes (technology, authoritarianism, press and psychological/linguistic implications of surveillance, political oppression) which have emerged from cross-database searches of the "Big…
Religious Broadcasting in the Middle East : Content Analysis of Selected Channels and Programs. Over the past decade, television broadcasting has become central in shaping public attitudes in the Middle East. Against a backdrop of authoritarian governments, political instability, war and pervasive foreign military ...
The Andean area of Latin America has experienced three main historical and cultural currents, which had a strong influence on collective mentality: 1) the pre-Hispanic Indian civilizations, 2) the Iberian-Catholic tradition, and 3) a mere instrumental reception of actual western modernity. Both first influences furthered an authoritarian and collectivistic culture and were not favourable to a critical an...
The international community has determined it carries the responsibility to protect civilians from atrocity crimes if a state is unable or unwilling to do so. These crimes are often perpetrated in authoritarian regimes where they are legitimized through an exclusionary ideology. A comparative case
Tsaousis, Ioannis; Mascha, Katerina; Giovazolias, Theodoros
This study examined the factorial structure of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in the Greek population. Using confirmatory factor analysis different proposed models of the basic dimensions of PBI were evaluated. The results indicated that Kendler's three-factor (i.e. care, protectiveness and authoritarianism) solution was found to be more…
Colclough, Christopher; Webb, Andrew
Despite a long history of post-independence aid to education, Kenya's relationships with overseas donors have, until recently, been markedly fractious. Donors' concerns about transparency and corruption, in the context of a political regime which became increasingly authoritarian, led to sharp reductions in aid to Kenyan education during the…
Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik
It is the object of considerable debate in Western scholarship whether an authoritarian political order dominated by a strong communist party can continue to exist in China given the many challenges stemming from internal reform and the impact of globalization. Will China eventually turn democratic...
Nguyen, Peter V.
Vietnamese adult and adolescent immigrants in the United States acculturate to the Western culture at different rates. Most Vietnamese parents tend to use the authoritarian parenting method in which dictatorial approaches are enforced, possibly leading to family conflicts and mental health issues. By means of the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity…
Reflecting on the successes and challenges of his work as a prison music educator in four correctional facilities, the author suggests a framework for a music education that resists authoritarianism, allows for agency and engages with society. Focusing particularly on the societal context and consequences of prison as a place of punishment, he…
Examines school-community relations in a Botswana settlement of Basarwa, remote rural nomads with a minority language and culture. Surveys of parents and students in grades 5-7 indicate that all held positive educational attitudes and believed schooling would help children to find future employment, but that schools were authoritarian and operated…
At present, instrumental music education, defined in this paper as the teaching and learning of music through wind bands and symphony orchestras of Western origin, appears embattled. Among the many criticisms made against instrumental music education, critics claim that bands and orchestras exemplify an authoritarian model of teaching that does…
Beekers, D.; Gool, van B.
Even if 'good governance' goals have dominated public policy in postcolonial polities in the last decades, their politics and public administration often continue to be marked by authoritarianism, nepotism and corruption - the very practices good governance policy was to eradicate. In this article,
styles ( Baumrind , 1968) Authoritarian parenting is characterized by high levels of parental demands, supervision, and discipline and a relative...children. This literature often categorizes nonresident fathers’ parenting style and assesses the relationship of different styles to child outcomes... Parenting Style Academic Success .09*** .03* .06* .15** Externalizing Problems -. 08*** -. 02 -. 05* -. 11*** Internalizing Problems -. 01 -. 03* -. 07
Banham, Victoria; Hanson, Jane; Higgins, Alice; Jarrett, Michelle
In Australia, an exploratory study was grounded in U. Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective of human development and his principles of reciprocity, affective tone, and developmental opportunity and developmental risk. It used D. Baumrind's (1979) work on child rearing styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) to explore the effect of…
After the Asian Economic Crisis in 1997 and the fall of president Suharto’s authoritarian regime in 1998, rural and urban Indonesia experienced a surge in vigilante killings and the rise of non-state forms of authorities working within the twilight of legality and illegality, catering the role of...
Aunola, Kaisa; Stattin, Hakan; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
Investigates the extents to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Respondents (N=354) identified four types of families: those with Authoritative; Authoritarian; Permissive; and Neglectful parenting styles. Results further reveal that adolescents from authoritative…
Moore, Shirley G.
Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…
Nurhaeni, Heni; Dinarti; Priharti, Dwi
There are four types of parenting: democratic, authoritarian, permissive, and ignored, which would affect the character of the child. However family upbringing itself influenced education, norms/cultural, environmental, social, economic and belongs to the family members. Quasi-experimental study through questionnaires, observation, deep interview,…
Moore, Shirley G.
Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…
Colson, Myron Jamal
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship of home parental involvement practices, parental style and student achievement. Dimensions of parental involvement practices are parental instruction, parental reinforcement, parental modeling, and parental encouragement. Dimensions of parental style are authoritarian, permissive, and…
McGillicuddy-De Lisi, Ann V.; De Lisi, Richard
College students (N = 125) reported their perceptions of family relations in response to vignettes that presented 5 different parenting styles. Participants viewed family relations as most positive when parents were portrayed as authoritative or permissive and as most negative when parents were portrayed as uninvolved-neglecting or authoritarian.…
Moore, Shirley G.
Among studies that have examined the relationship between parenting styles and children's development of social skills, the research of Diana Baumrind is noteworthy. In several studies, she has identified authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative parenting styles, which differ on the dimensions of nurturance and parental control. Authoritarian…
Book burning and the complicity of South African librarians, 1955-1971. Archie Dick. Abstract. This article attempts to explain how and why librarians in South Africa became agents and accomplices in book burning from 1955 to 1971. Growing authoritarianism in the library profession and attempts to regulate reading are ...
Mahamud Angulo, Kira; Groves, Tamar; Milito Barone, Cecilia Cristina; Hernández Laina, Yovana
This article explores visions of war and peace in the education system during the Spanish transition to democracy. During those years, the Spanish state was faced with the challenge of leaving its authoritarian political past behind and forging a democratic civic culture. As the concepts of war and peace are inextricably linked to those of state…
Beekers, D.T.; van Gool, S.M.
Even if ‘good governance’ goals have dominated public policy in postcolonial polities in the last decades, their politics and public administration often continue to be marked by authoritarianism, nepotism and corruption – the very practices good governance policy was to eradicate. In this article,
Van Gool, Bas; Beekers, Daan
Even if ‘good governance’ goals have dominated public policy in postcolonial polities in the last decades, their politics and public administration often continue to be marked by authoritarianism, nepotism and corruption – the very practices good governance policy was to eradicate. In this article,
subject of ritual in Igbo video films has created for the Igbo people. Most Nigerian Igbo video films deploy rituals that ... authoritarian institutions, creation of status differentiation, justification of the concentration of .... 'blood money' etc. are often inspired by sheer individualistic villainy to the detriment of the collective interest of ...
Denise D. Guastello; Stephen J. Guastello; Jeralee M. Briggs
The logical consistency between generativity and the authoritative parenting style led to the hypothesis that the two behavior patterns or orientations were related. Survey measurements of perceived parenting style (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and generativity in 559 university students and their respective parents were compared. The authoritative parenting style correlated positively with generativit...
Juego, Bonn; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
seized the moment to reaffirm the perpetuation of the discursive and structural hegemony of neoliberalism. In East and Southeast Asia, states and regional organisations have revived arguments for the institutional justification of authoritarian liberalism in the region. And in the US and Europe, attempts...
The paper's central thesis is that authoritarian regimes can benefit from the presence of domestic (Sunni) civil activism; through a social dynamic that creates an incentive for Sunni activists to actively approach regime actors. The article poses that they thereby imply a subservience to the regime
Jul 30, 2015 ... ASEAN (the Association of Southeast Asian Nations) includes some of today's most dynamic economies. With the exception of Thailand, all are overcoming legacies of authoritarian rule. Since the 1990s, foreign investment and a vast pool of workers have helped Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and more ...
Examines three prevalent parental recommendations for reducing children's exposure to violence, noting that if delivered in an authoritarian manner, anticipated outcomes may not occur. Argues that child involvement in setting up family rules encourages self-awareness for children to monitor their own behaviors. Includes five examples of suggested…
Heller, Janet R.; Johnson, Helen L.
Twenty parents attending an urban community college were interviewed about how they respond to common questions children ask about sexuality. Parental responses to children's questions about sexuality were considered in relation to the authoritative and authoritarian patterns of communication identified by Baumrind (1967). The majority of parents…
Gaertner, Bridget M.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Greving, Karissa A.
Using daily diary data to document involvement with infants at 6-8 months of age (n = 142) and 6 months later (n = 95), we examined relations between reported childrearing attitudes and resident fathers' relative (as compared to mothers') involvement with children. Fathers' authoritarian views related negatively to their relative involvement on…