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Sample records for authenticate medicinal herbal

  1. Species authentication and geographical origin discrimination of herbal medicines by near infrared spectroscopy: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Pei; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid and nondestructive analytical technique, integrated with chemometrics, is a powerful process analytical tool for the pharmaceutical industry and is becoming an attractive complementary technique for herbal medicine analysis. This review mainly focuses on the recent applications of NIR spectroscopy in species authentication of herbal medicines and their geographical origin discrimination. Keywords: Near infrared spectroscopy, Herbal medicine, Species...

  2. Species authentication and geographical origin discrimination of herbal medicines by near infrared spectroscopy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared (NIR spectroscopy as a rapid and nondestructive analytical technique, integrated with chemometrics, is a powerful process analytical tool for the pharmaceutical industry and is becoming an attractive complementary technique for herbal medicine analysis. This review mainly focuses on the recent applications of NIR spectroscopy in species authentication of herbal medicines and their geographical origin discrimination. Keywords: Near infrared spectroscopy, Herbal medicine, Species authentication, Geographical origin discrimination, Quality control

  3. Species authentication and geographical origin discrimination of herbal medicines by near infrared spectroscopy: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-10-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid and nondestructive analytical technique, integrated with chemometrics, is a powerful process analytical tool for the pharmaceutical industry and is becoming an attractive complementary technique for herbal medicine analysis. This review mainly focuses on the recent applications of NIR spectroscopy in species authentication of herbal medicines and their geographical origin discrimination.

  4. The potential of three different PCR-related approaches for the authentication of mixtures of herbal substances and finished herbal medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay-Knapp, Kirsten; Orland, Annika; König, Gabriele M; Knöss, Werner

    2018-04-01

    Herbal substances and preparations thereof play an important role in healthcare systems worldwide. Due to the variety of these products regarding origin, composition and processing procedures, appropriate methodologies for quality assessment need to be considered. A majority of herbal substances is administered as multicomponent mixtures, especially in the field of Traditional Chinese Medicine and ayurvedic medicine, but also in finished medicinal products. Quality assessment of complex mixtures of herbal substances with conventional methods is challenging. Thus, emphasis of the present work was directed on the development of complementary methods to elucidate the composition of mixtures of herbal substances and finished herbal medicinal products. An indispensable prerequisite for the safe and effective use of herbal medicines is the unequivocal authentication of the medicinal plants used therein. In this context, we investigated the potential of three different PCR-related methods in the characterization and authentication of herbal substances. A multiplex PCR assay and a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay were established to analyze defined mixtures of the herbal substances Quercus cortex, Juglandis folium, Aristolochiae herba, Matricariae flos and Salviae miltiorrhizae radix et rhizoma and a finished herbal medicinal product. Furthermore, a standard cloning approach using universal primers targeting the ITS region was established in order to allow the investigation of herbal mixtures with unknown content. The cloning approach had some limitations regarding the detection/recovery of the components in defined mixtures of herbal substances, but the complementary use of two sets of universal primer pairs increased the detection of components out of the mixture. While the multiplex PCR did not retrace all components in the defined mixtures of herbal substances, the established qPCR resulted in simultaneous and specific detection of the five target sequences in all defined

  5. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... extracts, and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  6. Patent applications for using DNA technologies to authenticate medicinal herbal material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Albert

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herbal medicines are used in many countries for maintaining health and treating diseases. Their efficacy depends on the use of the correct materials, and life-threatening poisoning may occur if toxic adulterants or substitutes are administered instead. Identification of a medicinal material at the DNA level provides an objective and powerful tool for quality control. Extraction of high-quality DNA is the first crucial step in DNA authentication, followed by a battery of DNA techniques including whole genome fingerprinting, DNA sequencing and DNA microarray to establish the identity of the material. New or improved technologies have been developed and valuable data have been collected and compiled for DNA authentication. Some of these technologies and data are patentable. This article provides an overview of some recent patents that cover the extraction of DNA from medicinal materials, the amplification of DNA using improved reaction conditions, the generation of DNA sequences and fingerprints, and the development of high-throughput authentication methods. It also briefly explains why these patents have been granted.

  7. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... topics and resources Diseases and Conditions Acupuncture Art, Dance, and Music Ayurveda Bell's Palsy Biofeedback Body Movement ... to your doctor before taking any herbal supplements. Black cohosh This shrub-like plant of eastern North ...

  8. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herbal Medicine URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  9. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  10. Marketing herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, M

    1999-01-01

    HIV-positive support groups, together with hospital pharmacists in Thailand are fighting the high cost and lack of access to pharmaceuticals by producing and distributing herbal medicines. In Theung district, Chiang Rai province, members of the local support group for people with HIV produce their own, low-cost, herbal medicines. Although the herbal medicines they produce do not provide a cure for HIV/AIDS, they do offer relief for some of the symptoms of opportunistic infections. The herbs are prepared by the group members under the supervision of the pharmacy department at the district hospital. Local people judge their effectiveness by hearing testimonials from people who have witnessed improvement in symptoms. In response to the popularity and effectiveness of herbal medicines, the Ministry of Public Health has approved plans to sell products derived from local herbs in the pharmacies of government hospitals.

  11. Constipation and Herbal medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio eIizuka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity.This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs, Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine.

  12. Nephrotoxicity and Chinese Herbal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Xie, Yun; Guo, Maojuan; Rosner, Mitchell H; Yang, Hongtao; Ronco, Claudio

    2018-04-03

    Chinese herbal medicine has been practiced for the prevention, treatment, and cure of diseases for thousands of years. Herbal medicine involves the use of natural compounds, which have relatively complex active ingredients with varying degrees of side effects. Some of these herbal medicines are known to cause nephrotoxicity, which can be overlooked by physicians and patients due to the belief that herbal medications are innocuous. Some of the nephrotoxic components from herbs are aristolochic acids and other plant alkaloids. In addition, anthraquinones, flavonoids, and glycosides from herbs also are known to cause kidney toxicity. The kidney manifestations of nephrotoxicity associated with herbal medicine include acute kidney injury, CKD, nephrolithiasis, rhabdomyolysis, Fanconi syndrome, and urothelial carcinoma. Several factors contribute to the nephrotoxicity of herbal medicines, including the intrinsic toxicity of herbs, incorrect processing or storage, adulteration, contamination by heavy metals, incorrect dosing, and interactions between herbal medicines and medications. The exact incidence of kidney injury due to nephrotoxic herbal medicine is not known. However, clinicians should consider herbal medicine use in patients with unexplained AKI or progressive CKD. In addition, exposure to herbal medicine containing aristolochic acid may increase risk for future uroepithelial cancers, and patients require appropriate postexposure screening. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. The Use of Herbal Medicine in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Suryawati, Suryawati; Suardi, Hijra Novia

    2015-01-01

    The herbal medicine has been widely used in children for the treatment of several symptoms and the prevention of diseases before accessing the hospital for professionals help. There are 3 kinds of marketed herbal medicine including empirical based herbal medicine (jamu), standardized herbal medicine (obat herbal terstandar) and clininically tested herbal medicine (fitofarmaka). This study aimed to investigate the utilization of the marketed herbal medicine along with non marketed ones which w...

  14. [Review on community herbal monographs for traditional herbal medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wenjun; Qu, Liping; Ye, Zuguang; Ji, Jianxin; Li, Bogang

    2011-12-01

    This article discusses the characteristics of cmmunity herbal monographs for traditional herbal medicinal products and its establishment procedure. It also reviews the new development of cmmunity traditional herbal monographs. The purpose is to clarify the relationship between cmmunity herbal monographs and simplified registration for traditional herbal medicinal product in European Union and provide reference to the registration of taditional Chinese mdicinal products in Europe.

  15. Authentication of Herbal Supplements Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V Ivanova

    Full Text Available DNA-based testing has been gaining acceptance as a tool for authentication of a wide range of food products; however, its applicability for testing of herbal supplements remains contentious.We utilized Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS for taxonomic authentication of fifteen herbal supplements representing three different producers from five medicinal plants: Echinacea purpurea, Valeriana officinalis, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Experimental design included three modifications of DNA extraction, two lysate dilutions, Internal Amplification Control, and multiple negative controls to exclude background contamination. Ginkgo supplements were also analyzed using HPLC-MS for the presence of active medicinal components.All supplements yielded DNA from multiple species, rendering Sanger sequencing results for rbcL and ITS2 regions either uninterpretable or non-reproducible between the experimental replicates. Overall, DNA from the manufacturer-listed medicinal plants was successfully detected in seven out of eight dry herb form supplements; however, low or poor DNA recovery due to degradation was observed in most plant extracts (none detected by Sanger; three out of seven-by NGS. NGS also revealed a diverse community of fungi, known to be associated with live plant material and/or the fermentation process used in the production of plant extracts. HPLC-MS testing demonstrated that Ginkgo supplements with degraded DNA contained ten key medicinal components.Quality control of herbal supplements should utilize a synergetic approach targeting both DNA and bioactive components, especially for standardized extracts with degraded DNA. The NGS workflow developed in this study enables reliable detection of plant and fungal DNA and can be utilized by manufacturers for quality assurance of raw plant materials, contamination control during the production process, and the final product. Interpretation of results should

  16. Authentication of Herbal Supplements Using Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Natalia V; Kuzmina, Maria L; Braukmann, Thomas W A; Borisenko, Alex V; Zakharov, Evgeny V

    2016-01-01

    DNA-based testing has been gaining acceptance as a tool for authentication of a wide range of food products; however, its applicability for testing of herbal supplements remains contentious. We utilized Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) for taxonomic authentication of fifteen herbal supplements representing three different producers from five medicinal plants: Echinacea purpurea, Valeriana officinalis, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Experimental design included three modifications of DNA extraction, two lysate dilutions, Internal Amplification Control, and multiple negative controls to exclude background contamination. Ginkgo supplements were also analyzed using HPLC-MS for the presence of active medicinal components. All supplements yielded DNA from multiple species, rendering Sanger sequencing results for rbcL and ITS2 regions either uninterpretable or non-reproducible between the experimental replicates. Overall, DNA from the manufacturer-listed medicinal plants was successfully detected in seven out of eight dry herb form supplements; however, low or poor DNA recovery due to degradation was observed in most plant extracts (none detected by Sanger; three out of seven-by NGS). NGS also revealed a diverse community of fungi, known to be associated with live plant material and/or the fermentation process used in the production of plant extracts. HPLC-MS testing demonstrated that Ginkgo supplements with degraded DNA contained ten key medicinal components. Quality control of herbal supplements should utilize a synergetic approach targeting both DNA and bioactive components, especially for standardized extracts with degraded DNA. The NGS workflow developed in this study enables reliable detection of plant and fungal DNA and can be utilized by manufacturers for quality assurance of raw plant materials, contamination control during the production process, and the final product. Interpretation of results should involve an

  17. Chinese herbal medicines for hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, X X; Yuan, Y; Liu, Y; Wu, T X; Han, S

    2007-04-18

    Hyperthyroidism is a disease in which excessive amounts of thyroid hormones circulate in the blood. Patients, among other things suffer from tachycardia, warm moist skin and raised body temperature. The treatment of hyperthyroidism includes symptom relief and therapy with antithyroid medications, radioiodine and thyroidectomy. Medicinal herbs are used alone or in combination with antithyroid agents to treat hyperthyroidism in China and some other countries. To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines for treating hyperthyroidism. Studies were obtained from computerised searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, the Chinese Biomedical Database. Randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of Chinese herbal medicines alone with Chinese herbal medicines combined with antithyroid drugs, radioiodine or both. Three authors interviewed authors of all potentially relevant studies by telephone to verify randomisation procedures. One author entered data into a data extraction form and another author verified the results of this procedure. Thirteen relevant trials with 1770 participants were included. All of them were of low quality. Fifty-two studies still need to be assessed because the original authors could not be interviewed. None of these trials analysed mortality, health related quality of life, economic outcomes or compliance. Compared to antithyroid drugs alone the results showed that Chinese herbal medicines combined with antithyroid drugs may offer benefits in lowering relapse rates, reducing the incidence of adverse effects, relieving symptoms, improving thyroid antibody status and thyroid function. Two trials investigated Chinese herbal medicine versus radioiodine and reported improvements in anxiety, tachycardia and heat intolerance. However, thyroid function - with the exception of restored thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) - was not significantly altered. The results suggest that traditional Chinese herbal medicines added to other routine

  18. HPTLC Fingerprint Analysis: A Quality Control for Authentication of Herbal Phytochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Mauji; Abdin, M. Z.; Khan, M. A.; Jha, Prabhakar

    Authentication and consistent quality are the basic requirement for Indian traditional medicine (TIM), Chinese traditional herbal medicine (TCHM), and their commercial products, regardless of the kind of research conducted to modernize the TIM and TCHM. The complexities of TIM and TCHM challenge the current official quality control mode, for which only a few biochemical markers were selected for identification and quantitative assay. Referring too many unknown factors existed in TIM and TCHM, it is impossible and unnecessary to pinpoint qualitatively and quantitatively every single component contained in the herbal drug. Chromatographic fingerprint is a rational option to meet the need for more effective and powerful quality assessment to TIM and TCHM. The optimized chromatographic fingerprint is not only an alternative analytical tool for authentication, but also an approach to express the various pattern of chemical ingredients distribution in the herbal drugs and preserve such "database" for further multifaced sustainable studies. Analytical separation techniques, for example, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) were among the most popular methods of choice used for quality control of raw material and finished herbal product. Fingerprint analysis approach using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) has become the most potent tool for quality control of herbal medicines because of its simplicity and reliability. It can serve as a tool for identification, authentication, and quality control of herbal drugs. In this chapter, attempts are being made to expand the use of HPTLC and at the same time create interest among prospective researcher in herbal analysis. The developed method can be used as a quality control tool for rapid authentication from a wide variety of herbal samples. Some examples demonstrated the role of fingerprinting in quality control and assessment.

  19. Benefits and Limitations of DNA Barcoding and Metabarcoding in Herbal Product Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclariu, Ancuta Cristina; Heinrich, Michael; Ichim, Mihael Cristin; de Boer, Hugo

    2018-03-01

    Herbal medicines play an important role globally in the health care sector and in industrialised countries they are often considered as an alternative to mono-substance medicines. Current quality and authentication assessment methods rely mainly on morphology and analytical phytochemistry-based methods detailed in pharmacopoeias. Herbal products however are often highly processed with numerous ingredients, and even if these analytical methods are accurate for quality control of specific lead or marker compounds, they are of limited suitability for the authentication of biological ingredients. To review the benefits and limitations of DNA barcoding and metabarcoding in complementing current herbal product authentication. Recent literature relating to DNA based authentication of medicinal plants, herbal medicines and products are summarised to provide a basic understanding of how DNA barcoding and metabarcoding can be applied to this field. Different methods of quality control and authentication have varying resolution and usefulness along the value chain of these products. DNA barcoding can be used for authenticating products based on single herbal ingredients and DNA metabarcoding for assessment of species diversity in processed products, and both methods should be used in combination with appropriate hyphenated chemical methods for quality control. DNA barcoding and metabarcoding have potential in the context of quality control of both well and poorly regulated supply systems. Standardisation of protocols for DNA barcoding and DNA sequence-based identification are necessary before DNA-based biological methods can be implemented as routine analytical approaches and approved by the competent authorities for use in regulated procedures. © 2017 The Authors. Phytochemical Analysis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Phytochemical Analysis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Herbal medicine: biomolecular and clinical aspects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benzie, Iris F. F; Wachtel-Galor, Sissi

    2011-01-01

    "Responding to the increased popularity of herbal medicines and other forms of complementary or alternative medicine in countries around the world, this reference reviews and evaluates various safety...

  1. The effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhenxiang; Leng, Yashu; Lv, Jiayin; Li, Bingjin

    2017-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of epilepsy. Though herbal medicine is widely used in antiepileptic treatment, there is a lack of robust evidence for efficacy and toxicity of most herbs. Besides, the herbal medicine should be subject to evidence-based scrutiny. In this context, we present a review to introduce the effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy. However, hundreds of herbal medicines have been investigated in the available studies. Some commonly used herbal medicines for epilepsy have been listed in our study. The overwhelming majority of these data are based on animal experiments. The lack of clinical data places constraints on the clinical recommendation of herbal medicine. Our study may conduct further studies and provide some insight on the development of anti-epileptic drugs. PMID:28423368

  2. The effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ge, Tongtong; Pan, Zhenxiang; Leng, Yashu; Lv, Jiayin; Li, Bingjin

    2017-07-18

    Traditional herbal medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of epilepsy. Though herbal medicine is widely used in antiepileptic treatment, there is a lack of robust evidence for efficacy and toxicity of most herbs. Besides, the herbal medicine should be subject to evidence-based scrutiny. In this context, we present a review to introduce the effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy. However, hundreds of herbal medicines have been investigated in the available studies. Some commonly used herbal medicines for epilepsy have been listed in our study. The overwhelming majority of these data are based on animal experiments. The lack of clinical data places constraints on the clinical recommendation of herbal medicine. Our study may conduct further studies and provide some insight on the development of anti-epileptic drugs.

  3. Herbal medicine: biomolecular and clinical aspects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benzie, Iris F. F; Wachtel-Galor, Sissi

    2011-01-01

    .... With over 3,550 current references, the book highlights the role of herbal medicine in national health care while providing case studies of widely used herbal remedies and their effects on human...

  4. Authentication of the botanical origin of Western herbal products using Cimicifuga and Vitex products as examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masada, Sayaka

    2016-07-01

    Various herbal medicines have been developed and used in various parts of the world for thousands of years. Although locally grown indigenous plants were originally used for traditional herbal preparations, Western herbal products are now becoming popular in Japan with the increasing interest in health. At the same time, there are growing concerns about the substitution of ingredients and adulteration of herbal products, highlighting the need for the authentication of the origin of plants used in herbal products. This review describes studies on Cimicifuga and Vitex products developed in Europe and Japan, focusing on establishing analytical methods to evaluate the origins of material plants and finished products. These methods include a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method and a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system method. A genome-based authentication method and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based authentication for black cohosh products, and the identification of two characteristic diterpenes of agnus castus fruit and a shrub chaste tree fruit-specific triterpene derivative are also described.

  5. PhytoAuthent: Molecular authentication of complex herbal food supplements for safety and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Ichim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The PhytoAuthent project was structured to gather, test, develop and apply, in real life case scenarios, molecular techniques, such as biochemical fingerprinting and DNA sequence-based methods, for plant identification of constituents in complex herbal products. The project had a strong focus on applied aspects like protecting consumers from health risks associated with product substitution and contamination of herbal products.

  6. Radiopasteurization of traditional herbal medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N; Suryasaputra, C [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre

    1981-04-01

    Investigation on the effects of irradiation using pasteurization dose of 500 krad (5kGy) on microbes contaminating traditional herbal medicine, produced by 3 large manufacturers in Indonesia, was carried out. Storage effects on microbial count moisture content of traditional herbal medicine packed in microbe tight packages, were also observed. The results showed that initial bacterial counts varied between 10/sup 4/ and 10/sup 8/ per gram, and mould and yeast counts varied between 0 and 10/sup 5/ per gram. These numbers decreased as much as 2 to 5 log cycles after irradiation with 500 krad. After 6 month storage, bacterial counts of irradiated samples decreased as much as 0 to 10/sup 3/ per gram. Initial moisture content varied from 5 to 12% and after 6 month storage the moisture content of most samples increased as much as 0 to 5%. Irradiated samples were found to be mould free, and most of the surviving microbes consisted of spore forming aerobic bacteria and yeast.

  7. Radiopasteurization of traditional herbal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, Nazly; Suryasaputra, C.

    1981-01-01

    Investigation on the effects of irradiation using pasteurization dose of 500 krad (5kGy) on microbes contaminating traditional herbal medicine, produced by 3 large manufacturers in Indonesia, was carried out. Storage effects on microbial count moisture content of traditional herbal medicine packed in microbe tight packages, were also observed. The results showed that initial bacterial counts varied between 10 4 and 10 8 per gram, and mould and yeast counts varied between 0 and 10 5 per gram. These numbers decreased as much as 2 to 5 log cycles after irradiation with 500 krad. After 6 month storage, bacterial counts of irradiated samples decreased as much as 0 to 10 3 per gram. Initial moisture content varied from 5 to 12% and after 6 month storage the moisture content of most samples increased as much as 0 to 5%. Irradiated samples were found to be mould free, and most of the surviving microbes consisted of spore forming aerobic bacteria and yeast. (author)

  8. Integrating biomedical and herbal medicine in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boateng, Millicent Addai; Danso-Appiah, Anthony; Turkson, Bernard Kofi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past decade there has been growing interest in the use of herbal medicine both in developed and developing countries. Given the high proportion of patients using herbal medicine in Ghana, some health facilities have initiated implementation of herbal medicine as a component...... of their healthcare delivery. However, the extent to which herbal medicine has been integrated in Ghanaian health facilities, how integration is implemented and perceived by different stakeholders has not been documented. The study sought to explore these critical issues at the Kumasi South Hospital (KSH) and outline...... the definition, process and goals of integration were lacking, with respondents sharing different views about the purpose and value of integration of herbal medicine within public health facilities. Key informants were supportive of the initiative. Whilst biomedical health workers perceived the system...

  9. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxici...

  10. Personalized Herbal Medicine? A Roadmap for Convergence of Herbal and Precision Medicine Biomarker Innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomford, Nicholas Ekow; Dzobo, Kevin; Chimusa, Emile; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin; Chirikure, Shadreck; Wonkam, Ambroise; Dandara, Collet

    2018-06-01

    While drugs remain the cornerstone of medicine, herbal medicine is an important comedication worldwide. Thus, precision medicine ought to face this clinical reality and develop "companion diagnostics" for drugs as well as herbal medicines. Yet, many are in denial with respect to the extent of use of traditional/herbal medicines, overlooking that a considerable number of contemporary therapeutic drugs trace their discovery from herbal medicines. This expert review underscores that absent such appropriate attention on both classical drug therapy and herbal medicines, precision medicine biomarkers will likely not stand the full test of clinical practice while patients continue to use both drugs and herbal medicines and, yet the biomarker research and applications focus only (or mostly) on drug therapy. This asymmetry in biomarker innovation strategy needs urgent attention from a wide range of innovation actors worldwide, including governments, research funders, scientists, community leaders, civil society organizations, herbal, pharmaceutical, and insurance industries, policymakers, and social/political scientists. We discuss the various dimensions of a future convergence map between herbal and conventional medicine, and conclude with a set of concrete strategies on how best to integrate biomarker research in a realm of both herbal and drug treatment. Africa, by virtue of its vast experience and exposure in herbal medicine and a "pregnant" life sciences innovation ecosystem, could play a game-changing role for the "birth" of biomarker-informed personalized herbal medicine in the near future. At this critical juncture when precision medicine initiatives are being rolled out worldwide, precision/personalized herbal medicine is both timely and essential for modern therapeutics, not to mention biomarker innovations that stand the test of real-life practices and implementation in the clinic and society.

  11. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT INTO HERBAL MEDICINES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent advances in the Research and development of Herbal Medicines are highlighted and a scheme for R & D work is presented. The need for adequate information (chemical, biological, botanical and so on) on local plants is highlighted. There is also the need to standardize the herbal product, prepare it in an ...

  12. Traditional use and safety of herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davyson de L. Moreira

    Full Text Available In the European Union, traditional herbal medicines that are regarded as "acceptably safe, albeit not having a recognized level of efficacy" fit into a special category of drugs ("traditional herbal medicine products" for which requirements of non-clinical and clinical studies are less rigorous. A regulation proposal published by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance (Anvisa defines a similar drug category ("traditional phytotherapeutic products" for registration purposes. Regarding herbal medicines, both agencies seem to be lenient regarding proof of efficacy, and consider long-standing folk use as evidence of safety and a waiver of a thorough toxicological evaluation. Nonetheless, several herbal products and constituents with a long history of folk usage are suspected carcinogenic and/or hepatotoxic. Herbal products have also been shown to inhibit and/or induce drug-metabolizing enzymes. Since herbal medicines are often used in conjunction with conventional drugs, kinetic and clinical interactions are a cause for concern. A demonstration of the safety of herbal medicines for registration purposes should include at least in vitroand in vivogenotoxicity assays, long-term rodent carcinogenicity tests (for drugs intended to be continuously used for > 3 months or intermittently for > 6 months, reproductive and developmental toxicity studies (for drugs used by women of childbearing age, and investigation of the effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes.

  13. Authentication of Botanical Origin in Herbal Teas by Plastid Noncoding DNA Length Polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Uncu, Ayse Ozgur; Frary, Anne; Doganlar, Sami

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a DNA barcode assay to authenticate the botanical origin of herbal teas. To reach this aim, we tested the efficiency of a PCR-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) approach on commercial herbal tea samples using two noncoding plastid barcodes, the trnL intron and the intergenic spacer between trnL and trnF. Barcode DNA length polymorphisms proved successful in authenticating the species origin of herbal teas. We verified the validity of our approach by sequencing species-specific barcode amplicons from herbal tea samples. Moreover, we displayed the utility of PCR-CE assays coupled with sequencing to identify the origin of undeclared plant material in herbal tea samples. The PCR-CE assays proposed in this work can be applied as routine tests for the verification of botanical origin in herbal teas and can be extended to authenticate all types of herbal foodstuffs.

  14. Chinese herbal medicine for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Li, Xinxue; Yang, Guoyan; Liu, Jian Ping

    2013-10-06

    Chinese herbal medicine is frequently used for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy in China. Many controlled trials have been undertaken to investigate its efficacy.This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in the year 2011. To assess the beneficial effects and harms of Chinese herbal medicine for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. On 14 May 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register CENTRAL (2012, Issue 4 in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2012), AMED (January 1985 to May 2012) and in October 2012, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1979 to October 2012), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI) (1979 to October 2012), and VIP Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (1989 to October 2012). We searched for unpublished literature in the Chinese Conference Papers Database, and Chinese Dissertation Database (from inception to October 2012). There were no language or publication restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine (with a minimum of four weeks treatment duration) for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions. Trials of herbal medicine plus a conventional drug versus the drug alone were also included. Two authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. Forty-nine randomised trials involving 3639 participants were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Thirty-eight different herbal medicines were tested in these trials, including four single herbs (extracts from a single herb), eight traditional Chinese patent medicines, and 26 self concocted Chinese herbal compound prescriptions. The trials reported on global symptom improvement (including improvement in numbness or pain) and changes in nerve conduction

  15. Herbal medicine--sets the heart racing!

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGovern, E

    2010-07-01

    The potential for pharmaceuticals to produce side effects and drug interactions is well known to medical practitioners and the lay public alike. However, the potential for alternative medicines to produce such effects is less widely known. We describe a potentially dangerous interaction between a herbal medicine and concomitant selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) ingestion.

  16. Herbal medicine for low-back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oltean, H.; Robbins, C.S.; van Tulder, M.W.; Berman, B.M.; Bombardier, C.; Gagnier, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-back pain (LBP) is a common condition and imposes a substantial economic burden upon people living in industrialized societies. A large proportion of people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines

  17. Commercial herbal medicines used as African traditional medicines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.E. Mothibe, E Osuch, C.P. Kahler-Venter ... With commercialisation and marketing, some of the herbal medicines (HMs) used are readily ... The HM Ngoma Herbal Tonic Immune Booster caused false-negative results for the THC test.

  18. Herbal Medicine and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Applications and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of herbal medicine in the treatment of liver cancer has a long tradition. The compounds derived from the herb and herbal composites are of considerable interest among oncologists. In the past, certain herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas have been studied through in vitro and in vivo as an anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC agent, enhancing our knowledge about their biologic functions and targets. However there is a significant distinction between the herbal medicine and the herbal production even though both are the plant-based remedies used in the practice. In this article, for the sake of clarity, the effective herbal compounds and herbal composite formulas against HCC are discussed, with emphasizing the basic conceptions of herbal medicine in order to have a better understanding of the prevention and treatment of HCC by herbal active compounds and herbal composite formulas.

  19. Herbal Supplements May Not Mix with Heart Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Changes in blood pressure Enioutina EY, et al. Herbal medicines: Challenges in the modern world. Part 5. Status ... Pharmacology. 2017;10:327. Saper RB. Overview of herbal medicines and dietary supplements. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/ ...

  20. A Comparative Assessment of Herbal and Orthodox Medicines in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This paper assessed the attributes of herbal and orthodox medicines such as affordability, packaging, ... Results showed that the respondents rated herbal medicines higher than orthodox ...

  1. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Saad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed.

  2. Treatment of glioblastoma with herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogrlić, Ivo; Trogrlić, Dragan; Trogrlić, Darko; Trogrlić, Amina Kadrić

    2018-02-13

    In the latest years, a lot of research studies regarding the usage of active agents from plants in the treatment of tumors have been published, but there is no data about successful usage of herbal remedies in the treatment of glioblastoma in humans. The phytotherapy involved five types of herbal medicine which the subjects took in the form of tea, each type once a day at regular intervals. Three patients took herbal medicine along with standard oncological treatment, while two patients applied for phytotherapy after completing medical treatment. The composition of herbal medicine was modified when necessary, which depended on the results of the control scans using the nuclear magnetic resonance technique and/or computed tomography. Forty-eight months after the introduction of phytotherapy, there were no clinical or radiological signs of the disease, in three patients; in one patient, the tumor was reduced and his condition was stable, and one patient lived for 48 months in spite of a large primary tumor and a massive recurrence, which developed after the treatment had been completed. The results achieved in patients in whom tumor regression occurred exclusively through the use of phytotherapy deserve special attention. In order to treat glioblastoma more effectively, it is necessary to develop innovative therapeutic strategies and medicines that should not be limited only to the field of conventional medicine. The results presented in this research paper are encouraging and serve as a good basis for further research on the possibilities of phytotherapy in the treatment of glioblastoma.

  3. Traditional Mediterranean and European herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Verpoorte, Robert

    2017-03-06

    Written history allows tracing back Mediterranean and European medical traditions to Greek antiquity. The epidemiological shift triggered by the rise of modern medicine and industrialization is reflected in contemporary reliance and preferences for certain herbal medicines. We sketch the development and transmission of written herbal medicine through Mediterranean and European history and point out the opportunity to connect with modern traditions. An ethnopharmacological database linking past and modern medical traditions could serve as a tool for crosschecking contemporary ethnopharmacological field-data as well as a repository for data mining. Considering that the diachronic picture emerging from such a database has an epidemiological base this could lead to new hypotheses related to evolutionary medicine. The advent of systems pharmacology and network pharmacology opens new perspectives for studying past and current herbal medicine. Since a large part of modern drugs has its roots in ancient traditions one may expect new leads for drug development from novel systemic studies, as well as evidence for the activity of certain herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical markers for the quality control of herbal medicines: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung Cheng Chuen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Selection of chemical markers is crucial for the quality control of herbal medicines, including authentication of genuine species, harvesting the best quality raw materials, evaluation of post-harvesting handling, assessment of intermediates and finished products, and detection of harmful or toxic ingredients. Ideal chemical markers should be the therapeutic components of herbal medicines. However, for most herbal medicines, the therapeutic components have not been fully elucidated or easily monitored. Bioactive, characteristic, main, synergistic, correlative, toxic and general components may be selected. This article reviews the effective use of chemical markers in the quality control of herbal medicines including the selection criteria considering the roles and physicochemical factors which may affect the effective use of chemical markers.

  5. The regulation of herbal medicines in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, David R.

    2002-01-01

    Complementary medicines, including herbal medicines in Australia are regulated under therapeutics goods legislation. Based on risk, Australia has developed a two tiered approach to the regulation of therapeutic goods. Listed medicines are considered to be of lower risk than Registered medicines. Most, but not all, complementary medicines are Listed medicines. Managing the risk associated with therapeutic goods, including complementary medicines, is exerted through the processes of licensing of manufacturers; pre-market assessment of products; and post-market regulatory activity. Herbal medicines may be associated with low or high risk depending on the toxicity of ingredients, proposed dosage, appropriateness of the indications and claims for self-diagnosis and management and the potential for adverse reactions. Registered medicines are individually evaluated for safety, quality and efficacy before they are released onto the market. Listed medicines are individually assessed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration for compliance with legislation, they are not evaluated before release. They may only be formulated from ingredients that have undergone pre-market evaluation for safety and quality and are considered low risk. Listed complementary medicines may only carry indications and claims for the symptomatic relief of non-serious conditions, health maintenance, health enhancement and risk reduction. An important feature of risk management in Australia is that early market access for low risk complementary medicines is supported by appropriate post-market regulatory activity

  6. Herbal medicine use among Turkish patients with chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munevver Tulunay

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: In this study herbal medicine use was found to be higher among patients who had been diagnosed with chronic diseases. Therefore physicians should be aware of herbal medicine usage of their patients and inform them about the effectivity and side effects of herbal medicines. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 217-220

  7. Adult lead poisoning from a herbal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Abdulsalam S.; Latif, Ali H.

    2002-01-01

    A 56-year-old Indian lady presented with one week history of abdominal pain, jaundice and chronic polyarthralgia. She had evidence of hemolytic anemia and hepatitis. Her blood lead level was high and a peripheral blood film showed dense basophilic stippling. It is believed that the lead toxicity was due to the use of Indian herbal medicine. (author)

  8. Chinese herbal medicine alleviating hyperandrogenism of PCOS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women hence Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been chosen by many clinicians and patients as alternative treatment for PCOS. The present study was to explore the effects of CHM in alleviating hyperandrogenism of PCOS ...

  9. Recent Advances in Antiepileptic Herbal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchishi, Stephen M

    2018-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide, with about 80 percent of cases thought to be in developing nations where it is mostly linked to superstition. The limited supply, high cost as well as low efficacy and adverse side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a matter of major concern. Herbal medicine has always been traditionally part of treatment of epilepsy. Herbal medicines are generally well tolerated, with fewer side effects. To highlight some herbal extracts that have been studied for their anticonvulsant activity in animal models, literature search from PubMed and Science Direct, was performed. The keywords for the search consisted of combinations of the following terms: Herbal antiepileptic and/or anticonvulsant, botanicals + epilepsy. Literature published in the last five years was considered. Eighteen (18) anticonvulsant herbal agents are reported and discussed. Experiments mostly consisted of phenotypic screens in rodents, with little diversity in screening methods. In most experiments, the tested extracts prolonged the time to onset of seizures and decreased their duration. Most experimenters implicate potentiation of GABAergic activity as the mode of action of the extracts, even though some experimenters did not fully characterise the bioactive chemical composition of their extracts. Potential herbal remedies have shown positive results in animal models. It remains unclear how many make it into clinical trials and eventually making part of the AED list. More rigorous research, applying strict research methodology with uniform herbal combinations, as well as clinical studies are urgently needed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire. The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. Results A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Conclusions Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects. PMID:22117933

  11. Recent advances in herbal medicines treating Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu-Zhao; Zhang, Shuai-Nan; Liu, Shu-Min; Lu, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Herbal medicines have attracted considerable attention in recent years, which are used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) in China based on traditional Chinese medicine or modern pharmacological theories. We summarized and analyzed the anti-Parkinsonian activities of herbal medicines and herbal formulations investigated in PD models and provide future references for basic and clinical investigations. All the herbal medicines and herbal formulations were tested on PD models in vitro and in vivo. The relevant compounds and herbal extracts with anti-Parkinsonian activities were included and analyzed according to their genera or pharmacological activities. A total of 38 herbal medicines and 11 herbal formulations were analyzed. The relevant compounds, herbal extracts and formulations were reported to be effective on PD models by modulating multiple key events or signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. The plant species of these herbal medicines belong to 24 genera and 18 families, such as Acanthopanax, Alpinia and Astragalus, etc. These herbal medicines can be an alternative and valuable source for anti-Parkinsonian drug discovery. The plant species in these genera and families may be the most promising candidates for further investigation and deserve further consideration in clinical trials. Active components in some of the herbal extracts and the compatibility law of herbal formulations remain to be further investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Herbal Medicines: from Traditional Medicine to Modern Experimental Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Rasoulian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Academic writings indicate that the medicinal use of plants dates back to 4000 - 5000 B.C. (1. Utilization of medicinal herbs has indeed a long history not only in human's life, but also in animals and there are some interesting evidences about the animals' self-medication, in both the prevention and treatment of diseases (2-5. The World Health Organization (WHO has recognized the importance of traditional medicines and created strategies, guidelines and standards for botanical medicines (6, 7. A significant part of those traditional text dealing with medicine, which were appreciated by ancient scientific communities worldwide, such as The Canon of Medicine by Persian physician–philosopher Ibn Sina (or Avicenna, 980 to 1032 AD, is allocated to herbal medicines. The Canon explores nearly 500 medicinal plants and herbal drugs. It should be noted that this book was used as a medical textbook in Europe until the 17th century AD (8, 9. Although there are important evidences about using some kinds of experimental approaches in traditional medicine (8, the efficacy of such approaches is in doubt because it is generally agreed that they might have been part of physicians' personal experiences. Not only the demand for herbal drugs is growing in developing countries, but also there are some evidences that consumers in developed countries are becoming disillusioned with modern healthcare; hence, the demand for traditional alternatives including herbal medicines is increasing in developing countries (10. On the one hand, the increased interest in herbal medicines throughout the world (10, 11, on the other hand, the need for direct empirical evidence about the effectiveness of herbal medicines in the proper statistical society with the appropriate number and method, denote the significance of new studies about medicinal plants and publishing their results. Herbal Medicines Journal (eISSN: 2538-2144 reports valuable research results for researchers all

  13. Herbal medicine research and global health: an ethical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tilburt, Jon C; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2008-01-01

    Governments, international agencies and corporations are increasingly investing in traditional herbal medicine research. Yet little literature addresses ethical challenges in this research. In this paper, we apply concepts in a comprehensive ethical framework for clinical research to international traditional herbal medicine research. We examine in detail three key, underappreciated dimensions of the ethical framework in which particularly difficult questions arise for international herbal me...

  14. Herbal medicines for liver diseases in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, S P; Jayaram, S; Gopalakrishnan, V; Hari, R; Jeyakumar, P; Sripathi, M S

    2002-12-01

    The use of natural remedies for the treatment of liver diseases has a long history, starting with the Ayurvedhic treatment, and extending to the Chinese, European and other systems of traditional medicines. The 21st century has seen a paradigm shift towards therapeutic evaluation of herbal products in liver diseases by carefully synergizing the strengths of the traditional systems of medicine with that of the modern concept of evidence-based medicinal evaluation, standardization of herbal products and randomized placebo controlled clinical trials to support clinical efficacy. The present review provides the status report on the scientific approaches made to herbal preparations used in Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of liver diseases. In spite of the availability of more than 300 preparations for the treatment of jaundice and chronic liver diseases in Indian systems of medicine using more than 87 Indian medicinal plants, only four terrestrial plants have been scientifically elucidated while adhering to the internationally acceptable scientific protocols. In-depth studies have proved Sylibum marianum to be anti-oxidative, antilipidperoxidative, antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and liver regenerative. Glycyrrhiza glabra has been shown to be hepatoprotective and capable of inducing an indigenous interferon. Picrorhiza kurroa is proved to be anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory. Extensive studies on Phyllanthus amarus have confirmed this plant preparation as being anti-viral against hepatitis B and C viruses, hepatoprotective and immunomodulating, as well as possessing anti-inflammatory properties. For the first time in the Indian systems of medicine, a chemo-biological fingerprinting methodology for standardization of P. amarus preparation has been patented. Copyright 2002 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  15. An Overview of Herbal Medicine Research and Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research pattern in medicinal plants and traditional medicine practices in Nigeria is largely unknown. Hence this paper examined such research patterns with a view to determining how the country fared in herbal medicine research and development. The study also identified the number of herbal medicine scientific ...

  16. Demystifying traditional herbal medicine with modern approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu-Shuang; Weng, Jing-Ke

    2017-07-31

    Plants have long been recognized for their therapeutic properties. For centuries, indigenous cultures around the world have used traditional herbal medicine to treat a myriad of maladies. By contrast, the rise of the modern pharmaceutical industry in the past century has been based on exploiting individual active compounds with precise modes of action. This surge has yielded highly effective drugs that are widely used in the clinic, including many plant natural products and analogues derived from these products, but has fallen short of delivering effective cures for complex human diseases with complicated causes, such as cancer, diabetes, autoimmune disorders and degenerative diseases. While the plant kingdom continues to serve as an important source for chemical entities supporting drug discovery, the rich traditions of herbal medicine developed by trial and error on human subjects over thousands of years contain invaluable biomedical information just waiting to be uncovered using modern scientific approaches. Here we provide an evolutionary and historical perspective on why plants are of particular significance as medicines for humans. We highlight several plant natural products that are either in the clinic or currently under active research and clinical development, with particular emphasis on their mechanisms of action. Recent efforts in developing modern multi-herb prescriptions through rigorous molecular-level investigations and standardized clinical trials are also discussed. Emerging technologies, such as genomics and synthetic biology, are enabling new ways for discovering and utilizing the medicinal properties of plants. We are entering an exciting era where the ancient wisdom distilled into the world's traditional herbal medicines can be reinterpreted and exploited through the lens of modern science.

  17. Herbal medicine for sports: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Maha; Slimeni, Olfa; Pokrywka, Andrzej; Kuvačić, Goran; D Hayes, Lawrence; Milic, Mirjana; Padulo, Johnny

    2018-01-01

    The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has increased during last decades. At present, some herbs are used to enhance muscle strength and body mass. Emergent evidence suggests that the health benefits from plants are attributed to their bioactive compounds such as Polyphenols, Terpenoids, and Alkaloids which have several physiological effects on the human body. At times, manufacturers launch numerous products with banned ingredient inside with inappropriate amounts or fake supplement inducing harmful side effect. Unfortunately up to date, there is no guarantee that herbal supplements are safe for anyone to use and it has not helped to clear the confusion surrounding the herbal use in sport field especially. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide guidance on the efficacy and side effect of most used plants in sport. We have identified plants according to the following categories: Ginseng, alkaloids, and other purported herbal ergogenics such as Tribulus Terrestris , Cordyceps Sinensis. We found that most herbal supplement effects are likely due to activation of the central nervous system via stimulation of catecholamines. Ginseng was used as an endurance performance enhancer, while alkaloids supplementation resulted in improvements in sprint and cycling intense exercises. Despite it is prohibited, small amount of ephedrine was usually used in combination with caffeine to enhance muscle strength in trained individuals. Some other alkaloids such as green tea extracts have been used to improve body mass and composition in athletes. Other herb (i.e. Rhodiola, Astragalus) help relieve muscle and joint pain, but results about their effects on exercise performance are missing.

  18. Review of Anti-Inflammatory Herbal Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Ghasemian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites are progressively used in the treatment of diseases as a complementary medicine. Inflammation is a pathologic condition that includes a wide range of diseases such as rheumatic and immune-mediated conditions, diabetes, cardiovascular accident, and etcetera. We introduce some herbs which their anti-inflammatory effects have been evaluated in clinical and experimental studies. Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis, Borago officinalis, evening primrose, and Devil’s claw are some of the introduced medicinal herbs in this review. Since the treatment of inflammation is not a one-dimensional remedy, this review tries to reach a multidimensional therapeutic approach to inflammation with the help of herbal medicine and modification in lifestyle.

  19. Facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use in Accra, Ghana: an inductive exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziato, Lydia; Antwi, Hannah Ohemeng

    2016-05-26

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine including herbal medicine is increasing in many countries including Ghana. However, there is paucity of research on the perspectives of patrons of herbal medicine regarding the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use. This study sought to investigate the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine among Ghanaian adults who use one form of herbal medicine or the other. The study employed an inductive exploratory qualitative approach. It was conducted at a private herbal clinic in Accra. Purposive sampling was employed to recruit 16 participants. Data collection was through individual face-to-face interviews and these were transcribed and analysed using content analysis procedures. It was realized that the factors that enhanced the use of herbal medicine included use of convincing information to enhance the initiation of herbal medicine use, effectiveness of herbal medicine, personal preference for herbal medicine, perceived ineffectiveness of western medicine and integration of spirituality in herbal medicine. The factors that hindered herbal medicine use included negative perceptions and attitudes about herbal medicine, poor vending environment, poor knowledge of vendors, high cost of herbal products at credible herbal clinics and inconsistent effectiveness of some herbal products. Participants desired that the national health insurance scheme will cover the cost of herbal medicine to alleviate the financial burden associated with herbal medicine use. Although some Ghanaians patronize herbal medicine, the negative perceptions about herbal medicine resulting from deceitful producers and vendors call for enhanced education and monitoring to ensure that effective herbal products are used.

  20. Contamination of herbal medicinal products marketed in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed to evaluate the bacterial contamination of powdered herbal medicinal preparations sourced from identified herbal retail outlets in different parts of Kaduna metropolis. The assessments of the contamination of the herbal products were carried out using standard procedures: total aerobic bacterial plate count, ...

  1. A 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach to evaluate the geographical authenticity of herbal medicine and its application in building a model effectively assessing the mixing proportion of intentional admixtures: A case study of Panax ginseng: Metabolomics for the authenticity of herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huy Truong; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Choi, Young-Geun; Min, Jung-Eun; Yoon, Sang Jun; Yu, Yun-Hyun; Lim, Johan; Lee, Jeongmi; Kwon, Sung Won; Park, Jeong Hill

    2016-05-30

    Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng has long been the subject of adulteration, especially regarding its origins. Here, 60 ginseng samples from Korea and China initially displayed similar genetic makeup when investigated by DNA-based technique with 23 chloroplast intergenic space regions. Hence, (1)H NMR-based metabolomics with orthogonal projections on the latent structure-discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) were applied and successfully distinguished between samples from two countries using seven primary metabolites as discrimination markers. Furthermore, to recreate adulteration in reality, 21 mixed samples of numerous Korea/China ratios were tested with the newly built OPLS-DA model. The results showed satisfactory separation according to the proportion of mixing. Finally, a procedure for assessing mixing proportion of intentionally blended samples that achieved good predictability (adjusted R(2)=0.8343) was constructed, thus verifying its promising application to quality control of herbal foods by pointing out the possible mixing ratio of falsified samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bar-HRM for Authentication of Plant-Based Medicines: Evaluation of Three Medicinal Products Derived from Acanthaceae Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs, both in developed and developing countries. The economic importance of the herbal and natural supplement industry is increasing every year. As the herbal industry grows, consumer safety is one issue that cannot be overlooked. Herbal products in Thai local markets are commonly sold without packaging or labels. Plant powders are stored in large bags or boxes, and therefore buying local herbal products poses a high risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM) to authenticate three medicinal Acanthaceae species (Acanthus ebracteatus, Andrographis paniculata and Rhinacanthus nasutus) commonly used in Thailand. The rbcL barcode was selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed rbcL primers showed that the three chosen species could be distinguished from each other. HRM curves of all fifteen test samples indicated that three of tested products did not contain the indicated species. Two closely related species (A. paniculata and R. nasutus), which have a high level of morphological similarity, were interchanged with one another in three tested products. Incorrect information on packaging and labels of the tested herbal products was the cause of the results shown here. Morphological similarity among the species of interest also hindered the collection process. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in aiding in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products.

  3. Herbal medicines: old and new concepts, truths and misunderstandings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Carmona

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Men have been using herbal medicines for thousands of years. The advantages of this type of therapeutics include good availability, local cultural aspects, individual preferences, the increasing demand for natural and organic products, and the already validated synergistic effects of herbal medicines. However, ethically, the scope and limits of these drugs need to be established not only by ethnopharmacological evidences but also by scientific investigations, which confirm the therapeutic effects. With this study, we propose to discuss the possible advantages of using herbal medicines instead of purified compounds, the truth and myths about herbal medicines, drug discovery, and the implications for medical education and health care.

  4. Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety

  5. Therapeutic Applications of Herbal Medicines for Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yi Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy.

  6. USE OF HERBAL MEDICINES IN PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Kores Plesničar

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. »Lost illusions« about conventionalmedicine, together with the orientation towards the »natural«way of life, lead into ever increasing use of alternative or complementaryways of treatment. Herbal medicines are enteringinto psychiatric practice with the intention of treatment (mostlyself-treatment psychiatric symptoms. Side effects may includechanges of mood, thinking processes or behaviour, and interactionswith psychiatric medications.Conclusions. With this article we would like to draw attentionto common self-treatment or self-medication in persons withpsychiatric symptoms, and to the equally common fact that thephysicians are – more often than not – unacquainted withthis practice. Some of the most frequently used herbal medicinesare presented in the article (registered in Slovenia as classC medicinal products. Regardless of their extensive use andimplementation of regulatory procedures, in most cases qualitativeand quantitative data are insufficient for final conclusionsabout their efficacy and safety to be reliable. Partial exceptionto this represents the use of St. John’s worth in the treatmentof depression and ginkgo in the treatment of memoryimpairments in dementia. Self-treatment in general populationshould not be neglected, however, full professional scepticismshould be maintained.

  7. Herbal Medicine for Market Potential in Malaysia: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafii khamis

    2014-01-01

    Due to side effects of synthetic drugs, herbal products are rapidly gaining popularity in the world market. The global herbal market in 2010 was US$65 billion and is estimated to hit US$93 billion in 2015. The Malaysian herbal market is estimated to expand from RM7 billion in 2010 to about RM29 billion by 2020. Inspite of its rich biodiversity and well-practised knowledge of herbal medicine amongst its multi cultured population, the share of Malaysia in the global herbal market is very small and not up to the mark. The present article will deal with the measures to be adopted for global promotion of Malaysian herbal products. The scenario and perceptions of herbal medicine are discussed. (author)

  8. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP): Emergence As an Alternative Technology for Herbal Medicine Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-Jian; Xiong, Chao; Liu, Yue; Liang, Jun-Song; Zhou, Xing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Correct identification of medicinal plant ingredients is essential for their safe use and for the regulation of herbal drug supply chain. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a recently developed approach to identify herbal medicine species. This novel molecular biology technique enables timely and accurate testing, especially in settings where infrastructures to support polymerase chain reaction facilities are lacking. Studies that used this method have altered our view on the extent and complexity of herbal medicine identification. In this review, we give an introduction into LAMP analysis, covers the basic principles and important aspects in the development of LAMP analysis method. Then we presented a critical review of the application of LAMP-based methods in detecting and identifying raw medicinal plant materials and their processed products. We also provide a practical standard operating procedure (SOP) for the utilization of the LAMP protocol in herbal authentication, and consider the prospects of LAMP technology in the future developments of herbal medicine identification and the challenges associated with its application.

  9. Non-European traditional herbal medicines in Europe: a community herbal monograph perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liping; Zou, Wenjun; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Tingmo; Greef, JanVander; Wang, Mei

    2014-10-28

    The European Directive 2004/24/EC introducing a simplified registration procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products, plays an important role in harmonising the current legislation framework for all herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Although substantial achievements have been made under the new scheme, only a limited number of herbal medicinal products from non-European traditions commonly used in Europe have been registered. Therefore, identification of the obstacles, and determination of appropriate means to overcome the major challenges in the registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products are of critical importance for the EU herbal medicinal product market. The primary aims of this study were to understand the key issues and obstacles to registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products within the EU. The findings may identify the need for more attention on the Community herbal monographs elaborated by the Herbal Medicinal Products Committee (HMPC), as well as further evidence based scientific research on non-European herbal substances/preparations by the scientific community. A systematic evaluation of the herbal substances and preparations included in Community herbal monographs and public statements has been carried out. The focus was herbal substances and preparations derived from non-European traditions. Of the 109 adopted Community herbal monographs, 10 are herbal substances used in Chinese traditional medicine. Where the HMPC issued a public statement because it was unable to elaborate a monograph more than half-involved herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions. The main reasons herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions were not accepted for inclusion in the Community herbal monographs have been identified as due to unfulfilled requirements of Directive 2004/24/EC. The most common reasons were the lack of evidence to demonstrate a 15-year minimum

  10. Chinese herbal medicine for severe acute respiratory syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Manheimer, Eric; Shi, Yi

    2004-01-01

    To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically.......To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Chinese herbal medicine for treating severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) systematically....

  11. Barriers to Herbal Medicine Research in Nigeria; Researcher's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the barriers to herbal medicine research in Nigeria. This is with a view to formulating appropriate strategies that would be deployed to overcome the identified barriers to herbal medicine research. The paper therefore identified and discussed some of these inherent barriers such as the standardization of ...

  12. Traditional herbal medicines used in neonates and infants less than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medicine use in children , adults and other groups have been documented but little information is known about the use herbal medicine mixtures in neonates and infants less than six months old. This is important because pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics changes between infants and adults ...

  13. Herbal Medicines: Socio-Demographic Characteristics And Pattern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbal medicines are used by patients, mostly without the knowledge of their Doctors and other Health providers. The presentation, course and outcomes of the patient's condition may thus be affected. There has been a lot of concern recently about the use of herbal medicines. The Ghana Food and Drugs Board has come ...

  14. Chinese herbal medicine and prednisone increase proportion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study investigated the effects of Chinese herbal medicine and prednisone onCD4+FoxP3+ T cells (Tregs) and Th17 cells in the MRL/lpr mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods: MRL/lpr mice were treated with herbal medicine (yin-nourishing and heat-clearing therapy), prednisone, and a ...

  15. Herbal medicine use among patients with chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulunay, Munevver; Aypak, Cenk; Yikilkan, Hulya; Gorpelioglu, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used all over the world, and herbal medicines are the most preferred ways of CAM. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of herbal medicine use among patients with chronic diseases. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from April 2014 to December 2014 among patients who had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), and hyperlipidemia (HL) in Family Medicine Department of Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Training and Research Hospital, in Ankara. A questionnaire about herbal drug use was applied by face to face interview to the participants. A total of 217 patients were included in this study. The mean age of the participants was 56.6 ± 9.7 years (55 male and 162 female). The rate of herbal medicine use was 29%. Herbal medicine use among female gender was significantly higher (P = 0.040). Conventional medication use was found to be lower among herbal medicine consumers. There was no relationship between herbal medicine use and type of chronic disease, living area, and occupation or education level. Most frequently used herbs were lemon (39.6%) and garlic (11.1%) for HT, cinnamon (12.7%) for DM, and walnut (6.3%) for HL. In this study, herbal medicine use was found to be higher among patients who had been diagnosed with chronic diseases. Therefore, physicians should be aware of herbal medicine usage of their patients and inform them about the effectivity and side effects of herbal medicines.

  16. Willingness of Herbal Medicine Practitioners and Herbs Vendors to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Willingness of Herbal Medicine Practitioners and Herbs Vendors to Contribute Financially to Conservation of Medicinal Plants in Ibadan, ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The earlier version of this paper had some errors.

  17. Systematic reviews of herbal medicines--an annotated bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, K.; ter Riet, G.; Hondras, M.; Vickers, A.; Saller, R.; Melchart, D.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials on herbal medicines. METHODS: Potentially relevant reviews were searched through the register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field, the Cochrane Library, Medline, and bibliographies of

  18. Herbal Medicine in Ischemic Stroke: Challenges and Prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaire, Bhakta Prasad

    2018-04-01

    Herbal medicines, mainly of plant source, are invaluable source for the discovery of new therapeutic agents for all sorts of human ailments. The complex pathogenesis of stroke and multifactorial effect of herbal medicine and their active constituents may suggest the promising future of natural medicine for stroke treatment. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, neuroprotective and vascular protective effect of herbal medicines are believed to be efficacious in stroke treatment. Herbs typically have fewer reported side effects than allopathic medicine, and may be safer to use over longer period of time. Herbal medicines are believed to be more effective for the longstanding health complaints, such as stroke. Several medicinal plants and their active constituents show the promising results in laboratory research. However failure in transformation of laboratory animal research to the clinical trials has created huge challenge for the use of herbal medicine in stroke. Until and unless scientifically comprehensive evidence of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicine in ischemic stroke patients is available, efforts should be made to continue implementing treatment strategies of proven effectiveness. More consideration should be paid to natural compounds that can have extensive therapeutic time windows, perfect pharmacological targets with few side effects. Herbal medicine has excellent prospective for the treatment of ischemic stroke, but a lot of effort should be invested to transform the success of animal research to human use.

  19. Herbal medicine research and global health: an ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilburt, Jon C; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2008-08-01

    Governments, international agencies and corporations are increasingly investing in traditional herbal medicine research. Yet little literature addresses ethical challenges in this research. In this paper, we apply concepts in a comprehensive ethical framework for clinical research to international traditional herbal medicine research. We examine in detail three key, underappreciated dimensions of the ethical framework in which particularly difficult questions arise for international herbal medicine research: social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio. Significant challenges exist in determining shared concepts of social value, scientific validity and favourable risk-benefit ratio across international research collaborations. However, we argue that collaborative partnership, including democratic deliberation, offers the context and process by which many of the ethical challenges in international herbal medicine research can, and should be, resolved. By "cross-training" investigators, and investing in safety-monitoring infrastructure, the issues identified by this comprehensive framework can promote ethically sound international herbal medicine research that contributes to global health.

  20. Herbal medicines for children: an illusion of safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoni, A J; Simone, K

    2001-04-01

    Herbal medicaments are in common use. In general, the judicious use of carefully selected and prepared herbal medications seems to cause few adverse effects and may be beneficial. However, toxic effects of these products have been reported with increasing frequency. Infants and children may be even more susceptible to some of the adverse effects and toxicity of these products because of differences in physiology, immature metabolic enzyme systems, and dose per body weight. Although information promoting the use of herbal medicine is widespread, true evidence-based information about the efficacy and safety of herbal medications is limited. Although the most conservative approach is to recommend against use of herbal medicine until such evidence is available, some patients are not receptive to this approach. A reasonable approach for health care providers may be to follow such use closely, assist in herbal therapeutic decisions, and monitor for adverse effects and interactions. This manuscript discusses general concepts about herbal medicines, public health implications, and a framework for mechanisms of adverse effects from the use of botanicals. Adverse effects and toxicity of selected herbal products, including Chinese herbal medicines, are presented. The authors propose a risk reduction approach in which physicians actively seek information about the use of complementary or alternative medicine while taking medical histories.

  1. Hybrid analysis (barcode-high resolution melting) for authentication of Thai herbal products, Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall.ex Nees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Khamyong, Nuttaluck; Pintakum, Danupol; Lamphun, Santisuk Na; Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Osathanunkul, Kitisak; Madesis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees is a medicinal plant with multiple pharmacological properties. It has been used over many centuries as a household remedy. A. paniculata products sold on the markets are in processed forms so it is difficult to authenticate. Therefore buying the herbal products poses a high-risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. High resolution melting analysis coupled with DNA barcoding (Bar-HRM) was applied to detect adulteration in commercial herbal products. The rbcL barcode was selected to use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profile of A. paniculata species. DNA of the tested commercial products was isolated and their melting profiles were then generated and compared with the standard A. paniculata. The melting profiles of the rbcL amplicons of the three closely related herbal species (A. paniculata, Acanthus ebracteatus and Rhinacanthus nasutus) are clearly separated so that they can be distinguished by the developed method. The method was then used to authenticate commercial herbal products. HRM curves of all 10 samples tested are similar to A. paniculata which indicated that all tested products were contained the correct species as labeled. The method described in this study has been proved to be useful in aiding identification and/or authenticating A. paniculata. This Bar-HRM analysis has allowed us easily to determine the A. paniculata species in herbal products on the markets even they are in processed forms. We propose the use of DNA barcoding combined with High Resolution Melting analysis for authenticating of Andrographis paniculata products.The developed method can be used regardless of the type of the DNA template (fresh or dried tissue, leaf, and stem).rbcL region was chosen for the analysis and work well with our samplesWe can easily determine the A. paniculata species in herbal products tested

  2. Herbal Medicines for Leucorrhea According to Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehdari, Sahar; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

    2016-05-01

    Leucorrhea or vaginal discharge is a conventional complaint. It is generally whitish, yellowish, or greenish vaginal discharge in females that might be normal or a symptom of infection. It is almost mucus discharge, which exhibit exfoliation of vaginal epithelial cells due to estrogen influence on the vaginal mucosa. It is important to identify the differences between physiologic and pathologic discharges. Leucorrhea is a well-known disease in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). In their manuscripts, the word "Sayalan-e rahem" was used by Avicenna and some other Iranian traditional practitioners to describe this condition. Ancient practitioners believed that excessive residue (kesrate fozool) and weakness of digestion (Za'afe hazm) were the main causes of leucorrhea, for which herbal therapy was the main proposed treatment. In the present study, medicinal plants used in ITM for leucorrhea are introduced. In this research, six Iranian traditional textbooks including Canon of Medicine (Avicena 980-1037 AD), A-Hawi (Razes 865-925 AD), Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Mo'men tonekaboni, 17th century), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili 18th century), Ikhtiarat Badi'i (Ansari 1329-1404 AD), and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiy (Ibn al-Baitar 1197 AD) were studied and searched for anti-leucorrhea medicines. Then the herbal medicines were selected and scored depending on their frequency in the above-mentioned textbooks. Additional attention was paid to provide the most suitable scientific name for each plant. This study introduced many Materia Medica with anti-leucorrhea activity and among them seven herbs including Rubus fruticosus L., Rhus coriaria L., Phoenix dactylifera L., Pimpinella anisum L., Rumex acetosa L., Olea europaea L. and Quercus lusitanica Lam. showed the most repetition in ITM prescriptions. These herbs can be introduced as new anti-leucorrhea herbal medicines for clinical research.

  3. Herbal medicine, Chaplin, and "The Kid".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfi, Maurizio; Zilletti, Lucilla

    2012-06-01

    At variance with other largely safe complementary alternative medicines like homeopathy and acupuncture, which only carry the risk of inducing patients to shun effective treatment, herbal remedies are real, albeit impure, drugs and therefore fully capable of producing undesirable consequences if misused. The advantages they offer are uncertain since genuine evidence of efficacy and effectiveness is present in only a few cases. A result of this imbalance is that studies in this field are considerably more meaningful when they deal with untoward effects than with therapeutic uses. This disproportion has suggested to us the curious similarity with the situation portrayed in the film "The Kid" where the essential task of the protagonist (Chaplin) is to repair the windows his stone-throwing child has just broken. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. [Key points of poverty alleviation of Chinese herbal medicine industry and classification of recommended Chinese herbal medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-Qi; Su, Gang-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Sun, Xiao-Ming; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Guo, Lan-Ping; Li, Meng; Wang, Hui; Jing, Zhi-Xian

    2017-11-01

    To build a well-off society in an all-round way, eliminate poverty, improve people's livelihood and improve the level of social and economic development in poverty-stricken areas is the frontier issues of the government and science and technology workers at all levels. Chinese herbal medicine is the strategic resource of the people's livelihood, Chinese herbal medicine cultivation is an important part of China's rural poor population income. As most of the production of Chinese herbal medicine by the biological characteristics of their own and the interaction of natural ecological environment factors, showing a strong regional character.the Ministry of Traditional Chinese Medicine and the State Council Poverty Alleviation Office and other five departments jointly issued the "China Herbal Industry Poverty Alleviation Action Plan (2017-2020)", according to local conditions of guidance and planning of Chinese herbal medicine production practice, promote Chinese herbal medicine industry poverty alleviation related work In this paper, based on the relevant data of poverty-stricken areas, this paper divides the areas with priority to the poverty alleviation conditions of Chinese herbal medicine industry, and analyzes and catalogs the list of Chinese herbal medicines grown in poverty-stricken areas at the macro level. The results show that there are at least 10% of the poor counties in the counties where the poverty-stricken counties and the concentrated areas are concentrated in the poverty-stricken areas. There is already a good base of Chinese herbal medicine industry, which is the key priority area for poverty alleviation of Chinese herbal medicine industry. Poverty-stricken counties, with a certain degree of development of Chinese medicine industry poverty alleviation conditions, the need to strengthen the relevant work to expand the foundation and capacity of Chinese herbal medicine industry poverty alleviation; 37% of poor counties to develop Chinese medicine

  5. DNA barcode authentication of saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Damon P; Jeanson, Marc L

    2013-12-17

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini-barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74-1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini-barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini-barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined.

  6. Herbal medicine for low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Hanna; Robbins, Chris; van Tulder, Maurits W; Berman, Brian M; Bombardier, Claire; Gagnier, Joel J

    2014-12-23

    Low-back pain (LBP) is a common condition and imposes a substantial economic burden upon people living in industrialized societies. A large proportion of people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines have been purported for use in treating people with LBP. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine for non-specific LBP. We searched the following electronic databases up to September 2014: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Clinical Trials.gov, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Portal and PubMed; checked reference lists in review articles, guidelines and retrieved trials; and personally contacted individuals with expertise in this area. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining adults (over 18 years of age) suffering from acute, sub-acute, or chronic non-specific LBP. The interventions were herbal medicines which we defined as plants used for medicinal purposes in any form. Primary outcome measures were pain and function. A library scientist with the Cochrane Back Review Group conducted the database searches. One review author contacted content experts and acquired relevant citations. We downloaded full references and abstracts of the identified studies and retrieved a hard copy of each study for final inclusion decisions. Two review authors assessed risk of bias, GRADE criteria (GRADE 2004), and CONSORT compliance and a random subset were compared to assessments by a third individual. Two review authors assessed clinical relevance and resolved any disagreements by consensus. We included 14 RCTs (2050 participants) in this review. One trial on Solidago chilensis M. (Brazilian arnica) (20 participants) found very low quality evidence of reduction in perception of pain and improved flexibility with application of Brazilian arnica-containing gel twice daily as compared

  7. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids ...

  8. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...

  9. Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…

  10. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  11. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  12. The organoleptic and microbial quality of some herbal medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The WHO has advocated for the integration of herbal medicinal products into the primary health care system of developing countries. Safety, however, is a concern to the drug regulatory bodies. This study was carried out to determine the organoleptic properties and the microbial quality of herbal products ...

  13. Facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use in Accra, Ghana: an inductive exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Aziato, Lydia; Antwi, Hannah Ohemeng

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine including herbal medicine is increasing in many countries including Ghana. However, there is paucity of research on the perspectives of patrons of herbal medicine regarding the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use. This study sought to investigate the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine among Ghanaian adults who use one form of herbal medicine or the other. Methods The study employed an inductive exploratory qua...

  14. Application of transcriptomics in Chinese herbal medicine studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yi Lo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptomics using DNA microarray has become a practical and popular tool for herbal medicine study because of high throughput, sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, and reproducibility. Therefore, this article focuses on the overview of DNA microarray technology and the application of DNA microarray in Chinese herbal medicine study. To understand the number and the objectives of articles utilizing DNA microarray for herbal medicine study, we surveyed 297 frequently used Chinese medicinal herbs listed in Pharmacopoeia Commission of People’s Republic of China. We classified these medicinal herbs into 109 families and then applied PudMed search using “microarray” and individual herbal family as keywords. Although thousands of papers applying DNA microarray in Chinese herbal studies have been published since 1998, most of the articles focus on the elucidation of mechanisms of certain biological effects of herbs. Construction of the bioactivity database containing large-scaled gene expression profiles of quality control herbs can be applied in the future to analyze the biological events induced by herbs, predict the therapeutic potential of herbs, evaluate the safety of herbs, and identify the drug candidate of herbs. Moreover, the linkage of systems biology tools, such as functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics, will become a new translational platform between Western medicine and Chinese herbal medicine.

  15. Assessment of the State of Herbal Medicines Research and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were incremental or modification of products/process (58 %), continuous improvement of ... Strategies to enhance herbal medicine R&D were increased funding (36.3 %) ... the production of these new and improved .... brands, among others.

  16. Assessment of effectiveness of traditional herbal medicine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess efficacy of a South African traditional herbal medicine in ... Participants: Seven men and 26 women aged between 22 and 43 years took part ... (70%) and urogenital lesions (100%), resumption of workplace duties (60%), ...

  17. Traditional herbal medicines used in neonates and infants less than ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-10

    Nov 10, 2015 ... wet and dry climateand experiences two rainy seasons, with the heaviest ... and infants and the herbal medicines used in the treat- ment of ... eyes (neonatal jaundice). Amongst ..... treatment of oral diseases in Burkina Faso. J.

  18. From hospitals to herbalists: Rx herbal medicines | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-03

    Feb 3, 2011 ... "Equally important, their services are inexpensive — in fact, herbal medicines ... There's also a strong cultural attachment to this form of health care. ... "People and associations of traditional healers now have home gardens of ...

  19. Context Effects in Western Herbal Medicine: Fundamental to Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, James

    2016-01-01

    Western herbal medicine (WHM) is a complex healthcare system that uses traditional plant-based medicines in patient care. Typical preparations are individualized polyherbal formulae that, unlike herbal pills, retain the odor and taste of whole herbs. Qualitative studies in WHM show patient-practitioner relationships to be collaborative. Health narratives are co-constructed, leading to assessments, and treatments with personal significance for participants. It is hypothesized that the distinct characteristics of traditional herbal preparations and patient-herbalist interactions, in conjunction with the WHM physical healthcare environment, evoke context (placebo) effects that are fundamental to the overall effectiveness of herbal treatment. These context effects may need to be minimized to demonstrate pharmacological efficacy of herbal formulae in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, optimized to demonstrate effectiveness of WHM in pragmatic trials, and consciously harnessed to enhance outcomes in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

  1. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W.; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-01-01

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified

  2. Herbal Medicines: Malaysian Women’s Knowledge and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law Kim Sooi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1% followed by coconut oil (35.4%. The majority of women (89.2% used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38% per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%, with most women getting information from their parents (60.7% and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2% and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P<0.05. Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy.

  3. [Inheritance and innovation of traditional Chinese medicinal authentication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Chen, Hu-biao; Xiao, Pei-gen; Guo, Ping; Liang, Zhi-tao; Hung, Fanny; Wong, Lai-lai; Brand, Eric; Liu, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Chinese medicinal authentication is fundamental for the standardization and globalization of Chinese medicine. The discipline of authentication addresses difficult issues that have remained unresolved for thousands of years, and is essential for preserving safety. Chinese medicinal authentication has both scientific and traditional cultural connotations; the use of scientific methods to elucidate traditional experience-based differentiation carries the legacy of Chinese medicine forward, and offers immediate practical significance and long-term scientific value. In this paper, a path of inheritance and innovation is explored through the scientific exposition of Chinese medicinal authentication, featuring a review of specialized publications, the establishment of a Chinese medicine specimen center and Chinese medicinal image databases, the expansion of authentication technologies, and the formation of a cultural project dedicated to the Compedium of Materia Medica.

  4. A Comprehensive Quality Evaluation System for Complex Herbal Medicine Using PacBio Sequencing, PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, and Several Chemical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiasheng; Zhang, Peng; Liao, Baosheng; Li, Jing; Liu, Xingyun; Shi, Yuhua; Cheng, Jinle; Lai, Zhitian; Xu, Jiang; Chen, Shilin

    2017-01-01

    Herbal medicine is a major component of complementary and alternative medicine, contributing significantly to the health of many people and communities. Quality control of herbal medicine is crucial to ensure that it is safe and sound for use. Here, we investigated a comprehensive quality evaluation system for a classic herbal medicine, Danggui Buxue Formula, by applying genetic-based and analytical chemistry approaches to authenticate and evaluate the quality of its samples. For authenticity, we successfully applied two novel technologies, third-generation sequencing and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), to analyze the ingredient composition of the tested samples. For quality evaluation, we used high performance liquid chromatography assays to determine the content of chemical markers to help estimate the dosage relationship between its two raw materials, plant roots of Huangqi and Danggui. A series of surveys were then conducted against several exogenous contaminations, aiming to further access the efficacy and safety of the samples. In conclusion, the quality evaluation system demonstrated here can potentially address the authenticity, quality, and safety of herbal medicines, thus providing novel insight for enhancing their overall quality control. Highlight: We established a comprehensive quality evaluation system for herbal medicine, by combining two genetic-based approaches third-generation sequencing and DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) with analytical chemistry approaches to achieve the authentication and quality connotation of the samples. PMID:28955365

  5. A Comprehensive Quality Evaluation System for Complex Herbal Medicine Using PacBio Sequencing, PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, and Several Chemical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiasheng Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is a major component of complementary and alternative medicine, contributing significantly to the health of many people and communities. Quality control of herbal medicine is crucial to ensure that it is safe and sound for use. Here, we investigated a comprehensive quality evaluation system for a classic herbal medicine, Danggui Buxue Formula, by applying genetic-based and analytical chemistry approaches to authenticate and evaluate the quality of its samples. For authenticity, we successfully applied two novel technologies, third-generation sequencing and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, to analyze the ingredient composition of the tested samples. For quality evaluation, we used high performance liquid chromatography assays to determine the content of chemical markers to help estimate the dosage relationship between its two raw materials, plant roots of Huangqi and Danggui. A series of surveys were then conducted against several exogenous contaminations, aiming to further access the efficacy and safety of the samples. In conclusion, the quality evaluation system demonstrated here can potentially address the authenticity, quality, and safety of herbal medicines, thus providing novel insight for enhancing their overall quality control.Highlight: We established a comprehensive quality evaluation system for herbal medicine, by combining two genetic-based approaches third-generation sequencing and DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis with analytical chemistry approaches to achieve the authentication and quality connotation of the samples.

  6. A Comprehensive Quality Evaluation System for Complex Herbal Medicine Using PacBio Sequencing, PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, and Several Chemical Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiasheng; Zhang, Peng; Liao, Baosheng; Li, Jing; Liu, Xingyun; Shi, Yuhua; Cheng, Jinle; Lai, Zhitian; Xu, Jiang; Chen, Shilin

    2017-01-01

    Herbal medicine is a major component of complementary and alternative medicine, contributing significantly to the health of many people and communities. Quality control of herbal medicine is crucial to ensure that it is safe and sound for use. Here, we investigated a comprehensive quality evaluation system for a classic herbal medicine, Danggui Buxue Formula, by applying genetic-based and analytical chemistry approaches to authenticate and evaluate the quality of its samples. For authenticity, we successfully applied two novel technologies, third-generation sequencing and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), to analyze the ingredient composition of the tested samples. For quality evaluation, we used high performance liquid chromatography assays to determine the content of chemical markers to help estimate the dosage relationship between its two raw materials, plant roots of Huangqi and Danggui. A series of surveys were then conducted against several exogenous contaminations, aiming to further access the efficacy and safety of the samples. In conclusion, the quality evaluation system demonstrated here can potentially address the authenticity, quality, and safety of herbal medicines, thus providing novel insight for enhancing their overall quality control. Highlight : We established a comprehensive quality evaluation system for herbal medicine, by combining two genetic-based approaches third-generation sequencing and DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) with analytical chemistry approaches to achieve the authentication and quality connotation of the samples.

  7. The effect of traditional herbal medicines on pregnancy outcome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    developing countries.Hi This interest arises from the fact that traditional medicines not only have important cultural roles but may have beneficial medicinal effects and be more cost-effective than modern pharmaceutical agents. Furthermore the ingestion of herbal medicines during pregnancy is reported to be high in African ...

  8. [Research progress on current pharmacokinetic evaluation of Chinese herbal medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guofu; Zhao, Haoru; Yang, Jin

    2011-03-01

    In order to prove safety and efficacy, herbal medicines must undergo the rigorous scientific researches such as pharmacokinetic and bioavailability, before they are put on the market in the foreign countries. Botanical Drug Products promulgated by the US FDA could guide industry sponsors to develop herbal drugs, which was also an important reference for investigating Chinese herbal medicines. This paper reviews and discusses novel approaches for how to assess systemic exposure and pharmacokinetic of Chinese herbal medicines, which were in line with FDA guidance. This mainly focus on identifying pharmacokinetic markers of botanical products, integral pharmacokinetic study of multiple components, Biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system, and population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study in herb-drug interaction.

  9. Wound Healing: Concepts and Updates in Herbal Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meria M Dan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound is a common injury due to internal and or external factors, which are subsequently associated with many immunological events, including necrosis, inflammation, etc. Significant amounts of tissue damage and infection are two silent features of wound along with other co-morbidities. Wound healing is a complex process where immunohistochemistry, tissue regeneration, and remodeling are predominant events. Since early human life, there are many traditional procedures are in use to treat wounds of various kind. However, the modern medical practices are rapidly growing in wound healing, traditional herbal medicine and use of medicinal plant products are showing equal ability and drawing the attention of medical practitioners. Herbal/traditional medicine is one of the oldest procedures in countries like India and China. In recent days, it has become reliable option in developed nations such as USA, UK, and other European nations for treatment of many deadly diseases including cancer. India is one of the biggest biodiversity reservoirs in the world with vast range of plant species and high access to the ancient medical practices. According to the WHO data and available sources, there more than 80% world population depends on herbal medical products. This indicates that despite the lack of clinical and scientific evidences, the herbal or traditional market is growing at rapid pace. In this literature review, we presented the role of herbal medicine in wound healing, some of the common medicinal plants, the quality, safety, and efficacy concerns of herbal medical products.

  10. [Current research situation of nephrotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Fang, Sai-Nan; Gao, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jian-Ping; Chen, Wei

    2018-02-01

    To provide the basis for the future research on the nephrotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicine through systematic and comprehensive summary of all the Chinese herbal medicines which may lead to nephrotoxicity. Foreign resources included PubMed and Cochrane library, and domestic research resources was China Food and Drug Administration(CDFA) Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Center database. The databases were searched from establishment to January 1, 2017. There was no limitation on research type. 28 English studies were found, including 97 Chinese herbs or prescriptions with the risk of nephrotoxicity. The following six Chinese herbal medicines with the risk of nephrotoxicity had a large number of studies: aristolochic acid(5 studies), Tripterygium wilfordii(4 studies), Erycibe obtusifolia(2 studies), Rheum palmatum(2 studies), Ephedra sinica(2 studies), and Atractylodes lances(2 studies). The remaining 91 Chinese medicines were reported with risk of nephrotoxicity in only 1 study respectively. CDFA reported 16 Chinese herbal medicines with the risk of nephrotoxicity, including Ganmaoqing Pian(capsule), Zhenju Jiangya Pian, T. wilfordii preparation, Vc-Yinqiao Pian, Chuanhuning injection, Shuanghuanglian injection, Qingkailing injection, Lianbizhi injection, herbal decoction containing Aristolochiae Radix, Guanxin Suhe Wan, Shugan Liqi Wan, Ershiwuwei Songshi Wan, herbal decoction containing Aristolochia Fangchi, herbal granules containing root of Kaempfer Dutchmanspipe, Ganmaotong(tablets), and Longdan Xiegan Wan. Currently, in addition to aristolochic acids, the most reported Chinese herbal medicine with the risk of nephrotoxicity is T. wilfordii preparation. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. Toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in herbal medicines commonly used in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsyo, Emmanuel; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Beuerle, Till

    2017-04-18

    Herbal medicines have been used for centuries for the management and treatment of various ailments due to the belief that they pose only little or no health risk and side effects, and also, in part, due to their availability, affordability and/or self-supply. However, the increasing information over the recent years on the occurrence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey, herbal food and tea products has raised concerns about the safety of herbal medicines with respect to contamination. To this day, little is known on the occurrence of toxic PAs in herbal medicines, especially in tropical West Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the PA content of 70 well-known and widely patronized plant-derived medicinal preparations, which are commercialized in Ghana and some West African countries, in order to ascertain their potential health risk. PAs of the herbal medicinal products, sourced from specialized drugstores and mostly regulatory approved, were analyzed for their PA content by a HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method. The results show that a total of 60% of the analyzed herbal products were PA positive, indicating an average PA-concentration of 25.0μg/kg. The maximum PA level (1290.0μg/kg) was attributed to a regulatory-approved herbal medicine not known, according to the list of declared ingredients, to contain PA-plant parts. Interestingly, higher PA content (average, 30.2μg/kg) was detected in regulatory-approved herbal medicines, in contrast to lower amount (average, 8.0μg/kg) detected in non-regulatory-approved products. The findings of this study clearly demonstrate that herbal medicines containing PA plants as ingredients, as well as some of those containing plant species not known to produce PAs, are likely to contain hepatotoxic PA at levels higher than the daily dose in food and herbal medicinal products proposed by the European Medicines Agency (i.e. 0.35μg PA per day for 50kg adult and 0.14μg PA per day for 20kg children

  12. What's in the box? Authentication of Echinacea herbal products using DNA metabarcoding and HPTLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclariu, Ancuta Cristina; Ţebrencu, Carmen Elena; Ichim, Mihael Cristin; Ciupercǎ, Oana Teodora; Brysting, Anne Krag; de Boer, Hugo

    2018-05-15

    Differences in regulatory policies between countries as well as a lack of appropriate standardized methods for the authentication and quality control of herbal products directly impact their quality and safety. Echinacea products are among the top-selling herbal products in Europe and the United States with indications for a broad range of ailments. The increased use of Echinacea species has led to concerns about adulterated products resulting from challenges in morphology-based identification, due to overlapping morphological variation, frequent hybridization between species, and deliberate adulteration. This study addressed the need for a novel analytical strategy in the authentication of herbal products. A combination of high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and DNA metabarcoding was employed. Fifty-three Echinacea herbal products marketed across Europe were tested to evaluate the accuracy of these methods in plant identification and their potential for detecting substitutes, adulterants and other unreported plant constituents. HPTLC provides high resolution in the detection of Echinacea phytochemical target compounds, but does not offer information on the other species within the product. Alternatively, we showed that the limitation of HPTLC in detecting non-targeted species can be overcome by the complementary use of DNA metabarcoding. Using DNA metabarcoding, Echinacea species were detected in 34 out of the 38 retained products (89%), but with a lack of discriminatory resolution at the species level due to the low level of molecular divergence within the Echinacea genus. All of the tested herbal products showed considerable discrepancies between ingredients listed on the label and the ones detected using DNA metabarcoding, registering an overall ingredient fidelity of only 43%. The results confirm that DNA metabarcoding can be used to test for the presence of Echinacea species and simultaneously to detect other species present in even highly

  13. Literature Review: Herbal Medicine Treatment after Large-Scale Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Shin; Kaneko, Soichiro; Numata, Takehiro; Kamiya, Tetsuharu; Arita, Ryutaro; Saito, Natsumi; Kikuchi, Akiko; Ohsawa, Minoru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Ishii, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and typhoons, occur worldwide. After the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami, our medical support operation's experiences suggested that traditional medicine might be useful for treating the various symptoms of the survivors. However, little information is available regarding herbal medicine treatment in such situations. Considering that further disasters will occur, we performed a literature review and summarized the traditional medicine approaches for treatment after large-scale disasters. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library for articles written in English, and Ichushi for those written in Japanese. Articles published before 31 March 2016 were included. Keywords "disaster" and "herbal medicine" were used in our search. Among studies involving herbal medicine after a disaster, we found two randomized controlled trials investigating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), three retrospective investigations of trauma or common diseases, and seven case series or case reports of dizziness, pain, and psychosomatic symptoms. In conclusion, herbal medicine has been used to treat trauma, PTSD, and other symptoms after disasters. However, few articles have been published, likely due to the difficulty in designing high quality studies in such situations. Further study will be needed to clarify the usefulness of herbal medicine after disasters.

  14. Using SSR-HRM to Identify Closely Related Species in Herbal Medicine Products: A Case Study on Licorice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjian; Xiong, Chao; He, Xia; Lu, Zhaocen; Zhang, Xin; Chen, Xiaoyang; Sun, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicines have played important roles in the ways of life of people around the world since ancient times. Despite the advanced medical technology of the modern world, herbal medicines are still used as popular alternatives to synthetic drugs. Due to the increasing demand for herbal medicines, plant species identification has become an important tool to prevent substitution and adulteration. Here we propose a method for biological assessment of the quality of prescribed species in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia by use of high resolution melting (HRM) analysis of microsatellite loci. We tested this method on licorice, a traditional herbal medicine with a long history. Results showed that nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers produced distinct melting curve profiles for the five licorice species investigated using HRM analysis. These results were validated by capillary electrophoresis. We applied this protocol to commercially available licorice products, thus enabling the consistent identification of 11 labels with non-declared Glycyrrhiza species. This novel strategy may thus facilitate DNA barcoding as a method of identification of closely related species in herbal medicine products. Based on this study, a brief operating procedure for using the SSR-HRM protocol for herbal authentication is provided.

  15. Disposition pathways and pharmacokinetics of herbal medicines in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S-M; Li, C G; Liu, J-P; Chan, E; Duan, W; Zhou, S-F

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies have become an integral part of modern drug development, but these studies are not regulatory needs for herbal remedies. This paper updates our current knowledge on the disposition pathways and pharmacokinetic properties of commonly used herbal medicines in humans. To retrieve relevant data, the authors have searched through computer-based literatures by full text search in Medline (via Pubmed), ScienceDirect, Current Contents Connect (ISI), Cochrance Library, CINAHL (EBSCO), CrossRef Search and Embase (all from inception to May 2010). Many herbal compounds undergo Phase I and/or Phase II metabolism in vivo, with cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) playing a major role. Some herbal ingredients are substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which is highly expressed in the intestine, liver, brain and kidney. As such, the activities of these drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters are determining factors for the in vivo bioavailability, disposition and distribution of herbal remedies. There are increasing pharmacokinetic studies of herbal remedies, but these studies are mainly focused on a small number of herbal remedies including St John's wort, milk thistle, sculcap, curcumin, echinacea, ginseng, ginkgo, and ginger. The pharmacokinetic data of a small number of purified herbal ingredients, including anthocyanins, berberine, catechins, curcumin, lutein and quercetin, are available. For the majority of herbal remedies used in folk medicines, data on their disposition and biological fate in humans are lacking or in paucity. For a herbal medicine, the pharmacological effect is achieved when the bioactive agents or the metabolites reach and sustain proper levels at their sites of action. Both the dose levels and fates of active components in the body govern their target-site concentrations after administration of an herbal remedy. In this regard, a safe and optimal use of herbal medicines requires a

  16. Multiple chromatographic fingerprinting and its application to the quality control of herbal medicines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Xiaohui [Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cheng Yiyu [Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)]. E-mail: chengyy@zju.edu.cn; Ye Zhengliang [Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lin Ruichao [National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing 100050 (China); Qian Zhongzhi [Committee of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Beijing 100061 (China)

    2006-01-12

    Recently, chromatographic fingerprinting has become one of the most powerful approaches to quality control of herbal medicines. However, the performance of reported chromatographic fingerprinting constructed by single chromatogram sometimes turns out to be inadequate for complex herbal medicines, such as multi-herb botanical drug products. In this study, multiple chromatographic fingerprinting, which consists of more than one chromatographic fingerprint and represents the whole characteristics of chemical constitutions of the complex medicine, is proposed as a potential strategy in this complicated case. As a typical example, a binary chromatographic fingerprinting of 'Danshen Dropping Pill' (DSDP), the best-sold traditional Chinese medicine in China, was developed. First, two HPLC fingerprints that, respectively, represent chemical characteristics of depsides and saponins of DSDP were developed, which were used to construct binary chromatographic fingerprints of DSDP. Moreover, the authentication and validation of the binary fingerprints were performed. Then, a data-level information fusion method was employed to capture the chemical information encoded in two chromatographic fingerprints. Based on the fusion results, the lot-to-lot consistency and frauds can be determined either using similarity measure or by chemometrics approach. The application of binary chromatographic fingerprinting to consistency assessment and frauds detection of DSDP clearly demonstrated that the proposed method was a powerful approach to quality control of complex herbal medicines.

  17. Multiple chromatographic fingerprinting and its application to the quality control of herbal medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiaohui; Cheng Yiyu; Ye Zhengliang; Lin Ruichao; Qian Zhongzhi

    2006-01-01

    Recently, chromatographic fingerprinting has become one of the most powerful approaches to quality control of herbal medicines. However, the performance of reported chromatographic fingerprinting constructed by single chromatogram sometimes turns out to be inadequate for complex herbal medicines, such as multi-herb botanical drug products. In this study, multiple chromatographic fingerprinting, which consists of more than one chromatographic fingerprint and represents the whole characteristics of chemical constitutions of the complex medicine, is proposed as a potential strategy in this complicated case. As a typical example, a binary chromatographic fingerprinting of 'Danshen Dropping Pill' (DSDP), the best-sold traditional Chinese medicine in China, was developed. First, two HPLC fingerprints that, respectively, represent chemical characteristics of depsides and saponins of DSDP were developed, which were used to construct binary chromatographic fingerprints of DSDP. Moreover, the authentication and validation of the binary fingerprints were performed. Then, a data-level information fusion method was employed to capture the chemical information encoded in two chromatographic fingerprints. Based on the fusion results, the lot-to-lot consistency and frauds can be determined either using similarity measure or by chemometrics approach. The application of binary chromatographic fingerprinting to consistency assessment and frauds detection of DSDP clearly demonstrated that the proposed method was a powerful approach to quality control of complex herbal medicines

  18. Herbal diuretics in medieval Persian and Arabic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Bosmia, Anand N; Fakhree, Mohammad A A; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Balch, Margaret Wood; Loukas, Marios; Khodadoust, Kazem; Khalili, Majid; Eknoyan, Garabed

    2015-06-01

    In accord with the notions of humoralism that prevailed in medieval medicine, therapeutic interventions, including diuretics, were used to restore the disturbed balance among the four humors of the human body: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Most diuretics were derived from plants. The primary textual reference on herbal diuretics was Dioscorides's De Materia Medica, which was written during the first century CE. The authors reviewed the medieval medical texts written in Persian and Arabic and compiled a list of 135 herbal diuretics used by the medieval medical authorities for treating various ailments. Between the 8th and 11th centuries CE, Middle Eastern physicians systematically reviewed extant books on medicine and pharmacotherapy and compiled new and expanded lists of herbal medicines, diuretics in particular. Furthermore, they introduced new chemical methods of extraction, distillation, and compounding in the use of herbal medicines. Several herbal remedies now are considered as potentially safe and affordable alternatives to chemical pharmaceuticals. Thus, research on medieval herbal therapies may prove to be relevant to the practice of current cardiovascular and renal pharmacotherapy. The authors propose that modern research methods can be employed to determine which of these agents actually are effective as diuretics.

  19. Microbial quality of some medicinal herbal products in Kashan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazroi Arani Navid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of medicinal plants has risen worldwide. In Iran, herbal waters and rose waters are of traditional medicinal products and as a result, they are widespreadly consumed. Therefore, diagnosis of microbial quality of these products is important. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbial quality of herbal extracts distributed in Kashan, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study, 256 samples of herbal waters and 191 samples of rose waters (total samples of 447 distributed in Kashan during 2012 to 2013 were purchased and transferred to laboratory. Then microbial tests such as total aerobic bacterial count, mold and yeast count, total coliforms, and detection of Enterococcus, Pseudomonas and sulphite-reducing Clostridia were evaluated based on national standard of Iran. Results: Contamination with Pseudomonas and Enterococcus was observed in the herbal water samples. 196 cases (43.84% of the total samples, 113 cases (44.15% of the herbal waters and 83 cases (43.45% of the rose waters were usable based on the national standard of Iran. Neither herbal waters nor rosewater samples were contaminated by E.Coli and Sulphite-reducing clostridia. Additionally, none of the rosewater samples was contaminated by Coliforms and Pseudomonas. Conclusion: Based on the findings and due to the fact that these products are contaminated with aerobic mesophilic bacteria, mold and yeast, to minimize the risks we recommend to apply pasteurized temperature, high-quality packaging material and hygiene observance in processing time of herbal waters and rose waters.

  20. Herbal medicine for adults with asthma: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shergis, Johannah L; Wu, Lei; Zhang, Anthony L; Guo, Xinfeng; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie C

    2016-08-01

    Many people with asthma use herbal medicines to help reduce symptoms and improve asthma control. To update the systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of herbal medicine for adult asthma. Nine English and Chinese databases were searched (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, CENTRAL, AMED, CBM, CNKI, CQVIP, Wanfang). Herbal medicines combined with routine pharmacotherapies compared with the same pharmacotherapies alone or placebo. Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool and GRADE Summary of Findings tables were used to evaluate methodological quality. Twenty-nine (29) studies involving 3,001 participants were included. Herbal interventions used multi-ingredients such as licorice root, crow-dipper, astragali, and angelica. Compared with routine pharmacotherapies alone, herbal medicines as add-on therapy improved lung function (FEV1: MD 7.81%, 95% CI 5.79, 9.83, I(2) = 63%; PEFR: MD 65.14 L/min, 95% CI 58.87, 71.41, I(2) = 21%); asthma control (MD 2.47 points, 95% CI 1.64, 3.29, I(2) = 55%); reduced salbutamol usage (MD -1.14 puffs/day, 95% CI -2.20, -0.09, I(2) = 92%); and reduced acute asthma exacerbations over one year (MD -1.20, 95% CI -1.82, -0.58, one study). Compared with placebo plus pharmacotherapies herbal medicines as add-on therapy improved lung function (FEV1: MD 15.83%, 95% CI 13.54, 18.12 and PEFR: MD 55.20 L/min, 95% CI 33.41, 76.99). Other outcomes were not reported in these placebo studies. Included studies were low to moderate quality. Adverse events were rare. Herbal medicines combined with routine pharmacotherapies improved asthma outcomes greater than pharmacotherapies alone. Included studies did not blind participants therefore more studies that address such weaknesses are warranted.

  1. Genotoxicity of extracts of Japanese traditional herbal medicines (Kampo)

    OpenAIRE

    Makoto, Katami; Haruo, Kuboniwa; Shunichi, Maemura; Toshihiko, Yanagisawa; New Drug Discovery Laboratory, R & D Division, TSUMURA & Co.; New Drug Discovery Laboratory, R & D Division, TSUMURA & Co.; New Drug Discovery Laboratory, R & D Division, TSUMURA & Co.; New Drug Discovery Laboratory, R & D Division, TSUMURA & Co.

    2002-01-01

    The possible genotoxicity potential of 128 Japanese traditional herbal medicines (Kampo) was investigated using a bacterial reverse mutation test (the Ames test), an in vivo micronucleus test (MN test) in mouse bone marrow cells and an unscheduled DNA synthesis test (UDS test) in rat hepatocytes. Of 128 Kampo extracts examined, 98 did not induce mutations in bacteria while 30 induced mutations weakly in Salmonella typhimurium TA1537. Extracts of Scutellariae Radix, a common herbal drug, and i...

  2. Jamu : Indonesian traditional herbal medicine towards rational phytopharmacological use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfahmi, [No Value; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver

    Jamu is the Indonesian traditional herbal medicine that has been practised for many centuries in the Indonesian community to maintain good health and to treat diseases. Although modern (conventional) medicine is becoming increasingly important in Indonesia, jamu is still very popular in rural as

  3. Mechanisms of action of traditional herbal medicines used in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing rapidly in both developed and developing countries. There are various conventional medicines used for the management of the disease, but there is also increased interest in the use of traditional herbal medicines. Although the concepts of illness and diseases ...

  4. Unbiased metabolite profiling by liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis for herbal authentication: classification of seven Lonicera species flower buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wen; Yang, Hua; Qi, Lian-Wen; Liu, E-Hu; Ren, Mei-Ting; Yan, Yu-Ting; Chen, Jun; Li, Ping

    2012-07-06

    Plant-based medicines become increasingly popular over the world. Authentication of herbal raw materials is important to ensure their safety and efficacy. Some herbs belonging to closely related species but differing in medicinal properties are difficult to be identified because of similar morphological and microscopic characteristics. Chromatographic fingerprinting is an alternative method to distinguish them. Existing approaches do not allow a comprehensive analysis for herbal authentication. We have now developed a strategy consisting of (1) full metabolic profiling of herbal medicines by rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS), (2) global analysis of non-targeted compounds by molecular feature extraction algorithm, (3) multivariate statistical analysis for classification and prediction, and (4) marker compounds characterization. This approach has provided a fast and unbiased comparative multivariate analysis of the metabolite composition of 33-batch samples covering seven Lonicera species. Individual metabolic profiles are performed at the level of molecular fragments without prior structural assignment. In the entire set, the obtained classifier for seven Lonicera species flower buds showed good prediction performance and a total of 82 statistically different components were rapidly obtained by the strategy. The elemental compositions of discriminative metabolites were characterized by the accurate mass measurement of the pseudomolecular ions and their chemical types were assigned by the MS/MS spectra. The high-resolution, comprehensive and unbiased strategy for metabolite data analysis presented here is powerful and opens the new direction of authentication in herbal analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine resulting in liver injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingli; Zhou, Chaofan

    2011-12-01

    The adverse reactions caused by Chinese herbal medicine and traditional Chinese medicine are reported increased in recent years, among which the acute liver injury caused by Chinese herbal medicine accounts for 21.5% of total liver injuries. Despite the misuse of traditional Chinese medicine not in accordance with differentiation of symptoms and signs, the adverse reaction of Chinese herbal medicine itself can't be little to these adverse events. The paper summarizes the most common categories of traditional Chinese medicine resulting in liver injury, the mechanism, pathological characteristics, clinical symptom of liver injury, the reasons of the reaction and how to prevent. The research aims to enhance the clinical physician recognition of liver injury caused by Chinese herbal medicine, in order to ensure the safe and rational usage of traditional Chinese medicine.

  6. Herbal medicines that benefit epidermal permeability barrier function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhi Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal permeability barrier function plays a critical role in regulating cutaneous functions. Hence, researchers have been searching for effective and affordable regimens to enhance epidermal permeability barrier function. In addition to topical stratum corneum lipids, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, and liver X receptor ligands, herbal medicines have been proven to benefit epidermal permeability barrier function in both normal and diseased skin, including atopic dermatitis, glucocorticoid-induced skin damage, and UVB-damaged skin. The potential mechanisms by which herbal medicines improve the permeability barrier include stimulation of epidermal differentiation, lipid production, antimicrobial peptide expression, and antioxidation. Therefore, utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative approach to enhance epidermal permeability barrier function in order to prevent and/or treat skin disorders associated with permeability barrier abnormalities.

  7. [Study of changes in Chinese herbal medicine distribution channel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes.

  8. Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoshu; Liew, Yuklan; Liu, Zhao Lan

    2016-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) usage is expected to increase as women suffering from menopausal symptoms are seeking alternative therapy due to concerns from the adverse effects (AEs) associated with hormone therapy (HT). Scientific evidence for their effectiveness and safety is needed. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of CHM in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Search methods We searched the Gynaecology and Fertility Group’s Specialised Register of controlled trials, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, and PsycINFO (from inception to March 2015). Others included Current Control Trials, Citation Indexes, conference abstracts in the ISI Web of Knowledge, LILACS database, PubMed, OpenSIGLE database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure database (CNKI, 1999 to 2015). Other resources included reference lists of articles as well as direct contact with authors. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effectiveness of CHM with placebo, HT, pharmaceutical drugs, acupuncture, or another CHM formula in women over 18 years of age, and suffering from menopausal symptoms. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed 864 studies for eligibility. Data extractions were performed by them with disagreements resolved through group discussion and clarification of data or direct contact with the study authors. Data analyses were performed in accordance with Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Main results We included 22 RCTs (2902 women). Participants were from different ethnic backgrounds with the majority of Chinese origin. When CHM was compared with placebo (eight RCTs), there was little or no evidence of a difference between the groups for the following pooled outcomes: hot flushes per day (MD 0.00, 95% CI −0.88 to 0.89; 2 trials, 199 women; moderate quality evidence); hot flushes per day assessed by an overall hot

  9. Herbal Medicine Along the Trail of Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Melinda B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an assignment that allows students to explore the life of the Cherokee Indians during a tragic period in history when the U.S. Government removed the Cherokees from their ancestral homeland. Students demonstrate learning by creating skits that incorporate Cherokee history, culture, and herbal remedies. (ZWH)

  10. Review on herbal medicine on brain ischemia and reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Jivad

    2015-10-01

    Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion is known to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species that can lead to oxidative damage of proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids. A decrease in tissue antioxidant capacity, an increase in lipid peroxidation as well as an increase in lipid peroxidation inhibitors have been demonstrated in several models of brain ischemia. This paper reviews the number of commonly used types of herbal medicines effective for the treatment of stroke. The aim of this paper was to review evidences from controlled studies in order to discuss whether herbal medicine can be helpful in the treatment of brain ischemia and reperfusion.

  11. Evaluation of Herbal Medicines: Value Addition to Traditional Medicines Through Metabolism, Pharmacokinetic and Safety Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelingwani, Roslyn; Masimirembwa, Collen

    2014-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of herbal medicines remain major issues of concern especially in the developing world where the use is high. The World Health Organisation estimates up to 80% of the population in Africa relies on herbal medicines for treatment of many diseases. Minimum safety evaluations need to be done for both the herbal and conventional drugs, in particular when there is a high likelihood of co-administration. This is particularly important in Africa where there is increased access to antiretrovirals in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, which are being used in a population background characterized by rampant use of herbal medicines. Many techniques used in the discovery and evaluation of conventional drugs can be adapted to herbal medicines. Such evaluations will add value to herbal medicines as doctors and patients will be better informed on which drugs and herbal medicines to take or not take together. This can also lead to the adoption of guidelines by regulatory agents such as the European Medicines Agency (EMA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and governmental agencies controlling the use of medicines. Of current interest is the evaluation of drug-herb interactions (DHI) involving the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of medicines where there is a promising possibility to adopt the current FDA and EMA guidelines on the evaluation of herbal medicines for drug-drug interactions (DDI). In this review we demonstrate progress made so far in DHI and point to possible future developments that will contribute to the safe use of herbal medicines.

  12. Systematic reviews of complementary therapies - an annotated bibliography. Part 2: herbal medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, K.; ter Riet, G.; Hondras, M.; Vickers, A.; Saller, R.; Melchart, D.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complementary therapies are widespread but controversial. We aim to provide a comprehensive collection and a summary of systematic reviews of clinical trials in three major complementary therapies (acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy). This article is dealing with herbal medicine.

  13. Herbal Medicine for Low Back Pain: A Cochrane Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnier, Joel J; Oltean, Hanna; van Tulder, Maurits W; Berman, Brian M; Bombardier, Claire; Robbins, Christopher B

    2016-01-01

    Systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine for nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Many people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines have been purported for use in treating people with LBP. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. We searched numerous electronic databases up to September 2014; checked reference lists in review articles, guidelines and retrieved trials; and personally contacted individuals with expertise in this area. We included RCTs examining adults (over 18 years of age) suffering from acute, sub-acute, or chronic nonspecific LBP. The interventions were herbal medicines that we defined as plants used for medicinal purposes in any form. Primary outcome measures were pain and function. Two review authors assessed risk of bias, GRADE criteria (GRADE 2004), and CONSORT compliance and a random subset were compared with assessments by a third individual. Two review authors assessed clinical relevance and resolved any disagreements by consensus. Fourteen RCTs (2050 participants) were included. Capsicum frutescens (cayenne) reduces pain more than placebo. Although Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw), Salix alba (white willow bark), Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey), Solidago chilensis (Brazilian arnica), and lavender essential oil also seem to reduce pain more than placebo, evidence for these substances was of moderate quality at best. No significant adverse events were noted within the included trials. Additional well-designed large trials are needed to test these herbal medicines against standard treatments. In general, the completeness of reporting in these trials was poor. Trialists should refer to the CONSORT statement extension for reporting trials of herbal medicine interventions. N/A.

  14. Frequency and Perceptions of Herbal Medicine use Among Hmong Americans: a Cross Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lor, Kajua B; Moua, Sakura; Ip, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    To determine the frequency and perceptions of herbal medicine use among Hmong Americans. Cross-sectional telephone survey. Sacramento, California Hmong community. Out of 118 subjects reached, 77 (65.3 %) reported lifetime use of herbal medicines. A majority of respondents agreed that herbal medicines were able to treat the body as a whole. Respondents felt that a leaflet of information indicating uses/side effects would be important to include for herbal medicines. Herbal medicine use was commonly reported among Hmong Americans. Thus, health care providers should be encouraged to discuss these alternative medicines with their Hmong American patients.

  15. Efficacy of traditional Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of traditional Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal polyps and chronic gastritis: A case report. ... Background: The rate of gastrointestinal adenomatous polyps, often regarded as precancerous lesions, developing into cancer is 40 – 70 %. Endoscopic resection has been the preferred method ...

  16. Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weili; Zhang, Yinan; Huang, Yingjie; Lu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This chapter summarizes recent developments in preclinical and clinical research on Chinese herbal medicines and their neurochemical mechanism of action for the treatment of drug addiction. We searched Chinese and English scientific literature and selected several kinds of Chinese herbal medicines that have beneficial effects on drug addiction. Ginseng (Renshen) may be clinically useful for the prevention of opioid abuse and dependence. Rhizoma Corydalis (Yanhusuo) may be used to prevent relapse to chronic drug dependence. Alkaloids of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Gouteng) appear to have positive effects on methamphetamine and ketamine addiction. Both Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) and Radix Pueraiae (Gegen) have beneficial inhibitory effects on alcohol intake. Sinomenine has been shown to have preventive and curative effects on opioid dependence. l-Stepholidine, an alkaloid extract of the Chinese herb Stephania intermedia (Rulan), attenuated the acquisition, maintenance, and reacquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference and antagonized the heroin-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking. Traditional Chinese herbal medicines may be used to complement current treatments for drug addiction, including withdrawal and relapse. As the molecular mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese herbal medicines are elucidated, further advances in their use for the treatment of drug addiction are promising. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Herbal medicine for low back pain: a Cochrane review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gagnier, J.J.; van Tulder, M.W.; Berman, B.; Bombardier, C.

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVES. To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine compared with placebo, no intervention, or "standard/accepted/conventional treatments" for nonspecific low back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Low back pain is a common

  18. HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF AYURVEDIC HERBAL MEDICINE PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case reports of individuals taking Ayurvedic herbal medicine products (HMPs) suggest that they may contain lead, mercury, and/or arsenic. We analyzed the heavy metal content of Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in India and Pakistan, available in South Asian grocery stores in the Bost...

  19. Delayed luminescence: an experimental protocol for Chinese herbal medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, M.; Wijk, R. van; Wijk, E. van; Wang, M.; Wietmarschen, H. van; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der

    2016-01-01

    In Chinese medicine, raw herbal materials are used in processed and unprocessed forms aiming to meet the different requirements of clinical practice. To assure the chemical quality and therapeutic properties of the herbs, fast and integrated systematic assays are required. So far, such assays have

  20. A bibliometric study on Chinese herbal medicine treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aims of this study are to evaluate and summarize the scientific production in the field of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: A systematic bibliometric search was performed based on the PubMed database covering relative publications between January 1, ...

  1. The legislative and regulatory framework governing herbal medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary and alternative medicine is an integral component of primary healthcare in Kenya. This is because the infrastructural health setup in the country is inadequate in catering for all the medical needs of the population. This particularly holds true in the rural areas where many rural folk rely on products of herbal ...

  2. Use of herbal medicines among pregnant women a attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the knowledge and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Kiryandongo general hospital. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Kiryandongo general hospital in Masindi District, mid-western Uganda. Subjects: Four hundred (400) pregnant ...

  3. The Bioload and Aflatoxin Content of Herbal Medicines from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is increased reliance on traditional herbal medicines by several millions of people worldwide, especially in West Africa and Nigeria in particular. This is due to escalating cost of good quality drugs and consequent proliferation of faked cheaper drugs. However, non standardization of production and ...

  4. Hydroxymethyl furfural in chinese herbal medicines: Its formation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) must be processed before being prescribed to patients. During the processing, some CHMs became brown and as such 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) generated. Increasing attention is being paid to the safety and effectiveness of HMF. Methods: This paper summarized ...

  5. Herbal medicines used by Bapedi traditional healers to treat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study focussed on documenting the ethnobotanical knowledge of herbal medicines used by the Bapedi traditional healers to treat reproductive ailments in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Fifty one healers from 17 municipalities covering Capricorn, Sekhukhune and Waterberg districts of the Limpopo ...

  6. Chinese Herbal Medicines – Comparison of Doses Prescribed in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Huan Dong Lu, Beijing 100029, China. *For correspondence: Email: fuyanlingbucm@126.com; Tel: (+86) 10-6428-6307; Fax: (+86) 10-6422-0858 ... pharmacopoeia, accounting for 57.14 % (32/56). The top three factors influencing dose ... herbal combination, property of Chinese herbs, quality of medicinal, have a strong ...

  7. Treatment of progression of diffuse astrocytoma by herbal medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It consisted of 4 types of herbal medicine which the subject was taking in form of tea once a day at regular intervals. The patient started phytotherapy along with temozolomide, which was the only oncological treatment she was under after the tumour had progressed. Following the finished chemotherapy, the patient ...

  8. 'Omic' genetic technologies for herbal medicines in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; Ng, Chee Hong; Schweitzer, Isaac

    2012-04-01

    The field of genetics, which includes the use of 'omic' technologies, is an evolving area of science that has emerging application in phytotherapy. Omic studies include pharmacogenomics, proteomics and metabolomics. Herbal medicines, as monotherapies, or complex formulations such as traditional Chinese herbal prescriptions, may benefit from omic studies, and this new field may be termed 'herbomics'. Applying herbomics in the field of psychiatry may provide answers about which herbal interventions may be effective for individuals, which genetic processes are triggered, and the subsequent neurochemical pathways of activity. The use of proteomic technology can explore the differing epigenetic effects on neurochemical gene expression between individual herbs, isolated constituents and complex formulae. The possibilities of side effects or insufficient response to the herb can also be assessed via pharmacogenomic analysis of polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 liver enzymes or P-glycoprotein. While another novel application of omic technology is for the validation of the concept of synergy in individual herbal extracts and prescriptive formulations. Chronic administration of psychotropic herbal medicines may discover important effects on chromatin remodelling via modification of histone and DNA methylation. This paper focuses on the emerging field of herbomics, and is to our knowledge the first publication to explore this in the area of psychiatry. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. [Herbal medicine in womens' life cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Oren, Amnon; Ben-Arie, Alon

    2006-10-01

    Women use herbs and other traditional and complementary modalities to treat various ailments throughout their life circle. This article reviewed 19 randomized controlled trials, which studied efficacy and safety of various herbs in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy and menopausal hot flushes. Preliminary data support the efficacy of Chaste tree fruit (Vitex agnus) in the treatment of PMS, Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum and (Cimicifuga racemosa) in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes. Additional and more rigorous studies are warranted in order to support the efficacy and safety of these herbal remedies.

  10. [The species traceability of the ultrafine powder and the cell wall-broken powder of herbal medicine based on DNA barcoding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Tang, Huan; Cheng, Jin-le; Chen, Yi-long; Deng, Wen; Zheng, Xia-sheng; Lai, Zhi-tian; Chen, Shi-lin

    2015-12-01

    Ultrafine powder and cell wall-broken powder of herbal medicine lack of the morphological characters and microscopic identification features. This makes it hard to identify herb's authenticity with traditional methods. We tested ITS2 sequence as DNA barcode in identification of herbal medicine in ultrafine powder and cell wall-broken powder in this study. We extracted genomic DNAs of 93 samples of 31 representative herbal medicines (28 species), which include whole plant, roots and bulbs, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. The ITS2 sequences were amplified and sequenced bidirectionally. The ITS2 sequences were identified using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) method in the GenBank database and DNA barcoding system to identify the herbal medicine. The genetic distance was analyzed using the Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) model and the Neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA 6.0. The results showed that DNA can be extracted successfully from 93 samples and high quality ITS2 sequences can be amplified. All 31 herbal medicines can get correct identification via BLAST method. The ITS2 sequences of raw material medicines, ultrafine powder and cell wall-broken powder have same sequence in 26 herbal medicines, while the ITS2 sequences in other 5 herbal medicines exhibited variation. The maximum intraspecific genetic-distances of each species were all less than the minimum interspecific genetic distances. ITS2 sequences of each species are all converged to their standard DNA barcodes using NJ method. Therefore, using ITS2 barcode can accurately and effectively distinguish ultrafine powder and cell wall-broken powder of herbal medicine. It provides a new molecular method to identify ultrafine powder and cell wall-broken powder of herbal medicine in the quality control and market supervision.

  11. Concurrent Use of Herbal and Orthodox Medicines among Residents of Tamale, Northern Ghana, Who Patronize Hospitals and Herbal Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammed; Ibrahim, Halimatu-Sadia; Habib, Rabiatu Hamisu; Gbedema, Stephen Yao

    2018-01-01

    Despite the development of more researched and formulated orthodox medicines, herbal medicines continue to be well patronized for persons across the world with some patrons concurrently using both forms, oblivious of the unwanted effects that may occur. Using a multistage sampling procedure, a semistructured questionnaire was used to collect data in April 2016 from 240 informants from three selected hospitals and three herbal clinics in Tamale, a city in northern Ghana. Using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, binary logistic regression was used to determine sociodemographic predictors of concurrent use of herbal and orthodox medicines. Orthodox medicines were the drug of choice for 54.2% and 49.2% of patrons of hospitals and herbal clinics, respectively. Also, 67.5% of herbal clinic patrons used orthodox medicines, while 25.0% of hospital attendees used herbal medications prior to their visit to the health facilities. Up to 17.9% of respondents concurrently used herbal and orthodox medicines for their prevailing ailment with age, less than 30 years being the only predictor of this habit (p = 0.015; 95% CI, 1.183–4.793; cOR = 2.4). All health professionals including those in herbal clinics should therefore be interested in the drug history of their clients. PMID:29743917

  12. Traditional medicine and HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia: Herbal medicine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    The accessibility and cultural acceptability of both herbal medicines and faith healing and the scarcity of ..... public healthcare system. ... Policy Framework and Integration of Traditional ..... discussion within partnerships and HIV prevention and.

  13. Legal requirements for the quality of herbal substances and herbal preparations for the manufacturing of herbal medicinal products in the European union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlietinck, Arnold; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2009-06-01

    In the European Union (EU) herbal medicinal products have become increasingly important. This is, for instance, underlined by the recent introduction of a simplified procedure in the Member States of the EU allowing the registration of herbal medicinal products which fulfill the criteria of a traditional herbal medicinal product, i.e., sufficient evidence of its medicinal use throughout a period of at least 30 years for products in the EU and at least 15 years within the EU and 15 years elsewhere for products outside the EU. With regard to the manufacturing of these products and their quality, applications of traditional herbal medicinal products have to fulfil the same requirements as applications for a marketing authorization. The quality of herbal substances as well as herbal preparations will be determined by the availability of modern science-based public monographs in the European Pharmacopoeia and their equivalents developed by the pharmaceutical industry. The standards put forward in these monographs must allow us not only to define the quality of these products, but also to eliminate dangerous counterfeit, substandard, adulterated and contaminated (traditional) herbal medicinal products. The usefulness of these monographs to implement the criteria on quality and specifications put forward for these products in the different guidelines of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) is discussed.

  14. Herbal Medicines: challenges in the modern world. Part 5. status and current directions of complementary and alternative herbal medicine worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enioutina, Elena Yu; Salis, Emma R; Job, Kathleen M; Gubarev, Michael I; Krepkova, Lubov V; Sherwin, Catherine M T

    2017-03-01

    Herbal medicine (HM) use is growing worldwide. Single herb preparations, ethnic and modern HM formulations are widely used as adjunct therapies or to improve consumer wellbeing. Areas covered: This final part in the publication series summarizes common tendencies in HM use as adjunct or alternative medicine, education of healthcare professionals and consumers, current and proposed guidelines regulating of production. We discuss potential HM-HM and HM-drug interactions that could lead to severe adverse events in situations where HMs are taken without proper medical professional oversight. Expert commentary: A number of serious problems have arisen with the steady global increase in HM use. HM interaction with conventional drugs (CD) may result in inadequate dosing of CD or adverse reactions; HM-HM interaction within herbal supplements could lead to toxicity of formulations. Inadequate education of clinicians and patients regarding medicinal properties of HMs must be addressed regionally and globally to ensure consumer safety.

  15. Dissolution test of herbal medicines containing Passiflora sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane R. T. Costa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The dissolution test is an essential tool to assess the quality of herbal medicines in the solid dosage form for oral use. This work aimed to evaluate the dissolution behavior of three herbal medicines in the form of capsules and tablet containing Passiflora, produced with powder or dried extract. Assay of total flavonoids and dissolution methods were validated and obtained results allowed the quantification of flavonoids with precision, accuracy and selectivity. The percentage of total flavonoids found was 2% for capsule A (containing only powder, 0.97% for capsule B (containing only dried extract and 5.5% for tablet. Although the content was lower, the release of flavonoids present in the capsule containing dried extract was 12% higher over 30 min, with dissolved percentage values of 87 and 75, for the capsules containing extract and powder, respectively. The tablet containing dried extract presented dissolution of 76%, despite the higher content of flavonoids, which may be due to pharmacotechnical problems. Obtained data demonstrated the need to implement these tests in the quality control of herbal medicines, confirming the release of the active ingredients that underlie the pharmacological action of these medicines.

  16. Precision or Personalized Medicine for Cancer Chemotherapy: Is there a Role for Herbal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijun; Liu, Xuefeng; Ho, Rebecca Lucinda Ka Yan; Lam, Christopher Wai Kei; Chow, Moses Sing Sum

    2016-07-07

    Although over 100 chemotherapeutic agents are currently available for the treatment of cancer patients, the overall long term clinical benefit is disappointing due to the lack of effectiveness or severe side effects from these agents. In order to improve the therapeutic outcome, a new approach called precision medicine or personalized medicine has been proposed and initiated by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. However, the limited availability of effective medications and the high cost are still the major barriers for many cancer patients. Thus alternative approaches such as herbal medicines could be a feasible and less costly option. Unfortunately, scientific evidence for the efficacy of a majority of herbal medicines is still lacking and their development to meet FDA approval or other regulatory agencies is a big challenge. However, herbal medicines may be able to play an important role in precision medicine or personalized medicine. This review will focus on the existing and future technologies that could speed the development of herbal products for treatment of resistant cancer in individual patients. Specifically, it will concentrate on reviewing the phenotypic (activity based) rather than genotypic (mechanism based) approach to develop herbal medicine useful for personalized cancer chemotherapy.

  17. Prevalence and Predictors of Herbal Medicine Use Among Adults in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommer, Jon C; Brown, Lawrence M

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of herbal medicine use among US adults and to assess factors associated with and predictors of herbal use. Design: The data for herbal products use were collected from the 2015 National Consumer Survey on the Medication Experience and Pharmacists’ Roles. Chi-square test was used to analyz factors associated with herbal use, and predictors of herbal use were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Results: Factors associated with herbal supplement use include age older than 70, having a higher than high school education, using prescription medications or over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and using a mail-order pharmacy.” All Disease state associated significantly with herbal use. Approximately thirty-eight percent of those who used herbals used prescription medications and 42% of those who used herbals also used an OTC medication. The most frequent conditions associated with herbal supplement use were a stroke (48.7%), cancer (43.1%), and arthritis (43.0%). Among herbal product users, factors that predicted use included having higher than school education, using OTC medications, using mail-order pharmacy, stroke, obesity, arthritis, and breathing problems. Conclusions: More than one-third of respondents reported using herbal supplements. Older age and higher education were associated with a higher use of herbal supplements. People with chronic diseases are more likely to use herbal medicines than others. OTC drug users and patients with stroke are more likely to use herbal medicines than others. PMID:28959715

  18. Prevalence and Predictors of Herbal Medicine Use Among Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashrash, Mohamed; Schommer, Jon C; Brown, Lawrence M

    2017-09-01

    To describe the prevalence of herbal medicine use among US adults and to assess factors associated with and predictors of herbal use. The data for herbal products use were collected from the 2015 National Consumer Survey on the Medication Experience and Pharmacists' Roles. Chi-square test was used to analyz factors associated with herbal use, and predictors of herbal use were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Factors associated with herbal supplement use include age older than 70, having a higher than high school education, using prescription medications or over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and using a mail-order pharmacy." All Disease state associated significantly with herbal use. Approximately thirty-eight percent of those who used herbals used prescription medications and 42% of those who used herbals also used an OTC medication. The most frequent conditions associated with herbal supplement use were a stroke (48.7%), cancer (43.1%), and arthritis (43.0%). Among herbal product users, factors that predicted use included having higher than school education, using OTC medications, using mail-order pharmacy, stroke, obesity, arthritis, and breathing problems. More than one-third of respondents reported using herbal supplements. Older age and higher education were associated with a higher use of herbal supplements. People with chronic diseases are more likely to use herbal medicines than others. OTC drug users and patients with stroke are more likely to use herbal medicines than others.

  19. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Brown, Ammon W; Welch, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and other potential carcinogens can contaminate these products. As herbal and food supplement producers are left to their own means to determine the safety and purity of their products prior to marketing, disturbingly often good marketing practices currently in place are ignored and content is largely undocumented. Historical examples of poisoning and health issues relating to plant material containing dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acids were used as examples to demonstrate the risk and potential toxicity of herbal products, food supplements, or traditional medicines. More work is needed to educate consumers of the potential risk and require the industry to be more responsible to verify the content and insure the safety of their products. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. [Discussion on present situation of study on pesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhou, Tao; Zhao, Dan; Kang, Li-Ping; He, Ya-Li; Wang, Sheng; Zhou, Liang-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide residues in traditional Chinese medicine has attracted widespread attention at home and abroad. This paper analyzed the pollution present situation and existing problems of pesticide residue for Chinese herbal medicines, explicited the analytical methods of pesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicines. Meanwhile, the commonly used pesticide residue degradation and application in Chinese herbal medicines were discussed. Moreover, on the basis of analysis of pesticide residue standards, this paper proposed the necessity and urgency of the limit standard of pesticide residues in Chinese herbal medicines, and provided a scientific references for deepening research and developing safe, green medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Attitude and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adisa Rasaq; Fakeye Titilayo O; Musa Ismail E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. Methods Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies with conventional therapies were obtained using a structured questionnaire between September 2007 and March 2008. De...

  2. Medicinal plants indications from herbal healers for wound treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Willianne Alves do Nascimento; Regina Célia Sales Santos Veríssimo; Maria Lysete de Assis Bastos; Thaís Honório Lins Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to identify medicinal plants indicated by commercial herbal healers for wound treatment, in street markets. A descriptive study conducted in a capital city in the northeast of Brazil, through interviews. The results indicate that plant commerce by healers of both genders, aged between 37 to 52 years, from those 69.3% learned about their function with family members. Forty-eight plant species were cited for wound treatment, between those, all participants cited Barbatimão and...

  3. Effect of herbal medicine on Poststroke cognitive deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-kyu Kim

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of study was to evaluate the effect of Herbal medicine on post stroke cognitive deficit. Methods : All groups were treated with acupunture treatment, moxa treatment, herbal medicines, physical and occupational therapy for 4 weeks, additionally cardiotonic pills(CP were taken in the cardiotonic pills group. The effect of treatment was assessed using Verval fluency, MMSE-KC, Word List Immediate Recall test. Statistical significance was achived if the probability was less than 5%(p,0.05. Results : Verval fluency, MMSE-KC, Word List Immediate Recall test scores increased in both group. MMSEKC, Word List Immediate Recall test scores were significantly increased in the CP group. Verval fluency, MMSE-KC, Word List Immediate Recall test scores were significantly increased in the control group. In the Verval fluency, MMSE-KC, Word List Immediate Recall test of the CP group more increased compared to the control group. There were no significant differences between two groups. In the CP group, the scores of the infarction group more increased compared to the hemorrhage group. Conclusions : According to the these results, herbal medicines are effective to improve post stroke cognitive-deficit. Futher studies are needed to know cardiotonic pills in the ischemic stroke.

  4. Analysis of Bacteriostatic Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Against E.coli

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Li; Chen, Shuangjie; Yang, Yongguang

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the bacteriostatic effect of Chinese traditional herbal medicines on E. coli, total 35 different preparations (decoction, volatile oil and distillate) of Chinese traditional herbal medicines were tested using plate culture method. The results showed that 18 preparations of traditional Chinese herbal medicines have different inhibition effect on E. coli in vitro. The results also revealed that different process and combination affect the bacteriostatic effect and different medicines...

  5. The Mealiness and Quality of Herbal Medicine: Licorice for Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueying; Hou, Weilong; Dou, Deqiang

    2017-01-01

    The morphological identification is an effective and simple quality evaluation method in Chinese drugs, and the traits of mealiness and color were widely used in the commercial market of Chinese drugs. The objective of this study was to explore the correlation between mealiness of herbal drugs and its quality; licorice was selected as an example. The mealiness of licorice was graded by its weight; meanwhile, the content of glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection method; the content of polysaccharides, soluble sugars, pectin, total starch, amylose, and amylopectin was measured by colorimetric method; and the number and diameter of starch granule were observed by microscope. The results showed that the mealiness of licorice which collected from wild and cultivated plants is positively correlated with the content of glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, the ratio of amylose to total starch, and the number of starch granules whose diameter was over 5 μm. However, the mealiness is negatively correlated with the total starch. Further, the formation mechanism of starch granule was discussed. It is for the first time to report the positive correlation between the mealiness and the starch granule size, the ratio of amylose to total starch, which can provide rationality for the quality evaluation using the character of mealiness in herbal medicine. It is a convenient method to justify the quality of herbal medicine. To explore the correlation between mealiness of herbal drugs and its quality, licorice was selected as an example. The result indicated that the effective constituent is correlated with mealiness of licorice. Abbreviations Used: TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine.

  6. Effect and Mechanism of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bai-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Although both genetic and environmental factors are implicated in the development of Parkinson's disease, the cause of the disease is still unclear. So far conventional treatments to Parkinson's are symptomatic relief and focused mainly on motor symptoms. Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat many conditions in China, Korea, Japan, and many Southeast Asian countries for 1000 years. During past a few decades, Chinese herbal medicine has gained wider and increasing acceptance within both public and medical profession due to its effectiveness on many conditions in western countries. In this chapter, mechanisms of action of many Chinese herbal compounds/extracts and Chinese herb formulas on the models of Parkinson's were reviewed. Further, reports of effectiveness of Chinese herb formulas on patients with Parkinson's were summarized. It was shown that both Chinese herbal compounds/extracts and herb formulas have either specific target mechanisms of action or multitargets mechanisms of action, as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antiapoptosis agents. Clinical studies showed that Chinese herb formulas as an adjunct improved both motor and nonmotor symptoms, and reduced dose of dopaminergic drugs and occurrence of dyskinesia. The evidence from the studies suggests that Chinese herb medicine has potential, acting as neuroprotective to slow down the progression of Parkinson's, and it is able to simultaneously treat both motor and nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's. More studies are needed to explore the new compounds/extracts derived from Chinese herbs, in particular, their mechanisms of action. It is hopeful that new drugs developed from Chinese herb compounds/extracts and Chinese herb formulas will lead to better and complimentary therapy to PD. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Interactions between herbal medicines and drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tůmová, L

    2000-07-01

    At present the use of medicaments of plant origin is on the increase. It is therefore necessary to take into consideration that there exist known as well as potential interactions between the medicament of the medicinal plant. The problematic plants include Echinacea, Allium cepa, Gingko biloba, Panax ginseng, as well as Hypericum perforatum, Valeriana officinalis, or Glycyrrhiza glabra. Its use should be limited, or completely excluded in the cases of simultaneous therapy with, e.g., warfarin, hepatotoxically acting medicaments, MAOI inhibitors, phenelzin sulphate, or phenytoin, as they may decrease of completely eliminate the therapeutic effect of the administered drugs, or they may cause a toxic damage to the organism.

  8. A review of effective herbal medicines in controlling menopausal symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargozar, Rahele; Azizi, Hoda; Salari, Roshanak

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute menopausal syndrome especially hot flashes, is one of the most common gynecological problems during menopause. Due to the side effects of hormone therapy, herbal and complementary medicines are always of immense interest to people in the treatment and management of the symptoms and complications of menopause. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms and effects of medicinal plants employed in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Methods This review article was carried out by examining clinical trial studies between the period of 1994 and 2016. The keywords, which include menopause, climacteric, hot flushes, flashes, herb and phytoestrogens were used to search for herbal medicines used in clinical trials for the treatment of menopausal symptoms using databases such as PubMed, Medline, Scopus, Google scholar, SID and Magiran. Results The results of the study showed that the medicinal plants, which include Sage herb (Salvia officinalis), Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), Valerina officinalis, Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), Black cumin (Nigella sativa), Vitex (Vitex agnus-castus), Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), Evening primrose (Oenothera biennis), Ginkgo biloba, Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Hypericum perforatum, Panax ginseng, Pimpinella anisum, Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Passiflora incarnata, Red clover (Trifolium pratense), and Glycine soja were effective in the treatment of acute menopausal syndrome with different mechanisms. Conclusion Medicinal plants can play an imperative role in the treatment of acute menopausal syndrome; however, further studies are required to buttress their efficacy in the treatment of acute menopausal syndrome. PMID:29403626

  9. [Application of rapid PCR to authenticate medicinal snakes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Li, Man

    2014-10-01

    To obtained an accurate, rapid and efficient method for authenticate medicinal snakes listed in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Zaocysd humnades, Bungarus multicinctus, Agkistrodon acutus), a rapid PCR method for authenticate snakes and its adulterants was established based on the classic molecular authentication methods. DNA was extracted by alkaline lysis and the specific primers were amplified by two-steps PCR amplification method. The denatured and annealing temperature and cycle numbers were optimized. When 100 x SYBR Green I was added in the PCR product, strong green fluorescence was visualized under 365 nm UV whereas adulterants without. The whole process can complete in 30-45 minutes. The established method provides the technical support for authentication of the snakes on field.

  10. Attitude and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisa Rasaq

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. Methods Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies with conventional therapies were obtained using a structured questionnaire between September 2007 and March 2008. Descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact tests were used at 95% confidence level to evaluate the data obtained. Level of significance was set at p Results More than two-third of respondents [67.5%] had used herbal medicines in crude forms or as pharmaceutical prepackaged dosage forms, with 74.3% preferring self-prepared formulations. Almost 30% who were using herbal medicine at the time of the study believed that the use of herbal medicines during pregnancy is safe. Respondents' reasons for taking herbal medications were varied and included reasons such as herbs having better efficacy than conventional medicines [22.4%], herbs being natural, are safer to use during pregnancy than conventional medicines [21.1%], low efficacy of conventional medicines [19.7%], easier access to herbal medicines [11.2%], traditional and cultural belief in herbal medicines to cure many illnesses [12.5%], and comparatively low cost of herbal medicines [5.9%]. Over half the respondents, 56.6% did not support combining herbal medicines with conventional drugs to forestall drug-herb interaction. About 33.4% respondents believed herbal medicines possess no adverse effects while 181 [30.4%] were of the opinion that adverse/side effects of some herbal medicines could be dangerous. Marital status, geopolitical zones, and educational qualification of respondents had statistically significant effects on respondents views on side effects of herbal medicines [p Conclusion The study emphasized

  11. Traditional medicine and HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia: Herbal medicine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traditional, complimentary and alternative medicines (TCAMS) are increasingly being promoted by various Sub-Saharan African governments as a promising health resource in the control and amelioration of HIV/AIDS. The accessibility and cultural acceptability of both herbal medicines and faith healing and ...

  12. Pathogenic microorganisms of medicinal herbal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stević Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All the parts of plants (root, leaf, flower naturally have a high level of microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, especially molds. Microbial contamination could be a result of inappropriate harvesting, cleaning of the raw plant material, unhygienic processing of the plants, unsuitable transport and storage. After examination of over 40 dried medicinal plant species, the lowest microbial quality was determined for Maydis stigma, Mentha leaf and herb, Equisetum herb, Calendula flower, Urtica leaf, Melissa leaf, Serpylli herb, Chamomilla flower etc. Although mixed infections are recorded with different types of fungus, Fusarium was observed as the most dominant genus in most of the tested drugs, followed by Aspergillus and Alternaria. In addition to these fungi species from the following genera were identified: Phoma, Cephalosporium, Nigrospora, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Gliocladium, Myrothecium, Cercospora, Phomopsis, Verticillium, Dreschlera (=Bipolaris, Rhizoctonia, Septoria, Trichoderma, Curvularia, Stachybotrys, Trichothecium, Puccinia, Botrytis, Mucor and Rhizopus sp., depending on plant species.

  13. Traditional Knowledge of Western Herbal Medicine and Complex Systems Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Kathryn; Bell, Iris R; Koithan, Mary

    2013-09-01

    Traditional knowledge of Western herbal medicine (WHM) supports experiential approaches to healing that have evolved over time. This is evident in the use of polyherb formulations comprised of crude plant parts, individually tailored to treat the cause of dysfunction and imbalance by addressing the whole person holistically. The challenge for WHM is to integrate science with traditional knowledge that is a foundation of the practice of WHM. The purpose of this paper is to provide a plausible theoretical hypothesis by applying complex systems science to WHM, illustrating how medicinal plants are complex, adaptive, environmentally interactive systems exhibiting synergy and nonlinear healing causality. This paper explores the conceptual congruence between medicinal plants and humans as complex systems coherently coupled through recurrent interaction. Complex systems science provides the theoretical tenets that explain traditional knowledge of medicinal plants while supporting clinical practice and expanding research and documentation of WHM.

  14. Herbal medicine use in adults who experience anxiety: A qualitative exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J.; Moran, Carmen C.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine use is widespread and has been reported to be as high as 21% in people with anxiety disorders. Critical thematic analysis was used to explore beliefs and attitudes towards herbal medicines in adults experiencing anxiety. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight adults who experienced anxiety and used herbal medicines. Three major themes were found: Herbal medicines being different from pharmaceuticals, evidence and effectiveness, and barriers to herbal medicine use. Within these themes people held beliefs about the safety of natural treatments, valued anecdotes from friends and family as a form of evidence for self-prescribing, and described confusion about herbal medicines and their cost as barriers to using them as a treatment option. The findings will inform future research and provide guidance for health practitioners. PMID:26680418

  15. Herbal medicine use in adults who experience anxiety: A qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J; Moran, Carmen C

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine use is widespread and has been reported to be as high as 21% in people with anxiety disorders. Critical thematic analysis was used to explore beliefs and attitudes towards herbal medicines in adults experiencing anxiety. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight adults who experienced anxiety and used herbal medicines. Three major themes were found: Herbal medicines being different from pharmaceuticals, evidence and effectiveness, and barriers to herbal medicine use. Within these themes people held beliefs about the safety of natural treatments, valued anecdotes from friends and family as a form of evidence for self-prescribing, and described confusion about herbal medicines and their cost as barriers to using them as a treatment option. The findings will inform future research and provide guidance for health practitioners.

  16. Herbal Medicine and Vaginal Candidiasis in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Sheidaei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is the second most common vaginal infection. Given the frequent recurrence of the disease, many women tend to use herbal remedies. Thus, the present study aimed to review the association between vaginal candidiasis and herbal medicines in Iran. In this review, we retrieved articles published from 2001 to 2016. Then, the results were expressed both quantitatively and qualitatively. In this study, nine articles were reviewed, which had investigated thyme, garlic, garlic-thyme, olive oil, propolis, myrtus, Nigella sativa (black cumin, and Bunium perscicum boiss (black zira. Subsequently, each of these plants was thoroughly dealt with. The studies on black cumin, garlic, and thyme reported positive effects for these herbs, and they were widely produced for therapeutic purposes. In addition, myrtus was found to have a salutary impact on vaginal candidiasis.

  17. The legal framework governing the quality of (traditional) herbal medicinal products in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Burt H

    2014-12-02

    In the European Union a complex regulatory framework is in place for the regulation of (traditional) herbal medicinal products. It is based on the principle that a marketing authorisation granted by the competent authorities is required for placing medicinal products on the market. The requirements and procedures for acquiring such a marketing authorisation are laid down in regulations, directives and scientific guidelines. This paper gives an overview of the quality requirements for (traditional) herbal medicinal products that are contained in European pharmaceutical legislation. Pharmaceutical quality of medicinal product is the basis for ensuring safe and effective medicines. The basic principles governing the assurance of the quality of medicinal products in the European Union are primarily defined in the amended Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2003/63/EC. Quality requirements of herbal medicinal products are also laid down in scientific guidelines. Scientific guidelines provide a basis for practical harmonisation of how the competent authorities of EU Member States interpret and apply the detailed requirements for the demonstration of quality laid down in regulations and directives. Detailed quality requirements for herbal medicinal products on the European market are contained in European Union (EU) pharmaceutical legislation. They include a system of manufacturing authorisations which ensures that all herbal medicinal products on the European market are manufactured/imported only by authorised manufacturers, whose activities are regularly inspected by the competent authorities. Additionally, as starting materials only active substances are allowed which have been manufactured in accordance with the GMP for starting materials as adopted by the Community. The European regulatory framework encompasses specific requirements for herbal medicinal products. These requirements are independent from the legal status. Thus, the same quality standards equally apply

  18. Inorganic constituents in herbal medicine by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN- SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The demand for herbal medicines is growing worldwide. The expansion of interest has required the standardization of the sector with implementation and constant review of technical standards for production and marketing of these medicines in order to ensure the safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. According to data from the World Health Organization, approximately 80% of world population has resorted to the benefits of certain herbs with therapeutic action popularly recognized. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the population, it is a consensus that scientific studies on the subject are insufficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to stimulate such studies in view of the importance of the results of both individual and social field. The determination of major, minor and trace elements and the research of metabolic processes and their impacts on human health are of great importance due to the growth of environmental pollution that directly affects the plants and therefore the phytotherapics. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the content of inorganic constituents in herbal medicine: moisture, total ash and the elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis in order to verify the quality of the products. It was observed that the elemental concentrations varied in a wide range from plant to plant and elements with higher concentrations were Ba, Fe, Cr and Zn. (author)

  19. Inorganic constituents in herbal medicine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da

    2011-01-01

    The demand for herbal medicines is growing worldwide. The expansion of interest has required the standardization of the sector with implementation and constant review of technical standards for production and marketing of these medicines in order to ensure the safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. According to data from the World Health Organization, approximately 80% of world population has resorted to the benefits of certain herbs with therapeutic action popularly recognized. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the population, it is a consensus that scientific studies on the subject are insufficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to stimulate such studies in view of the importance of the results of both individual and social field. The determination of major, minor and trace elements and the research of metabolic processes and their impacts on human health are of great importance due to the growth of environmental pollution that directly affects the plants and therefore the phytotherapics. Therefore, the objective of this work was to determine the content of inorganic constituents in herbal medicine: moisture, total ash and the elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis in order to verify the quality of the products. It was observed that the elemental concentrations varied in a wide range from plant to plant and elements with higher concentrations were Ba, Fe, Cr and Zn. (author)

  20. In vitro effects of a commercial herbal medicine used as African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Commercial herbal medicines (CHMs) being marketed as immune boosters or tonics, have gained widespread popularity. The many herbal mixtures sold have not been tested for efficacy and safety, despite their modern packaging and presentations. It is imperative that these herbal mixtures be investigated for ...

  1. Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Rural Rakai, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    Traditional Herbal Medicine Use Associated with Liver Fibrosis in Rural Rakai, Uganda Brandon J. Auerbach1,2*, Steven J. Reynolds3,4, Mohammed...Background: Traditional herbal medicines are commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa and some herbs are known to be hepatotoxic. However little is known...about the effect of herbal medicines on liver disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: 500 HIV-infected participants in a rural HIV care program in Rakai

  2. Use of herbal medicinal products among children and adolescents in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Germany is a country with a high use of herbal medicinal products. Population-based data on the use of herbal medicinal products among children are lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, patterns and determinants of herbal medicine use among children and adolescents in Germany. Methods As data base served the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), a representative population based survey conducted 2003–2006 by the Robert Koch Institute. 17,450 boys and girls aged 0–17 years provided information on drug use in the preceding seven days. Herbal medicinal products were defined according to the European and German drug laws. SPSS Complex Sample method was used to estimate prevalence rates and factors associated with herbal medicine use. Results The prevalence rate of herbal medicinal product use amounts to 5.8% (95% confidence interval 5.3-6.3%). Use of herbal medicine declines along with increasing age and shows no difference between boys and girls in younger age groups. Teenage girls are more likely to use herbal medicines than teenage boys. Two thirds of herbal medicines are used for the treatment of coughs and colds; nearly half of herbal medicines are prescribed by medical doctors. Determinants of herbal medicinal product use are younger age, residing in South Germany, having a poor health status, having no immigration background and coming from a higher social class family. Children’s and parents-related health behavior is not found to be associated with herbal medicine use after adjusting for social class. Conclusions Use of herbal medicinal products among children and adolescents between the ages of 0 and 17 years in Germany is widely spread and shows relatively higher rates compared to international data. This study provides a reference on the use of herbal medicinal products for policy-makers, health professionals and parents. Further studies are needed to investigate the

  3. Detection of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in German licensed herbal medicinal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, M; Meins, J; Diemert, S; Zagermann-Muncke, P; Goebel, R; Schrenk, D; Schubert-Zsilavecz, M; Abdel-Tawab, M

    2015-06-01

    Because of the hepatotoxic, mutagenic, and cancerogenic effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) recommends not to exceed a daily PA intake of 0.007 µg/kg body weight (0.42 µg/60 kg adult). In a recent study conducted by the BfR, up to 5647 µg PA/kg dried herbal material were detected in tea products marketed as food. The present study aimed at elucidating whether medicinal teas licensed or registered as medicinal products contain PAs as well. One hundred sixty-nine different commercially available medicinal teas, i.e. 19 nettle (Urtica dioica L.), 12 fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), 14 chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), 11 melissa (Melissa officinalis L.) and 4 peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) teas as well as 109 tea mixtures were analyzed for the presence of 23 commercially available PAs. LC/MS was used for the determination of the PAs In general, the total PA contents ranging 0-5668 µg/kg. Thirty percent of the tested single-ingredient tea products and 56.9% of the tested medicinal tea mixtures were found to contain PA concentrations above the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 10 µg/kg. In 11 medicinal teas PA contents >300 µg/kg dry herb were determined thus exceeding the recommended limit for PA intake by BfR. In addition three products of the investigated tea mixtures revealed extremely high PA contents of 4227, 5137, and 5668 µg/kg. Generally, single-ingredient tea products contained much less or even no detectable amounts of PAs when compared to the tea mixtures. PAs in the range between 13 and 1080 µg/kg were also detected in five analyzed aqueous herbal infusions of the medicinal tea mixture products with the highest PA content. Two out of the five investigated herbal infusions exceeded the recommended BfR limit for PA intake. This study demonstrates clearly that also medicinal teas licensed as medicinal products may partly contain high amounts of PAs exceeding current recommendations. For

  4. Application and Characteristics of Chinese Herbal Medicine Containing Schisandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Mao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Schisandra is the dried and ripe fruit of Chinese magnoliavine, which has the functions of protecting the liver and gallbladder, lowering blood sugar, antibacterial and antiaging. Schisandra contains biological activity is very high. As a commonly used blind Chinese herbal medicine, Schisandra often appear in the treatment of vertigo, palpitations, insomnia in the proprietary Chinese medicine, play a nourishing liver and kidney, nourishing the nerves and so on. Chinese Pharmacopoeia contains a total of 102 kinds of Chinese medicine containing Schisandra, according to the dosage form will contain Schisandra proprietary Chinese medicine is divided into pills, tablets, granules and other 8 categories, according to the compatibility of Schisandra application, will contain Schisandra proprietary Chinese medicine functional Class 9. In this paper, the main clinical application of proprietary Chinese medicines containing Schisandra chinensis was analyzed by analyzing the classification and functional treatment of Chinese medicinal constituents containing Schisandra in pharmacopoeia, and then providing the basis for the analysis of Schisandra in proprietary Chinese medicine and The study is conducted to give guidance.

  5. Attitude and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakeye, Titilayo O; Adisa, Rasaq; Musa, Ismail E

    2009-12-31

    The use of herbal medicines among pregnant women in Nigeria has not been widely studied. Opinion of 595 pregnant women in three geopolitical zones in Nigeria on the use of herbal medicines, safety on usage, knowledge of potential effects of herbal remedies on the fetus and potential benefits or harms that may be derived from combining herbal remedies with conventional therapies were obtained using a structured questionnaire between September 2007 and March 2008. Descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact tests were used at 95% confidence level to evaluate the data obtained. Level of significance was set at pherbal medicines in crude forms or as pharmaceutical prepackaged dosage forms, with 74.3% preferring self-prepared formulations. Almost 30% who were using herbal medicine at the time of the study believed that the use of herbal medicines during pregnancy is safe. Respondents' reasons for taking herbal medications were varied and included reasons such as herbs having better efficacy than conventional medicines [22.4%], herbs being natural, are safer to use during pregnancy than conventional medicines [21.1%], low efficacy of conventional medicines [19.7%], easier access to herbal medicines [11.2%], traditional and cultural belief in herbal medicines to cure many illnesses [12.5%], and comparatively low cost of herbal medicines [5.9%]. Over half the respondents, 56.6% did not support combining herbal medicines with conventional drugs to forestall drug-herb interaction. About 33.4% respondents believed herbal medicines possess no adverse effects while 181 [30.4%] were of the opinion that adverse/side effects of some herbal medicines could be dangerous. Marital status, geopolitical zones, and educational qualification of respondents had statistically significant effects on respondents views on side effects of herbal medicines [pherbal medicines to the fetus [pherbal medicines by pregnant women in Nigeria highlighting an urgent need for health care practitioners and

  6. Herbal medicine use behaviour in Australian adults who experience anxiety: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J; Wiener, Karl K; Sarris, Jerome

    2016-02-11

    Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health condition in Australia. In addition, there are many people who experience problematic anxiety symptoms who do not receive an anxiety disorder diagnosis but require treatment. As herbal medicine use is popular in Australia, and little is known about how adults experiencing anxiety are using these medicines, this study aimed to identify how Australian adults who experience anxiety are using herbal medicines. An online cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using purposive convenience sampling to recruit Australian adults who have experienced anxiety symptoms and have used herbal medicines (N = 400). Descriptive statistics, chi-square test of contingency, analysis of variance, and simple logistic regression was used to analyse the data. Eighty two percent of participants experienced anxiety symptoms in the previous 12 months, with 47% reporting having previously been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. In addition, 72.8% had used herbal medicines specifically for anxiety symptoms in their lifetime, while 55.3% had used prescribed pharmaceuticals, with 27.5% having used herbal medicines concurrently with prescribed pharmaceuticals. The Internet and family and friends were the most frequently used sources of information about herbal medicines. Forty eight percent of participants did not disclose their herbal medicine use to their doctor. Herbal medicines are being used by adults with anxiety and are commonly self-prescribed for anxiety symptoms. Health practitioners who are experts in herbal medicine prescribing are consulted infrequently. In addition, herbal medicine use is often not disclosed to health practitioners. These behaviours are concerning as people may not be receiving the most suitable treatments, and their use of herbal medicines may even be dangerous. It is critical we develop a better understanding of why people are using these medicines, and how we can develop improved health literacy

  7. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-11-01

    Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, wounds, gastrointestinal disorders, rheumatic pain, and hemorrhoids. Essential oils of chamomile are used extensively in cosmetics and aromatherapy. Many different preparations of chamomile have been developed, the most popular of which is in the form of herbal tea consumed more than one million cups per day. In this review we describe the use of chamomile in traditional medicine with regard to evaluating its curative and preventive properties, highlight recent findings for its development as a therapeutic agent promoting human health.

  8. Chemical and Biological Research on Herbal Medicines Rich in Xanthones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Ruan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Xanthones, as some of the most active components and widely distributed in various herb medicines, have drawn more and more attention in recent years. So far, 168 species of herbal plants belong to 58 genera, 24 families have been reported to contain xanthones. Among them, Calophyllum, Cratoxylum, Cudrania, Garcinia, Gentiana, Hypericum and Swertia genera are plant resources with great development prospect. This paper summarizes the plant resources, bioactivity and the structure-activity relationships (SARs of xanthones from references published over the last few decades, which may be useful for new drug research and development on xanthones.

  9. Chemical and Biological Research on Herbal Medicines Rich in Xanthones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jingya; Zheng, Chang; Liu, Yanxia; Qu, Lu; Yu, Haiyang; Han, Lifeng; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2017-10-11

    Xanthones, as some of the most active components and widely distributed in various herb medicines, have drawn more and more attention in recent years. So far, 168 species of herbal plants belong to 58 genera, 24 families have been reported to contain xanthones. Among them, Calophyllum , Cratoxylum , Cudrania , Garcinia , Gentiana , Hypericum and Swertia genera are plant resources with great development prospect. This paper summarizes the plant resources, bioactivity and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of xanthones from references published over the last few decades, which may be useful for new drug research and development on xanthones.

  10. Regulation of medicinal plants for public health--European community monographs on herbal substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knöss, Werner; Chinou, Ioanna

    2012-08-01

    The European legislation on medicinal products also addresses the medicinal use of products originating from plants. The objective of the legislation is to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics when assessing quality, efficacy, and safety. Two categories are defined: i) herbal medicinal products can be granted a marketing authorisation; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products can be granted a registration based on their longstanding use if they are complying with a set of provisions ensuring their safe use. The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to provide monographs and list entries on herbal substances and preparations thereof. Meanwhile, approx. 100 monographs have been published, which define a current scientific and regulatory standard for efficacy and safety of herbal substances and herbal preparations used in medicinal products. This harmonised European standard will facilitate the availability and adequate use of traditional herbal medicinal products and herbal medicinal products within the European Union. Consequent labelling shall also enable patients and health care professionals to differentiate medicinal products from other product categories like cosmetics, food supplements, and medical devices. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Herbal Remedies for Functional Dyspepsia and Traditional Iranian Medicine Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeian, Mahmoud; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini Yekta, Nafiseh; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed. Results: The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used. Conclusions: Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies. PMID:26734483

  12. Medicinal plants used in traditional herbal medicine in the province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The nettle was the medicinal plant employed for more different illness and the chamomile was the one with higher prevalence. We could confirm that the Native Ecuadorians have a vast variety of traditions and popular medicinal practices that have great value and are needed to be researched and studied ...

  13. Network pharmacology of medicinal attributes and functions of Chinese herbal medicines: (IV Classification and network analysis of medicinal functions of Chinese herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In present study I used the data from CHM-DATA, the interactive database of 1127 Chinese herbal medicines with 78 medicinal functions (attributes. The relational network for medicinal functions of Chinese herbal medicines was constructed using my earlier data and methods. Results of network analysis showed that the network is a scale-free complex network at the significance level of alpha=0.01. It was demonstrated that Clear away heat, Detoxification, Remove lung-heat or nourish lung, Promote secretion of saliva or body, Relieve pain, Regulate or enhance energy flow (Qi, Nourish or warm spleen / stomach / Qi, and Dispel endogenous wind, are the most influential medicinal functions. Seven main modules, corresponding links and module functions were identified and three of them were (Clear away heat, Detoxification, Relieve pain, Regulate or enhance energy flow (Qi, (Loosen the bowels, Moisten dryness, Tonify blood, Nourish essential fluid (Yin, Inhibit or break energy flow (Qi, and (Relieve external syndrome, Induce perspiration, Relieve muscular spasm, Expose exthanthema or promote eruption. PCA of 78 medicinal functions demonstrated that the medicinal functions 1-50 accounted for 79% of the total variance. There were not absolutely significant components and medicinal functions. The 78 components from PCA were substantially 78 independent and comprehensive medicinal functions. Major medicinal functions for every component can be simply determined by their importance and contribution coefficients in the component. New medicinal definition for some the most important principal components were given. Category characteristics of medicinal functions were described. At a certain level, for example, the medicinal functions -Consolidate or warm kidney, -Whet the appetite or reinforce stomach, Cool blood, -Regulate or enhance energy flow (Qi, -Nourish or warm spleen / stomach / Qi, Clear away heat, Detoxification, and Dispel endogenous cold, are the

  14. Herbal medicine for hospitalized patients with severe depressive episode: a retrospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lan-Ying; Feng, Bin; Chen, Jiong; Tan, Qing-Rong; Chen, Zheng-Xin; Chen, Wen-Song; Wang, Pei-Rong; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine is increasingly used in depressed patients. The purpose of this retrospective controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal medicine treatment of severe depressive episode. A total of 146 severely depressed subjects were selected from patients who were admitted to the Department of Psychosomatics of Tongde Hospital at Hangzhou, China between 1st September 2009 and 30th November 2013. While all were medicated with psychotropic drugs, 78 received additional individualized herbal medicine. The severity of depressive symptoms was measured using 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-24) at admission and thereafter once weekly during hospital stay. The proportion of patients achieving clinical response and remission and incidence of adverse events were compared. The two groups had similar average length of hospital stay for approximately 28 days and were not different in the use of psychotropic medications. Survival analysis revealed that patients with herbal medicine had significantly higher chance of achieving clinical response [relative risk (RR)=2.179, Pherbal medicine. Patients with herbal medicine experienced remarkably fewer incidences of physical tiredness, headache, palpitation, dry mouth and constipation, but had a significantly higher incidence of digestive discomfort compared to patients without herbal medicine. These results indicate that additional treatment with individualized herbal medicine enhances antidepressant response and reduces certain side effects associated with psychotropic medications. Herbal medicine is an effective and relatively safe therapy for severe depressive episode (Trial Registration: ChiCTR-OCH-13003864). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Brazilian scientific production on herbal medicines used in dentistry

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    R.D. Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to critically analyze the scientific production published in specialized Brazilian journals concerning the use of medicinal plants in dentistry. A literature review was carried out using an indirect documentation technique by means of a bibliographical study. Four examiners performed independent searches in Brazilian journals of medicinal plants indexed in the database SciELO (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy; Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants; Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences; and Acta Botanica Brasilica using the descriptors "herbal medicine/phytotherapy" or "medicinal plants" and "dentistry ". The articles published from 2002 to 2012 addressing the use of medicinal plants in dentistry were included and analyzed. The searches based on the descriptors and reading of abstracts, resulted in 155 articles. Of these, 44 were read in full and a total of 16 publications met the eligibility criteria and were selected. Laboratory studies predominated (10 and were limited to the evaluation of antimicrobial properties by means of tests for determining inhibitory, fungicidal and bactericidal concentrations. Three literature reviews and only one clinical trial with no blinding and randomization were found. It is highlighted the need for better methodological designs in the researches and greater production of clinical or in vivo studies.

  16. Intersection of Inflammation and Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Herbal remedies and dietary supplements have become an important area of research and clinical practice in orthopaedics and rheumatology. Understanding the risks and benefits of using herbal medicines in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatic diseases, and musculoskeletal complaints is a key priority of physicians and their patients. This review discusses the latest advances in the use of herbal medicines for treating osteoarthritis (OA) by focusing on the most significant trends and developme...

  17. Safety classification of herbal medicines used among pregnant women in Asian countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mansoor; Hwang, Jung Hye; Choi, Soojeung; Han, Dongwoon

    2017-11-14

    High prevalence of herbal medicines used in pregnancy and the lack of information on their safety is a public concern. Despite this, no significant research has been done regarding potential adverse effects of using herbal medicines during pregnancy, especially among developing Asian countries. Cross-sectional studies were searched up to year 2016 on PubMed/Medline and EMBASE, the data were extracted and quality of studies was assessed using the quality appraisal tool. The findings are reported in accordance to the PRISMA checklist (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). Classification on safety of identified herbal medicines was done based on current scientific literature. This study included eight cross-sectional studies (2729 participants) from seven different Asian countries, of which 1283 (47.01%) women used one or more herbal medicines during pregnancy. Peppermint (22.8%), aniseed (14.7%), olibanum (12.9%), flixweed seed (12.2%) and ginger (11.5%) were the most frequently used herbal medicines. Out of the 33 identified herbal medicines, 13 were classified as safe to use, five as use with caution, eight were potentially harmful to use in pregnancy and information on seven herbal medicines was not available in the current literature. Several herbal medicines identified in this review were classified to be potentially harmful or the information regarding safety in pregnancy was missing. It is recommended that contraindicated herbal medicines should be avoided and other herbals should be taken under supervision of a qualified health care practitioner. The classification regarding safety of herbal medicines in pregnancy can be utilized to create awareness on prevention of adverse effects.

  18. Review on herbal medicine on brain ischemia and reperfusion简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahid; Jivad; Zahra; Rabiei

    2015-01-01

    Brain ischemia and reperfusion is the leading cause of serious and long-range disability in the world. Clinically significant changes in central nervous system function are observed following brain ischemia and reperfusion. Stroke patients exhibit behavioral, cognitive,emotional, affective and electrophysiological changes during recovery phase. Brain injury by transient complete global brain ischemia or by transient incomplete brain ischemia afflicts a very large number of patients in the world with death or permanent disability. In order to reduce this damage, we must sufficiently understand the mechanisms involved in brain ischemia and reperfusion and repair to design clinically effective therapy.Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion is known to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species that can lead to oxidative damage of proteins, membrane lipids and nucleic acids.A decrease in tissue antioxidant capacity, an increase in lipid peroxidation as well as an increase in lipid peroxidation inhibitors have been demonstrated in several models of brain ischemia. This paper reviews the number of commonly used types of herbal medicines effective for the treatment of stroke. The aim of this paper was to review evidences from controlled studies in order to discuss whether herbal medicine can be helpful in the treatment of brain ischemia and reperfusion.

  19. Use of Chinese herbal medicine among menopausal women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lih-Chi; Wang, Bi-Ru; Chen, I-Chin; Shao, Chun-Hui

    2010-04-01

    To assess the patterns of use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) used by women in Taiwan to treat menopausal symptoms. A retrospective review of the records of women who received CHM therapies for menopausal symptoms at the Traditional Medicine Center, Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, between January 2003 and December 2006. The average number of therapies per prescription, dosage, and duration of the prescription were recorded. The most commonly prescribed herbs and formulae were also recorded. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The records of 3432 women who were administered a total of 19370 CHMs to treat symptoms of the menopause were reviewed. The average number of drugs per prescription was 5.64. Most of the prescriptions (97.1%) were prescribed to be taken 3 times a day. The most commonly prescribed Chinese herb was Leonurus heterophyllus. Jia-Wey-Shiau-Yau-San was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. CHM is commonly used in Taiwan for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. The efficacy and safety of CHM drugs used for the management of menopausal symptoms require further study. Copyright 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Research Progress in the Application of Chinese Herbal Medicines in Aquaculture: A Review

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    Hongyu Pu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing safety concerns regarding human consumption of fish products, an increasing number of medicinal chemicals are prohibited from use in aquaculture. As a result, Chinese herbal medicines are being increasingly used, coining the use of the term “green medicine.” Research shows that Chinese herbal medicines have many beneficial effects on fish, including growth promotion, enhancement of disease resistance, and improvement in meat quality. Many effective ingredients have been discovered in Chinese herbal medicines, which function to promote feed intake, improve meat flavor, and increase digestive enzyme activity. They also regulate and participate in processes that improve the specific and non-specific immunity of fish; however, the composition of Chinese herbal medicines is very complex and it is often difficult to identify the effective ingredients. This article reviews the latest research and application progress in Chinese herbal medicines regarding growth and feed utilization, immunity and disease resistance, and the meat quality of cultured fish. It also discusses research on the chemical constituents of classical Chinese medicinal herbs and problems with the application of Chinese herbal medicines in fish culture. This article concludes by proposing that future studies on Chinese herbal medicines should focus on how to cheaply refine and extract the effective ingredients in classical Chinese medicinal herbs, as well as how to use them efficiently in aquaculture.

  1. Characteristics of Herbal Medicine Users and Adverse Events Experienced in South Korea: A Survey Study

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    Soobin Jang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This survey aimed to investigate the characteristics of users and nonusers of herbal medicine and the adverse events experienced due to herbal medicines in South Korea. Methods. The questionnaire consisted of safety, using experience, using type, usage and nonusage reason, purchase location, and adverse events of herbal medicine. The survey was administered by online. Results. Of the total 1,134 respondents, 726 (64.0% considered herbal medicine safe, and 693 (61.1% answered that they have taken herbal medicines within the past year. Most common place to purchase them was “TKM hospital or clinic” (63.6%, and most participants (72.2% took a decoction from a TKM institution. The biggest reason for taking them was for “health improvement” (57.3%, and the reasons for not using them was “medication not necessary” (63.7%. Among those who took herbal medicines, 46 experienced adverse events, and the most frequently reported symptoms were digestive disorders (52.2%. Of the 46 participants who experienced adverse events, 20 (43.5% were treated by TKM doctors. Conclusions. This study suggests that regulation of herbal medicines is needed in order to resolve problems related to the safety of herbal medicines.

  2. Characteristics of Herbal Medicine Users and Adverse Events Experienced in South Korea: A Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Han; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Shin, Yong-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Background. This survey aimed to investigate the characteristics of users and nonusers of herbal medicine and the adverse events experienced due to herbal medicines in South Korea. Methods. The questionnaire consisted of safety, using experience, using type, usage and nonusage reason, purchase location, and adverse events of herbal medicine. The survey was administered by online. Results. Of the total 1,134 respondents, 726 (64.0%) considered herbal medicine safe, and 693 (61.1%) answered that they have taken herbal medicines within the past year. Most common place to purchase them was “TKM hospital or clinic” (63.6%), and most participants (72.2%) took a decoction from a TKM institution. The biggest reason for taking them was for “health improvement” (57.3%), and the reasons for not using them was “medication not necessary” (63.7%). Among those who took herbal medicines, 46 experienced adverse events, and the most frequently reported symptoms were digestive disorders (52.2%). Of the 46 participants who experienced adverse events, 20 (43.5%) were treated by TKM doctors. Conclusions. This study suggests that regulation of herbal medicines is needed in order to resolve problems related to the safety of herbal medicines. PMID:28491107

  3. Chinese herbal medicine for cancer-related fatigue: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chun-Xiang; Wang, Li-Qiong; Grant, Suzanne J; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2014-06-01

    To assess the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of cancer-related fatigue. We systematically searched seven electronic databases and two trial registries for randomized clinical trials of Chinese herbal medicine for cancer-related fatigue. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the included trials using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data were synthesized using RevMan 5.2 software. A total of 10 trials involving 751 participants with cancer-related fatigue were identified and the methodological quality of the included trials was generally poor. Chinese herbal medicine used alone or in combination with chemotherapy or supportive care showed significant relief in cancer-related fatigue compared to placebo, chemotherapy or supportive care based on single trials. Chinese herbal medicine plus chemotherapy or supportive care was superior to chemotherapy or supportive care in improving quality of life. Data from one trial demonstrated Chinese herbal medicine exerted a greater beneficial effect on relieving anxiety but no difference in alleviating depression. Seven trials reported adverse events and no severe adverse effects were found in Chinese herbal medicine groups. The findings from limited number of trials suggest that Chinese herbal medicine seems to be effective and safe in the treatment of cancer-related fatigue. However, the current evidence is insufficient to draw a confirmative conclusion due to the poor methodological quality of included trials. Thus, conducting rigorously designed trials on potential Chinese herbal medicine is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characteristics of Herbal Medicine Users and Adverse Events Experienced in South Korea: A Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Soobin; Kim, Kyeong Han; Sun, Seung-Ho; Go, Ho-Yeon; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2017-01-01

    Background. This survey aimed to investigate the characteristics of users and nonusers of herbal medicine and the adverse events experienced due to herbal medicines in South Korea. Methods. The questionnaire consisted of safety, using experience, using type, usage and nonusage reason, purchase location, and adverse events of herbal medicine. The survey was administered by online. Results. Of the total 1,134 respondents, 726 (64.0%) considered herbal medicine safe, and 693 (61.1%) answered that they have taken herbal medicines within the past year. Most common place to purchase them was "TKM hospital or clinic" (63.6%), and most participants (72.2%) took a decoction from a TKM institution. The biggest reason for taking them was for "health improvement" (57.3%), and the reasons for not using them was "medication not necessary" (63.7%). Among those who took herbal medicines, 46 experienced adverse events, and the most frequently reported symptoms were digestive disorders (52.2%). Of the 46 participants who experienced adverse events, 20 (43.5%) were treated by TKM doctors. Conclusions. This study suggests that regulation of herbal medicines is needed in order to resolve problems related to the safety of herbal medicines.

  5. Intersection of inflammation and herbal medicine in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobasheri, Ali

    2012-12-01

    Herbal remedies and dietary supplements have become an important area of research and clinical practice in orthopaedics and rheumatology. Understanding the risks and benefits of using herbal medicines in the treatment of arthritis, rheumatic diseases, and musculoskeletal complaints is a key priority of physicians and their patients. This review discusses the latest advances in the use of herbal medicines for treating osteoarthritis (OA) by focusing on the most significant trends and developments. This paper sets the scene by providing a brief introduction to ethnopharmacology, Ayurvedic medicine, and nutrigenomics before discussing the scientific and mechanistic rationale for targeting inflammatory signalling pathways in OA by use of herbal medicines. Special attention is drawn to the conceptual and practical difficulties associated with translating data from in-vitro experiments to in-vivo studies. Issues relating to the low bioavailability of active ingredients in herbal medicines are discussed, as also is the need for large-scale, randomized clinical trials.

  6. Herbal medicine use and linked suspected adverse drug reactions in a prospective cohort of Ugandan inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguba, Ronald; Ononge, Sam; Karamagi, Charles; Bird, Sheila M

    2016-05-26

    Clinical history-taking can be employed as a standardized approach to elucidate the use of herbal medicines and their linked suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among hospitalized patients. We sought to identify herbal medicines nominated by Ugandan inpatients; compare nomination rates by ward and gender; confirm the herbs' known pharmacological properties from published literature; and identify ADRs linked to pre-admission use of herbal medicines. Prospective cohort of consented adult inpatients designed to assess medication use and ADRs on one gynaecological and three medical wards of 1790-bed Mulago National Referral Hospital. Baseline and follow-up data were obtained on patients' characteristics, including pre-admission use of herbal medicines. Fourteen percent (26/191) of females in Gynaecology nominated at least one specific herbal medicine compared with 20 % (114/571) of inpatients on medical wards [20 % (69/343) of females; 20 % (45/228) of males]. Frequent nominations were Persea americana (30), Mumbwa/multiple-herb clay rods (23), Aloe barbadensis (22), Beta vulgaris (12), Vernonia amygdalina (11), Commelina africana (7), Bidens pilosa (7), Hoslundia opposita (6), Mangifera indica (4), and Dicliptera laxata (4). Four inpatients experienced 10 suspected ADRs linked to pre-admission herbal medicine use including Commelina africana (4), multiple-herb-mumbwa (1), or unspecified local-herbs (5): three ADR-cases were abortion-related and one kidney-related. The named herbal medicines and their nomination rates generally differed by specialized ward, probably guided by local folklore knowledge of their use. Clinical elicitation from inpatients can generate valuable safety data on herbal medicine use. However, larger routine studies might increase the utility of our method to assess herbal medicine use and detect herb-linked ADRs. Future studies should take testable samples of ADR-implicated herbal medicines for further analysis.

  7. Chinese herbal medicines for benign thyroid nodules in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenxun; Yin, Detao; Yang, Weimin; Kan, Quancheng; Liu, Zhangsuo; Ren, Xiaoyan; Zhai, Chenguang; Zhang, Shengjun

    2014-03-04

    A thyroid nodule is a discrete lesion within the thyroid gland that might be palpable and is ultrasonographically distinct from the surrounding thyroid parenchyma. Thyroid nodules are more common as age increases and occur more frequently in women. Benign thyroid nodules often cause pressure symptoms and cosmetic complaints. In China and many other countries, doctors use Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) to treat thyroid nodules. To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules in adults. Review authors searched the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP information (a Chinese database), WANFANG Data (a Chinese database), the Chinese Conference Papers Database and the Chinese Dissertation Database (all searched up to April 2013). Randomised controlled trials comparing CHM or CHM plus levothyroxine versus levothyroxine, placebo or no treatment in adults with benign thyroid nodules. Two review authors independently extracted data, assessed studies for risk of bias and evaluated overall study quality according to GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation), with differences resolved by consensus. We included one randomised trial involving 152 participants with a randomisation ratio of 2:1 (CHM vs no treatment). The trial applied adequate sequence generation; however, allocation concealment was unclear. Duration of treatment was three months, and follow-up six months. Our a priori defined outcomes of interest (i.e. nodule volume reduction ≥ 50%; pressure symptoms, cosmetic complaints or both; health-related quality of life; all-cause mortality; cancer occurrence; changes in number and size of thyroid nodules; changes in thyroid volume; and socioeconomic effects) were not investigated in the included study. Thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and tri

  8. Herbal Medicine as Inducers of Apoptosis in Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Safarzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Nowadays, cancer is considered as a human tragedy and one of the most prevalent diseases in the wide, and its mortality resulting from cancer is being increased. It seems necessary to identify new strategies to prevent and treat such a deadly disease. Control survival and death of cancerous cell are important strategies in the management and therapy of cancer. Anticancer agents should kill the cancerous cell with the minimal side effect on normal cells that is possible through the induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis is known as programmed cell death in both normal and damaged tissues. This process includes some morphologically changes in cells such as rapid condensation and budding of the cell, formation of membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies with well-preserved organelles. Induction of apoptosis is one of the most important markers of cytotoxic antitumor agents. Some natural compounds including plants induce apoptotic pathways that are blocked in cancer cells through various mechanisms in cancer cells. Multiple surveys reported that people with cancer commonly use herbs or herbal products. Vinca Alkaloids, Texans, podo phyllotoxin, Camptothecins have been clinically used as Plant derived anticancer agents. The present review summarizes the literature published so far regarding herbal medicine used as inducers of apoptosis in cancer.

  9. Chinese herbal medicine and depression: the research evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Lee; Pilkington, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background. Alternative approaches for managing depression are often sought and herbal mixtures are widely used in China. The aim of this paper was to provide an overall picture of the current evidence by analysing published systematic reviews and presenting a supplementary systematic review of trials in Western databases. Methods. Searches were conducted using AMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and trial registers. Results were screened and selected trials were evaluated by two reviewers working independently. Systematic reviews were identified and assessed using key criteria. Results. Five systematic reviews were located addressing the Chinese literature, adjunctive use of Chinese herbs, and the formulae Chaihu-Shugan-San, Xiao Yao San, and Free and Easy Wanderer Plus. The supplementary review located 8 trials, 3 of which were not included in previous reviews. Positive results were reported: no significant differences from medication, greater effect than medication or placebo, reduced adverse event rates when combined or compared with antidepressants. However, limitations in methodology and reporting were revealed. Conclusions. Despite promising results, particularly for Xiao Yao San and its modifications, the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine in depression could not be fully substantiated based on current evidence. Further well-designed, well-reported trials that reflect practice may be worth pursuing.

  10. Herbal medicine as inducers of apoptosis in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarzadeh, Elham; Sandoghchian Shotorbani, Siamak; Baradaran, Behzad

    2014-10-01

    Cancer is uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Nowadays, cancer is considered as a human tragedy and one of the most prevalent diseases in the wide, and its mortality resulting from cancer is being increased. It seems necessary to identify new strategies to prevent and treat such a deadly disease. Control survival and death of cancerous cell are important strategies in the management and therapy of cancer. Anticancer agents should kill the cancerous cell with the minimal side effect on normal cells that is possible through the induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis is known as programmed cell death in both normal and damaged tissues. This process includes some morphologically changes in cells such as rapid condensation and budding of the cell, formation of membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies with well-preserved organelles. Induction of apoptosis is one of the most important markers of cytotoxic antitumor agents. Some natural compounds including plants induce apoptotic pathways that are blocked in cancer cells through various mechanisms in cancer cells. Multiple surveys reported that people with cancer commonly use herbs or herbal products. Vinca Alkaloids, Texans, podo phyllotoxin, Camptothecins have been clinically used as Plant derived anticancer agents. The present review summarizes the literature published so far regarding herbal medicine used as inducers of apoptosis in cancer.

  11. Treatment of Insomnia With Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amrinder; Zhao, Kaicun

    2017-01-01

    Insomnia is a condition with sleep problems and many people suffered from it. Chronic insomnia can last for long time and it will severely affect people's health and the quality of life. In conventional medicine, the most commonly used the medicine is benzodiazepine. It is effective but also has significant side effects. Patients try to use some kinds of alternative medicines. Chinese medicinal herbs and formulas have been used in the treatment of insomnia for more than 2000 years in China. In recent decades, Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in the Western countries. Many clinical studies including randomized controlled clinical trials and research on pharmacological action mechanisms of the herbs for treatment of insomnia have been conducted. It is very important and very helpful to review the published research papers to gather the available information for a critical analysis. This chapter evaluated the data from both of clinical studies and pharmacological researches on the therapeutic formulas and on some key herbs used in the treatment of insomnia. Clinical studies showed a very wide spectrum of herbs that were used in clinical treatment of insomnia. This was due to different syndrome patterns happened with insomnia. This brought complexity and difficulties to identify which are the essential key herbs or formulas. It was found Suanzaoren decoction (Ziziphus spinose decoction ) is the most frequently used formula for the treatment of insomnia. Based on the clinical data, several herbs were identified as most frequently used sedative and hypnotic herbs in Chinese herbal medicine including Suanzaoren (Ziziphus spinose ), Fuling (Poria cocos ), and Gancao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis ). The underlying pharmacological action mechanisms discovered in the studies on some key herbs used in the treatment of insomnia were evaluated. The major pharmacological action mechanisms shared by most of the sedative herbs are to act through the neurotransmitter gamma

  12. Integrating biomedical and herbal medicine in Ghana - experiences from the Kumasi South Hospital: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Millicent Addai; Danso-Appiah, Anthony; Turkson, Bernard Kofi; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski

    2016-07-07

    Over the past decade there has been growing interest in the use of herbal medicine both in developed and developing countries. Given the high proportion of patients using herbal medicine in Ghana, some health facilities have initiated implementation of herbal medicine as a component of their healthcare delivery. However, the extent to which herbal medicine has been integrated in Ghanaian health facilities, how integration is implemented and perceived by different stakeholders has not been documented. The study sought to explore these critical issues at the Kumasi South Hospital (KSH) and outline the challenges and motivations of the integration process. Qualitative phenomenological exploratory study design involving fieldwork observations, focus group discussion, in-depth interviews and key informants' interviews was employed to collect data. Policies and protocols outlining the definition, process and goals of integration were lacking, with respondents sharing different views about the purpose and value of integration of herbal medicine within public health facilities. Key informants were supportive of the initiative. Whilst biomedical health workers perceived the system to be parallel than integrated, health personnel providing herbal medicine perceived the system as integrated. Most patients were not aware of the herbal clinic in the hospital but those who had utilized services of the herbal clinic viewed the clinic as part of the hospital. The lack of a regulatory policy and protocol for the integration seemed to have led to the different perception of the integration. Policy and protocol to guide the integration are key recommendations.

  13. Effects and Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Ameliorating Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIR injury is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease, which accounts for approximately 450,000 deaths a year in the United States alone. Chinese herbal medicine, especially combined herbal formulations, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of myocardial infarction for hundreds of years. While the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine is well documented, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this review, we highlight recent studies which are focused on elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms using extracted compounds, single herbs, or herbal formulations in experimental settings. These studies represent recent efforts to bridge the gap between the enigma of ancient Chinese herbal medicine and the concepts of modern cell and molecular biology in the treatment of myocardial infarction.

  14. Near Infrared Spectroscopy Detection and Quantification of Herbal Medicines Adulterated with Sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Neirivaldo Cavalcante; Honorato, Ricardo Saldanha; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Garrigues, Salvador; Cervera, Maria Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    There is an increasing demand for herbal medicines in weight loss treatment. Some synthetic chemicals, such as sibutramine (SB), have been detected as adulterants in herbal formulations. In this study, two strategies using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy have been developed to evaluate potential adulteration of herbal medicines with SB: a qualitative screening approach and a quantitative methodology based on multivariate calibration. Samples were composed by products commercialized as herbal medicines, as well as by laboratory adulterated samples. Spectra were obtained in the range of 14,000-4000 per cm. Using PLS-DA, a correct classification of 100% was achieved for the external validation set. In the quantitative approach, the root mean squares error of prediction (RMSEP), for both PLS and MLR models, was 0.2% w/w. The results prove the potential of NIR spectroscopy and multivariate calibration in quantifying sibutramine in adulterated herbal medicines samples. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. [Development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong-Qing; Li, Li; Liu, Ying; Ma, Yin-Lian; Yu, Ding-Rong

    2016-01-01

    To elucidate the key issues in the development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry Chinese herbal pieces industry. According to the author's accumulated experience over years and demand of the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, the key issues in the development and innovation on the Chinese herbal pieces industry were summarized. According to the author, the traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline shall focus on a application basis research. The development of this discipline should be closely related to the development of Chinese herbal pieces. The traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline can be improved and its results can be transformed only if this discipline were correlated with the Chinese herbal pieces industry, matched with the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, and solved the problems in the development on the Chinese herbal pieces industry. The development of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and the Chinese herbal pieces industry also requires scientific researchers to make constant innovations, realize the specialty of the researches, and innovate based on inheritance. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. [Herbal textual research on Chinese medicine "Huangjing" (Polygonati Rhizoma)and some enlightenments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Si, Jin-Ping

    2018-02-01

    To clarify the change and development of the original plants, medicinal organs, traditional functions, resource distribution of "Huangjing"(Polygonati Rhizome), a traditional Chinese medicine, we investigated Polygonatum species on the ancient Chinese herbal texts. The name of "Nüwei" was first carried out in the book of Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic. Its effects included two aspects: one was similar to "Weirui"(Polygonati Odorati Rhizome, "Yuzhu"), that was tonifying, nourishing one's vitality, removing wind and dampness, settling five organs, making body lightness, keeping longevity and not being hungry; the second was alike to "Huangjing" recorded in the book of Ming Yi Bie Lu(Appendant Records of Famous Physicians). Specifically, "Weirui" possesses the therapeutic effect of "Nüwei", while "Huangjing" possesses the tonic effect of " Nüwei". Thereafter, the following ancient Chinese herbal texts kept those two names and function records. Accordingly, we hold the point of view that "Huangjing" was first carried out in the book of Sheng Nong's Herbal Classic in the synonym of "Nüwei". "Yuzhu" included the "Huangjing" in ancient herbal text before Qing Dynasty, that was further confirmed by the research on change and development of the original plants. The identification between "Yuzhu" and "Huangjing" was based on the shape of rhizome and size before early Tang Dynasty. The shape was a key character and used up to now, but size was not reasonable. The opposite phyllotaxy was an important character of authentic "Huangjing" from Tang to Qing Dynasty. The seedling of Polygonatum sibiricum and P. kingianum, the adult plant of P. cyrtonema with alternate leaves were misused as "Yuzhu"("Nüwei" and "Weirui") at that time. Therefore, both "Yuzhu" and "Huangjing" should be used as key words during the search of ancient prescriptions and development of new drugs and health foods. The leaves, flowers, fruits and seedlings could

  17. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM's Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is “experience driven,” the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like “looking for a needle in a haystack,” is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development.

  18. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM's Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gao, Si-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ma, Dik-Lung; Han, Yi-Fan; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2013-01-01

    With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is "experience driven," the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like "looking for a needle in a haystack," is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development.

  19. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM's Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gao, Si-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Han, Yi-Fan; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2013-01-01

    With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is “experience driven,” the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like “looking for a needle in a haystack,” is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development. PMID:23634172

  20. Current application of chemometrics in traditional Chinese herbal medicine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yipeng; Wu, Zhenwei; Su, Rihui; Ruan, Guihua; Du, Fuyou; Li, Gongke

    2016-07-15

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) are promising approach for the treatment of various diseases which have attracted increasing attention all over the world. Chemometrics in quality control of TCHMs are great useful tools that harnessing mathematics, statistics and other methods to acquire information maximally from the data obtained from various analytical approaches. This feature article focuses on the recent studies which evaluating the pharmacological efficacy and quality of TCHMs by determining, identifying and discriminating the bioactive or marker components in different samples with the help of chemometric techniques. In this work, the application of chemometric techniques in the classification of TCHMs based on their efficacy and usage was introduced. The recent advances of chemometrics applied in the chemical analysis of TCHMs were reviewed in detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment of drug dependence with Brazilian herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisaldo A. Carlini

    Full Text Available The topic "Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Addictions" in a country must be preceded by answers to four questions: 1. Does the country in question possess a biodiversity rich enough to allow the discovery of useful medicines? 2. Do local people have tradition and culture to look for and use resources from Nature to alleviate and cure diseases, including drug dependence? 3. Is drug dependence (or addiction present in the country in question? 4. Do people of that country recognize and diagnose such problem as a serious one? Alcohol is, by far, the most serious health problem when drug abuse is considered, reaching all of Brazilian society, including the Indians. On the contrary, other drugs may be considered as minor problems and they are not the main focus of this manuscript. The people living in Brazilian hinterland don’t have access to public health systems. Consequently, these people seek assistance from "curandeiros" and "raizeiros"; the Indians are assisted by the shaman. These "folk doctors" do not know the academic medicine and therapeutics, and resort to the local plants to treat different ailments of their patients. Furthermore, alcohol abuse and dependence are not recognized by them, according to the rules and criteria of academic medicine. We have conducted a survey in many Brazilian books, Thesis concerning phytotherapy, and several databank. The results of such searches were very disappointing. No published papers from Brazilian authors concerning the use of plants for the treatment of addictions were found in the databases and there were only three very short notes in the masterly book written by Shultes and Raffauf (1990. From the Brazilian books on folk medicine employing medicinal plants, ten mentions were disclosed: most of them dealing with treatment of alcohol problems and two to counteract "Ayahuasca" dependence.

  2. Application of Herbal Medicines with Bitter Flavor and Cold Property on Treating Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongdong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has been a global pandemic. Traditional Chinese Medicine has been used on diabetes mellitus for thousands of years and the modern Chinese medicine studies have found a curative effect of herbal medicine with bitter flavor and cold property on diabetes. This review will introduce the theory summary of flavor and property in TCM, argument basis, the evidences from clinical trails and animal experiments, the possible antidiabetic mechanisms, and advantages on lowering glucose of herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property and take rhizome, Chinese rhubarb, and Momordica charantia, the three herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property, as examples to illustrate the exact antidiabetic effect. It is hoped that this review can provide some ideas and inspiration for the treatment of diabetes with herbal medicine.

  3. [Analysis of difficult problems on European Union laws and regulations of traditional herbal medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Qun; Xiong, Yan; Wang, Yi-Tao; Zou, Wen-Jun

    2017-10-01

    Registration of Chinese patent medicine in European Union (EU) is of great significance to the internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine as EU market acts as an important position in the global botanical market. In retrospect, the domestic studies on EU regulations of traditional herbal medicinal products have been conducted for more than 10 years, but there is still some cognitive bias and lack of research. In this paper, a review of the relevant research progress and the main misunderstanding problems about Directive 2004/24/EC, like the centralized and decentralized supervision system of traditional herbal medicinal products in the EU, marketing authorization procedures for traditional herbal medicinal products, Community Herbal Monograph and List Entries, would be systematically analyzed, so as to provide reference for the registration of Chinese patent medicine in EU. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. IDENTIFICATION AND AUTHENTICATION OF DRY SAMPLES OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USING LEAF EPIDERMAL FEATURES AS MARKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Alanamu ABDULRAHAMAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is the oldest and still the most widely used system of medicine in the world today and they are made exclusively from plants. However, most of these medicines or drugs are adulterated due to lack of proper identification of the plant samples. Method of checking adulteration of drug plants is the main focus of this study. The identification and authentication of dry samples of some medicinal plants were carried out using anatomical features. Twenty-five (25 plants materials were collected in Ibadan and Ilorin, Nigeria. The plants studied include Azardiracta indica, Newboudia leavis, Polyalthia longifolia, Cymbopogon citratus, Anarcardium occidentalis, Nicotiana tobbaccum, Jatropha curcas, Chromoleana odorata, Mangifera indica, Terminalia catappa, Ocimum gratisimum, Morus messosygia, Morinda lucida, Psidium guajava, Vitellaria paradoxa, Annona senegalensis, Vernonia amygdalina, Gliricidium sepium, Ravoulvia vomitora, Telferia occindentalis Citrus aurantifolia, C. limon, C. paradisi and C. sinensis. Leaf epidermal anatomy of these selected plants showed no major variations in stomatal complex types, frequency, size and shape of stomatal cells, epidermal cell wall and trichomes between fresh and dry samples. The variations that occur were between different species but not within species. Leaf epidermal anatomy, therefore, proved to be a significant tool for resolution of taxonomic confusion of dried samples of these plants.

  5. Use of herbal medicine among pregnant women on antenatal care at nekemte hospital, Western ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

    2014-11-01

    Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and use of herbal drugs among pregnant women attending Nekemte Hospital to provide baseline information for future studies. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify the prevalence of using herbal medicines among pregnant women. About 50.4% of study participants used herbal drugs during their pregnancy. The proportion of herbal drug usage was gradually decreased along with the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The most and least commonly used herbs were ginger (44.36%) and tenaadam (9.15 %), respectively. The common indications of herbal remedies use during pregnancy were nausea (23.90%) and morning sickness (21.05%). The result of the present study confirmed wide use of herbal drugs use during pregnancy that need to report the safety concerns of these drugs during pregnancy. To achieve the requirements of pregnant women, it is vital for health care workers to be familiar with the effect of herbal medicine in pregnancy.

  6. Integrating herbal medicine into mainstream healthcare in Ghana: clients' acceptability, perceptions and disclosure of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Kudolo, Agnes; Quansah, Dan Yedu; Boateng, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Although there are current efforts to integrate herbal medicine (HM) into mainstream healthcare in Ghana, there is paucity of empirical evidence on the acceptability and concurrent use of HM, in the formal health facilities in Ghana. This study sought to determine client perception, disclosure and acceptability of integrating herbal medicine in mainstream healthcare in Kumasi, Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May to August, 2015. Five hundred patients presenting at the outpatient departments of Kumasi South, Suntreso and Tafo Government Hospitals in Kumasi were randomly selected. Interviews were conducted with the use of structured questionnaires. A logistic regression analysis, using backward selection, was conducted to determine the influence of socio-demographic and facility related factors on the odds of using HM at the facility. All statistical tests were two-sided and considered significant at a p-value of herbal medicines. Respondents who rated themselves wealthy had increased odds of using herbal medicines at the health facility as compared to those who rated themselves poor (OR = 4.9; 95%CI = 1.6-15.3). This study shows that integration of herbal medicine is feasible and herbal medicines may be generally accepted as a formal source of healthcare in Ghana. The results of this study might serve as a basis for improvement and upscale of the herbal medicine integration programme in Ghana.

  7. Why people use herbal medicine: insights from a focus-group study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, Alexandra N; Emberger-Klein, Agnes; Menrad, Klaus

    2018-03-15

    The use of herbal medicine, as one element of complementary and alternative medicine, is increasing worldwide. Little is known about the reasons for and factors associated with its use. This study derives insights for the use of herbal medicine in Germany regarding the usage aims, role played by the type of illness, reasons for preferred usage and sources of information. Using a qualitative methodological approach, six focus groups (n = 46) were conducted. Two groups with young, middle-aged and elderly participants, respectively. After audiotaping and verbatim transcription, the data were analysed with a qualitative content analysis. We found that treating illnesses was the most frequently discussed aim for using herbal medicine over all age groups. Preventing illnesses and promoting health were less frequently mentioned overall, but were important for elderly people. Discussions on herbal medicine were associated with either mild/moderate diseases or using herbal medicine as a starting treatment before applying conventional medicine. In this context, participants emphasized the limits of herbal medicine for severe illnesses. Dissatisfaction with conventional treatment, past good experiences, positive aspects associated with herbal medicine, as well as family traditions were the most commonly-mentioned reasons why herbal medicine was preferred as treatment. Concerning information sources, independent reading and family traditions were found to be equally or even more important than consulting medicinal experts. Although herbal medicine is used mostly for treating mild to moderate illnesses and participants were aware of its limits, the combination of self-medication, non-expert consultation and missing risk awareness of herbal medicine is potentially harmful. This is particularly relevant for elderly users as, even though they appeared to be more aware of health-related issues, they generally use more medicine compared to younger ones. In light of our finding

  8. Deoxypodophyllotoxin: a promising therapeutic agent from herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaled, Meyada; Jiang, Zhen-Zhou; Zhang, Lu-Yong

    2013-08-26

    Recently, biologically active compounds isolated from plants used in herbal medicine have been the center of interest. Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT), structurally closely related to the lignan podophyllotoxin, is a potent antitumor and anti-inflammatory agent. However, DPT has not been used clinically yet. Also, DPT from natural sources seems to be unavailable. Hence, it is important to establish alternative resources for the production of such lignan; especially that it is used as a precursor for the semi-synthesis of the cytostatic drugs etoposide phosphate and teniposide. The update paper provides an overview of DPT as an effective anticancer natural compound and a leader for cytotoxic drugs synthesis and development in order to highlight the gaps in our knowledge and explore future research needs. The present review covers the literature available from 1877 to 2012. The information was collected via electronic search using Chinese papers and the major scientific databases including PubMed, Sciencedirect, Web of Science and Google Scholar using the keywords. All abstracts and full-text articles reporting database on the history and current status of DPT were gathered and analyzed. Plants containing DPT have played an important role in traditional medicine. In light of the in vitro pharmacological investigations, DPT is a high valuable medicinal agent that has anti-tumor, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic properties. Further, DPT is an important precursor for the cytotoxic aryltetralin lignan, podophyllotoxin, which is used to obtain semisynthetic derivatives like etoposide and teniposide used in cancer therapy. However, most studies have focused on the in vitro data. Therefore, DPT has not been used clinically yet. DPT has emerged as a potent chemical agent from herbal medicine. Therefore, in vivo studies are needed to carry out clinical trials in humans and enable the development of new anti-cancer agents. In addition, DPT from commercial

  9. Herbal medicine use among hypertensive patients attending public and private health facilities in Freetown Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter Bai; Kamara, Halimatu; Bah, Abdulai Jawo; Steel, Amie; Wardle, Jon

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence, determinants and pattern of herbal medicine use among hypertensive patients in Freetown. We conducted a cross-sectional study among hypertensive patients attending public and private health facilities in Freetown, Sierra Leone between August and October 2016. We analyzed the data using SPSS version 24. We used Chi-square, Fisher exact two-tailed test and regression analysis for data analysis. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Out of 260 study participants, over half (n = 148, 56.9%) reported using herbal medicine for the treatment of hypertension alone or together with comorbid condition(s). The most commonly used herbal medicine among users were honey (n = 89, 33.3%), moringa (n = 80, 30.0%) and garlic (n = 73, 27.3%). No significant difference existed between users and non-users of herbal medicine with regards to socio-demographic and health-related factors. The majority (n = 241, 92.7%) of respondents considered herbal medicine beneficial if it was recommended by a healthcare provider yet 85.1% (n = 126) did not disclose their herbal medicine use to their health care provider. There is a high use of herbal medicines among hypertensive patients in Freetown, Sierra Leone. It is essential for healthcare providers to take heed of the findings of this study and routinely ask their patients about their herbal medicine use status. Such practice will provide the opportunity to discuss the benefits and risks of herbal medicine use with the aim of maximizing patient desired therapeutic outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-scientific classification of Chinese herbal medicine as dietary supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Kexin

    2017-03-01

    This article focuses the category status of Chinese herbal medicine in the United States where it has been mistakenly classifified as a dietary supplement. According to Yellow Emperor Canon of Internal Medicine (Huang Di Nei Jing), clinical treatment in broad sense is to apply certain poisonous medicines to fight against pathogeneses, by which all medicines have certain toxicity and side effect. From ancient times to modern society, all, or at least most, practitioners have used herbal medicine to treat patients' medical conditions. The educational curriculums in Chinese medicine (CM) comprise the courses of herbal medicine (herbology) and herbal formulae. The objective of these courses is to teach students to use herbal medicine or formulae to treat disease as materia medica. In contrast, dietary supplements are preparations intended to provide nutrients that are missing or are not consumed in suffificient quantity in a person's diet. In contrast, Chinese herbs can be toxic, which have been proven through laboratory research. Both clinical practice and research have demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicine is a special type of natural materia medica, not a dietary supplement.

  11. Medicinal plants used as excipients in the history in Ghanaian herbal medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Sara Holm; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance The present study was carried out to investigate the traditional use, pharmacology and active compounds of four plants commonly used as excipients in herbal medicine in Ghana. Materials and methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted to gain knowledge....... melegueta could act as an antioxidant to preserve herbal preparations. None of the plant excipients had antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested in this study. Compounds with an aromatic or pungent smell had been identified in all the plant excipients. An explanation for the use of the plants...... as excipients could rely on their taste properties. Conclusion The present study suggests that there may be more than one simple explanation for the use of these four plants as excipients. Plausible explanations have been proven to be: (1) a way to increase the effect of the medicine, (2) a way to make...

  12. Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Obesity: An Overview of Scientific Evidence from 2007 to 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a very common global health problem, and it is known to be linked to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Western medical treatments for obesity have many drawbacks, including effects on monoamine neurotransmitters and the potential for drug abuse and dependency. The safety of these medications requires improvement. Herbal medicine has been used for treatment of disease for more than 2000 years, and it has proven efficacy. Many studies have confirmed that herbal medicine is effective in the treatment of obesity, but the mechanisms are not clear. This article will discuss the possible effects and mechanisms of herbal medicine treatments for obesity that have been reported in the past decade.

  13. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Molecular Imaging of Neurological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Chen, Ting; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat a wide variety of neurological disorders including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. However, its mechanism behind the effectiveness remains unclear. Recently, molecular imaging technology has been applied for this purpose, since it can assess the cellular or molecular function in a living subject by using specific imaging probes and/or radioactive tracers, which enable efficient analysis and monitoring the therapeutic response repetitively. This chapter reviews the in vivo functional and metabolic changes after administration of Chinese herbal medicine in various neurological disorders and provides perspectives on the future evaluations of therapeutic response of Chinese herbal medicine. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of heavy trace metals in some medicinal-herbal plants of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents heavy trace metals analysis in some widely used medicinal- herbal plants of Pakistan by using Inductively Coupled Plasma. Because these commonly used medicinal- herbal plants from Pakistan are being specifically utilized for the treatment of various diseases, so samples of medicinal-herbal plants were collected from open market and from the fields. Collected samples were digested and analyzed for their nutritional trace metals (Pb, Cd, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cu and Mn) composition and then the results obtained were compared to international and national standards as required by World Health Organizations. The deficiency or excess of the samples for essential trace metals are reported. (author)

  15. Herbal medicine for insomnia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Matthew J; Page, Amy T

    2015-12-01

    Insomnia is a prevalent sleep disorder that can profoundly impact a person's health and wellbeing. Herbal medicine represents one of the most frequently used complementary and alternative treatments of insomnia. However, the safety and efficacy of herbal medicine for the treatment of this disorder is currently uncertain. In order to ascertain the evidence base for herbal medicine for insomnia, we systematically searched seventeen electronic databases and the reference lists of included studies for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Fourteen RCTs, involving a total of 1602 participants with insomnia, met the inclusion criteria. Four distinct orally administered herbal monopreparations were identified (i.e., valerian, chamomile, kava and wuling). There was no statistically significant difference between any herbal medicine and placebo, or any herbal medicine and active control, for any of the thirteen measures of clinical efficacy. As for safety, a similar or smaller number of adverse events per person were reported with kava, chamomile and wuling when compared with placebo. By contrast, a greater number of events per person were reported with valerian. While there is insufficient evidence to support the use of herbal medicine for insomnia, there is a clear need for further research in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Unmonitored use of herbal medicine by patients with breast cancer: reframing expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Noah; Ben-Arye, Eran; Maimon, Yair; Berger, Raanan

    2017-11-01

    To identify the unmonitored use of herbal medicine by female patients with breast cancer, examining the impact of an integrative physician (IP) consultation on this practice. The files of 269 female patients with breast cancer following an IP consultation were surveyed retrospectively for use of herbal medicine for cancer-related goals. Expectations from the IP consultation and adherence to the IP-guided treatments were examined as well. Among the cohort, 111 (41.3%) reported using herbal medicine for cancer-related goals, unmonitored by their oncology healthcare professional. Factors predicting herbal medicine use were the adoption of dietary changes (odds ratio = 13.6, p herbal medicine than non-users (34.5 vs. 22.8%; p = 0.088), as were those who had consulted with a complementary/alternative medicine practitioner (54.9 vs. 20.8%; p = 0.005). The IP advised 17 patients (15.3%) to stop taking specific herbal products due to safety-related concerns; and 10 patients to take dietary supplements for relief of specific symptoms. Herbal medicine users were less likely than non-users to adhere to the IP-recommended treatment program (34.7 vs. 48.3%; p = 0.037). Unmonitored use of herbal medicine by patients with breast cancer is more frequent among those adopting dietary changes for cancer-related goals. Integrative physicians provide evidence-based guidance on the safe and effective use of herbal products, and reframe patient expectations from cancer-related goals to reducing symptoms and improving quality of life.

  17. Toxicity of herbal medicines with interest to SUS: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In Brazil, ever since colonization plants have been used as natural products; thus, the National Health Surveillance Agency has been establishing rules for herbal medicine regulation; in this light, 71 plant species were chosen and empirically used in the country to investigate their medicinal properties. Currently, 12 of these 71 plants have been approved to be used in SUS (Public Health System, the remaining species still need further research. Thusly, this review aimed to seek information from toxicological studies on the plants that have not yet been officially approved, to stimulate new research in the field, promoting an economical and functional impact. In order to obtain the information, the keywords plant name + toxicity and/or toxicological studies were searched in the most prominent databases, both in English and in Portuguese. The ten plants with the most references were included in this review. Among the ten plants assessed, three have all the required studies required by the National Health Surveillance Agency, two of which we recommend the immediate adoption by SUS. In general, three plants have a determined LD50, nine have reproductive toxicity data, and five have not yet shown any sign of toxicity.

  18. Medicinal plants indications from herbal healers for wound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Willianne Alves do Nascimento

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify medicinal plants indicated by commercial herbal healers for wound treatment, in street markets. A descriptive study conducted in a capital city in the northeast of Brazil, through interviews. The results indicate that plant commerce by healers of both genders, aged between 37 to 52 years, from those 69.3% learned about their function with family members. Forty-eight plant species were cited for wound treatment, between those, all participants cited Barbatimão and Mastic. From the plants Sambacaitá, Open Nettle, Yellow Uchi, Corona, Xiquexique, Senna and Pindaíba no properties to prove their indication was found for wound treatment. The stem bark was the most indicated part (96.15%, 81.03% of participants informed that plants should be kept dry for conservation. Studies to clarify the biological activities and collateral effects of medicinal plants are needed, beyond training for healers about indications, prepare, storage/conservation, and expiration date.

  19. Herbal Medicine in Mexico: A Cause of Hepatotoxicity. A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia-Correa, Bárbara; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Uribe, Misael; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2016-02-15

    In Mexico, herbal products are commonly used as therapeutic tools. The analysis of several publications reveals that there are dozens of different herbs and herbal products used for different reasons, some of which have been implicated in causing toxic liver disease. However, methodological aspects limit the attribution of causality, and the precise incidence and clinical manifestations of herb-induced liver injury have not been well characterized. This review outlines the history of traditional herbal medicine in Mexico, critically summarizes the mechanisms and adverse effects of commonly used herbal plants, and examines the regulatory issues regarding the legal use of these products.

  20. [Application of traditional Chinese medicine reference standards in quality control of Chinese herbal pieces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tu-Lin; Li, Jin-Ci; Yu, Jiang-Yong; Cai, Bao-Chang; Mao, Chun-Qin; Yin, Fang-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) reference standards plays an important role in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces. This paper overviewed the development of TCM reference standards. By analyzing the 2010 edition of Chinese pharmacopoeia, the application of TCM reference standards in the quality control of Chinese herbal pieces was summarized, and the problems exiting in the system were put forward. In the process of improving the quality control level of Chinese herbal pieces, various kinds of advanced methods and technology should be used to research the characteristic reference standards of Chinese herbal pieces, more and more reasonable reference standards should be introduced in the quality control system of Chinese herbal pieces. This article discussed the solutions in the aspect of TCM reference standards, and future development of quality control on Chinese herbal pieces is prospected.

  1. Herbal medicinal products in the treatment of pain as a symptom of osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicinal products which are used perorally in the treatment of minor articular pain include those obtained from willow bark, Salicis cortex, devil's claw root, Harpagophyti radix, nettle leaf and herb, Urticae folium/herba, meadowsweet flower and herb, Filipendulae ulmariae flos/herba, ash leaf, Fraxini folium, and blackcurrant leaf, Ribis nigri folium. They can be in the form of a herbal tea or solid and liquid dosage forms. Anti-inflammatory and/or analgetic action form/s basis for their therapeutic usage. Among mentioned herbal drugs, only willow bark, Salicis cortex, is employed for producing herbal medicinal products with well-established use (dry standardised hydroethanolic extract in the solid dosage form intended for oral application. Furthermore, traditional herbal medicines prepared from arnica flower, Arnicae flos, which are intended for dermal application (liquid and semi-solid dosage forms are used for symptomatic relief of rheumatic complaints, also because of their anti-inflammatory and analgetic effects. Owing to rubefacient activity, herbal medicinal products with well-established use based on the soft extracts of capsicum, Capsici frustus, (medicated plasters and semi-solid dosage forms for cutaneous use, as well as traditional herbal medicines based on rosemary leaf and oil, Rosmarini folium/aetheroleum, juniper oil, Juniperi aetheroleum, and eucalyptus oil, Eucalypti aetheroleum (bath additives and/or liquid and semi-solid dosage forms for dermal application, are used to decrease pain.

  2. Synergistic effects of Chinese herbal medicine: a comprehensive review of methodology and current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine is an important part of primary health care in Asian countries that has utilised complex herbal formulations (consisting 2 or more medicinal herbs for treating diseases over thousands of years. There seems to be a general assumption that the synergistic therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine derive from the complex interactions between the multiple bioactive components within the herbs and/or herbal formulations. However, evidence to support these synergistic effects remains weak and controversial due to several reasons, including the very complex nature of Chinese herbal medicine, misconceptions about synergy, methodological challenges to study design. In this review, we clarify the definition of synergy, identify common errors in synergy research and describe current methodological approaches to test for synergistic interaction. We discuss the strengthen and weakness of these models in the context of Chinese herbal medicine and summarise the current status of synergy research in CHM. Despite the availability of some scientific data to support the synergistic effects of multi-herbal and/or herb-drug combinations, the level of evidence remains low and the clinical relevancy of most of these findings is undetermined. There remain significant challenges in the development of suitable methods for synergistic studies of complex herbal combinations.

  3. Neuroplasticity-related mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-like effects of traditional herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshler, Yafit; Doron, Ravid

    2017-10-01

    Traditional herbal medicine can offer efficacious and safe alternative pharmacotherapies for depression. The ability of an herbal medicine to produce neuroadaptive processes, that enhance neuroplasticity and cellular resilience in response to chronic stress, may point to its antidepressant potential. We suggest that among many investigated herbal medicines, those that can enhance neuroplasticity may have stronger therapeutic potential. The current article presents a summary of traditional herbal medicines, which are thought to exert antidepressant-like effects in chronic stress models via neuroplasticity enhancement. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a biomarker for neuroplasticity-related mechanisms compromised in depression and recovered by conventional antidepressants, including synaptic plasticity, cell survival, neurogenesis and spine formation. We therefore presumed that if an herbal medicine up-regulates BDNF in the hippocampus and/or prefrontal cortex (PFC), its antidepressant-like effect is mediated, at least partially, via neuroplasticity-related mechanisms. Literature search was performed using the general terms depression, stress, neuroplasticity and herbal medicines. Screening of retrieved preclinical studies revealed 30 traditional herbal medicines: 8 single herbs, 15 bioactive constituents, and 7 herbal formulas. The antidepressant-like effects of these medicines were associated with reversal of chronic stress-induced impairment in neuroplasticity, most notably by BDNF up-regulation, activation of BDNF downstream signaling pathways and increase in neurogenesis in the hippocampus and/or PFC/frontal cortex. In light of the ability of these medicines to enhance neuroplasticity, we suggest that they may be suitable candidates for clinical investigation in depressed individuals. Once their efficacy, tolerability and safety will be substantiated, they may serve as natural alternatives to conventional antidepressants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  4. Herbal Medicines Use During Pregnancy: A Review from the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha J. John

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of the herbal medicines use is on the rise across the world, especially amongst pregnant women. The scenario in the Middle Eastern region was reviewed to explore the prevalence, usage pattern, motivation, and attitude towards use of herbal medicine by pregnant women. Literature published up to December 2012 showed the prevalence of herbal medicine use varied between 22.3–82.3%, implying a rising trend in the utilization of herbal medicine during pregnancy. The most common herbs used were peppermint, ginger, thyme, chamomile, sage, aniseed, fenugreek, and green tea. The most common reasons for use included the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and cold and flu symptoms. The majority of women used these products during their first trimester, and did not reveal this information to their physician. Most women were advised by family and friends to use herbal medicines and believed they were more effective and had fewer side effects than modern medicine especially during pregnancy. In conclusion, the use of herbal medicine is prevalent among pregnant women in the Middle Eastern region and healthcare providers need to seek information pertaining to their use.

  5. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Lin Shi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: JLD granule effectively improved glucose control, increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose, and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT.

  6. Antiviral and immunoregulatory role against PCV2 in vivo of Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Haifeng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the research was to investigate the antiviral and immunoregulatory effects of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, Panax notoginseng saponins, notoginsenoside R1, and anemoside B4 saponins commonly found in Chinese herbal medicines.

  7. Characteristics and quality of systematic reviews of acupuncture, herbal medicines, and homeopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde, K.; ter Riet, G.; Hondras, M.; Melchart, D.; Willich, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    Background: We aimed to describe the approaches and characteristics of systematic reviews on three major complementary therapies and to assess their methodological quality. Methods: Systematic reviews of clinical trials of acupuncture, herbal medicines, and homeopathy were identified from a database

  8. Herbal medicine for idiopathic central precocious puberty: A protocol for a systematic review of controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Lim; Lee, Yoo Been; Choi, Jun-Yong; Lee, Ju Ah

    2018-03-01

    Herbal medicine is widely used in East Asia to treat idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). Most of the available clinical trials that investigated herbal medicine for ICPP have been included in this review. This systematic review will assess the efficacy and safety of herbal medicine for ICPP. Eleven databases, including Asian databases, will be searched for studies conducted through 2018. We will include randomized controlled trials assessing herbal medicine for ICPP. The risk of bias will be evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool, and confidence in the cumulative evidence will be evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation instrument. This systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and disseminated both electronically and in print. The review will be updated to inform and guide health care practices. PROSPER 2018 CRD42018087988.

  9. Herbal Medicine Offered as an Initiative Therapeutic Option for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Ru; Qiu, Hong-Cong; Hu, Yang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2016-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant cancer and is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Effective treatment of this disease is limited by the complicated molecular mechanism underlying HCC pathogenesis. Thus, therapeutic options for HCC management are urgently needed. Targeting the Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog, Notch, and Hippo-YAP signaling pathways in cancer stem cell development has been extensively investigated as an alternative treatment. Herbal medicine has emerged as an initiative therapeutic option for HCC management because of its multi-level, multi-target, and coordinated intervention effects. In this article, we summarized the recent progress and clinical benefits of targeting the above mentioned signaling pathways and using natural products such as herbal medicine formulas to treat HCC. Proving the clinical success of herbal medicine is expected to deepen the knowledge on herbal medicine efficiency and hasten the adoption of new therapies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Study of determination of microelements in Chinese herbal medicine by AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jiuning

    2002-01-01

    An AES method has been proposed for micro elements analysis in Chinese herbal medicine and the pretreatments of samples are discussed in detail. The method is proved accurate by analyzing peach leaves with the level of the national standard substance and by comparing results using different methods: the data obtained are accurate and reliable and the method can be used for determination 10 kinds of micro elements in Chinese herbal medicine

  11. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality. PMID:25954198

  12. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality.

  13. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: Actual key issues and new encouraging steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf eTeschke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality.

  14. Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: 10-year updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome

    2018-03-25

    This paper provides a 10-year update of the 2007 systematic review of herbal medicines studied in a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, seasonal affective, bipolar, psychotic, phobic, somatoform, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders. Ovid Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched for herbal medicines with both pharmacological and clinical evidence of psychotropic activity. This updated review now covers clinical trial evidence for 24 herbal medicines in 11 psychiatric disorders. High-quality evidence was found to exist for the use of Piper methysticum (Kava), Passiflora spp. (passionflower) and Galphimia glauca (galphimia) for anxiety disorders; and Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) and Crocus sativus (saffron) for major depressive disorder. Other encouraging herbal medicines with preliminary evidence include Curcuma longa (turmeric) in depression, Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) in affective disorders, and Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) as an adjunctive treatment in Schizophrenia. Although depression and anxiety are commonly researched, many other mental disorders still require further prospective investigation. Although the previous review suggested increasing the adjunctive study of select herbal medicines with pharmaceuticals, this was still only found to sparingly occur in research designs. Aside from this, future focus should involve the incorporation of more biomarker analysis, in particular pharmacogenomics, to determine genetic factors moderating response to herbal medicines. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Risks and Benefits of Commonly used Herbal Medicines in México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-01-01

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicine that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological properties of the following following plant species: Nopal (Opuntia ficus), Peppermint (Mentha piperita), Chaparral (Larrea divaricata), Dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), Mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), Chamomile (Matricaria recutita), Nettle or Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica), Passionflower (Passiflora incarmata), Linden Flower (Tilia europea), and Aloa (Aloa vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151

  16. Pharmacogenomics Implications of Using Herbal Medicinal Plants on African Populations in Health Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomford, Nicholas E.; Dzobo, Kevin; Chopera, Denis; Wonkam, Ambroise; Skelton, Michelle; Blackhurst, Dee; Chirikure, Shadreck; Dandara, Collet

    2015-01-01

    The most accessible points of call for most African populations with respect to primary health care are traditional health systems that include spiritual, religious, and herbal medicine. This review focusses only on the use of herbal medicines. Most African people accept herbal medicines as generally safe with no serious adverse effects. However, the overlap between conventional medicine and herbal medicine is a reality among countries in health systems transition. Patients often simultaneously seek treatment from both conventional and traditional health systems for the same condition. Commonly encountered conditions/diseases include malaria, HIV/AIDS, hypertension, tuberculosis, and bleeding disorders. It is therefore imperative to understand the modes of interaction between different drugs from conventional and traditional health care systems when used in treatment combinations. Both conventional and traditional drug entities are metabolized by the same enzyme systems in the human body, resulting in both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics interactions, whose properties remain unknown/unquantified. Thus, it is important that profiles of interaction between different herbal and conventional medicines be evaluated. This review evaluates herbal and conventional drugs in a few African countries and their potential interaction at the pharmacogenomics level. PMID:26402689

  17. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Male Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dan; Coscione, Alberto; Li, Lily; Zeng, Bai-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Male infertility normally refers a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female partner after 1 year of unprotected intercourse. Male infertility in recent years has been attracting increasing interest from public due to the evidence in decline in semen quality. There are many factors contributing to the male infertility including abnormal spermatogenesis; reproductive tract anomalies or obstruction; inadequate sexual and ejaculatory functions; and impaired sperm motility, imbalance in hormone levels, and immune system dysfunction. Although conventional treatments such as medication, surgical operation, and advanced techniques have helped many male with infertility cause pregnancy in their female partners, effectiveness is not satisfactory and associated with adverse effects. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used to improve male infertility in China for a very long time and has now been increasingly popular in Western countries for treating infertility. In this chapter we summarized recent development in basic research and clinical studies of CHM in treating male infertility. It has showed that CHM improved sperm motility and quality, increased sperm count and rebalanced inadequate hormone levels, and adjusted immune functions leading to the increased number of fertility. Further, CHM in combination with conventional therapies improved efficacy of conventional treatments. More studies are needed to indentify the new drugs from CHM and ensure safety, efficacy, and consistency of CHM. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Guidelines for randomised controlled trials investigating Chinese herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Andrew; Witt, Claudia; Liu, Jian Ping; Ulrich-Merzenich, Gudrun; Yu, He; Lewith, George

    2012-04-10

    ETHNOGRAPHIC RELEVANCE: Clinical trials investigating Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) have been frequently criticised for their lack of scientific rigour. As part of the GP-TCM project a team of experienced clinical researchers and CHM practitioners have developed clinical trial guidelines for CHM that combine an appreciation for traditional methods of practice with detailed and practical advice on research methodology. This paper presents an executive summary of this work. It introduces the practice of CHM and the key considerations that need to be addressed whilst researching this traditional medical system. These guidelines emphasise the importance of identifying best practice, and then developing and applying appropriate and rigorous research methodologies to investigate CHM as a whole system. It is hoped that this will encourage a thoughtful and meticulous process of investigation that will clarify the contribution that CHM can make to our future healthcare. Innovative new approaches are considered including the application of the new "omic" technologies and systems biology as a way of enhancing our understanding of traditional practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chinese Herbal Medicines Attenuate Acute Pancreatitis: Pharmacological Activities and Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Shang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis (AP is a commonly occurring gastrointestinal disorder. An increase in the annual incidence of AP has been observed, and it causes acute hospitalization and high mortality. The diagnosis and treatment guidelines for AP recommend conservative medical treatments focused on reducing pancreatic secretion and secondary injury, as a primary therapeutic approach. Unfortunately, the existing treatment options have limited impact on the incidence and severity of AP due to the complex and multifaceted pathological process of this disease. In recent decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs have been used as efficient therapeutic agents to attenuate AP in Asian countries. Despite early cell culture, animal models, and clinical trials, CHMs are capable of interacting with numerous molecular targets participating in the pathogenesis of AP; however, comprehensive, up-to-date communication in this field is not yet available. This review focuses on the pharmacological activities of CHMs against AP in vitro and in vivo and the underlying mechanisms. A computational prediction of few selected and promising plant-derived molecules (emodin, baicalin, resveratrol, curcumin, ligustrazine, and honokiol to target numerous proteins or networks involved in AP was initially established based on a network pharmacology simulation. Moreover, we also summarized some potential toxic natural products for pancreas in order to more safe and reasonable medication. These breakthrough findings may have important implications for innovative drug research and the future development of treatments for AP.

  20. Comprehensive review on herbal medicine for energy intake suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, N D; Jahangir, M; Korthout, H; Choi, Y H; Kim, H K; Verpoorte, R

    2011-07-01

    The obesity drug development is present not a bright and successful story. So far, drugs reported to be effective, either from synthetic or natural sources, mostly stimulated controversy because of serious adverse effects, which ended with stopping clinical trials or even withdrawal from the market. However, obesity and its comorbidities have become rapidly a major problem in both developed and developing countries. This has encouraged pharmaceutical companies and academia to keep on struggling on developing novel effective but safe obesity drugs, and on characterizing novel obesity drug targets. From existing scientific work on obesity drug discovery and commercial slimming preparations, compounds originating from nature, especially from plants, seem to be the first choice. Traditional belief that herbal medicine is safer than synthetic ones is one of the classical arguments, although scientifically this is not always true (e.g. ban on Ephedra). But in general, it has been widely acknowledged that a plant compound, with its unique scaffolds and rich diversity is an unlimited source of novel lead compounds. This paper aims to summarize all works focused on screening plant materials by targeting important pathways related to energy intake regulation, either by in vivo or in vitro experiments. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  1. Investigating the Impact of Herbal Medicines Marketing Mix and Physicians' Product Involvement on Prescription of these Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Bahram Ranjbarian; Ali Kazemi; Samira Shokrollahi

    2013-01-01

    Although the main side effects of chemical medicines have been discovered, the level of using herbal medicines is still low in Iran. Today prescribing herbal medicines along with chemical ones have different kinds of advantages including: increased health rate in society and developed job opportunities in the fields of agriculture, medicine industry and all of related processes. In our country there are few researches in which the important factors influencing the prescription of herbal medic...

  2. Pattern of herbal medicine utilization among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, there is a statistically significant association between ethnic group, religion and utilization of herbal drugs(p<0.05). Conclusion: Herbal drugs utilization among the students is very high and many of the students combine it with orthodox drugs. The school health programme should be strengthened and the students ...

  3. Pharmacists' knowledge and perceptions about herbal medicines: A case study of Jos and environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanloh S Jimam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to increased health consciousness among the public, the use of herbal products are on the increase on a daily basis. To achieve optimal benefits, there is a need for pharmacists who are the custodians of knowledge on drugs and drugs-related products to have more understanding and interest in herbal medicine for effective counseling on the products. The purpose of this study was to assess Pharmacists' knowledge and perceptions regarding herbal medicine use. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were administered to 200 pharmacists working within the study areas to fill; after which the collected data were statistically analyzed using IBM SPSS software programmer, version 20. Results: Only 88.5% of the respondents responded on the questionnaires, and their mean age was 34 years; median year of experience in practice was 8.2 years; and their areas of practice included hospital (56.1%, community (28.1%, academic (8.47%, and industries (4.52%. More than half (76.27% of them believed that herbal products were more efficacious and safer (61.02% than orthodox medicines; with almost all of them (94.92% acknowledging the beneficial effects of incorporating herbal medicines into orthodox medicine practice. However, most of them (72.88% confessed having little knowledge on herbal remedies, especially drug-herbs interactions (81.36%, and their main source of information on herbs was from school (56.50%. Conclusions: The result showed poor level of pharmacists' knowledge on herbal medicine; which might result in poor patients' counseling on herbal therapy, especially regarding their safety and potential interaction with orthodox medicine.

  4. [The safety of herbal medicines in the psychiatric practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniel, T; Dannon, P

    2001-08-01

    The use of alternative medicines is increasing world-wide and in Israel. These drugs, considered by the Ministry of Health as food supplements, are to be obtained at pharmacies and health stores and are being sold freely, without any professional advice. Many of the herbs are used by patients to treat psychiatric disorders. These herbs have a pharmacological activity, adverse effects and interactions with conventional drugs, which can produce changes in mood, cognition, and behavior. We present the most commonly used herbal drugs, and discuss their safety and efficacy in psychiatric practice. Hypericum--used as an antidepressant and as an antiviral medicine, was reported in 23 randomized clinical trials reviewed from the MEDLINE. It was found to be significantly more effective than placebo and had a similar level of effectiveness as standard antidepressants. Recent studies almost clearly prove that this herb, like most of the conventional antidepressants, can induce mania. Valerian--is used as an anti-anxiety drug, and reported to have sedative as well as antidepressant properties. In contrast to the significant improvement in sleep that was found with the use of valerian, compared to placebo, there are several reports on the valerian root toxicity. This includes nephrotoxicity, headaches, chest tightness, mydriasis, abdominal pain, and tremor of the hands and feet. Ginseng--another plant that is widely used as an aphrodisiac and a stimulant. It has been associated with the occurrence of vaginal bleeding, mastalgia, mental status changes and Stevens-Johnson syndrome after it's chronic administration. It has interactions with digoxin, phenelzine and warfarin. Ginkgo--in clinical trials the ginkgo extract has shown a significant improvement in symptoms such as memory loss, difficulties in concentration, fatigue, anxiety, and depressed mood. Long-term use has been associated with increased bleeding time and spontaneous hemorrhage. Ginkgo should be used cautiously in

  5. Antibacterial properties of Chinese herbal medicines against nosocomial antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ching-Shen; Cham, Thau-Ming; Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chia-Hong; Chuang, Li-Yeh

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is well-recognized as a nosocomial pathogen, which exhibits inherent drug resistance. In this study, the antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of 58 Chinese herbal medicines used in Taiwan were tested against 89 nosocomial antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results gathered by the disc diffusion method showed that 26 out of the 58 herbal extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the 26 herbal extracts, 10 extracts showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activities and were selected for further antibacterial property assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the active partition fractions ranged from 0.25 to 11.0 mg/L. The presence of flavonoid compounds in the active fractions of test herbal extracts was observed by the TLC-bioautography. The results from the time-kill assay revealed that most of the herbal extracts completely killed the test organisms within 4 hours. Exposure of the test strains to a sub-MIC level of the herbal extracts for 10 consecutive subcultures did not induce resistance to the active components. A combination of the active herbal fractions with antibiotics showed that one of the herbal medicines, the hexane fraction of Ramulus Cinnamomi, possessed a synergistic effect with tetracycline, gentamycin, and streptomycin. In conclusion, the tested Chinese medical herbs have the potential to be developed into natural antibiotics. This is the first evaluation for screening large amounts of medical plants against nosocomial antibiotic resistant bacteria in Taiwan.

  6. Remission of Unresectable Lung Metastases from Rectal Cancer After Herbal Medicine Treatment: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungsuk; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-01-01

    Lung metastasis is frequent in rectal cancer patients and has a poor prognosis, with an expected three-year survival rate of about 10%. Though western medicine has made great strides in the curative resection of liver metastases, resection of lung metastases has lagged far behind. Many preclinical studies have suggested that herbal treatments block metastasis, but few clinical studies have addressed this topic. We present the case of a 57-year-old Asian male with lung metastases from rectal cancer. He first underwent resection of the primary lesion (stage IIA, T3N0M0) and six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Unfortunately, lung metastases were confirmed about one year later. Palliative chemotherapy was begun, but his disease continued to progress after three cycles and chemotherapy was halted. The patient was exclusively treated with herbal medicine-standardized allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua stokes extract combined with Dokhwaljihwang-tang (Sasang constitutional medicine in Korea). After seven weeks of herbal medicine treatment, the lung metastases were markedly improved. Regression of lung metastases has continued; also, the patient's rectal cancer has not returned. He has been receiving herbal medicine for over two years and very few side effects have been observed. We suggest that the herbal regimen used in our patient is a promising candidate for the treatment of lung metastases secondary to rectal cancer, and we hope that this case stimulates further investigation into the efficacy of herbal treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Quality transitivity and traceability system of herbal medicine products based on quality markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changxiao; Guo, De-An; Liu, Liang

    2018-05-15

    Due to a variety of factors to affect the herb quality, the existing quality management model is unable to evaluate the process control. The development of the concept of "quality marker" (Q-marker) lays basis for establishing an independent process quality control system for herbal products. To ensure the highest degree of safety, effectiveness and quality process control of herbal products, it is aimed to establish a quality transitivity and traceability system of quality and process control from raw materials to finished herbal products. Based on the key issues and challenges of quality assessment, the current status of quality and process controls from raw materials to herbal medicinal products listed in Pharmacopoeia were analyzed and the research models including discovery and identification of Q-markers, analysis and quality management of risk evaluation were designed. Authors introduced a few new technologies and methodologies, such as DNA barcoding, chromatographic technologies, fingerprint analysis, chemical markers, bio-responses, risk management and solution for quality process control. The quality and process control models for herbal medicinal products were proposed and the transitivity and traceability system from raw materials to the finished products was constructed to improve the herbal quality from the entire supply and production chain. The transitivity and traceability system has been established based on quality markers, especially on how to control the production process under Good Engineering Practices, as well as to implement the risk management for quality and process control in herbal medicine production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the

  9. Herbal traditional Chinese medicine and its evidence base in gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes

    2015-04-21

    Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the gap

  10. Indigenous Knowledge of Herbal Medicines among Adolescents in Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alade, Gideon O.; Okpako, Ese; Ajibesin, Kola’ K.; Omobuwajo, Olanrewaju R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of herbal medicines in Nigeria is on the increase. Documented Population based data on the use of herbal medicinal products and indigenous knowledge among the younger generations are lacking in Nigeria and Africa at large. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the extent of use and general knowledge of herbal medicines among adolescents in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Methods: The study covered a total of Two hundred and twenty-eight adolescents randomly selected in Senior Secondary Schools (SSS 1-3) in Amassoma using a semi structured questionnaire/Interview and informal conversation on the respondents. Findings: Nearly all (97%) the respondents have had contact with herbs. Less than 1% had contact with herbs through formal education (teachers/literatures). Stimulation of interest was majorly through parents (53%). Grandparents were the highest (46%) of custodian of indigenous knowledge. Parents were the next (39.7%). Only 39% of the respondents would prefer the use of herbal medicine to modern medicine. Fever was the main ailment mentioned followed by eye ailment and stomach ache. Vernonia amygdalina was the main plant for the treatment of fever. Conclusion: The study revealed that parents are the major custodians of knowledge being transferred to the younger generation and little or none is learnt from Schools. There is therefore the need to include the study of herbal medicines in School’s curricula especially at SS 2 and SS 3 since they are matured enough to appreciate the importance of Herbal medicine so as to prepare them for the promotion of herbal medicine in future and to preserve our indigenous knowledge. PMID:26234964

  11. Traditional Japanese herbal medicines for treatment of odontopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojiro eYamaguchi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights several refractory oral diseases, such as stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome (BMS, glossalgia, atypical facial pain (AFP, oral cancer, dry mouth, and Sjögren’s syndrome(SJS, in which use of Japanese herbal medicines, Kampo medicines(KM, on the basis of Kampo theory could exert the maximum effects on human body. 1 In acute stomatitis, heat because of agitated vital energy may affect the head, chest, and middle abdominal region. Stomatitis is also related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. There are many antioxidants in the crude extracts of KM. Thus, we can control environmental factors (cold, heat, dampness, dryness and vital energy, blood, and fluid of the organ systemically using KM to treat stomatitis and eliminate local ROS accumulation.2 BMS, glossalgia, and AFP are multifactorial syndromes involving the interaction of biological and psychological factors. Local temperature decrease and edema often occur in chronic pain. These are local circulatory disturbances that can be resolved by improving the flow of blood and fluid. Several KM, such as Tokishakuyakusan and Kamishoyosan(KSS, are effective for enhancing peripheral circulation. Those such as Saikokaryukotuboreito, Yokukansan, KSS, and Saibokutou can reduce stress and associated pain by altering glutamatergic and monoaminergic transmission in the brain. The clinical efficacy of KM for BMS and AFP may depend on the regulation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic and descending glutamatergic pain modulation systems.3 Regarding oral cancer treatment, I introduce 4 possible applications of KM, inhibition of the proliferation of cancer cells, complementation of the main cancer therapy, reduction of side effect caused by the main anti-cancer therapy and improvement of quality of life such as the overall status and/or oral discomfort. This review explains in more details Hozai such as Hochuekkito(HET, Juzendaihoto, and Ninjinyoeito(NYT that are frequently

  12. Traditional herbal medicine use among people living with HIV/AIDS in Gondar, Ethiopia: Do their health care providers know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Kaleab Taye; Ayele, Asnakew Achaw; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Demeke, Chilot Abiyu; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku; Erku, Daniel Asfaw

    2017-12-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are increasingly using herbal remedies due to the chronic nature of the disease, the complexities of treatment modalities and the difficulty in adhering to the therapeutic regimens. Yet, research on herbal medicine use in this patient population is scarce in Ethiopia. The present study aimed at investigating the prevalence and factors associated with the use of traditional herbal medicine among PLWHA in Gondar, Ethiopia. A cross sectional survey was conducted on 360 PLWHA attending the outpatient clinic of University of Gondar referral and teaching hospital from September 1 to 30, 2016. A questionnaire about the socio-demographic, disease characteristics as well as traditional herbal medicine use was filled by the respondents. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use. Out of 360 respondents, 255 (70.8%) used traditional herbal medicine. The most common herbal preparations used by PLWHA were Ginger (Zingiber officinale) (47%), Garlic (Allium sativum L.) (40.8%) and Moringa (Moringa stenopetala) (31.4%). Majority of herbal medicine users rarely disclose their use of herbal medicines to their health care providers (61.2%). Only lower educational status was found to be strong predictors of herbal medicine use in the multivariate logistic regression. The use of herbal medicine among PLWHA is a routine practice and associated with a lower educational status. Patients also rarely disclose their use of herbal medicines to their health care providers. From the stand point of high prevalence and low disclosure rate, health care providers should often consult patients regarding herbal medicine use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Peptide Nucleic Acid Based Molecular Authentication for Identification of Four Medicinal Paeonia Species Using Melting Array Analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Jin Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate taxonomic identification of plant materials in herbal medicines is important for product quality control. The genus Paeonia (Saxifragales is the source of the herbal preparations Paeoniae Radix (Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra and Moutan Radicis Cotex. However, confusion has arisen regarding their contents due to linguistic and taxonomic ambiguities, similar morphologies and different definitions of Paeoniae Radix in the Korean and Chinese national pharmacopoeias, leading to the distribution of adulterated products. To develop a method for identifying the four Paeonia species used in these medicines, three fluorescently-labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA probes were designed against ITS2 sequences containing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and used in a real-time PCR melting curve assay. Each of the four Paeonia species was accurately identified using this analysis. The accuracy and analytical stability of the PNA melting curve assay was confirmed using commercially available samples of the four Paeonia species. This assay is a reliable genetic tool to distinguish between different Paeonia-derived herbal medicines and identify the botanical origins of Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex. This technique may also contribute to quality control and standardization of herbal medicines by providing a reliable authentication tool and preventing the distribution of inauthentic adulterants.

  14. Peptide Nucleic Acid Based Molecular Authentication for Identification of Four Medicinal Paeonia Species Using Melting Array Analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wook Jin; Yang, Sungyu; Choi, Goya; Moon, Byeong Cheol

    2017-11-07

    Accurate taxonomic identification of plant materials in herbal medicines is important for product quality control. The genus Paeonia (Saxifragales) is the source of the herbal preparations Paeoniae Radix (Paeoniae Radix Alba and Paeoniae Radix Rubra) and Moutan Radicis Cotex. However, confusion has arisen regarding their contents due to linguistic and taxonomic ambiguities, similar morphologies and different definitions of Paeoniae Radix in the Korean and Chinese national pharmacopoeias, leading to the distribution of adulterated products. To develop a method for identifying the four Paeonia species used in these medicines, three fluorescently-labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes were designed against ITS2 sequences containing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and used in a real-time PCR melting curve assay. Each of the four Paeonia species was accurately identified using this analysis. The accuracy and analytical stability of the PNA melting curve assay was confirmed using commercially available samples of the four Paeonia species. This assay is a reliable genetic tool to distinguish between different Paeonia -derived herbal medicines and identify the botanical origins of Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex. This technique may also contribute to quality control and standardization of herbal medicines by providing a reliable authentication tool and preventing the distribution of inauthentic adulterants.

  15. The Potential Power of Bar-HRM Technology in Herbal Medicine Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Li, Jing-Jian; Xiong, Chao; Zhao, Bo; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The substitution of low-cost or adulterated herbal products for high-priced herbs makes it important to be able to identify and trace herbal plant species and their processed products in the drug supply chain. PCR-based methods play an increasing role in monitoring the safety of herbal medicines by detecting adulteration. Recent studies have shown the potential of DNA barcoding combined with high resolution melting (Bar-HRM) analysis in herbal medicine identification. This method involves precisely monitoring the change in fluorescence caused by the release of an intercalating DNA dye from a DNA duplex as it is denatured by a gradual increase in temperature. Since the melting profile depends on the GC content, length, and strand complementarity of the amplification product, Bar-HRM analysis opens up the possibility of detecting single-base variants or species-specific differences in a short region of DNA. This review summarizes key factors affecting Bar-HRM analysis and describes how Bar-HRM is performed. We then discuss advances in Bar-HRM analysis of medicinal plant ingredients (herbal materia medica) as a contribution toward safe and effective herbal medicines.

  16. Chinese herbal medicine for chronic neck pain due to cervical degenerative disc disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Kien; Cui, Xuejun; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2010-11-15

    Systematic review. To assess the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicines in treating chronic neck pain with radicular signs or symptoms. Chronic neck pain with radicular signs or symptoms is a common condition. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. We electronically searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and AMED (up to 2009), the Chinese Biomedical Database and related herbal medicine databases in Japan and South Korea (up to 2007). We also contacted content experts and hand searched a number of journals published in China.We included randomized controlled trials with adults with a clinical diagnosis of cervical degenerative disc disease, cervical radiculopathy, or myelopathy supported by appropriate radiologic findings. The interventions were Chinese herbal medicines. The primary outcome was pain relief, measured with a visual analogue scale, numerical scale, or other validated tool. All 4 included studies were in Chinese; 2 of which were unpublished. Effect sizes were not clinically relevant and there was low quality evidence for all outcomes due to study limitations and sparse data (single studies). Two trials (680 participants) found that Compound Qishe Tablets relieved pain better in the short-term than either placebo or Jingfukang; one trial (60 participants) found than an oral herbal formula of Huangqi relieved pain better than Mobicox or Methycobal, and another trial (360 participants) showed that a topical herbal medicine, Compound Extractum Nucis Vomicae, relieved pain better than Diclofenac Diethylamine Emulgel. There is low quality evidence that an oral herbal medication, Compound Qishe Tablet, reduced pain more than placebo or Jingfukang and a topical herbal medicine, Compound Extractum Nucis Vomicae, reduced pain more than Diclofenac Diethylamine Emulgel. Further research is very likely to change both the effect size and our confidence in the results.

  17. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltsum, U., E-mail: um-mik@yahoo.co.id [Physics Education Department, IKIP PGRI Semarang (Indonesia); Triyana, K., E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id; Siswanta, D., E-mail: triyana@ugm.ac.id [Physics Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality

  18. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltsum, U.; Triyana, K.; Siswanta, D.

    2014-01-01

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality

  19. Development of taste sensor system for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltsum, U.; Triyana, K.; Siswanta, D.

    2014-09-01

    In Indonesia, herbal medicines are usually produced by small and medium enterprises which are relatively low in quality control. The purpose of this paper is to report that we have developed a taste sensor system with global selectivity, i.e., electronic tongue (e-tongue) for differentiation of Indonesian herbal medicines. The e-tongue was composed of five kinds of ion selective electrodes as working electrodes, data acquisition system, and pattern recognition system. Each ion selective electrode (ISE) was built by attaching lipid/polymer membrane. For this purpose, the five kinds of membranes were built by mixing lipid, plasticizer (nitrophenyl octyl ether/NPOE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this study, we employed five kinds of lipid, namely oleic acid (OA), dioctyl phosphate (DOP), decyl alcohol (DA), dodecylamine (DDC), and trioctyl methyl ammonium chloride (TOMA). In this case, the membranes transform information of taste substances into electric signal. The five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicine were purchased from local supermarket in Yogyakarta, i.e., kunyit asam (made from turmeric and tamarind), beras kencur (made from rice and kencur), jahe wangi (made from ginger and fragrance), sirih wangi (made from betel leaf), and temulawak (made from Javanese ginger). Prior to detecting the taste from the Indonesian herbal medicine samples, each ion selective electrode was tested with five basic taste samples, i.e., for saltiness, sweetness, umami, bitterness, and sourness. All ISEs showed global selectivity to all samples. Furthermore, the array of ISEs showed specific response pattern to each Indonesian herbal medicine. For pattern recognition system, we employed principle component analysis (PCA). As a result, the e-tongue was able to differentiate five kinds of Indonesian herbal medicines, proven by the total variance of first and second principle components is about 93%. For the future, the e-tongue may be developed for quality

  20. [Information quality and health risks in Spanish-language retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor-García, Noelia; García-Pastor, Coral; Benito-Martínez, Selma; de Lucio-Cazaña, Francisco Javier

    The growing use of purchase online via Internet retailers favours the access to potentially toxic natural products. It also contributes to the quick dissemination of the claims made by the retailers on efficacy and safety, these claims being not always based upon reliable information. Here, we have conducted an online search to find Spanish-language retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine and we have analysed them for the quality of product information and the potential health risks. i) Online search in Google España to find Spanish-language retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine in which we analysed both the claims regarding possible health benefits and adequate safe use indications ii) Identification of potentially toxic herbs in the websites iii) Quantification of Chinese herbal medicines withdrawn by the Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios (AEMPS). 1) Only one third of the 30 Spanish-language retail websites found which sell Chinese herbal medicine observe the law, given that the other websites include illegal Western disease claims as marketing tools, 2) Five websites provide some safety information, 3) Two websites offer potentially toxic herbs and 4) Chinese herbal medicine adulterated with sibutramine, silfenafil or their analogues make a considerable percentage of the total products withdrawn by the AEMPS. Online health seekers should be warned about misinformation on retail websites for Chinese herbal medicine and directed to a Spanish government Web site for guidance in safely navigating the Internet for buying Chinese herbal medicine. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Herbal Medicine for Oligomenorrhea and Amenorrhea: A Systematic Review of Ancient and Conventional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Fazljou, Seyed Mohammad Bagher

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Menstrual bleeding cessation is one of the most frequent gynecologic disorders among women in reproductive age. The treatment is based on hormone therapy. Due to the increasing request for alternative medicine remedies in the field of women's diseases, in present study, it was tried to overview medicinal plants used to treat oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea according to the pharmaceutical textbooks of traditional Persian medicine (TPM) and review the evidence in the conventional medicine. Methods This systematic review was designed and performed in 2017 in order to gather information regarding herbal medications of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea in TPM and conventional medicine. This study had several steps as searching Iranian traditional medicine literature and extracting the emmenagogue plants, classifying the plants, searching the electronic databases, and finding evidences. To search traditional Persian medicine references, Noor digital library was used, which includes several ancient traditional medical references. The classification of plants was done based on the repetition and potency of the plants in the ancient literatures. The required data was gathered using databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, and web of knowledge. Results In present study of all 198 emmenagogue medicinal plants found in TPM, 87 cases were specified to be more effective in treating oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea. In second part of present study, where a search of conventional medicine was performed, 12 studies were found, which had 8 plants investigated: Vitex agnus-castus, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Foeniculum vulgare, Cinnamomum verum, Paeonia lactiflora, Sesamum indicum, Mentha longifolia, and Urtica dioica. Conclusion. Traditional Persian medicine has proposed many different medicinal plants for treatment of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea. Although just few plants have been proven to be effective for treatment of menstrual

  2. Herbal Medicine for Oligomenorrhea and Amenorrhea: A Systematic Review of Ancient and Conventional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Moini Jazani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Menstrual bleeding cessation is one of the most frequent gynecologic disorders among women in reproductive age. The treatment is based on hormone therapy. Due to the increasing request for alternative medicine remedies in the field of women’s diseases, in present study, it was tried to overview medicinal plants used to treat oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea according to the pharmaceutical textbooks of traditional Persian medicine (TPM and review the evidence in the conventional medicine. Methods. This systematic review was designed and performed in 2017 in order to gather information regarding herbal medications of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea in TPM and conventional medicine. This study had several steps as searching Iranian traditional medicine literature and extracting the emmenagogue plants, classifying the plants, searching the electronic databases, and finding evidences. To search traditional Persian medicine references, Noor digital library was used, which includes several ancient traditional medical references. The classification of plants was done based on the repetition and potency of the plants in the ancient literatures. The required data was gathered using databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, and web of knowledge. Results. In present study of all 198 emmenagogue medicinal plants found in TPM, 87 cases were specified to be more effective in treating oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea. In second part of present study, where a search of conventional medicine was performed, 12 studies were found, which had 8 plants investigated: Vitex agnus-castus, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Foeniculum vulgare, Cinnamomum verum, Paeonia lactiflora, Sesamum indicum, Mentha longifolia, and Urtica dioica. Conclusion. Traditional Persian medicine has proposed many different medicinal plants for treatment of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea. Although just few plants have been proven to be effective for

  3. Herbal Medicine for Oligomenorrhea and Amenorrhea: A Systematic Review of Ancient and Conventional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moini Jazani, Arezoo; Hamdi, Kobra; Tansaz, Mojgan; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Sadeghi Bazargani, Homayoun; Fazljou, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Nasimi Doost Azgomi, Ramin

    2018-01-01

    Menstrual bleeding cessation is one of the most frequent gynecologic disorders among women in reproductive age. The treatment is based on hormone therapy. Due to the increasing request for alternative medicine remedies in the field of women's diseases, in present study, it was tried to overview medicinal plants used to treat oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea according to the pharmaceutical textbooks of traditional Persian medicine (TPM) and review the evidence in the conventional medicine. This systematic review was designed and performed in 2017 in order to gather information regarding herbal medications of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea in TPM and conventional medicine. This study had several steps as searching Iranian traditional medicine literature and extracting the emmenagogue plants, classifying the plants, searching the electronic databases, and finding evidences. To search traditional Persian medicine references, Noor digital library was used, which includes several ancient traditional medical references. The classification of plants was done based on the repetition and potency of the plants in the ancient literatures. The required data was gathered using databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, and web of knowledge. In present study of all 198 emmenagogue medicinal plants found in TPM, 87 cases were specified to be more effective in treating oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea. In second part of present study, where a search of conventional medicine was performed, 12 studies were found, which had 8 plants investigated: Vitex agnus-castus, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Foeniculum vulgare, Cinnamomum verum, Paeonia lactiflora, Sesamum indicum, Mentha longifolia, and Urtica dioica. Conclusion . Traditional Persian medicine has proposed many different medicinal plants for treatment of oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea. Although just few plants have been proven to be effective for treatment of menstrual irregularities, the results and

  4. The characteristics, experiences and perceptions of naturopathic and herbal medicine practitioners: results from a national survey in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Cottingham, Phillip; Adams, Jon; Vempati, Ram; Dunn, Jill; Sibbritt, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the popularity of naturopathic and herbal medicine in New Zealand there remains limited data on New Zealand-based naturopathic and herbal medicine practice. In response, this paper reports findings from the first national survey examining the characteristics, perceptions and experiences of New Zealand-based naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners across multiple domains relating to their role and practice. Methods An online survey (covering 6 domains: demographics; pr...

  5. IMPACT SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE, KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF WOMEN ON THE USE OF HERBAL MEDICINES DURING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Reshet'ko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to explore the use of herbal medicines among a sample of pregnant women and to determine whether the use of herbal medicines during pregnancy is associated with women’s attitudes towards herbal medicines and their sociodemographic features, such as age, education level, income, and smoking. A survey was conducted among 650 pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy, consecutively recruited in obstetrical ward. Response rate was 95,8%. Most women were under 30 (67,4% and primipara (53,3%. The majority of subjects (63,5% declared to have used one or more herbal medicines during their lifetime; 43,8% of pregnant women reported taking at least one herbal medicine during the current pregnancy. 54,2% of users took at least one prescribed medication concomitantly. Women’s habitual use of herbal medicines meant they were at higher risk of taking herbal medicines also during pregnancy. Women were more likely to take herbal medicines if they were housewives, smokers, had moderate family income, with chronic disorders and concomitant drug use. The most frequently herbs taken by interviewees were chamomile, valerian, green tea, cranberry, and garlic. The major purposes for using these products were to cure respiratory problems, CNS disorders and urinary tract infections. The majority of women resorted to obstetricians as the primary information source for of herbal medicines during pregnancy, while they mainly referred to general practitioner and family or friends when not pregnant. In the light of the scanty data concerning the safety of herbal medicines during pregnancy, these results confirm the need to investigate thoroughly the situation of pregnant women and of herbal medicines consumption. Key words: herbal medicines, pregnancy, prevalence, use, maternal characteristics, pharmacoepidemiology. (Pediatric Pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (5: 28–35.

  6. Natural Fostering in Fritillaria cirrhosa: Integrating herbal medicine production with biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Li

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are generally regarded as a power tool to conserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, few protected areas could address three crucial problems simultaneously, namely funding, public participation and rural living. Here, we introduced a new protective approach, Natural Fostering, which integrated herbal medicine production with community conservation. The principles of Natural Fostering adopted species–species interaction at community level. Most effective chemical components of herbal medicine are derived from such interaction. Fritillaria cirrhosa was selected as an economic botany, one of herbal medicines, to carry out Natural Fostering. Community habitats, herbal medicine production, funding and income of local family were investigated to verify the feasibility of Natural Fostering for biodiversity. We found the density of plant populations and the annual average personal income of rural people increased. F. cirrhosa production could provide sufficient funds for sustainable conservation. Local people gradually changed their life style of wild collection and overgrazing, instead of herbal medicine production. The fostering area set up a good sustainable economic cycle. Natural Fostering can be presented as an effective and pragmatic way to conserve biological diversity and sustainable utilization of traditional medicinal resources.

  7. Chinese Herbal Medicine on Cardiovascular Diseases and the Mechanisms of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuiqing; Huang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of death worldwide. The potentially serious adverse effects of therapeutic drugs lead to growing awareness of the role of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in many countries especially in China from antiquity; however, the mechanisms by which herbal medicine acts in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases are far from clear. In this review, we briefly describe the characteristics of Chinese herbal medicine by comparing with western medicine. Then we summarize the formulae and herbs/natural products applied in the clinic and animal studies being sorted according to the specific cardiovascular diseases. Most importantly, we elaborate the existing investigations into mechanisms by which herbal compounds act at the cellular levels, including vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes and immune cells. Future research should focus on well-designed clinic trial, in-depth mechanic study, investigations on side effects of herbs and drug interactions. Studies on developing new agents with effectiveness and safety from traditional Chinese medicine is a promising way for prevention and treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Elemental composition of herbal medicines sold over-the-counter in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, H.S.

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil, the use of herbal medicines is very popular due to its immense flora, cultural aspects and to the popular belief that herbs, which are of natural origin, are safe and without undesirable side effects. Aside from that public interest in natural therapies, the use of herbal medicines has increased expressively due to the high cost of synthetic medicines. In this study, elemental compositions of herbal medicines from the species Ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Centella asiatica, Mulberry and Aloe vera supplied by different suppliers were evaluated by neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, Zn and some lanthanides were determined in these samples. Comparisons made between the results indicated differences in their elemental contents depending on the plant species, origins of the samples and the age of the leaves. The results also showed that the herbal medicines contain elements such as Ca, Co, K, Fe, Mg and Zn known as essential to humans and for treatment and prevention of diseases. Toxic elements such as Hg, Cd and Cu were not detected. Elements As and Sb were detected in some samples but at very low concentrations at the μg kg -1 levels. Herbal medicine results were also compared to literature values. Biological certified reference material was analyzed for quality control of the analytical results. (author)

  9. The characteristics of the medicinal plants used in the herbal medicine оf type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Kalmykov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: consider the rational combination of the herbs in fytocomplexes applied in the rehabilitation of the type 2 diabetes. Material & Methods: analysis of scientific and methodical literature on the use of herbal medicine in the complex rehabilitation for patients with diabetes. Results: modern views on the necessity and the features of the use of herbal remedies especially in the diabetes type 2 are presented; the main medicinal plants used in this pathology are described. The main attention is paid to the peculiarities of forming up an integrated cure that contains a mixture of several kinds of medicinal plants. The classification of herbal drugs used for diabetes is given. Conclusions: advantages of application of collection of medicinal plants over synthetic drugs in the complex treatment of the type 2 diabetes are proved.

  10. Innovating Chinese Herbal Medicine: From Traditional Health Practice to Scientific Drug Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    As one of the major contemporary alternative medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) continues its influence in Chinese communities and has begun to attract the academic attention in the world of western medicine. This paper aims to examine Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), the essential branch of TCM, from both narrative and scientific perspectives. CHM is a traditional health practice originated from Chinese philosophy and religion, holding the belief of holism and balance in the body. W...

  11. Chinese Herbal Medicine Meets Biological Networks of Complex Diseases: A Computational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of cheminformatics, computational biology, and systems biology, great progress has been made recently in the computational research of Chinese herbal medicine with in-depth understanding towards pharmacognosy. This paper summarized these studies in the aspects of computational methods, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM compound databases, and TCM network pharmacology. Furthermore, we chose arachidonic acid metabolic network as a case study to demonstrate the regulatory function of herbal medicine in the treatment of inflammation at network level. Finally, a computational workflow for the network-based TCM study, derived from our previous successful applications, was proposed.

  12. Chinese Herbal Medicine Meets Biological Networks of Complex Diseases: A Computational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of cheminformatics, computational biology, and systems biology, great progress has been made recently in the computational research of Chinese herbal medicine with in-depth understanding towards pharmacognosy. This paper summarized these studies in the aspects of computational methods, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound databases, and TCM network pharmacology. Furthermore, we chose arachidonic acid metabolic network as a case study to demonstrate the regulatory function of herbal medicine in the treatment of inflammation at network level. Finally, a computational workflow for the network-based TCM study, derived from our previous successful applications, was proposed.

  13. [European Union regulatory and quality requirements for botanical drugs and their implications for Chinese herbal medicinal products development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, You-Ping

    2017-06-01

    This paper introduces regulatory pathways and characteristic quality requirements for marketing authorization of herbal medicinal products in the European Union(EU), and the legal status and applications of "European Union list of herbal substances, preparations and combinations" and "European Union herbal monographs". Also introduced are Chinese herbs that have been granted the EU list entry, those with EU herbal monographs, and registered EU traditional herbal medicinal products with Chinese herbs as active ingredients. Special attention is paid to the technical details of three authorized EU herbal medicinal products (Veregen, Sativex and Episalvan) in comparison with Andrographis paniculata extract HMPL-004 that failed the phase Ⅲ clinical trial for ulcerative colitis. The paper further emphasizes the importance of enriching active fractions of herbal extracts and taking regulatory and quality considerations into account in early stage of botanical drug development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. Herbal medicine IMOD suppresses LPS-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines in human dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaee, Saeedeh; Drewniak, Agata; Sarrami-Forooshani, Ramin; Kaptein, Tanja M.; Gharibdoost, Farhad; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicines that stimulate or modulate the immune system can be used as innovative approaches to treat immunological diseases. The herbal medicine IMOD has been shown to strongly modulate immune responses in several animal studies as well as in clinical trials. However, little is known

  15. Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of primary hypertension: a methodology overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinke, Zhao; Yingdong, Li; Mingxia, Feng; Kai, Liu; Kaibing, Chen; Yuqing, Lu; Shaobo, Sun; Peng, Song; Bin, Liu

    2016-10-20

    Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat hypertension in China and East Asia since centuries. In this study, we conduct an overview of systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of primary hypertension to 1) summarize the conclusions of these reviews, 2) evaluate the methodological quality of these reviews, and 3) rate the confidence in the effect on each outcome. We comprehensively searched six databases to retrieve systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicine for primary hypertension from inception to December 31, 2015. We used AMSTAR to evaluate the methodological quality of included reviews, and we classified the quality of evidence for each outcome in included reviews using the GRADE approach. A total of 12 systematic reviews with 31 outcomes were included, among which 11 systematic reviews focus on the therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicine combined with conventional medicine or simple Chinese herbal medicine versus simple conventional medicine. Among the 11 items of AMSTAR, the lowest quality was "providing a priori design" item, none review conformed to this item, the next was "stating the conflict of interest" item, only three reviews conformed to this item. Five reviews scored less than seven in AMSTAR, which means that the overall methodological quality was fairly poor. For GRADE, of the 31 outcomes, the quality of evidence was high in none (0 %), moderate in three (10 %), low in 19 (61 %), and very low in nine (29 %). Of the five downgrading factors, risk of bias (100 %) was the most common downgrading factor in the included reviews, followed by imprecision (42 %), inconsistency (39 %), publication bias (39 %), and indirectness (0 %). The methodological quality of systematic reviews about Chinese herbal medicine for primary hypertension is fairly poor, and the quality of evidence level is low. Physicians should be cautious when applying the interventions in these reviews for primary hypertension patients in

  16. Herbal Medicine for Xerostomia in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bongki; Noh, Hyeonseok; Choi, Dong-Jun

    2018-06-01

    Xerostomia (dry mouth) causes many clinical problems, including oral infections, speech difficulties, and impaired chewing and swallowing of food. Many cancer patients have complained of xerostomia induced by cancer therapy. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the efficacy of herbal medicine for the treatment of xerostomia in cancer patients. Randomized controlled trials investigating the use of herbal medicines to treat xerostomia in cancer patients were included. We searched the following 12 databases without restrictions on time or language. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Twenty-five randomized controlled trials involving 1586 patients met the inclusion criteria. A total of 24 formulas were examined in the included trials. Most of the included trials were insufficiently reported in the methodology section. Five formulas were shown to significantly improve the salivary flow rate compared to comparators. Regarding the grade of xerostomia, all formulas with the exception of a Dark Plum gargle solution with normal saline were significantly effective in reducing the severity of dry mouth. Adverse events were reported in 4 trials, and adverse effects of herbal medicine were reported in 3 trials. We found herbal medicines had potential benefits for improving salivary function and reducing the severity of dry mouth in cancer patients. However, methodological limitations and a relatively small sample size reduced the strength of the evidence. More high-quality trials reporting sufficient methodological data are warranted to enforce the strength of evidence regarding the effectiveness of herbal medicines.

  17. A Quantitative Assessment of the Reporting Quality of Herbal Medicine Research: The Road to Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Ken

    2018-02-01

    To quantify different aspects of the quality of reporting of herbal medicine clinical trials, to determine how that quality is affecting the conclusions of meta-analyses, and to target areas for improvement in future herbal medicine research reporting. The Electronic databases PubMed, Academic Search Premier, ScienceDirect, and Alt HealthWatch were searched for meta-analyses of herbal medicines in refereed journals and Cochrane Reviews in the years 2000-2004 and 2010-2014. The search was limited to meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials involving humans and published in English. Judgments and descriptions within the meta-analyses were used to report on risks of bias in the included clinical trials and the meta-analyses themselves. Out of 3264 citations, 9 journal-published meta-analyses were selected from 2000 to 2004, 116 from 2010 to 2014, and 44 Cochrane Reviews from 2010 to 2014. Across both time frames and categories of publication, herbal medicines include a significant number of clinical trials that do not meet the recommended standards for clinical trial reporting. This quantitative assessment identified significant publication bias and other bias risks that may be due to inadequate trial design or incomplete reporting of outcomes. Suggested improvements to herbal medicine clinical trial reporting are discussed.

  18. Risk assessment on the use of herbal medicinal products containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgaier, Clemens; Franz, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) are common plantal toxins directed against insect herbivores. Unsaturated PAs are known to be hepatotoxic. Many of the PAs are in addition mutagenic and some may possibly be carcinogenic for humans. The risk of an exposure to PAs associated with their occurrence in herbal medicinal products and in foodstuff is under current discussion. The present risk assessment for herbal medicinal products containing PAs is based on a margin of safety derivation for foodstuff indicating that a life-long exposure to maximally 0.007 μg/kg bw/day is not expected to be associated with safety concerns. This approach offers a possibility to estimate the potential risk of PA-containing herbal medicinal products irrespective of the route of administration. It assumes PA levels in the final herbal medicinal product below 0.01 ppm and considers for dermal administration a 100% skin penetration of the PAs reflecting a worst-case scenario. As a result, the calculated margins of safety show a potential exposure using herbal medicinal products 70-, 45.5-, and 19.3-fold lower on a one-day base and 608-, 396-, and 168- fold lower on a one-year base for adults, children aged 12 years, and children aged 4 years, respectively, than the thresholds considered acceptable for foodstuff. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular Authentication of the Traditional Medicinal Plant "Lakshman Booti" (Smithia conferta Sm.) and Its Adulterants through DNA Barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umdale, Suraj D; Kshirsagar, Parthraj R; Lekhak, Manoj M; Gaikwad, Nikhil B

    2017-07-01

    Smithia conferta Sm. is an annual herb widely used in Indian traditional medical practice and commonly known as "Lakshman booti" in Sanskrit. Morphological resemblance among the species of genus Smithia Aiton . leads to inaccurate identification and adulteration. This causes inconsistent therapeutic effects and also affects the quality of herbal medicine. This study aimed to generate potential barcode for authentication of S. conferta and its adulterants through DNA barcoding technique. Genomic DNA extracted from S. conferta and its adulterants was used as templates for polymerase chain reaction amplification of the barcoding regions. The amplicons were directed for sequencing, and species identification was conducted using BLASTn and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean trees. In addition, the secondary structures of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 2 region were predicted. The nucleotide sequence of ITS provides species-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms and sequence divergence (22%) than psb A- trn H (10.9%) and rbc L (3.1%) sequences. The ITS barcode indicates that S. conferta and Smithia sensitiva are closely related compared to other species. ITS is the most applicable barcode for molecular authentication of S. conferta , and further chloroplast barcodes should be tested for phylogenetic analysis of genus Smithia. The present investigation is the first effort of utilization of DNA barcode for molecular authentication of S. conferta and its adulterants. Also, this study expanded the application of the ITS2 sequence data in the authentication. The ITS has been proved as a potential and reliable candidate barcode for the authentication of S. conferta . Abbreviations used: BLASTn: Basic Local Alignment Search Tool for Nucleotide; MEGA: Molecular Evolutionary Genetic Analysis; EMBL: European Molecular Biology Laboratory; psb A- trn H: Photosystem II protein D1- stuctural RNA: His tRNA gene; rbcL: Ribulose 1,5 bi-phosphate carboxylase

  20. A secure smart-card based authentication and key agreement scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tian-Fu; Liu, Chuan-Ming

    2013-06-01

    A smart-card based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems enables patients, doctors, nurses, health visitors and the medicine information systems to establish a secure communication platform through public networks. Zhu recently presented an improved authentication scheme in order to solve the weakness of the authentication scheme of Wei et al., where the off-line password guessing attacks cannot be resisted. This investigation indicates that the improved scheme of Zhu has some faults such that the authentication scheme cannot execute correctly and is vulnerable to the attack of parallel sessions. Additionally, an enhanced authentication scheme based on the scheme of Zhu is proposed. The enhanced scheme not only avoids the weakness in the original scheme, but also provides users' anonymity and authenticated key agreements for secure data communications.

  1. A trifocal perspective on medicine as a moral enterprise: towards an authentic philosophy of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssebunnya, Gerald M

    2015-02-01

    The fundamental claim that the practice of medicine is essentially a moral enterprise remains highly contentious, not least among the dominant traditional moral theories. The medical profession itself is today characterized by multicultural pluralism and moral relativism that have left the Hippocratic moral tradition largely in disarray. In this paper, I attempt to clarify the ambiguity about practicing medicine as a moral enterprise and echo Pellegrino's call for a phenomenologically and teleologically derived philosophy of medicine. I proffer a realistic trifocal matrix in which the virtuous moral agency and the teleologically derived moral imperative of the physician are comprehensively integrated with an action-guiding practical analytical framework for the resolution of ethical dilemmas in medicine. I argue that this trifocal perspective points us towards an authentic philosophy of medicine that is not only verifiable through Lonerganian self-appropriation, but also authentically objective through the possible moral self-transcendence of the good physician. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Developing a library of authenticated Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) plants for systematic biological evaluation--rationale, methods and preliminary results from a Sino-American collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, David M; Harris, Eric S J; Littlefield, Bruce A; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A; Scholten, Robert; Bayliss, Peter; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Qiao, Yanjiang; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Chen, Hubiao; Liu, Yong; Kaptchuk, Ted; Hahn, William C; Wang, Xiaoxing; Roberts, Thomas; Shamu, Caroline E; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    While the popularity of and expenditures for herbal therapies (aka "ethnomedicines") have increased globally in recent years, their efficacy, safety, mechanisms of action, potential as novel therapeutic agents, cost-effectiveness, or lack thereof, remain poorly defined and controversial. Moreover, published clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of herbal therapies have rightfully been criticized, post hoc, for their lack of quality assurance and reproducibility of study materials, as well as a lack of demonstration of plausible mechanisms and dosing effects. In short, clinical botanical investigations have suffered from the lack of a cohesive research strategy which draws on the expertise of all relevant specialties. With this as background, US and Chinese co-investigators with expertise in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), botany, chemistry and drug discovery, have jointly established a prototype library consisting of 202 authenticated medicinal plant and fungal species that collectively represent the therapeutic content of the majority of all commonly prescribed TCM herbal prescriptions. Currently housed at Harvard University, the library consists of duplicate or triplicate kilogram quantities of each authenticated and processed species, as well as "detanninized" extracts and sub-fractions of each mother extract. Each species has been collected at 2-3 sites, each separated geographically by hundreds of miles, with precise GPS documentation, and authenticated visually and chemically prior to testing for heavy metals and/or pesticides contamination. An explicit decision process has been developed whereby samples with the least contamination were selected to undergo ethanol extraction and HPLC sub-fractionation in preparation for high throughput screening across a broad array of biological targets including cancer biology targets. As envisioned, the subfractions in this artisan collection of authenticated medicinal plants will be tested for biological activity

  3. Assessing Patients' Preference for Integrating Herbal Medicine Within Primary Care Services in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Safaa; Moharam, Maha; Alarfaj, Gada

    2014-07-01

    Family physician advice and follow-up may be important to reduce the negative aspects of locally marketed herbal remedies and improve the patient outcome. There is a lack of studies assessing the preference of Saudi patients for the integration of herbal medicine into primary care services. To examine the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of Saudi patients toward herbal medicine and its integration into primary care services. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2013 among adult patients attending the family medicine clinics at a primary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire (27 items) was developed and administered to all patients. A total of 240 patients were included in the current analysis. The average age was 33.5 ± 9.9 years, and 61% of the patients were women. Approximately 60% of the patients were aware of herbal medicine use and its possible side effects. More than 85% of the patients believed that herbal containers should be labeled with safety information. Approximately 71% of the patients had a favorable attitude toward integrated services. Approximately 65% of the patients used herbal remedies for themselves, and 42% used them for their children. Preference for integrated services was significantly associated with female sex, better knowledge, positive attitudes toward safety and regulations, and higher level of practice. A good knowledge and a very favorable attitude toward integrating herbal medicine into primary care services were found among a group of patients attending a primary care center in Saudi Arabia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Osteoporosis: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yong-Xiang; Wu, Peng; Mao, Yi-Fan; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Jia-Feng; Chen, Wen-Liang; Liu, Zhong; Shi, Xiao-Lin

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem in the elderly population. Several studies have suggested that Chinese herbal medicine has antiosteoporotic activities that might be beneficial for osteoporosis. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine in osteoporosis patients. We comprehensively searched for randomized controlled trials (until December 2016) that compared Chinese herbal medicine with Western medicine in adults with osteoporosis and reported bone mineral densities (BMDs). A total of 10 randomized controlled trials were included. The pooled results suggested that the increased spine BMD was lower but not significant in the Chinese herbal medicine group than in the Western drug group (standard mean difference [SMD] = -0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.62 to 0.39, p > 0.05). In the subgroup analysis, in postmenopausal women, Chinese herbal medicine also showed a insignificantly higher increment in BMD than the control group (SMD = 0.22, 95% CI: -0.00 to 0.43, p = 0.05). For different treatment durations, subgroups over 6 mo (SMD = 0.09, 95% CI: -0.24 to 0.41, p > 0.05) and less than 6 mo (SMD = -0.25, 95% CI: -1.14 to 0.64, p > 0.05) showed comparable BMDs between the 2 therapies. Our study demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicine alone did not significantly increase lumbar spine BMD. Further studies with better adherence to the intervention are needed to confirm the results of this meta-analysis. Copyright © 2017 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethnopharmacological survey on medicinal plants used in herbal drinks among the traditional communities of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Khan, Muhammad Pukhtoon Zada; Mukhtar, Anam; Zafar, Muhammad; Sultana, Shazia; Jahan, Sarwat

    2016-05-26

    There is very limited information regarding medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Pakistan, for treating wide-ranging diseases. Current study provides significant ethnopharmacological information, both qualitative and quantitative on medical plants in Pakistan and the pharmacological importance of herbal drinks, especially in the discovery of new drugs. The current ethnomedicinal field study was conducted from various traditional communities of Pakistan to document usage of medicinal plants as herbal drinks. Data was collected through field interviews from local people and using semi-structured questionnaires. Data was analyzed using quantitative indices such as UV (use value), RFC (Relative frequency of citation), and FL (Fidelity level). The present study recorded 217 plant species belonging to 174 genera and 69 families used in herbal drinks preparations. Major herbal preparations include decoctions, infusions and juice. According to use reports, significant species were Aloe vera, Artemisia fragrans, Allium cepa, Senegalia catechu, Alternanthera sessilis, Malva ludwigii, Arnebia benthamii, Cichorium intybus, Coccinia grandis, Dalbergia sissoo. Major ailment treated with herbal drinks include heartburn, fever, diarrhea, hypertension, and others. Use value (UV) varies from 0.23 to 0.02, with Mentha arvensis (0.23) having the highest value of UV followed by Mentha longifolia (0.22), Plantago lanceolate (0.19), Achillea millefolium (0.18), Coriandrum sativum (0.18), Justicia adhatoda and Malva sylvestris (0.17). Values of RFC varies from 0.28 to 0.09 while Fidelity level (FL) among plants varies from 37.5 to 100. Alternanthera sessilis, Oxytropis lapponica, Millettia pinnata and Salvia bucharica had the highest FL value (100). The use of medicinal plants is prevalent in traditional communities of Pakistan. Different herbal preparations are in common practice including various herbal drinks a common tradition and much favoured herbal preparation in terms

  6. A brief review on the application of nanoparticle enclosed herbal medicine for the treatment of infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdari, Mehrdad; Eatemadi, Ali; Soleimaninejad, Maryam; Hammed, Aiyelabegan T

    2017-03-01

    Herbal medicines have been routinely employed all over the world dated back from the ancient time and have been identified by patients and physicians for their excellent therapeutic value as they have lower adverse effects when compared with the modern medicines. Phytotherapeutics requires a scientific technique to deliver the active herbal extract in a controlled manner to avoid repeated administration and increase patient compliance. This can be reached by fabricating a novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) for herbal components. NDDSs does not only decrease the repeated dose to overcome ineffectiveness, but also help to increase potency by decreasing toxicity and elevating drug bioavailability. Nano-sized DDS of herbal drugs have a potential application for improving the activity and countering the problems related to herbal medicines. Hence, application of nanocarriers as an NDDS in the traditional herbal medicine system is important to treat more chronic diseases like infectious endocarditis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine with Antiquorum Sensing Activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Chu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs were tested for their ability of antiquorum sensing. Water extracts of Rhubarb, Fructus gardeniae, and Andrographis paniculata show antiquorumsensing activity when using Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 as reporter; the sub-MIC concentrations of these TCHMs were tested against AHL-dependent phenotypic expressions of PAO1. Results showed significant reduction in pyocyanin pigment, protease, elastase production, and biofilm formation in PAO1 without inhibiting the bacterial growth, revealing that the QSI by the extracts is not related to static or killing effects on the bacteria. The results indicate a potential modulation of bacterial cell-cell communication, P. aeruginosa biofilm, and virulence factors by traditional Chinese herbal medicine. This study introduces not only a new mode of action for traditional Chinese herbal medicines, but also a potential new therapeutic direction for the treatment of bacterial infections, which have QSI activity and might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria.

  8. Irradiation degradation of carbamate and organophosphorous pesticides in Chinese herbal medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiyong; Chang Chunyan; Xiao Yabing; Wu Ruoxin

    2013-01-01

    In order to put forward new method and basis to remove pesticide residues in Chinese herbs, the influence factors such as irradiation doses and water content of electron beam irradiation on degradation efficiency of carbamate and organophosphorous pesticides in ginseng are investigated. Additionally, the irradiation degradation of two pesticides treated with the same dose in several traditional Chinese herbal medicines like Baifuling is also studied. The irradiation can effectively degrade these pesticide residues in herbal medicines; the efficiency of lower doses are inferior to higher doses. The degradation rate rises when dose increases, and varies among 4 ∼ 10 kGy in different Chinese herbal medicines. The degradation efficiency of organophosphorous pesticides is better than those of carbamate pesticides. (authors)

  9. TCMSP: a database of systems pharmacology for drug discovery from herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Jinlong; Li, Peng; Wang, Jinan; Zhou, Wei; Li, Bohui; Huang, Chao; Li, Pidong; Guo, Zihu; Tao, Weiyang; Yang, Yinfeng; Xu, Xue; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Modern medicine often clashes with traditional medicine such as Chinese herbal medicine because of the little understanding of the underlying mechanisms of action of the herbs. In an effort to promote integration of both sides and to accelerate the drug discovery from herbal medicines, an efficient systems pharmacology platform that represents ideal information convergence of pharmacochemistry, ADME properties, drug-likeness, drug targets, associated diseases and interaction networks, are urgently needed. The traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology database and analysis platform (TCMSP) was built based on the framework of systems pharmacology for herbal medicines. It consists of all the 499 Chinese herbs registered in the Chinese pharmacopoeia with 29,384 ingredients, 3,311 targets and 837 associated diseases. Twelve important ADME-related properties like human oral bioavailability, half-life, drug-likeness, Caco-2 permeability, blood-brain barrier and Lipinski's rule of five are provided for drug screening and evaluation. TCMSP also provides drug targets and diseases of each active compound, which can automatically establish the compound-target and target-disease networks that let users view and analyze the drug action mechanisms. It is designed to fuel the development of herbal medicines and to promote integration of modern medicine and traditional medicine for drug discovery and development. The particular strengths of TCMSP are the composition of the large number of herbal entries, and the ability to identify drug-target networks and drug-disease networks, which will help revealing the mechanisms of action of Chinese herbs, uncovering the nature of TCM theory and developing new herb-oriented drugs. TCMSP is freely available at http://sm.nwsuaf.edu.cn/lsp/tcmsp.php.

  10. Herbal and alternative medicine: the impact on anesthesia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients taking traditional herbal medication are included.6–8. A distinction needs to ... clinical picture when the patient become ill because of use of ... daily dose consumed is often very difficult to calculate. • A single .... energy, immune response, and stress ..... Elinav E, Chajek-Shaul T. Licorice consumption causing severe.

  11. Toxic effect of Xanthium Strumarium as an herbal medicine preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Mofidi, Mani; Saidi, Hossein

    2009-01-01

    We describe the intoxication resulting from exposure of a previously healthy young woman to Xanthium Strumarium (Astraceae family) as an herbal preparation. The patient developed hepatic injury, symptomatic hypoglycemia and seizure 7 days after drinking of decocting preparation of the plant. It is different from previous reported cases because of neuropsychiatric and gradual onset of symptoms.

  12. Prevalence, perceived benefits and effectiveness of herbal medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... hospice or palliative care service (Demmer, 2007). In the absence of effective ... most common herbal product used. It was reported that .... Vaginal discharge. 3. 51. 11.16. White spots in the mouth (oral thrush). 4. 51. 11.16. Skin rash. 5. 46. 10.06. Skin itch. 6. 38. 8.2. Respiratory problems. 7. 29. 6.79.

  13. The legislative and regulatory framework governing herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, Mitchel Otieno; Ochola, Francis Okumu; Onyango, Allan Odhiambo; Mbaria, James Mucunu; Gakuya, Daniel Waweru; Kanja, Laetitia Wakonyu; Kiama, Stephen Gitahi; Onyango, Mary Atieno

    2017-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is an integral component of primary healthcare in Kenya. This is because the infrastructural health setup in the country is inadequate in catering for all the medical needs of the population. This particularly holds true in the rural areas where many rural folk rely on products of herbal origin to offset their healthcare needs. More often than not these products are an elaborate cacophony of several different substances of biological origin and thus need personnel adept in their preparation. Sadly, due to loopholes in legislation and regulation, quacks have a field day in the practice. Moreover, the process of planting, harvesting, preparation and storage of herbs and related products dictates that a significant number of people will ultimately be involved in the whole process. This is likely to set the stage for manipulation and compromise of the safety, quality and efficacy of these products. This state of affairs appears unabated especially in the context of the current legal and regulatory framework governing herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya. Not only are these laws inadequate, they are shrouded in ambiguity, open to interpretation and the authorities mandated to implement them often end up performing duplicate roles. The aim of this review is to critique the legal and regulatory provisions governing herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya. In conclusion, laws and regulations meant to control herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya are wanting. Clear and definitive legislation on herbal medicine use and practice coupled with effective implementation by mandated institutions will go a long way in inspiring confidence to all stakeholders of herbal medicine. PMID:29629018

  14. The legislative and regulatory framework governing herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumu, Mitchel Otieno; Ochola, Francis Okumu; Onyango, Allan Odhiambo; Mbaria, James Mucunu; Gakuya, Daniel Waweru; Kanja, Laetitia Wakonyu; Kiama, Stephen Gitahi; Onyango, Mary Atieno

    2017-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine is an integral component of primary healthcare in Kenya. This is because the infrastructural health setup in the country is inadequate in catering for all the medical needs of the population. This particularly holds true in the rural areas where many rural folk rely on products of herbal origin to offset their healthcare needs. More often than not these products are an elaborate cacophony of several different substances of biological origin and thus need personnel adept in their preparation. Sadly, due to loopholes in legislation and regulation, quacks have a field day in the practice. Moreover, the process of planting, harvesting, preparation and storage of herbs and related products dictates that a significant number of people will ultimately be involved in the whole process. This is likely to set the stage for manipulation and compromise of the safety, quality and efficacy of these products. This state of affairs appears unabated especially in the context of the current legal and regulatory framework governing herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya. Not only are these laws inadequate, they are shrouded in ambiguity, open to interpretation and the authorities mandated to implement them often end up performing duplicate roles. The aim of this review is to critique the legal and regulatory provisions governing herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya. In conclusion, laws and regulations meant to control herbal medicine use and practice in Kenya are wanting. Clear and definitive legislation on herbal medicine use and practice coupled with effective implementation by mandated institutions will go a long way in inspiring confidence to all stakeholders of herbal medicine.

  15. Effect of 34 kinds of traditional Japanese herbal medicines on prolongation of cardiac allograft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X; Uchiyama, M; Zhang, Q; Harada, T; Otsuka, K; Shimokawa, T; Niimi, M

    2014-05-01

    Herbal medicines have been used for over 3,000 years in Asian as alternative therapy for their variety effects and have recently become popular in Europe and the United States. In the last 30 years, Japanese herbal medicines were widely used for treatment of diseases after been recognized officially by Japanese government. In this study, we investigated the effect of 34 kinds of traditional Japanese herbal medicines on alloimmune responses in a murine model of cardiac allograft transplantation. CBA mice (H2(k)) underwent transplantation of a C57BL/6 (H2(b)) heart and received oral administration of 2 g/kg/d of the 34 kinds of herbal medicines from the day of transplantation until 7 days afterward. Naïve CBA mice rejected B6 cardiac grafts acutely (median survival time [MST], 7 days). CBA transplant recipients given 2 g/kg/d of Sairei-to (TJ-114) and Tokishakuyaku-san (TJ-23) had prolonged C57BL/6 allograft survival indefinitely (both MSTs > 100 days). Moreover, CBA transplant recipients given Seisinrensiin (TJ-111), Tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto (TJ-38), Rikkunshito (TJ-43), Maobushisaishinto (TJ-127), Ninjin-yoei-to (TJ-108), Ryokan-kyomi-shinge-nin-to (TJ-119), Inchingorei-san (TJ-117), Hochuekkito (TJ-41), Kihi-to (TJ-65), and Sinbu-to (TJ-30) had also prolonged C57BL/6 allograft survival significantly (MSTs of 28, 22, 16, 14, 14, 13, 12, 9.5, 9 and 9 days, respectively). However, none of other 22 kinds of herbal medicines could prolong the allograft survival. Furthermore, oral administration of 2 g/kg/d of Daikenchuto (TJ-100) induced sudden death (within 1 minute) in CBA mice. In conclusion, 12 kinds of Japanese herbal medicines prolonged allograft survival and one showed toxic effect in mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Herbal medicine use among Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Nigeria: understanding the magnitude and predictors of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaeze, Ogochukwu Ukamaka; Aderemi-Williams, Roseline Iberi; Ayo-Vaughan, Modupeola Anuoluwapo; Ogundemuren, Deborah Aderoju; Ogunmola, Damilola Segun; Anyika, Emmanuel Nwanolue

    2018-06-01

    Background Patients with chronic diseases exploit complementary and alternative treatment options to manage their conditions better and improve well-being. Objective To determine the prevalence and predictors of herbal medicine use among Type 2 Diabetes patients in Lagos, Nigeria. Setting Secondary healthcare facilities in Lagos state, Nigeria. Method The study design was a cross sectional survey. A two-stage sampling approach was used to select the health facilities and patients were recruited consecutively to attain the sample size. Data was collected using a structured and standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire. Characteristics, prevalence and predictors of herbal medicine use were assessed using descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analyses. Main outcome measure Herbal medicine use among Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Results 453 patients were surveyed, 305 (67.3%) reported herbal medicine use, among whom 108 (35.4%) used herbal and conventional medicines concurrently; 206 (67.5%) did not disclose use to their physician. Herbal medicine use was significantly associated with age (p = 0.045), educational level (p = 0.044), occupation (p = 0.013), duration of diabetes disease (p = 0.007), mode of diabetes management (p = 0.02), a positive history of diabetes (p = 0.011) and presence of diabetes complication (p = 0.033). Formulations or whole herbs of Vernonia amygdalina, Moringa oleifera, Ocimum gratissimum, Picralima nitida, and herbal mixtures were the commonest herbal medicine. Beliefs and perceptions about herbal medicine varied between the users and non-users. Conclusion The use of herbal medicine among Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Lagos, Nigeria is high. There is dire need for health care practitioners to frequently probe patients for herbal medicine use and be aware of their health behaviour and choices, with a view to manage the disease better.

  17. Use of Herbal Medicine Among Pregnant Women on Antenatal Care at Nekemte Hospital, Western Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Objectives: Therefore, the main object...

  18. [Therapeutic effects of the integrated acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine on reflux esophagitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan; Li, Bolin; Sun, Jianhui; Wang, Zhikun; Zhang, Nana; Shi, Fang; Pei, Lin

    2017-07-12

    To compare the differences in the clinical therapeutic effects on reflux esophagitis among the combined therapy of huazhuo jiedu jiangni decoction (the decoction for resolving the turbid, detoxification and reducing the pathologic upward qi in short) and acupuncture, omeprazole and Chinese herbal medicine. Ninety patients were randomized into 3 groups, 4 cases of them were dropped off. Finally, there were 29 cases in the combined therapy group with acupuncture and the decoction, 29 cases in the western medication group and 28 cases in the Chinese herbal medicine group in the statistical analysis. In the combined therapy group with acupuncture and the decoction, the decoction was prescribed recurrence rate. The therapeutic effects are better than the simple application of either Chinese herbal medicine or omeprazole. for oral administration. Additionally, acupuncture was applied to Neiguan (PC 6), Zusanli (ST 36), Zhongwan (CV 12), Ganshu (BL 18), Danshu (BL 19) and Taichong (LR 3). The decoction was applied one dose a day and acupuncture was once a day. In the western medication group, omeprazole capsules, 20 mg were prescribed for oral administration, twice a day. In the Chinese herbal medicine group, the decoction was simply applied. The treatment was 8 weeks in the 3 groups and the follow-up visit was 6 months. The score of reflux disorder questionnaire (RDQ) and the changes in esophageal mucosa under gastroscope were observed before and after treatment; the clinical therapeutic effects and recurrence rate were evaluated in the 3 groups. In 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, RDQ scores in the 3 groups were all reduced as compared with those before treatment (all P herbal medicine was lower than that in the western medication group ( P herbal medicine was lower than those in the western medication group and the Chinese herbal medicine group (both P herbal medicine group (all P <0.05). The combined therapy of huazhuo jiedu jiangni decoction and acupuncture achieve the

  19. Effectiveness of medicines authentication technology to detect counterfeit, recalled and expired medicines: a two-stage quantitative secondary care study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Bernard; Roberts, Lindsey; Dopson, Sue; Chapman, Stephen; Brindley, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify the authentication and detection rate of serialised medicines using medicines authentication technology. Design and intervention 4192 serialised medicines were entered into a hospital dispensary over two separate 8-week stages in 2015. Medicines were authenticated using secure external database cross-checking, triggered by the scanning of a two-dimensional data matrix with a unit specific 12-digit serial code. 4% of medicines included were preprogrammed with a message to identify the product as either expired, pack recalled, product recalled or counterfeit. Setting A site within a large UK National Health Service teaching hospital trust. Participants Accredited checking staff, pharmacists and dispensers in a pharmacy department. Primary outcome measures Authentication and detection rate of counterfeit expired and recalled medicines. Results The operational detection rate of counterfeit, recalled and expired medicines scanned as a combined group was 81.4% (stage 1 (S1)) and 87% (stage 2 (S2)). The technology's technical detection rate (TDR) was 100%; however, not all medicines were scanned and of those that were scanned not all that generated a warning message were quarantined. Owing to an operational authentication rate (OAR) of 66.3% (over both stages), only 31.8% of counterfeit medicines, 58% of recalled drugs and 64% of expired medicines were detected as a proportion of those entered into the study. Response times (RTs) of 152 ms (S1) and 165 ms (S2) were recorded, meeting the falsified medicines directive-mandated 300 ms limit. Conclusions TDRs and RTs were not a limiting factor in this study. The suboptimal OAR poses significant quality and safety issues with this detection approach. Authentication at the checking stage, however, demonstrated higher OARs. There is a need for further qualitative research to establish the reasons for less than absolute authentication and detection rates in the hospital environment to improve this

  20. Ethnobotany and herbal medicine in modern complementary and alternative medicine: An overview of publications in the field of I&C medicine 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Zorica; Matić, Rada; Bojović, Srđan; Stefanović, Milena; Vidaković, Vera

    2016-04-02

    Ethnobotanical knowledge and traditional medicinal practices from different parts of the world are of global importance and documentation of ethnobotanical, and ethnopharmacological data is a key prerequisite for further research in the area of herbal medicine and its implementation in clinical practice. An attempt was made to evaluate the scientific output of research related to ethnobotany and herbal medicine in journals indexed in the subject area "Integrative and Complementary Medicine" in the period 2001-2013, in order to ascertain research trends in both subdisciplines. All articles related to ethnobotany and herbal medicine, extracted from journals included in the field of I&C Medicine and published in the period 2001-2013, have been analyzed for general bibliometric data, and specific data: ethnobotanical data (geographic, floristic, pharmacological, sociological and other relevant data) and phytotherapeutic data (type of applied herbal medicine, plant species studied, pharmacological activity of studied plant species and disease and disorder type studied on a particular model). In the studied period, the number of articles dealing with ethnobotany and herbal medicine increased 6.3-fold. Articles related to ethnobotanical studies documented medicinal flora from 81 countries, either giving an overview of overall medicinal flora, or presenting the ethnomedicinal aspect of the use of plants for the treatment of ailments typical to the studied area. Additionally, the authors provided significant information on the methods of use and herbal preparations. In herbal medicine studies, plants, traditional plant remedies, herbal medicinal products and active herbal compounds were tested for many of pharmacological activities (146), with the curative activity emerging as most frequently tested. Out of 39 model systems, most of the studies were carried out under controlled in vitro conditions (4589 articles), followed by rat in vivo (2320), human in vivo (1285), mouse

  1. Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Vascular Dementia: An Overview of Scientific Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Chang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a leading cause of mental and physical disability. Vascular dementia (VaD is the second most common cause of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease (AD constituting 10–15% of the dementia population. Currently there are no approved pharmaceutical options for VaD and the conventional anti-AD therapies provide only modest, short-term relief of symptoms associated with VaD. Herbal medicines have been used for the management of dementia-like symptoms for centuries and may provide viable therapies for VaD due to their multicomponent and multitarget approach. This review is designed to provide an updated overview on the current status of herbal medicine research, with an emphasis on Chinese herbal medicine, for the treatment of VaD or dementia. A case study is also provided to demonstrate the development process of a novel standardized complex herbal formulation for VaD. The article reveals some preliminary evidence to support the use of single and complex herbal preparations for VaD and dementia. Multiple issues in relation to clinical and preclinical research have been identified and future research directions are discussed.

  2. Therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicines for post stroke recovery: A traditional and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shi-You; Hong, Zhi-You; Xie, Yu-Hua; Zhao, Yong; Xu, Xiao

    2017-12-01

    Stroke is a condition with high morbidity and mortality, and 75% of stroke survivors lose their ability to work. Stroke is a burden to the family and society. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese herbal patent medicines in the treatment of patients after the acute phase of a stroke. We searched the following databases through August 2016: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (CNKI), China Science Periodical Database (CSPD), and China Biology Medicine disc (CBMdisc) for studies that evaluated Chinese herbal patent medicines for post stroke recovery. A random-effect model was used to pool therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal patent medicines on stroke recovery. Network meta-analysis was used to rank the treatment for each Chinese herbal patent medicine. In our meta-analysis, we evaluated 28 trials that included 2780 patients. Chinese herbal patent medicines were effective in promoting recovery after stroke (OR, 3.03; 95% CI: 2.53-3.64; P herbal patent medicines significantly improved neurological function defect scores when compared with the controls (standard mean difference [SMD], -0.89; 95% CI, -1.44 to -0.35; P = .001). Chinese herbal patent medicines significantly improved the Barthel index (SMD, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.53-0.94; P herbal medicines most likely to improve stroke recovery when combined with acupuncture. Our research suggests that the Chinese herbal patent medicines were effective for stroke recovery. The most effective treatments for stroke recovery were MLC601, Shuxuetong, and BuchangNaoxintong. However, to clarify the specific effective ingredients of Chinese herbal medicines, a well-designed study is warranted.

  3. Chinese Herbal Medicine and Depression: The Research Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Butler; Karen Pilkington

    2013-01-01

    Background. Alternative approaches for managing depression are often sought and herbal mixtures are widely used in China. The aim of this paper was to provide an overall picture of the current evidence by analysing published systematic reviews and presenting a supplementary systematic review of trials in Western databases. Methods. Searches were conducted using AMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, and trial registers. Results were screened and selected trials were evaluat...

  4. Traditional herbal medicine in Far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Keshab P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest

  5. Chinese herbal medicine for subfertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kunyan; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Liangzhi; Wu, Taixiang; Lim, Chi Eung Danforn

    2016-10-12

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive endocrinology abnormalities, and affects 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age. Western medicines, such as oral contraceptives, insulin sensitizers and laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD), have been used to treat PCOS. Recently, many studies have been published that consider Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as an alternative treatment for women with PCOS. To assess the efficacy and safety of CHM for subfertile women with PCOS. We searched sources, including the following databases, from inception to 9 June 2016: the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), PsycINFO, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, Wanfang and trial registries. In addition, we searched the reference lists of included trials and contacted experts in the field to locate trials. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that considered the use of CHM for the treatment of subfertile women with PCOS. Two review authors independently screened appropriate trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias in included studies and extracted data. We contacted primary study authors for additional information. We conducted meta-analyses. We used the odds ratios (ORs) to report dichotomous data, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods. We included five RCTs with 414 participants. The comparisons in the included trials were as follows: CHM versus clomiphene, CHM plus clomiphene versus clomiphene (with or without ethinyloestradiol cyproterone acetate (CEA)), CHM plus follicle aspiration plus ovulation induction versus follicle aspiration plus ovulation induction alone, and CHM plus laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) versus LOD alone. The overall quality of the

  6. Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine: perspective of modern science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie

    2013-07-01

    Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research.

  7. Transcriptome inference and systems approaches to polypharmacology and drug discovery in herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Chen, Jianxin; Zhang, Wuxia; Fu, Bangze; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-04

    Herbal medicine is a concoction of numerous chemical ingredients, and it exhibits polypharmacological effects to act on multiple pharmacological targets, regulating different biological mechanisms and treating a variety of diseases. Thus, this complexity is impossible to deconvolute by the reductionist method of extracting one active ingredient acting on one biological target. To dissect the polypharmacological effects of herbal medicines and their underling pharmacological targets as well as their corresponding active ingredients. We propose a system-biology strategy that combines omics and bioinformatical methodologies for exploring the polypharmacology of herbal mixtures. The myocardial ischemia model was induced by Ameroid constriction of the left anterior descending coronary in Ba-Ma miniature pigs. RNA-seq analysis was utilized to find the differential genes induced by myocardial ischemia in pigs treated with formula QSKL. A transcriptome-based inference method was used to find the landmark drugs with similar mechanisms to QSKL. Gene-level analysis of RNA-seq data in QSKL-treated cases versus control animals yields 279 differential genes. Transcriptome-based inference methods identified 80 landmark drugs that covered nearly all drug classes. Then, based on the landmark drugs, 155 potential pharmacological targets and 57 indications were identified for QSKL. Our results demonstrate the power of a combined approach for exploring the pharmacological target and chemical space of herbal medicines. We hope that our method could enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of herbal systems and further accelerate the exploration of the value of traditional herbal medicine systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. BOKP: A DNA Barcode Reference Library for Monitoring Herbal Drugs in the Korean Pharmacopeia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxin Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbal drug authentication is an important task in traditional medicine; however, it is challenged by the limitations of traditional authentication methods and the lack of trained experts. DNA barcoding is conspicuous in almost all areas of the biological sciences and has already been added to the British pharmacopeia and Chinese pharmacopeia for routine herbal drug authentication. However, DNA barcoding for the Korean pharmacopeia still requires significant improvements. Here, we present a DNA barcode reference library for herbal drugs in the Korean pharmacopeia and developed a species identification engine named KP-IDE to facilitate the adoption of this DNA reference library for the herbal drug authentication. Using taxonomy records, specimen records, sequence records, and reference records, KP-IDE can identify an unknown specimen. Currently, there are 6,777 taxonomy records, 1,054 specimen records, 30,744 sequence records (ITS2 and psbA-trnH and 285 reference records. Moreover, 27 herbal drug materials were collected from the Seoul Yangnyeongsi herbal medicine market to give an example for real herbal drugs authentications. Our study demonstrates the prospects of the DNA barcode reference library for the Korean pharmacopeia and provides future directions for the use of DNA barcoding for authenticating herbal drugs listed in other modern pharmacopeias.

  9. Identification of a Multicomponent Traditional Herbal Medicine by HPLC-MS and Electron and Light Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Han; Cheng, Yung-Yi; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2017-12-15

    Commercial pharmaceutical herbal products have enabled people to take traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in a convenient and accessible form. However, the quantity and quality should be additionally inspected. To address the issue, a combination of chemical and physical inspection methods were developed to evaluate the amount of an herbal formula, Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang (XSLJZT), in clinical TCM practice. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method with electrospray ionization was developed to measure the herbal biomarkers of guanosine, atractylenolide III, glycyrrhizic acid, dehydrocostus lactone, hesperidin, and oleanolic acid from XSLJZT. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photographs and light microscopy photographs with Congo red and iodine-KI staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers and starch content. Furthermore, solubility analysis, swelling power test, and crude fiber analysis were contributed to measure the starch additive in pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrated large variations in the chemical components of different pharmaceutical brands. The SEM photographs revealed that the starch was oval, smooth, and granular, and that the raw herbal powder appears stripy, stretched, and filiform. The stained light microscopy photographs of all of the pharmaceutical products showed added starch and raw herbal powder as extenders. The developed chemical and physical methods provide a standard operating procedure for the quantity control of the herbal pharmaceutical products of XSLJZT.

  10. Integrated Development of Chinese Herbal Medicine Planting and Tourist Commodities: A Case Study of Green Handmade Soap Development in Shandong Province

    OpenAIRE

    LI, Xiu; CHEN, Mengxuan; SONG, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Combining current situations of Chinese herbal medicine planting industry in Shandong, in line with existing problems of Chinese herbal medicine planting industry, this paper analyzed development prospect of tourist commodity industry in Shandong Province, and came up with actual selection and recommendations for integrated development of Chinese herbal medicine planting and tourist commodities.

  11. Acupuncture plus Herbal Medicine for Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Simin; Dong, Lanlan; He, Yuan; Xiao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the unprecedented aging tendency in our world population and has become a significant health issue. The use of Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat AD has been increasing in recent years. The objective of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of combining acupuncture with herbal medicine to treat AD. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture plus herbals versus treatment with western drugs for AD were retrieved from 11 databases. The data were extracted by two authors; dichotomous data were expressed as odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), while continuous data were calculated by mean differences (MDs) with 95% CIs. Although the combined analysis of the score of Activity of Daily Life (ADL) scale MD was [Formula: see text]3.59 (95% CI [Formula: see text]7.18-0.01, [Formula: see text]), which indicates there was no statistically significant difference between the two treatments at reducing the ADL scale score, the pooled results of 12 trials indicated that acupuncture plus Chinese herbal medicine was better than western drugs at improving the effectiveness rate (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.40-3.56), the combined evidence of 11 articles showed that acupuncture plus Chinese herbal medicine was more effective than western drugs at improving the scores for the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale (2.10, 95% CI 0.69-3.51, [Formula: see text]) and the traditional Chinese medicine symptom (MD 5.07, 95% CI 3.90-6.25, [Formula: see text]). From the current research results, acupuncture plus herbal medicine may have advantages over western drugs for treating AD. Nevertheless, well-designed RCTs with a larger sample size are required in the future.

  12. Chinese Herbal Medicine Image Recognition and Retrieval by Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Qian, Huinan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval have great potential of practical applications. Several previous studies have focused on the recognition with hand-crafted image features, but there are two limitations in them. Firstly, most of these hand-crafted features are low-level image representation, which is easily affected by noise and background. Secondly, the medicine images are very clean without any backgrounds, which makes it difficult to use in practical applications. Therefore, designing high-level image representation for recognition and retrieval in real world medicine images is facing a great challenge. Inspired by the recent progress of deep learning in computer vision, we realize that deep learning methods may provide robust medicine image representation. In this paper, we propose to use the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for Chinese herbal medicine image recognition and retrieval. For the recognition problem, we use the softmax loss to optimize the recognition network; then for the retrieval problem, we fine-tune the recognition network by adding a triplet loss to search for the most similar medicine images. To evaluate our method, we construct a public database of herbal medicine images with cluttered backgrounds, which has in total 5523 images with 95 popular Chinese medicine categories. Experimental results show that our method can achieve the average recognition precision of 71% and the average retrieval precision of 53% over all the 95 medicine categories, which are quite promising given the fact that the real world images have multiple pieces of occluded herbal and cluttered backgrounds. Besides, our proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art performance by improving previous studies with a large margin.

  13. Herbal medicines for treating acute otitis media: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mi Ju; Kim, Young-Eun; Song, Young Il; Kim, Yun Hee

    2017-12-01

    This systematic review aimed to assess the clinical evidence for the widespread use of herbal medicines in treating acute otitis media. Eleven electronic databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the CENTRAL were searched, without language limitations. All randomised controlled trials involving the use of herbal medicines, alone or in combination with conventional therapies, for acute otitis media were included. We identified 4956 studies, of which seven randomised clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. The overall risk of bias of the included trials was relatively high or unclear. Treatment with Longdan-xiegan decoction or Shenling-baizhu powder, combined with antibiotics, appeared to be more effective than treatment with antibiotics alone in terms of the proportion of patients with total symptom recovery. Moreover, combination treatment of Sinupret ® and antibiotics facilitated the recovery of middle ear conditions and hearing acuity. Despite some indications of potential symptom improvement, the evidence regarding the effectiveness and efficacy of herbal medicine for acute otitis media is inconclusive due to the poor quality of trials included. Moreover, we only analysed seven trials in this review. Therefore, to properly evaluate the effectiveness of herbal medicine for acute otitis media, systematic reviews based on more rigorously designed randomized trials are warranted in the future. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of herbal medicinal products: Challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Scott A.; Cunningham, David G.; Marles, Robin J.

    2010-01-01

    Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.

  15. Ethical considerations in clinical research on herbal medicine for prevention of cardiovascular disease in the ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonrungsesomboon, Nut; Karbwang, Juntra

    2016-10-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the ageing is a major public health problem worldwide. The nature of most CVD is subclinical with pathological processes that can span over years. Use of preventive measures could be an appropriate approach to prevailing over CVD in the ageing, and herbal medicine is one of the promising preventive approaches and is currently of interest among medical societies. In the evidence-based era, herbal medicine is, however, often underestimated and approached with skepticism, mainly due to the paucity of scientific evidence. Properly designed clinical trials on herbal medicine for prevention of CVD in a geriatric population are thus of importance and of clinical value. To review ethical issues and discuss considerations when such research is proposed. Four ethical issues, including the scientific validity of research, risk-benefit assessments, subject selection and vulnerability, and informed consent, are structured and extensively discussed in this article. Ethical core considerations of prevention research of CVD on herbal medicine involve particular attention on the scientific validity of research, risk-benefit assessments, subject selection and vulnerability, and informed consent. These issues and considerations are keys, although they must be adapted to an individual research setting in which a clinical study is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid identification of illegal synthetic adulterants in herbal anti-diabetic medicines using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanchun; Lei, Deqing; Hu, Changqin

    We created a rapid detection procedure for identifying herbal medicines illegally adulterated with synthetic drugs using near infrared spectroscopy. This procedure includes a reverse correlation coefficient method (RCCM) and comparison of characteristic peaks. Moreover, we made improvements to the RCCM based on new strategies for threshold settings. Any tested herbal medicine must meet two criteria to be identified with our procedure as adulterated. First, the correlation coefficient between the tested sample and the reference must be greater than the RCCM threshold. Next, the NIR spectrum of the tested sample must contain the same characteristic peaks as the reference. In this study, four pure synthetic anti-diabetic drugs (i.e., metformin, gliclazide, glibenclamide and glimepiride), 174 batches of laboratory samples and 127 batches of herbal anti-diabetic medicines were used to construct and validate the procedure. The accuracy of this procedure was greater than 80%. Our data suggest that this protocol is a rapid screening tool to identify synthetic drug adulterants in herbal medicines on the market.

  17. Students' perception, attitude and use of herbal medicine in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The demographic data, perception, attitude and use of herbal medicine among students offering a medically related course in a state university in a southern university in Nigeria was studied. A total of 193 self-administered questionnaires were distributed among students of 16years and above. Of these, 52.32% were males ...

  18. Medicine authentication technology as a counterfeit medicine-detection tool: a Delphi method study to establish expert opinion on manual medicine authentication technology in secondary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Bernard; Roberts, Lindsey; Dopson, Sue; Brindley, David; Chapman, Stephen

    2017-05-06

    This study aims to establish expert opinion and potential improvements for the Falsified Medicines Directive mandated medicines authentication technology. A two-round Delphi method study using an online questionnaire. Large National Health Service (NHS) foundation trust teaching hospital. Secondary care pharmacists and accredited checking technicians. Seven-point rating scale answers which reached a consensus of 70-80% with a standard deviation (SD) of <1.0. Likert scale questions which reached a consensus of 70-80%, a SD of <1.0 and classified as important according to study criteria. Consensus expert opinion has described database cross-checking technology as quick and user friendly and suggested the inclusion of an audio signal to further support the detection of counterfeit medicines in secondary care (70% consensus, 0.9 SD); other important consensus with a SD of <1.0 included reviewing the colour and information in warning pop up screens to ensure they were not mistaken for the 'already dispensed here' pop up, encouraging the dispenser/checker to act on the warnings and making it mandatory to complete an 'action taken' documentation process to improve the quarantine of potentially counterfeit, expired or recalled medicines. This paper informs key opinion leaders and decision makers as to the positives and negatives of medicines authentication technology from an operator's perspective and suggests the adjustments which may be required to improve operator compliance and the detection of counterfeit medicines in the secondary care sector. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. [Advances in researches on mechanism of anti-Toxoplasma Chinese herbal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhao-Yun; Zhang, Bao-de; Ning, Jun-ya; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Yuan, Wen-ying

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunity cellular parasite, related to the infection of various animals and human beings and severely impairing agriculture and human health. Because of the complexity of T. gondii life cycle, its different biological characteristics, and multifarious pathogenesis, there are no specific treatment and preventive medicines at present. Chinese herbal medicine can balance "yin-yang" and regulate the immunity and its side-effect is slight. Now, it has been a hot topic of the research on effective and secure medicines in anti-toxoplasmosis. This paper summarizes and analyzes the curative effect and mechanism of anti-Toxoplasma Chinese herbal medicine, such as Scutellaria baicalensis, Inontus obliquus polysaccharide, Radix glycyrrhizae, pumpkin seeds, and Semen arecae.

  20. Bio-politics and the promotion of traditional herbal medicine in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2006-01-01

    traditional herbal medicine came to be recruited as an important component of national efforts to promote the public health of urban and rural populations in Vietnam. Importantly, this has entailed a rejection of a colonial biopolitics that sought to marginalize ‘quackery’ in favour of a postcolonial bio......-politics that aims to promote the ‘appropriate’ use of traditional herbal medicines. While the Vietnamese case bears many parallels to other countries in this respect, notably China, Vietnam's ancient history of medicine, postcolonial isolation and extensive health delivery network have resulted in a unique strategy......It is often suggested that, in the past 50 years, Vietnam has experienced a traditional medicine ‘revival’ that can be traced back to late President Ho Chi Minh's 1955 appeal ‘to study means of uniting the effects of oriental remedies with those of Europe’. In this article, I demonstrate how...

  1. The characteristics, experiences and perceptions of naturopathic and herbal medicine practitioners: results from a national survey in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Phillip; Adams, Jon; Vempati, Ram; Dunn, Jill; Sibbritt, David

    2015-04-10

    Despite the popularity of naturopathic and herbal medicine in New Zealand there remains limited data on New Zealand-based naturopathic and herbal medicine practice. In response, this paper reports findings from the first national survey examining the characteristics, perceptions and experiences of New Zealand-based naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners across multiple domains relating to their role and practice. An online survey (covering 6 domains: demographics; practice characteristics; research; integrative practice; regulation and funding; contribution to national health objectives) was administered to naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners. From a total of 338 naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners, 107 responded providing a response rate of 32%. Data were statistically analysed using STATA. A majority of the naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners surveyed were female (91%), and aged between 45 and 54 years. Most practiced part-time (64%), with practitioner caseloads averaging 8 new clients and over 20 follow-up clients per month. Our analysis shows that researched information impacts upon and is useful for naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners to validate their practices. However, the sources of researched information utilised by New Zealand naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners remain variable, with many sources beyond publications in peer-reviewed journals being utilised. Most naturopathic and herbal medicine practitioners (82%) supported registration, with statutory registration being favoured (75%). Integration with conventional care was considered desirable by the majority of naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners surveyed (83%). Naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners feel that they contribute to several key national health objectives, including: improved nutrition (93%); increased physical activity (85%); reducing incidence and impact of CVD (79%); reducing incidence and impact of cancer (68

  2. [Mathematical exploration of essence of herbal properties based on "Three-Elements" theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui; Zhao, Qian; Zhang, Bing

    2014-10-01

    Herbal property theory of traditional Chinese medicines is the theoretical guidance on authentication of medicinal plants, herborization, preparation of herbal medicines for decoction and clinical application, with important theoretical value and prac- tical significance. Our research team proposed the "three-element" theory for herbal properties for the first time, conducted a study by using combined methods of philology, chemistry, pharmacology and mathematics, and then drew the research conclusion that herbal properties are defined as the chemical compositions-based comprehensive expression with complex and multi-level (positive/negative) biological effects in specific organism state. In this paper, researchers made a systematic mathematical analysis in four aspects--the correlation between herbal properties and chemical component factors, the correlation between herbal properties and organism state fac- tor, the correlation between herbal properties and biological effect factor and the integration study of the three elements, proposed future outlook, and provided reference to mathematical studies and mathematical analysis of herbal properties.

  3. Traditional herbal medicines: potential degradation of sterols and sterolins by microbial contaminants

    OpenAIRE

    S. Govender; M. van de Venter; D. du Plessis-Stoman; T. G. Downing

    2010-01-01

    Medicinal plants with a high content of sterols and sterolins, such as Bulbine natalensis (rooiwortel) and Hypoxis hemerocallidea (African potato), are commonly and inappropriately used in South Africa for the treatment of HIV/AIDS due to the inaccessibility of antiretroviral drugs. This study investigated the presence of active compounds, such as sterols and sterolins, in the herbal medicines. The research was carried out in the Nelson Mandela Metrop...

  4. Chinese Herbal Medicine Meets Biological Networks of Complex Diseases: A Computational Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shuo Gu; Jianfeng Pei

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of cheminformatics, computational biology, and systems biology, great progress has been made recently in the computational research of Chinese herbal medicine with in-depth understanding towards pharmacognosy. This paper summarized these studies in the aspects of computational methods, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound databases, and TCM network pharmacology. Furthermore, we chose arachidonic acid metabolic network as a case study to demonstrate the regula...

  5. Prescriptions of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Constipation Under the National Health Insurance in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Maw-Shiou Jong; Shinn-Jang Hwang; Yu-Chun Chen; Tzeng-Ji Chen; Fun-Jou Chen; Fang-Pey Chen

    2010-01-01

    Constipation is a common gastrointestinal problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of use and prescriptive patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in treating constipation by analyzing the claims data of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan. Methods: The computerized claims dataset of the TCM office visits and the corresponding prescription files in 2004 compiled by the NHI Research Institute in Taiwan were l...

  6. Risks and Benefits of Commonly used Herbal Medicines in México

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2007-01-01

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinica...

  7. Commercial herbal medicines used as African traditional medicines: Ngoma Herbal Tonic Immune Booster interferes with a rapid urine drug screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothibe, M E; Osuch, E; Kahler-Venter, C P

    2017-08-25

    The prevalent use of African traditional medicine by the general public has been reported. With commercialisation and marketing, some of the herbal medicines (HMs) used are readily available over the counter, most of them promoted as immune boosters. These commercial HMs have not been taken through clinical trials and other tests that would validate their composition and safety, and other properties such as their effect on laboratory diagnostic tests. To investigate the cross-reactivity of selected HMs with commonly tested drugs of abuse (DoA) using a qualitative rapid urinalysis assay. The six HMs selected were bought from local pharmacies. A rapid urinalysis screening test was performed with the Instant View Multi-Drug of Abuse Test kit from Labstix Diagnostics. Drug-free urine (DFU) was pooled from samples donated by healthy volunteers. Urine samples that had tested positive for DoA were obtained from a pharmacology laboratory. Aliquots of the urine samples were spiked with the HMs in neat and diluted form, and tested at various time intervals. The results for the DFU samples spiked with the HMs remained negative. There were no significant changes in pH or specific gravity of the samples. The results of samples that had tested positive for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were not altered by five of the HMs when spiked at 40% v/v. The HM Ngoma Herbal Tonic Immune Booster caused false-negative results for the THC test. An important finding is that the herbal mixture Ngoma Herbal Tonic Immune Booster caused false-negative results for the cannabinoid screening test. It adds to the list of substances that may be potential adulterants of urine for screening tests.

  8. Herbal Medicines and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athar Rasekhjahromi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to assess the association between herbal medication and OHSS. Methods. This retrospective cohort study was conducted with 101 polycystic ovary syndrome patients. 66 patients took conventional pharmacological medications and 35 took herbal medications. Data were analyzed by statistical test including Fisher’s Exact and binominal logistic regression. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results. Of the 101 females, 53 were married and 48 were single. There was no significant association between the groups in marriage. No significant association was found in mean age between the two groups (23.9 ± 5.8 years in the control group versus 26.3 ± 6.7 years in the case group. There was a significant difference between the two groups .After adding the dependent (OHSS prevalence and independent (marriage and group variables into the model, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed suitability. Variances analyzed with this model ranged between 29.4% and 40.7%. Conclusion. The indiscriminate use of herbs is correlated with OHSS. Because patients increasingly consume herbs, they should be aware of potential side effects. However, appropriate dosages of herbs could be obtained for use instead of conventional treatments, which often have side effects.

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Herbal Medicine Use among Women Seeking Care for Infertility in Freetown, Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taidy-Leigh, Lexina; Bah, Abdulai Jawo; Kanu, Joseph Sam; Kangbai, Jia Bainga; Sevalie, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    In resource-poor countries where access to infertility care is limited, women may turn to traditional medicine to achieve motherhood. It is unknown whether Sierra Leonean women with such condition use herbal medicine. This study investigates the prevalence and factors associated with herbal medicine use among women seeking care for infertility. This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted among women seeking care for infertility at various clinics within Freetown, Sierra Leone. Data analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression. Out of the 167 women that participated, 36.5% used herbal medicine for infertility treatment. Women with no formal (AOR 4.03, CL: 1.38–11.76, p = 0.011), primary education (AOR: 6.23, CL: 2.02–19.23, p = 0.001) and those that visited a traditional medicine practitioner (AOR: 20.05, CL: 2.10–192.28, p = 0.009) as well as women suffering from other reproductive health problems (AOR: 2.57, CL: 1.13–5.83, p = 0.024) were more likely to use herbal medicines. Friends and family (n = 57, 96.7%) were the main influencers of herbal medicine use. Only (n = 12) 19.7% of users disclosed their status to their healthcare provider. Over half (n = 32, 52.5%) could not remember the name of the herb they used. Luffa acutangula (n = 29, 100%) was the herbal medicinal plant users could recall. Herbal medicine use among women seeking care for infertility in Freetown is common. Healthcare providers should be aware of the potential dyadic use of herbal and allopathic medicines by their patients and be knowledgeable about commonly used herbal remedies as well as being proactive in communicating the potential risks and benefits associated with their use. PMID:29849738

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Herbal Medicine Use among Women Seeking Care for Infertility in Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter Bai; Taidy-Leigh, Lexina; Bah, Abdulai Jawo; Kanu, Joseph Sam; Kangbai, Jia Bainga; Sevalie, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    In resource-poor countries where access to infertility care is limited, women may turn to traditional medicine to achieve motherhood. It is unknown whether Sierra Leonean women with such condition use herbal medicine. This study investigates the prevalence and factors associated with herbal medicine use among women seeking care for infertility. This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted among women seeking care for infertility at various clinics within Freetown, Sierra Leone. Data analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression. Out of the 167 women that participated, 36.5% used herbal medicine for infertility treatment. Women with no formal (AOR 4.03, CL: 1.38-11.76, p = 0.011), primary education (AOR: 6.23, CL: 2.02-19.23, p = 0.001) and those that visited a traditional medicine practitioner (AOR: 20.05, CL: 2.10-192.28, p = 0.009) as well as women suffering from other reproductive health problems (AOR: 2.57, CL: 1.13-5.83, p = 0.024) were more likely to use herbal medicines. Friends and family ( n = 57, 96.7%) were the main influencers of herbal medicine use. Only ( n = 12) 19.7% of users disclosed their status to their healthcare provider. Over half ( n = 32, 52.5%) could not remember the name of the herb they used . Luffa acutangula ( n = 29, 100%) was the herbal medicinal plant users could recall. Herbal medicine use among women seeking care for infertility in Freetown is common. Healthcare providers should be aware of the potential dyadic use of herbal and allopathic medicines by their patients and be knowledgeable about commonly used herbal remedies as well as being proactive in communicating the potential risks and benefits associated with their use.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Herbal Medicine Use among Women Seeking Care for Infertility in Freetown, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bai James

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In resource-poor countries where access to infertility care is limited, women may turn to traditional medicine to achieve motherhood. It is unknown whether Sierra Leonean women with such condition use herbal medicine. This study investigates the prevalence and factors associated with herbal medicine use among women seeking care for infertility. This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted among women seeking care for infertility at various clinics within Freetown, Sierra Leone. Data analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression. Out of the 167 women that participated, 36.5% used herbal medicine for infertility treatment. Women with no formal (AOR 4.03, CL: 1.38–11.76, p=0.011, primary education (AOR: 6.23, CL: 2.02–19.23, p=0.001 and those that visited a traditional medicine practitioner (AOR: 20.05, CL: 2.10–192.28, p=0.009 as well as women suffering from other reproductive health problems (AOR: 2.57, CL: 1.13–5.83, p=0.024 were more likely to use herbal medicines. Friends and family (n=57, 96.7% were the main influencers of herbal medicine use. Only (n=12 19.7% of users disclosed their status to their healthcare provider. Over half (n=32, 52.5% could not remember the name of the herb they used. Luffa acutangula (n=29, 100% was the herbal medicinal plant users could recall. Herbal medicine use among women seeking care for infertility in Freetown is common. Healthcare providers should be aware of the potential dyadic use of herbal and allopathic medicines by their patients and be knowledgeable about commonly used herbal remedies as well as being proactive in communicating the potential risks and benefits associated with their use.

  12. POLICY ON HERBAL TRADITIONAL MEDICINES THERAPY IN THREE PROVINCES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A descriptive qualitative study on the implementation of MOH Decrees related to local herbal Traditional Medicine Therapy in Bali, West Java and Central Java, had been conducted cross-sectionally in 2011. Objectives of this study were to identify local licensing policy, perception of professional organization, and supports and obstacles of their implementation. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with one herbal CAM provider, purposively taken from each district, and Head of Health Resources Department of Provincial and District Health Office, whilst RTD participants were professional organizations like Indonesian Association of Herbal Medical Doctor, Indonesian Association of Traditional Therapist, Indonesian Pharmacist Association, Indonesian Association of Midwives and Indonesian National Nurse Union. Results of the study showed that in Bali no Surat Bukti Registrasi-Tenaga Pengobat Komplementer Altenatif had been issued. In West Java it had been given to trained doctor and in Central Java given only to doctors in Puskesmas following Jamu Scientification program. MOH Decree no. 1109 of 2007 which controls CAM providers in health facilities were differently perceived by Provincial Health Offices and as a result, implementation and also local policy differed amongst provinces. There were doctors providing herbal medicine services based on MOH Regulation no. 1076 of 2003. Nonetheless, few doctors had implemented Decree on Use of CAM, because there were no provincial collegiums of herbal medicine yet and no standard of competencies had been developed. The requirements to obtain licence for doctor were more complicated than for traditional provider. Keywords: complementary alternative medicine, herbal traditional medicine, licence, policy Abstrak Telah dilakukan suatu studi kualitatif implementasi peraturan-peraturan tentang pengobatan tradisional herbal secara potong lintang di Bali, Jawa Barat dan Jawa Tengah, pada tahun

  13. Effectiveness of the herbal medicine daikenchuto for radiation-induced enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Takashi; Kamiura, Shouji; Kimura, Tadashi

    2008-07-01

    Radiation-induced enteritis is a serious clinical problem for which there is currently no recommended standard management. Daikenchuto (DKT) is a Japanese herbal medicine that has been used to treat adhesive bowel obstruction in Japan. This report describes a patient with radiation-induced enteritis whose clinical symptoms were much improved by treatment with DKT. The patient was administered DKT, a traditional Japanese herbal formula, orally (2.5 g 3 times daily). Abdominal distention was evaluated objectively with computed tomography. Gastrointestinal symptoms associated with radiation-induced enteritis were controlled successfully with DKT treatment. DKT treatment may be useful for the management of radiation-induced enteritis.

  14. Identifying Core Herbal Treatments for Children with Asthma: Implication from a Chinese Herbal Medicine Database in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Yu Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common allergic respiratory diseases around the world and places great burden on medical payment. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM is commonly used for Taiwanese children to control diseases. The aim of this study is to analyze the CHM prescriptions for asthmatic children by using a nationwide clinical database. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD was used to perform this study. Medical records from 1997 to 2009 with diagnosis with asthma made for children aged 6 to 18 were included into the analysis. Association rule mining and social network analysis were used to analyze the prevalence of single CHM and its combinations. Ma-Xing-Gan-Shi-Tang (MXGST was the most commonly used herbal formula (HF (20.2% of all prescriptions, followed by Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (13.1% and Xing-Su-San (12.8%. Zhe Bei Mu is the most frequently used single herb (SH (14.6%, followed by Xing Ren (10.7%. MXGST was commonly used with Zhe Bei Mu (3.5% and other single herbs capable of dispelling phlegm. Besides, MXGST was the core formula to relieve asthma. Further studies about efficacy and drug safety are needed for the CHM commonly used for asthma based on the result of this study.

  15. Identifying core herbal treatments for children with asthma: implication from a chinese herbal medicine database in taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Thien, Peck-Foong; Chang, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Yu-Chun; Lo, Su-Shun; Yang, Sien-Hung; Chen, Jiun-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common allergic respiratory diseases around the world and places great burden on medical payment. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is commonly used for Taiwanese children to control diseases. The aim of this study is to analyze the CHM prescriptions for asthmatic children by using a nationwide clinical database. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to perform this study. Medical records from 1997 to 2009 with diagnosis with asthma made for children aged 6 to 18 were included into the analysis. Association rule mining and social network analysis were used to analyze the prevalence of single CHM and its combinations. Ma-Xing-Gan-Shi-Tang (MXGST) was the most commonly used herbal formula (HF) (20.2% of all prescriptions), followed by Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang (13.1%) and Xing-Su-San (12.8%). Zhe Bei Mu is the most frequently used single herb (SH) (14.6%), followed by Xing Ren (10.7%). MXGST was commonly used with Zhe Bei Mu (3.5%) and other single herbs capable of dispelling phlegm. Besides, MXGST was the core formula to relieve asthma. Further studies about efficacy and drug safety are needed for the CHM commonly used for asthma based on the result of this study.

  16. A Survey of Chinese Medicinal Herbal Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Meyer-Hamme

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis.

  17. Assessment of the Authenticity of Herbal Dietary Supplements: Comparison of Chemical and DNA Barcoding Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul S; Handy, Sara M; Cheng, Raymond; Shyong, Nicole; Grundel, Erich

    2017-07-01

    About 7 % of the U. S. population reports using botanical dietary supplements. Increased use of such supplements has led to discussions related to their authenticity and quality. Reports of adulteration with substandard materials or pharmaceuticals are of concern because such substitutions, whether inadvertent or deliberate, may reduce the efficacy of specific botanicals or lead to adverse events. Methods for verifying the identity of botanicals include macroscopic and microscopic examinations, chemical analysis, and DNA-based methods including DNA barcoding. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations may fail when a supplement consists of botanicals that have been processed beyond the ability to provide morphological characterizations. Chemical analysis of specific marker compounds encounters problems when these compounds are not distinct to a given species or when purified reference standards are not available. Recent investigations describing DNA barcoding analysis of botanical dietary supplements have raised concerns about the authenticity of the supplements themselves as well as the appropriateness of using DNA barcoding techniques with finished botanical products. We collected 112 market samples of frequently consumed botanical dietary supplements of ginkgo, soy, valerian, yohimbe, and St. John's wort and analyzed each for specific chemical markers (i.e., flavonol glycosides, total isoflavones, total valerenic acids, yohimbine, and hypericins, respectively). We used traditional DNA barcoding techniques targeting the nuclear ITS2 gene and the chloroplast gene psb A- trn H on the same samples to determine the presence of DNA of the labelled ingredient. We compared the results obtained by both methods to assess the contribution of each in determining the identity of the samples. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Involvement of herbal medicine as a cause of mesenteric phlebosclerosis: results from a large-scale nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Seiji; Kobayashi, Taku; Tomioka, Hideo; Ohtsu, Kensei; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2017-03-01

    Mesenteric phlebosclerosis (MP) is a rare disease characterized by venous calcification extending from the colonic wall to the mesentery, with chronic ischemic changes from venous return impairment in the intestine. It is an idiopathic disease, but increasing attention has been paid to the potential involvement of herbal medicine, or Kampo, in its etiology. Until now, there were scattered case reports, but no large-scale studies have been conducted to unravel the clinical characteristics and etiology of the disease. A nationwide survey was conducted using questionnaires to assess possible etiology (particularly the involvement of herbal medicine), clinical manifestations, disease course, and treatment of MP. Data from 222 patients were collected. Among the 169 patients (76.1 %), whose history of herbal medicine was obtained, 147 (87.0 %) used herbal medicines. The use of herbal medicines containing sanshishi (gardenia fruit, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) was reported in 119 out of 147 patients (81.0 %). Therefore, the use of herbal medicine containing sanshishi was confirmed in 70.4 % of 169 patients whose history of herbal medicine was obtained. The duration of sanshishi use ranged from 3 to 51 years (mean 13.6 years). Patients who discontinued sanshishi showed a better outcome compared with those who continued it. The use of herbal medicine containing sanshishi is associated with the etiology of MP. Although it may not be the causative factor, it is necessary for gastroenterologists to be aware of the potential risk of herbal medicine containing sanshishi for the development of MP.

  19. Acupuncture and Traditional Herbal Medicine Therapy Prevent Deliriumin Patients with Cardiovascular Disease in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto-Miyazaki, Jun; Ushikoshi, Hiroaki; Miyata, Shusaku; Miyazaki, Nagisa; Nawa, Takahide; Okada, Hideshi; Ojio, Shinsuke; Ogura, Shinji; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and traditional herbal medicine (Kampo medicine) for reducing the incidence rate of delirium in patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease in ICUs. Twenty-nine patients who had been urgently admitted to the ICU in the control period were treated with conventional intensive care. Thirty patients in the treatment period received conventional therapy plus a combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and herbal medicine. Acupuncture treatment was performed once a day, and the herbal formula was administered orally three times a day during the first week of the ICU stay. The standard acupuncture points were GV20, Ex-HN3, HT7, LI4, Liv3, and KI3, and the main herbal preparation was Kamikihito. The incident rates of delirium, assessed using the confusion assessment method for ICU, in the treatment and control period were compared. The incidence rate of delirium was significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group (6.6% vs. 37.9%, [Formula: see text]). Moreover, sedative drugs and non-pharmacological approaches against aggressive behavior of patients who were delirious were used less in the treatment group than in the control group. No serious adverse events were observed in the treatment group. Combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and herbal medicine was found to be effective in lowering the incidence of delirium in patients with CV disease in ICUs. Further studies with a large sample size and parallel randomized controlled design would be required to establish the effects of this therapy.

  20. The use of community herbal monographs to facilitate registrations and authorisations of herbal medicinal products in the European Union 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Wieland

    2014-12-02

    The provisions for the simplified registration of traditional herbal medicinal products in the European Union were introduced by Directive 2004/24/EC amending Directive 2001/83/EC (Chapter 2a) in 2004. Since implementation in the European member states until December 2012 a total of 1015 registrations (traditional use) and 514 authorisations (well-established use) have been granted for products containing substances/ preparations from about 200 different herbal drugs. The overall number of received applications with more than one third still under assessment suggests a further increase for the next years. This review summarises the main features of registered and authorised herbal medicinal products in the EU and evaluates available data against provisions of Directive 2004/24/EC and European standards established by the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products at the European Medicines Agency. The supportive function of Community herbal monographs is described as regards availability and their use in national procedures, which is complemented by an analysis of specific future challenges from experiences made with the implementation of Directive 2004/24/EC so far. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Progress of research in treatment of hyperlipidemia by monomer or compound recipe of Chinese herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xiao-bing; Wo, Xing-de; Fan, Chun-lei

    2008-03-01

    Hyperlipidemia (HLP) is the No.1 risk factor for patients with atherosclerosis (AS) and is directly related to the occurrence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and cerebrovascular disease. Therefore, prevention and treatment of AS is of great importance and of practical significance in controlling the incidence and mortality of CAD. With its peculiar syndrome-dependent therapy, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has accumulated abundant practical experiences in this field and good clinical effects have been achieved. Chinese herbal medicine, with its particularly unique advantages and high potentials yet to be tapped, displays its huge strength in HLP prevention and treatment. The progress of studies concerning prevention and treatment of HLP by Chinese herbal medicines, in the form of monomers or compound recipes, is reviewed in this paper.

  2. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; Silva, Patricia Bento da; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido Dos Santos; Negri, Kamila Maria Silveira; Bauab, Taís Maria; Chorilli, Marlus

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been widely used around the world since ancient times. The advancement of phytochemical and phytopharmacological sciences has enabled elucidation of the composition and biological activities of several medicinal plant products. The effectiveness of many species of medicinal plants depends on the supply of active compounds. Most of the biologically active constituents of extracts, such as flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids, are highly soluble in water, but have low absorption, because they are unable to cross the lipid membranes of the cells, have excessively high molecular size, or are poorly absorbed, resulting in loss of bioavailability and efficacy. Some extracts are not used clinically because of these obstacles. It has been widely proposed to combine herbal medicine with nanotechnology, because nanostructured systems might be able to potentiate the action of plant extracts, reducing the required dose and side effects, and improving activity. Nanosystems can deliver the active constituent at a sufficient concentration during the entire treatment period, directing it to the desired site of action. Conventional treatments do not meet these requirements. The purpose of this study is to review nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and herbal medicines.

  3. A dynamic identity based authentication scheme using chaotic maps for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiheng; Huo, Zhanqiang; Shi, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    With rapid development of computer technology and wide use of mobile devices, the telecare medicine information system has become universal in the field of medical care. To protect patients' privacy and medial data's security, many authentication schemes for the telecare medicine information system have been proposed. Due to its better performance, chaotic maps have been used in the design of authentication schemes for the telecare medicine information system. However, most of them cannot provide user's anonymity. Recently, Lin proposed a dynamic identity based authentication scheme using chaotic maps for the telecare medicine information system and claimed that their scheme was secure against existential active attacks. In this paper, we will demonstrate that their scheme cannot provide user anonymity and is vulnerable to the impersonation attack. Further, we propose an improved scheme to fix security flaws in Lin's scheme and demonstrate the proposed scheme could withstand various attacks.

  4. Perception of the knowledge of traditional and herbal medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The practice of traditional medicine in Nigeria is widely acceptable and contributes significantly to healthcare delivery, yet, integration and/or corecognition with orthodox medicine is still faced with a lot of challenges. One of the most recommended ways of addressing these challenges include enlightenment on the practice ...

  5. Efficient biometric authenticated key agreements based on extended chaotic maps for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Der-Chyuan; Lee, Tian-Fu; Lin, Tsung-Hung

    2015-05-01

    Authenticated key agreements for telecare medicine information systems provide patients, doctors, nurses and health visitors with accessing medical information systems and getting remote services efficiently and conveniently through an open network. In order to have higher security, many authenticated key agreement schemes appended biometric keys to realize identification except for using passwords and smartcards. Due to too many transmissions and computational costs, these authenticated key agreement schemes are inefficient in communication and computation. This investigation develops two secure and efficient authenticated key agreement schemes for telecare medicine information systems by using biometric key and extended chaotic maps. One scheme is synchronization-based, while the other nonce-based. Compared to related approaches, the proposed schemes not only retain the same security properties with previous schemes, but also provide users with privacy protection and have fewer transmissions and lower computational cost.

  6. A Survey of Authentication Schemes in Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad Umair; Derhab, Abdelouahid; Saleem, Kashif; Abbas, Haider; Orgun, Mehmet; Iqbal, Waseem; Aslam, Baber

    2017-01-01

    E-Healthcare is an emerging field that provides mobility to its users. The protected health information of the users are stored at a remote server (Telecare Medical Information System) and can be accessed by the users at anytime. Many authentication protocols have been proposed to ensure the secure authenticated access to the Telecare Medical Information System. These protocols are designed to provide certain properties such as: anonymity, untraceability, unlinkability, privacy, confidentiality, availability and integrity. They also aim to build a key exchange mechanism, which provides security against some attacks such as: identity theft, password guessing, denial of service, impersonation and insider attacks. This paper reviews these proposed authentication protocols and discusses their strengths and weaknesses in terms of ensured security and privacy properties, and computation cost. The schemes are divided in three broad categories of one-factor, two-factor and three-factor authentication schemes. Inter-category and intra-category comparison has been performed for these schemes and based on the derived results we propose future directions and recommendations that can be very helpful to the researchers who work on the design and implementation of authentication protocols.

  7. Fluorescence, electrophoretic and chromatographic fingerprints of herbal medicines and their comparative chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazina, Jekaterina; Vaher, Merike; Kuhtinskaja, Maria; Poryvkina, Larisa; Kaljurand, Mihkel

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the polyphenolic compositions of 47 medicinal herbs (HM) and four herbal tea mixtures from Central Estonia by rapid, reliable and sensitive Spectral Fluorescence Signature (SFS) method in a front face mode. The SFS method was validated for the main identified HM representatives including detection limits (0.037mgL(-1) for catechin, 0.052mgL(-1) for protocatechuic acid, 0.136mgL(-1) for chlorogenic acid, 0.058mgL(-1) for syringic acid and 0.256mgL(-1) for ferulic acid), linearity (up to 5.0-15mgL(-1)), intra-day precision (RSDs=6.6-10.6%), inter-day precision (RSDs=6.4-13.8%), matrix effect (-15.8 to +5.5) and recovery (85-107%). The phytochemical fingerprints were differentiated by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) combined with hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). HM were clustered into four main clusters (catechin-like, hydroxycinnamic acid-like, dihydrobenzoic acid-like derivatives containing HM and HM with low/very low content of fluorescent constituents) and 14 subclusters (rich, medium, low/very low contents). The average accuracy and precision of CA for validation HM set were 97.4% (within 85.2-100%) and 89.6%, (within 66.7-100%), respectively. PARAFAC-PCA/CA has improved the analysis of HM by the SFS method. The results were verified by two separation methods CE-DAD and HPLC-DAD-MS also combined with PARAFAC-PCA/CA. The SFS-PARAFAC-PCA/CA method has potential as a rapid and reliable tool for investigating the fingerprints and predicting the composition of HM or evaluating the quality and authenticity of different standardised formulas. Moreover, SFS-PARAFAC-PCA/CA can be implemented as a laboratory and/or an onsite method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Frequency and pattern of Chinese herbal medicine prescriptions for chronic hepatitis in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Pey; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Yu-Chun; Jong, Maw-Shiou; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2008-04-17

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used in treating liver diseases in Asian countries. To conduct a large-scale pharmacoepidemiological study and evaluate the frequency and pattern of CHM prescriptions in treating chronic hepatitis. We obtained the database of traditional Chinese medicine outpatient claims from the national health insurance in Taiwan for the whole 2002. Patients with chronic hepatitis were identified by the corresponding diagnosis of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and association rule were applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM in treating chronic hepatitis. Among the 91,080 subjects treated by CHM for chronic hepatitis, the peak age was in the 40 s, followed by 30 s and 50 s. Male/female ratio was 2.07:1. Long-dan-xie-gan-tang and Saliva miltiorrhiza (Dan-shen) were the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herbal drug, respectively. The most common two-drug prescription was Jia-wei-xia-yao-san plus Saliva miltiorrhiza, and the most common three-drug prescription was Jia-wei-xia-yao-san plus Saliva miltiorrhiza and Artemisia capillaries (Yin-chen-hao). This study showed the utilization pattern of Chinese herbal drugs or formulae in treating chronic hepatitis. Further researches and clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these Chinese herbs or its ingredients in treating chronic hepatitis.

  9. Efficacy of traditional Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department, 3Department of Vascular Surgery, The Teaching Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine,. Chengdu, Sichuan ... Background: The rate of gastrointestinal adenomatous polyps, often regarded as precancerous lesions, developing ..... Ling-Bai-Zhu on promoting apoptosis of transplanted.

  10. Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Janmejai K; Shankar, Eswar; Gupta, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Chamomile is one of the most ancient medicinal herbs known to mankind. It is a member of Asteraceae/Compositae family and represented by two common varieties viz. German Chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). The dried flowers of chamomile contain many terpenoids and flavonoids contributing to its medicinal properties. Chamomile preparations are commonly used for many human ailments such as hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomni...

  11. Underestimating the Toxicological Challenges Associated with the Use of Herbal Medicinal Products in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidushi S. Neergheen-Bhujun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various reports suggest a high contemporaneous prevalence of herb-drug use in both developed and developing countries. The World Health Organisation indicates that 80% of the Asian and African populations rely on traditional medicine as the primary method for their health care needs. Since time immemorial and despite the beneficial and traditional roles of herbs in different communities, the toxicity and herb-drug interactions that emanate from this practice have led to severe adverse effects and fatalities. As a result of the perception that herbal medicinal products have low risk, consumers usually disregard any association between their use and any adverse reactions hence leading to underreporting of adverse reactions. This is particularly common in developing countries and has led to a paucity of scientific data regarding the toxicity and interactions of locally used traditional herbal medicine. Other factors like general lack of compositional and toxicological information of herbs and poor quality of adverse reaction case reports present hurdles which are highly underestimated by the population in the developing world. This review paper addresses these toxicological challenges and calls for natural health product regulations as well as for protocols and guidance documents on safety and toxicity testing of herbal medicinal products.

  12. Underestimating the toxicological challenges associated with the use of herbal medicinal products in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S

    2013-01-01

    Various reports suggest a high contemporaneous prevalence of herb-drug use in both developed and developing countries. The World Health Organisation indicates that 80% of the Asian and African populations rely on traditional medicine as the primary method for their health care needs. Since time immemorial and despite the beneficial and traditional roles of herbs in different communities, the toxicity and herb-drug interactions that emanate from this practice have led to severe adverse effects and fatalities. As a result of the perception that herbal medicinal products have low risk, consumers usually disregard any association between their use and any adverse reactions hence leading to underreporting of adverse reactions. This is particularly common in developing countries and has led to a paucity of scientific data regarding the toxicity and interactions of locally used traditional herbal medicine. Other factors like general lack of compositional and toxicological information of herbs and poor quality of adverse reaction case reports present hurdles which are highly underestimated by the population in the developing world. This review paper addresses these toxicological challenges and calls for natural health product regulations as well as for protocols and guidance documents on safety and toxicity testing of herbal medicinal products.

  13. Hormesis as a mechanistic approach to understanding herbal treatments in traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dali; Calabrese, Edward J; Lian, Baoling; Lin, Zhifen; Calabrese, Vittorio

    2018-04-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been long practiced and is becoming ever more widely recognized as providing curative and/or healing treatments for a number of diseases and physiological conditions. This paper posits that herbal medicines used in TCM treatments may act through hormetic dose-response mechanisms. It is proposed that the stimulatory (i.e., low dose) and inhibitory (i.e., high dose) components of the hormetic dose response correspond to respective "regulating" and "curing" aspects of TCM herbal treatments. Specifically, the "regulating" functions promote adaptive or preventive responses, while "curing" treatments alleviate the clinical symptoms. Patterns of hormetic responses are described, and the applicability of these processes to herbal medicines of TCM are explicated. It is noted that a research agenda aimed at elucidating these mechanisms and patterns would be expansive and complex. However, we argue its value, in that hormesis may afford something akin to a Rosetta Stone with which to interpret, translate, and explain TCM herbology in ways that are aligned with biomedical perspectives that could enable a more integrative approach to medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of Chinese Herbal Medicine on American Society and Health Care System: Perspective and Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston I. Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs.

  15. Effects and treatment methods of acupuncture and herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Su Hee; Kim, Dong Il; Choi, Min-Sun

    2014-01-10

    During their reproductive years about 10% of women experience some kind of symptoms before menstruation (PMS) in a degree that affects their quality of life (QOL). Acupuncture and herbal medicine has been a recent favorable therapeutic approach. Thus we aimed to review the effects of acupuncture and herbal medicine in the past decade as a preceding research in order to further investigate the most effective Korean Medicine treatment for PMS/PMDD. A systematic literature search was conducted using electronic databases on studies published between 2002 and 2012. Our review included randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture and herbal medicine for PMS/PMDD. Interventions include acupuncture or herbal medicine. Clinical information including statistical tests was extracted from the articles and summarized in tabular form or in the text. Study outcomes were presented as the rate of improvement (%) and/or end-of-treatment scores. The search yielded 19 studies. In screening the RCTs, 8 studies in acupuncture and 11 studies in herbal medicine that matched the criteria were identified. Different acupuncture techniques including traditional acupuncture, hand acupuncture and moxibustion, and traditional acupuncture technique with auricular points, have been selected for analysis. In herbal medicine, studies on Vitex Agnus castus, Hypericum perforatum, Xiao yao san, Elsholtzia splendens, Cirsium japonicum, and Gingko biloba L. were identified. Experimental groups with Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatment (all herbal medicine except Cirsium japonicum) had significantly improved results regarding PMS/PMDD. Limited evidence supports the efficacy of alternative medicinal interventions such as acupuncture and herbal medicine in controlling premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatments for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder showed a 50% or better reduction of symptoms compared to

  16. Effects and treatment methods of acupuncture and herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background During their reproductive years about 10% of women experience some kind of symptoms before menstruation (PMS) in a degree that affects their quality of life (QOL). Acupuncture and herbal medicine has been a recent favorable therapeutic approach. Thus we aimed to review the effects of acupuncture and herbal medicine in the past decade as a preceding research in order to further investigate the most effective Korean Medicine treatment for PMS/PMDD. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using electronic databases on studies published between 2002 and 2012. Our review included randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) of acupuncture and herbal medicine for PMS/PMDD. Interventions include acupuncture or herbal medicine. Clinical information including statistical tests was extracted from the articles and summarized in tabular form or in the text. Study outcomes were presented as the rate of improvement (%) and/or end-of-treatment scores. Results The search yielded 19 studies. In screening the RCTs, 8 studies in acupuncture and 11 studies in herbal medicine that matched the criteria were identified. Different acupuncture techniques including traditional acupuncture, hand acupuncture and moxibustion, and traditional acupuncture technique with auricular points, have been selected for analysis. In herbal medicine, studies on Vitex Agnus castus, Hypericum perforatum, Xiao yao san, Elsholtzia splendens, Cirsium japonicum, and Gingko biloba L. were identified. Experimental groups with Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatment (all herbal medicine except Cirsium japonicum) had significantly improved results regarding PMS/PMDD. Conclusions Limited evidence supports the efficacy of alternative medicinal interventions such as acupuncture and herbal medicine in controlling premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Acupuncture and herbal medicine treatments for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder showed a 50% or

  17. Women's Use and Self-Prescription of Herbal Medicine during Pregnancy: An Examination of 1,835 Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Jane; Adams, Jon; Steel, Amie; Broom, Alex; Gallois, Cindy; Sibbritt, David

    2015-01-01

    Recent research points to high levels of herbal medicine use during pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to elucidate the prevalence and understand the determinants of both the use and self-prescription of herbal medicine during pregnancy. The study sample was obtained via the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Women who were pregnant or who had recently given were invited to complete a subsurvey in 2010 about pregnancy, and complementary and alternative medicine use. A response rate of 79.2% (n=1,835) was attained and 34.4% (n=588 of 1,835) of the sample were utilizing herbal medicine during pregnancy, of which 77.9% (n=458 of 588) were self-prescribing these products. The women in our study (aged 33-38) were more likely to use herbal medicine if they had anxiety (odds ratio [OR], 1.30; 95% CI, 1.02-1.64; p=.031), sleeping problems (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.11; p=.005), or fatigue (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.04-1.68; p=.025), but less likely to use herbal medicine if they had nausea (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.91; p=.007). Women were more likely to self-prescribe herbal medicine if they suffered from varicose veins (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.04-5.84; p=.041) and less likely to self-prescribe herbal medicine if they suffered from preeclampsia (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.81-0.63; p=.005). Women who self-prescribed herbal medicine during pregnancy were also more likely to live in a rural environment (OR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.32-3.73; p=.003). Many Australian women are consuming herbal medicine during pregnancy. The self-prescription of herbal medicine by pregnant women is of particular concern owing to potential safety issues, and it is important that maternity health care providers have an open and nonjudgmental conversation with women about herbal medicine use during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. DNA barcoding: a tool for standardization of herbal medicinal products (HMPS) of lamiaceae from pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahra, N.B.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2016-01-01

    There has been a considerable interest worldwide in traditional and alternative medicine, particularly herbal products over the past few decades but the adulteration or contamination of herbal medicinal products (HMPs) is a potential threat to consumer safety. The fact highlights the importance of an effective and accurate science integrated method for taxonomic identification of the medicinal plants and their HMPs. DNA barcoding is a molecular technique which has made it possible to identify the herbs and to find the adulterants in HMPs. The current study was designed on DNA barcoding of medicinal plants of family Lamiaceae for their correct identification and to fix the problem of adulteration for protecting consumers from health risks associated with product substitution and contamination. Many Lamiaceae species are used as traditional medicines, as culinary herbs, spices and as source of essential oils. HMPs representing 32 Lamiaceae plant samples were purchased/collected from three herbal stores (Pansar stores) in Islamabad and a herbal pharmaceutical industry. We selected three plastid loci rbcL, matK and psbA-trnH to barcode these HMPs. MEGABLAST sequence comparison was performed to verify the taxonomic identity of the samples. We found four mislabeled samples and two product substitutions. The overall amplification success for rbcL and matK was 87% and 81% while psbA-trnH showed 69%. matK and psbA-trnH were able to distinguish the species relatively better with 40% success rate than rbcL (16%). On the whole we generated a total of 22 genus-level barcodes (78%) and 12 species-level barcodes (44%). The species-level identification was considerably low due to insufficient reference data and selection of plastid markers. Therefore, it is recommended to develop herbal barcode library for adequate availability of reference sequence data and addition of nuclear markers. DNA barcoding can help the regulatory authorities to devise a mechanism for quality control and

  19. Influence of Prescribed Herbal and Western Medicine on Patients with Abnormal Liver Function Tests: A Retrospective Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah-Ram; Yim, Je-Min; Kim, Won-Il

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and the efficacy of Korean herbal, western and combination medicine use in patients with abnormal liver function tests. Methods: We investigated nerve disease patients with abnormal liver function tests who were treated with Korean herbal, western and combination medicine at Dong-Eui University Oriental Hospital from January 2011 to August 2011. We compared aspartic aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin (T-bil) levels before and after taking medicine and excluded patients who had liver-related disease when admitted. Results: AST and ALT were decreased significantly in patients who had taken herbal, western medicine. AST, ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken combination medicine. Compare to herbal medicine, AST, ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken western medicine, and ALT and ALP were decreased significantly in patients who had taken combination medicine. There were no significant differences between western and combination medicine. Conclusions: This study suggests that prescribed Korean herbal medicine, at least, does not injure liver function for patients’, moreover, it was shown to be effective in patients with abnormal liver function tests. PMID:25780634

  20. [Brief introduction of geo-authentic herbs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian

    2013-05-01

    The science of geo-authentic herbs is a characteristic discipline of traditional Chinese medicine established during thousands of years of clinical practices. It has a long history under the guidance of profound theories of traditional Chinese medicine. The words of "geo-authentic product" were derived from an administrative division unit in the ancient times, which layed stress on the good quality of products in particular regions. In ancient records of traditional Chinese medicine, the words of "geo-authentic product" were first found in Concise Herbal Foundation Compilation of the Ming dynasty, and the words of "geo-authentic herbs" were first discovered in Peony Pavilion of the late Ming dynasty. After all, clinical effect is the fundamental evaluation standard of geo-authentic herbs.

  1. The influence of social context on the treatment outcomes of complementary and alternative medicine: the case of acupuncture and herbal medicine in Japan and the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Mahn

    2015-04-25

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as acupuncture and herbal medicine, is popular in many countries. Yet, treatment outcomes of CAM are found to vary significantly between medical trials in different social environments. This paper addresses how the social organization of medicine affects medical treatment outcomes. In particular, it examines the extent to which two popular complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) interventions (acupuncture and herbal medicine) are coordinated with biomedicine and how coordination characteristics are related to the treatment outcomes of the two CAM interventions. This paper conducts an archival analysis of the institutional settings of the CAM interventions in Japan and the U.S. It also conducts a systematic content analysis of the treatment outcomes in 246 acupuncture reports and 528 herbal medicine reports that are conducted in Japan or the U.S. and registered in the Cochrane Library's Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and 716 acupuncture reports and 3,485 herbal medicine reports that are from Japan or the U.S. and listed in MEDLINE. It examines the association between the treatment outcomes of the two interventions and the geographical location of the reports; it also explores how the institutional settings of the interventions are related to the treatment outcomes. Japanese herbal medicine is integrated into the national medical system the most and American herbal medicine the least; American acupuncture and Japanese acupuncture fall in the middle. Treatment outcomes are the most favorable for Japanese herbal medicine and the least favorable for American herbal medicine. The outcomes of American acupuncture and Japanese acupuncture fall in the middle. The co-utilization of CAM with biomedicine can produce difficulties due to tensions between CAM and biomedicine. These difficulties and subsequent CAM treatment outcomes vary, depending on how CAM is institutionalized in relation to biomedicine

  2. Anti E. coli Activity of Herbal Medicines: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Rezaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is the gram negative bacilli of Entrobacteriaceae family that commonly found in intestinal infections and many infections outside the intestine, like urinary tract infections (UTI, cholecystitis, wound infections, meningitis, septicemia, pulmonary infections, and many more. Plants are rich sources of bioactive compounds, hence they can be effective in a wide variety of diseases. The pandemic spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria (i.e., extended-spectrum b-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLPE, Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE threaten healthcare Worldwide. The present review is a report of the most effective medicinal plants against E. coli. In this research, the required online database searches were conducted using the key words such as bacteria, E. coli and medicinal plants. Databases of Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect were explored to find and explore related articles. Since the incidence of E. coli is high, the aim of this study is to identify and report anti E. coli medicinal plants in Iran. The obtained results showed that there were 51 medicinal herbs that could be considered as the main medicinal plants capable of affecting E. coli.

  3. Safety, clinical, and immunologic efficacy of a Chinese herbal medicine (Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2) for food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Julie; Jones, Stacie M; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Song, Ying; Yang, Nan; Sicherer, Scott H; Makhija, Melanie M; Robison, Rachel G; Moshier, Erin; Godbold, James; Sampson, Hugh A; Li, Xiu-Min

    2015-10-01

    Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) is a 9-herb formula based on traditional Chinese medicine that blocks peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model. In phase I studies FAHF-2 was found to be safe and well tolerated. We sought to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of FAHF-2 as a treatment for food allergy. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study 68 subjects aged 12 to 45 years with allergies to peanut, tree nut, sesame, fish, and/or shellfish, which were confirmed by baseline double-blind, placebo-controlled oral food challenges (DBPCFCs), received FAHF-2 (n = 46) or placebo (n = 22). After 6 months of therapy, subjects underwent DBPCFCs. For those who demonstrated increases in the eliciting dose, a repeat DBPCFC was performed 3 months after stopping therapy. Treatment was well tolerated, with no serious adverse events. By using intent-to-treat analysis, the placebo group had a higher eliciting dose and cumulative dose (P = .05) at the end-of-treatment DBPCFC. There was no difference in the requirement for epinephrine to treat reactions (P = .55). There were no significant differences in allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 levels, cytokine production by PBMCs, or basophil activation between the active and placebo groups. In vitro immunologic studies performed on subjects' baseline PBMCs incubated with FAHF-2 and food allergen produced significantly less IL-5, greater IL-10 levels, and increased numbers of regulatory T cells than untreated cells. Notably, 44% of subjects had poor drug adherence for at least one third of the study period. FAHF-2 is a safe herbal medication for subjects with food allergy and shows favorable in vitro immunomodulatory effects; however, efficacy for improving tolerance to food allergens is not demonstrated at the dose and duration used. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Zebrafish models of cardiovascular diseases and their applications in herbal medicine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Sai-Wang; Kiat, Hosen; Lee, Simon M Y; Bensoussan, Alan; Sun, Yu-Ting; Hoi, Maggie P M; Chang, Dennis

    2015-12-05

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently become a powerful animal model for cardiovascular research and drug discovery due to its ease of maintenance, genetic manipulability and ability for high-throughput screening. Recent advances in imaging techniques and generation of transgenic zebrafish have greatly facilitated in vivo analysis of cellular events of cardiovascular development and pathogenesis. More importantly, recent studies have demonstrated the functional similarity of drug metabolism systems between zebrafish and humans, highlighting the clinical relevance of employing zebrafish in identifying lead compounds in Chinese herbal medicine with potential beneficial cardiovascular effects. This paper seeks to summarise the scope of zebrafish models employed in cardiovascular studies and the application of these research models in Chinese herbal medicine to date. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Maytenus heterophylla and Maytenus senegalensis, two traditional herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, G; Serrano, R; Silva, O

    2011-01-01

    Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. and Zeyh.) N.K.B. Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell are two African shrubs or trees that go under the common name of spike thorn, which belong to the Celastraceae family. Different plant parts of this species are largely used in traditional medicine for infectious and inflammatory diseases treatment. Several studies have been reported for both these species, but there are no recent review articles focusing microscopic, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies. The aim of this review is to summarize the information about these two African traditional medicines. Such kind of data can be applied in future experimental work and may guide future studies, namely in the field of validation of traditional medicine.

  6. Maytenus heterophylla and Maytenus senegalensis, two traditional herbal medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, G.; Serrano, R.; Silva, O.

    2011-01-01

    Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. and Zeyh.) N.K.B. Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell are two African shrubs or trees that go under the common name of spike thorn, which belong to the Celastraceae family. Different plant parts of this species are largely used in traditional medicine for infectious and inflammatory diseases treatment. Several studies have been reported for both these species, but there are no recent review articles focusing microscopic, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies. The aim of this review is to summarize the information about these two African traditional medicines. Such kind of data can be applied in future experimental work and may guide future studies, namely in the field of validation of traditional medicine. PMID:22470236

  7. Study on Chinese herbal medicine active ingredients labelled with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Mo; Bao Guangliang

    2008-01-01

    Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients was labeled with triteium by using exchange of new synthesized tritiated water or exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. The active ingredients was Genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid .The radiochemical purity of the three labeled compounds were more than 95% after TLC and HPLC purification. The specific activities of tritium labeled-genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid were 5.97, 3.24 and 470 GBq/g, respectively. The results indicated that the unstable Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients could be labeled with tritium by the methods of exchange of new synthesized tritiated water and exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. (authors)

  8. Prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use among type 2 diabetic patients in Teaching Hospital in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Tegegn, Henok Getachew; Ali, Dawit Simegnew; Netere, Adeladlew Kassie; Lemlemu, Eskedar; Erku, Daniel Asfaw

    2018-03-09

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients are increasingly using herbal remedies due to the fact that sticking to the therapeutic regimens is becoming awkward. However, studies towards herbal medicine use by diabetic patients is scarce in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use with different sociodemographic variables among type 2 diabetes patients visiting the diabetic follow-up clinic of University of Gondar comprehensive specialized hospital (UOGCSH), Ethiopia. A hospital-based cross sectional study was employed on 387 T2DM patients visiting the diabetes illness follow-up care clinic of UOGCSH from October 1 to November 30, 2016. An interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding the demographic and disease characteristics as well as herbal medicine use was completed by the study subjects. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate logistic regression statistics were performed to determine prevalence and come up with correlates of herbal medicine use. From 387 participants, 62% were reported to be herbal medicine users. The most prevalent herbal preparations used were Garlic (Allium sativum L.) (41.7%), Giesilla (Caylusea abyssinica (fresen.) (39.6%), Tinjute (Otostegia integrifolia Benth) (27.2%), and Kosso (Hagenia abyssinicaa) (26.9%). Most of herbal medicine users (87.1%) didn't consult their physicians about their herbal medicine use. Families and friends (51.9%) were the frontline sources of information about herbal medicine followed by other DM patients who used herbal medicines (28.9%). The present study revealed a high rate of herbal medicine use along with a very low rate use disclosure to the health care professionals. Higher educational status, a family history of DM, duration of T2DM and presence of DM complications were identified to be strong predictors of herbal medicine use. From the stand point of high prevalence and low disclosure rate, it is imperative for health

  9. Trends in publication on evidence-based antioxidative herbal medicines in management of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei-Malazy, Ozra; Atlasi, Rasha; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Recently, popularity and use of herbal medicine in treatment of diabetes have been increased. Since, oxidative stress is known as the main underlying pathophysiology of diabetes and its complications, the purpose of this bibliometric study is to assess the global scientific production analysis and developing its trend in field of antioxidative hypoglycemic herbal medicines and diabetic nephropathy focusing on the scientific publication numbers, citations, geographical distribution in the world and determining the main journal (source) in the field. Our search terms were "diabetes", "renal", "nephropathy", "herb", "Chinese medicine", "traditional medicine", and "antioxidant" from Scopus database until January 2015 and analysis of the distribution of words in the publication year, main journal (source) in the field, geographical distribution, documents' type and language, subject area, and h-index of citations were crried out. The Scopus analysis tools and VOSviewer software version 1.6.3 have been used for analysis. Within 1166 papers were published until year 2015, 78 studies were related to this topic in human. Increasing trend in number of related researches was shown. Fifty eight percent of the published papers were original articles, and the highest number was produced in 2013 with 21 documents. Top subject areas were medicine with global publication share of 71.8 %, and pharmacology was ranked the second (39.7 %). Iran was the first country with global publication. The total citation of the documents were 2518 times and h-index was 24. The highest cited paper was a review article with 336 citation number, and top source was "Journal of Medicinal Plants". Both of top authors and affiliation were from Iran; "Tehran University of Medical Sciences". Also, top author in the co-authorship mapping and clustering assessment was from Iran. Although, we found an ascending trend of scientific publications in field of antioxidative herbal medicine and diabetic

  10. Balancing Herbal Medicine and Functional Food for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiometabolic Diseases through Modulating Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ming; Wang, Yue-Fei; Fan, Guan-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Shuang-Yong; Zhu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    It has become apparent that gut microbiota is closely associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs), and alteration in microbiome compositions is also linked to the host environment. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has facilitated in-depth studies on the effects of herbal medicine and functional food on gut microbiota. Both herbal medicine and functional food contain fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides, exerting prebiotics-like activities in the prevention and treatment of CMDs. The administrations of herbal medicine and functional food lead to increased the abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella , while reducing phylum Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in gut. Both herbal medicine and functional food interact with gut microbiome and alter the microbial metabolites including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), bile acids (BAs) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are now correlated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In addition, trimethylamine (TMA)-N-oxide (TMAO) is recently linked to atherosclerosis (AS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Moreover, gut-organs axes may serve as the potential strategy for treating CMDs with the intervention of herbal medicine and functional food. In summary, a balance between herbal medicine and functional food rich in fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides plays a vital role in modulating gut microbiota (phylum Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella ) through SCFAs, BAs, LPS and TMAO signaling regarding CMDs. Targeting gut-organs axes may serve as a new therapeutic strategy for CMDs by herbal medicine and functional food in the future. This review aims to summarize the balance between herbal medicine and functional food utilized for the prevention and

  11. [Treatment of vascular dementia by Chinese herbal medicine: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of clinical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wen-Jia; Shi, Jing; Tian, Jin-Zhou; Ni, Jing-Nian

    2015-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine has been extensively used in the treatment of vascular dementia (VaD), but lacked systematic review on its efficacy and safety. So we conducted a systematic review to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine in treating VaD. CNKI, CBM, PubMed, and Wiley Online Library were retrieved for randomized trials (RCTs) on Chinese herbal medicine treating VaD patients. Randomized parallel control trials by taking Chinese herbal medicine as one treatment method and placebos/cholinesterase inhibitors/Memantine hydrochloride as the control were included. Quality rating and data extraction were performed. RevMan5.2.0 Software was used for meta-analysis. Standardized mean difference (SMD) at 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to indicate effect indicators of results. Seven RCTs met the inclusive criteria. Totally 677 VaD patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group and the control group. Descriptive analyses were performed in inclusive trials. The cognitive function was assessed in all trials. Results showed Mini-Mental state examination (MMSE) score was better in the Chinese herbal medicine group than in the placebo group, but with no significant difference when compared with the donepezil group (P > 0.05). Adverse reactions were mainly manifested as gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain in the Chinese herbal medicine group. But they occurred more in the donepezil group than in the Chinese herbal medicine group. The methodological quality of included trials was poor with less samples. Results of different trials were lack of consistency. Present evidence is not sufficient to prove or disapprove the role of Chinese herbal medicine in improving clinical symptoms and outcome indicators of VaD patients. Their clinical efficacy and safety need to be supported by more higher quality RCTs.

  12. Balancing Herbal Medicine and Functional Food for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiometabolic Diseases through Modulating Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lyu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has become apparent that gut microbiota is closely associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs, and alteration in microbiome compositions is also linked to the host environment. Next generation sequencing (NGS has facilitated in-depth studies on the effects of herbal medicine and functional food on gut microbiota. Both herbal medicine and functional food contain fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides, exerting prebiotics-like activities in the prevention and treatment of CMDs. The administrations of herbal medicine and functional food lead to increased the abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella, while reducing phylum Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in gut. Both herbal medicine and functional food interact with gut microbiome and alter the microbial metabolites including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, bile acids (BAs and lipopolysaccharides (LPS, which are now correlated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. In addition, trimethylamine (TMA-N-oxide (TMAO is recently linked to atherosclerosis (AS and cardiovascular disease (CVD risks. Moreover, gut-organs axes may serve as the potential strategy for treating CMDs with the intervention of herbal medicine and functional food. In summary, a balance between herbal medicine and functional food rich in fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides plays a vital role in modulating gut microbiota (phylum Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella through SCFAs, BAs, LPS and TMAO signaling regarding CMDs. Targeting gut-organs axes may serve as a new therapeutic strategy for CMDs by herbal medicine and functional food in the future. This review aims to summarize the balance between herbal medicine and functional food utilized for the prevention and

  13. Balancing Herbal Medicine and Functional Food for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiometabolic Diseases through Modulating Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ming; Wang, Yue-fei; Fan, Guan-wei; Wang, Xiao-ying; Xu, Shuang-yong; Zhu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    It has become apparent that gut microbiota is closely associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs), and alteration in microbiome compositions is also linked to the host environment. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has facilitated in-depth studies on the effects of herbal medicine and functional food on gut microbiota. Both herbal medicine and functional food contain fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides, exerting prebiotics-like activities in the prevention and treatment of CMDs. The administrations of herbal medicine and functional food lead to increased the abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella, while reducing phylum Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in gut. Both herbal medicine and functional food interact with gut microbiome and alter the microbial metabolites including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), bile acids (BAs) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are now correlated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In addition, trimethylamine (TMA)-N-oxide (TMAO) is recently linked to atherosclerosis (AS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Moreover, gut-organs axes may serve as the potential strategy for treating CMDs with the intervention of herbal medicine and functional food. In summary, a balance between herbal medicine and functional food rich in fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides plays a vital role in modulating gut microbiota (phylum Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella) through SCFAs, BAs, LPS and TMAO signaling regarding CMDs. Targeting gut-organs axes may serve as a new therapeutic strategy for CMDs by herbal medicine and functional food in the future. This review aims to summarize the balance between herbal medicine and functional food utilized for the prevention and treatment

  14. Dai-Kenchu-To, a Herbal Medicine, Attenuates Colorectal Distention-induced Visceromotor Responses in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nakaya, Kumi; Nagura, Yohko; Hasegawa, Ryoko; Ito, Hitomi; Fukudo, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, is known to increase gastrointestinal motility and improve ileal function. We tested our hypotheses that (1) pretreatment with DKT would block the colorectal distention-induced visceromotor response in rats, and (2) pretreatment with DKT would attenuate colorectal distention-induced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release and anxiety-related behavior. Methods Rats were pretreated with vehicle or DKT (300 mg/kg/5 m...

  15. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Ya-Lin; Liu, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Su, Wei-Juan; Chen, Ning-Ning; Lu, Shu-Hua; Wang, Li-Ying; Shi, Xiu-Lin; Li, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Shu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health problem worldwide. Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of the Traditional Chinese Medicine in delaying or reversing the development and progression of DM. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Jinlida (JLD) granule, a Chinese herbal recipe, in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and its effect on the prevention of DM. Methods: Sixty-five IGT patients were randomized to receive one bag of JLD granu...

  16. Efficacy, safety, quality control, marketing and regulatory guidelines for herbal medicines (phytotherapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Calixto

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the current advances in knowledge about the safety, efficacy, quality control, marketing and regulatory aspects of botanical medicines. Phytotherapeutic agents are standardized herbal preparations consisting of complex mixtures of one or more plants which contain as active ingredients plant parts or plant material in the crude or processed state. A marked growth in the worldwide phytotherapeutic market has occurred over the last 15 years. For the European and USA markets alone, this will reach about $7 billion and $5 billion per annum, respectively, in 1999, and has thus attracted the interest of most large pharmaceutical companies. Insufficient data exist for most plants to guarantee their quality, efficacy and safety. The idea that herbal drugs are safe and free from side effects is false. Plants contain hundreds of constituents and some of them are very toxic, such as the most cytotoxic anti-cancer plant-derived drugs, digitalis and the pyrrolizidine alkaloids, etc. However, the adverse effects of phytotherapeutic agents are less frequent compared with synthetic drugs, but well-controlled clinical trials have now confirmed that such effects really exist. Several regulatory models for herbal medicines are currently available including prescription drugs, over-the-counter substances, traditional medicines and dietary supplements. Harmonization and improvement in the processes of regulation is needed, and the general tendency is to perpetuate the German Commission E experience, which combines scientific studies and traditional knowledge (monographs. Finally, the trend in the domestication, production and biotechnological studies and genetic improvement of medicinal plants, instead of the use of plants harvested in the wild, will offer great advantages, since it will be possible to obtain uniform and high quality raw materials which are fundamental to the efficacy and safety of herbal drugs.

  17. Herbal Medicine Goshajinkigan Prevents Paclitaxel-Induced Mechanical Allodynia without Impairing Antitumor Activity of Paclitaxel

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar, Muh. Akbar; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Ogura, Keisuke; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Saiki, Ikuo; Kuraishi, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. However, there are no effective strategies to treat the neuropathy. We examined whether Goshajinkigan, a herbal medicine, would prevent paclitaxel-induced allodynia without affecting the anticancer action in mice. Murine breast cancer 4T1 cells were inoculated into the mammary fat pad. Paclitaxel (10 and 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, alternate day from day 7 postinoculation) ...

  18. Herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Japanese herbal medicines, called Kampo, have beneficial effects on cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. Rikkunshito ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia through an antagonistic effect on the 5-HT receptors and by increasing the serum ghrelin levels. Hangeshashinto improves irinotecan-induced diarrhea and chemotherapy-induced mucositis by inhibiting the activity of β-glucuronidase as well as the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Goshajinkigan prevents o...

  19. Sources of Microbial Contamination of Local Herbal Medicines Sold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four hundred traditional herbalists operating in an open air market in Ilala, Dar es. Salaam ... The containers in which the medicines were handled were washed .... Pots. 186 (60.0). -. Pans. 306 (86.0). -. Bottles. 194 (44.7). 315 (81.1). Cans.

  20. Computer aided design of medicinal products based on interactive chemical/herbal ingredients - An R&D approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siontorou, Christina G.

    2012-12-01

    Herbal products have gained increasing popularity in the last decades, and are now broadly used to treat illness and improve health. Notwithstanding the public opinion, both, safety and efficacy, are major sources of dispute among the scientific community, mainly due to lack of (or scarcity or scattered) conclusive data linking a herbal constituent to pharmacological action in vivo, in a way that benefit overrides risk. This paper presents a methodological framework for addressing natural medicine in a systematic and holistic way with a view to providing medicinal products based on interactive chemical/herbal ingredients.

  1. Mixed Herbal Medicine Induced Diffuse Infiltrative Lung Disease: The HRCT and Histopathologic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Shin, Eun A [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joung Sook [Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the high-resolution CT (HRCT) and pathologic findings of mixed herbal medicine-induced diffuse interstitial lung disease. Eight patients (6 women and 2 men, age range: 31 to 81 years, mean age: 51.4 years) who presented with cough or dyspnea after taking mixed herbal medicine were included in this study. All the patients underwent plain chest radiography and HRCT. We obtained pathologic specimens from 7 patients via fluoroscopy guided large bore cutting needle biopsy and transbronchial lung biopsy. All the patients were treated with steroid therapy. The most common HRCT finding was bilateral diffuse ground glass opacity (n=7), followed by peribronchial consolidation (n=5) and inter- or intralobular septal thickening (n=2). For the disease distribution, the lower lung zone was dominantly involved. The pathologic results of 7 patients were nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (n=3), bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (n=2), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n=1) and eosinophilic pneumonia (n=1). Irrespective of the pathologic results, all 8 patients improved clinically and radiologically after steroid treatment. The HRCT findings of mixed herbal medicine-induced diffuse infiltrative lung disease were mainly bilateral diffuse ground glass opacity, peribronchial consolidation and dominant involvement of the lower lung zone. Those pathologic findings were nonspecific and the differential diagnosis could include interstitial pneumonia, bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and eosinophilic pneumonia

  2. Review of Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-dong Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the most serious chronic complications of diabetes; 20–40% of diabetic patients develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD. However, exact pathogenesis of DN is not fully clear and we have great difficulties in curing DN; poor treatment of DN led to high chances of mortality worldwide. A lot of western medicines such as ACEI and ARB have been demonstrated to protect renal function of DN but are not enough to delay or retard the progression of DN; therefore, exploring exact and feasible drug is current research hotspot in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been widely used to treat and control diabetes and its complications such as DN in a lot of scientific researches, which will give insights into the mechanism of DN, but they are not enough to reveal all the details. In this paper, we summarize the applications of herbal TCM preparations, single herbal TCM, and/or monomers from herbal TCM in the treatment of DN in the recent 10 years, depicting the renal protective effects and the corresponding mechanism, through which we shed light on the renal protective roles of TCM in DN with a particular focus on the molecular basis of the effect and provide a beneficial supplement to the drug therapy for DN.

  3. Review of Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guang-dong; Li, Chao-yuan; Cui, Wen-peng; Guo, Qiao-yan; Dong, Chang-qing; Zou, Hong-bin; Liu, Shu-jun; Dong, Wen-peng; Miao, Li-ning

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious chronic complications of diabetes; 20-40% of diabetic patients develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, exact pathogenesis of DN is not fully clear and we have great difficulties in curing DN; poor treatment of DN led to high chances of mortality worldwide. A lot of western medicines such as ACEI and ARB have been demonstrated to protect renal function of DN but are not enough to delay or retard the progression of DN; therefore, exploring exact and feasible drug is current research hotspot in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used to treat and control diabetes and its complications such as DN in a lot of scientific researches, which will give insights into the mechanism of DN, but they are not enough to reveal all the details. In this paper, we summarize the applications of herbal TCM preparations, single herbal TCM, and/or monomers from herbal TCM in the treatment of DN in the recent 10 years, depicting the renal protective effects and the corresponding mechanism, through which we shed light on the renal protective roles of TCM in DN with a particular focus on the molecular basis of the effect and provide a beneficial supplement to the drug therapy for DN.

  4. Effect of Herbal Medicine on Vaginal Epithelial Cells: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Yousef; Chaleh, Khadijeh Chaleh; Shahmohammadi, Afshar; Safari, Shahla

    2018-04-01

    The present meta-analysis aimed to assess the effect of the herbal medicine on the vaginal epithelial cells (VECs) among the menopausal subjects. The literature related to VECs exposed to various herbal medicines in menopausal women were searched on three databases, MEDLINE (1966-August 2017), Scopus (1990-August 2017) and Cochrane Library (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; 2014). Totally, the meta-analysis was conducted on 11 randomised controlled trials. Based on the findings, the standardized mean difference (SMD) of maturation value (MV) was observed to be elevated by 0.48% (95% interval confidence [CI], 0.108-0.871; P = 0.012), as well as the heterogeneity was high (I 2 = 84%; P < 0.001). The MV revealed a significant increase in soy group (SMD, 0.358; 95% CI, 0.073-0.871; P = 0.014) compared to the control group. The herbal medicines exhibited a statistically significant effect on the VECs. A significant effect on the VECs was also found in the subgroup analysis of the patients, who received soy. However, further and extensive studies are required to achieve reliable outcomes.

  5. Mixed Herbal Medicine Induced Diffuse Infiltrative Lung Disease: The HRCT and Histopathologic Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Shin, Eun A; Kim, Joung Sook

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the high-resolution CT (HRCT) and pathologic findings of mixed herbal medicine-induced diffuse interstitial lung disease. Eight patients (6 women and 2 men, age range: 31 to 81 years, mean age: 51.4 years) who presented with cough or dyspnea after taking mixed herbal medicine were included in this study. All the patients underwent plain chest radiography and HRCT. We obtained pathologic specimens from 7 patients via fluoroscopy guided large bore cutting needle biopsy and transbronchial lung biopsy. All the patients were treated with steroid therapy. The most common HRCT finding was bilateral diffuse ground glass opacity (n=7), followed by peribronchial consolidation (n=5) and inter- or intralobular septal thickening (n=2). For the disease distribution, the lower lung zone was dominantly involved. The pathologic results of 7 patients were nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (n=3), bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (n=2), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n=1) and eosinophilic pneumonia (n=1). Irrespective of the pathologic results, all 8 patients improved clinically and radiologically after steroid treatment. The HRCT findings of mixed herbal medicine-induced diffuse infiltrative lung disease were mainly bilateral diffuse ground glass opacity, peribronchial consolidation and dominant involvement of the lower lung zone. Those pathologic findings were nonspecific and the differential diagnosis could include interstitial pneumonia, bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and eosinophilic pneumonia

  6. Western herbal medicine consultations for common menstrual problems; practitioner experiences and perceptions of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carole; Adams, Jon; Frawley, Jane; Hickman, Louise; Sibbritt, David

    2018-03-01

    To explore the prevalence with which Australian Western herbalists treat menstrual problems and their related treatment, experiences, perceptions, and interreferral practices with other health practitioners. Members of the Practitioner Research and Collaboration Initiative practice-based research network identifying as Western Herbalists (WHs) completed a specifically developed, online questionnaire. Western Herbalists regularly treat menstrual problems, perceiving high, though differential, levels of effectiveness. For menstrual problems, WHs predominantly prescribe individualised formulas including core herbs, such as Vitex agnus-castus, and problem-specific herbs. Estimated clients' weekly cost (median = $25.00) and treatment duration (median = 4-6 months) covering this Western herbal medicine treatment appears relatively low. Urban-based women are more likely than those rurally based to have used conventional treatment for their menstrual problems before consulting WHs (p = .001). Only 19% of WHs indicated direct contact by conventional medical practitioners regarding treatment of clients' menstrual problems despite 42% indicating clients' conventional practitioners recommended consultation with WH. Western herbal medicine may be a substantially prevalent, cost-effective treatment option amongst women with menstrual problems. A detailed examination of the behaviour of women with menstrual problems who seek and use Western herbal medicine warrants attention to ensure this healthcare option is safe, effective, and appropriately co-ordinated within women's wider healthcare use. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A Systematic Review of Herbal Medicine for Chemotherapy Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hyeonseok

    2018-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common adverse effect in cancer patients. The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of herbal medicine in preventing and treating CIPN. Methods Randomised controlled trials were included in this review. Extracting and assessing the data independently, two authors searched 13 databases. Results Twenty-eight trials involving 2174 patients met the inclusion criteria. Although there were some exceptions, the methodological quality was typically low. Seventeen trials reported the incidence rate of CIPN assessed by various tools and 14 showed a significant difference regarding the decrease of the incidence rate between the two groups. For clinical improvement, 12 trials reported it using various tools and 10 showed a significant difference between two groups. Two cases of adverse events occurred in one trial; the other nine trials reported no adverse events. Conclusions We found that herbal medicines in combination with and/or without other therapies potentially have preventive or therapeutic effects on CIPN. However, conclusions cannot be drawn because of the generally low quality of the methodology, the clinical heterogeneity, and the small sample size for each single herbal medicine. Trials that are more rigorous and report sufficient methodological data are needed. PMID:29636782

  8. A Review of Current Methods for Analysis of Mycotoxins in Herbal Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Dou, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Cheng; Logrieco, Antonio F.; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2018-01-01

    The presence of mycotoxins in herbal medicines is an established problem throughout the entire world. The sensitive and accurate analysis of mycotoxin in complicated matrices (e.g., herbs) typically involves challenging sample pretreatment procedures and an efficient detection instrument. However, although numerous reviews have been published regarding the occurrence of mycotoxins in herbal medicines, few of them provided a detailed summary of related analytical methods for mycotoxin determination. This review focuses on analytical techniques including sampling, extraction, cleanup, and detection for mycotoxin determination in herbal medicines established within the past ten years. Dedicated sections of this article address the significant developments in sample preparation, and highlight the importance of this procedure in the analytical technology. This review also summarizes conventional chromatographic techniques for mycotoxin qualification or quantitation, as well as recent studies regarding the development and application of screening assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, lateral flow immunoassays, aptamer-based lateral flow assays, and cytometric bead arrays. The present work provides a good insight regarding the advanced research that has been done and closes with an indication of future demand for the emerging technologies. PMID:29393905

  9. Herbal medicine for management of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD): A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Anna J; May, Brian H; Dong, Lin; Feng, Mei; Liu, Shaonan; Guo, Xinfeng; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2017-02-01

    Management of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia remains a challenge worldwide. Herbal medicines may play a role in the development of new interventions. To determine effects of herbal medicines for management of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, meta-analysis was conducted of 31 controlled trials (3613 participants). Frequently tested herbal medicines were the Ginkgo biloba leaf extract EGb 761 (seven studies) and the multi-ingredient formula Yokukansan (eight studies). Sixteen studies tested other herbal medicines. Improvements were detected in Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores in EGb 761 groups compared to placebo (MD -3.46 [-5.94, -0.98]; I 2 = 93%; n = 1757) and Yokukansan groups compared to no treatment (SMD -0.53 [-0.86, -0.21]; I 2 = 0%; n = 150). Cognitive scores were improved in EGb 761 groups while Yokukansan did not appear to affect cognitive function. Of the other herbal medicines, there were improvements in the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia and cognitive outcomes in two of four placebo-controlled studies. EGb 761 and Yokukansan appeared safe and well tolerated. Adverse effects and dropouts were not reported consistently for the other herbal medicines. Weaknesses of these included short durations, small sample sizes, lack of blinding and other risks of bias. Well-designed studies are needed to further investigate the reported effects of these interventions on the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia.

  10. OPERCULINA TURPETHUM AS A PANORAMIC HERBAL MEDICINE: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Veena Sharma

    2012-01-01

    O. turpethum is the source of the drug known as Turpeth or Indian Jalap and it is widely grown throughout India and it is occasionally cultivated in gardens as an ornament. It has been used as a traditional medicine in many countries. The root is prescribed in scorpion sting and snake bite. The roots are bitter,acrid, sweet, thermogenic, purgative, carminative, antihelmintic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatic, stimulant and hydragogue. They are useful in colic constipation, dropsy, vitiated c...

  11. Low Potency Homeopathic Remedies and Allopathic Herbal Medicines: Is There an Overlap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Dezső; Boros, Klára; Hohmann, Judit

    2013-01-01

    Classical homeopathy is based on the therapeutic application of highly diluted homeopathic stocks. The indications of such medicines are determined by proving, i.e. by applying the remedies in healthy subjects. However, there are several complex homeopathic medicinal products on the market with approved therapeutic indications. The efficacy of these medicines has been assessed in clinical trials on patients. There is no upper limit of dosing for such homeopathic remedies, and these products often contain undiluted mother tincture. The aim of our study was to compare an allopathic herbal medicine and a homeopathic product containing undiluted mother tincture based on the same plant. Two products (an allopathic herbal medicine and a homeopathic product) containing Vitex agnus-castus extract were analyzed by HPLC-DAD for their agnuside and casticin contents. The agnuside content of the allopathic product was approximately four times higher, while the amount of casticin was in the same order of magnitude. Our experiments revealed the presence of active ingredients in allopathic quantity in a homeopathic preparation, highlighting the controversy between the principles of classical and practice of contemporary homeopathy. According to the principles of classical homeopathy these remedies cannot be considered as homeopathic remedies but rather as (allopathic) herbal ones. This phenomenon necessitates a case-by-case approach towards the possible adverse effects and drug interactions of homeopathics in the daily medical practice. Homeopathic products containing active agents in allopathic doses should be treated the same way as allopathic medicines from the point of view of quality assurance and pharmacovigilance. PMID:24019954

  12. Low potency homeopathic remedies and allopathic herbal medicines: is there an overlap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezső Csupor

    Full Text Available Classical homeopathy is based on the therapeutic application of highly diluted homeopathic stocks. The indications of such medicines are determined by proving, i.e. by applying the remedies in healthy subjects. However, there are several complex homeopathic medicinal products on the market with approved therapeutic indications. The efficacy of these medicines has been assessed in clinical trials on patients. There is no upper limit of dosing for such homeopathic remedies, and these products often contain undiluted mother tincture. The aim of our study was to compare an allopathic herbal medicine and a homeopathic product containing undiluted mother tincture based on the same plant. Two products (an allopathic herbal medicine and a homeopathic product containing Vitex agnus-castus extract were analyzed by HPLC-DAD for their agnuside and casticin contents. The agnuside content of the allopathic product was approximately four times higher, while the amount of casticin was in the same order of magnitude. Our experiments revealed the presence of active ingredients in allopathic quantity in a homeopathic preparation, highlighting the controversy between the principles of classical and practice of contemporary homeopathy. According to the principles of classical homeopathy these remedies cannot be considered as homeopathic remedies but rather as (allopathic herbal ones. This phenomenon necessitates a case-by-case approach towards the possible adverse effects and drug interactions of homeopathics in the daily medical practice. Homeopathic products containing active agents in allopathic doses should be treated the same way as allopathic medicines from the point of view of quality assurance and pharmacovigilance.

  13. Creation of reference DNA barcode library and authentication of medicinal plant raw drugs used in Ayurvedic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Nithaniyal, Stalin; Raju, Balaji; Parani, Madasamy

    2016-07-18

    Ayurveda is a system of traditional medicine that originated in ancient India, and it is still in practice. Medicinal plants are the backbone of Ayurveda, which heavily relies on the plant-derived therapeutics. While Ayurveda is becoming more popular in several countries throughout the World, lack of authenticated medicinal plant raw drugs is a growing concern. Our aim was to DNA barcode the medicinal plants that are listed in the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India (API) to create a reference DNA barcode library, and to use the same to authenticate the raw drugs that are sold in markets. We have DNA barcoded 347 medicinal plants using rbcL marker, and curated rbcL DNA barcodes for 27 medicinal plants from public databases. These sequences were used to create Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India - Reference DNA Barcode Library (API-RDBL). This library was used to authenticate 100 medicinal plant raw drugs, which were in the form of powders (82) and seeds (18). Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India - Reference DNA Barcode Library (API-RDBL) was created with high quality and authentic rbcL barcodes for 374 out of the 395 medicinal plants that are included in the API. The rbcL DNA barcode differentiated 319 species (85 %) with the pairwise divergence ranging between 0.2 and 29.9 %. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing success rate of rbcL marker was 100 % even for the poorly preserved medicinal plant raw drugs that were collected from local markets. DNA barcoding revealed that only 79 % raw drugs were authentic, and the remaining 21 % samples were adulterated. Further, adulteration was found to be much higher with powders (ca. 25 %) when compared to seeds (ca. 5 %). The present study demonstrated the utility of DNA barcoding in authenticating medicinal plant raw drugs, and found that approximately one fifth of the market samples were adulterated. Powdered raw drugs, which are very difficult to be identified by taxonomists as well as common people, seem to be the easy

  14. Identification of powdered Chinese herbal medicines by fluorescence microscopy, Part 1: Fluorescent characteristics of mechanical tissues, conducting tissues, and ergastic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Qiong; Liang, Zhi-Tao; Li, Qin; Yang, Hua; Chen, Hu-Biao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Li, Ping

    2011-03-01

    The light microscope has been successfully used in identification of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) for more than a century. However, positive identification is not always possible. Given the popularity of fluorescence microscopy in bioanalysis, researchers dedicated to finding new ways to identify CHMs more effectively are now turning to fluorescence microscopy for authentication purposes. Some studies on distinguishing confused species from the same genus and on exploring distributions of chemicals in tissues of CHMs by fluorescence microscopy have been reported; however, no systematic investigations on fluorescent characteristics of powdered CHMs have been reported. Here, 46 samples of 16 CHMs were investigated. Specifically, the mechanical tissues including stone cells and fibers, the conducting tissues including three types of vessels, and ergastic substances including crystals of calcium oxalate and secretions, in various powdered CHMs were investigated by both light microscope and fluorescence microscope. The results showed many microscopic features emit fluorescence that makes them easily observed, even against complex backgrounds. Under the fluorescence microscope, different microscopic features from the same powdered CHM or some same features from different powdered CHMs emitted the different fluorescence, making this information very helpful for the authentication of CHMs in powder form. Moreover, secretions with unique chemical profiles from different powdered CHMs showed different fluorescent characteristics. Hence, fluorescence microscopy could be a useful additional method for the authentication of powdered CHMs if the fluorescent characteristics of specific CHMs are known. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. [Research progress in root rot diseases of Chinese herbal medicine and control strategy by antagonistic microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fen; Ren, Xiao-xia; Wang, Meng-liang; Qin, Xue-mei

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, root rot diseases of Chinese herbal medicine have been posing grave threat to the development of the traditional Chinese medicine industry. This article presents a review on the occurring situation of the root rot disease, including the occurrence of the disease, the diversity of the pathogens, the regional difference in dominant pathogens,and the complexity of symptoms and a survey of the progress in bio-control of the disease using antagonistic microorganisms. The paper also discusses the existing problems and future prospects in the research.

  16. Four cases of Dysthymic Disorder and General Malaise Successfully Treated with Traditional Herbal (Kampo Medicines: Kamiuntanto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Kogure

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional herbal (Kampo medicines have been used since ancient times to treat patients with mental disorders. In the present report, we describe four patients with dysthymia successfully treated with Kampo medicines: Kamiuntanto (KUT. These four patients fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV criteria for dysthymic disorder with easy fatigability and sleeplessness, but did not fulfill the criteria for major depressive disorder. Treatment with KUT relieved depressive status, fatigue and sleeplessness in these patients. As a result, their QOL (quality of life was considerably improved. KUT may be useful as an additional or alternative treatment for dysthymia, especially in the field of primary health care.

  17. Four cases of dysthymic disorder and general malaise successfully treated with traditional herbal (kampo) medicines: kamiuntanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, Toshiaki; Tatsumi, Takeshi; Oku, Yuko

    2010-01-01

    Traditional herbal (Kampo) medicines have been used since ancient times to treat patients with mental disorders. In the present report, we describe four patients with dysthymia successfully treated with Kampo medicines: Kamiuntanto (KUT). These four patients fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for dysthymic disorder with easy fatigability and sleeplessness, but did not fulfill the criteria for major depressive disorder. Treatment with KUT relieved depressive status, fatigue and sleeplessness in these patients. As a result, their QOL (quality of life) was considerably improved. KUT may be useful as an additional or alternative treatment for dysthymia, especially in the field of primary health care.

  18. Potential risks associated with traditional herbal medicine use in cancer care: A study of Middle Eastern oncology health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Samuels, Noah; Goldstein, Lee Hilary; Mutafoglu, Kamer; Omran, Suha; Schiff, Elad; Charalambous, Haris; Dweikat, Tahani; Ghrayeb, Ibtisam; Bar-Sela, Gil; Turker, Ibrahim; Hassan, Azza; Hassan, Esmat; Saad, Bashar; Nimri, Omar; Kebudi, Rejin; Silbermann, Michael

    2016-02-15

    The authors assessed the use of herbal medicine by Middle Eastern patients with cancer, as reported by their oncology health care professionals (HCPs). Herbal products identified by the study HCPs were evaluated for potential negative effects. Oncology HCPs from 16 Middle Eastern countries received a 17-item questionnaire asking them to list 5 herbal products in use by their patients with cancer. A literature search (PubMed, Micromedex, AltMedDex, and the Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database) was conducted to identify safety-related concerns associated with the products listed. A total of 339 HCPs completed the study questionnaire (response rate of 80.3%), identifying 44 herbal and 3 nonherbal nutritional supplements. Safety-related concerns were associated with 29 products, including herb-drug interactions with altered pharmacodynamics (15 herbs), direct toxic effects (18 herbs), and increased in vitro response of cancer cells to chemotherapy (7 herbs). Herbal medicine use, which is prevalent in Middle Eastern countries, has several potentially negative effects that include direct toxic effects, negative interactions with anticancer drugs, and increased chemosensitivity of cancer cells, requiring a reduction in dose-density. Oncology HCPs working in countries in which herbal medicine use is prevalent need to better understand the implications of this practice. The presence of integrative physicians with training in complementary and traditional medicine can help patients and their HCPs reach an informed decision regarding the safety and effective use of these products. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  19. In-silico studies in Chinese herbal medicines' research: evaluation of in-silico methodologies and phytochemical data sources, and a review of research to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, D J; Buriani, A; Ehrman, T; Bosisio, E; Eberini, I; Hylands, P J

    2012-04-10

    The available databases that catalogue information on traditional Chinese medicines are reviewed in terms of their content and utility for in-silico research on Chinese herbal medicines, as too are the various protein database resources, and the software available for use in such studies. The software available for bioinformatics and 'omics studies of Chinese herbal medicines are summarised, and a critical evaluation given of the various in-silico methods applied in screening Chinese herbal medicines, including classification trees, neural networks, support vector machines, docking and inverse docking algorithms. Recommendations are made regarding any future in-silico studies of Chinese herbal medicines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA Barcoding for the Identification and Authentication of Animal Species in Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal-based traditional medicine not only plays a significant role in therapeutic practices worldwide but also provides a potential compound library for drug discovery. However, persistent hunting and illegal trade markedly threaten numerous medicinal animal species, and increasing demand further provokes the emergence of various adulterants. As the conventional methods are difficult and time-consuming to detect processed products or identify animal species with similar morphology, developing novel authentication methods for animal-based traditional medicine represents an urgent need. During the last decade, DNA barcoding offers an accurate and efficient strategy that can identify existing species and discover unknown species via analysis of sequence variation in a standardized region of DNA. Recent studies have shown that DNA barcoding as well as minibarcoding and metabarcoding is capable of identifying animal species and discriminating the authentics from the adulterants in various types of traditional medicines, including raw materials, processed products, and complex preparations. These techniques can also be used to detect the unlabelled and threatened animal species in traditional medicine. Here, we review the recent progress of DNA barcoding for the identification and authentication of animal species used in traditional medicine, which provides a reference for quality control and trade supervision of animal-based traditional medicine.

  1. DNA Barcoding for the Identification and Authentication of Animal Species in Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Ding, Fei; Chen, Hong; He, Mingqi; Zhu, Shixin; Ma, Xin; Jiang, Li; Li, Haifeng

    2018-01-01

    Animal-based traditional medicine not only plays a significant role in therapeutic practices worldwide but also provides a potential compound library for drug discovery. However, persistent hunting and illegal trade markedly threaten numerous medicinal animal species, and increasing demand further provokes the emergence of various adulterants. As the conventional methods are difficult and time-consuming to detect processed products or identify animal species with similar morphology, developing novel authentication methods for animal-based traditional medicine represents an urgent need. During the last decade, DNA barcoding offers an accurate and efficient strategy that can identify existing species and discover unknown species via analysis of sequence variation in a standardized region of DNA. Recent studies have shown that DNA barcoding as well as minibarcoding and metabarcoding is capable of identifying animal species and discriminating the authentics from the adulterants in various types of traditional medicines, including raw materials, processed products, and complex preparations. These techniques can also be used to detect the unlabelled and threatened animal species in traditional medicine. Here, we review the recent progress of DNA barcoding for the identification and authentication of animal species used in traditional medicine, which provides a reference for quality control and trade supervision of animal-based traditional medicine.

  2. Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Optimal Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Madeleine; Peng, Jie; Jin, Xingliang; Qu, Xianqin

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex heterogeneous disorder characterized by androgen excess and ovulatory dysfunction; it is now known to be closely linked to metabolic syndrome. Recent research suggests that insulin resistance plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS which may lead to the excessive production of androgens by ovarian theca cells. Currently there is no single drug that can treat both the reproductive and metabolic complications of the disorder. Existing pharmaceutical agents such as hormonal therapies have been associated with side effects and are not appropriate for PCOS women with infertility. Additionally, insulin sensitizing agents useful for treating the metabolic abnormalities in PCOS have limited efficacy for treating reproductive aspects of the disorder. Chinese herbal medicines have a long history of treating gynaecological problems and infertility and therefore may be a novel approach to the treatment of PCOS. Current research demonstrates that the compounds isolated from herbs have shown beneficial effects for PCOS and when combined in an herbal formula can target both reproductive and metabolic defects simultaneously. Therefore, further investigation into Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of PCOS is warranted.

  3. Evaluation of sample pretreatment methods for analysis of polonium isotopes in herbal medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreejith, Sathyapriya R.; Nair, Madhu G.; Rao, D.D.

    2014-01-01

    Herbal infusions like ayurvedic aristas are widely consumed by Indian population for good health. With increasing awareness about radiological assessment, an effort was made to assess the radioactivity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides in herbal medicines. 210 Po is an important alpha particle emitter contributing to internal dose to man from ingestion. Though 210 Po can be spontaneously deposited on silver disk for alpha spectrometric measurements with less radiochemical step, great care has to be taken during the sample pretreatment step owing to the high volatility of polonium even at low temperatures. Aim of the study was to evaluate an appropriate sample pretreatment method for estimation of polonium in herbal medicines. 209 Po was used for radiochemical yield calculation. Conventional open vessel wet ashing, physical evaporation, freeze-drying and microwave digestion in a Teflon vessel were examined. The recovery ranged between 9 and 79%. The lowest recovery was obtained for the samples that were processed by open vessel digestion without any volume reduction. The recoveries were comparable for those samples that were freeze dried and subjected to HNO 3 + HClO 4 + H 2 O 2 + HF acid digestion and microwave digested samples. 210 Po concentration in the samples ranged from 11.3 to 39.6 mBq/L

  4. Complementary and alternative medicine in inflammatory bowel diseases: what is the future in the field of herbal medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardi, Daniela; Fiorino, Gionata; Genua, Marco; Allocca, Mariangela; Danese, Silvio

    2014-09-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine is wide-spread not only in Eastern countries, but also in the Western world. Despite the increasing evidence on the harmful effects induced by several naturopathic/homeopathic products, patients seem to appreciate these remedies, in particular because they consider them to be absolutely safe. This same phenomenon is common among inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. As a result there is a significant request for scientific data to evaluate both the efficacy and safety of these remedies, and to support the use of such medications as adjuvant treatments to biological and synthetic drugs. We aimed to review the current evidence on efficacy and safety of some natural products that are believed to be effective in inflammatory bowel disease. Further perspectives for the clinical use of herbal products and strategies for improving knowledge about herbal products in IBD are also discussed.

  5. Clinical Strategy for Optimal Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Herbal Dose Selection in Disease Therapeutics: Expert Consensus on Classic TCM Herbal Formula Dose Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Lin-Hua; He, Li-Sha; Lian, Feng-Mei; Zhen, Zhong; Ji, Hang-Yu; Xu, Li-Peng; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The clinical therapeutics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitutes a complicated process which involves theory, diagnosis, and formula prescription with specific herbal dosage. Zhang Zhong-Jing's classic work, Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases, has been influencing TCM practice for almost 2000 years. However, during this extended period of time in Chinese history, the Chinese weight measurement system experienced noticeable changes. This change in the weight measurement system inevitably, and perhaps even negatively, affected TCM herbal dosage determination and treatment outcome. Thus, in modern society, a full understanding of the accuracy of herbal dose selection has a critical importance in the TCM daily practice of delivering the best treatment to the patients suffering from different illnesses. In the 973 Project of the Chinese National Basic Research Program, expert consensus on classic TCM formula dose conversion has been reached based on extensive literature review and discussion on the dose-effect relationship of classic TCM formulas. One "liang" in classic TCM formulas is equivalent to 13.8 g. However, based on many TCM basic and clinical studies of variable herbal formula prescriptions and herbal drug preparations, the rule of one liang equals 13.8 g should be adjusted according to different disease conditions. Recommended by the committee on TCM formula dose-effect relationship of the China Association of Chinese Medicine and the World Federation of Chinese Medicine Societies, the following expert consensus has been reached: (i) One liang converts to 6-9 g for the severely and critically ill patients. (ii) One liang converts to 3-6 g for the patients suffering from chronic diseases. (iii) One liang converts to 1-3 g in preventive medicine. The above conversions should be used as a future TCM practice guideline. Using this recommended guideline should enhance the effectiveness of daily TCM practice.

  6. Herbal and Alternative Medicine Use in Tanzanian Adults Admitted with Hypertension-Related Diseases: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Liwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension is increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa where traditional medicine use is also common. We conducted a hospital-based, mixed-methods study to determine prevalence, pattern, and correlates of herbal and alternative medicine use in Tanzanian adults hospitalized with hypertension. Methods. A standardized questionnaire was administered. In-depth interviews were performed on a subset of participants. Factors associated with herbal medicine use were determined by logistic regression. The association between traditional medicine uses and allopathic medication adherence was determined using ordinal logistic regression. Qualitative data were analyzed according to grounded theory. Results. Of 213 adults enrolled, 52 (24.4% reported using herbs during the previous month and 47 (22.1% reported concurrent use of herbs and allopathic medicines. Lower educational level, nonprofessional employment, and lack of health insurance were significantly associated with herbal medicine use. Alternative medicines use was not associated with lower medication adherence. Qualitative interviews identified several important themes including reasons for herbal medicine use. Conclusion. The use of traditional medicines is very common among patients with hypertension. Adults from low socioeconomic status, those with misunderstandings about hypertension, and those without health insurance were more likely to take herbs. Open, nonjudgmental communication between healthcare workers and patients regarding use of traditional medicines must be encouraged in Africa.

  7. Herbal and Alternative Medicine Use in Tanzanian Adults Admitted with Hypertension-Related Diseases: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Rebecca; Jaka, Hyasinta; Bougaila, Amina; Smart, Luke; Langwick, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension is increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa where traditional medicine use is also common. We conducted a hospital-based, mixed-methods study to determine prevalence, pattern, and correlates of herbal and alternative medicine use in Tanzanian adults hospitalized with hypertension. Methods A standardized questionnaire was administered. In-depth interviews were performed on a subset of participants. Factors associated with herbal medicine use were determined by logistic regression. The association between traditional medicine uses and allopathic medication adherence was determined using ordinal logistic regression. Qualitative data were analyzed according to grounded theory. Results Of 213 adults enrolled, 52 (24.4%) reported using herbs during the previous month and 47 (22.1%) reported concurrent use of herbs and allopathic medicines. Lower educational level, nonprofessional employment, and lack of health insurance were significantly associated with herbal medicine use. Alternative medicines use was not associated with lower medication adherence. Qualitative interviews identified several important themes including reasons for herbal medicine use. Conclusion The use of traditional medicines is very common among patients with hypertension. Adults from low socioeconomic status, those with misunderstandings about hypertension, and those without health insurance were more likely to take herbs. Open, nonjudgmental communication between healthcare workers and patients regarding use of traditional medicines must be encouraged in Africa. PMID:28634545

  8. Chinese Herbal Medicines as Potential Agents for Alleviation of Heat Stress in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokryazdan, Parisa; Jahromi, Mohammad Faseleh; Md Saadand, Salwani; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Idrus, Zulkifli; Zhou, Hailong; Diao, Xiao Ping; Liang, Juan Boo

    2017-01-01

    Heat stress negatively affects the productivity of chickens in commercial poultry farms in humid tropics. In this study, the concentrations and types of the antioxidant compounds of eight Chinese herbal medicines, which have previously demonstrated promising effects on suppressing heat stress as a mixture, were investigated using reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography, spectrophotometry, Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, and Gas-Liquid Chromatography. Our results provided the levels of phenolic compounds, total amounts of sugars, and total unsaturated fatty acids in the herbal extracts. Apart from the detection and quantification of the active ingredients of herbs that have the potential to mitigate heat stress in poultry, results of this study also provide useful data for developing an efficient and accurate formulation of the herbs' mixtures in order to induce positive effects against heat stress in in vivo studies.

  9. Chinese Herbal Medicines as Potential Agents for Alleviation of Heat Stress in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Shokryazdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress negatively affects the productivity of chickens in commercial poultry farms in humid tropics. In this study, the concentrations and types of the antioxidant compounds of eight Chinese herbal medicines, which have previously demonstrated promising effects on suppressing heat stress as a mixture, were investigated using reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography, spectrophotometry, Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, and Gas-Liquid Chromatography. Our results provided the levels of phenolic compounds, total amounts of sugars, and total unsaturated fatty acids in the herbal extracts. Apart from the detection and quantification of the active ingredients of herbs that have the potential to mitigate heat stress in poultry, results of this study also provide useful data for developing an efficient and accurate formulation of the herbs’ mixtures in order to induce positive effects against heat stress in in vivo studies.

  10. The spectrum-effect relationship-a rational approach to screening effective compounds, reflecting the internal quality of Chinese herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chun-Sheng; Lin, Zhi-Jian; Xiao, Ming-Liang; Niu, Hong-Juan; Zhang, Bing

    2016-03-01

    Since the chromatographic fingerprint was introduced, it has been accepted by many countries to assess the quality and authenticity of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). However, solely using the chromatographic fingerprint to assay numerous chemicals is not suitable for the assessment of the whole internal quality and pharmacodynamics of CHM. Consequently, it is necessary to develop a rational approach to connecting the chromatographic fingerprint with effective components to assess the internal quality of CHM. For this purpose, a spectrum-effect relationship theory was proposed and accepted as a new method for the assessment of CHM because of its potential use to screen effective components from CHM. In this paper, we systematically reviewed the application of the spectrum-effect relationship theory in the research of CHM, including research mentality, different chromatographic analysis techniques, data processing technologies, and structure determination. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Brazilian market of herbal medicinal products and the impacts of the new legislation on traditional medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Cecília Bezerra; Lana, Túlio Nader; Perfeito, João Paulo Silvério; Silveira, Dâmaris

    2018-02-15

    the herbal medicinal products (HMP) market is expanding in the world, an expansion that has not occurred in Brazil when considering the number of licensed products. Despite being a megadiverse country, the number of HMP licensed in Brazil is small, and the number of HMP obtained from native species is even smaller. A new legislation for herbal products licensing, which divides the products into two categories, Herbal Medicine (HM) and Traditional Herbal Product (THP) was launched in Brazil focusing on traditional use, as well as a law regulating the use of biodiversity and traditional knowledge. to evaluate the situation of HMP licensed in Brazil and to make a comparison with the data obtained in 2008 and 2011, discussing the evolution of the licensed products and the possible impacts of the new legislation. a survey was carried out in the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (Anvisa) database to verify the HMP licensed in Brazil in September 2016. The data obtained were compared with two surveys previously published. There are 332 single, and 27 combined HM, totaling 359 HM licensed in Brazil. There is no THP notified in Anvisa's system yet. There are 214 HM classified as nonprescription (OTC), while 145 are sold under prescription, one of them with prescription retention. There are 101 plant species licensed as active in HM in Brazil, 39 of which are native, adapted or cultivated. The most licensed plant species is Mikania glomerata Spreng., with 25 HM licensed. The article includes tables with plant species that have derivatives licensed as simple and combined HM, their therapeutic classification, the native plant species indication and the distribution of the companies by Brazilian regions. There are few licensed HM in Brazil, and this number has been decreasing in recent years. It is expected that the data obtained, together with the changes promoted in sanitary and environmental rules, will help to develop and regulate HMP chain in Brazil. Copyright © 2017

  12. Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; Panossian, Alexander; Schweitzer, Isaac; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has increased markedly over the past decades. To date however, a comprehensive review of herbal antidepressant, anxiolytic and hypnotic psychopharmacology and applications in depression, anxiety and insomnia has been absent. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to February 21st 2011) on commonly used psychotropic herbal medicines. A review of the literature was conducted to ascertain mechanisms of action of these botanicals, in addition to a systematic review of controlled clinical trials for treatment of mood, anxiety and sleep disorders, which are common comorbid psychiatric disorders. Specific emphasis was given to emerging phytomedicines. Analysis of evidence levels was conducted, as were effect sizes (Cohen's d) where data were available. Results provided evidence of a range of neurochemical, endocrinological, and epigenetic effects for 21 individual phytomedicines, which are detailed in this paper. Sixty six controlled studies were located involving eleven phytomedicines. Several of these provide a high level of evidence, such as Hypericum perforatum for major depression, and Piper methysticum for anxiety disorders. Several human clinical trials provide preliminary positive evidence of antidepressant effects (Echium amoenum, Crocus sativus, and Rhodiola rosea) and anxiolytic activity (Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Passiflora incanata, E. amoenum, and Scutellaria lateriflora). Caution should however be taken when interpreting the results as many studies have not been replicated. Several herbal medicines with in vitro and in vivo evidence are currently unexplored in human studies, and along with use of emerging genetic technologies "herbomics", are areas of potential future research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Drug-use pattern of Chinese herbal medicines in insomnia: a 4-year survey in Taiwan.

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    Chen, L-C; Chen, I-C; Wang, B-R; Shao, C-H

    2009-10-01

    Insomnia is a common complaint in the general population. Interest in the use of alternative treatments for insomnia is increasing exponentially and is fairly common in Taiwan. We undertook a survey to define the drug utilization patterns of Chinese herbal medicines (CM) for insomnia in Taiwan. The survey was conducted over a period of 4 years, from January 2003 to December 2006. Outpatients with primary insomnia and being treated with CM were studied. Core drug-use indicators were the number of CM items per prescription, the dosing frequency and duration of CM prescriptions, the most common prescribed CM herbs and CM formulae used. Six thousand eight hundred and sixty patients, using 37,046 CM herb items, were screened during the study period. The average CM items per prescription was 5.40. Most of prescriptions (95.23%) were prescribed for administration three times a day. The most often prescribed Chinese herbal products were Hong-Hwa (Carthamus tinctorius) and Jia-Wey-Shiau-Yau-San, which includes Angelica sinensis, Atractylodes macrocephala, Paeonia lactiflora, Bupleurum chinense, and Poria coco. This is the first extensive survey examining the drug utilization patterns of Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of insomnia. Although the data were generated in Taiwan, the herbs and practices identified are likely to be widely generalizable wherever Chinese herbal remedies are used for insomnia. Multiple herbs and complex formulae were commonly used. The baseline data generated should be of use in informing subsequent studies, including those aimed at a thorough evaluation of the herbs' effectiveness.

  14. Application of Feedback System Control Optimization Technique in Combined Use of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy and Herbal Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Combined use of herbal medicines in patients underwent dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT might cause bleeding or thrombosis because herbal medicines with anti-platelet activities may exhibit interactions with DAPT. In this study, we tried to use a feedback system control (FSC optimization technique to optimize dose strategy and clarify possible interactions in combined use of DAPT and herbal medicines.Methods: Herbal medicines with reported anti-platelet activities were selected by searching related references in Pubmed. Experimental anti-platelet activities of representative compounds originated from these herbal medicines were investigated using in vitro assay, namely ADP-induced aggregation of rat platelet-rich-plasma. FSC scheme hybridized artificial intelligence calculation and bench experiments to iteratively optimize 4-drug combination and 2-drug combination from these drug candidates.Results: Totally 68 herbal medicines were reported to have anti-platelet activities. In the present study, 7 representative compounds from these herbal medicines were selected to study combinatorial drug optimization together with DAPT, i.e., aspirin and ticagrelor. FSC technique first down-selected 9 drug candidates to the most significant 5 drugs. Then, FSC further secured 4 drugs in the optimal combination, including aspirin, ticagrelor, ferulic acid from DangGui, and forskolin from MaoHouQiaoRuiHua. Finally, FSC quantitatively estimated the possible interactions between aspirin:ticagrelor, aspirin:ferulic acid, ticagrelor:forskolin, and ferulic acid:forskolin. The estimation was further verified by experimentally determined Combination Index (CI values.Conclusion: Results of the present study suggested that FSC optimization technique could be used in optimization of anti-platelet drug combinations and might be helpful in designing personal anti-platelet therapy strategy. Furthermore, FSC analysis could also identify interactions between different

  15. Herbal medicines: challenges in the modern world. Part 2. European Union and Russia.

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    Sammons, Helen M; Gubarev, Michael I; Krepkova, Lubov V; Bortnikova, Valentina V; Corrick, Fenella; Job, Kathleen M; Sherwin, Catherine Mt; Enioutina, Elena Y

    2016-08-01

    Herbal medicines (HMs) have been well known to people of the European Union (EU) and Russia for centuries. Currently, Western HMs can be classified into two categories, plant-derived conventional medicines and dietary supplements. Interest to HMs has grown rapidly in all countries during the past two decades. The main goal of this review article is to present the history of HMs in the EU and Russia, forms of modern HMs, including Oriental Medicines that are popular among consumers of both countries. Additional discussion points comprise safety and adulteration issues associated with HMs, including regulatory changes and new legislative measures undertaken by the authorities. Materials available from legislative and governmental websites, PubMed and news media were used. Expert commentary: Due to cultural diversities in the EU and Russia, traditional HMs of other regions, particularly Chinese Traditional and Ayurvedic medicines, are also popular. Recently, dietary supplements containing multiple herbal and other natural products have flooded the EU and Russian markets. Pharmacovigilance in these markets is challenging in terms of establishing quality and safety of ingredients, determining efficacy, and defining risks of herb-herb and herb-drug interactions. Both the EU and Russia have introduced new legislation aimed to overcome these deficiencies.

  16. Treatment of triple-negative breast cancer with Chinese herbal medicine: A prospective cohort study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui; Peng, Nan; Yu, Mingwei; Sun, Xu; Ma, Yunfei; Yang, Guowang; Wang, Xiaomin

    2017-11-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is featured with the biological properties of strong aggressive behaviors, rapid disease progression, high risk of recurrence and metastasis, and low disease free survival. Patients with this tumor are insensitive to the endocrine therapy and target treatment for HER-2; therefore, chemotherapy is often used as routine treatment in clinical. Because of the fact that a considerable number of patients seek for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment after operation and chemotherapy and (or) radiotherapy, it is thus need to evaluate the correlation between Chinese herbal medicine treatment and prognosis. This is a multicenter, prospective cohort study started in March 2016 in Beijing. A simple of 220 participants diagnosed with TNBC were recruited from nine hospitals and are followed up every 3 to 6 months till March 2020. Detailed information of participants includes personal information, history of cancer, quality of life, symptoms of traditional Chinese medicine and fatigue status is taken face-to-face at baseline. The study has received ethical approval from the Research Ethical Committee of Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine affiliated to Capital Medical University (No.2016BL-014-01). Articles summarizing the primary results and ancillary analyses will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-OOC-16008246.

  17. Treatment of triple-negative breast cancer with Chinese herbal medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hui; Peng, Nan; Yu, Mingwei; Sun, Xu; Ma, Yunfei; Yang, Guowang; Wang, Xiaomin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is featured with the biological properties of strong aggressive behaviors, rapid disease progression, high risk of recurrence and metastasis, and low disease free survival. Patients with this tumor are insensitive to the endocrine therapy and target treatment for HER-2; therefore, chemotherapy is often used as routine treatment in clinical. Because of the fact that a considerable number of patients seek for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment after operation and chemotherapy and (or) radiotherapy, it is thus need to evaluate the correlation between Chinese herbal medicine treatment and prognosis. Methods and analysis: This is a multicenter, prospective cohort study started in March 2016 in Beijing. A simple of 220 participants diagnosed with TNBC were recruited from nine hospitals and are followed up every 3 to 6 months till March 2020. Detailed information of participants includes personal information, history of cancer, quality of life, symptoms of traditional Chinese medicine and fatigue status is taken face-to-face at baseline. Ethics and dissemination: The study has received ethical approval from the Research Ethical Committee of Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine affiliated to Capital Medical University (No.2016BL-014-01). Articles summarizing the primary results and ancillary analyses will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-OOC-16008246. PMID:29095272

  18. Authenticity analyses of Rhizoma Paridis using barcoding coupled with high resolution melting (Bar-HRM) analysis to control its quality for medicinal plant product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Bao-Zhong; Wang, Ya-Ping; Fang, Hai-Lan; Xiong, Chao; Li, Xi-Wen; Wang, Ping; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2018-01-01

    Rhizoma Paridis (Chonglou) is a commonly used and precious traditional Chinese medicine. Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand. -Mazz. and Paris polyphylla Smith var . chinensis (Franch.) Hara are the two main sources of Chonglou under the monograph of Rhizoma Paridis in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In the local marketplace, however, this medicine is prone to be accidentally contaminated, deliberately substituted or admixed with other species that are similar to Rhizoma Paridis in shape and color. Consequently, these adulterations might compromise quality control and result in considerable health concerns for consumers. This study aims to develop a rapid and sensitive method for accurate identification of Rhizoma Paridis and its common adulterants. DNA barcoding coupled with high resolution melting analysis was applied in this research to distinguish Rhizoma Paridis from its adulteration. The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) barcode was selected for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profile of the selected species. DNA of the tested herbal medicines was isolated and their melting profiles were generated and compared with the standard melting profile of P. polyphylla var. chinensis . The results indicate that the ITS2 molecular regions coupled with HRM analysis can effectively differentiate nine herbal species, including two authentic origins of Chonglou and their seven common adulterants. Ten herbal medicines labeled "Chonglou" obtained from a local market were collected and identified with our methods, and their sequence information was analyzed to validate the accuracy of HRM analysis. DNA barcoding coupled with HRM analysis is a accurate, reliable, rapid, cost-effective and robust tool, which could contribute to the quality control of Rhizoma Paridis in the supply chain of the natural health product industry (NHP).

  19. Security analysis of a chaotic map-based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Wei-Chuen; Phan, Raphael C-W

    2013-12-01

    Many authentication schemes have been proposed for telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) to ensure the privacy, integrity, and availability of patient records. These schemes are crucial for TMIS systems because otherwise patients' medical records become susceptible to tampering thus hampering diagnosis or private medical conditions of patients could be disclosed to parties who do not have a right to access such information. Very recently, Hao et al. proposed a chaotic map-based authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems in a recent issue of Journal of Medical Systems. They claimed that the authentication scheme can withstand various attacks and it is secure to be used in TMIS. In this paper, we show that this authentication scheme is vulnerable to key-compromise impersonation attacks, off-line password guessing attacks upon compromising of a smart card, and parallel session attacks. We also exploit weaknesses in the password change phase of the scheme to mount a denial-of-service attack. Our results show that this scheme cannot be used to provide security in a telecare medicine information system.

  20. Evolution of European Union legislation of herbal medicinal products and its transposition to national legislation in 1965-2007: case Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Sari M; Laitinen-Parkkonen, Pirjo; Airaksinen, Marja

    2015-01-01

    The study aim was to explore the progress of legislation relating to herbal medicinal products in the European Union and compare it with the corresponding progress of the legislation in Finland in 1965-2007. The study was carried out using content analysis. Data were searched from publicly available European Union directives and national acts. All definitions and safety-related requirements for herbal medicinal products were identified. The transposition of safety-related requirements into the national legislation was studied. Medicinal products from plant origins have been part of the European Union legislation since 1965. Most plant-based products have not initially been regarded as medicinal products but rather as some kind of medicine-like products. The official definition of herbal medicinal products was introduced in Directive 2004/24/EC and implemented into the Finnish legislation with the terminology to recognise herbal medicinal products as part of medicinal products. The current safety-related requirements of medicinal products concern analogously herbal medicinal products. Herbal medicinal products have had different definitions in pharmaceutical legislation over the study period in the European Union and Finland. The current definition places herbal medicinal products more clearly under the medicinal products' legislation. Safety-related requirements are now practically identical for all medicinal products. Transposition of the European Union legislation into the national legislation in Finland is apparent. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Liver enzyme abnormalities in taking traditional herbal medicine in Korea: A retrospective large sample cohort study of musculoskeletal disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinho; Shin, Joon-Shik; Kim, Me-Riong; Byun, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Shin, Ye-Sle; Kim, Hyejin; Byung Park, Ki; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study is to report the incidence of liver injury from herbal medicine in musculoskeletal disease patients as large-scale studies are scarce. Considering that herbal medicine is frequently used in patients irrespective of liver function in Korea, we investigated the prevalence of liver injury by liver function test results in musculoskeletal disease patients. Of 32675 inpatients taking herbal medicine at 7 locations of a Korean medicine hospital between 2005 and 2013, we screened for liver injury in 6894 patients with liver function tests (LFTs) at admission and discharge. LFTs included t-bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP. Liver injury at discharge was assessed by LFT result classifications at admission (liver injury, liver function abnormality, and normal liver function). In analyses for risk factors of liver injury at discharge, we adjusted for age, sex, length of stay, conventional medicine intake, HBs antigen/antibody, and liver function at admission. A total 354 patients (prevalence 5.1%) had liver injury at admission, and 217 (3.1%) at discharge. Of the 354 patients with liver injury at admission, only 9 showed a clinically significant increase after herbal medicine intake, and 225 returned to within normal range or showed significant liver function recovery. Out of 4769 patients with normal liver function at admission, 27 (0.6%) had liver injury at discharge. In multivariate analyses for risk factors, younger age, liver function abnormality at admission, and HBs antigen positive were associated with injury at discharge. The prevalence of liver injury in patients with normal liver function taking herbal medicine for musculoskeletal disease was low, and herbal medicine did not exacerbate liver injury in most patients with injury prior to intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Saiboku-to, a Kampo herbal medicine, inhibits LTC4 release from eosinophils

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    Koichi Hirai

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Saiboku-to (TJ-96, a traditional Kampo herbal formation, has been used in the treatment of bronchial asthma in Japan as an anti-allergy herbal medicine. We investigated the effect of TJ-96 on leukotriene (LTC4 release from eosinophils and basophils isolated from healthy volunteers. Pre-incubation of eosinophils with TJ-96 inhibited ionophore- or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP-induced LTC4 generation by eosinophils in a dose-dependent fashion. The TJ-96 was more potent in the release by ionophore (IC50 = 60 mg/mL than the release induced by FMLP (IC50 = 300 mg/mL. Maximal inhibition was observed when eosinophils were pretreated with TJ-96 for 5 min. Although TJ-96 at high concentrations inhibited IgE-mediated histamine release from human basophils, inhibition of IgE-mediated LTC4 release was not statistically significant. The potent inhibitory activity was found in the extract of Glycyrrhiza root, one of the herbal components of TJ-96, but the inhibitory effects were not due to either glycyrrhizin or liquiritin, the main elements of the Glycyrrhiza root. These results raise the possibility that the clinical efficacy of TJ-96 is derived, at least in part, from its potent inhibitory effect on LTC4 release from eosinophils.

  3. TREATMENT OF PROGRESSION OF DIFFUSE ASTROCYTOMA BY HERBAL MEDICINE: CASE REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogrlić, Ivo; Trogrlić, Dragan; Trogrlić, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the use of phytotherapy in a 33-year-old woman who, after finishing the oncological treatment of diffuse astrocytoma, had tumour progression. Phytotherapy was introduced after the tumour had progressed. It consisted of 4 types of herbal medicine which the subject was taking in form of tea once a day at regular intervals. The patient started phytotherapy along with temozolomide, which was the only oncological treatment she was under after the tumour had progressed. Following the finished chemotherapy, the patient continued the treatment with herbal medicine only. She regularly took phytotherapy without interruption and to the fullest extent for 30 months, and the results of treatment were monitored by periodic scanning using nuclear magnetic resonance technique. The control scanning that was conducted after the end of combined treatment with temozolomide and phytotherapy showed tumour regression. The patient continued with phytotherapy after finishing chemotherapy and, during the following 24 months, it was the sole treatment option. In that period, the regression of the tumour continued, until a control examination 30 months after the introduction of phytotherapy showed no clinical and radiological signs of tumour. The results presented in this research paper clearly indicate the potential of phytotherapy in the treatment of some types of brain tumours. A complete regression of tumour following the treatment with nothing but herbal medicine offers support for such claim. Future research should demonstrate the effectiveness of phytotherapy, as a supplementary form of brain tumour treatment, and the results of this research should be compared with the existing information on the effectiveness of the protocols currently used in the treatment of these types of tumour.

  4. Efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine Zengru Gao to promote breastfeeding: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Chi; Li, Cuishan; Li, Daocheng; He, Ping; Su, Zhaojuan; Li, Yanling; Ding, Yiling; Lu, Aiping

    2018-02-06

    Breastfeeding is recommended worldwide but not fully practiced. The first week after childbirth is regarded as a critical period for increasing breast milk production. The aim of the study was to investigate whether Chinese herbal medicine Zengru Gao would result in more women breastfeeding in the first week after childbirth. A multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted of 588 mothers considering breastfeeding in China. Among the mothers of the intervention group, the intervention included Chinese herbal medicine Zengru Gao; among those of the control group, it did not. Primary outcomes were the percentages of fully and partially breastfeeding mothers. Secondary outcome was baby's daily formula intake. At 3 d and 7 d after delivery, significant differences were found in favour of Zengru Gao group on the percentage of full/ partial breastfeeding (Z = - 3.0037, p = 0.0027). At day 7, the percentage of full/ partial breastfeeding of the active group increased to 71.48%/20.70% versus 58.67%/30.26% in the control group, the differences remained significant (Z = - 3.0037, p = 0.0027). No statistically significant differences were detected on primary measures at 1 d. While intake of formula differed between groups at 1 d and 3 d, this difference did not achieve statistical significance, but this difference was apparent by 7 d (55.45 ± 115.39 ml/day vs 90.66 ± 153.89 ml/day). In conclusion, Chinese Herbal medicine Zengru Gao enhanced breastfeeding success during one week postpartum. The approach is acceptable to participants and merits further evaluation. ChiCTR-IPR-15007376 , December 11, 2015.

  5. Probiotics, fibre and herbal medicinal products for functional and inflammatory bowel disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Pecere, Silvia; Bibbò, Stefano; Cammarota, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Functional bowel disorders (FBD), mainly irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional constipation (FC, also called chronic idiopathic constipation), are very common worldwide. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, although less common, has a strong impact on patients' quality of life, as well as being highly expensive for our healthcare. A definite cure for those disorders is still yet to come. Over the years, several therapeutic approaches complementary or alternative to traditional pharmacological treatments, including probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, fibre and herbal medicinal products, have been investigated for the management of both groups of diseases. However, most available studies are biased by several drawbacks, including small samples and poor methodological quality. Probiotics, in particular Saccharomyces boulardii and Lactobacilli (among which Lactobacillus rhamnosus), synbiotics, psyllium, and some herbal medicinal products, primarily peppermint oil, seem to be effective in ameliorating IBS symptoms. Synbiotics and fibre seem to be beneficial in FC patients. The probiotic combination VSL#3 may be effective in inducing remission in patients with mild‐to‐moderate ulcerative colitis, in whom Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 seems to be as effective as mesalamine in maintaining remission. No definite conclusions can be drawn as to the efficacy of fibre and herbal medicinal products in IBD patients due to the low number of studies and the lack of randomized controlled trials that replicate the results obtained in the individual studies conducted so far. Thus, further, well‐designed studies are needed to address the real role of these therapeutic options in the management of both FBD and IBD. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Principles of Pharmacological Research of Nutraceuticals. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph

  6. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Acute Mountain Sickness: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aimed to assess the current clinical evidence of Chinese herbal medicine for AMS. Methods. Seven electronic databases were searched until January 2013. We included randomized clinical trials testing Chinese herbal medicine against placebo, no drugs, Western drugs, or a combination of routine treatment drugs against routine treatment drugs. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Results. Nine randomized trials were included. The methodological quality of the included trials was evaluated as low. Two trials compared prescriptions of Chinese formula used alone with Western drugs. A meta-analysis showed a beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −2.23 [−3.98, −0.49], P=0.01. Only one trial compared prescriptions of Chinese formula used alone with no drugs. A meta-analysis showed a significant beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −6.00 [−6.45, −5.55], P<0.00001. Four trials compared Chinese formula used alone with placebo. A meta-analysis also showed a significant beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −1.10 [−1.64, −0.55], P<0.0001. Two trials compared the combination of Chinese formula plus routine treatment drugs with routine treatment drugs. A meta-analysis showed a beneficial effect in decreasing the score of AMS (MD: −5.99 [−11.11, −0.86], P=0.02. Conclusions. No firm conclusion on the effectiveness and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for AMS can be made. More rigorous high-quality trials are required to generate a high level of evidence and to confirm the results.

  7. Mutagenicity assessment of two herbal medicines, Urtan and Carmint in human leukocytes by single cell gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalili, M.; Hatami, A.; Kalantari, H.; Kalantar, E.

    2006-01-01

    The use of herbal medicine is an old and still widespread particle, which makes studies their genotoxicity essential. Urtan and Carmint are examples of herbal medicines used in Iran which used for the treatment of hyperplasia, diuretic, urinary diffusion and antispasmodic action, carminative gastrointestinal disfunction respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity of these herbal medicines in human leukocytes by Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE). Both the herbal medicines were used at four concentrations (0.046, 0.092, 0.138 and 0.184/ 100 ml). The results were compared against positive (Cr VI) and negative (no mutagen) control groups. Fluorescence microscope was used to observe the DNA damage in randomly selected cells, which were stained with ethidium bromide. Microscopic observation of the affected cells due to Urtan and Carmint was encouraging as compared to previous studies using SCGE. Both Urtan and Carmint exhibited considerable DNA damage to the blood cells. For example, Urtan at o.184 g/100ml concentration had almost 23% mutagenic effect and as the concentration increased the mutagenic effect also increased. Similarly Carmint exhibited considerable DNA damage on blood cells. Therefore, both the herbal medicines may have some mutagenic effect. (author)

  8. Activated Carbon from the Chinese Herbal Medicine Waste by H3PO4 Activation

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    Tie Mi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of Chinese herbal medicine wastes produced by the medicinal factories have been mainly landfilled as waste. In this study, via phosphoric acid activation, a Chinese herbal medicine waste from Magnolia officinalis (CHMW-MO was prepared for activated carbon (CHMW-MO-AC. The effect of preparation conditions (phosphoric acid/CHMW-MO impregnation ratio, activation temperature, and time of activated carbon on yield of CHMW-MO-AC was investigated. The surface area and porous texture of the CHMW-MO-ACs were characterized by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. The SBET and pore volume were achieved in their highest value of 920 m2/g and 0.703 cm3/g, respectively. Thermal gravity analysis and scanning electron microscope images showed that CHMW-MO-ACs have a high thermal resistance and pore development. The results indicated that CHMW-MO is a good precursor material for preparing activated carbon, and CHMW-MO-AC with well-developed mesopore volume can be prepared by H3PO4 activation.

  9. A mechanistic overview of herbal medicine and botanical compounds to target transcriptional factors in Breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingke; Liu, Yue

    2018-04-01

    The abnormalities of transcription factors, such as NF-κB, STAT, estrogen receptor, play a critical role in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. Due to the limitation of current treatment, transcription factors could be promising therapeutic targets, which have received close attention. In this review, we introduced herbal medicines, as well as botanical compounds that had been verified with anti-tumor properties via regulating transcription factors. Herbs, compounds, as well as formulae reported with various transcriptional targets, were summarized thoroughly, to provide implication for the future research on basic experiment and clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of packaging materials on microbe population in irradiated traditional herbal medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagiawati, Sri; Hilmy, Nazly

    1983-01-01

    Microbial population and moisture content of traditional herbal medicines contaminated with 3 kinds of aerobic microbes, packed in 5 kinds of plastic packaging materials, followed by irradiation at minimum dose of 5 kGy and stored for 6 months were investigated. The highest reduction of microbial counts during storage was observed on samples packed in polyethylene bags. All of packaging materials used were found to be impermeable to microbes and water vapour. Radiation and packaging materials used acted synergistically to inactivate microbes durind storage. The microbial counts decreased as much as 2 to 4 log cycles during storage. (author)

  11. Three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Hamed; Nikooghadam, Morteza

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, with comprehensive employment of the internet, healthcare delivery services is provided remotely by telecare medicine information systems (TMISs). A secure mechanism for authentication and key agreement is one of the most important security requirements for TMISs. Recently, Tan proposed a user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for TMIS. The present paper shows that Tan's scheme is vulnerable to replay attacks and Denial-of-Service attacks. In order to overcome these security flaws, a new and efficient three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS is proposed. Security and performance analysis shows superiority of the proposed scheme in comparison with previously proposed schemes that are related to security of TMISs.

  12. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Herbal Hepatotoxicity: RUCAM and the Role of Novel Diagnostic Biomarkers Such as MicroRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Larrey, Dominique; Melchart, Dieter; Danan, Gaby

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use is popular and appreciated worldwide with increased tendency, although its therapeutic efficacy is poorly established for most herbal TCM products. Treatment was perceived as fairly safe but discussions emerged more recently as to whether herb induced liver injury (HILI) from herbal TCM is a major issue; Methods: To analyze clinical and case characteristics of HILI caused by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database with the search items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, alone and combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury; Results: HILI caused by herbal TCM is rare and similarly to drugs can be caused by an unpredictable idiosyncratic or a predictable intrinsic reaction. Clinical features of liver injury from herbal TCM products are variable, and specific diagnostic biomarkers such as microsomal epoxide hydrolase, pyrrole-protein adducts, metabolomics, and microRNAs are available for only a few TCM herbs. The diagnosis is ascertained if alternative causes are validly excluded and causality levels of probable or highly probable are achieved applying the liver specific RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) as the most commonly used diagnostic tool worldwide. Case evaluation may be confounded by inappropriate or lacking causality assessment, poor herbal product quality, insufficiently documented cases, and failing to exclude alternative causes such as infections by hepatotropic viruses including hepatitis E virus infections; Conclusion: Suspected cases of liver injury from herbal TCM represent major challenges that deserve special clinical and regulatory attention to improve the quality of case evaluations and ascertain patients’ safety and benefit. PMID:28930128

  13. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM and Herbal Hepatotoxicity: RUCAM and the Role of Novel Diagnostic Biomarkers Such as MicroRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Teschke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM with its focus on herbal use is popular and appreciated worldwide with increased tendency, although its therapeutic efficacy is poorly established for most herbal TCM products. Treatment was perceived as fairly safe but discussions emerged more recently as to whether herb induced liver injury (HILI from herbal TCM is a major issue; Methods: To analyze clinical and case characteristics of HILI caused by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database with the search items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, alone and combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury; Results: HILI caused by herbal TCM is rare and similarly to drugs can be caused by an unpredictable idiosyncratic or a predictable intrinsic reaction. Clinical features of liver injury from herbal TCM products are variable, and specific diagnostic biomarkers such as microsomal epoxide hydrolase, pyrrole-protein adducts, metabolomics, and microRNAs are available for only a few TCM herbs. The diagnosis is ascertained if alternative causes are validly excluded and causality levels of probable or highly probable are achieved applying the liver specific RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method as the most commonly used diagnostic tool worldwide. Case evaluation may be confounded by inappropriate or lacking causality assessment, poor herbal product quality, insufficiently documented cases, and failing to exclude alternative causes such as infections by hepatotropic viruses including hepatitis E virus infections; Conclusion: Suspected cases of liver injury from herbal TCM represent major challenges that deserve special clinical and regulatory attention to improve the quality of case evaluations and ascertain patients’ safety and benefit.

  14. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Herbal Hepatotoxicity: RUCAM and the Role of Novel Diagnostic Biomarkers Such as MicroRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Larrey, Dominique; Melchart, Dieter; Danan, Gaby

    2016-07-19

    Background : Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with its focus on herbal use is popular and appreciated worldwide with increased tendency, although its therapeutic efficacy is poorly established for most herbal TCM products. Treatment was perceived as fairly safe but discussions emerged more recently as to whether herb induced liver injury (HILI) from herbal TCM is a major issue; Methods : To analyze clinical and case characteristics of HILI caused by herbal TCM, we undertook a selective literature search in the PubMed database with the search items Traditional Chinese Medicine, TCM, alone and combined with the terms herbal hepatotoxicity or herb induced liver injury; Results : HILI caused by herbal TCM is rare and similarly to drugs can be caused by an unpredictable idiosyncratic or a predictable intrinsic reaction. Clinical features of liver injury from herbal TCM products are variable, and specific diagnostic biomarkers such as microsomal epoxide hydrolase, pyrrole-protein adducts, metabolomics, and microRNAs are available for only a few TCM herbs. The diagnosis is ascertained if alternative causes are validly excluded and causality levels of probable or highly probable are achieved applying the liver specific RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) as the most commonly used diagnostic tool worldwide. Case evaluation may be confounded by inappropriate or lacking causality assessment, poor herbal product quality, insufficiently documented cases, and failing to exclude alternative causes such as infections by hepatotropic viruses including hepatitis E virus infections; Conclusion : Suspected cases of liver injury from herbal TCM represent major challenges that deserve special clinical and regulatory attention to improve the quality of case evaluations and ascertain patients' safety and benefit.

  15. Combining rigour with relevance: a novel methodology for testing Chinese herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Andrew; Lewith, George; Little, Paul

    2011-03-24

    There is a need to develop an evidence base for Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) that is both rigorous and reflective of good practice. This paper proposes a novel methodology to test individualised herbal decoctions using a randomised, double blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial. A feasibility study was conducted to explore the role of CHM in the treatment of endometriosis. Herbal formulae were pre-cooked and dispensed as individual doses in sealed plastic sachets. This permitted the development and testing of a plausible placebo decoction. Participants were randomised at a distant pharmacy to receive either an individualised herbal prescription or a placebo. The trial met the predetermined criteria for good practice. Neither the participants nor the practitioner-researcher could reliably identify group allocation. Of the 28 women who completed the trial, in the placebo group (n=15) 3 women (20%) correctly guessed they were on placebo, 8 (53%) thought they were on herbs and 4 (27%) did not know which group they had been allocated to. In the active group (n=13) 2 (15%) though they were on placebo, 8 (62%) thought they were on herbs and 3 (23%) did not know. Randomisation, double blinding and allocation concealment were successful and the study model appeared to be feasible and effective. It is now possible to subject CHM to rigorous scientific scrutiny without compromising model validity. Improvement in the design of the placebo using food colourings and flavourings instead of dried food will help guarantee the therapeutic inertia of the placebo decoction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Review Study on the Effect of Iranian Herbal Medicines on Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimie, Marzieh; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Saki, Kourosh

    2015-10-01

    Addiction is a chronic and recurring disease that recurrence phenomenon is the most important challenge in treatment of this disease. Recent experiences have shown that synthetic drugs have undesirable side effects. Recent studies on medicinal plants have shown that they might be effective in treatment of different stages of addiction with lower side effects and costs. The aim of this study was to review the effects of medicinal plants in the treatment of morphine addiction in experimental animals. In this review article, by using keywords of morphine, withdrawal, and plants or herbal medicine in databases of indexing cites, desired articles were obtained since 1994. Inclusion criteria for selecting articles were the articles related to application of medicinal plants in decreasing symptoms resulting from morphine withdrawal were selected. Results of this study on experimental studies have shown that medicinal plants such as Trachyspermum copticum L and Melissa officinalis decrease the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome in a dose-dependent. Also, medicinal plants like Avena sativa, Hypericum perforatu, Passiflora incarnate, Valeriana officinalis, Satureja hortensis L, and Mentha piperita can have effects on behavior, emotions, and other problems of addicts, decreasing withdrawal symptoms. Results of this study showed that medicinal plants can be effective in controlling deprivation, decreasing dependency creation, and possibly DETOXIFICATION: of opioid addicts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Understanding security failures of two authentication and key agreement schemes for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dheerendra

    2015-03-01

    Smart card based authentication and key agreement schemes for telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) enable doctors, nurses, patients and health visitors to use smart cards for secure login to medical information systems. In recent years, several authentication and key agreement schemes have been proposed to present secure and efficient solution for TMIS. Most of the existing authentication schemes for TMIS have either higher computation overhead or are vulnerable to attacks. To reduce the computational overhead and enhance the security, Lee recently proposed an authentication and key agreement scheme using chaotic maps for TMIS. Xu et al. also proposed a password based authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS using elliptic curve cryptography. Both the schemes provide better efficiency from the conventional public key cryptography based schemes. These schemes are important as they present an efficient solution for TMIS. We analyze the security of both Lee's scheme and Xu et al.'s schemes. Unfortunately, we identify that both the schemes are vulnerable to denial of service attack. To understand the security failures of these cryptographic schemes which are the key of patching existing schemes and designing future schemes, we demonstrate the security loopholes of Lee's scheme and Xu et al.'s scheme in this paper.

  18. A Secure RFID Tag Authentication Protocol with Privacy Preserving in Telecare Medicine Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Weng, Chi-Yao; Lee, Cheng-Chi

    2015-08-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based solutions are widely used for providing many healthcare applications include patient monitoring, object traceability, drug administration system and telecare medicine information system (TMIS) etc. In order to reduce malpractices and ensure patient privacy, in 2015, Srivastava et al. proposed a hash based RFID tag authentication protocol in TMIS. Their protocol uses lightweight hash operation and synchronized secret value shared between back-end server and tag, which is more secure and efficient than other related RFID authentication protocols. Unfortunately, in this paper, we demonstrate that Srivastava et al.'s tag authentication protocol has a serious security problem in that an adversary may use the stolen/lost reader to connect to the medical back-end server that store information associated with tagged objects and this privacy damage causing the adversary could reveal medical data obtained from stolen/lost readers in a malicious way. Therefore, we propose a secure and efficient RFID tag authentication protocol to overcome security flaws and improve the system efficiency. Compared with Srivastava et al.'s protocol, the proposed protocol not only inherits the advantages of Srivastava et al.'s authentication protocol for TMIS but also provides better security with high system efficiency.

  19. Bridging cross-cultural gaps: monitoring herbal use during chemotherapy in patients referred to integrative medicine consultation in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Limor; Lev, Efraim; Schiff, Elad; Linn, Shai; Ben-Arye, Eran

    2014-10-01

    The high prevalence of the use of traditional herbs among patients with cancer is a cause for concern with regard to potentially adverse interactions with conventional oncology treatments. In this study, we explore herbal use among patients with cancer in northern Israel who are referred by their health care providers to complementary and traditional medicine (CTM) consultations provided to them within the conventional oncology department. The study's objectives were to identify which herbs patients use and to examine the scope of current research on the efficacy and safety regarding the identified herbs. Herbal use by patients receiving oncology care was assessed prospectively from July 2009 to July 2012 by integrative physicians (IPs) trained in herbal medicine. Historical, ethnobotanical, basic research, and clinical data regarding the identified herbs were explored by using a keyword search in PubMed and Middle Eastern ethnohistorical literature. Disclosure of herbal use was reported by 154 of the 305 patients (50.5 %) interviewed by IPs. The use of 85 single herbs and 30 different herbal formulas was documented during the initial or follow-up IP assessments. Patients reported 14 quality of life-associated indications for herbal use. The ten most prevalent herbs displaying in vitro/in vivo anticancer activity and nine other herbs were preliminarily assessed concerning potential risks, safety, and interaction with chemotherapy. Herbal use by patients with cancer in northern Israel is widespread and calls for further study in order to address issues of safety and effectiveness. We recommend constructing a multinational and multidisciplinary team of researchers with ethnopharmacological and clinical expertise that will explore the use of herbs among patients with cancer in a cross-cultural perspective attuned with patients' affinity to traditional herbal medicine.

  20. Ethical quandaries in spiritual healing and herbal medicine: A critical analysis of the morality of traditional medicine advertising in southern African urban societies

    OpenAIRE

    Mawere Munyaradzi

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical prob...

  1. Secure privacy-preserving biometric authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelei; Wen, Qiaoyan; Li, Wenmin; Zhang, Hua; Jin, Zhengping

    2014-11-01

    Healthcare delivery services via telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) can help patients to obtain their desired telemedicine services conveniently. However, information security and privacy protection are important issues and crucial challenges in healthcare information systems, where only authorized patients and doctors can employ telecare medicine facilities and access electronic medical records. Therefore, a secure authentication scheme is urgently required to achieve the goals of entity authentication, data confidentiality and privacy protection. This paper investigates a new biometric authentication with key agreement scheme, which focuses on patient privacy and medical data confidentiality in TMIS. The new scheme employs hash function, fuzzy extractor, nonce and authenticated Diffie-Hellman key agreement as primitives. It provides patient privacy protection, e.g., hiding identity from being theft and tracked by unauthorized participant, and preserving password and biometric template from being compromised by trustless servers. Moreover, key agreement supports secure transmission by symmetric encryption to protect patient's medical data from being leaked. Finally, the analysis shows that our proposal provides more security and privacy protection for TMIS.

  2. Prescriptions of Chinese herbal medicine for constipation under the national health insurance in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Maw-Shiou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Chen, Fang-Pey

    2010-07-01

    Constipation is a common gastrointestinal problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of use and prescriptive patterns of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in treating constipation by analyzing the claims data of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan. The computerized claims dataset of the TCM office visits and the corresponding prescription files in 2004 compiled by the NHI Research Institute in Taiwan were linked and processed. Visit files with the single diagnostic coding of constipation (ICD-9-CM code 564.0) were extracted to analyze the frequency and pattern of corresponding CHM prescriptions. The association rule was applied to analyze the co-prescription of CHM in treating constipation. There were 152,564 subjects who visited TCM clinics only for constipation in Taiwan during 2004 and received a total of 387,268 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 20 and 29 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.5%). Female subjects used CHM for constipation more frequently than male subjects (female:male = 3.31:1). There was an average of 4.6 items of single Chinese herbs or formula in a single prescription for constipation. Ma-zi-renwan was the most commonly prescribed herbal formula, while Da-huang (Rheum palmatum) was the most commonly used single Chinese herb. According to the association rule, the most common prescribed pattern of 2-drug combination of CHM for treating constipation was Ban-xia-xie-xin-tang plus Ma-zi-ren-wan, while the 3-drug combination of CHM was Fang-feng-tong-sheng-san, Rheum palmatum and Ma-zi-ren-wan. This study showed the pattern of single Chinese herbs or herbal formulae used in treating constipation in Taiwan. Further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs in treating constipation. 2010 Elsevier. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsiung Lee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (巴西蘑菇 bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, 雲芝 yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, 靈芝 líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, 香蕈 xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, 牛樟芝 niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus, Cordyceps (冬蟲夏草 dōng chóng xià cǎo, pomegranate (石榴 shí liú; Granati Fructus, green tea (綠茶 lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum, garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus, turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma, and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (青蒿 qīng hāo; sweet wormwood. Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.

  4. Chinese herbal medicine use in Taiwan during pregnancy and the postpartum period: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chao-Hua; Chang, Pei-Jen; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Tsai, Yih-Jian; Lin, Shio-Jean; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2009-06-01

    Using Chinese herbal medicines during pregnancy and postpartum is common in the Chinese community. The purpose of this current study is to explore the use of Chinese herbal medicines by women during pregnancy and postpartum in Taiwan. It is an on-going prospective longitudinal study design. We used multistage stratified systematic sampling to recruit 24,200 pairs, postpartum women and newborns, from the Taiwan national birth register in 2005. Subjects underwent a home interview 6 months after their deliveries between June 2005 and July 2006. A structured questionnaire was successfully administered to 87.8% of the sampled population. At least one Chinese herbal medicine was used by 33.6% and 87.7% of the interviewed subjects during pregnancy and the postpartum period, respectively. An-Tai-Yin, Pearl powder, and Huanglian were the most commonly used during pregnancy, while Shen-Hua-Tang and Suz-Wu-Tang were the most commonly used by postpartum women. Pregnant women aged 20-34, with high education, threatened abortion, chronic disease, and primipara appeared to use more Chinese herbal medicines than others in the sample. Postpartum women with high education, primipara, normal spontaneous delivery, and breastfeeding were found to use more Chinese herbal medicines; but women with pregnancy-related illness used less. Chinese herbal medicines are frequently used by women during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Taiwan and those with high education and primipara used more such herbs. Due to limited safety information on these herbs, we would advise caution regarding their use either during pregnancy or postpartum breastfeeding period. Moreover, it is important for nurses/midwifes enquiring about such habits, and providing the adequate education to women during prenatal and postpartum care to prevent potential side effects.

  5. Complementary Role of Herbal Medicine and Exercise in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Management: A Review of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluswamy, Sundar Kumar; Babu, Abraham Samuel; Sundar, Lakshmi Manickavasagam

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Herbal medicine and exercise interventions have individually been shown to be effective in t