WorldWideScience

Sample records for austurhorn intrusive complex

  1. U–Pb geochronology of the Eocene Kærven intrusive complex, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Þórarinsson, Sigurjón Böðvar; Holm, Paul Martin; Tappe, Sebatstian; Heaman, Larry M.; Prægel, Niels-Ole

    2016-01-01

    Syenite and includes early tholeiitic gabbros and a series of cross-cutting alkaline intrusions ranging from monzonite to alkali granite. The alkaline intrusions cut the gabbros, and are cut by the outer nordmarkite zone of the Kangerlussuaq Syenite. This study presents the first U–Pb zircon ages from the...... alkaline units of the Kærven Complex. Fourteen multi-grain zircon fractions have been analysed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Absolute age differences could not be resolved between the different units, suggesting a relatively rapid succession of intrusions between c. 53.5 and 53.3 Ma. Our...

  2. Geophysical Survey and Detailed Geologic Mapping of an Eroded Stratovolcano's Central Intrusive Complex, Summer Coon, Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, A.

    2015-12-01

    Eroded volcanoes expose plumbing systems that provide important information on intrusive geometries, magma propagation directions, and the effects of host rock types and heterogeneities. Summer Coon Volcano, CO, is an Oligocene stratovolcano where erosion has removed much of the original edifice, revealing the intrusive stocks of the central intrusive complex (CIC). Surrounding the CIC are hundreds of radial dikes ranging from basaltic to rhyolitic in composition. Published geologic maps indicate most radial dikes do not connect to the intrusive stocks, supporting published theories that most did not emanate from the central intrusions. However, much of the area surrounding the CIC is covered by alluvium, suggesting that the lack of connection might be an artifact of exposure. We completed a ground magnetic survey and detailed geological mapping to determine if the dikes continue beneath the alluvium and into the intrusive stocks. Linear magnetic anomalies indicate four NW-SE trending rhyodacite dikes continue beneath the alluvium for up to 250 m, and mapping indicates that at least two of the rhyodacite dikes do extend into the CIC. Shorter linear anomalies are attributed to seven NW-SE trending basaltic dikes ~100-500-m-long which are sparsely exposed in the alluvium. Mapping shows that three rhyodacite dikes extend into the CIC and to within 200 m of their possible source, an 800-m-wide granodiorite stock. Additionally, three rhyolitic dikes extend to within several meters of a 200×500-m-wide tuff breccia zone of similar composition, likely their source. In summary, magnetic data and detailed mapping indicate that radial dikes do extend into the central intrusive complex in contrast to some model predictions.

  3. Semantic intrusion detection with multisensor data fusion using complex event processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Bhargavi; V Vaidehi

    2013-04-01

    Complex Event Processing (CEP) is an emerging technology for processing and identifying patterns of interest from multiple streams of events in real/near real time. Sensor network-based security and surveillance is a topic of recent research where events generated from distributed sensors at an unpredictable rate need to be analysed for possible threats and respond in a timely manner. Traditional software architectures like client/server architecture where the interactions are pull-based (DBMS) do not target the efficient processing of streams of events in real time. CEP which is a push-based system can process streaming data to identify the intrusion patterns in near real time and respond to the threats. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) based on single sensor may fail to give accurate identification of intrusion. Hence there is a need for multisensor based IDS. A multisensor-based IDS enables identification of the intrusion patterns semantically by correlating the events and context information provided by multiple sensors. JDL multisource data fusion model is a well-known research model first established by the Joint Directorate Laboratories. This paper proposes JDL fusion framework-based CEP for semantic intrusion detection. The events generated from heterogeneous sensors are collected, aggregated using logical and spatiotemporal relations to form complex events which model the intrusion patterns. The proposed system is implemented and the results show that the proposed system out performs the pull-based solutions in terms of detection accuracy and detection time.

  4. Tertiary alkaline Roztoky Intrusive Complex, České středohoří Mts., Czech Republic: petrogenetic characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skála, Roman; Ulrych, Jaromír; Ackerman, Lukáš; Jelínek, E.; Dostal, J.; Hegner, E.; Řanda, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 5 (2014), s. 1233-1262. ISSN 1437-3254 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130902 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : Bohemian Massif * Cenozoic * continental rift * Roztoky Intrusive Complex * alkaline intrusions * geochemistry Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2014

  5. Intrusive dike complexes, cumulate cores, and the extrusive growth of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, Ashton F.; Ito, Garrett; Garcia, Michael O.; Sinton, John M.; Kauahikaua, Jim; Taylor, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are the most geologically studied hot-spot islands in the world yet surprisingly, the only large-scale compilation of marine and land gravity data is more than 45 years old. Early surveys served as reconnaissance studies only, and detailed analyses of the crustal-density structure have been limited. Here we present a new chain-wide gravity compilation that incorporates historical island surveys, recently published work on the islands of Hawai‘i, Kaua‘i, and Ni‘ihau, and >122,000 km of newly compiled marine gravity data. Positive residual gravity anomalies reflect dense intrusive bodies, allowing us to locate current and former volcanic centers, major rift zones, and a previously suggested volcano on Ka‘ena Ridge. By inverting the residual gravity data, we generate a 3-D view of the dense, intrusive complexes and olivine-rich cumulate cores within individual volcanoes and rift zones. We find that the Hāna and Ka‘ena ridges are underlain by particularly high-density intrusive material (>2.85 g/cm3) not observed beneath other Hawaiian rift zones. Contrary to previous estimates, volcanoes along the chain are shown to be composed of a small proportion of intrusive material (<30% by volume), implying that the islands are predominately built extrusively.

  6. Root zone of a continental rift: the Neoproterozoic Kebnekaise Intrusive Complex, northern Swedish Caledonides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, Moritz; Svenningsen, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Mafic magmatic rocks formed between ca. 615 and 560 Ma along the Neoproterozoic margins of Baltica and Laurentia are classically attributed to continental rifting heralding the opening of the Iapetus Ocean. We report new data for the Kebnekaise Intrusive Complex (KIC) exposed in the Seve Nappes in...... northern Sweden. The KIC consists of sheeted dolerite dykes and gabbroic bodies with mutually intrusive relations. Major and trace element data exhibit a transitional- to normal-mid-ocean-ridge basalt-type geochemical signature. Differentiation processes and late-stage liquid immiscibility of a tholeiitic...... represent a high-level magma plumbing system in a late-stage continental rift. The composition and volume of rift-related igneous rocks in the Seve Nappes are inconsistent with a mantle plume origin, but are thought to record progressive lithospheric thinning and increasing involvement of an asthenospheric...

  7. Petrogenesis of the Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide-bearing Tamarack Intrusive Complex, Midcontinent Rift System, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranovic, Valentina; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi; Rossell, Dean

    2015-01-01

    The Tamarack Intrusive Complex (TIC, 1105.6 ± 1.2 Ma) in NE Minnesota, was emplaced during the early stages of the development of the Midcontinent Rift System (MRS, "Early Stage": 1110-1106 Ma). Country rocks of the TIC are those of the Paleoproterozoic Thomson Formation, part of the Animikie Group including sulfide-bearing metasedimentary black shale. The magmatic system is composed of at least two principal mafic-ultramafic intrusive sequences: the sulfide-barren Bowl Intrusion in the south and the "dike" area intrusions in the north which host Ni-Cu-Platinum Group Elements (PGE) mineralization with up to 2.33% Ni, 1.24% Cu, 0.34 g/t Pt, 0.23 g/t Pd and 0.18 g/t Au. Two distinct intrusive units in the "dike" area are the CGO (coarse-grained olivine-bearing) Intrusion, a sub-vertical dike-like body, and the overlying sub-horizontal FGO (fine-grained olivine-bearing) Intrusion. Both intrusions comprise peridotite, feldspathic peridotite, feldspathic pyroxenite, melatroctolite and melagabbro. Massive sulfides are volumetrically minor and mainly occur as lenses emplaced into the country rocks associated with both intrusions. Semi-massive (net-textured) sulfides are distributed at the core of the CGO Intrusion, surrounded by a halo of the disseminated sulfides. Disseminated sulfides also occur in lenses along the base of the FGO Intrusion. Olivine compositions in the CGO Intrusion are between Fo89 and Fo82 and in the FGO Intrusion from Fo84 to Fo82. TIC intrusions have more primitive olivine compositions than that of olivine in the sheet-like intrusions in the Duluth Complex (below Fo70), as well as olivine from the smaller, conduit-related, Eagle and East Eagle Intrusions in Northern Michigan (Fo86 to Fo75). The FeO/MgO ratios of the CGO and FGO Intrusion parental magmas, inferred from olivine compositions, are similar to those of picritic basalts erupted during the early stages of the MRS formation. Trace element ratios differ slightly from other intrusions in the

  8. Melanite garnet-bearing nepheline syenite minor intrusion in Mawpyut ultramafic–mafic complex, Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monoj Maitra; J S David; S Bhaduri

    2011-12-01

    Mawpyut igneous suite in Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya plateau comprises differentiated suite of ultramafic–mafic rocks. The complex differs from other ultramafic–alkaline–carbonatite igneous emplacements of Shillong plateau and Mikir Hills like Jesra, Sung, Samchampi complexes, by the absence of alkaline–carbonatite rocks as major litho-units. Melanite garnet-bearing nepheline syenite, occurs as late phase minor intrusion in Mawpyut igneous complex, posseses alkaline character and shows inubiquitous relation with the host ultramafic–mafic rocks. On the other hand, this alkaline intrusive bodies of the Mawpyut igneous complex shows chemico-mineralogical resemblance with garnet-bearing nepheline syenite, ijolite litho-members of Jesra, Sung, Samchampi complexes of the region. It is interpreted that melanite garnet-bearing nepheline syenite intrusion in Mawpyut is contemporaneous with Jesra, Sung, Samchampi ultramafic–alkaline–carbonatite complexes and the host rocks of Mawpyut complex is an earlier magmatic activity possibly from a comparatively least enriched source.

  9. Magma transport in sheet intrusions of the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Magnus; Almqvist, Bjarne S. G.; Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R.; Malehmir, Alireza; Snowball, Ian; Kübler, Lutz

    2016-06-01

    Magma transport through the Earth’s crust occurs dominantly via sheet intrusions, such as dykes and cone-sheets, and is fundamental to crustal evolution, volcanic eruptions and geochemical element cycling. However, reliable methods to reconstruct flow direction in solidified sheet intrusions have proved elusive. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in magmatic sheets is often interpreted as primary magma flow, but magnetic fabrics can be modified by post-emplacement processes, making interpretation of AMS data ambiguous. Here we present AMS data from cone-sheets in the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden. We discuss six scenarios of syn- and post-emplacement processes that can modify AMS fabrics and offer a conceptual framework for systematic interpretation of magma movements in sheet intrusions. The AMS fabrics in the Alnö cone-sheets are dominantly oblate with magnetic foliations parallel to sheet orientations. These fabrics may result from primary lateral flow or from sheet closure at the terminal stage of magma transport. As the cone-sheets are discontinuous along their strike direction, sheet closure is the most probable process to explain the observed AMS fabrics. We argue that these fabrics may be common to cone-sheets and an integrated geology, petrology and AMS approach can be used to distinguish them from primary flow fabrics.

  10. Magma transport in sheet intrusions of the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Magnus; Almqvist, Bjarne S G; Burchardt, Steffi; Troll, Valentin R; Malehmir, Alireza; Snowball, Ian; Kübler, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Magma transport through the Earth's crust occurs dominantly via sheet intrusions, such as dykes and cone-sheets, and is fundamental to crustal evolution, volcanic eruptions and geochemical element cycling. However, reliable methods to reconstruct flow direction in solidified sheet intrusions have proved elusive. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in magmatic sheets is often interpreted as primary magma flow, but magnetic fabrics can be modified by post-emplacement processes, making interpretation of AMS data ambiguous. Here we present AMS data from cone-sheets in the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden. We discuss six scenarios of syn- and post-emplacement processes that can modify AMS fabrics and offer a conceptual framework for systematic interpretation of magma movements in sheet intrusions. The AMS fabrics in the Alnö cone-sheets are dominantly oblate with magnetic foliations parallel to sheet orientations. These fabrics may result from primary lateral flow or from sheet closure at the terminal stage of magma transport. As the cone-sheets are discontinuous along their strike direction, sheet closure is the most probable process to explain the observed AMS fabrics. We argue that these fabrics may be common to cone-sheets and an integrated geology, petrology and AMS approach can be used to distinguish them from primary flow fabrics. PMID:27282420

  11. Pre-Elsonian mafic magmatism in the Nain Igneous Complex, Labrador: the bridges layered intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, L.D.; Wiebe, R.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Whitehouse, M.J.; Snyder, Diane

    1992-01-01

    Decades of work on the pristine, unmetamorphosed, and well exposed anorthositic, mafic and granitic rocks of the Nain igneous complex, Labrador, have led to the conclusion that all plutonic rocks in that area were emplaced in a short time intercal at about 1300 ?? 10 Ma). We report here new isotopic data for mafic intrusive rocks that appear to have crystallized several hundred Ma earlier than the bulk of the plutonic activity in the Nain complex. The Bridges layered intrusion (BLI) is a small (15-20 km2) lens of layered mafic rocks about 1.5 km thick, surrounded and intruded by anorthositic, leuconoritic and leucotroctolitic plutons in the middle of the coastal section of the Nain igneous complex. BLI shows very well developed magmatic structures, including channel scours, slump structures, and ubiquitous modally graded layering. Most rocks, however, show granular textures indicative of recrystallization, presumably caused by emplacement of younger anorthositic rocks. BLI contains cumulate rocks with slightly more primitive mineral compositions (An60-83, Fo66-71) than those of other mafic intrusions in the Nain igneous complex, including Kiglapait. SmNd isotopic data for 7 BLI whole-rocks ranging in composition between olivine melagabbro and olivine leucogabbro yield an age of 1667 ?? 75 Ma, which we interpret as the time of primary crystallization. The internal isotopic systematics of the BLI have been reset, probably by intrusion of adjacent anorthositic plutons. A SmNd mineral isochron (plag, whole-rock, mafics) for a BLI olivine melagabbro gives an age of 1283 ?? 22 Ma, equivalent within error of a mineral array (plag, whole-rock, opx, cpx) for an adjacent, igneous-textured, leuconorite vein (1266 ?? 152 Ma). The initial Nd ratio for BLI corresponds to ??{lunate}Nd = -3.18 ?? 0.44. Other whole-rock samples, however, some with vein-like alteration (Chlorite, serpentine, amphiboles), show ??{lunate}Nd values as low as -9.1, suggesting variable contamination by

  12. Shoshonitic intrusion magmatism in Pajeu-Paraiba belt: the Bom Jardim complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bom Jardim complex is a multi phase intrusion emplaced within the basement of the Pajeu-Paraiba belt, in the Borborema province, N.E., Brazil, during the Pan African (Brasiliano) orogeny, 600 Ma ago. The Bom Jardim complex is primarily composed of monzonites and syenites with subordinated granites. The major and trace elements geochemistry has established a shoshonitic affinity for the monzonite-syenite assemblages, whereas the granites are clearly of a high-K calc-alkaline character. The main geochemical trends determined for the complex are the result of fractionation of mainly amphibole, biotite, alkali feldspar ±clinopyroxene within the developing magmas. The enrichment in transition metal elements, LILE and high LILE/HSFE ratios, coupled with an initial Sr sup(87)/Sr sup(86) ratio of 0.70709 is consistent with a subduction related magma source. (author)

  13. Episodic growth of a Late Cretaceous and Paleogene intrusive complex of pegmatitic leucogranite, Ruby Mountains core complex, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, K.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Barnes, C.G.; Premo, W.R.; Snoke, A.W.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    Gneissic pegmatitic leucogranite forms a dominant component (>600 km3) of the midcrustal infrastructure of the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range core complex (Nevada, USA), and was assembled and modified episodically into a batholithic volume by myriad small intrusions from ca. 92 to 29 Ma. This injection complex consists of deformed sheets and other bodies emplaced syntectonically into a stratigraphic framework of marble, calc-silicate rocks, quartzite, schist, and other granitoids. Bodies of pegmatitic granite coalesce around host-rock remnants, which preserve relict or ghost stratigraphy, thrusts, and fold nappes. Intrusion inflated but did not disrupt the host-rock structure. The pegmatitic granite increases proportionally downward from structurally high positions to the bottoms of 1-km-deep canyons where it constitutes 95%-100% of the rock. Zircon and monazite dated by U-Pb (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe, SHRIMP) for this rock type cluster diffusely at ages near 92, 82(?), 69, 38, and 29 Ma, and indicate successive or rejuvenated igneous crystallization multiple times over long periods of the Late Cretaceous and the Paleogene. Initial partial melting of unexposed pelites may have generated granite forerunners, which were remobilized several times in partial melting events. Sources for the pegmatitic granite differed isotopically from sources of similar-aged interleaved equigranular granites. Dominant Late Cretaceous and fewer Paleogene ages recorded from some pegmatitic granite samples, and Paleogene-only ages from the two structurally deepest samples, together with varying zircon trace element contents, suggest several disparate ages of final emplacement or remobilization of various small bodies. Folded sills that merge with dikes that cut the same folds suggest that there may have been in situ partial remobilization. The pegmatitic granite intrusions represent prolonged and recurrent generation, assembly, and partial melting modification of a

  14. Wiberg: The Santa Rita Village Mortuary Complex (CA-ALA-413): Evidence and Implications of a Meganos Intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Fenenga, Gerrit L

    1994-01-01

    The Santa Rita Village Mortuary Complex (CA-ALA- 413): Evidence and Implications of a Meganos Intrusion. Randy S. Wiberg. Coyote Press Archives of California Prehistory, No. 18, 1988, vi + 99 pp., 8 tables, 35 figures, appendix, $5.95 (paper).

  15. Ultrabasic-basic intrusive vizcaino layered complex and vizcaino ophiolite (southern baja california, mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two ultrabasic-basic rocks-bearing units occur in the Vizcaino Peninsula of Southern Baja California (Mexico): the Vizcaino Layered Complex (VLC) and the San Hipolito Zone (SHZ). The VLC consists of two sequences: the lower Puerto Nuevo Sequence (serpentinite breccia, harzburgite, dunite, cyclic units), and the upper La Pintada Sequence (cyclic units, gabbros, diorites). The SHZ consists of serpentinite, actinote schists. microgabbros, spilitic pillow lavas, ophicalcites, radiolarites, tuffs, greywackes, interbedded limestone and dolomite, siliceous sandstones, and volcano sedimentary strata). The VLC is an autochtonous complex generated by a magma under plating, which is intrusive into the San Pablo Metamorphic Complex (SPMC) (amphibole-biotite gneiss with lenses of granite, migmatitic amphibolitic gneiss, orthoamphibolites). Originally, together with its metamorphic roof, the SPMC, it constituted a continental magmatic arc .The SHZ, a former Late Triassic marginal sea, is an allochthonous Carnian (?)-Norian ophiolitic unit, emplaced as a nappe upon the VLC during the Liassic. During the Late Triassic (starting at ±220 Ma) this zone underwent a long lived extensional event, during which plagiogranite dykes and dolerite/albitite dykes were emplaced into it, whereas the San Hipolito Basin opened behind it. Then, different units of the VLC were exhumed and exposed by low angle normal listric faults. It seems that the upper part of the VLC, La Pintada Sequence and the SPMC were then displaced to their present position of San Pablo-La Pintada. During the Liassic compressional phase the plagiogranite dykes were boudinaged, and slices of the SHZ Nappe came to rest upon every one of the units of the Puerto Nuevo Sequence, including the serpentinite breccia (which gave way to the erroneous notion of the so-called Puerto Nuevo melange of previous literature).

  16. Sequence of magma emplacement and sulfide saturation in the Gaojiacun-Lengshuiqing intrusive complex (SW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Marian; Wilson, Allan H.; Yao, Yong; Chunnett, Gordon; Luo, Yaonan

    2010-08-01

    The Lengshuiqing area contains several small intrusions made up of peridotite ± quartz diorite ± granite spatially associated with the Gaojiacun pluton (gabbroids + peridotite + diorite). Ni-Cu sulfide ore occur at Lengshuiqing, hosted in peridotite. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating produced the ages of 803 ± 4.2 Ma (peridotite), 807 ± 2.6 Ma (oikocrystic hornblende gabbro), 809 ± 4.3 Ma (hornblende gabbronorites) for the Gaojiacun pluton and 807 ± 3.8 Ma (diorite, intrusion I), 817 ± 6.3 Ma (quartz diorite, intrusion II) and 817 ± 5 Ma (peridotite, intrusion 101) for Lengshuiqing. These ages suggest the emplacement of the Gaojiacun pluton later than the intrusions from Lengshuiqing. The olivine from Lengshuiqing does not contain sulfide inclusions and is relatively Ni-rich (1,150-1,550 ppm Ni), suggesting its crystallisation before the sulfide saturation that generated the Ni-Cu deposits. The olivine of the gabbros in the Gaojiacun pluton is Ni-poor (250-800 ppm), which indicates crystallisation from a severely metal-depleted magma after a sulfide saturation event. The olivine in the peridotites from the Gaojiacun pluton has 800-1,150 ppm Ni and contains sulfide inclusions. Moreover, geological evidence suggests the genesis of the peridotites from Gaojiacun in conduits that were ascending through the gabbroids. A sequence of at least three stages of magma emplacement is proposed: (1) Lengshuiqing; (2) gabbroids from Gaojiacun; (3) peridotites from Gaojiacun. Given the age differences, the intrusions at Lengshuiqing and the Gaojiacun pluton might have been produced by different magmatic events.

  17. Radiological Mapping of the Alkaline Intrusive Complex of Jombo, South Coastal Kenya by In-Situ Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniu, Ian; Darby, Iain G.; Kalambuka Angeyo, Hudson

    2016-04-01

    Carbonatites and alkaline intrusive complexes are rich in a variety of mineral deposits such as rare earth elements (REEs), including Nb, Zr and Mn. These are often associated with U and Th bearing minerals, including monazite, samarskite and pyrochlore. Mining waste resulting from mineral processing activities can be highly radioactive and therefore poses a risk to human health and environment. The Jombo complex located in Kenya's south coastal region is potentially one of the richest sources of Nb and REEs in the world. It consists of the main intrusion at Jombo hill, three associated satellite intrusions at Mrima, Kiruku and Nguluku hills, and several dykes. The complex is highly heterogeneous with regard to its geological formation as it is characterized by alkaline igneous rocks and carbonatites which also influence its radio-ecological dynamics. In-situ gamma spectrometry offers a low-cost, rapid and spatially representative radioactivity estimate across a range of landscapes compared to conventional radiometric techniques. In this work, a wide ranging radiological survey was conducted in the Jombo complex as follow up on previous studies[1,2], to determine radiation exposure levels and source distributions, and perform radiological risk assessments. The in-situ measurements were carried out using a 2.0 l NaI(Tl) PGIS-2 portable detector from Pico Envirotec Inc integrated with GPS, deployed for ground (back-pack) and vehicular gamma-ray spectrometry. Preliminary results of radiological distribution and mapping will be presented. [1] Patel, J. P. (1991). Discovery and Innovation, 3(3): 31-35. [2] Kebwaro, J. M. et. al. (2011). J. Phys. Sci., 6(13): 3105-3110.

  18. 916 Ma Pole for southwestern Baltica: palaeomagnetism of the Bjerkreim-Sokndal layered intrusion, Rogaland Igneous Complex, southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laurie L.; McEnroe, Suzanne A.

    2015-10-01

    The Rogaland Igneous Complex (RIC) in southern Norway intruded into post-Sveconorwegian granulite facies crust ˜930 Ma. It includes three massif anorthosites, several small leuconorite bodies and the ˜7 km thick norite-quartz mangerite layered Bjerkreim-Sokndal (BKS) intrusion. The intrusion consists of five rhythmic megaunits created by repeated magma influxes topped by a transition zone and more evolved mangerites and quartz mangerites. Over 70 palaeomagnetic sites have been collected in the BKS, sampling all the megacyclic subunits and overlying mangerites. Remanence within the BKS is held in hemo-ilmenite-only rocks (lower parts of the megacyclic units), mixed hemo-ilmenite and magnetite rocks (upper parts of the lower megacyclic units) and magnetite only rocks in the upper highest megacyclic unit and overlying mangerites. Due to the different oxides present magnetic susceptibility varies over four orders of magnitude with a bimodal distribution (mean susceptibility of 6.4 × 10-3 SI for hemo-ilmenite rocks, and 8.7 × 10-2 SI for magnetite rocks). NRM values do not show a strong bimodal distribution as many of the rocks lacking magnetite have hemo-ilmenite with strong lamellar magnetism; average NRM for the entire suite is 8.83 A m-1. All sites within the cyclic part of the intrusion have stable remanence and produce well-clustered site means. Samples from the upper mangerite rocks, dominated by MD magnetite, are commonly unstable and not all sites provide acceptable data. Mean directions for 66 sites spanning the entire intrusion are I = -73.5°, D = 303.4°, with α95 = 3.7° and k = 24. The resulting pole position is at 35.9°S and 217.9°E, with a palaeolatitude for this part of Baltica of -59.4°. Examination of the magnetic mineralogy combined with geochronology for RIC rocks and cooling rates for the region yields an age of magnetization of 916 Ma. Metamorphic country rocks yield similar directions at least 10 km from the contact, confirming the

  19. The Lost Gardar Intrusion: Critical Metal Exploration at the Paatusoq Syenite Complex, South East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Mark; Finch, Adrian; Hughes, Josh; Christiansen, Ole

    2014-05-01

    Regional mapping by GEUS (Garde, 1998) of the Paatusoq region, South-East Greenland, defined two intrusive centres, the Paatusoq Gabbro (~23km2) and the Paatusoq Syenite (~240km2). These intruded the lithospherically weak boundary between Ketilidian meta-sedimentary rock to the East and to the West the Pelite-Psammite zone sediments unconformably overlying the Julianehåb batholith. Following the discovery of high rare earth element (REE=La-Yb+Y) anomalies in stream sediments (Steenfeldt, 2012) in the Paatusoq region, Paatusoq was the target of exploration by Nuna Minerals A/S in June 2013. The objective was to provide an assessment of the critical metal potential of the region. Exploration involved helicopter reconnaissance and sampling. The Paatusoq syenite (1144±1 Ma) was recognised by Garde (2002) as part of the Gardar Alkaline Igneous Province (1300-1140 Ma). Gardar centres are predominantly found on the South-Western coast and represent products of magmatism associated with repeated Mesoproterozoic rifting. Globally significant critical metal deposits are associated with the province including Motzfeldt (Ta-Nb) and Ilímaussaq (REE-Zr-Nb). Gardar intrusions with significant critical metal mineralisation often record interaction with late-stage fluorine-bearing fluids.Analysis integrated petrography and geochemistry, supplemented by two indicators of fluid interaction with the syenite; the cathodoluminescence textures of feldspars and the halogen content of biotite. The Paatusoq Gabbro showed heterogeneous primary layering and pegmatite schlieren to the West against the syenite. A Gardar Lamprophyre dyke cuts the Gabbro. Petrology showed; subhedral olivine, labradorite, biotite and quartz. Incompatible element geochemistry showed the gabbro has a Zr/Nb ratio >15 consistent with a Ketilidian affinity and the lamprophyre has a Zr/Nb ratio ~5, comparable with other Gardar lamprophyres. The Paatusoq syenite showed lithological variation from quartz

  20. Tertiary alkaline Roztoky Intrusive Complex, České středohoří Mts., Czech Republic: petrogenetic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skála, Roman; Ulrych, Jaromír; Ackerman, Lukáš; Jelínek, Emil; Dostál, Jaroslav; Hegner, Ernst; Řanda, Zdeněk

    2014-07-01

    The České středohoří Mts. is the dominant volcanic center of the Ohře (Eger) rift zone. It hosts the Roztoky Intrusive Complex (RIC), which is made up of a caldera vent and intrusions of 33-28-Ma-old hypabyssal bodies of essexite-monzodiorite-sodalite syenite series accompanied by a radially oriented 30-25-Ma-old dike swarm comprising about 1,000 dikes. The hypabyssal rocks are mildly alkaline mostly foid-bearing types of mafic to intermediate compositions. The dike swarm consists of chemically mildly alkaline and rare strongly alkaline rocks (tinguaites). The geochemical signatures of the mildly alkaline hypabyssal and associated dike rocks of the RIC are consistent with HIMU mantle sources and contributions from lithospheric mantle. The compositional variations of essexite and monzodiorite can be best explained by fractional crystallization of parent magma without significant contributions of crustal material. On the other hand, the composition of monzosyenite, leuco-monzodiorite and sodalite syenite reflects fractional crystallization coupled with variable degrees of crustal assimilation. It is suggested that the parent magmas in the Ohře rift were produced by an adiabatic decompression melting of ambient upper mantle in response to lithospheric extension associated with the Alpine Orogeny.

  1. Hydrogen and carbon abundances and isotopic ratios in apatite from alkaline intrusive complexes, with a focus on carbonatites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeau, S.L.; Epstein, S.; Stolper, E. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Div. of Geological and Planetary Sciences

    1999-06-01

    The authors report H and C contents and {delta}D and {delta}{sup 13}C values of apatites from 15 alkaline intrusive complexes ranging in age from 110 Ma to 2.6 Ga. Sampling focused on carbonatites, but included silicate rocks as well. Heating temperatures up to 1,500 C is needed to extract fully H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} from these apatites. Apatites from carbonatite-rich intrusive complexes contain 0.2--1.1 wt% H{sub 2}O and 0.05--0.70 wt% CO{sub 2}; apatites from two silicate-rich alkaline complexes with little or no carbonatite are generally poorer in both volatile components (0.1--0.2% H{sub 2}O and 0.01--0.11% CO{sub 2}). D/H ratios in apatites from these rocks are bimodally distributed. The authors suggest that the {delta}D values of group I apatites represent primitive, mantle-derived values and that the group II apatites crystallized from degassed magmas, resulting in lower H{sub 2}O contents and {delta}D values. In contrast to H{sub 2}O contents and {delta}D values, CO{sub 2} contents and {delta}{sup 13}C values of gas released at high temperatures from multiple aliquots of these apatite samples are variable. This suggests the presence of more than one C-bearing component in these apatites, one of which is proposed to be dissolved carbonate; the other could be associated with hydrocarbons.

  2. Development of a complex groundwater model to assess the relation among groundwater resource exploitation, seawater intrusion and land subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi Ting, Fang; Yih Chi, Tan; Chen, Jhong Bing

    2016-04-01

    The land subsidence, which is usually irreversible, in Taiwan Pintung Plain occurred due to groundwater overexploitation. Many of the land subsidence areas in Taiwan are located in coastal area. It could not only result in homeland loss, but also vulnerability to flooding because the function of drainage system and sea wall are weakened for the lowered ground surface. Groundwater salinization and seawater intrusion could happen more easily as well. This research focuses on grasping the trend of environmental change due to the damage and impact from inappropriate development of aquaculture in the last decades. The main task is developing the artificial neural networks (ANNs) and complex numerical model for conjunctive use of surface and groundwater which is composed of a few modules such as land use, land subsidence, contamination transportation and etc. An approach based on self-organizing map (SOM) is proposed to delineate groundwater recharge zones. Several topics will be studied such as coupling of surface water and groundwater modeling, assessing the benefit of improving groundwater resources by recharge, identifying the improper usage of groundwater resources, and investigating the effect of over-pumping on land subsidence in different depth. In addition, a complete plan for managing both the flooding and water resources will be instituted by scheming non-engineering adaptation strategies for homeland planning, ex. controlling pumping behavior in area vulnerable to land subsidence and increasing groundwater recharge.

  3. Geologic Mapping in Nogal Peak Quadrangle: Geochemistry, Intrusive Relations and Mineralization in the Sierra Blanca Igneous Complex, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, F.; Kelley, S. A.; Lawrence, J. R.; Cikowski, C. T.; Krier, D. J.; Goff, C. J.; McLemore, V. T.

    2011-12-01

    Nogal Peak quadrangle is located in the northern Sierra Blanca Igneous Complex (SBIC) and contains most of the White Mountain Wilderness (geologic map is available at http://geoinfo.nmt.edu/publications/maps/geologic/ofgm/details.cfml?Volume=134). The geology of the quad consists of a late Eocene to Oligocene volcanic pile (Sierra Blanca Volcanics, mostly alkali basalt to trachyte) intruded by a multitude of dikes, plugs and three stocks: Rialto, 31.4 Ma (mostly syenite), Three Rivers, ca. 29 to 27 Ma (quartz syenite intruded by subordinate alkali granite), and Bonito Lake, 26.6 Ma (mostly monzonite). Three Rivers stock is partially surrounded by alkali rhyolites that geochemically resemble the alkali granites. The circular shape of the stock and surrounding rhyolites suggests they form the root of a probable caldera. SBIC rocks have compositions typical of those found within the Rocky Mountain alkaline belt and those associated with continental rift zone magmatism. Because the volcanic host rocks are deeply eroded, intrusive relations with the stocks are well exposed. Most contacts at stock margins are near vertical. Roof pendants are common near some contacts and stoped blocks up to 700 m long are found within the Three Rivers stock. Contacts, pendants and stoped blocks generally display some combination of hornfelsing, brecciation, fracturing, faulting and mineralization. Sierra Blanca Volcanics display hydrothermal alteration increasing from argillic in the NW sector of the quad to high-temperature porpylitic near stock margins. Retrograde phyllic alteration occurs within breccia pipes and portions of the stocks. Mineral deposits consist of four types: Placer Au, fissure veins (mostly Ag-Pb-Zn±Au), breccia pipes (Au-Mo-Cu), and porphyry Mo-Cu. A singular pipe on the SW margin of Bonito Lake stock contains sapphire-lazulite-alunite. Although Au has been intermittently mined in the quad since 1865, best production of Au originated around the turn of the last

  4. Rapid deployment intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs

  5. The Burakovskii layered complex (Southern Karelia) as a result of juxtaposition of two intrusions: petrological and isotopic-geochemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The age of base and ultrabase rocks of Aganozerski body (AB) and Shalozersk-Burakovski intrusive body (SBB), forming the Burakovski layered pluton in the Southern Karelia, was determined using the methods of Sm-Nd-, Rb-Sr- and Pb-Pb - dating. Isotopic age of AB made up 2374±29 mln. years, whereas SBB age proved 2433±28 mln. years. Results of the isotopic studies suggest that AB, being 50 mln. years younger than SBB, is a younger independent intrusion

  6. Magma dynamics at the base of an evolving mafic magma chamber: Incompatible element evidence from the Partridge River intrusion, Duluth Complex, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalokwu, Christopher I.; Ariskin, Alexei A.; Koptev-Dvornikov, Evgeny V.

    1996-12-01

    A characteristic feature of the Partridge River intrusion of the Keweenawan Duluth Complex is the approximately fivefold to ninefold increase in the concentrations of incompatible elements in the lower zone compared with cumulates stratigraphically higher. The concentrations of incompatible elements decrease from the lower zone upward to steady state values, which is ascribed to variations in the proportions of trapped liquid rather than variable degrees of fractional crystallization of a single parental magma. The calculated average composition of trapped liquid using our algorithm is similar to typical Keweenawan low-alumina, high Tisbnd P basalts associated with the Duluth Complex but is different from the leading edge ferrodioritic liquid quenched in the chilled margin of the intrusion. This difference suggests that the chilled margin does not represent the original (parental) magma composition from which the whole intrusion solidified, and that the enrichment of incompatible elements may be related to the local flotation of magmatic suspensions. To test the latter hypothesis numerically, we have used heat-mass transfer models, assuming a sheet-like magma chamber, to calculate the parameters of the model that best reproduce the observed distribution of incompatible elements in a mush zone at the base of the Partridge River intrusion. The results indicate that a mush zone enriched in the incompatible elements is produced if the velocity of movement of the lower solidification front into the magma body was less than the floating velocity of the bulk crystal mush. The dynamic parameters that best reproduce the observed distribution of incompatible elements include a magma emplacement pressure of 2 kbar, critical crystallinities of 50-68% in the mush zone from which the liquid is being expelled, and an emplacement temperature of ˜ 1160°C for the initial magma.

  7. Petrology of the Motaghairat mafic-ultramafic complex, Eastern Desert, Egypt: A high-Mg post-collisional extension-related layered intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Halim, Ali H.; Helmy, Hassan M.; Abd El-Rahman, Yasser M.; Shibata, Tomoyuki; El Mahallawi, Mahmoud M.; Yoshikawa, Masako; Arai, Shoji

    2016-02-01

    The geodynamic settings of the Precambrian mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Eastern Desert of Egypt have important bearing on understanding the geotectonic evolution of the Arabian Nubian Shield. We present a detailed petrological study on a layered mafic-ultramafic intrusion that is located at the contact between the Precambrian continental crust and the Miocene Red Sea oceanic crust. The Motaghairat layered intrusion consists of basal lherzolite, orthopyroxenite, troctolite, olivine gabbro and anorthosite on the top. Variations in modal mineralogy and mineral chemistry along with the chemical composition of these units suggest their derivation from a common high-Mg tholeiitic parent melt through fractional crystallization processes. The parental magma was derived from a metasomatised mantle source. The primitive mantle-normalized patterns of the calculated melts exhibit enrichment in U relative to Th and Ba relative LREE which indicate that the enriched lithospheric mantle source was metasomatised by fluids derived from a subducted oceanic crust rather than by a sediment melt. Geological and petrological evidences suggest that the layered Motaghairat intrusion was emplaced during post-orogenic extension following subduction break-off and lithospheric delamination after the collision between the amalgamated island arc terranes and the Saharan Metacraton. The heat source required to melt the metasomatised lithospheric mantle was derived from the upwelling of hot asthenosphere after the subduction-break-off.

  8. 900 Ma Pole from the Bjerkreim-Sokndal Layered Intrusion, Rogaland Igneous Complex, Norway: Where Was Baltica in the Early Neoproterozoic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. L.; McEnroe, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    The southern Norwegian Rogaland Igneous Complex (RIC) intruded into post-Sveconorwegian granulite facies crust between 930 and 920 Ma. It includes three massif anorthosites, several small leuconorite bodies and the ~7km thick norite-quartz mangerite layered Bjerkreim-Sokndal (BKS) intrusion. The intrusion consists of five rhythmic mega-units created by repeated magma influxes capped by a transition zone and a thick sequence of more evolved mangerites and quartz mangerites. Over 70 paleomagnetic sites have been collected in the BKS, sampling all the mega-cyclic subunits and overlying mangerites. Remanence within the BKS is held in hemo-ilmenite-only rocks (lower parts of the mega-cyclic units), mixed hemo-ilmenite and magnetite rocks (upper parts of the lower mega-cyclic units) and magnetite only rocks in the upper highest mega-cyclic unit and overlying mangerites. Due to the different oxides present magnetic susceptibility varies over four orders of magnitude with a bimodal distribution (mean susceptibility of 6.4 x 10-3 SI for hemo-ilmenite rocks, and 8.9 x 10-2 SI for magnetite rocks). NRM values do not show a strong bimodal distribution as many of the rocks lacking magnetite have hemo-ilmenite with strong lamellar magnetism; average NRM for the entire suite is 8.83 A/m. All sites within the cyclic part of the intrusion have stable remanence and produce well-clustered site means. Samples from the upper mangerite rocks, dominated by MD magnetite, are often unstable and not all sites provide acceptable data. Mean directions for 66 sites spanning the entire intrusion are I = -73.7°, D = 303.7°, with α95 = 3.6° and k = 24. The resulting pole position is at 36.1°S and 217.5°E, with a paleolatitude for this part of Baltica of 59.7°S. Examination of the magnetic mineralogy combined with geochronology for RIC rocks yields an age of magnetization of ~900 Ma. Metamorphic country rocks yield similar directions at least 10 km from the contact, confirming the presence

  9. Post-collisional multistage magmatism in the Ribeira mobile belt: geochemical and isotopic study of the Varzea Alegre intrusive complex, Espirito Santo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Varzea Alegre Intrusive Complex (VAIC) corresponds to a post-collisional (late orogenic) pluton, related to the Brasiliano cycle, situated in the central part of the Espirito Santo State. It intrudes amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphic rocks of the Ribeira Belt. Two distinct domains were recognised in this zoned pluton: an inner domain with opx-gabbro, monzogabbro, diorite, quartz-diorite and megaporphyritic granite, and an outer one comprising an irregular and large ring of charnockitic rocks. Geochemical data from the former reveal medium to high-K calc-alkalic rocks, enriched in incompatible elements, mainly Ba, Sr, La, Ce and Pb and partially depleted in HFS elements. The charnockitic rocks show a high-K alkali-calcic signature; they are rich in Ba, K and some HFS elements, such a Zr, P and Nb. The incompatible element enrichment detected in the rocks of the VAIC has been reported for several intrusions from this part of the Ribeira Belt. A Rb-Sr isochronic age of 508± 12 Ma was determined for the megaporphyritic granite. The TDM model age varies from 1.3 Ga (opx-gabbro) to ca. 1.67 Ga (charnockitic rocks), which can be related to an important Mesoproterozoic crustal event. The calculated TCHUR model ages of the cogenetic opx-gabbros and intermediary rocks is ca. 1.0 Ga, interpreted as the time when the basic magma was extracted from the source. (author)

  10. From intrusive to oscillating thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Anne Griswold

    2007-10-01

    This paper focused on the possibility that intrusive thoughts (ITs) are a form of an evolutionary, adaptive, and complex strategy to prepare for and resolve stressful life events through schema formation. Intrusive thoughts have been studied in relation to individual conditions, such as traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. They have also been documented in the average person experiencing everyday stress. In many descriptions of thought intrusion, it is accompanied by thought suppression. Several theories have been put forth to describe ITs, although none provides a satisfactory explanation as to whether ITs are a normal process, a normal process gone astray, or a sign of pathology. There is also no consistent view of the role that thought suppression plays in the process. I propose that thought intrusion and thought suppression may be better understood by examining them together as a complex and adaptive mechanism capable of escalating in times of need. The ability of a biological mechanism to scale up in times of need is one hallmark of a complex and adaptive system. Other hallmarks of complexity, including self-similarity across scales, sensitivity to initial conditions, presence of feedback loops, and system oscillation, are also discussed in this article. Finally, I propose that thought intrusion and thought suppression are better described together as an oscillatory cycle. PMID:17904485

  11. Intrusion Detection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pietro, Roberto Di

    2008-01-01

    In our world of ever-increasing Internet connectivity, there is an on-going threat of intrusion, denial of service attacks, or countless other abuses of computer and network resources. In particular, these threats continue to persist due to the flaws of current commercial intrusion detection systems (IDSs). Intrusion Detection Systems is an edited volume by world class leaders in this field. This edited volume sheds new light on defense alert systems against computer and network intrusions. It also covers integrating intrusion alerts within security policy framework for intrusion response, rel

  12. Crustal melting and magma mixing in a continental arc setting: Evidence from the Yaloman intrusive complex in the Gorny Altai terrane, Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Min; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Cai, Keda; Zhao, Guochun; Kulikova, Anna V.; Rubanova, Elena S.

    2016-05-01

    Granitoids and their hosted mafic enclaves may retain important information on crust-mantle interaction, and thus are significant for study of crustal growth and differentiation. An integrated petrological, geochronological and geochemical study on the granitoid plutons of the Yaloman intrusive complex from the Gorny Altai terrane, northwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, was conducted to determine their source nature, petrogenesis and geodynamics. Mafic enclaves are common in the plutons, and a zircon U-Pb age (389 Ma ± 4 Ma) indicates that they are coeval with their granitoid hosts (ca. 393-387 Ma). Petrographic observations reveal that these mafic enclaves probably represent magmatic globules commingled with their host magmas. The relatively low SiO2 contents (46.0-60.7 wt.%) and high Mg# (38.9-56.5) further suggest that mantle-derived mafic melts served as a crucial component in the formation of these mafic enclaves. The granitoid hosts, including quartz diorites and granodiorites, are I-type in origin, possessing higher SiO2 contents (60.2-69.9 wt.%) and lower Mg# (32.0-44.2). Their zircon Hf and whole-rock Nd isotopic compositions indicate that the magmas were dominated by remelting of Neoproterozoic (0.79-1.07 Ga) crustal materials. Meanwhile, the geochemical modeling, together with the common occurrence of igneous mafic enclaves and the observation of reversely zoned plagioclases, suggests that magma mixing possibly contributed significantly to the geochemical variation of the granitoid hosts. Our results imply that mafic magmas from the mantle not only provided substantial heat to melt the lower crust, but also mixed with the crust-derived melts to form the diverse granitoids. The oxidizing and water-enriched properties inferred from the mineral assemblages and compositions imply that the granitoid plutons of the Yaloman intrusive complex were possibly formed in a continental arc-related setting, which is also supported by their geochemistry. The

  13. An overview to Software Architecture in Intrusion Detection System

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrami, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Network intrusion detection systems provide proactive defense against security threats by detecting and blocking attack-related traffic. This task can be highly complex, and therefore, software based network intrusion detection systems have difficulty in handling high speed links. This paper reviews of many type of software architecture in intrusion detection systems and describes the design and implementation of a high-performance network intrusion detection system that combines the use of software-based network intrusion detection sensors and a network processor board. The network processor acts as a customized load balancing splitter that cooperates with a set of modified content-based network intrusion detection sensors in processing network traffic.

  14. Development of computer program ENAUDIBL for computation of the sensation levels of multiple, complex, intrusive sounds in the presence of residual environmental masking noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebich, R. E.; Chang, Y.-S.; Chun, K. C.

    2000-03-31

    The relative audibility of multiple sounds occurs in separate, independent channels (frequency bands) termed critical bands or equivalent rectangular (filter-response) bandwidths (ERBs) of frequency. The true nature of human hearing is a function of a complex combination of subjective factors, both auditory and nonauditory. Assessment of the probability of individual annoyance, community-complaint reaction levels, speech intelligibility, and the most cost-effective mitigation actions requires sensation-level data; these data are one of the most important auditory factors. However, sensation levels cannot be calculated by using single-number, A-weighted sound level values. This paper describes specific steps to compute sensation levels. A unique, newly developed procedure is used, which simplifies and improves the accuracy of such computations by the use of maximum sensation levels that occur, for each intrusive-sound spectrum, within each ERB. The newly developed program ENAUDIBL makes use of ERB sensation-level values generated with some computational subroutines developed for the formerly documented program SPECTRAN.

  15. Interior intrusion detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Dry, B. (BE, Inc., Barnwell, SC (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Interior intrusion detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Data Mining and Intrusion Detection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zibusiso Dewa; Leandros A. Maglaras

    2016-01-01

    The rapid evolution of technology and the increased connectivity among its components, imposes new cyber-security challenges. To tackle this growing trend in computer attacks and respond threats, industry professionals and academics are joining forces in order to build Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) that combine high accuracy with low complexity and time efficiency. The present article gives an overview of existing Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) along with their main principles. Also th...

  18. 川西盐源两个碳酸岩杂岩体的厘定及其地质意义%Discovery of Two Carbonatite Intrusive Complexes in Yanyuan Area of Western Sichuan and its Geological Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽敏; 张志斌; 崔文玲

    2014-01-01

    川西盐源地区马丝缧和干沟两个碳酸岩杂岩体位于盐源-丽江推覆构造带的茶铺子-巴折脆-韧性断裂带内。根据两个杂岩体的地质分布、产状、岩石矿物共生组合、围岩蚀变类型等特征,确认其具有岩浆侵入体的典型特征,非前人划分的变质沉积碳酸盐岩。这两个碳酸岩杂岩体与冕宁-德昌稀土成矿带的其他碳酸岩-碱性岩杂岩体有类似的特征。在茶铺子-巴折一带也发现了明显的多金属、稀土、铀等矿化。这一发现为盐源-丽江推覆构造带的大地构造演化和区域成矿系统研究提供了重要的资料,为寻找类似于牦牛坪的稀土等矿床提供了重要线索。%The Masilei and Gangou carbonatite intrusive complexes were discovered in the Yanyuan area of western Sichuan based on geological and mineralogical investigations. Tectonically, the two complexes are located in the Chapuzi-Bazhe brittle-ductile fault of the Yanyuan-Lijiang Nappe Belt. The carbonatite complexes are veins in shape without fossil, and intruded the wall rocks. The rocks are mainly composed of calcite, plagioclase, rutile and exhibit magmatic crystallization structure. In addition, lamprophyre and diabase dykes occurring along the fault belts are also found in the adjacent area. The distribution, occurrence, rock association, mineral paragenesis and wall-rock alteration of the two complexes, argue that they are igneous carbonatite intrusives rather than the metamorphic sedimentary carbonate rocks previously suggested. Both of them are similar to the other carbonatite-alkaline igneous complexes along the Mianning-Dechang Rare Earth Element (REEs) Metallogenic Belt. The polymetallic, rare earth, uranium mineralization is also found in the Chapuzi-Bazhe Zone. Therefore, the discovery of the two carbonatite intrusive complexes provided new evidence for the tectonic evolution and regional metallogenic system along the Yanyuan-Lijiang Nappe Belt, and

  19. Geochemical, zircon U-Pb dating and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic constraints on the age and petrogenesis of an Early Cretaceous volcanic-intrusive complex at Xiangshan, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shui-Yuan; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Jiang, Yao-Hui; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Fan, Hong-Hai

    2011-01-01

    The Late Mesozoic geology of Southeast China is characterized by extensive Jurassic to Cretaceous magmatism consisting predominantly of granites and rhyolites and subordinate mafic rocks, forming a belt of volcanic-intrusive complexes. The Xiangshan volcanic-intrusive complex is located in the NW region of the belt and mainly contains the following lithologies: rhyodacite and rhyodacitic porphyry, porphyritic lava, granite porphyry with mafic microgranular enclaves, quartz monzonitic porphyry, and lamprophyre dyke. Major and trace-element compositions, zircon U-Pb dating, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions have been investigated for these rocks. The precise SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that the emplacement of various magmatic units at Xiangshan took place within a short time period of less than 2 Myrs. The stratigraphically oldest rhyodacite yielded a zircon U-Pb age of 135 ± 1 Ma and the overlying rhyodacitic porphyry has an age of 135 ± 1 Ma. Three porphyritic lava samples yielded zircon U-Pb ages of 136 ± 1 Ma, 132 ± 1 Ma, and 135 ± 1 Ma, respectively. Two subvolcanic rocks (granite porphyry) yielded zircon U-Pb ages of 137 ± 1 Ma and 137 ± 1 Ma. A quartz monzonitic porphyry dyke, which represented the final stage of magmatism at Xiangshan, also yielded a zircon U-Pb age of 136 ± 1 Ma. All these newly obtained precise U-Pb ages demonstrate that the entire magmatic activity at Xiangshan was rapid and possibly took place at the peak of extensional tectonics in SE China. The geochemical data indicate that all these samples from the volcanic-intrusive complex have an A-type affinity. Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data suggest that the Xiangshan volcanic-intrusive complex derived mainly from remelting of Paleo-Mesoproterozoic crust without significant additions of mantle-derived magma. However, the quartz monzonitic porphyry, which has zircon Hf model ages older than the whole-rock Nd model ages, and which has ɛNd(T) value higher than the other rocks

  20. Network intrusion detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oboile Tirelo; YANG Chun-hua

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays, network computer systems play an increasingly important role in society and economy. They have become the targets of a wide array of malicious attacks that invariably turn into actual intrusions. This is why the computer security has become an essential concern for network administrators. Too often, intrusions wreak havoc inside LANs and the time and cost to repair the damage can grow to extreme proportions. Instead of using passive measures to fix and patch security holes once they have been exploited, it is more effective to adopt a protective approach to intrusions. In addition to the well-established intrusion prevention techniques such as data encryption and message integrity, user authentication and user authorization, as well as the avoidance of security flaws inherent to many off-the-shelf applications, intrusion detection techniques can be viewed as an addition safeguard for network computers. The paper discusses traditional and new security designs, the approach to implementing best-practice security measures and the method to trace the malicious computer attackers.

  1. Timing and genesis of the adakitic and shoshonitic intrusions in the Laoniushan complex, southern margin of the North China Craton: Implications for post-collisional magmatism associated with the Qinling Orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li-Xue; Ma, Chang-Qian; Li, Jian-Wei; Robinson, Paul T.; Deng, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Wang-Chun

    2011-10-01

    The NWW-striking Qinling Orogen formed in the Triassic by collision between the North China and Yangtze Cratons. Triassic granitoid intrusions, mostly middle- to high-K, calc-alkaline, are widespread in this orogen, but contemporaneous intrusions are rare in the southern margin of the North China Craton, an area commonly considered as the hinterland belt of the orogen. In this paper, we report zircon U-Pb ages, elemental geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data for the Laoniushan granitoid complex that was emplaced in the southern margin of the North China Craton. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that the complex was emplaced in the late Triassic (228 ± 1 to 215 ± 4 Ma), indicating that it is part of the post-collisional magmatism in the Qinling Orogen. The complex consists of, from early to late, biotite monzogranite, quartz diorite, quartz monzonite, and hornblende monzonite, which span a wide compositional range, e.g., SiO 2 = 55.9-70.6 wt.%, K 2O + Na 2O = 6.6-10.2 wt.%, and Mg # of 24 to 54. The biotite monzogranite has high Al 2O 3 (15.5-17.4 wt.%), Sr (396-1398 ppm) and Ba (1284-3993 ppm) contents and relatively high La/Yb (mostly 14-30) and Sr/Y (mostly 40-97) ratios, but low Yb (mostly 1.3-1.6 ppm) and Y (mostly14-19 ppm) contents, features typical of adakitic rocks. The quartz monzonite, hornblende monzonite and quartz diorite have a shoshonitic affinity, with K 2O up to 5.58 wt.% and K 2O/Na 2O ratios averaging 1.4. The rocks are characterized by strong LREE/HREE fractionation in chondrite-normalized REE pattern, without obvious Eu anomalies, and show enrichment in large ion lithophile elements but depletion in high field strength elements (Nb, Ta, Ti). The biotite monzogranite (228 Ma) has initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios of 0.7061 to 0.7067, ɛNd(t) values of - 9.2 to - 12.6, and ɛ Hf(t) values of - 9.0 to - 15.1; whereas the shoshonitic granitoids (mainly 217-215 Ma) have similar initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (0.7065 to 0.7075) but more radiogenic ɛNd(t) (- 12.4 to

  2. Wave Induced Saline Intrusion in Sea Outfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Burrows, Richard

    Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the influence of wave increases the tendency of saline intrusion in multi-riser sea outfalls. The flow field in the diffusor under such unsteady and inhomogeneous circumstances is in general very complex, but when sufficient wave energy is...

  3. Intrusive prospective imagery, posttraumatic intrusions and anxiety in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Charlotte P; Picchioni, Marco M; Ellett, Lyn

    2015-12-30

    Trauma exposure and intrusive thoughts are commonly reported in both schizophrenia and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Information processing accounts suggest that intrusions occur in the two conditions as a result of insufficient state and/or trait contextual processing in long-term memory. Most research has focused on intrusions about past events, while growing evidence suggests that intrusions about prospective imagined events warrants further investigation. Prospective intrusive imagery has yet to be examined in psychotic disorders but could provide crucial information regarding the aetiology and maintenance of psychotic symptoms. The current study examines the role of prospective intrusive imagery, posttraumatic intrusions and anxiety in schizophrenia. Fifty-seven participants (30 patients and 27 healthy controls) completed measures of trauma, PTSD, anxiety, general non-affective use of imagery, and intrusive prospective imagery. Patients reported significantly more intrusive prospective imagery relative to control participants but, importantly, not greater use of general non-affective imagery. Intrusive prospective imagery was associated with posttraumatic intrusions and anxiety in schizophrenia. The findings are consistent with information processing models of intrusions and psychosis, and provide novel insights for theoretical accounts, clinical formulation and therapeutic targets for psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:26619917

  4. Magma rheology variation in sheet intrusions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, C.; O'Driscoll, B.; Petronis, M. S.; Stevenson, C.

    2013-12-01

    The rheology of magma fundamentally controls igneous intrusion style as well as the explosivity and type of volcanic eruptions. Importantly, the dynamic interplay between the viscosity of magma and other processes active during intrusion (e.g., crystallisation, magma mixing, assimilation of crystal mushes and/or xenolith entrainment) will likely bear an influence on the temporal variation of magma rheology. Constraining the timing of rheological changes during magma transit therefore plays an important role in understanding the nuances of volcanic systems. However, the rheological evolution of actively emplacing igneous intrusions cannot be directly studied. While significant advances have been made via experimental modelling and analysis of lava flows, how these findings relate to intruding magma remains unclear. This has led to an increasing number of studies that analyse various characteristics of fully crystallised intrusions in an attempt to ';back-out' the rheological conditions governing emplacement. For example, it has long been known that crystallinity affects the rheology and, consequently, the velocity of intruding magma. This means that quantitative textural analysis of crystal populations (e.g., crystal size distribution; CSD) used to elucidate crystallinity at different stages of emplacement can provide insights into magma rheology. Similarly, methods that measure flow-related fabrics (e.g., anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility; AMS) can be used to discern velocity profiles, a potential proxy for the magma rheology. To illustrate these ideas, we present an integrated AMS and petrological study of several sheet intrusions located within the Ardnamurchan Central Complex, NW Scotland. We focus on the entrainment and transport dynamics of gabbroic inclusions that were infiltrated by the host magma upon entrainment. Importantly, groundmass magnetic fabrics within and external to these inclusions are coaxial. This implies that a deviatoric stress was

  5. WLAN Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Sushama Shirke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This is an implementation of the Wireless LAN Intrusion Detection System (WIDS using clock-skews as a fingerprinting property as suggested by Jana-Kasera [1]. Our objective is to detect the presence of a fake access point (AP in a Wireless LAN (WLAN. Use of clock -skew enables us to effectively detect Medium Access Control (MAC Address spoofing. The principle used in this project is that clock s k e w s remain consistent over time for the same AP but vary significantly across AP’s. We have also tried to exploreprobable points of failure and implemented algorithms to overcome these problems. Advantage of this implementation is that fake AP can be detected very quickly as WLAN Intrusion Detection System needs only 100 -200 packets in most cases.

  6. Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jack TIMOFTE

    2008-01-01

    The wireless networks have changed the way organizations work and offered a new range of possibilities, but at the same time they introduced new security threats. While an attacker needs physical access to a wired network in order to launch an attack, a wireless network allows anyone within its range to passively monitor the traffic or even start an attack. One of the countermeasures can be the use of Wireless Intrusion Prevention Systems.

  7. Operational Network Intrusion Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Dreger, Holger

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to examine dependencies and tradeoffs between the resource usage (CPU and memory) and the analysis capabilities of Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS). We base our work on the experience of running NIDS in large network environments (among them the Münchener Wissenschaftsnetz (MWN)). These show that resource management is vital for running NIDS in high volume networks. To reduce the resource consumption of NIDS is often only possible by reducing the NIDS' ana...

  8. Perimeter intrusion sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain an effective perimeter intrusion detection system requires careful sensor selection, procurement, and installation. The selection process involves a thorough understanding of the unique site features and how these features affect the performance of each type of sensor. It is necessary to develop procurement specifications to establish acceptable sensor performance limits. Careful explanation and inspection of critical installation dimensions is required during on-site construction. The implementation of these activities at a particular site is discussed

  9. Deformation Structures associated with the emplacement of high level intrusions: A study of Trachyte Mesa Intrusion, Henry Mountains, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P. I. R.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.; Jarvis, I.; Murphy, P.; Davidson, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Most studies of sill and laccolith complexes have focused on the internal architecture and thermal effects of these intrusions, while few have looked in detail at host rock deformation structures associated with their emplacement. Various sill and laccolith emplacement mechanisms have been proposed (e.g. radial growth/ bulldozing, and two-stage growth), each with their own distinct deformation style. Compressional structures likely dominate during radial growth (bulldozing) emplacement, while extensional structures are more likely to form during two-stage growth emplacement. In this study we focus on deformation structures (faults, deformation bands and joints) associated with emplacement of Tertiary sills and laccolith intrusions in the Henry Mountains, Utah. Trachyte Mesa, the most distal satellite intrusion to the Mt. Hilliers intrusive centre, is an elongate (NE-SW) laccolith concordant with the Entrada sandstone it intrudes. The intrusion is comprised of multiple, stacked intrusive sheets. Two structural transects across the northwest lateral margin have identified distinct structural domains within the host rock that reflect both temporal and kinematic variations in deformation. Three deformation phases are identified, interpreted to be pre-, syn- and late-emplacement structures. A background set of deformation bands (phase 1), trending oblique to the intrusion margin, is apparent across the entire area. A second set of deformation bands (phase 2) overprint the early phase. These are characterised by conjugate deformation bands that parallel the intrusion margin, and increase in intensity and spacing towards the intrusion. Within this same zone a series of calcite filled normal faults, striking parallel and perpendicular to the intrusion margin, are apparent. Due to their spatial, kinematic and overprinting relationships we interpret these to be linked to the emplacement of the intrusive body. Overprinting all other structures, are two sets of tensile joints

  10. An Implementation of Intrusion Detection System Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sazzadul Hoque

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is very important to maintain a high level security to ensure safe and trusted communication of information between various organizations. But secured data communication over internet and any other network is always under threat of intrusions and misuses. So Intrusion Detection Systems have become a needful component in terms of computer and network security. There are various approaches being utilized in intrusion detections, but unfortunately any of the systems so far is not completely flawless. So, the quest of betterment continues. In this progression, here we present an Intrusion Detection System (IDS, by applying genetic algorithm (GA to efficiently detect various types of network intrusions. Parameters and evolution processes for GA are discussed in details and implemented. This approach uses evolution theory to information evolution in order to filter the traffic data and thus reduce the complexity. To implement and measure the performance of our system we used the KDD99 benchmark dataset and obtained reasonable detection rate.

  11. Early Jurassic high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonitic rocks from the Tongshi intrusive complex, eastern North China Craton: Implication for crust-mantle interaction and post-collisional magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ting-Guang; Fan, Hong-Rui; Santosh, M.; Hu, Fang-Fang; Yang, Kui-Feng; Yang, Yue-Heng; Liu, Yongsheng

    2012-05-01

    The Tongshi intrusive complex, located within the western Shandong Province (Luxi Block) in the eastern North China Craton, comprises high-K calc-alkaline series (fine-grained quartz monzonite and porphyritic quartz monzonite) and shoshonitic series (coarse- to fine-grained porphyritic syenites). Here we report comprehensive data on petrology, geochemistry, Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes and zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic compositions from the intrusive complex. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb ages show that this complex was emplaced at 180.1-184.7 Ma. The fine-grained quartz monzonite and porphyritic quartz monzonite have similar major and trace elements features, implying a similar petrogenetic history. Coupled with the widespread Neoarchean inherited zircons in these rocks, the high SiO2 and Na2O as well as the low MgO contents and low Pb isotopic ratios ((206Pb/204Pb)i = 15.850-16.881, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 14.932-15.261, (208Pb/204Pb)i = 35.564-36.562) of the quartz monzonites suggest an origin from ancient tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) crust. However, their higher Nd and Hf isotopic ratios (ɛNd (t) = - 11.7 to - 7.0, ɛHf (t) = - 25.0 to - 10.3) as compared to the basement rocks indicate input of enriched lithospheric mantle-derived materials. The coarse- to fine-grained porphyritic syenites were derived from similar sources as inferred from their comparable major and trace elements contents as well as the Nd, Hf and Pb isotopic compositions. The Neoarchean inherited zircons and depletion of Nb, Ta, P and Ti in these rocks indicate the involvement of ancient crust. However, the high Nd and Hf isotopic ratios (ɛNd (t) = - 0.8 to 1.5, ɛHf (t) = - 4.4 to 4.8) coupled with high Pb isotopic compositions ((206Pb/204Pb)i = 18.082-19.560, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.510-15.730, (208Pb/204Pb)i = 37.748-39.498) suggest that the porphyritic syenites were mainly derived from an asthenospheric mantle. Based on the geochemical and isotopic features, a magmatic process similar to MASH (melting

  12. Experimental modelling of ground deformation associated with shallow magma intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, O.

    2012-04-01

    Active volcanoes experience ground deformation as a response to the dynamics of underground magmatic systems. The analysis of ground deformation patterns may provide important constraints on the dynamics and shape of the underlying volcanic plumbing systems. Nevertheless, these analyses usually take into account simplistic shapes (sphere, dykes, sills) and the results cannot be verified as the modelled systems are buried. In this contribution, I will present new results from experimental models of magma intrusion, in which both the evolution of ground deformation during intrusion and the shape of the underlying intrusion are monitored in 3D. The models consisted of a molten vegetable oil, simulating low viscosity magma, injected into cohesive fine-grained silica flour, simulating the brittle upper crust; oil injection resulted is sheet intrusions (dykes, sills and cone sheets). The initial topography in the models was flat. While the oil was intruding, the surface of the models slightly lifted up to form a smooth relief, which was mapped through time. After an initial symmetrical development, the uplifted area developed asymmetrically; at the end of the experiments, the oil always erupted at the steepest edge of the uplifted area. After the experiment, the oil solidified, the intrusion was excavated and the shape of its top surface mapped. The comparison between the uplifted zone and the underlying intrusions showed that (1) the complex shapes of the uplifted areas reflected the complex shapes of the underlying intrusions, (2) the time evolution of the uplifted zone was correlated with the evolution of the underlying intrusion, and (3) the early asymmetrical evolution of the uplifted areas can be used to predict the location of the eruption of the oil. The experimental results also suggest that complex intrusion shapes (inclined sheet, cone sheet, complex sill) may have to be considered more systematically in analyses of ground deformation patterns on volcanoes.

  13. WLAN Intrusion Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Sushama Shirke; Mr. S.B.Vanjale

    2011-01-01

    This is an implementation of the Wireless LAN Intrusion Detection System (WIDS ) using clock-skews as a fingerprinting property as suggested by Jana-Kasera [1]. Our objective is to detect the presence of a fake access point (AP) in a Wireless LAN (WLAN). Use of clock -skew enables us to effectively detect Medium Access Control (MAC) Address spoofing. The principle used in this project is that clock s k e w s remain consistent over time for the same AP but vary significantly across AP’s. We ha...

  14. Intrusive growth of sclerenchyma fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Snegireva, A.V.; Ageeva, M.V.; Amenitskii, S.I.; Chernova, T.E.; Ebskamp, M.; Gorshkova, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Intrusive growth is a type of cell elongation when the rate of its longitudinal growth is higher than that of surrounding cells; therefore, these cells intrude between the neighboring cells penetrating the middle lamella. The review considers the classical example of intrusive growth, e.g., elongation of sclerenchyma fibers when the cells achieve the length of several centimeters. We sum the published results of investigations of plant fiber intrusive growth and present some features of intru...

  15. Implementation of an Intrusion Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Saidi Ben Boubaker Ourida

    2012-01-01

    Securing networks and data is among interesting issues of computer science research and practice. Many approaches and techniques have been developed to secure computer architectures, they addressed several layers, e.g, physical security, applications and encryption algorithms, etc. In this paper, we address the problem of securing large networks with complex architectures, based on intrusion detection systems. Based on the experimentations performed, we demonstrated the efficiency of our solu...

  16. Combining Naive Bayes and Decision Tree for Adaptive Intrusion Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Farid, Dewan Md; Rahman, Mohammad Zahidur; 10.5121/ijnsa.2010.2202

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new learning algorithm for adaptive network intrusion detection using naive Bayesian classifier and decision tree is presented, which performs balance detections and keeps false positives at acceptable level for different types of network attacks, and eliminates redundant attributes as well as contradictory examples from training data that make the detection model complex. The proposed algorithm also addresses some difficulties of data mining such as handling continuous attribute, dealing with missing attribute values, and reducing noise in training data. Due to the large volumes of security audit data as well as the complex and dynamic properties of intrusion behaviours, several data miningbased intrusion detection techniques have been applied to network-based traffic data and host-based data in the last decades. However, there remain various issues needed to be examined towards current intrusion detection systems (IDS). We tested the performance of our proposed algorithm with existing learn...

  17. Network Intrusion Forensic Analysis Using Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The need for computer intrusion forensics arises from the alarming increase in the number of computer crimes that are committed annually. After a computer system has been breached and an intrusion has been detected, there is a need for a computer forensics investigation to follow. Computer forensics is used to bring to justice, those responsible for conducting attacks on computer systems throughout the world. Because of this the law must be follow precisely when conducting a forensics investigation. It is not enough to simple know an attacker is responsible for the crime, the forensics investigation must be carried out in a precise manner that will produce evidence that is amicable in a court room. For computer intrusion forensics many methodologies have been designed to be used when conducting an investigation. With the birth of the Internet and networks, the computer intrusion has never been as significant as it is now. There are different preventive measures available, such as access control and authentication, to attempt to prevent intruders. Intrusion detection systems (IDS are developed to detect an intrusion as it occurs, and to execute countermeasures when detected. Intrusion detection (ID takes over where preventive security fails. In order to choose the best IDS for a given system, one should be aware of the advantages and disadvantages of the each IDS. This paper views a forensic application within the framework of Intrusion Detection and details the advantages and disadvantages of IDS.

  18. Intrusive growth of sclerenchyma fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snegireva, A.V.; Ageeva, M.V.; Amenitskii, S.I.; Chernova, T.E.; Ebskamp, M.; Gorshkova, T.A.

    2010-01-01

    Intrusive growth is a type of cell elongation when the rate of its longitudinal growth is higher than that of surrounding cells; therefore, these cells intrude between the neighboring cells penetrating the middle lamella. The review considers the classical example of intrusive growth, e.g., elongati

  19. A mantle- and a lower crust-derived bimodal suite in the Yusufeli (Artvin) area, NE Turkey: trace element and REE evidence for subduction-related rift origin of Early Jurassic Demirkent intrusive complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuz, Abdurrahman; Tanyolu, Erkan; Genç, Salim

    2006-06-01

    The Yusufeli area, in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey, contains a crystalline complex that intruded into the Carboniferous metamorphic basement and is composed of two intrusive bodies: a gabbro-diorite and a tonalite-trondhjemite. The mafic body (45 57 wt% SiO2) displays a broad lithological spectrum ranging from plagioclase-cumulate to quartz diorite. Primitive varieties of the body have Mg-number, MgO and Cr contents that are close to those expected for partial melts from mantle peridotite. Data are consistent with the magma generation in an underlying mantle wedge that was depleted in Zr, Nb and Ti, and enriched in large ion lithophile elements (K, Rb, Ba, Th). However, high Al2O3, CaO and generally low Ni (hornblende imply an anhydrous phase fractionated from highly hydrous (5 6%) parent. Geochemical modelling suggests derivation by 15 20% melting of a depleted-lherzolitic mantle. The tonalite-trondhjemite body (58 76 wt% SiO2) ranges in composition from quartz diorite to granodiorite with a low-K calc-alkaline trend. Although LILE- and LREE- enriched characteristics of the primitive samples imply a metasomatic sub-arc mantle for their source region, low MgO, Ni and Cr concentrations rule out direct derivation from the mantle wedge. Also, lack of negative Eu anomalies suggests an unfractionated magma and precludes a differentiation from the diorites of mafic body, which show negative Eu anomalies. Their Na enrichments relative to Ca and K are similar to those of Archean tonalites, trondhjemites and granodiorites and Cenozoic adakites. However, they exhibit important geochemical differences from them, including low-Al (<15 wt%) contents, unfractionated HREE patterns and evolution towards the higher Y concentrations and lower Sr/Y ratios within the body. All these features are obtained in experimentally produced melts from mafic rocks at low pressures (≤5 kbar) and also widespread in the rocks of arc where old (Upper Cretaceous or older) oceanic crust is

  20. Combining Naive Bayes and Decision Tree for Adaptive Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Md. Farid

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new learning algorithm for adaptive network intrusion detection using naive Bayesian classifier and decision tree is presented, which performs balance detections and keeps false positives at acceptable level for different types of network attacks, and eliminates redundant attributes as well as contradictory examples from training data that make the detection model complex. The proposedalgorithm also addresses some difficulties of data mining such as handling continuous attribute, dealing with missing attribute values, and reducing noise in training data. Due to the large volumes of security audit data as well as the complex and dynamic properties of intrusion behaviours, several data miningbased intrusion detection techniques have been applied to network-based traffic data and host-based data in the last decades. However, there remain various issues needed to be examined towards current intrusion detection systems (IDS. We tested the performance of our proposed algorithm with existing learning algorithms by employing on the KDD99 benchmark intrusion detection dataset. The experimental results prove that the proposed algorithm achieved high detection rates (DR andsignificant reduce false positives (FP for different types of network intrusions using limited computational resources

  1. Novel Model for Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jia-chun; Li Zhi-tang

    2003-01-01

    It's very difficult that the traditional intrusion detection methods based on accurate match adapt to the blur and uncertainty of user information and expert knowledge, it results in failing to report the variations of attack signature. In addition security itself includes fuzziness, the judgment standard of confidentiality, integrity and availability of system resource is uncertain. In this paper fuzzy intrusion detection based on partial match is presented to detect some types of attacks availably and alleviate some of the difficulties of above approaches, the architecture of fuzzy intrusion detection system(FIDS) is introduced and its performance is analyzed.

  2. Novel Model for Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Jia-chun; Li; Zhi-tang

    2003-01-01

    It's very difficult that the traditional intrusion detection methods based on accurate match adapt to the blur and uncertainty of user information and expert knowledge, it results in failing to report the variation of attack signature.In addition security itself includes fuzziness, the judgment standard of confidentiality, integrity and availability of system resource is uncertain. In this paper fuzzy intrusion detection based on partial match is presented to detect some types of attacks availably and alleviate some of the difficulties of above approaches, the architecture of fuzzy intrusion detection system(FIDS) is introduced and its performance is analyzed.

  3. Human intrusion in geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the possibility of human intrusion into the WIPP facility, an undergound disposal facility for alpha-bearing wastes. The probability of exploratory drilling occurring at the site is described

  4. Intrusion detection a machine learning approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Jeffrey JP

    2011-01-01

    This important book introduces the concept of intrusion detection, discusses various approaches for intrusion detection systems (IDS), and presents the architecture and implementation of IDS. It emphasizes on the prediction and learning algorithms for intrusion detection and highlights techniques for intrusion detection of wired computer networks and wireless sensor networks. The performance comparison of various IDS via simulation will also be included.

  5. Analyzing Intrusion Detection Using Machine Learning Adaboost Algorithm: An Observations Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms.S.S.Kazi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The current approaches for intrusion detection have some problems that adversely affect the effectiveness of the Intrusion Detection System. Current approaches often suffer from relatively high falsealarm rates. As most network behaviors are normal, resources are wasted on checking a large number of alarms that turn out to be false. Secondly their computational complexities are oppressively high.The adaboost algorithm gives better results for intrusion detection in this respect. The paper here mainly has its focus on these results.

  6. Three Dimensional Vapor Intrusion Modeling: Model Validation and Uncertainty Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbariyeh, S.; Patterson, B.; Rakoczy, A.; Li, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), such as chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons, are prevalent groundwater contaminants due to their improper disposal and accidental spillage. In addition to contaminating groundwater, VOCs may partition into the overlying vadose zone and enter buildings through gaps and cracks in foundation slabs or basement walls, a process termed vapor intrusion. Vapor intrusion of VOCs has been recognized as a detrimental source for human exposures to potential carcinogenic or toxic compounds. The simulation of vapor intrusion from a subsurface source has been the focus of many studies to better understand the process and guide field investigation. While multiple analytical and numerical models were developed to simulate the vapor intrusion process, detailed validation of these models against well controlled experiments is still lacking, due to the complexity and uncertainties associated with site characterization and soil gas flux and indoor air concentration measurement. In this work, we present an effort to validate a three-dimensional vapor intrusion model based on a well-controlled experimental quantification of the vapor intrusion pathways into a slab-on-ground building under varying environmental conditions. Finally, a probabilistic approach based on Monte Carlo simulations is implemented to determine the probability distribution of indoor air concentration based on the most uncertain input parameters.

  7. Building Intrusion Tolerant Software System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Wen-ling; WANG Li-na; ZHANG Huan-guo; CHEN Wei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and analyze the hypothesis about intrusion tolerance software system, so that it can provide an intended server capability and deal with the impacts caused by the intruder exploiting the inherent security vulnerabilities. We present some intrusion tolerance technology by exploiting N-version module threshold method in constructing multilevel secure software architecture, by detecting with hash value, by placing an "antigen" word next to the return address on the stack that is similar to human immune system, and by adding "Honey code" nonfunctional code to disturb intruder, so that the security and the availability of the software system are ensured.

  8. Non-intrusive appliance recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteen, G; Krist, J.O.; Bakker, V.; Smit, G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Energy conservation becomes more important nowadays. The use of smart meters and, in the near future, smart appliances, are the key to achieve reduction in energy consumption. This research proposes a non-intrusive appliance monitor and recognition system for implementation on an embedded system. Th

  9. Network Intrusion Detection based on GMKL Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yuxiang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the 31th statistical reports of China Internet network information center (CNNIC, by the end of December 2012, the number of Chinese netizens has reached 564 million, and the scale of mobile Internet users also reached 420 million. But when the network brings great convenience to people's life, it also brings huge threat in the life of people. So through collecting and analyzing the information in the computer system or network we can detect any possible behaviors that can damage the availability, integrity and confidentiality of the computer resource, and make timely treatment to these behaviors which have important research significance to improve the operation environment of network and network service. At present, the Neural Network, Support Vector machine (SVM and Hidden Markov Model, Fuzzy inference and Genetic Algorithms are introduced into the research of network intrusion detection, trying to build a healthy and secure network operation environment. But most of these algorithms are based on the total sample and it also hypothesizes that the number of the sample is infinity. But in the field of network intrusion the collected data often cannot meet the above requirements. It often shows high latitudes, variability and small sample characteristics. For these data using traditional machine learning methods are hard to get ideal results. In view of this, this paper proposed a Generalized Multi-Kernel Learning method to applied to network intrusion detection. The Generalized Multi-Kernel Learning method can be well applied to large scale sample data, dimension complex, containing a large number of heterogeneous information and so on. The experimental results show that applying GMKL to network attack detection has high classification precision and low abnormal practical precision.

  10. Multi-Vector Portable Intrusion Detection System

    OpenAIRE

    Moyers, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    This research describes an intrusion detection system designed to fulfill the need for increased mobile device security. The Battery-Sensing Intrusion Protection System (B-SIPS) [1] initially took a non-conventional approach to intrusion detection by recognizing attacks based on anomalous Instantaneous Current (IC) drainage. An extension of B-SIPS, the Multi-Vector Portable Intrusion Detection System (MVP-IDS) validates the idea of recognizing attacks based on anomalous IC drain by correlat...

  11. Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique data system which uses computer controlled data systems, video cameras and recorders, analog-to-digital conversion, environmental sensors, and digital recorders to collect sensor data. The data can be viewed either manually or with a special computerized data-reduction system which adds new data to a data base stored on a magnetic disc recorder. This report provides a synoptic account of the AIDS as it presently exists. Modifications to the purchased subsystems are described, and references are made to publications which describe the Sandia-designed subsystems

  12. Evaluation of Intrusion Detection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ulvila, Jacob W.; Gaffney, John E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive method for evaluating intrusion detection systems (IDSs). It integrates and extends ROC (receiver operating characteristic) and cost analysis methods to provide an expected cost metric. Results are given for determining the optimal operation of an IDS based on this expected cost metric. Results are given for the operation of a single IDS and for a combination of two IDSs. The method is illustrated for: 1) determining the best operating point for a single an...

  13. Intrusive cognitions, anxiety and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Whitaker, K L

    2008-01-01

    Since the recognition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) of life-threatening illnesses as a stressor that can precipitate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), research has focussed on the issue of PTSD following cancer. Although the utility of a trauma framework has been questioned, understanding symptoms associated with PTSD such as intrusive cognitions may be critical in understanding psychological distress in cancer patients. Research has found that cancer patients experi...

  14. Zircon Recycling in Arc Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Barth, A.; Matzel, J.; Wooden, J.; Burgess, S.

    2008-12-01

    Recycling of zircon has been well established in arc intrusions and arc volcanoes, but a better understanding of where and how zircons are recycled can help illuminate how arc magma systems are constructed. To that end, we are conducting age, trace element (including Ti-in-zircon temperatures; TzrnTi) and isotopic studies of zircons from the Late Cretaceous (95-85 Ma) Tuolumne Intrusive Suite (TIS) in the Sierra Nevada Batholith (CA). Within the TIS zircons inherited from ancient basement sources and/or distinctly older host rocks are uncommon, but recycled zircon antecrysts from earlier periods of TIS-related magmatism are common and conspicuous in the inner and two most voluminous units of the TIS, the Half Dome and Cathedral Peak Granodiorites. All TIS units have low bulk Zr ([Zr]825°C), [Zr] in the TIS is a factor of 2 to 3 lower than saturation values. Low [Zr] in TIS rocks might be attributed to a very limited supply of zircon in the source, by disequilibrium melting and rapid melt extraction [1], by melting reactions involving formation of other phases that can incorporate appreciable Zr [2], or by removal of zircon at an earlier stage of magma evolution. Based on a preliminary compilation of literature data, low [Zr] is common to Late Cretaceous N.A. Cordilleran granodioritic/tonalitic intrusions (typically Tzrnsat [3]. A corollary is that slightly older zircon antecrysts that are common in the inner units of the TIS could be considered inherited if they are derived from remelting of slightly older intrusions. Remelting at such low temperatures in the arc would require a source of external water. Refs: [1] Sawyer, J.Pet 32:701-738; [2] Fraser et al, Geology 25:607-610; [3] Harrison et al, Geology 35:635- 638

  15. Stress, intrusive imagery, and chronic distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discusses the nature of stress in the context of problems with its definition and sources of confusion regarding its usefulness and specificity. Stress can be defined as a negative emotional experience accompanied by predictable biochemical, physiological, and behavioral changes that are directed toward adaptation either by manipulating the situation to alter the stressor or by accommodating its effects. Chronic stress is more complex than most definitions suggest and is clearly not limited to situations in which stressors persist for long periods of time. Responses may habituate before a stressor disappears or may persist long beyond the physical presence of the stressor. This latter case, in which chronic stress and associated biobehavioral changes outlast their original cause, is considered in light of research at Three Mile Island and among Vietnam veterans. The role of intrusive images of the stressor or uncontrollable thoughts about it in maintaining stress is explored

  16. Emplacement of sandstone intrusions during contractional tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Giuseppe; Grippa, Antonio; Bureau, Denis; Alsop, G. Ian; Hurst, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Sandstone injections are created by the forceful emplacement of remobilized sand in response to increases in overpressure. However, the contribution provided by horizontal compressive stress to the build-up in overpressure, and the resulting emplacement of sand injection complexes, is still to be substantiated by robust field observations. An opportunity to address this issue occurs in Central California where a large volume of sandstone intrusions record regionally-persistent supra-lithostatic pore-pressure. Detailed fieldwork allows sandstone-filled thrusts to be recognized and, for the first time, permits us to demonstrate that some sandstone intrusions are linked to contractional deformation affecting the western border of the Great Valley Basin. Fluidized sand was extensively injected along thrust surfaces, and also fills local dilatant cavities linked to thrusting. The main aims of this paper are to provide detailed descriptions of the newly recognized syn-tectonic injections, and describe detailed cross-cutting relationships with earlier sandstone injection complexes in the study area. Finally, an evolutionary model consisting of three phases of sand injection is provided. In this model, sand injection is linked to contractional tectonic episodes affecting the western side of the Great Valley Basin during the Early-Middle Cenozoic. This study demonstrates that sand injections, driven by fluid overpressure, may inject along thrusts and folds and thereby overcome stresses associated with regional contractional deformation. It is shown that different generations of sand injection can develop in the same area under the control of different stress regimes, linked to the evolving mountain chain.

  17. Episodic intrusion, internal differentiation, and hydrothermal alteration of the miocene tatoosh intrusive suite south of Mount Rainier, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, E.A.; Bacon, C.R.; John, D.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.

    2011-01-01

    The Miocene Tatoosh intrusive suite south of Mount Rainier is composed of three broadly granodioritic plutons that are manifestations of ancestral Cascades arc magmatism. Tatoosh intrusive suite plutons have individually diagnostic characteristics, including texture, mineralogy, and geochemistry, and apparently lack internal contacts. New ion-microprobe U-Pb zircon ages indicate crystallization of the Stevens pluton ca. 19.2 Ma, Reflection-Pyramid pluton ca. 18.5 Ma, and Nisqually pluton ca. 17.5 Ma. The Stevens pluton includes rare, statistically distinct ca. 20.1 Ma zircon antecrysts. Wide-ranging zircon rare earth element (REE), Hf, U, and Th concentrations suggest late crystallization from variably evolved residual liquids. Zircon Eu/Eu*-Hf covariation is distinct for each of the Reflection-Pyramid, Nisqually, and Stevens plutons. Although most Tatoosh intrusive suite rocks have been affected by weak hydrothermal alteration, and sparse mineralized veins cut some of these rocks, significant base or precious metal mineralization is absent. At the time of shallow emplacement, each of these magma bodies was largely homogeneous in bulk composition and petrographic features, but, prior to final solidification, each of the Tatoosh intrusive suite plutons developed internal compositional variation. Geochemical and petrographic trends within each pluton are most consistent with differential loss of residual melt, possibly represented by late aplite dikes or erupted as rhyolite, from crystal-rich magma. Crystal-rich magma that formed each pluton evidently accumulated in reservoirs below the present level of exposure and then intruded to a shallow depth. Assembled by episodic intrusion, the Tatoosh intrusive suite may be representative of midsized composite plutonic complexes beneath arc volcanoes. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  18. Pukala intrusion, its age and connection to hydrothermal alteration in Orivesi, southwestern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Talikka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pukala intrusion is situated in the Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian domain of the Fennoscandian Shield in the contact region between the Central Finland Granitoid Complex and the Tampere Belt. The acid subvolcanic intrusion, which is in contact or close to severalaltered domains, mainly consists of porphyritic granodiorite and trondhjemite. The Pukala intrusion was emplaced into volcanic sequence in an island-arc or fore-arc setting before or during the early stages of the main regional deformation phase of the Svecofennian orogeny. On the basis of the geochemical data, the Pukala intrusion is a peraluminous volcanic-arc granitoid. After crystallisation at 1896±3 Ma, multiphase deformation and metamorphismcaused alteration, recrystallisation, and orientation of the minerals, and tilted the intrusion steeply towards south. The 1851±5 Ma U-Pb age for titanite is connected to the late stages of the Svecofennian tectonometamorphic evolution of the region. Several hydrothermally altered domains are located in the felsic and intermediate metavolcanic rocks of the Tampere Belt within less than one kilometre south of the Pukala intrusion. Alteration is divided into three basic types: partial silica alteration, chlorite-sericite±silica alteration, and sericite alteration in shear zones. The first two types probably formed during the emplacement and crystallisation of the Pukala intrusion, and the third is linked to late shearing. Intense sericitisation and comb quartz bands in the contact of theintrusion and the altered domain at Kutemajärvi suggest that the hydrothermal system was driven by the Pukala intrusion.

  19. Towards an Effective Intrusion Response Engine Combined with Intrusion Detection in Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Douligeris, Christos

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an effective intrusion response engine combined with intrusion detection in ad hoc networks. The intrusion response engine is composed of a secure communication module, a local and a global response module. Its function is based on an innovative tree-based key agreement protocol while the intrusion detection engine is based on a class of neural networks called eSOM. The proposed intrusion response model and the tree-based protocol, it is based on, are analyzed concerning key secrecy while the intrusion detection engine is evaluated for MANET under different traffic conditions and mobility patterns. The results show a high detection rate for packet dropping attacks.

  20. Classification and Importance of Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS is a device or software application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a Management Station. Some systems may attempt to stop an intrusion attempt but this is neither required nor expected of a monitoring system. Due to a growing number of intrusion events and also because the Internet and local networks have become so ubiquitous, organizations are increasingly implementing various systems that monitor IT security breaches. This includes an overview of the classification of intrusion detection systems and introduces the reader to some fundamental concepts of IDS methodology: audit trail analysis and on-the-fly processing as well as anomaly detection and signature detection approaches. This research paper discusses the primary intrusion detection techniques and the classification of intrusion Detection system.

  1. Non-intrusive refractometer sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pabitra Nath

    2010-04-01

    An experimental realization of a simple non-intrusive refractometer sensor is demonstrated in this communication. The working principle of the sensor is based on intensity modulation of the back-reflected light when output light from an optical fibre end focusses onto air–medium interface. The change in the refractive index of the medium affects the reflectance of the incident light signal and thus modulates the back-reflected signal. Refractive index variation as small as 0.002 RIU can be measured using the present technique. The advantages of the technique are its simplicity, cost efficiency and usefulness in monitoring refractive indices of acidic solutions.

  2. THE PALEOPROTEROZOIC IMANDRA-VARZUGA RIFTING STRUCTURE (KOLA PENINSULA: INTRUSIVE MAGMATISM AND MINERAGENY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chashchin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides data on the structure of the Paleoproterozoic intercontinental Imandra-Varzuga rifting structure (IVS and compositions of intrusive formations typical of the early stage of the IVS development and associated mineral resources. IVS is located in the central part of the Kola region. Its length is about 350 km, and its width varies from 10 km at the flanks to 50 km in the central part. IVS contains an association of the sedimentary-volcanic, intrusive and dyke complexes. It is a part of a large igneous Paleoproterozoic province of the Fennoscandian Shield spreading for a huge area (about 1 million km2, which probably reflects the settings of the head part of the mantle plume. Two age groups of layered intrusions were associated with the initial stage of the IVS development. The layered intrusions of the Fedorovo-Pansky and Monchegorsk complexes (about 2.50 Ga are confined to the northern flank and the western closure of IVS, while intrusions of the Imandra complex (about 2.45 Ga are located at the southern flank of IVS. Intrusions of older complexes are composed of rock series from dunite to gabbro and anorthosites (Monchegorsk complex and from orthopyroxenite to gabbro and anorthosites (Fedorovo-Pansky complex. Some intrusions of this complexes reveal features of multiphase ones. The younger Imandra complex intrusions (about 2.45 Ga are stratified from orthopyroxenite to ferrogabbro. Their important feature is comagmatical connection with volcanites. All the intrusive complexes have the boninite-like mantle origin enriched by lithophyle components. Rocks of these two complexеs with different age have specific geochemical characteristics. In the rocks of the Monchegorsk and Fedorovo-Pansky complexes, the accumulation of REE clearly depends on the basicity of the rocks, the spectrum of REE is non-fractionated and ‘flat’, and the Eu positive anomaly is slightly manifested. In the rocks of the Imandra complex, the level of

  3. Novel Intrusion Detection using Probabilistic Neural Network and Adaptive Boosting

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, Tich Phuoc; Tran, Dat; Nguyen, Cuong Duc

    2009-01-01

    This article applies Machine Learning techniques to solve Intrusion Detection problems within computer networks. Due to complex and dynamic nature of computer networks and hacking techniques, detecting malicious activities remains a challenging task for security experts, that is, currently available defense systems suffer from low detection capability and high number of false alarms. To overcome such performance limitations, we propose a novel Machine Learning algorithm, namely Boosted Subspace Probabilistic Neural Network (BSPNN), which integrates an adaptive boosting technique and a semi parametric neural network to obtain good tradeoff between accuracy and generality. As the result, learning bias and generalization variance can be significantly minimized. Substantial experiments on KDD 99 intrusion benchmark indicate that our model outperforms other state of the art learning algorithms, with significantly improved detection accuracy, minimal false alarms and relatively small computational complexity.

  4. Novel Intrusion Detection using Probabilistic Neural Network and Adaptive Boosting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tich Phuoc Tran

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article applies Machine Learning techniques to solve Intrusion Detection problems withincomputer networks. Due to complex and dynamic nature of computer networks and hacking techniques, detecting malicious activities remains a challenging task for security experts, that is, currently available defense systems suffer from low detection capability and high number of false alarms. To overcome such performance limitations, we propose a novel Machine Learning algorithm, namely Boosted Subspace Probabilistic Neural Network (BSPNN, which integrates an adaptive boosting technique and a semi-parametric neural network to obtain good trade-off between accuracy and generality. As the result, learning bias and generalization variance can be significantly minimized. Substantial experiments on KDD-99 intrusion benchmark indicate that our model outperforms other state-of-the-art learning algorithms, with significantly improved detection accuracy, minimal false alarms and relatively small computational complexity.

  5. Evolutionary Design of Intrusion Detection Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Ajith Abraham; Crina Grosan; Carlos Martin-Vide

    2007-01-01

    Intrusion detection is the process of monitoring the events occurring in a computer system or network and analyzing them for signs of intrusions, defined as attempts to compromise the confidentiality, integrity, availability, or to bypass the security mechanisms of a computer or network. This paper proposes the development of an Intrusion Detection Program (IDP) which could detect known attack patterns. An IDP does not eliminate the use of any preventive mechanism but it works as the last def...

  6. An international perspective on Facebook intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Benvenuti, Martina; Cannata, Davide; Ciobanu, Adela Magdalena; Senol-Durak, Emre; Durak, Mithat; Giannakos, Michail N; Mazzoni, Elvis; Pappas, Ilias O; Popa, Camelia; Seidman, Gwendolyn; Yu, Shu; Wu, Anise M S; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2016-08-30

    Facebook has become one of the most popular social networking websites in the world. The main aim of the study was to present an international comparison of Facebook intrusion and Internet penetration while examining possible gender differences. The study consisted of 2589 participants from eight countries: China, Greece, Israel, Italy, Poland, Romania, Turkey, USA. Facebook intrusion and Internet penetration were taken into consideration. In this study the relationship between Facebook intrusion and Internet penetration was demonstrated. Facebook intrusion was slightly negatively related to Internet penetration in each country. PMID:27347649

  7. Is the risk of human intrusion exaggerated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the procedure for modelling long-term changes to the environment of a radioactive waste repository, account has to be taken of the potential for human intrusion. In estimating the frequency of intrusive acts, the independence of events is commonly assumed within the framework of a Poisson model. A more sophisticated statistical model is developed here which treats human intrusion as a finite Markov process, with states defined according to information of the radiological hazard at a site, and the enforcement of access regulations. With anthropological arguments invoked to assign Markov transition values for future millenia, a significant intrusion rate mitigation factor is found

  8. Optimizations of Battery-Based Intrusion Protection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Theresa Michelle

    2008-01-01

    As time progresses, small mobile devices become more prevalent for both personal and industrial use, providing malicious network users with new and exciting venues for security exploits. Standard security applications, such as Norton Antivirus and MacAfee, require computing power, memory space, and operating system complexity that are not present in small mobile devices. Recently, the Battery-Sensing Intrusion Protection System (B-SIPS) was devised as a means to correct the inability of small...

  9. Novel Intrusion Detection using Probabilistic Neural Network and Adaptive Boosting

    OpenAIRE

    Tich Phuoc Tran; Longbing Cao; Dat Tran; Cuong Duc Nguyen

    2009-01-01

    This article applies Machine Learning techniques to solve Intrusion Detection problems withincomputer networks. Due to complex and dynamic nature of computer networks and hacking techniques, detecting malicious activities remains a challenging task for security experts, that is, currently available defense systems suffer from low detection capability and high number of false alarms. To overcome such performance limitations, we propose a novel Machine Learning algorithm, namely Boosted Subspac...

  10. Intrusion-Aware Alert Validation Algorithm for Cooperative Distributed Intrusion Detection Schemes of Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Jae Song; Sungyoung Lee; Heejo Lee; Hassan Jameel; d’Auriol, Brian J.; Riaz Ahmed Shaikh

    2009-01-01

    Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed ano...

  11. Non-intrusive speed sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyett, L.

    1986-01-01

    In Phase I of the Non-Intrusive Speed Sensor program, a computerized literature search was performed to identify candidate technologies for remote, non-intrusive speed sensing applications in Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbopumps. The three most promising technologies were subjected to experimental evaluation to quantify their performance characteristics under the harsh environmental requirements within the turbopumps. Although the infrared and microwave approaches demonstrated excellent cavitation immunity in laboratory tests, the variable-source magnetic speed sensor emerged as the most viable approach. Preliminary design of this speed sensor encountered no technical obstacles and resulted in viable and feasible speed nut, sensor housing, and sensor coil designs. Phase II of this program developed the variable-source magnetic speed sensor through the detailed design task and guided the design into breadboard fabrication. The speed sensor and its integral speed nut were evaluated at both unit and system level testing. The final room-temperature and cryogenic spin testing of the hardware demonstrated that the sensor was capable of generating sufficient output signal to enable remote speed sensing from 1500 to 40000 rpm over a speed nut/sensor separation of 3.5 inches.

  12. Intrusive images and intrusive thoughts as different phenomena: Two experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, M.A.; Brewin, C.R.; Minnen, A. van; Holmes, E.A.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2010-01-01

    According to the dual representation theory of PTSD, intrusive trauma images and intrusive verbal thoughts are produced by separate memory systems. In a previous article it was shown that after watching an aversive film, participants in non-movement conditions reported more intrusive images than par

  13. Salt Flux,Salinity Intrusion and Estuarine Circulation in the Ota Diversion Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad SOLTANIASL

    2013-01-01

    The large salinity variation in estuaries may create a challenging environment for the ecological system. Changes in the balance between freshwater and saltwater can lead to the loss of species. Therefore, investigation of salinity intrusion in estuaries is important, both in terms of understanding the complex balance between the fluvial and tidal processes that affect the salinity intrusion within the estuary, and also in terms of formulating effective policies for sustainable development in...

  14. Intrusive images in grief : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Paul A.; Huntjens, Rafaele J. C.

    2008-01-01

    The relevance of intrusive mental imagery to the understanding and treatment of psychological disorders is increasingly acknowledged. Little research has been done on intrusive imagery in grief. Using a sample of 131 mourners, recruited from professional and lay mental health care workers, the curre

  15. Emotional and Behavioral Reaction to Intrusive Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Lisa-Marie; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie; Kavanagh, David

    2010-01-01

    A self-report measure of the emotional and behavioral reactions to intrusive thoughts was developed. The article presents data that confirm the stability, reliability, and validity of the new seven-item measure. Emotional and behavioral reactions to intrusions emerged as separate factors on the Emotional and Behavioral Reactions to Intrusions…

  16. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in seagrasses ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses represents a global threat to seagrasses and thereby an important parameter in resilience of seagrass ecosystems. In contrast seegrasses colonize and grow in hostile sediments, where they are constantly exposed to invasion of toxic gaseous sulfide. Remarkably little...... is known about the strategies of seagrasses to survive sulfide intrusion, their potential detoxification mechanisms and sulfur nutrition in general. By a global review of sulfide intrusion, coupled with a series of field studies and in situ experiments we elucidate sulfide intrusion and different...... strategies of seagrasses to sustain sulfide intrusion. Using stable isotope tracing, scanning electron microscopy with x-ray analysis, tracing sulfur compounds combined with ecosystem parameters we found different spatial, intraspecific and interspecific strategies to cope with sulfidic sediments. 1...

  17. Influence of age, thought content, and anxiety on suppression of intrusive thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadel, Jessica R; Green, Jennifer S; Hosseinbor, Shahrzad; Teachman, Bethany A

    2013-08-01

    Understanding differences in responses following attempts to suppress versus simply monitor intrusive thoughts is important given the established relationship between intrusive thinking and numerous forms of psychopathology. Moreover, these differences may vary as a function of age. Because of the links between aging and both enhancement in emotion regulation skills and decline in inhibition skills, older and younger adults were expected to differ in their responses (e.g., experience of negative affect and thought recurrence) to attempts at suppressing intrusive thoughts. This study examined whether efforts to suppress thought content that varied in valence and age-relevance differentially affected older (N=40, aged 66-92) and younger (N=42, aged 16-25) adults' ability to inhibit intrusive thought recurrence and their resulting negative affect. Interestingly, older adults experienced less recurrence for most thoughts than younger adults. Also, for several dependent variables (negative affect and perceived difficulty suppressing intrusive thoughts), older adults showed less decline in their magnitude of response across thinking periods (i.e., from suppression to monitoring) than did younger adults. These age effects were not generally moderated by level of trait anxiety, though higher anxiety did predict intrusive thought responding in expected directions, such as greater negative affect. These findings point to independent influences of age and anxiety, and suggest a complex mix of risk and protective factors for older adults' responses to intrusive thoughts. PMID:23395408

  18. Intrusion-aware Alert Validation Algorithm for Cooperative Distributed Intrusion Detection Schemes of Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shaikh, Riaz Ahmed; Auriol, Brian J d; Lee, Heejo; Lee, Sungyoung; Song, Young-Jae; 10.3390/s90805989

    2009-01-01

    Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a validation algorithm that addresses this problem. This algorithm utilizes the concept of intrusion-aware reliability that helps to provide adequate reliability at a modest communication cost. In this paper, we also provide a security resiliency analysis of the proposed intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm.

  19. Intrusion-Aware Alert Validation Algorithm for Cooperative Distributed Intrusion Detection Schemes of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jae Song

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a validation algorithm that addresses this problem. This algorithm utilizes the concept of intrusion-aware reliability that helps to provide adequate reliability at a modest communication cost. In this paper, we also provide a security resiliency analysis of the proposed intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm.

  20. Intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm for cooperative distributed intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Riaz Ahmed; Jameel, Hassan; d'Auriol, Brian J; Lee, Heejo; Lee, Sungyoung; Song, Young-Jae

    2009-01-01

    Existing anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks have mainly focused on the detection of intrusions. Once the intrusion is detected, an alerts or claims will be generated. However, any unidentified malicious nodes in the network could send faulty anomaly and intrusion claims about the legitimate nodes to the other nodes. Verifying the validity of such claims is a critical and challenging issue that is not considered in the existing cooperative-based distributed anomaly and intrusion detection schemes of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a validation algorithm that addresses this problem. This algorithm utilizes the concept of intrusion-aware reliability that helps to provide adequate reliability at a modest communication cost. In this paper, we also provide a security resiliency analysis of the proposed intrusion-aware alert validation algorithm. PMID:22454568

  1. A Survey on Intrusion Detection using Data Mining Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, R

    2012-01-01

    Intrusions are the activities that violate the security policy of system. Intrusion Detection is the process used to identify intrusions. Network security is to be considered as a major issue in recent years, since the computer network keeps on extending dramatically. Information Systems and Networks are subject to electronic attacks and the possibilities of intrusion are very high.  An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a system for detecting intrusions and reporting to the authority or to ...

  2. Waste Management Policy Framework to Mitigate Terrorist Intrusion Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redus, Kenneth, S.

    2003-02-26

    A policy-directed framework is developed to support US Department of Energy (DOE) counterterrorism efforts, specifically terrorist intrusion activities that affect of Environmental Management (EM) programs. The framework is called the Security Effectiveness and Resource Allocation Definition Forecasting and Control System (SERAD-FACS). Use of SERAD-FACS allows trade-offs between resources, technologies, risk, and Research and Development (R&D) efforts to mitigate such intrusion attempts. Core to SERAD-FACS is (1) the understanding the perspectives and time horizons of key decisionmakers and organizations, (2) a determination of site vulnerabilities and accessibilities, and (3) quantifying the measures that describe the risk associated with a compromise of EM assets. The innovative utility of SERAD-FACS is illustrated for three integrated waste management and security strategies. EM program risks, time delays, and security for effectiveness are examined to demonstrate the significant cost and schedule impact terrorist activities can have on cleanup efforts in the DOE complex.

  3. Deep intrusions, lateral magma transport and related uplift at ocean island volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klügel, Andreas; Longpré, Marc-Antoine; García-Cañada, Laura; Stix, John

    2015-12-01

    Oceanic intraplate volcanoes grow by accumulation of erupted material as well as by coeval or discrete magmatic intrusions. Dykes and other intrusive bodies within volcanic edifices are comparatively well studied, but intrusive processes deep beneath the volcanoes remain elusive. Although there is geological evidence for deep magmatic intrusions contributing to volcano growth through uplift, this has rarely been demonstrated by real-time monitoring. Here we use geophysical and petrological data from El Hierro, Canary Islands, to show that intrusions from the mantle and subhorizontal transport of magma within the oceanic crust result in rapid endogenous island growth. Seismicity and ground deformation associated with a submarine eruption in 2011-2012 reveal deep subhorizontal intrusive sheets (sills), which have caused island-scale uplift of tens of centimetres. The pre-eruptive intrusions migrated 15-20 km laterally within the lower oceanic crust, opening pathways that were subsequently used by the erupted magmas to ascend from the mantle to the surface. During six post-eruptive episodes between 2012 and 2014, further sill intrusions into the lower crust and upper mantle have caused magma to migrate up to 20 km laterally, resulting in magma accumulation exceeding that of the pre-eruptive phase. A comparison of geobarometric data for the 2011-2012 El Hierro eruption with data for other Atlantic intraplate volcanoes shows similar bimodal pressure distributions, suggesting that eruptive phases are commonly accompanied by deep intrusions of sills and lateral magma transport. These processes add significant material to the oceanic crust, cause uplift, and are thus fundamentally important for the growth and evolution of volcanic islands. We suggest that the development of such a magma accumulation zone in the lower oceanic crust begins early during volcano evolution, and is a consequence of increasing size and complexity of the mantle reservoir system, and potentially

  4. Innovative Method for Saltwater Intrusion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Payal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt water intrusion is the migration of saltwater into freshwater aquifers under the influence of groundwater development (Freeze and Cherry, 1979. The most detrimental effect that ground water depletion causes lowering of water table. Another problem due to saltwater intrusion is changing saltwater freshwater interface. Methods for controlling intrusion vary widely depending on the source of the saline water, the extent of intrusion, local geology, water use and economic factors. The proposed methodology to control saltwater intrusion is (ADR Abstraction, Desalination and Recharge. The proposed methodology interplays between the major parameters of the system to control saltwater intrusion. These parameters include the soil/aquifer properties, the well locations, the well depths, the rates and the relation between the abstraction and recharge rates which depends on the recovery rate and the salinity degree. It is capable of completely preventing saltwater intrusion because it increases the volume of fresh groundwater and decreases the volume of saltwater, while considering economical aspects, environmental impact and sustainable development of water resources.

  5. Self-report may underestimate trauma intrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarangi, Melanie K T; Strange, Deryn; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2014-07-01

    Research examining maladaptive responses to trauma routinely relies on spontaneous self-report to index intrusive thoughts, which assumes people accurately recognize and report their intrusive thoughts. However, "mind-wandering" research reveals people are not always meta-aware of their thought content: they often fail to notice shifts in their attention. In two experiments, we exposed subjects to trauma films, then instructed them to report intrusive thoughts during an unrelated reading task. Intermittently, we asked whether they were thinking about the trauma. As expected, subjects often spontaneously reported intrusive thoughts. However, they were also "caught" engaging in unreported trauma-oriented thoughts. The presence and frequency of intermittent probes did not influence self-caught intrusions. Both self-caught and probe-caught intrusions were related to an existing tendency toward intrusive cognition, film-related distress, and thought suppression attempts. Our data suggest people may lack meta-awareness of trauma-related thoughts, which has implications for theory, research and treatment relating to trauma-related psychopathology. PMID:24993526

  6. A Study and Comparative Analysis of Conditional Random Fields for Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Guleria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection systems are an important component of defensive measures protecting computer systems and networks from abuse. Intrusion detection plays one of the key roles in computer security techniques and is one of the prime areas of research. Due to complex and dynamic nature of computer networks and hacking techniques, detecting malicious activities remains a challenging task for security experts, that is, currently available defense systems suffer from low detection capability and high number of false alarms. An intrusion detection system must reliably detect malicious activities in a network and must perform efficiently to cope with the large amount of network traffic. In this paper we study the Machine Learning and data mining techniques to solve Intrusion Detection problems within computer networks and compare the various approaches with conditional random fields and address these two issues of Accuracy and Efficiency using Conditional Random Fields and Layered Approach.

  7. Intrusion detection using deep belief network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes an intrusion detection technique based on DBN (Deep Belief Network) to classify four intrusion classes and one normal class using KDD-99 dataset. The proposed technique is based on two phases: in first phase it removes the class imbalance problem and in the next, it applies DBN followed by FFNN (Feed-Forward Neural Network) to build a prediction model. The obtained results are compared with those given in (9). The prediction accuracy of our model shows promising results on both intrusion and normal patterns. (author)

  8. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  9. Periodontal changes following molar intrusion with miniscrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Bayani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, these results suggest that not only periodontal status was not negatively affected by intrusion, but also there were signs of periodontal improvement including attachment gain and shortening of clinical crown height.

  10. Adapting safety requirements analysis to intrusion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, R.

    2001-01-01

    Several requirements analysis techniques widely used in safety-critical systems are being adapted to support the analysis of secure systems. Perhaps the most relevant system safety techique for Intrusion Detection Systems is hazard analysis.

  11. Multilayer Statistical Intrusion Detection in Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Noureddine Boudriga; Amel Meddeb-Makhlouf; Mohamed Hamdi

    2008-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of mobile applications and services has introduced new vulnerabilities that do not exist in fixed wired networks. Traditional security mechanisms, such as access control and encryption, turn out to be inefficient in modern wireless networks. Given the shortcomings of the protection mechanisms, an important research focuses in intrusion detection systems (IDSs). This paper proposes a multilayer statistical intrusion detection framework for wireless networks. The archite...

  12. Introduction to Wireless Intrusion Detection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Milliken, Jonny

    2014-01-01

    The IDS (Intrusion Detection System) is a common means of protecting networked systems from attack or malicious misuse. The development and rollout of an IDS can take many different forms in terms of equipment, protocols, connectivity, cost and automation. This is particularly true of WIDS (Wireless Intrusion Detection Systems) which have many more opportunities and challenges associated with data transmission through an open, shared medium. The operation of a WIDS is a multistep process from...

  13. Intrusion Detection Using Cost-Sensitive Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Dimitrakakis, Christos; Douligeris, Christos

    2008-01-01

    Intrusion Detection is an invaluable part of computer networks defense. An important consideration is the fact that raising false alarms carries a significantly lower cost than not detecting at- tacks. For this reason, we examine how cost-sensitive classification methods can be used in Intrusion Detection systems. The performance of the approach is evaluated under different experimental conditions, cost matrices and different classification models, in terms of expected cost, as well as detect...

  14. The Development of Intrusive Thoughts to Obsessions

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Lisa- Marie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to consider the role of appraisals of intrusivethoughts in the development of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. A narrativeliterature review explored the hypothesis that ‘normal’ intrusive thoughts lieon a continuum with clinical obsessions. The review discussed previousresearch on intrusive thoughts in nonclinical samples and drew comparisonswith characteristics of clinical obsessions. An internet-based empiricalinvestigation employed a randomised controlled trial des...

  15. The neural representation of intrusive thoughts

    OpenAIRE

    Kühn, S; Schmiedek, F.; Brose, A.; Schott, B.; Lindenberger, U; Lövdén, M.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the philosophical notion that language embodies thought we investigated whether a habitual tendency for intrusive thought that younger and older participants report over a period of 100 sessions, spread out over about 6 months, is associated with brain regions related to language production. In favour of this hypothesis, we found that individual differences in habitual intrusive thoughts are correlated with activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, Broca’s area) as well as th...

  16. Intrusion Detection System: Security Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    ShabnamNoorani,; Sharmila Gaikwad Rathod

    2015-01-01

    An intrusion detection system (IDS) is an ad hoc security solution to protect flawed computer systems. It works like a burglar alarm that goes off if someone tampers with or manages to get past other security mechanisms such as authentication mechanisms and firewalls. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a device or a software application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a management station.Intrusio...

  17. [Intrusive care and the nursing approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécu, Anays Vaplet; Viltart, Valérie

    2015-04-01

    All caregivers who listen to patients will hear them tell their experience of the intrusive nature of care, whether it be basic, technical, educational or relational. The relational approach implemented by nurses enables them to identify organisational and behavioural methods which favour the establishment of a climate of trust. It helps them appropriate this interdisciplinary approach to caregiving, limiting as much as possible the intrusion felt by the patient during their hospital stay. PMID:26043629

  18. Research on Wireless Sensor Network Intrusion Detection Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Qing Gang; Wang Li; Zhu Yun Jie; Cai Yan Ning; Li Yong Qiang

    2016-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, wireless sensor network (WSN) has been widely used in all walks of life. The security problem of WSN has become a research hotspot. Intrusion detection technology has an important position in the network security. In this Paper, firstly, the intrusion and intrusion detection are introduced, secondly, the WSN intrusion detection system and its classification are analyzed. The main study is to analyze the current WSN intrusion detection technology...

  19. Feature Selection Using Particle Swarm Optimization in Intrusion Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Iftikhar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The prevention of intrusion in networks is decisive and an intrusion detection system is extremely desirable with potent intrusion detection mechanism. Excessive work is done on intrusion detection systems but still these are not powerful due to high number of false alarms. One of the leading causes of false alarms is due to the usage of a raw dataset that contains redundancy. To resolve this issue, feature selection is necessary which can improve intrusion detection performance. Latterly, pr...

  20. A Comprehensive Study in Data Mining Frameworks for Intrusion Detection

    OpenAIRE

    R.Venkatesan, R. Ganesan, A. Arul Lawrence Selvakumar

    2012-01-01

    Intrusions are the activities that violate the security policy of system. Intrusion Detection is the process used to identify intrusions. Network security is to be considered as a major issue in recent years, since the computer network keeps on expanding every day. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a system for detecting intrusions and reporting to the authority or to the network administration. Data mining techniques have been successfully applied in many fields like Network Management,...

  1. DUNDRUM Restriction-Intrusion of Liberty Ladders (DRILL) Audit Toolkit

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennedy, Harry G

    2011-09-01

    This series of rating \\'ladders\\' is intended to allow a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the use of restrictive and intrusive interventions as part of the therapeutic management of violence and aggression in psychiatric hospital settings. This is an evolving handbook. The ladders are currently organised to facilitate a behavioural analysis. Context, antecedents, behaviour, interventions, consequences are conceptualised as a series of events organised in temporal sequence so that causes, interactions and effects can be considered. The complexity of analysis possible is limited by the statistical power of the numbers of cases and events available. \\r\

  2. Count out your intrusions: Effects of verbal encoding on intrusive memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krans, J.; Näring, G.W.B.; Becker, E.S.

    2009-01-01

    Peri-traumatic information processing is thought to affect the development of intrusive trauma memories. This study aimed to replicate and improve the study by Holmes, Brewin, and Hennessy (2004, Exp. 3) on the role of peri-traumatic verbal processing in analogue traumatic intrusion development. Par

  3. Gravity-driven intrusions in stratified fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Benjamin Dudley

    All natural fluids stratify. Stable stratifications, in which isobars and isopycnals are parallel, are capable of supporting internal wave motion. Unstable stratification, in which density and pressure gradients are not aligned, results in gravity-driven flow. Gravity currents are a subset of these flows in which horizontal density gradients sharpen and propagate horizontally, transporting mass, momentum, and energy. If the density of the gravity current is within the density extrema of the stably stratified ambient fluid, it propagates as an intrusion at an intermediate height. Through laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, this dissertation explores the influence of stratification on the dynamics of gravity-driven intrusions. Intrusions require stable stratification in the ambient fluid, which is capable of transporting momentum and energy away from the current in the form of internal waves. We investigate the constant velocity propagation of well-mixed intrusions propagating into a linearly stratified ambient fluid. Varying the level of neutral buoyancy, we quantify the corresponding variation in structure, momentum, and energy of the upstream wave field. Adjacent stable stratifications of differing vertical density structure necessarily entail horizontal density gradients. These gradients determine the hydrostatic pressure differences driving the ensuing gravity current. We examine the mid-depth, constant velocity propagation of one linearly stratified fluid into another more strongly linearly stratified fluid. Working from the available potential energy of the system and measurements of the intrusion thickness, we develop an energy model to describe the speed of the intrusion in terms of the ratio of the two buoyancy frequencies. Distinct from adjacent linear stratifications, adjacent discrete stratifications may create flow consisting of interleaving intrusions. Single intrusions into a two-layer ambient fluid are well understood. Limiting our

  4. NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shanmugavadivu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available IDS which are increasingly a key part of system defense are used to identify abnormal activities in a computer system. In general, the traditional intrusion detection relies on the extensive knowledge of security experts, in particular, on their familiarity with the computer system to be protected. To reduce this dependence, variousdata-mining and machine learning techniques have been used in the literature. In the proposed system, we have designed fuzzy logic-based system for effectively identifying the intrusion activities within a network. The proposed fuzzy logic-based system can be able to detect an intrusion behavior of the networks since the rule base contains a better set of rules. Here, we have used automated strategy for generation of fuzzy rules, which are obtained from the definite rules using frequent items. The experiments and evaluations of the proposed intrusion detection system are performed with the KDD Cup 99 intrusion detection dataset. The experimentalresults clearly show that the proposed system achieved higher precision in identifying whether the records are normal or attack one.

  5. Intrusion problematic during water supply systems’ operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Mora-Rodriguez, P. Amparo López-Jimenez, Helena M. Ramos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion through leaks occurrence is a phenomenon when external fluid comes into water pipe systems. This phenomenon can cause contamination problems in drinking pipe systems. Hence, this paper focuses on the entry of external fluids across small leaks during normal operation conditions. This situation is especially important in elevated points of the pipe profile. Pressure variations can origin water volume losses and intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes. This work focuses in obtaining up the physical representation on a specific case intrusion in a pipe water system. The combination of two factors is required to generate this kind of intrusion in a water supply system: on one hand the existence of at least a leak in the system; on the other hand, a pressure variation could occur during the operation of the system due to consumption variation, pump start-up or shutdown. The potential of intrusion during a dynamic or transient event is here analyzed. To obtain this objective an experimental case study of pressure transient scenario is analyzed with a small leak located nearby the transient source.

  6. An Overview on Intrusion Detection in Manet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh D. Wagh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a self-configuring of mobile devices network connected without wires and hence MANET has become a very popular technology now days. A MANETS are the networks that are building, when some mobile nodes come in the mobility range of each other for data transfer and communication. In MANET, nodes are not stable hence the communication topology is not stable due to this vulnerable for attacks. MANET devices are connected via wireless links without using an existing network infrastructure or centralized administration due to which MANETs are not able to diverse types of attacks and intrusions. Hence intrusion detection has attracted many researchers. This paper gives an overview and different methods to detect intrusion in MANET.

  7. Intrusion Detection System: Security Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShabnamNoorani,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An intrusion detection system (IDS is an ad hoc security solution to protect flawed computer systems. It works like a burglar alarm that goes off if someone tampers with or manages to get past other security mechanisms such as authentication mechanisms and firewalls. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a device or a software application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a management station.Intrusion Detection System (IDS has been used as a vital instrument in defending the network from this malicious or abnormal activity..In this paper we are comparing host based and network based IDS and various types of attacks possible on IDS.

  8. Iron isotope systematics of the Skaergaard intrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesher, Charles; Lundstrom, C.C.; Barfod, Gry;

    The early Eocene Skaergaard intrusion, central east Greenland, is one of the most thoroughly studied layered mafic intrusions on Earth and an exceptional example of (near) closed-system magmatic differentiation. The Skaergaard intrusion is ideally suited to test models of closed-system fractional....... Forward modeling of closed system fractional crystallization constrained by cumulate volumes, whole rock and mineral compositions, mineral modes and independent constraints on Fe isotope fractionation factors account for the stratigraphic relations, except during the final stages of differentiation of...... crystallization on non-traditional stable isotope systems, particularly iron. FeTi oxide minerals (titanomagnetite and ilmenite) appear after ~60% of the magma had solidified. This was a significant event affecting the liquid line of descent and potentially accompanied by iron isotope fractionation. Here we...

  9. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  10. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily activities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis (HD) and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering sociodemographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was carried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were analyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 + - 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%), 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear families. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 + - 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%), work (70%) finance (55%), diet (50%) sexual life (38%) and psychological status (25%). Illness had not intruded in areas of relationship with spouse (67%), friends (76%), family (79%), social (40%) and religious functions (72%). Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02). (author)

  11. Perceived illness intrusion among patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapat Usha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis therapy is extremely stressful as it interferes with all spheres of daily acti-vities of the patients. This study is aimed at understanding the perceived illness intrusion among pa-tients on hemodialysis (HD and to find the association between illness intrusion and patient demo-graphics as well as duration of dialysis. A cross sectional study involving 90 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD stage V, on HD was performed during the period from 2005 to 2006. The subjects included were above 18 years of age, willing, stable and on dialysis for at least two months. Patients with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. A semi-structured interview schedule covering socio-demographics and a 13 item illness intrusion checklist covering the various aspects of life was ca-rried out. The study patients were asked to rate the illness intrusion and the extent. The data were ana-lyzed statistically. The mean age of the subjects was 50.28 ± 13.69 years, males were predominant (85%, 73% were married, 50% belonged to Hindu religion, 25% had pre-degree education, 25% were employed and 22% were housewives. About 40% and 38% of the study patients belonged to middle and upper socio-economic strata respectively; 86% had urban background and lived in nuclear fami-lies. The mean duration on dialysis was 24 ± 29.6 months. All the subjects reported illness intrusion to a lesser or greater extent in various areas including: health (44%, work (70% finance (55%, diet (50% sexual life (38% and psychological status (25%. Illness had not intruded in areas of rela-tionship with spouse (67%, friends (76%, family (79%, social (40% and religious functions (72%. Statistically significant association was noted between illness intrusion and occupation (P= 0.02.

  12. Adaptive intrusion data system (AIDS) software routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) was developed to collect information from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique digital data-compression, storage, and formatting system; it also incorporates a capability for video selection and recording for assessment of the sensors monitored by the system. The system is software reprogrammable to numerous configurations that may be used for the collection of environmental, bilevel, analog, and video data. This report describes the software routines that control the different AIDS data-collection modes, the diagnostic programs to test the operating hardware, and the data format. Sample data printouts are also included

  13. Intrusion Detection During IT Security Audits

    OpenAIRE

    Vatanen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    In many public cases intruders have managed to remain undetected inside victim's network or sys-tems a very long time. Sometimes it has taken over two years until detection was made and during that that time most of the targets have most probably been monitored and audited. Whether audit or monitoring process has failed, or used tools and processes don’t cover intrusion detection. This thesis aimed at narrowing the gap between IT security audit and intrusion detection by inspect-ing attac...

  14. Adaptive Genetic Algorithm Model for Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Anil Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection systems are intelligent systems designed to identify and prevent the misuse of computer networks and systems. Various approaches to Intrusion Detection are currently being used, but they are relatively ineffective. Thus the emerging network security systems need be part of the life system and this ispossible only by embedding knowledge into the network. The Adaptive Genetic Algorithm Model - IDS comprising of K-Means clustering Algorithm, Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network techniques. Thetechnique is tested using multitude of background knowledge sets in DARPA network traffic datasets.

  15. Computationally Efficient Neural Network Intrusion Security Awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Milos Manic

    2009-08-01

    An enhanced version of an algorithm to provide anomaly based intrusion detection alerts for cyber security state awareness is detailed. A unique aspect is the training of an error back-propagation neural network with intrusion detection rule features to provide a recognition basis. Network packet details are subsequently provided to the trained network to produce a classification. This leverages rule knowledge sets to produce classifications for anomaly based systems. Several test cases executed on ICMP protocol revealed a 60% identification rate of true positives. This rate matched the previous work, but 70% less memory was used and the run time was reduced to less than 1 second from 37 seconds.

  16. Intrusion Detection Approach Using Connectionist Expert System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Rui; LIU Yu-shu; DU Yan-hui

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the detection efficiency of rule-based expert systems, an intrusion detection approach using connectionist expert system is proposed. The approach converts the AND/OR nodes into the corresponding neurons, adopts the three-layered feed forward network with full interconnection between layers,translates the feature values into the continuous values belong to the interval [0, 1 ], shows the confidence degree about intrusion detection rules using the weight values of the neural networks and makes uncertain inference with sigmoid function. Compared with the rule-based expert system, the neural network expert system improves the inference efficiency.

  17. An Adaptive Database Intrusion Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Rita M.

    2011-01-01

    Intrusion detection is difficult to accomplish when attempting to employ current methodologies when considering the database and the authorized entity. It is a common understanding that current methodologies focus on the network architecture rather than the database, which is not an adequate solution when considering the insider threat. Recent…

  18. Daytime intrusive thoughts and subjective insomnia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Louise D; Baldwin, David S; Garner, Matthew

    2015-10-30

    Insomnia is increasingly recognised as a 24h complaint that is associated with an increased risk of mood and anxiety disorders. However, the effects of insomnia symptoms on maladaptive daytime patterns of thinking are poorly understood. We examined the relationship between subjective insomnia symptoms, attentional control and negative thought intrusions during daytime in a large sample of undergraduates experiencing poor sleep. A total of 109 participants completed self-report measures of sleep quality, current sleepiness, anxiety and attentional control. A behavioural measure of intrusive thought required participants to control their attention during two focus periods separated by a 5min period of self-referential worry. Thought intrusions were sampled throughout the pre- and post-worry periods. Perceived insomnia severity was associated with the reduced ability to focus attention and uniquely associated with increased negative thought intrusions in the pre-worry period. These results support suggestions that acute episodes of poor sleep can dysregulate key networks involved in attentional control and emotion regulation, and that promote negative cognitive activity. PMID:26279126

  19. Smart sensor systems for outdoor intrusion detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major improvement in outdoor perimeter security system probability of detection (PD) and reduction in false alarm rate (FAR) and nuisance alarm rate (NAR) may be obtained by analyzing the indications immediately preceding an event which might be interpreted as an intrusion. Existing systems go into alarm after crossing a threshold. Very slow changes, which accumulate until the threshold is reached, may be assessed falsely as an intrusion. A hierarchial program has begun at Stellar to develop a modular, expandable Smart Sensor system which may be interfaced to most types of sensor and alarm reporting systems. A major upgrade to the SSI Test Site is in progress so that intrusions may be simulated in a controlled and repeatable manner. A test platform is being constructed which will operate in conduction with a mobile instrumentation center with CCTVB, lighting control, weather and data monitoring and remote control of the test platform and intrusion simulators. Additional testing was contracted with an independent test facility to assess the effects of severe winter weather conditions

  20. Intrusive [r] and Optimal Epenthetic Consonants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uffmann, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues against the view of intrusive [r] as a synchronically arbitrary insertion process. Instead, it is seen as a phonologically natural process, which can be modelled within the framework of Optimality Theory (OT). Insertion of [r] in phonologically restricted environments is a consequence of a more general theory of consonant…

  1. Petrology of the Sutherland commanage melilite intrusives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petrology of the Sutherland Commonage olivine melilitite intrusives have been investigated using petrographic and chemical methods. The results of the geochemical study suggest that the Commonage melilites were derived by the melting of a recently metasomatised region of the asthenosphere, probably under the influence of an ocean-island-type hotspot situated in the lower mantle

  2. Data Visualization Technique Framework for Intrusion detection

    OpenAIRE

    Alaa El - Din Riad; Ibrahim Elhenawy; Ahmed Hassan; Nancy Awadallah

    2011-01-01

    Network attacks have become the fundamental threat to today's largely interconnected computer system. Intrusion detection system (IDS) is indispensable to defend the system in the face of increasing vulnerabilities. While a number of information visualization software frameworks exist, creating new visualizations, especially those that involve novel visualization metaphors, interaction techniques, data analysis strategies, and specialized rendering algorithms, is still often a difficult proce...

  3. A Novel Datamining Based Approach for Remote Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Deepti.S, Loshma.G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, as information systems are more open to the Internet,attacks and intrusions are also increasing rapidly so the importance of secure networks is also vital. New intelligent Intrusion Detection Systems which are based on sophisticated algorithms are in demand.Intrusion Detection System (IDS is an important detection used as a countermeasure to preserve data integrity and system availability from attacks. It is a combination of software and hardware that attempts to perform intrusion detection.In data mining based intrusion detection system, we should make use of particular domain knowledge in relation to intrusion detection in order to efficiently extract relative rules from large amounts of records.This paper proposes boosting method for intrusion detection and it is possible to detect the intrusions in all the Systems, without installing the Software in client System (like client-server via Web service (Apache tomcat by using the ip address of the client system.

  4. A network-based realtime intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author first reviews the background of Intrusion Detection (ID), then discusses the models and classifications of Intrusion Detection System (IDS). After detail the basic concepts to realize network-based realtime IDS, the analysis of authors' work are presented

  5. Management of multiple intrusive luxative injuries: A case report with 7-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of severe intrusive luxation of multiple anterior teeth in an 11-year-old girl. The teeth were repositioned successfully by endodontic and orthodontic management. The case was monitored for 7 years. Depending on the severity of the injury, different clinical approaches for treatment of intrusive luxation may be used. Despite the variety of treatment modalities, rehabilitation of intruded teeth is always a challenge and a multidisciplinary approach is important to achieve a successful result. In this case, intruded teeth were endodontically treated with multiple calcium hydroxide dressings and repositioned orthodontically. The follow-up of such cases is very important as the repair process after intrusion is complex. After 7 years, no clinical or radiographic pathology was detected.

  6. Zircon Saturation and the Viability of Magma Bodies During Intrusion of the Tuolumne Intrusive Series, Sierra Nevada Batholith, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Burgess, S.; Miller, C.; Miller, R.; Bergantz, G.

    2005-05-01

    The Tuolumne Intrusive Series (TIS) is a prime example of a zoned arc intrusion, and is one of a belt of large (>1000 km2) consanguineous, Cretaceous, zoned intrusions within the Sierra Nevada batholith. Past work linked the differentiation of the TIS with field petrology and modification of magma in situ in large reservoirs. New single-zircon geochronology and field studies show that the TIS was assembled from numerous magma inputs from 94-85 Ma, casting doubt on the existence of a large body of mobile magma during growth and emplacement [1], and calling into question where the bulk of the chemical differentiation occurred (exposure level or deep source). Zircon saturation temperatures (Tzrc; [2]) for the TIS are useful for understanding its assembly, particularly in combination with high precision, single zircon ages. The two largest units of the TIS (Half Dome and Cathedral Peak granodiorites) have low calculated Tzrc (Half Dome: 710-765°C, mean=740°C; Cathedral Peak: 715-780°C, mean=760°C), which implies complexities in how zircon ages are used to interpret the construction of the TIS: (1) at T's appropriate for anatexis, transport, and initial emplacement of granitoid magmas, source-derived zircons would be dissolved; zircons in TIS thus crystallized during post-emplacement conductive cooling upon reaching Tzrc, or were inherited late; (2) because Tzrc is not far above the solidus, appreciable age differences (several 105 yr?) might be produced by slow cooling of a large magma body that was open to heat input; heat added need only have been sufficient to maintain near-eutectic conditions, perhaps as persistent mush, but with net cooling (qout > qin), such that ages track the migration of the Tzrc isotherm during solidification; (3) reheating of any mush, or melting of intrusions associated with earlier inputs to T's >> Tzrc would dissolve older zircons on time scales of 104-105 years (e.g. [3]); this time scale sets a limit on the longevity of melt

  7. An Intrusion Detection System Framework for Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Singh; Surbhi Chauhan; Kamal Kant; Reshma Doknaia

    2012-01-01

    Secure and efficient communication among a set of mobile nodes is one of the most important aspects in ad-hoc wireless networks. Wireless networks are particularly vulnerable to intrusion, as they operate in open medium, and use cooperative strategies for network communications. By efficiently merging audit data from multiple network sensors, we analyze the entire ad hoc wireless network for intrusions and try to inhibit intrusion attempts. This paper presents an intrusion detection system fo...

  8. Territorial intrusion risk and antipredator behaviour: a mathematical model.

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Uriarte, R.

    2001-01-01

    In territorial animals that hide to avoid predators, a predatory attack creates a conflict because a hiding animal cannot defend its territory from conspecific intruders. When intruders are persistent, a past conspecific intrusion informs a territorial resident that future intrusions by the same animal are likely. Using a mathematical model, I examine the effects that past territorial intrusions can have on antipredator behaviour. Past territorial intrusions rarely affect a resident animal's ...

  9. 10 CFR 63.322 - Human intrusion scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Standard § 63.322 Human intrusion scenario. For the purposes of the analysis of human intrusion, DOE must... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human intrusion scenario. 63.322 Section 63.322 Energy... exposure scenario includes only those radionuclides transported to the saturated zone by water (e.g.,...

  10. An Atmospheric Dry Intrusion Parameter and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Donghai; YANG Shuai

    2010-01-01

    Dry intrusion plays an important role in the explosive development of cyclones and the evolution of cold fronts. Characteristics of dry intrusion during a rainfall event that occurred in northern China are analyzed in detail in this paper. The IM (ingredients-based methodology) developed by Doswell et al. in 1996 and Wetzel and Martin in 2001 is utilized. All the physical representations of dry intrusion defined in the past studies, such as low relative humidity, cold advection, and high potential vorticity (on either isobaric or isentropic surfaces), are combined into a simple and convenient physical parameter to characterize dry intrusion. This is a new attempt to extend the IM that was primarily applied to research on heavy rainfall to the study of dry intrusion. The new dry intrusion parameter is used to analyze the isentropic evolution of dry intrusion during the rainfall event. The results show that this parameter can better quantify the intensity of dry intrusion and diagnose its evolution shown in satellite infrared and water vapor imageries. It is found that dry intrusion maintains during the rainfall period. The intensity of precipitation increases with the increasing dry intrusion, which has pushed the rainy region southeastward. From the results on the isentropic surface and the corresponding isobaric surface, it is inferred that the analyses of dry intrusion on both surfaces are consistent with each other. The isentropic analysis of dry intrusion reveals that cold and dry air at the upper level overruns that in the lower troposphere where moist and warm air is located. Thus, potential instability is built up in the vertical direction, which favors the occurrence of precipitation. In practice, we may identify dry intrusion regions by tracking strong signals of the dry intrusion parameter, and further identify the instability near the dry intrusion regions. This will aid in improving the accuracy of precipitation forecast.

  11. The state of the art in intrusion prevention and detection

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan

    2013-01-01

    The State of the Art in Intrusion Prevention and Detection analyzes the latest trends and issues surrounding intrusion detection systems in computer networks, especially in communications networks. Its broad scope of coverage includes wired, wireless, and mobile networks; next-generation converged networks; and intrusion in social networks.Presenting cutting-edge research, the book presents novel schemes for intrusion detection and prevention. It discusses tracing back mobile attackers, secure routing with intrusion prevention, anomaly detection, and AI-based techniques. It also includes infor

  12. Research on IPv6 intrusion detection system Snort-based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zihao; Wang, Hui

    2010-07-01

    This paper introduces the common intrusion detection technologies, discusses the work flow of Snort intrusion detection system, and analyzes IPv6 data packet encapsulation and protocol decoding technology. We propose the expanding Snort architecture to support IPv6 intrusion detection in accordance with CIDF standard combined with protocol analysis technology and pattern matching technology, and present its composition. The research indicates that the expanding Snort system can effectively detect various intrusion attacks; it is high in detection efficiency and detection accuracy and reduces false alarm and omission report, which effectively solves the problem of IPv6 intrusion detection.

  13. An immune based dynamic intrusion detection model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tao

    2005-01-01

    With the dynamic description method for self and antigen, and the concept of dynamic immune tolerance for lymphocytes in network-security domain presented in this paper, a new immune based dynamic intrusion detection model (Idid) is proposed. In Idid, the dynamic models and the corresponding recursive equations of the lifecycle of mature lymphocytes, and the immune memory are built. Therefore, the problem of the dynamic description of self and nonself in computer immune systems is solved, and the defect of the low efficiency of mature lymphocyte generating in traditional computer immune systems is overcome. Simulations of this model are performed, and the comparison experiment results show that the proposed dynamic intrusion detection model has a better adaptability than the traditional methods.

  14. A Microcontroller Based Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewunonu Toochi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A Microcontroller based Intrusion Detection System is designed and implemented. Rampant, Okintrusion to restricted zones have highlighted the need for embedded systems that can effectively monitor, instantly alert personnel of any breach in security and retrieve graphic evidence of any such activity in the secured area. At the heart of the intrusion detection system is the PIC 168F77A Microcontroller that transmits pulses at 38 KHz. It is suitably interfaced to a GSM modem that can send SMS on sight of infringement and a webcam that can take snapshots. The report also presents the system software which has been developed in two parts: one in C++ Language using MPLAB KIT and the other written in AT COMMAND resident in the GSM modem. The system is very cost-effective, uses easily available components and is adaptable to control systems.

  15. Sensing Danger: Innate Immunology for Intrusion Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Uwe, Aickelin

    2008-01-01

    The immune system provides an ideal metaphor for anomaly detection in general and computer security in particular. Based on this idea, artificial immune systems have been used for a number of years for intrusion detection, unfortunately so far with little success. However, these previous systems were largely based on immunological theory from the 1970s and 1980s and over the last decade our understanding of immunological processes has vastly improved. In this paper we present two new immune inspired algorithms based on the latest immunological discoveries, such as the behaviour of Dendritic Cells. The resultant algorithms are applied to real world intrusion problems and show encouraging results. Overall, we believe there is a bright future for these next generation artificial immune algorithms.

  16. Data Reduction in Intrusion Alert Correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Gianni, Tedesco

    2008-01-01

    Network intrusion detection sensors are usually built around low level models of network traffic. This means that their output is of a similarly low level and as a consequence, is difficult to analyze. Intrusion alert correlation is the task of automating some of this analysis by grouping related alerts together. Attack graphs provide an intuitive model for such analysis. Unfortunately alert flooding attacks can still cause a loss of service on sensors, and when performing attack graph correlation, there can be a large number of extraneous alerts included in the output graph. This obscures the fine structure of genuine attacks and makes them more difficult for human operators to discern. This paper explores modified correlation algorithms which attempt to minimize the impact of this attack.

  17. ISDTM:An Intrusion Signatures Description Temporal Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OuYangMing-guang; ZhouYang-bo

    2003-01-01

    ISDTM, based on an augmented Allen's interval temporal logic (ITL) and first-order predicate calculus, is a formal temporal model for representing intrusion signatures.It is augmented with some real time extensions which enhance the expressivity. Intrusion scenarios usually are the set of events and system states, wherethe temporal sequence is their basic relation. Intrusion signatures description, therefore, is to represent such temporal relations in a sense. While representing these signatures, ISDTM decomposes the intrusion process into the sequence of events according to their relevant intervals, and then specifies network states in these Intervals. The uncertain intrusion signatures as well as basic temporal modes of events, which consist of the parallel mode,the sequential mode and the hybrid mode, can be succinctly and naturally represented in ISDTM. Mode chart is the visualization of intrusion signatures in ISDTM, which makes the formulas more readable. The intrusion signatures descriptions in ISDTM have advantages of compact construct, concise syntax, scalability and easy implementation.

  18. A Comprehensive Study in Data Mining Frameworks for Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Venkatesan, R. Ganesan, A. Arul Lawrence Selvakumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrusions are the activities that violate the security policy of system. Intrusion Detection is the process used to identify intrusions. Network security is to be considered as a major issue in recent years, since the computer network keeps on expanding every day. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a system for detecting intrusions and reporting to the authority or to the network administration. Data mining techniques have been successfully applied in many fields like Network Management, Education, Science, Business, Manufacturing, Process control, and Fraud Detection. Data Mining for IDS is the technique which can be used mainly to identify unknown attacks and to raise alarms when security violations are detected. The purpose of this survey paper is to describe the methods/ techniques which are being used for Intrusion Detection based on Data mining concepts and the designed frame works for the same. We are also going to review the related works for intrusion detection.

  19. INTRUSIVE MARKETING METHODS A CONTEMPORARY CONSUMER PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Owais, Faizan

    2008-01-01

    Is marketing practice destroying the faith of consumers? It may be argued that marketing practice over recent years has taken a more direct approach that appears intrusive and manipulative to consumers. The marketing activities we see today are a desperate attempt to grab consumer attention in any way possible and it is all spelling out bad news for marketing. Marketers have been faced with many challenges, with markets at saturation point, competitiveness is on the rise and marketers are...

  20. Intrusion Detection in High-Speed Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Riegel, Martin; Walsø, Claes Lyth

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates methods for implementing an intrusion detection system (IDS) in a high-speed backbone network. The work presented in this report is run in cooperation with Kripos and Uninett. The popular IDS software, Snort, is deployed and tested in Uninett's backbone network. In addition, the monitoring API (MAPI) is considered as a possible IDS implementation in the same environment. The experiments conducted in this report make use of the programmable DAG card, which is a passive...

  1. Active Intrusion Detection for Wireless Multihop Networks

    OpenAIRE

    do Carmo, Rodrigo Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This work focuses on network security and introduces an active-probing technique for intrusion detection in wireless multihop networks. Wireless networks have been the revolution of personal communications of the past decades. Millions of devices with wireless capabilities are sold to end customers every year: smartphones that enable access to the Internet almost everywhere, computers with wireless connections, personal watches, sports shoes, digital cameras, and even lenses with wirel...

  2. Perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain an effective perimeter intrusion detection system requires careful sensor selection, procurement, and installation. The selection process involves a thorough understanding of the unique site features and how these features affect the performance of each type of sensor. It is necessary to develop procurement specifications to establish acceptable sensor performance limits. Careful explanation and inspection of critical installation dimensions is required during on-site construction. The implementation of these activities at a particular site is discussed

  3. USBcat - Towards an Intrusion Surveillance Toolset

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Chris; Knight, Scott; Dean, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies an intrusion surveillance framework which provides an analyst with the ability to investigate and monitor cyber-attacks in a covert manner. Where cyber-attacks are perpetrated for the purposes of espionage the ability to understand an adversary's techniques and objectives are an important element in network and computer security. With the appropriate toolset, security investigators would be permitted to perform both live and stealthy counter-intelligence operations by ob...

  4. Decision Tree Based Algorithm for Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajal Rai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is a defense measure that supervises activities of the computer network and reports the malicious activities to the network administrator. Intruders do many attempts to gain access to the network and try to harm the organization’s data. Thus the security is the most important aspect for any type of organization. Due to these reasons, intrusion detection has been an important research issue. An IDS can be broadly classified as Signature based IDS and Anomaly based IDS. In our proposed work, the decision tree algorithm is developed based on C4.5 decision tree approach. Feature selection and split value are important issues for constructing a decision tree. In this paper, the algorithm is designed to address these two issues. The most relevant features are selected using information gain and the split value is selected in such a way that makes the classifier unbiased towards most frequent values. Experimentation is performed on NSL-KDD (Network Security Laboratory Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining dataset based on number of features. The time taken by the classifier to construct the model and the accuracy achieved is analyzed. It is concluded that the proposed Decision Tree Split (DTS algorithm can be used for signature based intrusion detection.

  5. Testing Of Network Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeep Vegunta

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Network based intrusion detection system use the models of attacks to identify intrusive behavior ability of systems to detect attacks by quality of models which are called signatures. Some attacks exploits in different ways. For this reason we use testing tools that able to detect goodness of signatures. This technique describes test and evaluate misuse detection models in the case of network-based intrusion detection systems. we use Mutant Exploits are working against vulnerability applications. This mutant exploit is based on mechanism to generate large no. of exploit by applying mutant operators. The results of the systems in detecting these variations pro-vide a quantitative basis for the evaluation of the quality of the corresponding detection model. but here we are going to find defects of this testing and is this test will provide 100% security for this system (or not. and also which technique gives much security among these techniques fuzzy logic, neural networks, hybrid fuzzy and neural networks, naïve bayes, genetic algorithms and data mining.

  6. Petrology, composition, and age of intrusive rocks associated with the Quartz Hill molybdenite deposit, southeastern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, T.; Smith, James G.; Elliott, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A large porphyry molybdenum deposit (Quartz Hill deposit) was recently discovered in the heart of the Coast Range batholithic complex about 70 km E of Ketchikan, SE Alaska. Intrusive rocks associated with the mineral deposit form two composite epizonal to hypabyssal stocks and many dikes in country rocks. All observed metallization and alteration is within the Quartz Hill stock. Molybdenite forms fracture coatings and occurs in veins with quartz. Alteration is widespread and includes development of secondary quartz, pyrite, K-feldspar, biotite, white mica, chlorite, and zeolite. Field relations indicate that the stocks were emplaced after regional uplift and erosion of the Coast Range batholithic complex, and K-Ar data show that intrusion and alteration took place in late Oligocene time, about 27 to 30 Ma ago. Data from the Ketchikan quadrangle indicate that porphyry molybdenum metallization in the Coast Range batholithic complex is associated with regionally extensive but spotty, middle Tertiary or younger, felsic magmatism. -from Authors

  7. Immune System Approaches to Intrusion Detection - A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jungwon; Aickelin, Uwe; Greensmith, Julie; Tedesco, Gianni; Twycross, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    The use of artificial immune systems in intrusion detection is an appealing concept for two reasons. Firstly, the human immune system provides the human body with a high level of protection from invading pathogens, in a robust, self-organised and distributed manner. Secondly, current techniques used in computer security are not able to cope with the dynamic and increasingly complex nature of computer systems and their security. It is hoped that biologically inspired approaches in this area, including the use of immune-based systems will be able to meet this challenge. Here we review the algorithms used, the development of the systems and the outcome of their implementation. We provide an introduction and analysis of the key developments within this field, in addition to making suggestions for future research.

  8. Intrusion Prevention and Detection in Grid Computing - The ALICE Case

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, Andres; Kebschull, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Grids allow users flexible on-demand usage of computing resources through remote communication networks. A remarkable example of a Grid in High Energy Physics (HEP) research is used in the ALICE experiment at European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. Physicists can submit jobs used to process the huge amount of particle collision data produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Grids face complex security challenges. They are interesting targets for attackers seeking for huge computational resources. Since users can execute arbitrary code in the worker nodes on the Grid sites, special care should be put in this environment. Automatic tools to harden and monitor this scenario are required. Currently, there is no integrated solution for such requirement. This paper describes a new security framework to allow execution of job payloads in a sandboxed context. It also allows process behavior monitoring to detect intrusions, even when new attack methods or zero day vulnerabilities are exploited, by a Machin...

  9. Experimental study of the interplay between magmatic rift intrusion and flank instability with application to the 2001 Mount Etna eruption

    KAUST Repository

    Le Corvec, Nicolas

    2014-07-01

    Mount Etna volcano is subject to transient magmatic intrusions and flank movement. The east flank of the edifice, in particular, is moving eastward and is dissected by the Timpe Fault System. The relationship of this eastward motion with intrusions and tectonic fault motion, however, remains poorly constrained. Here we explore this relationship by using analogue experiments that are designed to simulate magmatic rift intrusion, flank movement, and fault activity before, during, and after a magmatic intrusion episode. Using particle image velocimetry allows for a precise temporal and spatial analysis of the development and activity of fault systems. The results show that the occurrence of rift intrusion episodes has a direct effect on fault activity. In such a situation, fault activity may occur or may be hindered, depending on the interplay of fault displacement and flank acceleration in response to dike intrusion. Our results demonstrate that a complex interplay may exist between an active tectonic fault system and magmatically induced flank instability. Episodes of magmatic intrusion change the intensity pattern of horizontal flank displacements and may hinder or activate associated faults. We further compare our results with the GPS data of the Mount Etna 2001 eruption and intrusion. We find that syneruptive displacement rates at the Timpe Fault System have differed from the preeruptive or posteruptive periods, which shows a good agreement of both the experimental and the GPS data. Therefore, understanding the flank instability and flank stability at Mount Etna requires consideration of both tectonic and magmatic forcing. Key Points Analyzing Mount Etna east flank dynamics during the 2001 eruption Good correlation between analogue models and GPS data Understanding the different behavior of faulting before/during/after an eruption © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  10. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircons from volcanic-intrusive complexes in the Xiangshan uranium orefield, Jiangxi Province, and its geological implications%江西相山火山-侵入杂岩体锆石SHRIMP定年及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正乐; 王永; 周永贵; 韩凤彬; 王平安; 宫红良; 邵飞; 唐湘生; 徐金山

    2013-01-01

    采用锆石SHRIMP微区U-Pb测年技术,测定了江西相山铀矿田火山-侵入杂岩的时代.采自于相山西北部的石马山和西部南陂的鹅湖岭组碎斑熔岩的SHRIMP锆石206Pb/238U表面年龄加权平均值分别为(134.6+1.0)Ma(MSWD=1.5)和(134.1+1.0)Ma(MSWD=0.65),可以限定相山第二火山喷发旋回的结束时代为134 Ma;采自于相山北部巴泉和南部浯漳的似斑状花岗岩的SHRIMP锆石206Pb/238U表面年龄加权平均值为(133.3 +0.8)Ma(MSWD=0.82)和(134.7+0.9)Ma(MSWD=l.08),与碎斑熔岩的年龄在误差范围内基本一致,结合野外地质事实和前人的地球化学测试分析结果,确认碎斑熔岩和似斑状花岗岩属于同期、同来源的火山喷发-侵入的产物,形成于134~133 Ma.书堂钻孔ZK111 A-1中打鼓顶组顶部流纹英安岩的锆石206Pb/238U表面年龄加权平均值为(141.6+1.7)Ma(MSWD=0.9),表明第一旋回火山喷发的时代应结束于142Ma,大部分属于晚侏罗世火山活动.岗上英钻孔岩心中石英二长花岗斑岩的锆石206Pb/238U表面年龄加权平均值为(136.4±1.0)Ma(MSWD=1.7),如意亭剖面第二采石场流纹质英安斑岩的锆石206Pb/238U表面年龄加权平均值为(137.4+1.7)Ma(MSWD=1.11);推测这两者应属于早晚两期火山喷发旋回间隔期的次火山-侵入岩,进而限定136~137Ma为相山两期火山喷发旋回的间隔时期.综合前人资料和本文测试分析结果,可将相山火山喷发第二旋回鹅湖岭组的时代限定为136~133Ma,应属于早白垩世的火山活动,进而认为将相山地区“鹅湖岭组”的地层时代划归为早白垩世较为合适.%The volcanic-intrusive complexes were dated by the SHRIMP U-Pb dating method of zircons from the Xiangshan uranium orefield, Jiangxi Province. SHRIMP U -Pb dating of zircons from 7 volcanic rocks yielded 206Pb/238U concordant ages from 133Ma to 142Ma. The weighted mean ages of two porphyroclastic lava samples are 134.6±1.0Ma (MSWD=1.5) and

  11. The pyroclastic dyke and welded crystal tuff of the Morro dos Gatos alkaline intrusive complex, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Dique piroclástico e tufo soldado com alto teor de cristais do complexo intrusivo de rochas alcalinas do Morro dos Gatos, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihisa Motoki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article reports the geologic, lithologic, and petrographic characteristics of the pyroclastic dyke and phenocryst-rich welded crystal tuff of the Morro dos Gatos alkaline intrusive body, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The intrusive complex has an extension of 1.2 x 0.8 km occupying an area of 0.5 km². It is constituted mainly by monzonite and trachyte. At the south flank of the massif, there exits a pyroclastic dyke and at the northwest flank, an intrusive welded crystal tuff. The pyroclastic dyke is 40 to 80 cm wide and intrudes into the basement porphyritic granite. This rock is constituted by welded tuff breccia with large amount of lapilli-size angular lithic fragments of trachyte. Along the contact plane of this dyke, there is an intercalation of the trachyte. The crystal tuff is characterised by abundant alkaline feldspar phenocrysts and mineral fragments of alkaline feldspar, quartz, biotite, and amphibole, showing a crystal matrix-supported texture. Large phenocrysts are aggregations of idiomorphic alkaline feldspar crystals with a general size of 2 mm and a maximum one of 6 mm. The matrix is composed mainly of mineral fragments of less than 1 mm in general size. The size-frequency diagram for the mineral fragments suggests that they have been originated from an explosive eruption. The matrix is strongly welded and completely devitrified showing a cryptocrystalline texture. The crystals were concentrated by sorting with the help of the volcanic gas ascending in the volcanic conduit during a continuous and effusive phase of the eruption. The limited special distribution of the pyroclastic rocks and small outcrop size indicate that they are not constituent of pyroclastic flow deposits, but of subvolcanic conduit and fissure.O presente artigo relata as características geológicas, litológicas e petrográficas do dique piroclástico e tufo soldado intrusivo com alto teor de fenocristais e fragmentos de minerais do complexo

  12. Performance Analysis of Intrusion Detection in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMRIDHI SHARMA

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile Adhoc Network is a collection of autonomous nodes or terminals which communicate with each other by forming a multihop radio network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration such as a base station. The Adhoc Network provides lack of secure boundaries. At present, the security issues on Mobile Adhoc Network have become one of the primary concerns. The MANET is more vulnerable to attacks as compared to wired networks due to distributed nature and lacks of infrastructure. Those vulnerabilities are nature of the MANET structure that cannot be removed easily. As a result, attacks with malicious intent have been and will be devised to exploit those vulnerabilities and to cripple the MANET Operation. Attacks prevention techniques such as a authentication and encryption, can be used as medium of defense for decreasing the possibilities of attacks. These techniques have a limitation on the effects of prevention techniques in practice and they are designed for a set of known attacks. They are unlikely to prevent newer attacks that are designed for circumventing the existing security measures. For this purpose, there exist a need of mechanism that “detect and response” these type of newer attacks i.e. “Intrusion and Detection”. Intrusion detection provide audit and monitoring capabilities that offer the local security to a node and help to perceive the specific trust level of other node. In addition to this ontology is a proven tool for this type of analysis. In this paper, specific ontology has been modeled which aims to explore and to classify current technique of Intrusion Detection System (IDS aware MANET. To support these ideas, a discussion regarding attacks, IDS architecture and IDS in MANET are presented inclusively and then the comparison among several researches achievement will be evaluated based on these parameters.

  13. Corticostriatal circuitry in regulating diseases characterized by intrusive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Benjamin C; Kalivas, Peter W

    2016-03-01

    Intrusive thinking triggers clinical symptoms in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Using drug addiction as an exemplar disorder sustained in part by intrusive thinking, we explore studies demonstrating that impairments in corticostriatal circuitry strongly contribute to intrusive thinking. Neuroimaging studies have long implicated this projection in cue-induced craving to use drugs, and preclinical models show that marked changes are produced at corticostriatal synapses in the nucleus accumbens during a relapse episode. We delineate an accumbens microcircuit that mediates cue-induced drug seeking becoming an intrusive event. This microcircuit harbors many potential therapeutic targets. We focus on preclinical and clinical studies, showing that administering N-acetylcysteine restores uptake of synaptic glutamate by astroglial glutamate transporters and thereby inhibits intrusive thinking. We posit that because intrusive thinking is a shared endophenotype in many disorders, N-acetylcysteine has positive effects in clinical trials for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction, gambling, trichotillomania, and depression. PMID:27069381

  14. Multi-agent cooperative intrusion response in mobile adhoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ping; Zou Futai; Jiang Xinghao; Li Jianhua

    2007-01-01

    The nature of adhoc networks makes them vulnerable to security attacks. Many security technologies such as intrusion prevention and intrusion detection are passive in response to intrusions in that their countermeasures are only to protect the networks, and there is no automated network-wide counteraction against detected intrusions. the architecture of cooperation intrusion response based multi-agent is propose. The architecture is composed of mobile agents. Monitor agent resides on every node and monitors its neighbor nodes. Decision agent collects information from monitor nodes and detects an intrusion by security policies. When an intruder is found in the architecture, the block agents will get to the neighbor nodes of the intruder and form the mobile firewall to isolate the intruder. In the end, we evaluate it by simulation.

  15. Introduction to gravity currents and intrusions

    CERN Document Server

    Ungarish, Marius

    2009-01-01

    The whole book is well written in a clear and pedagogical general style. … the author has, in my opinion, produced the first comprehensive book entirely devoted to the modeling of gravity currents and intrusions. This book will be particularly useful to graduate and PhD students, as well as to academics and research engineers working in this field. It may be used as a self-consistent document to get a detailed idea of the state of knowledge about a given problem or a guide toward more specialized papers. It is rich with ideas regarding the direction in which further research is warranted. This

  16. Intrusion Detection Systems in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Mallarapu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are a new technology foreseen to be used increasingly in the near future due to their data acquisition and data processing abilities. Security for WSNs is an area that needs to be considered in order to protect the functionality of these networks, the data they convey and the location of their members. The security models & protocols used in wired and other networks are not suited to WSNs because of their severe resource constrictions. In this paper, we describe various threats to WSN and then examine existing approaches to identify these threats. Finally, we propose an intrusion detection mechanism based on these existing approaches to identifying threats.

  17. Geophysical characterization from Itu intrusive suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrated use of geophysical, geological, geochemical, petrographical and remote sensing data resulted in a substantial increase in the knowledge of the Itu Intrusive Suite. The main geophysical method was gamma-ray spectrometry together with fluorimetry and autoradiography. Three methods were used for calculation of laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry data. For U, the regression method was the best one. For K and Th, equations system and absolute calibration presented the best results. Surface gamma-ray spectrometry allowed comparison with laboratory data and permitted important contribution to the study of environmental radiation. (author)

  18. Nuclear processes of non-intrusive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-intrusive nuclear analysis processes use gamma and neutron beams to analyze the content of objects. These processes are used for instance in military applications for the inspection of munition charges, nuclear materials, chemical explosives, for the localization of landmines or for the characterization of the content of a suspect parcel. These techniques are also applied in the industry (petroleum prospecting, cement factories) and in preventive medicine. This paper gives an overview of these techniques with details about their principle: neutron and photon interrogation, excitation sources, identification techniques and examples of application. (J.S.)

  19. Constraints on the formation of geochemically variable plagiogranite intrusions in the Troodos Ophiolite, Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Sarah; Haase, Karsten M.; Keith, Manuel; Beier, Christoph; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2014-02-01

    The geochemistry and petrology of tonalitic to trondhjemitic samples ( n = 85) from eight different plagiogranite intrusions at the gabbro/sheeted dyke transition of the Troodos Ophiolite were studied in order to determine their petrogenetic relationship to the mafic plutonic section and the lava pile. The plagiogranitic rocks have higher SiO2 contents than the majority of the glasses of the Troodos lava pile, but lie on a continuation of the chemical trends defined by the extrusive rocks, indicating that the shallow intrusions generally represent crystallised magmas. We define three different groups of plagiogranites in the Troodos Ophiolite based on different incompatible element contents and ratios. The first and most common plagiogranite group has geochemical similarities to the tholeiitic lavas forming the lavas and sheeted dyke complex in the Troodos crust, implying that these magmas formed at a spreading axis. The second plagiogranite group occurs in one intrusion that is chemically related to late-stage and off-axis boninitic lavas and dykes. One intrusion next to the Arakapas fault zone consists of incompatible element-enriched plagiogranites which are unrelated to any known mafic crustal rocks. The similarities of incompatible element ratios between plagiogranites, lavas and mafic plutonic rocks, the continuous chemical trends defined by plagiogranites and mafic rocks, as well as incompatible element modelling results, all suggest that shallow fractional crystallisation is the dominant process responsible for formation of the felsic magmas.

  20. Application of Relevance Vector Machines in Real Time Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen N. C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in the development of change detection techniques for the analysis of Intrusion Detection. This interest stems from the wide range of applications in which change detection methods can be used. Detecting the changes by observing data collected at different times is one of the most important applications of network security because they can provide analysis of short interval on global scale. Research in exploring change detection techniques for medium/high network data can be found for the new generation of very high resolution data. The advent of these technologies has greatly increased the ability to monitor and resolve the details of changes and makes it possible to analyze. At the same time, they present a new challenge over other technologies in that a relatively large amount of data must be analyzed and corrected for registration and classification errors to identify frequently changing trend. In this research paper an approach for Intrusion Detection System (IDS which embeds a Change Detection Algorithm with Relevance Vector Machine (RVM is proposed. IDS are considered as a complex task that handles a huge amount of network related data with different parameters. Current research work has proved that kernel learning based methods are very effective in addressing these problems. In contrast to Support Vector Machines (SVM, the RVM provides a probabilistic output while preserving the accuracy. The focus of this paper is to model RVM that can work with large network data set in a real environment and develop RVM classifier for IDS. The new model consists of Change Point (CP and RVM which is competitive in processing time and improve the classification performance compared to other known classification model like SVM. The goal is to make the system simple but efficient in detecting network intrusion in an actual real time environment. Results show that the model learns more effectively

  1. Detecting Danger: Applying a Novel Immunological Concept to Intrusion Detection Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Twycross, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    In recent years computer systems have become increasingly complex and consequently the challenge of protecting these systems has become increasingly difficult. Various techniques have been implemented to counteract the misuse of computer systems in the form of firewalls, anti-virus software and intrusion detection systems. The complexity of networks and dynamic nature of computer systems leaves current methods with significant room for improvement. Computer scientists have recently drawn inspiration from mechanisms found in biological systems and, in the context of computer security, have focused on the human immune system (HIS). The human immune system provides a high level of protection from constant attacks. By examining the precise mechanisms of the human immune system, it is hoped the paradigm will improve the performance of real intrusion detection systems. This paper presents an introduction to recent developments in the field of immunology. It discusses the incorporation of a novel immunological parad...

  2. Identification of Human Intrusion Types into Radwaste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human intrusion has long been recognized as a potentially important post-closure safety issue for rad waste disposal facility. It is due to the difficulties in predicting future human activities. For the preliminary study of human intrusion, identification of human intrusion types need to be recognized and investigated also the approaching of problem solving must be known to predict the prevention act and accepted risk. (author)

  3. Intelligence Intrusion Detection Prevention Systems using Object Oriented Analysis method

    OpenAIRE

    DR.K.KUPPUSAMY; S. Murugan

    2010-01-01

    This paper is deliberate to provide a model for “Intelligence Intrusion Detection Prevention Systems using Object Oriented Analysis method ” , It describes the state’s overall requirements regarding the acquisition and implementation of intrusion prevention and detection systems with intelligence (IIPS/IIDS). This is designed to provide a deeper understanding of intrusion prevention and detection principles with intelligence may be responsible for acquiring, implementing or monitoring such sy...

  4. Cluster Based Cost Efficient Intrusion Detection System For Manet

    OpenAIRE

    Kumarasamy, Saravanan; B, Hemalatha; P, Hashini

    2013-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc networks are temporary wireless networks. Network resources are abnormally consumed by intruders. Anomaly and signature based techniques are used for intrusion detection. Classification techniques are used in anomaly based techniques. Intrusion detection techniques are used for the network attack detection process. Two types of intrusion detection systems are available. They are anomaly detection and signature based detection model. The anomaly detection model uses the historica...

  5. Fuzzy Based Anomaly Intrusion Detection System for Clustered WSN

    OpenAIRE

    Sumathy Murugan; Sundara Rajan, M.

    2015-01-01

    In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), the intrusion detection technique may result in increased computational cost, packet loss, performance degradation and so on. In order to overcome these issues, in this study, we propose a fuzzy based anomaly intrusion detection system for clustered WSN. Initially the cluster heads are selected based on the parameters such as link quality, residual energy and coverage. Then the anomaly intrusion is detected using fuzzy logic technique. This technique conside...

  6. CUSUM-Based Intrusion Detection Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bishan Ying

    2014-01-01

    The nature of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) makes them very vulnerable to adversary's malicious attacks. Therefore, network security is an important issue to WSNs. Due to the constraints of WSN, intrusion detection in WSNs is a challengeable task. In this paper, we present a novel intrusion detection mechanism for WSNs, which is composed of a secure data communication algorithm and an intrusion detection algorithm. The major contribution of this paper is that we propose an original secure m...

  7. Intrusion Detection System in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anush Ananthakumar; Tanmay Ganediwal; Dr. Ashwini Kunte

    2015-01-01

    The security of wireless sensor networks is a topic that has been studied extensively in the literature. The intrusion detection system is used to detect various attacks occurring on sensor nodes of Wireless Sensor Networks that are placed in various hostile environments. As many innovative and efficient models have emerged in the last decade in this area, we mainly focus our work on Intrusion detection Systems. This paper reviews various intrusion detection systems which can be broadly class...

  8. Phenomenology of intrusive imagery in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD).

    OpenAIRE

    Lipton, M.

    2008-01-01

    The study of intrusive mental imagery in anxiety is a growing area of interest. Whilst there is an appreciation of the variation in thematic content (Hirsch & Holmes, 2007), less is understood about the wider phenomenology and function of intrusive imagery across the anxiety disorders. The aim of the review is to adopt a transdiagnostic perspective, and compare and contrast the literature on intrusive imagery in anxiety in terms of the content, prevalence, frequency and characteristics. In ad...

  9. Intrusion Detection By Data Mining Algorithms: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rafsanjani, Marjan Kuchaki; Varzaneha, Zahra Asghari

    2013-01-01

    – With the increasing use of network-based services and sensitive information on networks, maintaining information security is essential. Intrusion Detection System is a security tool used to detect unauthorized activities of a computer system or network. Data mining is one of the technologies applied to intrusion detection. This article introduces various data mining techniques used to implement an intrusion detection system. Then reviews some of the related studies focusing on data mining a...

  10. RT-MOVICAB-IDS: Addressing real-time intrusion detection

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Alvaro; Navarro, Marti; Corchado, Emilio; Vicente, Julián

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a novel Hybrid Intelligent Intrusion Detection System (IDS) known as RT-MOVICAB-IDS that incorporates temporal control. One of its main goals is to facilitate real-time Intrusion Detection, as accurate and swift responses are crucial in this field, especially if automatic abortion mechanisms are running. The formulation of this hybrid IDS combines Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) within a Multi-Agent System (MAS) to detect intrusions in dynam...

  11. COMPUTER INTRUSION DETECTION BY TWOOBJECTIVE FUZZY GENETIC ALGORITHM

    OpenAIRE

    Madhuri Agravat; Udai Pratap Rao

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe two objective fuzzy genetics-based learning algorithms and discusses its usage to detect intrusion in a computer network. Experiments were performed with KDD-cup data set, which have information on computer networks, during normal behavior and intrusive behavior. The performance of final fuzzy classification system has been investigated using intrusion detection problem as a high dimensional classification problem. This task is formulate...

  12. An Implementation of Intrusion Detection System Using Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Sazzadul Hoque; Md. Abdul Mukit; Md. Abu Naser Bikas

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays it is very important to maintain a high level security to ensure safe and trusted communication of information between various organizations. But secured data communication over internet and any other network is always under threat of intrusions and misuses. So Intrusion Detection Systems have become a needful component in terms of computer and network security. There are various approaches being utilized in intrusion detections, but unfortunately any of the systems so far is not co...

  13. An Implementation of Intrusion Detection System Using Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, Mohammad Sazzadul; Mukit, Md. Abdul; Bikas, Md. Abu Naser

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays it is very important to maintain a high level security to ensure safe and trusted communication of information between various organizations. But secured data communication over internet and any other network is always under threat of intrusions and misuses. So Intrusion Detection Systems have become a needful component in terms of computer and network security. There are various approaches being utilized in intrusion detections, but unfortunately any of the systems so far is not com...

  14. Network Intrusion Detection System Based On Machine Learning Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Vipin Das; Vijaya Pathak; Sattvik Sharma; Sreevathsan; MVVNS.Srikanth; Gireesh Kumar T

    2010-01-01

    Network and system security is of paramount importance in the present data communication environment. Hackers and intruders can create many successful attempts to cause the crash of the networks and web services by unauthorized intrusion. New threats and associated solutions to prevent these threats are emerging together with the secured system evolution. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are one of these solutions. The main function of Intrusion Detection System is to protect the resources f...

  15. Fuzzy Approach for Intrusion Detection System: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Partha Sarathi Bhattacharjee; Dr. Shahin Ara Begum

    2013-01-01

    Secured data communication over internet and any other network is always under threat of intrusions and misuses. Intrusions pose a serious security threat for the stability and the security of information in a network environment. An intrusion is defined as any set of actions that attempt to compromise the integrity, confidentiality or availability of a resource. It includes attempting to destabilize the network, gaining unauthorized accessto files with privileges, or mishandling and misusing...

  16. The Phalaborwa Syenite Intrusions along the West-Central Boundary of the Kruger National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Frick, C

    1986-01-01

    The geology of the Phalaborwa Complex is described and emphasis placed on the distribution of the large number of syenite intrusions. The petrography of the different textural types of syenites is discussed and it is shown that porphyritic, granular, gneissic and hypidiomorphic syenites are present. The petrography shows that the deformation textures, which are present in some of the syenites, may have formed during the emplacement of syenitic magmas which contained a high concentration of cr...

  17. Risk-Based Evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Vapor Intrusion Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Brewer; Josh Nagashima; Michael Kelley; Marvin Heskett; Mark Rigby

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative method for the risk-based evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in vapor intrusion investigations. Vapors from petroleum fuels are characterized by a complex mixture of aliphatic and, to a lesser extent, aromatic compounds. These compounds can be measured and described in terms of TPH carbon ranges. Toxicity factors published by USEPA and other parties allow development of risk-based, air and soil vapor screening levels for each carbon range in th...

  18. Zircon geochronology of intrusive rocks from Cap de Creus, eastern Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Druguet, Elena; de Castro, Antonio; Chichorro, Martim; Pereira, M. Francisco; Fernandez, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    New petrological and U–Pb zircon geochronological information has been obtained from intrusive plutonic rocks and migmatites from the Cap de Creus massif (Eastern Pyrenees) in order to constrain the timing of the thermal and tectonic evolution of this northeasternmost segment of Iberia during late Palaeozoic time. Zircons from a deformed syntectonic quartz diorite from the northern Cap de Creus Tudela migmatitic complex yield a mean age of 298.8±3.8 Ma. A syntectonic granodiori...

  19. A deposit model for carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits: Chapter J in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Seal, Robert R., II; McCafferty, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. A wide variety of other commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks including niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other elements enriched in these deposits include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium. Carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits are presented together in this report because of the spatial, and potentially genetic, association between carbonatite and alkaline rocks. Although these rock types occur together at many locations, carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits are not generally found together.

  20. A Bayesian Networks in Intrusion Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection systems (IDSs have been widely used to overcome security threats in computer networks. Anomaly-based approaches have the advantage of being able to detect previously unknown attacks, but they suffer from the difficulty of building robust models of acceptable behaviour which may result in a large number of false alarms caused by incorrect classification of events in current systems. We propose a new approach of an anomaly Intrusion detection system (IDS. It consists of building a reference behaviour model and the use of a Bayesian classification procedure associated to unsupervised learning algorithm to evaluate the deviation between current and reference behaviour. Continuous re-estimation of model parameters allows for real time operation. The use of recursive Log-likelihood and entropy estimation as a measure for monitoring model degradation related with behavior changes and the associated model update show that the accuracy of the event classification process is significantly improved using our proposed approach for reducing the missing-alarm.

  1. Posttraumatic intrusive symptoms across psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; O'Donnell, Meaghan L; Creamer, Mark; McFarlane, Alexander C; Silove, Derrick

    2011-06-01

    Reexperiencing symptoms are a key feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study investigated the pattern of reexperiencing symptoms in non-PTSD posttraumatic disorders. This study recruited 1084 traumatically injured patients during hospital admission and conducted follow-up assessment 12 months later (N = 817, 75%). Twelve months after injury, 22% of patients reported a psychiatric disorder they had never experienced prior to the traumatic injury. One-third of patients with a non-PTSD disorder satisfied the PTSD reexperiencing criteria. Whereas patients with a non-PTSD disorder were more likely to experience intrusive memories, nightmares, psychological distress and physiological reactivity to reminders, only patients with PTSD were likely to experience flashback memories (OR: 11.41, 95% CI: 6.17-21.09). The only other symptom that was distinctive to PTSD was dissociative amnesia (OR: 4.50, 95% CI: 2.09-9.71). Whereas intrusive memories and reactions are common across posttraumatic disorders, flashbacks and dissociative amnesia are distinctive to PTSD. PMID:21159353

  2. Research on the dry intrusion accompanying the low vortex precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    By employing the 6.7μm satellite vapor cloud images and NCEP/NCAR 1°×1° reanalysis datasets, the characteristics and mechanism of the dry intrusion, as well as its impacts on the low vortex precipitation at the Meiyu front are explored in this paper. It is found that the formation,development and maintenance of the low vortex precipitation at the Meiyu front are closely related to the evolution of the dry intrusion. The dry intrusion is characterized by high potential vorticity (PV), low humidity and cold air. The dry intrusion exhibits as an obvious dark zone on vapor cloud images, an area in which atmospheric relative humidity is lower than 60%. However, the features of the dry intrusion on the vapor images are clearer than that of the humidity field, for the former is the digital vapor cloud images with high temporal and spatial resolution, and it can be used to explore the finer characteristics of the development, evolution and supplement of the intrusion during the development of the low vortex. The dry intrusion impacts accompanying the low vortex precipitation at the Meiyu front come from all levels of the troposphere, with the strongest intrusion located at the upper troposphere. The dry and cold air intrudes the vicinity of the low vortex from the upper isentropic surface to the lower one, slanting east-ward from lower to higher level. The low vortex precipitation region is usually situated in front of the dry intrusion where the relative humidity gradient is higher. The research also reveals that the mechanism of the dry intrusion is that the high potential vorticity descends from the upper troposphere to the lower level, therefore, the dry intrusion can be used as an important index of the high PV forcing. To the west of the low vortex precipitation, the upper level northerlies descend across the isentropic surface, then the dry cold advection can trigger the instable development in the midlow troposphere. The dry intru-sion enhances the low vortex

  3. Ordovician Intrusive-related Gold-Copper Mineralization in West-Central New South Wales, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three major types of Ordovician intrusive-related gold-copper deposits are recognized in central-west New South Wales,, Australia: porphyry, skam and high sulphidation epithermal deposits.These deposits are mainly distributed within two Ordovician volcano-intrusive belts of the Lachlan Fold Be1t: the Orange-Wellington Belt and the Parkes-Narromine Belt. Available isotopic age data suggest that mineralization of the three types of deposits is essentially coeval with the Ordovician intrusive rocks (480-430 Ma). Porphyry gold-copper deposits can be further divided into two groups. The first group is associated with monzoniteshowing shoshonitic features represented by Cadia and Goonumbla. The second group is associated with diorite and dacite, including the Copper Hill and Cargo gold-copper deposits. Gold skarn is associated with Late Ordovician (430-439 Ma) monzonitic intrusive complexes in the Junction Reefs area (Sheahan-Grants, Frenchmans, and Cornishmens), Endeavour 6, 7 and 44, Big and Little Cadia. The epithermal gold deposits with high sulphidation including Gidginbung (Temora) and Peak Hill mainly occur within Ordovician andesite and volcaniclastic rocks, and are associated with advanced argillic alteration. Available isotopic age data indicate that both alteration and mineralization of the porphyry, skam and epithermal gold-copper deposits are broadly coeval with the Late Ordovician hoshonitic mangmatism, which is thought to result from the melting of sub-continental lithosphere caused by Palaeozoic subduction events. The Ordovician intrusive-related gold-copper deposits are restricted to two longitudinal parallel volcano-intrusive belts, rarely extending outside them. Diagonal intra-belt trends of mineralization are common, particularly at the intersections of longitudinal and transverse (oblique) fault/fracture zones basedon the authors'review of available geological data. The locations of these gold-copper deposits are obviously influenced by transverse

  4. Soft-sensing, non-intrusive multiphase flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wrobel, K.; Schiferli, W.

    2009-01-01

    For single phase flow meters more and better non-intrusive or even clamp-on meters become available. This allows for a wider use of meters and for easier flow control. As the demand for multiphase meters is increasing, the current aim is to develop a non-intrusive multiphase flow meter. The non-intr

  5. Projecte de detecció d'intrusions amb Snort

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Felip, Carles

    2013-01-01

    Aquest projecte es centrarà en la detecció d'intrusions amb l'IDS de software lliure Snort. Els sistemes de detecció d'intrusions (IDS) són dispositius o aplicacions que monitoritzen el tràfic de xarxa amb l'objectiu de detectar comportaments maliciosos.

  6. Platinum mineralization in the Kapalagulu Intrusion, western Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmij, Harry R.; Cabri, Louis J.

    2016-03-01

    Low-grade copper and nickel mineralization was found near the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika at Kungwe Bay in the early part of the twentieth century. The mineralization occurs in harzburgite at the base of a layered gabbro complex known as the Kapalagulu Intrusion, emplaced between the Paleoproterozoic Ubendian basement and overlying Neoproterozoic Itiaso Group metasediments. Several mining and exploration companies continued the geophysical and drilling exploration for base metals throughout the last century culminating in the discovery of high-grade platinum-group element (PGE) mineralization associated with chromitite and sulfide-bearing harzburgite within the southeastern extension of the Kapalagulu Intrusion (known as the Lubalisi Zone) that is covered by a layer of nickel-rich laterite regolith. The poorly layered southeastern harzburgite forms part of the >1500 m-thick Lower Ultramafic Sequence and resembles a dike-like body that flares upwards into a succession of well-layered gabbroic rocks of the Upper Mafic Sequence. No PGE mineralization has been found in the layered gabbro; all the mineralization is associated with the chromite- and sulfide-rich harzburgite of the Lower Ultramafic Sequence and the laterite regolith overlying the mineralized harzburgite. The Lubalisi Zone harzburgite is underlain by basal dunite and overlain by an interval of layered harzburgite and troctolite and this ultramafic sequence is folded into a syncline that plunges towards the northwest that has been modified by major dolerite-filled faults orientated subparallel to the fold axial surface. Extensive deep drilling in the Lubalisi Zone of the Kapalagulu Intrusion shows that the folded harzburgite can be subdivided into a lower feldspathic harzburgite, a harzburgite containing chromitite seams and intervals of sulfide and chromite mineralization known as the Main Chromite Sulfide Succession (MCSS), an overlying sulfide-rich harzburgite, and an upper feldspathic harzburgite

  7. Groundwater intrusion into leaky sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, H; Aksoy, H

    2010-01-01

    Vast volumes of groundwater are drained by urban sewer systems. This unwanted flow component intrudes into sewer systems through leaky joints or connected house drains. However, unlike urban storm drainage, it has a high seasonal variation corresponding to groundwater storage and long slow recessions similar to baseflow in rivers also fed by shallow groundwater exfiltrating into the surface waters. By applying the nonlinear reservoir algorithm as used for baseflow separation from total flow in a river, groundwater flow is separated from daily measured influents to treatment plants in Lower Saxony and Baden-Württemberg, Germany and in the Terkos Lake watershed near Istanbul, Turkey. While waste water flows vary only moderately within a year, separated intruded groundwater flows show recessions and seasonal variations correlated to baseflow in neighbouring rivers. It is possible to conclude that recession characteristics of treatment plant influents allow quantification and prediction of groundwater intrusion into sewer systems. PMID:20595758

  8. Multimodal Evolution Approach to Multidimensional Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weng Guang'an; Yu Shengsheng; Zhou Jingli

    2006-01-01

    An artificial immunity based multimodal evolution algorithm is developed to generate detectors with variable coverage for multidimensional intrusion detection. In this algorithm, a proper fitness function is used to drive the detectors to fill in those detection holes close to self set or among self spheres, and genetic algorithm is adopted to reduce the negative effects that different distribution of self imposes on the detector generating process. The validity of the algorithm is tested with spherical and rectangular detectors,respectively, and experiments performed on two real data sets ( machine learning database and DAPRA99) indicate that the proposed algorithm can obtain good results on spherical detectors, and that its performances in detection rate, false alarm rate, stability, time cost, and adaptability to incomplete training set on spherical detectors are all better than on rectangular ones.

  9. Metallogenic aspects of Itu intrusive suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The integrated use of geological, geochemical, geophysical and remote sensing data is providing interesting new information on the metallogenic characteristics of the Itu Intrusive Suite. During World War II, up to 1959, a wolframite deposit was mined near the border of the northernmost body (Itupeva Granite). This deposit is formed by greisen veins associated with cassiterite and topaz, clearly linked with later phases of magmatic differentiation. Generally those veins are related to hydrothermal alteration of the granites and the above mentioned shear zone. U, Th and K determinations by field and laboratory gammaspectrometry were used for regional distribution analysis of those elements and its ratios and calculation of radioactivity heat production. In this aspects, the Itupeva Granite is the hottest and presents several anomalies in the Th/U ratio, indicative of late or post magmatic oxidation processes. (author)

  10. Strain gauges as intrusion detection sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain gauges have been studied for use as intrusion detection sensors in several applications being investigated at Sandia National Laboratories. Strain gauges are attached to a metal structure to monitor the quiescent strain in the structure. The change in the quiescent strain, when an intruder adds weight to the structure provides the alarm mechanism. The basic theory of force sensors is covered to lay the foundation for this application. In this paper, how this basic theory is applied to security sensors is discussed, and how this class of sensors is applicable to security at Department of Energy facilities is covered. Several applications are described for strain gauges as security sensors. Test results are presented from a six-month test conducted at a Department of Energy facility using the strain gauge to monitor overhead lines crossing a security perimeter. Monitoring these overhead lines with strain gauges is valuable because the cost is much less than the cost to bury the lines

  11. Coastal Marsh Monitoring for Persistent Saltwater Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Callie M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's work on the project that supports the Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA) Governors Action Plan to monitor the coastal wetlands for saltwater intrusion. The action items that relate to the task are: (1) Obtain information on projected relative sea level rise, subsidence, and storm vulnerability to help prioritize conservation projects, including restoration, enhancement, and acquisition, and (2) Develop and apply ecosystem models to forecast the habitat structure and succession following hurricane disturbance and changes in ecological functions and services that impact vital socio-economic aspects of coastal systems. The objectives of the program are to provide resource managers with remote sensing products that support ecosystem forecasting models requiring salinity and inundation data. Specifically, the proposed work supports the habitat-switching modules in the Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) model, which provides scientific evaluation for restoration management.

  12. AGENT BASED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM IN MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Mandal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a technique for intrusion detection in MANET has been proposed where agents are fired from a node which traverses each node randomly and detect the malicious node. Detection is based on triangular encryption technique (TE where AODV is taken as routing protocol. For simulation we have taken NS2 (2.33 where two type of parameters are considered out of which number of nodes and percentage of node mobility are the attributes. For analysis purpose 20, 30, 30, 40, 50 and 60 nodes are taken with a variable percentage of malicious node as 0 %( no malicious, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Analysis have been done taking generated packets, forwarded packets, delay, and average delay as parameters

  13. Intrusion-Tolerant Based Survivable Model of Database System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJianming; WANGChao; MAJianfeng

    2005-01-01

    Survivability has become increasingly important with society's increased dependence of critical infrastructures on computers. Intrusiontolerant systems extend traditional secure systems to be able to survive or operate through attacks, thus it is an approach for achieving survivability. This paper proposes survivable model of database system based on intrusion-tolerant mechanisms. The model is built on three layers security architecture, to defense intrusion at the outer layer, to detect intrusion at the middle layer, and to tolerate intrusion at the inner layer. We utilize the techniques of both redundancy and diversity and threshold secret sharing schemes to implement the survivability of database and to protect confidential data from compromised servers in the presence of intrusions. Comparing with the existing schemes, our approach has realized the security and robustness for the key functions of a database system by using the integration security strategy and multiple security measures.

  14. Identification Method of Attack Path Based on Immune Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Huang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This thesis takes researches on the immune intrusion detection and IP trace back technology. To find out the network data features of the real-time analyses, the distributed immune intrusion detection system and the packet marking theory are used; to guide the dynamically processing of path signs technology, the immune intrusion detection system is used; what’s more, to dynamically adaptive different methods of characteristics of network data, the path signs technology is adopted. After that, the attack paths can be quickly identified to provide path information for feature detector on attack path in the immune intrusion detection system. Experiment results show that this scheme can quickly reconstruct the attack path information, and the performance on the aspects of the convergence is with efficiency rate and false positive rate, which is superior to the current probabilistic packet marking algorithm and can provide characteristic path information for immune intrusion detection system

  15. Boron isotope method for study of seawater intrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖应凯; 尹德忠; 刘卫国; 王庆忠; 魏海珍

    2001-01-01

    A distinct difference in boron isotopes between seawater and terrestrial water is emphasized by δ11B values reported for seawater and groundwater, with an average of 38.8‰ and in the range of -8.9‰ to 9.8‰, respectively. The isotopic composition of boron in groundwater can be used to quantify seawater intrusion and identify intrusion types, e.g. seawater or brine intrusions with different chemical and isotopic characteristics, by using the relation of δ11B and chloride concentration. The feasibility of utilizing boron isotope in groundwater for studying seawater intrusion in Laizhou Bay Region, China, is reported in this study, which shows that boron isotope is a useful and excellent tool for the study of seawater intrusion.

  16. Multi-core Processors based Network Intrusion Detection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqian Wan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly hard to build an intrusion detection system (IDS, because of the higher traffic throughput and the rising sophistication of attacking. Scale will be an important issue to address in the intrusion detection area. For hardware, tomorrow’s performance gains will come from multi-core architectures in which a number of CPU executes concurrently. We take the advantage of multi-core processors’ full power for intrusion detection in this work. We present an intrusion detection system based on the Snort open-source IDS that exploits the computational power of MIPS multi-core architecture to offload the costly pattern matching operations from the CPU, and thus increase the system’s processing throughput. A preliminary experiment demonstrates the potential of this system. The experiment results indicate that this method can be used effectively to speed up intrusion detection systems.

  17. A Novel Cell Reckoning Intrusion against TOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjaneni Siva Lalitha1 , Prof.S.V.Achutha Rao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available TOR (The onion router is a low latency anonymous communication system for enabling online anonymity. TOR directs Internet traffic through a free, worldwide volunteer network consisting of more than three thousand relaysto conceal a user's location or usage from anyone conducting network surveillance or traffic analysis. Tor aims to conceal its users' identities and their network activity from surveillance and traffic analysis by separating identification and routing. It is an implementation of onion routing, which encrypts and then randomly bounces communications through a network of relays run by volunteers around the globe. Because the internet address of the sender and the recipient are not both in clear text at any hop along the way, anyone eavesdropping at any point along the communication channel cannot directly identify both ends. Furthermore, to the recipient it appears that the last Tor node (the exit node is the originator of the communication rather than the sender. Because of this TOR communication system, if an intruder is going to make any unauthenticated changes to system then it is not possible to track him back. In this paper we proposed a solution for this problem by using ‘Cell-Reckoning-Intrusion –Against TOR’. By the no of experiment on TOR we found that the size of IP packets in the Tor network can be very dynamic because a cell is an application concept and the IP layer may repack cells. In this attack, the attacker can embed a secret signal into the variation of cell counter of the target traffic. The embedded signal will be carried along with the target traffic and arrive at the malicious entry onion router. Then, an accomplice of the attacker at the malicious entry onion router will detect the embedded signal based on the received cells and confirm the communication relationship among users. We have implemented this intrusion against Tor, and our experimental data validate is highly effective and efficient.

  18. Intrusion Prevention/Intrusion Detection System (IPS/IDS) for Wifi Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Korcak; Jaroslav Lamer; Frantisek Jakab

    2014-01-01

    The nature of wireless networks itself created new vulnerabilities that in the classical wired network s do not exist. This results in an evolutional requireme nt to implement new sophisticated security mechanis m in form of Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems. This paper deals with security issues of small off ice and home office wireless networks. The goal of our work is to design and evaluate wireless IDPS with u se of packet injection method. Dec...

  19. An intrusion prevention system as a proactive security mechanism in network infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulanović Nenad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A properly configured firewall is a good starting point in securing a computer network. However, complex network environments that involve higher number of participants and endpoints require better security infrastructure. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS, proposed as a solution to perimeter defense, have many open problems and it is clear that better solutions must be found. Due to many unsolved problems associated with IDS, Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS are introduced. The main idea in IPS is to be proactive. This paper gives an insight of Cobrador Bouncer IPS implementation. System architecture is given and three different Bouncer IPS deployment modes are presented. The Bouncer IPS as a proactive honeypot is also discussed.

  20. Expert judgment on markers to deter inadvertent human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expert panel identified basic principles to guide current and future marker development efforts: (1) the site must be marked, (2) message(s) must be truthful and informative, (3) multiple components within a marker system, (4) multiple means of communication (e.g., language, pictographs, scientific diagrams), (5) multiple levels of complexity within individual messages on individual marker system elements, (6) use of materials with little recycle value, and (7) international effort to maintain knowledge of the locations and contents of nuclear waste repositories. The efficacy of the markers in deterring inadvertent human intrusion was estimated to decrease with time, with the probability function varying with the mode of intrusion (who is intruding and for what purpose) and the level of technological development of the society. The development of a permanent, passive marker system capable of surviving and remaining interpretable for 10,000 years will require further study prior to implementation

  1. Expert judgment on markers to deter inadvertent human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauth, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Hawaii Univ., Hilo, HI (United States); Guzowski, R.V. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The expert panel identified basic principles to guide current and future marker development efforts: (1) the site must be marked, (2) message(s) must be truthful and informative, (3) multiple components within a marker system, (4) multiple means of communication (e.g., language, pictographs, scientific diagrams), (5) multiple levels of complexity within individual messages on individual marker system elements, (6) use of materials with little recycle value, and (7) international effort to maintain knowledge of the locations and contents of nuclear waste repositories. The efficacy of the markers in deterring inadvertent human intrusion was estimated to decrease with time, with the probability function varying with the mode of intrusion (who is intruding and for what purpose) and the level of technological development of the society. The development of a permanent, passive marker system capable of surviving and remaining interpretable for 10,000 years will require further study prior to implementation.

  2. Study of Seawater Intrusion in an Arid Region: Shallow Coastal Aquifer of Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seawater intrusion is one of the most complex problems facing groundwater resources, particularly in coastal semi-arid and arid regions. Urban and economic development and the expansion of irrigated agriculture in south-eastern Tunisia have led to intensive and uncontrolled pumping. Over-exploitation of the shallow coastal aquifer, known as the Djeffara plain south-eastern Tunisia coastal aquifer, has led to the dropping of water tables. Water quality has been seriously degraded and salinity has been increasing in some wells. This study was carried out within the framework of an interregional project (RAF/8/035) financed by the IAEA with the aim of determining the origin of groundwater salinization in the shallow coastal aquifer and identifying areas where groundwater is affected by saltwater intrusion using isotopic methods.

  3. State-Based Network Intrusion Detection Systems for SCADA Protocols: A Proof of Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcano, Andrea; Fovino, Igor Nai; Masera, Marcelo; Trombetta, Alberto

    We present a novel Intrusion Detection System able to detect complex attacks to SCADA systems. By complex attack, we mean a set of commands (carried in Modbus packets) that, while licit when considered in isolation on a single-packet basis, interfere with the correct behavior of the system. The proposed IDS detects such attacks thanks to an internal representation of the controlled SCADA system and a corresponding rule language, powerful enough to express the system's critical states. Furthermore, we detail the implementation and provide experimental comparative results.

  4. A review of seawater intrusion and its management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Adrian D.

    2010-02-01

    Extended periods of below-average rainfall combined with a rising population density in the Australian coastal margin have led to higher stresses on coastal water resources, and the risk of seawater intrusion has increased. Despite reports of seawater intrusion in the majority of states and evidence that some Australian coastal aquifers are seriously depleted, comprehensive seawater intrusion investigations have only been completed for coastal systems in Queensland and to a lesser degree in Western Australia and South Australia. The degree of assessment appears to be linked to the perceived economic value of the groundwater resource. The most detailed studies include those of the Pioneer Valley and Burnett basins in Queensland, for which conceptual and mathematical models have been developed at the regional scale, and have been used to underpin trigger-level management approaches to protect against further seawater intrusion. Historical responses to seawater intrusion include the establishment of artificial recharge schemes; the most prominent being that of the Lower Burdekin aquifers in Queensland. Recommendations for future solutions include enhanced fit-for-purpose seawater intrusion monitoring, continuing research into investigation methods, and improved knowledge-sharing through education programs and the development of national guidelines for seawater intrusion assessment and management.

  5. ISDTM:An Intrusion Signatures Description Temporal Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ou Yang Ming-guang; Zhou Yang-bo

    2003-01-01

    ISDTM, based on an augmented Allen's interval temporal logic (IT1) and first-order predicate calculus, is a formal temporal model for representing intrusion signatures.It is augmented with some real time extensions which enhance the expressivity. Intrusion scenarios usually are the set of events and system states, wherethe temporal sequence is their basic relation. Intrusion signatures description, there-fore, is to represent such temporal relations in a sense. While representing these signatures, ISDTM decomposes the intru-sion process into the sequence of events according to their rel-evant intervals, and then specifies network states in these In-tervals. The uncertain intrusion signatures as well as basic temporal modes of events, which consist of the parallel mode,the sequential mode and the hybrid mode, can be succinctly and naturally represented in ISDTM. Mode chart is the visual-ization of intrusion signatures in ISDTM, which makes the formulas more readable. The intrusion signatures descriptions in ISDTM have advantages of compact construct, concise syn-tax, scalability and easy implementation.

  6. The Experience of Intrusions Scale: a preliminary examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salters-Pedneault, Kristalyn; Vine, Vera; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal; Litz, Brett T

    2009-01-01

    Intrusive thoughts (i.e., unwelcome, distressing, involuntary thoughts) are prevalent in a variety of clinical conditions and are increasingly a focus of translational research. The goal of this study was to develop and preliminarily examine a brief self-report measure designed to assess clinically relevant aspects of the experience of intrusive thoughts related to a particular target. The Experience of Intrusions Scale (EIS) is a five-item measure that assesses the frequency, unpredictability, and unwantedness of intrusive thoughts, as well as the interference and distress caused by the intrusions, each on a five-point Likert-type scale. Five times over a four-] period, female undergraduates (N=160) completed the EIS in response to intrusive thoughts regarding a film clip depicting a sexual assault. On the first and last days, participants completed the EIS five minutes after watching the clip. In between film clip viewings, participants completed the EIS once per day. The EIS demonstrated good internal consistency, good to excellent test-retest reliability using both immediate post-stimulus and 24-hour time intervals, and convergent validity with two existing measures of intrusive phenomena: the White Bear Suppression Inventory (Wegner & Zanakos, 1994) and the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, 1993). PMID:18937103

  7. Working memory capacity and suppression of intrusive thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Chris R; Smart, Laura

    2005-03-01

    We sought to show that individual differences in working memory capacity are related to the ability to intentionally suppress personally relevant intrusive thoughts, and that this effect cannot be explained by differences in negative mood. Sixty participants identified their most frequent intrusive thought and then completed a thought suppression task. Better performance on a measure of working memory capacity (OSPAN) was related to having fewer intrusions in the suppression condition but was unrelated to number of intrusions in the expression condition, suggesting a specific association with attempts to inhibit unwanted thoughts. In contrast, a more negative mood was related to having more intrusions in both conditions, suggestive of a more general influence on the accessibility of unwanted thoughts. Working memory capacity was not associated with negative mood or with the frequency of intrusive thoughts reported in everyday life. The findings extend previous results to the domain of personally relevant intrusive thoughts and support the idea that individual differences in the cognitive abilities supporting inhibitory mechanisms are relevant to clinical conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:15687010

  8. The role of stress during memory reactivation on intrusive memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Jessica; Garber, Benjamin; Bryant, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    Intrusive memories are unwanted recollections that maintain distress in psychological disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that memories that are reactivated through retrieval become temporarily vulnerable to environmental or pharmacological manipulation, including changes in levels of circulating stress hormones. This study investigated the influence of stress during memory reactivation of an emotionally arousing trauma film on subsequent intrusive memories. Three groups of participants (N=63) viewed a trauma film depicting a serious car accident at baseline. Two days later (Time 2), one group received a reactivation induction following a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT; Stress/Reactivation condition), whilst the second group reactivated the memory after a control procedure (Reactivation condition). A third group underwent the SECPT but was not asked to reactivate memory of the trauma film (Stress condition). Two days later (Time 3), all participants received a surprise cued memory recall test and intrusions questionnaire which they completed online. Results showed that those in the Stress/Reactivation group had higher intrusions scores than the other two groups, suggesting that acute stress promotes intrusive memories only when the memory trace is reactivated shortly afterwards. Increased cortisol predicted enhanced intrusive experiences in the Stress/Reactivation condition but not in the other conditions. This pattern of results suggests that acute stress during the reactivation of emotional material impacts on involuntary emotional memories. These findings suggest a possible explanation for the mechanism underlying the maintenance of intrusive memories in clinical disorders. PMID:25911248

  9. A novel interacting multiple model based network intrusion detection scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Ruichi; Venkatasubramanian, Vijay; Leung, Henry

    2006-04-01

    In today's information age, information and network security are of primary importance to any organization. Network intrusion is a serious threat to security of computers and data networks. In internet protocol (IP) based network, intrusions originate in different kinds of packets/messages contained in the open system interconnection (OSI) layer 3 or higher layers. Network intrusion detection and prevention systems observe the layer 3 packets (or layer 4 to 7 messages) to screen for intrusions and security threats. Signature based methods use a pre-existing database that document intrusion patterns as perceived in the layer 3 to 7 protocol traffics and match the incoming traffic for potential intrusion attacks. Alternately, network traffic data can be modeled and any huge anomaly from the established traffic pattern can be detected as network intrusion. The latter method, also known as anomaly based detection is gaining popularity for its versatility in learning new patterns and discovering new attacks. It is apparent that for a reliable performance, an accurate model of the network data needs to be established. In this paper, we illustrate using collected data that network traffic is seldom stationary. We propose the use of multiple models to accurately represent the traffic data. The improvement in reliability of the proposed model is verified by measuring the detection and false alarm rates on several datasets.

  10. A Frequency-Based Approach to Intrusion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Zhou

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on network security and intrusion detection strategies presents many challenging issues to both theoreticians and practitioners. Hackers apply an array of intrusion and exploit techniques to cause disruption of normal system operations, but on the defense, firewalls and intrusion detection systems (IDS are typically only effective in defending known intrusion types using their signatures, and are far less than mature when faced with novel attacks. In this paper, we adapt the frequency analysis techniques such as the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT used in signal processing to the design of intrusion detection algorithms. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the frequency-based detection strategy by running synthetic network intrusion data in simulated networks using the OPNET software. The simulation results indicate that the proposed intrusion detection strategy is effective in detecting anomalous traffic data that exhibit patterns over time, which include several types of DOS and probe attacks. The significance of this new strategy is that it does not depend on the prior knowledge of attack signatures, thus it has the potential to be a useful supplement to existing signature-based IDS and firewalls.

  11. Laboratory experiments of salt water intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The problem of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers is dealt with by the proper setup of a sand-box device to develop laboratory experiments in a controlled environment. Saline intrusion is a problem of fundamental importance and affects the quality of both surface water and groundwater in coastal areas. In both cases the phenomenon may be linked to anthropogenic (construction of reservoirs, withdrawals, etc.) and/or natural (sea-level excursions, variability of river flows, etc.) changes. In recent years, the escalation of this problem has led to the development of specific projects and studies to identify possible countermeasures, typically consisting of underground barriers. Physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion problem, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of solutions to contain the salt wedge. In order to study and describe the evolution of the salt wedge, the effectiveness of underground barriers, and the distance from the coast of a withdrawal that guarantees a continuous supply of fresh water, a physical model has been realized at the University of Padova to represent the terminal part of a coastal aquifer. It consists of a laboratory flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 45 cm with glass beads with a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10~= 1.5. The material is homogeneous and characterized by a porosity of about 0.37 and by an hydraulic conductivity of about 1.8×10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank, continuously supplied by a pump, provides fresh water to recharge the aquifer, while the downstream tank, filled with salt water, simulates the sea. The volume of the downstream tank (~= 2 m3) is about five times the upstream one, so that density variations due to the incoming fresh water flow are negligible. The water level in the two tanks is continuously monitored by means of two level probes and is

  12. 南祁连党河南山地区鸡叫沟复式岩体岩石地球化学特征及构造环境%Lithogeochemistry of Jijiaogou intrusive complex in the Danghenanshan area, South Qilian Mountain and its tectonic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉莉; 戴霜; 张翔; 张瑞; 张明震; 汪禄波; 刘海娇

    2013-01-01

    通过对党河南山北坡东段鸡叫沟岩体的岩体地质特征和岩石地球化学特征研究,发现该岩体为一加里东期中酸性复式岩体,岩浆活动有4期,依次为岩枝(脉)状产出的辉石闪长岩、辉石正长闪长岩,岩株状产出的(角闪)石英二长岩,岩脉状产出的黑云二长花岗岩和脉状产出的细粒二长花岗岩.第1,2期(石英二长岩锆石U-Pb年龄为455.3±5.6 Ma)构成该复式岩体的主体部分.总体上,4期岩体均富含碱质(碱度率平均为2.72%)、高钾(平均值为4.24%)、贫钛(均小于1.3%),属钾玄岩系列.岩石富集大离子亲石元素和轻稀土元素,具负Eu异常.进一步分析发现,从第1期到第4期,岩石铝质、钾质质量分数渐次升高,稀土总量降低.同时发现前2期、后2期岩体岩石地球化学特征分别大体相似,而且后2期岩体比前2期岩体贫稀土和不相容元素(第4期比第3期尤甚).岩浆演化程度从第1期到第4期逐渐增加,尤其后2期岩浆演化程度很高(DI 平均值达95.9).综合判断显示前2期岩体岩浆源岩为基性岩熔融,形成环境为岛弧环境;后2期岩浆原岩为变质沉积岩,形成于造山环境.%The geologic features and geochemical characteristics of the Jijiaogou intrusive complex in the east of the north slope of the Danghenanshan were summed up and it was found that it is a caledonian neutral-acidic plutonic complex with the four phase of magmatic activities. The first phase is the apophysis-shaped pyroxene diorite and pyroxene syenite diorite, the second is the stock-shaped quartz monzonite, the third is the apophysis-shaped biotite monzogranite and the fourth is the vein-shaped fine-grained monzogranite. The first and second phases (quartz monzonite with the zircon U-Pb age of 455.3±5.6 Ma) constitute the main part of the complex. In general, all rocks are rich in alkali (with an averaged alkalinity rate of 2.72%), high potassium (the averaged value is 4.24%) and poor in

  13. Novel hybrid intrusion detection system for clustered wireless sensor network

    CERN Document Server

    Sedjelmaci, Hichem

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is regularly deployed in unattended and hostile environments. The WSN is vulnerable to security threats and susceptible to physical capture. Thus, it is necessary to use effective mechanisms to protect the network. It is widely known, that the intrusion detection is one of the most efficient security mechanisms to protect the network against malicious attacks or unauthorized access. In this paper, we propose a hybrid intrusion detection system for clustered WSN. Our intrusion framework uses a combination between the Anomaly Detection based on support vector machine (SVM) and the Misuse Detection. Experiments results show that most of routing attacks can be detected with low false alarm.

  14. Intrusion detection in wireless ad-hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    Presenting cutting-edge research, Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks explores the security aspects of the basic categories of wireless ad-hoc networks and related application areas. Focusing on intrusion detection systems (IDSs), it explains how to establish security solutions for the range of wireless networks, including mobile ad-hoc networks, hybrid wireless networks, and sensor networks.This edited volume reviews and analyzes state-of-the-art IDSs for various wireless ad-hoc networks. It includes case studies on honesty-based intrusion detection systems, cluster oriented-based

  15. Intrusion Prevention and Detection in Grid Computing - The ALICE Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andres; Lara, Camilo; Kebschull, Udo

    2015-12-01

    Grids allow users flexible on-demand usage of computing resources through remote communication networks. A remarkable example of a Grid in High Energy Physics (HEP) research is used in the ALICE experiment at European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN. Physicists can submit jobs used to process the huge amount of particle collision data produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Grids face complex security challenges. They are interesting targets for attackers seeking for huge computational resources. Since users can execute arbitrary code in the worker nodes on the Grid sites, special care should be put in this environment. Automatic tools to harden and monitor this scenario are required. Currently, there is no integrated solution for such requirement. This paper describes a new security framework to allow execution of job payloads in a sandboxed context. It also allows process behavior monitoring to detect intrusions, even when new attack methods or zero day vulnerabilities are exploited, by a Machine Learning approach. We plan to implement the proposed framework as a software prototype that will be tested as a component of the ALICE Grid middleware.

  16. Evidence for Magmatic Intrusion at Mount Spurr Volcano, Alaska, from GPS measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervelli, P. F.; Coombs, M. L.; Freymueller, J. T.; McGee, K. A.

    2005-12-01

    with the radial pattern of the other stations. We interpret the velocity field as arising from magmatic intrusion, especially in light of the other geophysical measurements and geologic observations, which support the same conclusion. The asymmetric character of the velocity field suggests either a geometrically complex source or the existence of active structures within the edifice that distort an otherwise radial magmatic signal. We explore both possibilities, though the relatively small number of geophysical data points and the poorly known structural geology of the area pose a serious non-uniqueness problem. Provided that the basic interpretation of magmatic intrusion is correct, the magnitude of the velocities suggests an intrusive rate on the order of 107 m3 per year.

  17. Towards Reliable Evaluation of Anomaly-Based Intrusion Detection Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Arun

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the results of research into the effects of environment-induced noise on the evaluation process for anomaly detectors in the cyber security domain. This research was conducted during a 10-week summer internship program from the 19th of August, 2012 to the 23rd of August, 2012 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. The research performed lies within the larger context of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) Smart Grid cyber security project, a Department of Energy (DoE) funded effort involving the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology and the University of Southern California/ Information Sciences Institute. The results of the present effort constitute an important contribution towards building more rigorous evaluation paradigms for anomaly-based intrusion detectors in complex cyber physical systems such as the Smart Grid. Anomaly detection is a key strategy for cyber intrusion detection and operates by identifying deviations from profiles of nominal behavior and are thus conceptually appealing for detecting "novel" attacks. Evaluating the performance of such a detector requires assessing: (a) how well it captures the model of nominal behavior, and (b) how well it detects attacks (deviations from normality). Current evaluation methods produce results that give insufficient insight into the operation of a detector, inevitably resulting in a significantly poor characterization of a detectors performance. In this work, we first describe a preliminary taxonomy of key evaluation constructs that are necessary for establishing rigor in the evaluation regime of an anomaly detector. We then focus on clarifying the impact of the operational environment on the manifestation of attacks in monitored data. We show how dynamic and evolving environments can introduce high variability into the data stream perturbing detector performance. Prior research has focused on understanding the impact of this

  18. Abstracting audit data for lightweight intrusion detection

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    High speed of processing massive audit data is crucial for an anomaly Intrusion Detection System (IDS) to achieve real-time performance during the detection. Abstracting audit data is a potential solution to improve the efficiency of data processing. In this work, we propose two strategies of data abstraction in order to build a lightweight detection model. The first strategy is exemplar extraction and the second is attribute abstraction. Two clustering algorithms, Affinity Propagation (AP) as well as traditional k-means, are employed to extract the exemplars, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is employed to abstract important attributes (a.k.a. features) from the audit data. Real HTTP traffic data collected in our institute as well as KDD 1999 data are used to validate the two strategies of data abstraction. The extensive test results show that the process of exemplar extraction significantly improves the detection efficiency and has a better detection performance than PCA in data abstraction. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Modelling saline intrusion for repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UK Nirex Ltd are currently considering the possibility of disposal of radioactive waste by burial in deep underground repositories. The natural pathway for radionuclides from such a repository to return to Man's immediate environment (the biosphere) is via groundwater. Thus analyses of the groundwater flow in the neighbourhood of a possible repository, and consequent radionuclide transport form an important part of a performance assessment for a repository. Some of the areas in the UK that might be considered as possible locations for a repository are near the coast. If a repository is located in a coastal region seawater may intrude into the groundwater flow system. As seawater is denser than fresh water buoyancy forces acting on the intruding saline water may have significant effects on the groundwater flow system, and consequently on the time for radionuclides to return to the biosphere. Further, the chemistry of the repository near-field may be strongly influenced by the salinity of the groundwater. It is therefore important for Nirex to have a capability for reliably modelling saline intrusion to an appropriate degree of accuracy in order to make performance assessments for a repository in a coastal region. This report describes work undertaken in the Nirex Research programme to provide such a capability. (author)

  20. Salinity intrusion modeling for Sungai Selangor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity intrusion into estuary of the Sungai Selangor has been carried out on a hydrodynamic numerical modeling to access the parameter that governed the amount of salt in the river. Issues such as water pollution and extraction of water from Sungai Selangor system has been said to be the cause of fading fireflies. The berembang trees on the river bank that become the fireflies habitat need some amount of salt for proper growth. Living at the lower reaches of Sungai Selangor, the fireflies are affected not only by the activities in their vicinity, but by activities in the entire river basin. Rapid economic development in the basin and the strong demand for the water resources puts pressure on the ecosystem. This research has been carried out to investigate the effect of water extraction along Sungai Selangor towards altering the amount of salt content in the river. The hydrodynamic modeling with regards to the salt content is expected to support long term assessment that may affect the berembang trees as a result of changes in the flow from upstream because of the water abstraction activity for domestic water supply. (Author)

  1. Intrusion Prevention/Intrusion Detection System (IPS/IDS for Wifi Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Korcak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The nature of wireless networks itself created new vulnerabilities that in the classical wired network s do not exist. This results in an evolutional requireme nt to implement new sophisticated security mechanis m in form of Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems. This paper deals with security issues of small off ice and home office wireless networks. The goal of our work is to design and evaluate wireless IDPS with u se of packet injection method. Decrease of attacker’s traffic by 95% was observed when compared to attacker’s traffic without deployment of proposed I DPS system.

  2. Network Threat Characterization in Multiple Intrusion Perspectives using Data Mining Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Oriola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For effective security incidence response on the network, a reputable approach must be in place at bothprotected and unprotected region of the network. This is because compromise in the demilitarized zonecould be precursor to threat inside the network. The improved complexity of attacks in present times andvulnerability of system are motivations for this work. Past and present approaches to intrusion detectionand prevention have neglected victim and attacker properties despite the fact that for intrusion to occur,an overt act by an attacker and a manifestation, observable by the intended victim, which results fromthat act are required. Therefore, this paper presents a threat characterization model for attacks from thevictim and the attacker perspective of intrusion using data mining technique. The data mining techniquecombines Frequent Temporal Sequence Association Mining and Fuzzy Logic. Apriori Association Miningalgorithm was used to mine temporal rule patterns from alert sequences while Fuzzy Control System wasused to rate exploits. The results of the experiment show that accurate threat characterization in multipleintrusion perspectives could be actualized using Fuzzy Association Mining. Also, the results proved thatsequence of exploits could be used to rate threat and are motivated by victim properties and attackerobjectives.

  3. Risk-Based Evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Vapor Intrusion Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Brewer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative method for the risk-based evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH in vapor intrusion investigations. Vapors from petroleum fuels are characterized by a complex mixture of aliphatic and, to a lesser extent, aromatic compounds. These compounds can be measured and described in terms of TPH carbon ranges. Toxicity factors published by USEPA and other parties allow development of risk-based, air and soil vapor screening levels for each carbon range in the same manner as done for individual compounds such as benzene. The relative, carbon range makeup of petroleum vapors can be used to develop weighted, site-specific or generic screening levels for TPH. At some critical ratio of TPH to a targeted, individual compound, the overwhelming proportion of TPH will drive vapor intrusion risk over the individual compound. This is particularly true for vapors associated with diesel and other middle distillate fuels, but can also be the case for low-benzene gasolines or even for high-benzene gasolines if an adequately conservative, target risk is not applied to individually targeted chemicals. This necessitates a re-evaluation of the reliance on benzene and other individual compounds as a stand-alone tool to evaluate vapor intrusion risk associated with petroleum.

  4. Novel Non-Intrusive Vibration Monitoring System for Turbopumps Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AI Signal Research, Inc. proposes to develop a Non-Intrusive Vibration Measurement System (NI-VMS) for turbopumps which will provide effective on-board/off-board...

  5. An Isolation Intrusion Detection System for Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rung-Ching Chen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 0 2 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A wireless sensor network (WSN is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively monitor environmental conditions, such as battlefield data and personal health information, and some environment limited resources. To avoid malicious damage is important while information is transmitted in wireless network. Thus, Wireless Intrusion Detection Systems are crucial to safe operation in wireless sensor networks. Wireless networks are subject to very different types of attacks compare to wired networks. In this paper, we propose an isolation table to detect intrusion by hierarchical wireless sensor networks and to estimate the effect of intrusion detection. The primary experiment proves that isolation table intrusion detection can prevent attacks effectively.

  6. Intrusion Detection and Security Mechanisms for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, S.; Jaime Lloret; Jonathan Loo

    2014-01-01

    Khan, S.; Lloret, J.; Loo, J. (2014). Intrusion Detection and Security Mechanisms for Wireless Sensor Networks. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks. 2014:1-3. doi:10.1155/2014/747483.

  7. Signalprint-Based Intrusion Detection in Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rob; Chen, Ing-Ray; Eltoweissy, Mohamed

    Wireless networks are a critical part of global communication for which intrusion detection techniques should be applied to secure network access, or the cost associated with successful attacks will overshadow the benefits that wireless networks offer. In this paper we investigate a new scheme called Nodeprints to extend the existing centralized Signalprints design for authentication to a distributed voting-based design for intrusion detection. We analyze the effect of voting-based intrusion detection designs, the probability of an individual node voting incorrectly, the ratio of mobile nodes to base stations, and the rate at which nodes are compromised, on the system performance measured by the probability that the intrusion detection system yields a false result. We develop a performance model for evaluating our Nodeprints design and identify conditions under which Nodeprints outperforms the existing Signalprints design.

  8. Heart rate, startle response, and intrusive trauma memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Ying; La Marca, Roberto; Steptoe, Andrew; Brewin, Chris R

    2014-03-01

    The current study adopted the trauma film paradigm to examine potential moderators affecting heart rate (HR) as an indicator of peritraumatic psychological states and as a predictor of intrusive memories. We replicated previous findings that perifilm HR decreases predicted the development of intrusive images and further showed this effect to be specific to images rather than thoughts, and to detail rather than gist recognition memory. Moreover, a group of individuals showing both an atypical sudden reduction in HR after a startle stimulus and higher trait dissociation was identified. Only among these individuals was lower perifilm HR found to indicate higher state dissociation, fear, and anxiety, along with reduced vividness of intrusions. The current findings emphasize how peritraumatic physiological responses relate to emotional reactions and intrusive memory. The moderating role of individual difference in stress defense style was highlighted. PMID:24397333

  9. Intrusion detection model based on selective packet sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhoum Ezzat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent experimental work by Androulidakis and Papavassiliou (IET Commun 2(3:399, 2008; IEEE Netw 23(1:6, 2009 has shown that it is possible to maintain a high level of network security while selectively inspecting packets for the existence of intrusive activity, thereby resulting in a minimal amount of processing overhead. In this paper, a statistical approach for the modeling of network intrusions as Markov processes is introduced. The theoretical findings presented here confirm the earlier experimental results of Androulidakis and Papavassiliou. A common notion about network intrusion detection systems is that every packet arriving into a network must be inspected in order to prevent intrusions. This investigation, together with the earlier experimental results, disproves that notion. Additional experimental testing of a corporate local area network is reported.

  10. Intrusion resistant underground structure (IRUS) - safety assessment and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the safety goals, human exposure scenarios and critical groups, the syvac-nsure performance assessment code, groundwater pathway safety results, and inadvertent human intrusion of the IRUS. 2 tabs

  11. Novel Non-Intrusive Vibration Monitoring System for Turbopumps Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ASRI proposes to develop an advanced and commercially viable Non-Intrusive Vibration Monitoring System (NI-VMS) which can provide effective on-line/off-line engine...

  12. Effectiveness of Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) in Fast Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shafi, Muhammad Imran; Hayat, Sikandar; Sohail, Imran

    2010-01-01

    Computer systems are facing biggest threat in the form of malicious data which causing denial of service, information theft, financial and credibility loss etc. No defense technique has been proved successful in handling these threats. Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems (IDPSs) being best of available solutions. These techniques are getting more and more attention. Although Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPSs) show a good level of success in detecting and preventing intrusion attempts to networks, they show a visible deficiency in their performance when they are employed on fast networks. In this paper we have presented a design including quantitative and qualitative methods to identify improvement areas in IPSs. Focus group is used for qualitative analysis and experiment is used for quantitative analysis. This paper also describes how to reduce the responding time for IPS when an intrusion occurs on network, and how can IPS be made to perform its tasks successfully without effecting network speed nega...

  13. Late orogenic mafic magmatism in the North Cascades, Washington: Petrology and tectonic setting of the Skymo layered intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, D.L.; Tepper, J.H.; Hirschmann, M.M.; Hurlow, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Skymo Complex in the North Cascades, Washington, is a layered mafic intrusion within the Ross Lake fault zone, a major orogen-parallel structure at the eastern margin of the Cascades crystalline core. The complex is composed dominantly of troctolite and gabbro, both with inclusions of primitive olivine gabbro. Low-pressure minerals in the metasedimentary contact aureole and early crystallization of olivine + plagioclase in the mafic rocks indicate the intrusion was emplaced at shallow depths (magmatism. The Skymo mafic complex and the Golden Horn granite were emplaced during regional extension and collapse of the North Cascades orogen and represent the end of large-scale magmatism in the North Cascades continental arc. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  14. Novel hybrid intrusion detection system for clustered wireless sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    Hichem Sedjelmaci; Mohamed Feham

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) is regularly deployed in unattended and hostile environments. The WSN is vulnerable to security threats and susceptible to physical capture. Thus, it is necessary to use effective mechanisms to protect the network. It is widely known, that the intrusion detection is one of the most efficient security mechanisms to protect the network against malicious attacks or unauthorized access. In this paper, we propose a hybrid intrusion detection system for clustered WSN. ...

  15. Cross Layer Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Djallel Eddine Boubiche; Azeddine Bilami

    2012-01-01

    The wireless sensor networks (WSN) are particularly vulnerable to various attacks at different layers of the protocol stack. Many intrusion detection system (IDS) have been proposed to secure WSNs. But all these systems operate in a single layer of the OSI model, or do not consider the interaction and collaboration between these layers. Consequently these systems are mostly inefficient and would drain out the WSN. In this paper we propose a new intrusion detection system based on cross layer...

  16. Intrusion Detection Systems in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Ali Alrajeh; Khan, S.; Bilal Shams

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of sensor nodes deployed in a manner to collect information about surrounding environment. Their distributed nature, multihop data forwarding, and open wireless medium are the factors that make WSNs highly vulnerable to security attacks at various levels. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) can play an important role in detecting and preventing security attacks. This paper presents current Intrusion Detection Systems and some open research problems relat...

  17. Reconfigurable Antenna Assisted Intrusion Detection in Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Prathaban Mookiah; Walsh, John M.; Rachel Greenstadt; Dandekar, Kapil R.

    2013-01-01

    Intrusion detection is a challenging problem in wireless networks due to the broadcast nature of the wireless medium. Physical layer information is increasingly used to protect these vulnerable networks. Meanwhile, reconfigurable antennas are gradually finding their way into wireless devices due to their ability to improve data throughput. In this paper, the capabilities of reconfigurable antennas are used to devise an intrusion detection scheme that operates at the physical layer. The detect...

  18. HYBRID ARCHITECTURE FOR DISTRIBUTED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM IN WIRELESS NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedeh Yasaman Rashida

    2013-01-01

    In order to the rapid growth of the network application, new kinds of network attacks are emerging endlessly. So it is critical to protect the networks from attackers and the Intrusion detection technology becomes popular. Therefore, it is necessary that this security concern must be articulate right from the beginning of the network design and deployment. The intrusion detection technology is the process of identifying network activity that can lead to a compromise of security po...

  19. Intrusion Detection for Routing Attacks in Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chong Eik Loo; Mun Yong Ng; Christopher Leckie; Marimuthu Palaniswami

    2006-01-01

    Security is a critical challenge for creating robust and reliable sensor networks. For example, routing attacks have the ability to disconnect a sensor network from its central base station. In this paper, we present a method for intrusion detection in wireless sensor networks. Our intrusion detection scheme uses a clustering algorithm to build a model of normal traffic behavior, and then uses this model of normal traffic to detect abnormal traffic patterns. A key advantage of our approach is...

  20. Heart rate, startle response, and intrusive trauma memories

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, C. Y.; Marca, R. L.; Steptoe, A; Brewin, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study adopted the trauma film paradigm to examine potential moderators affecting heart rate (HR) as an indicator of peritraumatic psychological states and as a predictor of intrusive memories. We replicated previous findings that perifilm HR decreases predicted the development of intrusive images and further showed this effect to be specific to images rather than thoughts, and to detail rather than gist recognition memory. Moreover, a group of individuals showing both an atypical ...

  1. Intrusive Thoughts Mediate the Association between Neuroticism and Cognitive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz, Elizabeth; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Smyth, Joshua M.; Almeida, David M.; King, Heather A.

    2013-01-01

    Although research has established a negative association between trait neuroticism and cognition, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. We examined the tendency to experience intrusive thoughts and negative affect as potential mediators of the relationship between neuroticism and cognitive performance. We hypothesized that the tendency to experience intrusive thoughts reflects ineffective attentional control and would account for the relationship between neurot...

  2. Intrusion Protection against SQL Injection Attacks Using a Reverse Proxy

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fouzul Hidhaya; Angelina Geetha

    2012-01-01

    In this era where Internet has captured the world, level of security that this Internet provides has not grown as fast as the Internet application. Internet has eased the life of human in numerous ways, but the drawbacks like the intrusions that are attached with the Internet applications sustains the growth of these applications. One such intrusion is the SQL Injection attacks (SQLIA). Since SQLIA contributes 25% of the total Internet attacks, much research is being carried ou...

  3. Active low intrusion hybrid monitor for wireless sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Marlon Navia; Campelo, Jose C.; Alberto Bonastre; Rafael Ors; Capella, Juan V.; Juan J. Serrano

    2015-01-01

    Several systems have been proposed to monitor wireless sensor networks (WSN). These systems may be active (causing a high degree of intrusion) or passive (low observability inside the nodes). This paper presents the implementation of an active hybrid (hardware and software) monitor with low intrusion. It is based on the addition to the sensor node of a monitor node (hardware part) which, through a standard interface, is able to receive the monitoring information sent by a piece of software ex...

  4. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A REAL TIME INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    ARICI, Nursal; YILDIZ, Elmas

    2010-01-01

    Intrusion detection systems also takes place among the enhanced security policies by coming into prominence of knowledge day by day. Intrusion Detection Systems are security systems that detect attacks on computer systems and network sources, identify from whom attacks comes, recognize abnormal situtations by monitoring system and aim to take precautions against them. Detection of abnormal situations takes place in issue of data mining. DoS attacks are used to block access to a resource an...

  5. The design about the intrusion defense system for IHEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the development of network technologies, limitations on traditional methods of network security protection are becoming more and more obvious. An individual network security product or the simple combination of several products can hardly complete the goal of keeping from hackers' intrusion. Therefore, on the basis of the analyses about the security problems of IHEPNET which is an open and scientific research network, the author designs an intrusion defense system especially for IHEPNET

  6. Survey on Host and Network Based Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niva Das

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With invent of new technologies and devices, Intrusion has become an area of concern because of security issues, in the ever growing area of cyber-attack. An intrusion detection system (IDS is defined as a device or software application which monitors system or network activities for malicious activities or policy violations. It produces reports to a management station [1]. In this paper we are mainly focused on different IDS concepts based on Host and Network systems.

  7. Tropical plumes due to potential vorticity intrusions over Indian sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, M.; Sridharan, S.; Indira Devi, M.

    2016-05-01

    Four cases of potential vorticity (PV) intrusion events over Indian sector (March 2009, April 2010, April 2010 and March 2014) which lead to the generation of tropical plumes (TP) are presented. The PV intrusions are identified from the threshold value of ERA (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) Reanalysis)-interim PV at 350 K isentropic level greater than 1.4 potential vorticity unit (PVU) (1 PVU = 10- 6 Km2kg- 1 s- 1) at 13.5°N. These PV intrusions trigger convection to the east, which is identified from the low (time of majority of TP over Indian sector is found to be 1-2 days and all the TP are not precipitative. Unlike reported earlier, the PV intrusions having broad trough are also leading to TP over Indian sector, whereas the PV intrusions having narrow trough (less than 3° longitude band) do not lead to TP. Besides, the occurrence of TP does not relate to even the depth of penetration of PV trough. It is demonstrated that the occurrence of TP is due to the poleward advection associated with the PV intrusion.

  8. 3D Inverse problem: Seawater intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steklova, K.; Haber, E.

    2013-12-01

    Modeling of seawater intrusions (SWI) is challenging as it involves solving the governing equations for variable density flow, multiple time scales and varying boundary conditions. Due to the nonlinearity of the equations and the large aquifer domains, 3D computations are a costly process, particularly when solving the inverse SWI problem. In addition the heads and concentration measurements are difficult to obtain due to mixing, saline wedge location is sensitive to aquifer topography, and there is general uncertainty in initial and boundary conditions and parameters. Some of these complications can be overcome by using indirect geophysical data next to standard groundwater measurements, however, the inverse problem is usually simplified, e.g. by zonation for the parameters based on geological information, steady state substitution of the unknown initial conditions, decoupling the equations or reducing the amount of unknown parameters by covariance analysis. In our work we present a discretization of the flow and solute mass balance equations for variable groundwater (GW) flow. A finite difference scheme is to solve pressure equation and a Semi - Lagrangian method for solute transport equation. In this way we are able to choose an arbitrarily large time step without losing stability up to an accuracy requirement coming from the coupled character of the variable density flow equations. We derive analytical sensitivities of the GW model for parameters related to the porous media properties and also the initial solute distribution. Analytically derived sensitivities reduce the computational cost of inverse problem, but also give insight for maximizing information in collected data. If the geophysical data are available it also enables simultaneous calibration in a coupled hydrogeophysical framework. The 3D inverse problem was tested on artificial time dependent data for pressure and solute content coming from a GW forward model and/or geophysical forward model. Two

  9. Anterior maxillary intrusion and retraction with corticotomy-facilitated orthodontic treatment and burstone three piece intrusive arch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Ramachandra; Karthikeyan, M K; Saravanan, R; Kannan, K S; Arun Raj, M R

    2013-12-01

    An adult patient with proclination and spacing was performed orthodontic treatment combined with corticotomy and the burstone three piece intrusive arch who desired a shortened treatment period. The patient had Angle's Class I malocclusion with flaring of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. Pre adjusted edgewise appliance (MBT prescription) was fixed to the maxillary and mandibular teeth. Then corticotomy was performed on the cortical bone of the buccal sides in the maxillary anterior regions. Intrusion and retraction initiated immediately after the corticotomy. The intrusive arch was adjusted once in every 2 weeks. The total treatment time for intrusion was 5 months. Cephalometric superimpositions showed no anchorage loss, and panoramic radiographs showed neither significant reduction in the crestal bone height nor marked apical root resorption. A corticotomy-facilitated orthodontic treatment shortened treatment period without any anchorage loss or adverse effects. PMID:24551742

  10. Ecuadorian Aquifer Studied for Marine Intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 2007, a Technical Cooperation Project called 'Characterization of Coastal Aquifers on the Santa Elena Peninsula' (ECU8026) was launched to better assess groundwater resources in the area and investigate whether aquifers in the Santa Elena area of southwestern Ecuador (see map above) are affected by marine intrusion. The Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral (ESPOL), Guayaquil, Ecuador, implemented the project in collaboration with other local institutes to uncover the impact of marine intrusion, if it exists, on the sustainability of this crucial water resource. Groundwater constitutes the main source of drinking water in the area, complemented by surface water resources derived from the Santa Elena reservoir, for the local population and approximately 80 000 tourists. Due to the semi-arid climate of the area, affected by the relatively cold Humboldt stream, the coastal zones are facing important deficits in fresh groundwater, surface water and vegetation. The traditional rural water supply based on shallow dug wells and rainwater infiltration ponds (locally known as albarradas) has therefore been gradually complemented by deeper boreholes. However, intensive pumping during the past decade has led to lowering water tables and an increase in salinity, leading to the abandonment of several boreholes. Dryness is particularly pronounced in the southern zone of the Santa Elena peninsula around the city of Salinas, where mean annual rainfall amount is only 112 mm, distributed between January and April, mean annual temperatures range between 17oC and 35oC, and mean annual potential evapotranspiration is higher than 1200 mm. In the peninsula's northern zone, the phenomenon of 'garuas' (low fog and drizzling rain) may account for a slightly more humid environment. Hydrogeological Settings. The principal coastal aquifer of the Santa Elena peninsula consists of the Tablazo formation, composed of Quaternary sandstones and conglomerates, covered by alluvial

  11. The Design and Implementation of Intrusion Detection System based on Data Mining Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Qinglei Zhou; Yilin Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Intrusion detection technology is a research hotspot in the field of information security. This study introduces the types of traditional intrusion detection and data mining technology; Aiming at the defects and limitations of current intrusion detection system, the study has fused the data mining technology into intrusion detection model, and has designed and implemented the intrusion detection system based on data mining technology with the preliminary research and exploration.

  12. Geochemical Constraints on Collision-related Intrusive Rocks in Central, Northwestern and Western Anatolia (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilbeyli, Nurdane

    2010-05-01

    The intrusive rocks in Anatolia occupy a broad petrological range from I- to A- type granitoids. Thus, Turkey is a natural laboratory to study collision-related magmatism, its geochemical characteristic, source region and also tectono-magmatic evolution. The central, northwestern and western Anatolian magmatic provinces are defined by a large number of Late Mesozoic to Late Cenozoic collision-related granitoids (Ilbeyli and Kibici 2009). Calc-alkaline, subalkaline and alkaline intrusive rocks in central Anatolia are mainly metaluminous, high-K and I- to A-types. They cover a petrological range from monzodiorite through quartz monzonite to granite/syenite. All these intrusive rocks are enriched in LILE and are also radiogenic in terms of Sr, and unradiogenic in terms of Nd, isotope ratios. Their geochemical characteristics show that the intrusive rocks originated from a mantle source containing large subduction components, and have experienced crustal assimilation and fractional crystallization. Delamination of a thermal boundary layer, and/or slab breakoff is the likely mechanisms for the initiation of the diverse magmatism in the complex (Ilbeyli et al. 2009). Calc-alkaline plutonic rocks in northwestern Anatolia are mainly metaluminous, medium- to high-K and I-types. They are monzonite to granite, and all are enriched in LILE and depleted in HFSE, showing features of arc-related intrusive rocks. Geochemical data reveal that these plutons were derived from partial melting of mafic lower crustal sources. These rocks are related to subduction of the northern branch of the Neo-Tethyan ocean beneath the Sakarya microcontinent during Cretaceous-Paleocene times (Kibici et al. 2008). Calc-alkaline intrusive rocks in western Anatolia are metaluminous, high-K and I-types. They have a compositional range from granodiorite to granite, and are enriched in LILE and depleted in HFSE. Geochemical characteristics of these intrusive rocks indicate that they could have originated

  13. Comparative study of adaptive-noise-cancellation algorithms for intrusion detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some intrusion detection systems are susceptible to nonstationary noise resulting in frequent nuisance alarms and poor detection when the noise is present. Adaptive inverse filtering for single channel systems and adaptive noise cancellation for two channel systems have both demonstrated good potential in removing correlated noise components prior detection. For such noise susceptible systems the suitability of a noise reduction algorithm must be established in a trade-off study weighing algorithm complexity against performance. The performance characteristics of several distinct classes of algorithms are established through comparative computer studies using real signals. The relative merits of the different algorithms are discussed in the light of the nature of intruder and noise signals

  14. Number of Waste Package Hit by Igneous Intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wallace

    2004-10-13

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to document calculations of the number of waste packages that could be damaged in a potential future igneous event through a repository at Yucca Mountain. The analyses include disruption from an intrusive igneous event and from an extrusive volcanic event. This analysis supports the evaluation of the potential consequences of future igneous activity as part of the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Igneous activity is a disruptive event that is included in the TSPA-LA analyses. Two igneous activity scenarios are considered: (1) The igneous intrusion groundwater release scenario (also called the igneous intrusion scenario) considers the in situ damage to waste packages or failure of waste packages that occurs if they are engulfed or otherwise affected by magma as a result of an igneous intrusion. (2) The volcanic eruption scenario depicts the direct release of radioactive waste due to an intrusion that intersects the repository followed by a volcanic eruption at the surface. An igneous intrusion is defined as the ascent of a basaltic dike or dike system (i.e., a set or swarm of multiple dikes comprising a single intrusive event) to repository level, where it intersects drifts. Magma that does reach the surface from igneous activity is an eruption (or extrusive activity) (Jackson 1997 [DIRS 109119], pp. 224, 333). The objective of this analysis is to develop a probabilistic measure of the number of waste packages that could be affected by each of the two scenarios.

  15. Number of Waste Package Hit by Igneous Intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is to document calculations of the number of waste packages that could be damaged in a potential future igneous event through a repository at Yucca Mountain. The analyses include disruption from an intrusive igneous event and from an extrusive volcanic event. This analysis supports the evaluation of the potential consequences of future igneous activity as part of the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Igneous activity is a disruptive event that is included in the TSPA-LA analyses. Two igneous activity scenarios are considered: (1) The igneous intrusion groundwater release scenario (also called the igneous intrusion scenario) considers the in situ damage to waste packages or failure of waste packages that occurs if they are engulfed or otherwise affected by magma as a result of an igneous intrusion. (2) The volcanic eruption scenario depicts the direct release of radioactive waste due to an intrusion that intersects the repository followed by a volcanic eruption at the surface. An igneous intrusion is defined as the ascent of a basaltic dike or dike system (i.e., a set or swarm of multiple dikes comprising a single intrusive event) to repository level, where it intersects drifts. Magma that does reach the surface from igneous activity is an eruption (or extrusive activity) (Jackson 1997 [DIRS 109119], pp. 224, 333). The objective of this analysis is to develop a probabilistic measure of the number of waste packages that could be affected by each of the two scenarios

  16. A Survey of Intrusion Detection Schemes in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad A. Rassam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are currently used in many application areas including military applications, health related applications, control and tracking applications and environment and habitat monitoring applications. The harsh and unattended deployment of these networks along with their resource restrictions makes their security issue very important. Prevention-based security approaches like cryptography, authentication and key management have been used to protect WSNs from different kinds of attacks but these approaches are not enough to protect the network from insider attacks that may extract sensitive information even in the presence of the prevention-based solution. Detection-based approaches are then proposed to protect WSNs from insider attacks and act as a second line defense after the failure of the prevention-based approaches. Many intrusion detection schemes have been introduced for WSN in the literature. In this article, we present a survey of intrusion detection schemes in WSNs. First, we present the similar works and show their differences from this work. After that, we outline the fundamentals of intrusion detection in WSNs, describing the types of attacks and state the motivation for intrusion detection in WSNs. Then, we demonstrate the challenges of developing an ideal intrusion detection scheme for WSNs followed by the main requirements of a good candidate intrusion detection scheme. The state-of-the-art intrusion detection schemes are then presented based on the techniques used in each scheme and categorizing them into four main categories: rule-based, data mining and computational intelligence based, game theoretical based and statistical based. The analysis of each scheme in these categories is presented showing their advantages and drawbacks. By the end of each category, we state the general advantages and shortcomings of each category. The survey ends by recommending some important research opportunities in this

  17. Active, Non-Intrusive Inspection Technologies for Homeland Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James L. Jones

    2003-06-01

    Active, non-intrusive inspection or interrogation technologies have been used for 100 years - with the primary focus being radiographic imaging. During the last 50 years, various active interrogation systems have been investigated and most have revealed many unique and interesting capabilities and advantages that have already benefited the general public. Unfortunately, except for medical and specific industrial applications, these unique capabilities have not been widely adopted, largely due to the complexity of the technology, the overconfident reliance on passive detection systems to handle most challenges, and the unrealistic public concerns regarding radiation safety issues for a given active inspection deployment. The unique homeland security challenges facing the United States today are inviting more "out-of-the-box" solutions and are demanding the effective technological solutions that only active interrogation systems can provide. While revolutionary new solutions are always desired, these technology advancements are rare, and when found, usually take a long time to fully understand and implement for a given application. What's becoming more evident is that focusing on under-developed, but well-understood, active inspection technologies can provide many of the needed "out-of-the-box" solutions. This paper presents a brief historical overview of active interrogation. It identifies some of the major homeland defense challenges being confronted and the commercial and research technologies presently available and being pursued. Finally, the paper addresses the role of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and its partner, the Idaho Accelerator Center at Idaho State University, in promoting and developing active inspection technologies for homeland defense.

  18. Active, Non-Intrusive Inspection Technologies for Homeland Defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Active, non-intrusive inspection or interrogation technologies have been used for 100 years - with the primary focus being radiographic imaging. During the last 50 years, various active interrogation systems have been investigated and most have revealed many unique and interesting capabilities and advantages that have already benefited the general public. Unfortunately, except for medical and specific industrial applications, these unique capabilities have not been widely adopted, largely due to the complexity of the technology, the overconfident reliance on passive detection systems to handle most challenges, and the unrealistic public concerns regarding radiation safety issues for a given active inspection deployment. The unique homeland security challenges facing the United States today are inviting more ''out-of-the-box'' solutions and are demanding the effective technological solutions that only active interrogation systems can provide. While revolutionary new solutions are always desired, these technology advancements are rare, and when found, usually take a long time to fully understand and implement for a given application. What's becoming more evident is that focusing on under-developed, but well-understood, active inspection technologies can provide many of the needed ''out-of-the-box'' solutions. This paper presents a brief historical overview of active interrogation. It identifies some of the major homeland defense challenges being confronted and the commercial and research technologies presently available and being pursued. Finally, the paper addresses the role of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and its partner, the Idaho Accelerator Center at Idaho State University, in promoting and developing active inspection technologies for homeland defense

  19. Groundwater Vulnerability to Seawater Intrusion along Coastal Urban Areas: A Quantitative Comparative Assessment of EPIK and DRASTIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momjian, Nanor; Abou Najm, Majdi; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment models are invariably coupled with Geographic Information Systems to provide decision makers with easier visualization of complex systems. In this study, we examine the uncertainty associated with such models (DRASTIC, EPIK) in assessing seawater intrusion, a growing threat along coastal urban cities due to overexploitation of groundwater resources associated with population growth and more recently, exacerbated by climate change impacts. For this purpose, a mapping of groundwater vulnerability was first conducted at a country level (Lebanon) and coupled with a groundwater quality monitoring program in three coastal cities for cross-validation. Then, six water quality categories were defined and mapped based on water quality standards ranging from drinking to seawater with weighted scores assigned for each category in both DRASTIC and EPIK for cross-validation. Finally, the results of groundwater quality tests were compared with vulnerability predictions at sampling points using two indicators (Chloride and TDS). While field measurements demonstrated the high vulnerability to seawater intrusion in coastal urbanized areas, the modelling results exhibited variations from field measurements reaching up to two water quality categories. Vertical-based vulnerability models demonstrated poor correlation when the anthropogenic impact was introduced through a process that depends on lateral groundwater flow thus highlighting (1) the limited ability of such models to capture vulnerability to lateral seawater intrusion induced primarily by vertical groundwater withdrawal, and (2) the need to incorporate depth and underlying lithology into the layers of groundwater vulnerability models when examining horizontally induced contamination such as seawater intrusion.

  20. Intrusion problematic during water supply systems' operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Jesus; Lopez-Jimenez, P. Amparo [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain); Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department and CEHIDRO, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-07-01

    Intrusion through leaks occurrence is a phenomenon when external fluid comes into water pipe systems. This phenomenon can cause contamination problems in drinking pipe systems. Hence, this paper focuses on the entry of external fluids across small leaks during normal operation conditions. This situation is especially important in elevated points of the pipe profile. Pressure variations can origin water volume losses and intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes. This work focuses in obtaining up the physical representation on a specific case intrusion in a pipe water system. The combination of two factors is required to generate this kind of intrusion in a water supply system: on one hand the existence of at least a leak in the system; on the other hand, a pressure variation could occur during the operation of the system due to consumption variation, pump start-up or shutdown. The potential of intrusion during a dynamic or transient event is here analyzed. To obtain this objective an experimental case study of pressure transient scenario is analyzed with a small leak located nearby the transient source.

  1. Distributed intrusion detection for mobile ad hoc networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Ping; Jiang Xinghao; Wu Yue; Liu Ning

    2008-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networking(MANET)has become an exciting and important technology in recent years,because of the rapid proliferation of wireless devices.Mobile ad hoc networks is highly vulnerable to attacks due to the open medium,dynamically changing network topology,cooperative algorithms,and lack of centralized monitoring and management point.The traditional way of protecting networks with firewalls and encryption software is no longer sufficient and effective for those features.A distributed intrusion detection approach based on timed automata is given.A cluster-based detection scheme is presented,where periodically a node is elected as the monitor node for a cluster.These monitor nodes can not only make local intrusion detection decisions,but also cooperatively take part in global intrusion detection.And then the timed automata is constructed by the way of manually abstracting the correct behaviours of the node according to the routing protocol of dynamic source routing(DSR).The monitor nodes can verify the behaviour of every nodes by timed automata,and validly detect real-time attacks without signatures of intrusion or trained data.Compared with the architecture where each node is its own IDS agent,the approach is much more efficient while maintaining the same level of effectiveness.Finally,the intrusion detection method is evaluated through simulation experiments.

  2. A HIERARCHICAL INTRUSION DETECTION ARCHITECTURE FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jadidoleslamy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Networks protection against different types of attacks is one of most important posed issue into the network andinformation security application domains. This problem on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs, in attention to theirspecial properties, has more importance. Now, there are some of proposed architectures and guide lines to protectWireless Sensor Networks (WSNs against different types of intrusions; but any one of them do not has acomprehensive view to this problem and they are usually designed and implemented in single-purpose; but, theproposed design in this paper tries to has been a comprehensive view to this issue by presenting a complete andcomprehensive Intrusion Detection Architecture (IDA. The main contribution of this architecture is its hierarchicalstructure; i.e., it is designed and applicable, in one or two levels, consistent to the application domain and itsrequired security level. Focus of this paper is on the clustering WSNs, designing and deploying Cluster-basedIntrusion Detection System (CIDS on cluster-heads and Wireless Sensor Network wide level Intrusion DetectionSystem (WSNIDS on the central server. Suppositions of the WSN and Intrusion Detection Architecture (IDA are:static and heterogeneous network, hierarchical and clustering structure, clusters' overlapping and using hierarchicalrouting protocol such as LEACH, but along with minor changes. Finally, the proposed idea has been verified bydesigning a questionnaire, representing it to some (about 50 people experts and then, analyzing and evaluating itsacquired results.

  3. Reasonableness of human intrusion provisions in EPA's HLW standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the question of whether human intrusion should be included in the Environmental Protection Agency High Level Waste Standard or be considered differently from natural events. The four categories of human intrusion assumptions considered are (1) inadvertent and intermittent intrusion by exploratory drilling for resources; (2) maximum frequency of inadvertent intrusion into repository need not be greater that 30 boreholes/square km of repository area per 10,000 yr. in sedimentary rock formations or more than 3 boreholes/square km for other geologic formations; (3) the amount of water released directly to the surface need not be greater than that which would promptly flow through a newly created borehole by artesian flow or 200 cubic meters of water if available to be pumped; and (4) sealing of a human intrusion borehole would result in a borehole with a permeability no greater than that of a typical borehole filled by the soil or gravel naturally over a period of time

  4. Potential vorticity intrusion index and climate variability of surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, M.

    2003-04-01

    This paper proposes a potential vorticity intrusion index (denoted as PVI) as an alternative diagnostic tool to study the observed climate variability/trend of the surface temperature. The PVI index is defined as the percentage area of upper lever PV intrusion in the extratropics at any given time. Abundance (shortage) of extreme cold surface air temperature episodes in high latitudes coincides with a high (low) PVI index. The interannual variability of the PVI index exhibits a strong QBO- like signal. The high (low) PVI index prevails when the equatorial zonal mean zonal wind at 50 hPa is easterly (westerly). The probability distribution map of PV intrusion activities shows a shift of the preferred regions of frontogenesis from the oceans to the continents when the PVI index is high. This explains directly why more extreme cold events are observed over the northern Eurasian and Northern America continents when the PVI index is high or the QBO is in the easterly phase.

  5. HYBRID ARCHITECTURE FOR DISTRIBUTED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM IN WIRELESS NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Yasaman Rashida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to the rapid growth of the network application, new kinds of network attacks are emerging endlessly. So it is critical to protect the networks from attackers and the Intrusion detection technology becomes popular. Therefore, it is necessary that this security concern must be articulate right from the beginning of the network design and deployment. The intrusion detection technology is the process of identifying network activity that can lead to a compromise of security policy. Lot of work has been done in detection of intruders. But the solutions are not satisfactory. In this paper, we propose a novel Distributed Intrusion Detection System using Multi Agent In order to decrease false alarms and manage misuse and anomaly detects.

  6. An Intrusion Detection Architecture for Clustered Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip

    2011-01-01

    Intrusion detection in wireless ad hoc networks is a challenging task because these networks change their topologies dynamically, lack concentration points where aggregated traffic can be analyzed, utilize infrastructure protocols that are susceptible to manipulation, and rely on noisy, intermittent wireless communications. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on co-operative algorithms, absence of centralized monitoring points, and lack of clear lines of defense. In this paper, we present a cooperative, distributed intrusion detection architecture based on clustering of the nodes that addresses the security vulnerabilities of the network and facilitates accurate detection of attacks. The architecture is organized as a dynamic hierarchy in which the intrusion data is acquired by the nodes and is incrementally aggregated, reduced in volume and analyzed as it flows upwards to the cluster-head. The cluster-heads of adja...

  7. Cross Layer Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djallel Eddine Boubiche

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The wireless sensor networks (WSN are particularly vulnerable to various attacks at different layers of the protocol stack. Many intrusion detection system (IDS have been proposed to secure WSNs. But all these systems operate in a single layer of the OSI model, or do not consider the interaction and collaboration between these layers. Consequently these systems are mostly inefficient and would drain out the WSN. In this paper we propose a new intrusion detection system based on cross layer interaction between the network, Mac and physical layers. Indeed we have addressed the problem of intrusion detection in a different way in which the concept of cross layer is widely used leading to the birth of a new type of IDS. We have experimentally evaluated our system using the NS simulator to demonstrate itseffectiveness in detecting different types of attacks at multiple layers of the OSI model.

  8. Physical model simulations of seawater intrusion in unconfined aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanapol Sriapai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to simulate the seawater intrusion into unconfined aquifer near shoreline and to assessthe effectiveness of its controlling methods by using scaled-down physical models. The intrusion controlled methods studiedhere include fresh water injection, saltwater extraction, and subsurface barrier. The results indicate that under natural dynamicequilibrium between the recharge of fresh water and the intrusion well agree with the Ghyben-Herzberg mathematical solution.Fresh water pumping from the aquifer notably move the fresh-salt water interface toward the pumping well, depending on thepumping rates and the head differences (h between the aquifer recharge and the salt water level. The fresh water injectionmethod is more favorable than the salt water extraction and subsurface barrier method. The fresh water injection rate of about10% of the usage rate can effectively push the interface toward the shoreline, and keeping the pumping well free of salinity.

  9. A Cooperative Network Intrusion detection Based on Fuzzy SVMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Teng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a large number of noise in the data obtained from network, which deteriorates intrusion detection performance. To delete the noise data, data preprocessing is done before the construction of hyperplane in support vector machine (SVM. By introducing fuzzy theory into SVM, a new method is proposed for network intrusion detection.  Because the attack behavior is different for different network protocol, a different fuzzy membership function is formatted, such that for each class of protocol there is a SVM. To implement this approach, a fuzzy SVM-based cooperative network intrusion detection system with multi-agent architecture is presented. It is composed of three types of agents corresponding to TCP, UDP, and ICMP protocols, respectively. Simulation experiments are done by using KDD CUP 1999 data set, results show that the training time is significantly shortened, storage space requirement is reduced, and classification accuracy is improved.

  10. Intrusion Awareness Based on Data Fusion and SVM Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnaresh Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion awareness is important factor forrisk analysis of network security. In the currentdecade various method and framework are availablefor intrusion detection and security awareness.Some method based on knowledge discovery processand some framework based on neural network.These entire model take rule based decision for thegeneration of security alerts. In this paper weproposed a novel method for intrusion awarenessusing data fusion and SVM classification. Datafusion work on the biases of features gathering ofevent. Support vector machine is super classifier ofdata. Here we used SVM for the detection of closeditem of ruled based technique. Our proposedmethod simulate on KDD1999 DARPA data set andget better empirical evaluation result in comparisonof rule based technique and neural network model.

  11. Intrusion Awareness Based on Data Fusion and SVM Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnaresh Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion awareness is important factor for risk analysis of network security. In the current decade various method and framework are available for intrusion detection and security awareness. Some method based on knowledge discovery process and some framework based on neural network. These entire model take rule based decision for the generation of security alerts. In this paper we proposed a novel method for intrusion awareness using data fusion and SVM classification. Data fusion work on the biases of features gathering of event. Support vector machine is super classifier of data. Here we used SVM for the detection of closed item of ruled based technique. Our proposed method simulate on KDD1999 DARPA data set and get better empirical evaluation result in comparison of rule based technique and neural network model.

  12. Attentional Control and Suppressing Negative Thought Intrusions in Pathological Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Elaine; Dutton, Kevin; Yates, Alan; Georgiou, George A.; Mouchlianitis, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive behavior relies on the ability to effectively and efficiently ignore irrelevant information, an important component of attentional control. The current research found that fundamental difficulties in ignoring irrelevant material are related to dispositional differences in trait propensity to worry, suggesting a core deficit in attentional control in high worriers. The degree of deficit in attentional control correlated with the degree of difficulty in suppressing negative thought intrusions in a worry assessment task. A cognitive training procedure utilizing a flanker task was used in an attempt to improve attentional control. Although the cognitive training was largely ineffective, improvements in attentional control were associated with improvements in the ability to suppress worry-related thought intrusions. Across two studies, the findings indicate that the inability to control worry-related negative thought intrusions is associated with a general deficiency in attentional control. PMID:26504672

  13. COMPUTER INTRUSION DETECTION BY TWOOBJECTIVE FUZZY GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Agravat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe two objective fuzzy genetics-based learning algorithms and discusses its usage to detect intrusion in a computer network. Experiments were performed with KDD-cup data set, which have information on computer networks, during normal behavior and intrusive behavior. The performance of final fuzzy classification system has been investigated using intrusion detection problem as a high dimensional classification problem. This task is formulated as optimization problem with two objectives: To minimize the number of fuzzy rules and to maximize the classification rate. We show a two-objective genetic algorithm for finding non-dominated solutions of the fuzzy rule selection problem

  14. How stratospheric are deep stratospheric intrusions? LUAMI 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickl, Thomas; Vogelmann, Hannes; Fix, Andreas; Schäfler, Andreas; Wirth, Martin; Calpini, Bertrand; Levrat, Gilbert; Romanens, Gonzague; Apituley, Arnoud; Wilson, Keith M.; Begbie, Robert; Reichardt, Jens; Vömel, Holger; Sprenger, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A large-scale comparison of water-vapour vertical-sounding instruments took place over central Europe on 17 October 2008, during a rather homogeneous deep stratospheric intrusion event (LUAMI, Lindenberg Upper-Air Methods Intercomparison). The measurements were carried out at four observational sites: Payerne (Switzerland), Bilthoven (the Netherlands), Lindenberg (north-eastern Germany), and the Zugspitze mountain (Garmisch-Partenkichen, German Alps), and by an airborne water-vapour lidar system creating a transect of humidity profiles between all four stations. A high data quality was verified that strongly underlines the scientific findings. The intrusion layer was very dry with a minimum mixing ratios of 0 to 35 ppm on its lower west side, but did not drop below 120 ppm on the higher-lying east side (Lindenberg). The dryness hardens the findings of a preceding study ("Part 1", Trickl et al., 2014) that, e.g., 73 % of deep intrusions reaching the German Alps and travelling 6 days or less exhibit minimum mixing ratios of 50 ppm and less. These low values reflect values found in the lowermost stratosphere and indicate very slow mixing with tropospheric air during the downward transport to the lower troposphere. The peak ozone values were around 70 ppb, confirming the idea that intrusion layers depart from the lowermost edge of the stratosphere. The data suggest an increase of ozone from the lower to the higher edge of the intrusion layer. This behaviour is also confirmed by stratospheric aerosol caught in the layer. Both observations are in agreement with the idea that sections of the vertical distributions of these constituents in the source region were transferred to central Europe without major change. LAGRANTO trajectory calculations demonstrated a rather shallow outflow from the stratosphere just above the dynamical tropopause, for the first time confirming the conclusions in "Part 1" from the Zugspitze CO observations. The trajectories qualitatively explain

  15. Effects of Dry Air Intrusion on MJO Initiation during DYNAMO (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. S.; Kerns, B. W.; Savarin, A.

    2013-12-01

    One of the challenging issues in MJO initiation over the equatorial Indian Ocean is interaction of convection and environmental moisture. It involves complex, multi-scale processes from entrainment/detrainment of cloud, convective downdraft and cold pools affecting the air-sea interface, to large-scale advection controlled by tropical and extratropical circulation. Observations from the DYNAMO field campaign in 2011 show that dry air intrusion into the equatorial Indian Ocean affects convection on both synoptic and MJO time scales. During mid-late November, a strong MJO event, refereed to as MJO2, developed over the DYNAMO array, which has the best coverage of the observational platforms including two aircraft, two research vessels, and island stations. This study focuses on two aspects of the dry air intrusion during MJO2: 1) convective cold pool structure and recovery related to convective-environmental moisture interaction, and 2) dry air intrusion and synoptic variability in convection/precipitation in MJO initiation. Convective downdraft can be affected by environmental water vapor due to entrainment by the convective clouds. Mid-level dry air observed during the convectively suppressed phase of MJO2 seems to enhance convective downdraft by increasing evaporation and, therefore, the strength of the downdraft and cold pools. We examine the convective cold pool structure and boundary layer recovery using the NOAA P-3 aircraft observations, include flight-level, Doppler radar, and GPS dropsonde data. The depth and strength of convective cold pools are defined by the negative buoyancy from the dropsonde data. Recovery of the cold pools in the boundary layer is determined by not only the strength and depth of the cold pools but also the air-sea heat and moisture fluxes. Given that the water vapor and surface winds are distinct for the convectively active and suppressed phases of MJO2, the aircraft data are stratified by the two different large-scale regimes of MJO2

  16. An immunity-based model for dynamic distributed intrusion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Peili; Wang, Tong; Su, Jie

    2008-03-01

    The traditional intrusion detection systems mostly adopt the analysis engine of the concentrating type, so the misinformation rate is higher and lack of self-adaptability, which is already difficult to meet increasing extensive security demand of the distributed network environment. An immunity-based model combining immune theory, data mining and data fusion technique for dynamic distributed intrusion detection is proposed in this paper. This system presents the method of establishing and evolving the set of early gene, and defines the sets of Self, Nonself and Immunity cells. Moreover, a detailed description is given to the architecture and work mechanism of the model, and the characters of the model are analyzed.

  17. Research and Implementation of Unsupervised Clustering-Based Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Min; Zhang Huan-guo; Wang Li-na

    2003-01-01

    An unsupervised clustering-based intrusion de tection algorithm is discussed in this paper. The basic idea of the algorithm is to produce the cluster by comparing the distances of unlabeled training data sets. With the classified data instances, anomaly data clusters can be easily identified by normal cluster ratio and the identified cluster can be used in real data detection. The benefit of the algorithm is that it doesnt need labeled training data sets. The experiment concludes that this approach can detect unknown intrusions efficiently in the real network connections via using the data sets of KDD99.

  18. Research and Implementation of Unsupervised Clustering-Based Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoMin; ZhangHuan-guo; WangLi-na

    2003-01-01

    An unsupervised clustering-based intrusion detection algorithm is discussed in this paper. The basic idea of the algorithm is to produce the cluster by comparing the distances of unlabeled training data sets. With the classified data instances, anomaly data clusters can be easily identified by normal duster ratio and the identified cluster can be used in real data detection. The benefit of the algorithm is that it doesn't need labeled training data sets. The experiment coneludes that this approach can detect unknown intrusions efficiently in the real network connections via using the data sets of KDD99.

  19. Unsteady Flow and Saline Intrusion in Long Sea Outfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Borrows, Richard

    1992-01-01

    covered such phenomena as saline intrusion, wave influence and unsteady flow caused by pump operation. Results show that numerous flow regimes exist depending on the boundary conditions. Numerical models have been developed to simulate the flow field in the diffuser section and some of the most...... interesting phenomena, in particular the wave induced saline intrusion, can now be modelled satisfactorily. Some aspects of the behaviour relating to very low fresh water discharges, e.g. unsteady flow when saline wedges are present, are still not very well described....

  20. The crust role at Paramillos Altos intrusive belt: Sr and Pb isotope evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramillos Altos Intrusive Belt (PAIB) (Ostera, 1996) is located in the thick skinned folded-thrust belt of Malargue, southwestern Mendoza, Argentina. Geochemical, geochronologic and isotopic studies were carried out in it (Ostera 1996, 1997, Ostera et al. 1999; Ostera et al. 2000) and these previous papers suggested a minor involvement of the crust in the genesis of the PAIB. According with Ostera et al. (2000) it is composed by stocks, laccoliths, dykes and sills which range in composition from diorites to granodiorites, and from andesites to rhyolites, and divided in five Members, which range in age from Middle Miocene to Early Miocene: a- Calle del Yeso Dyke Complex (CYDC), with sills and dykes of andesitic composition (age: 20±2 Ma). b- Puchenque-Atravesadas Intrusive Complex (PAIC), composed by dykes and stocks ranging from diorites to granodiorites (age: 12.5±1 Ma). c- Arroyo Serrucho Stock (SAS), an epizonal and zoned stock, with four facies, with K/Ar and Ar/Ar dates of 10±1 and 9.5±0.5 Ma. d- Portezuelo de los Cerros Bayos (PCB), that includes porphyritic rocks of rhyolitic composition, of 7.5±0.5 Ma. e- Cerro Bayo Vitrophyres (CBV), with andesitic sills and dykes (age: 4.8±0.2 Ma). We present in this paper new Sr and Pb isotopes data that constrain the evolution of the PAIB (au)

  1. Father's Day dike intrusion and eruption reveals interaction between magmatic and tectonic processes at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. H.; Brooks, B. A.; Sandwell, D. T.; Poland, M.; Miklius, A.; Myer, D.; Okubo, P. G.; Patrick, M.; Wolfe, C.

    2007-12-01

    The June 17-19, 2007, Father's Day dike intrusion and eruption at Kilauea volcano brought to an end a seven- year period of steady state lava effusion at the Pu'u 'O'o vent. The event was observed by an unprecedented number of geophysical instruments, with temporary arrays of GPS and tiltmeters augmenting the continuous monitoring network. Envisat and ALOS SAR scenes were also acquired during this event and provide further information on the surface deformation as the event progressed. Fortuitously, the Envisat acquisition was during a pause in the middle of the sequence, while the ALOS PALSAR scene was acquired at the end of the sequence, allowing us to model each phase separately. Analysis of these data sets indicates that, in addition to three phases of the dike intrusion, a slow earthquake also occurred on the south flank of Kilauea. The slow earthquake apparently began near the end of the second phase of the dike intrusion. It was still underway the following day, when the third phase of the intrusion began and culminated in a small eruption. This suggests the possibility that the slow earthquake was triggered by the initial diking, and then in turn influenced the progression of the intrusion. Two of the largest previous slow earthquakes also hint at a connection between slow earthquakes and eruptive activity on Kilauea. The range of observations of the Father's Day events provides us with a unique opportunity to investigate the complex interactions between the tectonic processes of the south flank and magmatic processes within the summit and rift zones.

  2. Hydrodynamic modeling of the intrusion phenomenon in water distribution systems; Modelacion hidrodinamica del fenomeno de intrusion en tuberia de abastecimiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Jimenez, Petra Amparo; Mora-Rodriguez, Jose de Jesus; Perez-Garcia, Rafael; Martinez-Solano, F. Javier [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    This paper describes a strategy for the hydrodynamic modeling of the pathogen intrusion phenomenon in water distribution systems by the combination of a breakage with a depression situation. This scenario will be modeled computationally and experimentally. The phenomenon to be represented by both simulations is the same: the entrance of an external volume into the circulation of a main volume, known as a pathogen intrusion, as long as the main volume is potable water. To this end, a prototype and a computational model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are used, which allow visualizing the fields of speeds and pressures in a simulated form. With the comparison of the results of both models, conclusions will be drawn on the detail of the studied pathogen intrusion phenomenon. [Spanish] En el presente documento se describe una estrategia de modelacion del fenomeno hidrodinamico de la intrusion patogena en redes de distribucion de agua por combinacion de una rotura con una situacion de depresion. Este escenario sera modelado computacional y experimentalmente. El fenomeno que se desea representar con ambas simulaciones es el mismo: la entrada de un caudal externo a una conduccion para la que circula un caudal principal, denominado intrusion patogena, siempre y cuando el caudal principal sea agua potable. Para ello se dispone de un prototipo y un modelo computacional basado en la Dinamica de Fluidos Computacional (DFC de aqui en adelante), que permite visualizar los campos de velocidades y presiones de forma simulada. Con la comparacion de los resultados de ambos modelos se extraeran conclusiones sobre el detalle del fenomeno de la intrusion patogena estudiado.

  3. Geology and Geochemistry of Reworking Gold Deposits in Intrusive Rocks of China—Ⅰ. Features of the Intrusive Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀璋; 程景平; 等

    1998-01-01

    Most gold deposits in intrusive rocks were formed as a result of reworking processes.the intrusive rocks containing gold deposits and consisting of ultramafic-mafic,intermediateacid and alkaline rocks of the Archean,Proterozoic,Caledonian,Hercynian and Yenshanian periods occur in cratons,activated zones of cratons and fold belts.Among them,ultramaficmafic rocks,diorite,alkaline rocks,and anorthosite are products of remelting in the mantle or mantle-crust or mantle with crustal contamination,However,auriferous intermediate-acid rocks are products of metasomatic-remelting in auriferous volcainc rocks or auriferous volcanosedimentary rocks in the deep crust.

  4. Nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction during emplacement of Eocene intrusions into Cretaceous to Eocene strata, Trans-Pecos igneous province, West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befus, K.S.; Hanson, R.E.; Miggins, D.P.; Breyer, J.A.; Busbey, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Eocene intrusion of alkaline basaltic to trachyandesitic magmas into unlithified, Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene fluvial strata in part of the Trans-Pecos igneous province in West Texas produced an array of features recording both nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction. Intrusive complexes with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 47-46??Ma consist of coherent basalt, peperite, and disrupted sediment. Two of the complexes cutting Cretaceous strata contain masses of conglomerate derived from Eocene fluvial deposits that, at the onset of intrusive activity, would have been > 400-500??m above the present level of exposure. These intrusive complexes are inferred to be remnants of diatremes that fed maar volcanoes during an early stage of magmatism in this part of the Trans-Pecos province. Disrupted Cretaceous strata along diatreme margins record collapse of conduit walls during and after subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions. Eocene conglomerate slumped downward from higher levels during vent excavation. Coherent to pillowed basaltic intrusions emplaced at the close of explosive activity formed peperite within the conglomerate, within disrupted Cretaceous strata in the conduit walls, and within inferred remnants of the phreatomagmatic slurry that filled the vents during explosive volcanism. A younger series of intrusions with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 42??Ma underwent nonexplosive interaction with Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene mud and sand. Dikes and sills show fluidal, billowed, quenched margins against the host strata, recording development of surface instabilities between magma and groundwater-rich sediment. Accentuation of billowed margins resulted in propagation of intrusive pillows into the adjacent sediment. More intense disruption and mingling of quenched magma with sediment locally produced fluidal and blocky peperite, but sufficient volumes of pore fluid were not heated rapidly enough to generate phreatomagmatic explosions. This work suggests that

  5. Intrusion of overerupted molars by corticotomy and magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, H S; Lee, K H

    2001-08-01

    Although posterior tooth intrusion in an adult patient is a difficult procedure, it can be achieved without extruding the adjacent teeth by performing a corticotomy and using magnets. In carrying out this procedure on 2 adult patients whose molars had overerupted due to the early loss of antagonists, tooth movement was rapidly achieved without discomfort or side effects. PMID:11500664

  6. Neural Network Based Intrusion Detection System for Critical Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic

    2009-07-01

    Resiliency and security in control systems such as SCADA and Nuclear plant’s in today’s world of hackers and malware are a relevant concern. Computer systems used within critical infrastructures to control physical functions are not immune to the threat of cyber attacks and may be potentially vulnerable. Tailoring an intrusion detection system to the specifics of critical infrastructures can significantly improve the security of such systems. The IDS-NNM – Intrusion Detection System using Neural Network based Modeling, is presented in this paper. The main contributions of this work are: 1) the use and analyses of real network data (data recorded from an existing critical infrastructure); 2) the development of a specific window based feature extraction technique; 3) the construction of training dataset using randomly generated intrusion vectors; 4) the use of a combination of two neural network learning algorithms – the Error-Back Propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt, for normal behavior modeling. The presented algorithm was evaluated on previously unseen network data. The IDS-NNM algorithm proved to be capable of capturing all intrusion attempts presented in the network communication while not generating any false alerts.

  7. Attenuating fearful memories: effect of cued extinction on intrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Elizabeth H; Zoellner, Lori A

    2014-12-01

    Exposure-based therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder are thought to reduce intrusive memories through extinction processes. Methods that enhance extinction may translate to improved treatment. Rat research suggests retrieving a memory via a conditioned stimulus (CS) cue, and then modifying the retrieved memory within a specific reconsolidation window may enhance extinction. In humans, studies (e.g., Kindt & Soeter, 2013; Schiller et al., 2010) using basic learning paradigms show discrepant findings. Using a distressing film paradigm, participants (N = 148) completed fear acquisition and extinction. At extinction, they were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: CS cue within reconsolidation window, CS cue outside window, or non-CS cue within window. Intrusions were assessed 24 hr after extinction. Participants receiving the CS cue and completing extinction within the reconsolidation window had more intrusions (M = 2.40, SD = 2.54) than those cued outside (M = 1.65, SD = 1.70) or those receiving a non-CS cue (M = 1.24, SD = 1.26), F(2, 145) = 4.52, p = .01, d = 0.55. Consistent with the reconsolidation hypothesis, presenting a CS cue does appear to activate a specific period of time during which a memory can be updated. However, the CS cue caused increased, rather than decreased, frequency of intrusions. Understanding parameters of preextinction cueing may help us better understand reconsolidation as a potential memory updating mechanism. PMID:25286077

  8. Depressed mood mediates the relationship between rumination and intrusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, Jorien; Luyckx, Koen; Wessel, Ineke; Raes, Filip

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that rumination is a causal factor for intrusive memories. These are disturbing autobiographical memories that pop into one's mind involuntarily, spontaneously, and repetitively. A three-wave longitudinal study was conducted to replicate this finding and to test whether one route v

  9. Verbal Intrusions Precede Memory Decline in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittler, P.; Krinsky-McHale, S. J.; Devenny, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Verbal intrusion errors are irrelevant responses made in the course of verbal memory retrieval or language production that have been associated with disruption of executive functions and the prefrontal cortex. They have been observed to occur more frequently both with normal aging and with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's…

  10. Modeling Regional Seawater Intrusion Using One Model Layer Per Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, M.; Schaars, F.

    2012-12-01

    Seawater intrusion is an ongoing and expanding problem in coastal aquifers. A Dupuit formulation was developed to make it possible to simulate seawater intrusion using one model layer per aquifer. The formulation is implemented in the SWI package for MODFLOW. Aquifers don't need to be discretized vertically so that the evolution of the salinity distribution may be simulated in a timely manner on a regular Mac or PC. SWI may be applied to simulate seawater intrusion with an existing MODFLOW model through the addition of just one input file. SWI is envisioned to be complimentary to codes that solve the coupled flow and transport equations, such as SEAWAT and SUTRA: SWI may be used to simulate regional flow including density effects, and other codes may be used to simulate local seawater intrusion, including dispersive mixing. Since its first release in 2004, SWI has been benchmarked against several other codes and was shown to perform well, even when a moderate amount of dispersion was included in the simulations. SWI has recently been implemented in MODFLOW2005. The new implementation includes a number of enhancements such as variable time stepping, separate budgets for fresh and salt water, and the ability to simulate upconing through aquitards. In the presentation, the main features of the SWI package are discussed, the new capabilities are showcased, and several examples are presented.

  11. Mitigating Intrusion and Vulnerabilities in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ohaeri

    Full Text Available The deployment of Cognitive Radio Networks has been greatly hindered in spite of its potentials by the rate at which intrusions and vulnerabilities replicate within every domain of the network. Cognitive Radio Network is expected to drive the next generat ...

  12. MULTI SCALE TIME SERIES PREDICTION FOR INTRUSION DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Palanivel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an anomaly-based network intrusion detection system, which analyzes traffic features to detect anomalies. The proposed system can be used both in online as well as off-line mode for detecting deviations from the expected behavior. Although our approach uses network packet or flow data, it is general enough to be adaptable for use with any other network variable, which may be used as a signal for anomaly detection. It differs from most existing approaches in its use of wavelet transform for generating different time scales for a signal and using these scales as an input to a two-stage neural network predictor. The predictor predicts the expected signal value and labels considerable deviations from this value as anomalies. The primary contribution of our work would be to empirically evaluate the effectiveness of multi resolution analysis as an input to neural network prediction engine specifically for the purpose of intrusion detection. The role of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs, as special-purpose devices to detect anomalies and attacks in a network, is becoming more important. First, anomaly-based methods cannot achieve an outstanding performance without a comprehensive labeled and up-to-date training set with all different attack types, which is very costly and time-consuming to create if not impossible. Second, efficient and effective fusion of several detection technologies becomes a big challenge for building an operational hybrid intrusion detection system.

  13. Corporate Mergers in the Publishing Industry: Helpful or Intrusive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Herbert C.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the effects of corporate mergers in the publishing industry on the publishing of textbooks and standardized tests. Concludes that restructuring, acquisitions, and mergers have an intrusive effect on established practices of academic publishing and may severely limit the access of scholars to the academic marketplace. (FMW)

  14. Intrusion detection for the solution of security problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantly growing security problems in public as well as private sectors can no longer be solved without the use of modern intrusion detection systems. BBC, as general contractor, offers the system solutions to fully meet these problems. These solutions include analysis of the site to be protected, installation, commissioning and maintenance of the security system. (orig.)

  15. School Bus Carbon Monoxide Intrusion. NHTSA Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This report presents the findings of a voluntary program conducted over a 10-month period during which school buses were tested for carbon monoxide (CO) levels under different climatological conditions. The objective of the test program was to determine whether or not there are any serious CO intrusion problems or indications of potential problems…

  16. Intrusive Thoughts: A Primary Variable in Breakup Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2013-01-01

    University students who were high versus low on breakup distress scores were given self-report measures to assess their intrusive thoughts about the romantic breakup and their somatic symptoms that followed the breakup as well as their extracurricular activities and social support that might alleviate their breakup distress. In a regression…

  17. Trauma Films, Information Processing, and Intrusive Memory Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Emily A.; Brewin, Chris R.; Hennessy, Richard G.

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments indexed the effect of various concurrent tasks, while watching a traumatic film, on intrusive memory development. Hypotheses were based on the dual-representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder (C. R. Brewin, T. Dalgleish, & S. Joseph, 1996). Nonclinical participants viewed a trauma film under various encoding conditions…

  18. Predicting The Intrusion Layer From Deep Ocean Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayang; Chow, Aaron; Adams, E. Eric

    2015-11-01

    Oil spills from deep ocean blowout events motivate our study of multiphase plumes in a water column. Key to understanding the long-term fate of these plumes is the ability to predict the depth and persistence of intrusion layers. While intrusion layers from multiphase plumes have been studied under stagnant conditions, their behavior in the presence of crossflow, especially in mild crossflow, remains poorly understood. The classical classification of plume behavior identifies two regimes: crossflow-dominant and stratification-dominant--but it does not account for the interplay between the two effects, leaving the transition region unexplored. We conduct laboratory tank experiments to investigate the behavior of intrusion layers under the simultaneous action of crossflow and stratification. Our experiments use an inverted frame of reference, using glass beads with a range of sizes to simulate oil droplets. We find that crossflow creates enhanced mixing, which in turn leads to a shallower intrusion layer of the released fluid (correspondingly, a deeper layer in the case of a deep ocean blowout). We develop a mathematical formulation that extends previous models to account for crossflow effects, and use field observations to validate the analytical and experimental findings.

  19. Pre-Stressor Interference Control and Intrusive Memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, J.; Wessel, I.; De Jong, P.J.; Nieuwenhuis, Maurice; Huntjens, R.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Although intrusive imagery is a common response in the aftermath of a stressful or traumatic event, only a minority of trauma victims show persistent re-experiencing and related psychopathology. Individual differences in pre-trauma executive control possibly play a critical role. Therefore, this stu

  20. Misleading reconstruction of seawater intrusion via integral depth sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, N.; Volta, G.; Osti, A.; Mastrocicco, M.

    2016-05-01

    Saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers is an urgent issue for the actual and future groundwater supply and a detailed characterization of groundwater quality with depth is a fundamental prerequisite to correctly distinguish salinization processes. In this study, interpolated Cl- maps of the Po River delta coastal aquifer (Italy), gained with Integrated Depth Sampling (IDS) and Multi-Level Sampling (MLS) techniques, are compared. The data set used to build up the IDS and MLS interpolated Cl- maps come from numerous monitoring campaigns on surface and ground waters, covering the time frame from 2010 to 2014. The IDS interpolated Cl- map recalls the phenomenon of actual seawater intrusion, with Cl- concentration never exceeding that of seawater and the absence of hypersaline groundwater all over the study area. On the contrary, in the MLS interpolated Cl- maps the lower portion of the unconfined aquifer presents hypersaline groundwater making it necessary to consider salinization processes other than actual seawater intrusion, like upward flux from a saline aquitard. Results demonstrate the obligation of using MLS in reconstructing a reliable representation of the distribution of salinity, especially in areas where the density contrast between fresh and saline groundwater is large. Implications of the reported field case are not limited to the local situation but have a wider significance, since the IDS technique is often employed in saltwater intrusion monitoring even in recent works, with detrimental effect on the sustainable water resource management of coastal aquifers.

  1. Network Intrusion Detection System Based On Machine Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Das

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Network and system security is of paramount importance in the present data communication environment. Hackers and intruders can create many successful attempts to cause the crash of the networks and web services by unauthorized intrusion. New threats and associated solutions to prevent these threats are emerging together with the secured system evolution. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS are one of these solutions. The main function of Intrusion Detection System is to protect the resources from threats. It analyzes and predicts the behaviours of users, and then these behaviours will be considered an attack or a normal behaviour. We use Rough Set Theory (RST and Support Vector Machine (SVM to detect network intrusions. First, packets are captured from the network, RST is used to pre-process the data and reduce the dimensions. The features selected by RST will be sent to SVM model to learn and test respectively. The method is effective to decrease the space density of data. The experiments compare the results with Principal Component Analysis (PCA and show RST and SVM schema could reduce the false positive rate and increase the accuracy.

  2. Research of Model Scale Seawater Intrusion using Geoelectric Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyadi Supriyadi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A depth experience and knowledge are needed in analyzing the prediction of seawater intrusion. We report here a physical modelling for monitoring the model scale of seawater intrusion. The model used in this research is glass basin consists of two parts; soil and seawater. The intrusion of seawater into soil in the glass basin is modelled. The results of 2-D inversion by using software Res2DInv32 showed that the monitoring of seawater intrusion, in soil model scale, can be detected by using Schlumberger configuration resistivity method. The watering process of freshwater into soil caused the electric resistivity value decreased. This phenomenon can be seen from the transition of the resistivity pseudo section before and after the watering process using different cummulative volume of freshwater in different soil. After being intruded by the seawater, the measured soil resistivity is 2.22 Ωm – 5.69 Ωm which means that the soil had been intruded.

  3. The Phalaborwa Syenite Intrusions along the West-Central Boundary of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Frick

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The geology of the Phalaborwa Complex is described and emphasis placed on the distribution of the large number of syenite intrusions. The petrography of the different textural types of syenites is discussed and it is shown that porphyritic, granular, gneissic and hypidiomorphic syenites are present. The petrography shows that the deformation textures, which are present in some of the syenites, may have formed during the emplacement of syenitic magmas which contained a high concentration of crystals. The geochemistry of the syenites is discussed and it is shown that they were not derived from an alkali basaltic magma through fractional crystallisation, but that they may rather represent alkali basaltic magmas which were contaminated by granitic material. The mode of emplacement of the Phalaborwa Complex is discussed and the relationship between the pyroxenites is explained.

  4. The effects of sexual assault-related intrusion suppression in the laboratory and natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M Zachary; Follette, Victoria M

    2007-01-01

    Individuals with a history of sexual victimization often experience enduring intrusive thoughts associated with their assault history. Research suggests that the characteristic ways in which sexually assaulted individuals respond to aversive internal experiences (i.e., thoughts, emotions, etc.) can influence the psychological distress associated with these intrusions. This study investigated the effects of suppressing sexual assault-related intrusions in a sample of 61 female college students with a history of adolescent or adult sexual assault and recent assault-related intrusions. Participants were randomly assigned to suppress or monitor intrusions during a laboratory task and for 48 h outside the laboratory. In contrast to study hypotheses, findings indicated that intrusion monitoring was associated with higher subjective distress than suppression both in the laboratory and in the natural environment. No differences were found for the frequency of intrusions between groups in the laboratory. However, modest evidence for a rebound effect in intrusion frequency was found outside the laboratory. PMID:16580627

  5. Eyewitness or earwitness: The role of mental imagery in intrusive development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krans, J.; Näring, G.W.B.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Becker, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    Current cognitive theories of posttramatic stress disorder explain the development of intrusive visual images according to the encoding of the perceptual (visual) information of the traumatic event. However, recent studies have, under controlled circumstances, shown that visual intrusive images can

  6. Intelligence Intrusion Detection Prevention Systems using Object Oriented Analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR.K.KUPPUSAMY

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is deliberate to provide a model for “Intelligence Intrusion Detection Prevention Systems using Object Oriented Analysis method ” , It describes the state’s overall requirements regarding the acquisition and implementation of intrusion prevention and detection systems with intelligence (IIPS/IIDS. This is designed to provide a deeper understanding of intrusion prevention and detection principles with intelligence may be responsible for acquiring, implementing or monitoring such systems in understanding the technology and strategies available.With the need for evolution, if not revolution, of current network architectures and the Internet, autonomous and spontaneous management will be a key feature of future networks and information systems. In this context, security is an essential property. It must be thought at the early stage of conception of these systems and designed to be also autonomous and spontaneous.Future networks and systems must be able to automatically configure themselves with respect to their security policies. The security policy specification must be dynamic and adapt itself to the changing environment. Those networks and systems should interoperate securely when their respective security policies are heterogeneous and possibly conflicting. They must be able to autonomously evaluate the impact of an intrusion in order to spontaneously select the appropriate and relevant response when a given intrusion is detected.Autonomous and spontaneous security is a major requirement of future networks and systems. Of course, it is crucial to address this issue in different wireless and mobile technologies available today such as RFID,Wifi, Wimax, 3G, etc. Other technologies such as ad hoc and sensor networks, which introduce new type of services, also share similar requirements for an autonomous and spontaneous management of security.Intelligence Intrusion Prevention Systems (IIPS are designed to aid in preventing the

  7. Radiological risks due to intrusion into a deep bedrock repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish concept for disposal of high-level waste is a deep (500 m) bedrock repository (SFL) protected by multiple barriers that isolate the waste from the environment for such a long time that the physical decay will cause a substantial reduction of the radioactivity. The aim of concentration and isolation of high-level waste is to reduce the radiation risk. Intrusion in the repository may introduce a small residual risk to individuals. A risk analysis was performed comprising dose assessment and probabilities of occurrence. Intrusions may be considered to take place either due to conscious actions or by actions without any knowledge about the repository. For conscious intrusion it may be assumed that there will be enough knowledge to manage the radiation situation in a professional manner. Several reasons for making inadvertent intrusion are possible. Independently of the purpose, the most probable initial way of coming into contact with the radioactive material is by deep drilling. Examples of causes for drilling could be general scientific purposes or exploitation of geothermal energy. Dose assessments were made for intrusion due to inclined drilling directly into a canister, and drilling near an initially malfunctioning canister from which radionuclides have leaked into the groundwater. For the former case, external pathways were considered due to exposure from a core of the canister with fuel and contaminated bore dust. The most common drilling method is with water flushing for removal of bore dust, which will not cause any substantial transfer of radionuclides to air. For the second case, it was assumed that there was a well in the vicinity. The only pathway considered was therefore consumption of water because it dominates the exposure. The highest dose rates to man were, as expected, obtained by drilling into the canister. Dose rates decrease with time after closure. During the first time the relatively short-lived radionuclides Cs-137 and Sr-90 give

  8. Low salinity intrusions in the western English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Gerreyn, B. A.; Hydes, D. J.; Jégou, A. M.; Lazure, P.; Fernand, L. J.; Puillat, I.; Garcia-Soto, C.

    2006-08-01

    Low salinity (English Channel (48.5°N, 5.1°W, near Ushant) were observed in late winter (March-April) in three successive years (2002-04) during near continuous ship of opportunity operations. The source of the LSSW is the northward spreading plumes from the Loire (47.5°N, 2.5°W) and Gironde (45.6°N, 1.2°W) along the French Atlantic coast. Fastest plume travel times were associated with northeasterly winds, consistent with Ekman theory. Differences between years in the mean winter (January-March) combined river discharges ( D) was consistent with the minimum salinities ( Smin) of the LSSW (2004: D=4211 m 3 s -1, Smin=33.68; 2003: D=3630 m 3 s -1, Smin=33.90; 2002: D=1579 m 3 s -1, Smin=34.53). Winter mean (1905-74) salinity is otherwise 35.33 near Ushant. The LSSW intruded into the western English Channel in each year, suggesting a common phenomenon. The low salinity intrusion was freshest (mean=35.11±0.21) and most penetrative (reaching 50.7°N, 1.0°W by the end of the year) in 2003 on account of (1) entering on a spring tide giving greater tidal excursion into the western English Channel and (2) intrusion favourable winds (southwesterly/southeasterly) acting on the longer term residual flow. Less penetration occurred in 2004 when the arrival of the LSSW coincided with a neap tide followed by intrusion-resistant northwesterly winds, resulting in a less saline (mean=35.20±0.23) intrusion. In 2004, transport tended to be offshore to at least 100 km from the French Atlantic coast (47°N, 4.8°W-48°N, 4.7°W). In 2002, the lower volume of plume water relative to the other years produced a more saline intrusion (mean=35.25±0.12). Prevailing westerly winds may have pushed this intrusion northwards beyond the route of the ferry, making it difficult to assess the true extent of the intrusion in 2002. A link of the LSSW to phases of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index from a literature search of the last 84 years was inconclusive.

  9. Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Spinhoven

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., “you are worthless”. These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought suppression may paradoxically enhance occurrences (i.e., intrusions of these memories, which may occur immediately or sometime after active suppression of these memories.Until now, studies that examined suppressive coping styles in individuals reporting CEM have utilized self-report questionnaires. Therefore, it is unclear what the consequences will be of emotion inhibition styles on the intrusion of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting CEM.Using a thought suppression task, this study aimed to investigate the experience of intrusions during suppression of, and when no longer instructed to actively suppress, positive and negative autobiographical memories in individuals reporting Low, Moderate, and Severe CEM compared to No Abuse (total N = 83.We found no group differences during active suppression of negative and positive autobiographical memories. However, when individuals reporting Severe CEM were no longer instructed to suppress thinking about the memory, individuals reporting No Abuse, Low CEM, or Moderate CEM reported fewer intrusions of both positive and negative autobiographical memories than individuals reporting Severe CEM. Finally, we found that intrusions of negative memories are strongly related with psychiatric distress.The present study results provide initial insights into the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie the consequences of childhood emotional maltreatment and suggests avenues for successful interventions.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  10. Intrusions of a drowsy mind: Neural markers of phenomenological unpredictability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas eNoreika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition from a relaxed to a drowsy state of mind is often accompanied by hypnagogic experiences: most commonly, perceptual imagery, but also linguistic intrusions, i.e. the sudden emergence of unpredictable anomalies in the stream of inner speech. This study has sought to describe the contents of such intrusions, to verify their association with the progression of sleep onset, and to investigate the electroencephalographic processes associated with linguistic intrusions as opposed to more common hypnagogic perceptual imagery. A single participant attended 10 experimental sessions in the EEG laboratory, where he was allowed to drift into a drowsy state of mind, while maintaining metacognition of his own experiences. Once a linguistic intrusion or a noticeable perceptual image occurred, the participant pressed a button and reported it verbally. An increase in the EEG-defined depth of drowsiness as assessed by the Hori system of sleep onset was observed in the last 20 sec before a button press. Likewise, EEG Dimension of Activation values decreased before the button press, indicating that the occurrence of cognitively incongruous experiences coincides with the rapid change of EEG predictability patterns. EEG hemispheric asymmetry analysis showed that linguistic intrusions had a higher alpha and gamma power in the left hemisphere electrodes, whereas perceptual imagery reports were associated with a higher beta power over the right hemisphere. These findings indicate that the modality as well as the incongruence of drowsiness-related hypnagogic experiences is strongly associated with distinct EEG signatures in this participant. Sleep onset may provide a unique possibility to study the neural mechanisms accompanying the fragmentation of the stream of consciousness in healthy individuals.

  11. An Implementation Approach for Intrusion Detection System in Wireless sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchi Bhatnagar; Dr. A.K. Srivastava; Anupriya Sharma

    2010-01-01

    The Intrusion Detection System (IDS) has become a critical component of wireless sensor networks security strategy. In this paper we have made an effort to document related issues and challenges of intrusion detection system for wireless sensor network and proposed a novel secure strategy for their implementation that can detect possible intrusion in the network, alerting user after intrusion had been detected and reconfigure the network if possible.

  12. An Implementation Approach for Intrusion Detection System in Wireless sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Bhatnagar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Intrusion Detection System (IDS has become a critical component of wireless sensor networks security strategy. In this paper we have made an effort to document related issues and challenges of intrusion detection system for wireless sensor network and proposed a novel secure strategy for their implementation that can detect possible intrusion in the network, alerting user after intrusion had been detected and reconfigure the network if possible.

  13. A ROLE OF INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM FOR WIRELESS LAN USING VARIOUS SCHEMES AND RELATED ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Kamalanaban Ethala; Seshadri, R; N. G. Renganathan; M. S. Saravanan

    2013-01-01

    The advancement in network based technology and augmented dependability of our everyday life on this technology. During recent years, number of attacks on networks has intensely increased. Hence interest in network intrusion detection has increased among the researchers. This study assesses different kinds of IDS and inclines preemptive procedures. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is used to automate the intrusion detection process. An Intrusion Deterrence System (IPS) is software which ha...

  14. Intrusive memories and depression following recent non-traumatic negative life events in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Meiser-Stedman, R.; Dalgleish, T; Yule, W; Smith, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research in adults suggests that intrusive memories are not just found in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet there is little evidence concerning the phenomenology of intrusive memories in children and adolescents. The present study investigated the frequency of intrusive memories following a recent negative event in an adolescent school sample, and considered the application of cognitive theory to understanding the maintenance of intrusive memories of rece...

  15. Maintenance of Intrusive Memories in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Cognitive Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Anke; Steil, Regina

    2009-01-01

    Intrusive recollections are very common immediately after traumatic events and are considered necessary aspects of emotional processing. However, if these intrusive recollections persist over a long time, they are linked to long-term psychiatric disorder, especially Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This paper discusses the need to investigate factors involved in the maintenance of intrusive traumatic recollections. It is suggested that the idiosyncratic meaning of the intrusive recollect...

  16. A Novel Local Network Intrusion Detection System Based on Support Vector Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Muamer N. Mohammad; Norrozila Sulaiman; Emad T Khalaf

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Past few years have witnessed a growing recognition of intelligent techniques for the construction of efficient and reliable Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). Many methods and techniques were used for modeling the IDS, but some of them contribute little or not to resolve it. Approach: Intrusion detection system for local area network by using Support Vector Machines (SVM) was proposed. First, the intrusion ways and intrusion connecting of Local Area Network were defined fo...

  17. Distress and Recurrence of Intrusive Thoughts in Younger and Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Magee, Joshua C; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study incorporated a lifespan perspective into existing theories of intrusive thoughts to examine age-related differences in the difficulty controlling intrusive thoughts, the distress following intrusive thought recurrences, and the meanings assigned to these recurrences. Younger (N = 51) and older (N = 49) community adults were randomly assigned to suppress (i.e., keep out of mind) or monitor an intrusive thought. Participants rated their positive and negative affect throughout ...

  18. Evaluation of Hanford Single-Shell Waste Tanks Suspected of Water Intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feero, Amie J.; Washenfelder, Dennis J.; Johnson, Jeremy M.; Schofield, John S.

    2013-11-14

    Intrusions evaluations for twelve single-shell tanks were completed in 2013. The evaluations consisted of remote visual inspections, data analysis, and calculations of estimated intrusion rates. The observation of an intrusion or the preponderance of evidence confirmed that six of the twelve tanks evaluated had intrusions. These tanks were tanks 241-A-103, BX-101, BX-103, BX-110, BY-102, and SX-106.

  19. Systematic analysis of vulnerability to intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The software package for evaluating the effectiveness of systems of physical protection against external threat is described in detail. The program includes a sophisticated algorithm for the analysis of the access path vulnerability. The user can precisely model complex facilities, calculate the most vulnerable path into the facility, and store the models and results of analysis in the computer library. The outcome is recommendations aimed at vulnerability reduction for the most endangered paths. The time required for the adversary to overcome distances inside the facility can also be modeled. The program is designed for use on PC's. The results of the analysis, including the sensitivity to changes in the time necessary for the intervention of security forces, are also output in graphic form. (M.D.). 21 figs., 3 tabs

  20. 40 CFR 197.26 - What are the circumstances of the human intrusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... human intrusion? 197.26 Section 197.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Public Health and Environmental Standards for Disposal Human-Intrusion Standard § 197.26 What are the circumstances of the human intrusion? For the purposes of the analysis of...

  1. 1420 Ma diabasic intrusives from the Mesoproterozoic Singhora Group, Chhattisgarh Supergroup, India: Implications towards non-plume intrusive activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priyabrata Das; Kaushik Das; Partha Pratim Chakraborty; S Balakrishnan

    2011-04-01

    Besides offering significant clues towards tracking the geochemical evolution of the mantle and architectural reconstruction of different ‘supercontinent’, geochronological and geochemical appraisal of igneous inputs are also important to bracket the depositional time frame of any lithopackage, particularly, the unfossiliferous sedimentary successions. The present study deals with diabasic intrusive within Mesoproterozoic Saraipalli Formation, which is an argillaceous constituent present at the basal part of nearly 400 m thick four-tiered unmetamorphosed but deformed sedimentary succession of Singhora Group, Chhattisgarh Supergroup, central India. The SE–NW trending intrusive comprises mainly of plagioclase and augite together with minor orthopyroxene, biotite and opaque minerals. Though some plagioclase laths are partially sericitized, the ophitic-to-subophitic texture of the rock is well preserved. Major and trace element geochemical data indicate that this intrusive is basalt-to-basaltic andesite in character and of subalkaline basalt affinity. Multi-element plot shows overall LILE-enrichment and enrichment of Pb and slight depletion of Nb and P, coupled with moderate La/Nb and Th/Nb ratios. Zr, Y and Nb ternary diagrams plot in the fields of within plate basalt. Selected HFSE ratios indicate a non-plume source with crustal assimilation/sediment mixing. Sm–Nd and Rb–Sr isotope data show that the intrusive has Srinitial and Ndinitial of 0.709377–0.706672 and 0.510919–0.510815, respectively. Positive tNd [t = 1420 Ma] values (+0.3 to + 2.3) indicate depleted isotopic nature of their protolith. The calculated DM age is 1.7–1.9 Ga. The mineral-whole rock isochron data (Sm–Nd systematics) of the intrusive implies an emplacement age of ca. 1420 Ma. Considering synchronous terrain boundary shear zone development in Bastar craton on the southeastern part of the Singhora basin, mafic magmatism in Eastern Ghats and large-scale basic intrusion in Sausar

  2. Bald Mountain gold mining district, Nevada: A Jurassic reduced intrusion-related gold system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, C.J.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    The Bald Mountain mining district has produced about 2 million ounces (Moz) of An. Geologic mapping, field relationships, geochemical data, petrographic observations, fluid inclusion characteristics, and Pb, S, O, and H isotope data indicate that An mineralization was associated with a reduced Jurassic intrusion. Gold deposits are localized within and surrounding a Jurassic (159 Ma) quartz monzonite porphyry pluton and dike complex that intrudes Cambrian to Mississippian carbonate and clastic rocks. The pluton, associated dikes, and An mineralization were controlled by a crustal-scale northwest-trending structure named the Bida trend. Gold deposits are localized by fracture networks in the pluton and the contact metamorphic aureole, dike margins, high-angle faults, and certain strata or shale-limestone contacts in sedimentary rocks. Gold mineralization was accompanied by silicification and phyllic alteration, ??argillic alteration at shallow levels. Although An is typically present throughout, the system exhibits a classic concentric geochemical zonation pattern with Mo, W, Bi, and Cu near the center, Ag, Pb, and Zn at intermediate distances, and As and Sb peripheral to the intrusion. Near the center of the system, micron-sized native An occurs with base metal sulfides and sulfosalts. In peripheral deposits and in later stages of mineralization, Au is typically submicron in size and resides in pyrite or arsenopyrite. Electron microprobe and laser ablation ICP-MS analyses show that arsenopyrite, pyrite, and Bi sulfide minerals contain 10s to 1,000s of ppm Au. Ore-forming fluids were aqueous and carbonic at deep levels and episodically hypersaline at shallow levels due to boiling. The isotopic compositions of H and O in quartz and sericite and S and Pb in sulfides are indicative of magmatic ore fluids with sedimentary sulfur. Together, the evidence suggests that Au was introduced by reduced S-bearing magmatic fluids derived from a reduced intrusion. The reduced

  3. Long distance seawater intrusion through a karst conduit network in the Woodville Karst Plain, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zexuan; Bassett, Seth Willis; Hu, Bill; Dyer, Scott Barrett

    2016-01-01

    Five periods of increased electrical conductivity have been found in the karst conduits supplying one of the largest first magnitude springs in Florida with water. Numerous well-developed conduit networks are distributed in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP), Florida and connected to the Gulf of Mexico. A composite analysis of precipitation and electrical conductivity data provides strong evidence that the increases in conductivity are directly tied to seawater intrusion moving inland and traveling 11 miles against the prevailing regional hydraulic gradient from from Spring Creek Spring Complex (SCSC), a group of submarine springs at the Gulf Coast. A geochemical analysis of samples from the spring vent rules out anthropogenic contamination and upwelling regional recharge from the deep aquifer as sources of the rising conductivity. The interpretation is supported by the conceptual model established by prior researchers working to characterize the study area. This paper documents the first and longest case of seawater intrusion in the WKP, and also indicates significant possibility of seawater contamination through subsurface conduit networks in a coastal karst aquifer. PMID:27557803

  4. Long distance seawater intrusion through a karst conduit network in the Woodville Karst Plain, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zexuan; Bassett, Seth Willis; Hu, Bill; Dyer, Scott Barrett

    2016-01-01

    Five periods of increased electrical conductivity have been found in the karst conduits supplying one of the largest first magnitude springs in Florida with water. Numerous well-developed conduit networks are distributed in the Woodville Karst Plain (WKP), Florida and connected to the Gulf of Mexico. A composite analysis of precipitation and electrical conductivity data provides strong evidence that the increases in conductivity are directly tied to seawater intrusion moving inland and traveling 11 miles against the prevailing regional hydraulic gradient from from Spring Creek Spring Complex (SCSC), a group of submarine springs at the Gulf Coast. A geochemical analysis of samples from the spring vent rules out anthropogenic contamination and upwelling regional recharge from the deep aquifer as sources of the rising conductivity. The interpretation is supported by the conceptual model established by prior researchers working to characterize the study area. This paper documents the first and longest case of seawater intrusion in the WKP, and also indicates significant possibility of seawater contamination through subsurface conduit networks in a coastal karst aquifer. PMID:27557803

  5. Quantifying crustal response to deep active intrusions with geodesy-based finite element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S. T.; Pritchard, M. E.; Elliott, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex (APVC, 21-24 S, 66-69 W) is a first order feature of the Central Andes Volcanic Arc. The APVC consists of over 10,000 km^3 of dacitic ignimbrites deposited in the late Miocene, making it one of the largest concentrations of silicic volcanism in the world. The persistent and intense magmatic flux in this region has likely contributed to the thickened crust (50-70 km), elevated geotherm (>50 C/km) and extensive partial melt (geothermal gradient and source pressurization history. While still inconclusive, the potential for an abrupt end to surface deformation has important implications for the characterization of creep versus relaxation processes occurring in response to deep intrusions. Ultimately, crustal scale numerical models provide a means to check petrologically-derived depths of fluid accumulation, in addition to theoretical estimates of softening that occurs with distributed partial melt. The specific models presented are tuned to the subsurface conditions of the APVC, but may be relevant to arc intrusions below the brittle-ductile transition elsewhere.

  6. The intrusive complexof the Island of Giglio: geomagnetic characteristics of plutonic facies with low susceptibility contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cavallini

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Two main plutonic facies characterize the intrusive complex of the Island of Giglio, and the trend of their contact at depth has been modelled using a 2D½ analysis based on a detailed geomagnetic survey in order to verify the geological hypothesis of the subsurface geometry of this contact. The magnetic anomaly connected with the discontinuity is quite low, due to the small difference between the magnetic susceptibilities of the two granitic facies. Development of this model of inversion of the magnetic field, which is in good agreement with the geological interpretation, was made possible by: 1 accurate control of the geomagnetic time variations and consequent temporal reduction, 2 a very low level of the artificial magnetic noise, 3 high density of the magnetic survey, 4 detailed knowledge of the mapped geologic contact between facies and of their petrologic characteristics, and 5 direct local measurements of the magnetic susceptibilities of the key lithologies. The model shows the trends of the geological contact, as projected in three E-W sections, that dips eastward in the range between 210 and 540, supporting the geologic hypothesis that the Pietrabona facies represents an external shell of the shallowly emplaced Giglio monzogranite intrusion.

  7. Significance of the Coastal Shelf Shape on the Saline Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, M.; Yusef, G.; Liedl, R.; Graf, T.; Kolditz, O.; Post, V.

    2015-12-01

    A large number of people live in coastal areas using the available water resources, which in (semi-)arid regions are often taken from groundwater resources. Compared to surface water, these usually provide a safe water supply due to the remediation and retention capabilities of the subsurface, their high yield, and potentially longer term stability. With a water withdrawal from a coastal aquifer, coastal water management, however, has to ensure that seawater intrusion is retained in order to keep the water salinity at an acceptable level for all water users (e.g. agriculture, industry, households).Besides monitoring of water levels and saline intrusion, it has become a common practice to use numerical modeling for evaluating the coastal water resources and projecting future scenarios. When applying a model, it is necessary for the simplifications implied during the conceptualization of the setup to include the relevant processes (here variable-density flow and mass transport) and sensitive parameters (for a steady state commonly hydraulic conductivity, density ratio, dispersivity). Additionally, the model's boundary conditions are essential to the simulation results. In order to reduce the number of elements, and thus, the computational burden, one simplification that is made in most regional scale saltwater intrusion applications, is to represent the shelf with a vertical boundary, contrary to the natural conditions, that usually show a very shallow decent of the interface between the aquifer and the open sea water. We use the scientific open-source modeling toolbox OpenGeoSys [1] to quantify the influence of this simplification on the saline intrusion. Using an ensemble of different shelf shapes for a steady state setup, we identified a significant dependency of saline intrusion length on the geometric parameters of the shelf. With these simplified setups (homogeneous aquifer, steady state), the drawn conclusions provide valuable insight for real

  8. A ROLE OF INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM FOR WIRELESS LAN USING VARIOUS SCHEMES AND RELATED ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalanaban Ethala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in network based technology and augmented dependability of our everyday life on this technology. During recent years, number of attacks on networks has intensely increased. Hence interest in network intrusion detection has increased among the researchers. This study assesses different kinds of IDS and inclines preemptive procedures. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS is used to automate the intrusion detection process. An Intrusion Deterrence System (IPS is software which has complete competencies of an intrusion detection system and it can endeavor to stop probable events.

  9. Integrating Innate and Adaptive Immunity for Intrusion Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Tedesco, Gianni; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NDIS) monitor a network with the aim of discerning malicious from benign activity on that network. While a wide range of approaches have met varying levels of success, most IDS's rely on having access to a database of known attack signatures which are written by security experts. Nowadays, in order to solve problems with false positive alters, correlation algorithms are used to add additional structure to sequences of IDS alerts. However, such techniques are of no help in discovering novel attacks or variations of known attacks, something the human immune system (HIS) is capable of doing in its own specialised domain. This paper presents a novel immune algorithm for application to an intrusion detection problem. The goal is to discover packets containing novel variations of attacks covered by an existing signature base.

  10. Intrusion-Tolerant Location Information Services in Intelligent Vehicular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Gongjun; Yang, Weiming; Shaner, Earl F.; Rawat, Danda B.

    Intelligent Vehicular Networks, known as Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Roadside wireless communications (also called Vehicular Ad hoc Networks), are revolutionizing our daily driving with better safety and more infortainment. Most, if not all, applications will depend on accurate location information. Thus, it is of importance to provide intrusion-tolerant location information services. In this paper, we describe an adaptive algorithm that detects and filters the false location information injected by intruders. Given a noisy environment of mobile vehicles, the algorithm estimates the high resolution location of a vehicle by refining low resolution location input. We also investigate results of simulations and evaluate the quality of the intrusion-tolerant location service.

  11. A Partially Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eung Jun Cho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of wireless sensor networks, which normally comprise several very small sensor nodes, makes their security an increasingly important issue. They can be practically and efficiently secured using intrusion detection systems. Conventional security mechanisms are not usually applicable due to the sensor nodes having limitations of computational power, memory capacity, and battery power. Therefore, specific security systems should be designed to function under constraints of energy or memory. A partially distributed intrusion detection system with low memory and power demands is proposed here. It employs a Bloom filter, which allows reduced signature code size. Multiple Bloom filters can be combined to reduce the signature code for each Bloom filter array. The mechanism could then cope with potential denial of service attacks, unlike many previous detection systems with Bloom filters. The mechanism was evaluated and validated through analysis and simulation.

  12. An Efficient Fuzzy Clustering-Based Approach for Intrusion Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Huu Hoa; Darmont, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    The need to increase accuracy in detecting sophisticated cyber attacks poses a great challenge not only to the research community but also to corporations. So far, many approaches have been proposed to cope with this threat. Among them, data mining has brought on remarkable contributions to the intrusion detection problem. However, the generalization ability of data mining-based methods remains limited, and hence detecting sophisticated attacks remains a tough task. In this thread, we present a novel method based on both clustering and classification for developing an efficient intrusion detection system (IDS). The key idea is to take useful information exploited from fuzzy clustering into account for the process of building an IDS. To this aim, we first present cornerstones to construct additional cluster features for a training set. Then, we come up with an algorithm to generate an IDS based on such cluster features and the original input features. Finally, we experimentally prove that our method outperform...

  13. Management of intrusive luxation with immediate surgical repositioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazumdar Dibyendu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusive luxation is one of the most severe forms of traumatic injuries in which the affected tooth is forced to displace deeper into the alveolus. As a consequence of this type of injury, maximum damage occurs to the pulp and all the supporting structures. This report presents a case of severe intrusive luxation of mature maxillary central and lateral incisor in a 40-year-old male. The intruded tooth was immediately repositioned (surgical extrusion and splinted within hours following injury. Antibiotic therapy was initiated at the time of repositioning and maintained for 5 days. Pulp removal and calcium hydroxide treatment of the root canal was carried out after repositioning. Splint was removed 2 months later. Definitive root canal treatment with Gutta percha was accomplished at a later appointment. Clinical and radiographic examination 6, 12 and 24 months after the surgical extrusion revealed satisfactory progressive apical and periodontal healing.

  14. Human intrusion scenarios associated with surface disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a certain period of time, there should no longer be any need to keep surface disposal facilities under surveillance or impose restrictions on land use. This result may be achieved by limiting the activity level of wastes stored at the facility, which will in turn limit the potential dose to the public during normal decay of the waste and in the event of human intrusion. Analysis of intrusion scenarios, which are uncertain events, requires some modification of dose acceptance criteria in order to take account of the overall probability of events. The paper reviews three recent studies of scenarios involving French surface disposal sites: - construction of a road at an existing site in France; - boring a well in the vicinity of a storage site; - possibility of storing radioactive sources at a surface disposal site. These studies illustrate the need to adopt such an approach and the difficulties involved

  15. NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION METHOD BASED ON RS-MSVM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yun; Han Chongzhao; Zheng Qinghua; Zhang Junjie

    2006-01-01

    A new method called RS-MSVM (Rough Set and Multi-class Support Vector Machine) is proposed for network intrusion detection. This method is based on rough set followed by MSVM for attribute reduction and classification respectively. The number of attributes of the network data used in this paper is reduced from 41 to 30 using rough set theory. The kernel function of HVDM-RBF (Heterogeneous Value Difference Metric Radial Basis Function), based on the heterogeneous value difference metric of heterogeneous datasets, is constructed for the heterogeneous network data. HVDM-RBF and one-against-one method are applied to build MSVM. DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) intrusion detection evaluating data were used in the experiment. The testing results show that our method outperforms other methods mentioned in this paper on six aspects: detection accuracy, number of support vectors, false positive rate, false negative rate, training time and testing time.

  16. A survey on RBF Neural Network for Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henali Sheth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Network security is a hot burning issue nowadays. With the help of technology advancement intruders or hackers are adopting new methods to create different attacks in order to harm network security. Intrusion detection system (IDS is a kind of security software which inspects all incoming and outgoing network traffic and it will generate alerts if any attack or unusual behavior is found in a network. Various approaches are used for IDS such as data mining, neural network, genetic and statistical approach. Among this Neural Network is more suitable approach for IDS. This paper describes RBF neural network approach for Intrusion detection system. RBF is a feed forward and supervise technique of neural network.RBF approach has good classification ability but its performance depends on its parameters. Based on survey we find that RBF approach has some short comings. In order to overcome this we need to do proper optimization of RBF parameters.

  17. Two-Stage Algorithm for Correlating the Intrusion Alerts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang-min; MA Jian-feng

    2005-01-01

    To solve the problem of the alert flooding and information semantics in the existing Intrusion Detection System(IDS), we present a two-stage algorithm for correlating the alerts. In the first stage, the high-level alerts is integrated by using the Chronicle patterns based on time intervals,which describe and match the alerts with the temporal time constrains of an input sequence. In the second stage, the preparing relationship between the high-level alerts is defined,which is applied to correlate the high-level alerts, and the attack scenario is constructed by drawing the attack graph. In the end a given example shows the performances of this twostage correlation algorithm in decreasing the number and improving the information semantic of the intrusion alerts produced by the IDS.

  18. IDPS: An Integrated Intrusion Handling Model for Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Alsafi, Hassen Mohammed; Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan

    2012-01-01

    Today, many organizations are moving their computing services towards the Cloud. This makes their computer processing available much more conveniently to users. However, it also brings new security threats and challenges about safety and reliability. In fact, Cloud Computing is an attractive and cost-saving service for buyers as it provides accessibility and reliability options for users and scalable sales for providers. In spite of being attractive, Cloud feature poses various new security threats and challenges when it comes to deploying Intrusion Detection System (IDS) in Cloud environments. Most Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) are designed to handle specific types of attacks. It is evident that no single technique can guarantee protection against future attacks. Hence, there is a need for an integrated scheme which can provide robust protection against a complete spectrum of threats. On the other hand, there is great need for technology that enables the network and its hosts to defend themselves with s...

  19. Intrusion Protection against SQL Injection Attacks Using a Reverse Proxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fouzul Hidhaya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this era where Internet has captured the world, level of security that this Internet provides has not grown as fast as the Internet application. Internet has eased the life of human in numerous ways, but the drawbacks like the intrusions that are attached with the Internet applications sustains the growth of these applications. One such intrusion is the SQL Injection attacks (SQLIA. Since SQLIA contributes 25% of the total Internet attacks, much research is being carried out in this area. In this paper we propose a method to detect the SQL injection. We use a Reverse proxy and MD5 algorithm to check out SQL injection in user input. Using grammar expressions rules we check for SQL injection in URL’s. This system has been tested on standard test bed applications and our work has shown significant improvement detecting and curbing the SQLIA.

  20. Hydrodynamic and Salinity Intrusion Model in Selangor River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, N. F.; Tahir, W.

    2016-07-01

    A multi-dimensional hydrodynamic and transport model has been used to develop the hydrodynamic and salinity intrusion model for Selangor River Estuary. Delft3D-FLOW was applied to the study area using a curvilinear, boundary fitted grid. External boundary forces included ocean water level, salinity, and stream flow. The hydrodynamic and salinity transport used for the simulation was calibrated and confirmed using data on November 2005 and from May to June 2014. A 13-day period for November 2005 data and a 6-day period of May to June 2014 data were chosen as the calibration and confirmation period because of the availability of data from the field-monitoring program conducted. From the calibration results, it shows that the model was well suited to predict the hydrodynamic and salinity intrusion characteristics of the study area.

  1. Corrosion inhibitor development for slightly sour environments with oxygen intrusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylde, J.; Wang, H.; Li, J. [Clariant Oil Services North America, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reported on a study that examined the effect of oxygen on the inhibition of carbon steel in slightly sour corrosion, and the initiation and propagation of localized attack. Oxygen can enter sour water injection systems through the vapor space in storage tanks and process system. Oxygen aggravates the corrosion attack by participating in the cathodic reaction under full or partial diffusion control. Laboratory testing results were reported in this presentation along with the development of corrosion inhibitors for such a slightly sour system. Bubble testing cells were used with continuous H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixture gas sparging and occasional oxygen intrusion of 2 to 4 hours during a week long test. Linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements and weight loss corrosion coupons were used to quantify the corrosion attack. The findings were presented in terms of the magnitude of localized attacks at different oxygen concentrations and intrusion periods, with and without the presence of corrosion inhibitors. tabs., figs.

  2. Non intrusive check valve diagnostics at Bruce A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce A purchased non intrusive check valve diagnostic equipment in 1995 to ensure operability and availability of critical check valves in the Station. Diagnostics can be used to locate and monitor check valve degradation modes. Bruce A initiated a pilot program targeting check valves with flow through them and ones that completed open or close cycles. Approaches to determine how to confirm operability of passive check valves using non intrusive techniques were explored. A sample population of seventy-three check valves was selected to run the pilot program on prior to complete implementation. The pilot program produced some significant results and some inconclusive results. The program revealed a major finding that check valve performance modeling is required to ensure continuous operability of check valves. (author)

  3. Non intrusive check valve diagnostics at Bruce A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsch, S.P. [Ontario Hydro, Bruce Nuclear Generating Station A, Tiverton, ON (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    Bruce A purchased non intrusive check valve diagnostic equipment in 1995 to ensure operability and availability of critical check valves in the Station. Diagnostics can be used to locate and monitor check valve degradation modes. Bruce A initiated a pilot program targeting check valves with flow through them and ones that completed open or close cycles. Approaches to determine how to confirm operability of passive check valves using non intrusive techniques were explored. A sample population of seventy-three check valves was selected to run the pilot program on prior to complete implementation. The pilot program produced some significant results and some inconclusive results. The program revealed a major finding that check valve performance modeling is required to ensure continuous operability of check valves. (author)

  4. Hadoop-based Multi-classification Fusion for Intrusion Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Xun-Yi Ren; Yu-Zhu Qi

    2013-01-01

    Intrusion detection system is the most important security technology in computer network, currently clustering and classification of data mining technology are often used to build detection model. However, different classification and clustering device has its own advantages and disadvantages and the testing result of detection model is not ideal. Cloud Computing, which can integrate multiple inexpensive computing nodes into a distributed system with a stro...

  5. Harmonic approaches to non-intrusive load diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Ashley E.

    2008-01-01

    CIVINS The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) is a system that monitors, records and processes voltage and current measurements to establish the operating characteristics of individual loads on a load center from a single aggregate measurement. The NILM can also be used to actively monitor degradation or diagnose specific system failures. Current NILM research conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Laboratory for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems (LEES) is exploring t...

  6. Mechanisms of extrusion and intrusion formation in fatigued crystalline materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polák, Jaroslav; Man, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 596, FEB (2014), s. 15-24. ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/10/2371; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-23652S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Fatigue * Extrusion * Intrusion * Persistent slip band * Fatigue crack initiation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.567, year: 2014

  7. Grey self-organizing map based intrusion detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春东; 虞鹤峰; 王怀彬

    2009-01-01

    Grey self-organizing map(GSOM) model is proposed and applied in the detection of intrusion.Through the improvement of the weight adjustment using the GRC(grey relational coefficient),the training results of SOM get better.In the detection of deny of service(DOS) attacks,this model can consider the relativity of the data set of DOS attacks.Finally,the experiments on the DOS data set confirm their validities and feasibilities over this GSOM model.

  8. Adaptive critic design for computer intrusion detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novokhodko, Alexander; Wunsch, Donald C., II; Dagli, Cihan H.

    2001-03-01

    This paper summarizes ongoing research. A neural network is used to detect a computer system intrusion basing on data from the system audit trail generated by Solaris Basic Security Module. The data have been provided by Lincoln Labs, MIT. The system alerts the human operator, when it encounters suspicious activity logged in the audit trail. To reduce the false alarm rate and accommodate the temporal indefiniteness of moment of attack a reinforcement learning approach is chosen to train the network.

  9. Intrusion Detection Forecasting Using Time Series for Improving Cyber Defence

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Azween Bin; Pillai, Thulasyammal Ramiah; Cai, Long Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The strength of time series modeling is generally not used in almost all current intrusion detection and prevention systems. By having time series models, system administrators will be able to better plan resource allocation and system readiness to defend against malicious activities. In this paper, we address the knowledge gap by investigating the possible inclusion of a statistical based time series modeling that can be seamlessly integrated into existing cyber defense system. Cyber-attack ...

  10. A Partially Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Eung Jun Cho; Choong Seon Hong; Sungwon Lee; Seokhee Jeon

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of wireless sensor networks, which normally comprise several very small sensor nodes, makes their security an increasingly important issue. They can be practically and efficiently secured using intrusion detection systems. Conventional security mechanisms are not usually applicable due to the sensor nodes having limitations of computational power, memory capacity, and battery power. Therefore, specific security systems should be designed to function under constraints of ene...

  11. Intrusion Detection Systems for Community Wireless Mesh Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Makaroff, D.; Smith, Paul; Race, Nicholas J.P.; Hutchison, David

    2008-01-01

    Wireless mesh networks are being increasingly used to provide affordable network connectivity to communities where wired deployment strategies are either not possible or are prohibitively expensive. Unfortunately, computer networks (including mesh networks) are frequently being exploited by increasingly profit-driven and insidious attackers, which can affect their utility for legitimate use. In response to this, a number of countermeasures have been developed, including intrusion detection sy...

  12. A HIERARCHICAL INTRUSION DETECTION ARCHITECTURE FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Jadidoleslamy

    2011-01-01

    Networks protection against different types of attacks is one of most important posed issue into the network andinformation security application domains. This problem on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), in attention to theirspecial properties, has more importance. Now, there are some of proposed architectures and guide lines to protectWireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) against different types of intrusions; but any one of them do not has acomprehensive view to this problem and they are usually d...

  13. An Intrusion Detection Architecture for Clustered Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Jaydip

    2010-01-01

    Intrusion detection in wireless ad hoc networks is a challenging task because these networks change their topologies dynamically, lack concentration points where aggregated traffic can be analyzed, utilize infrastructure protocols that are susceptible to manipulation, and rely on noisy, intermittent wireless communications. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on co-operative algorithms, absence of c...

  14. Distributed Intrusion Detection for Computer Systems Using Communicating Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Dennis J.; Kremer, H. Steven; Neil C. Rowe

    2000-01-01

    This paper appeared in the Proceedings of the 2000 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (CCRTS), Monterey, CA, June 11-13, 2000, and won the award for “Best Paper”. Intrusion detection for computer systems is a key problem of the Internet, and the Windows NT operating system has a number of vulnerabilities. The work presented here demonstrates that independent detection agents under Windows NT can be run in a distributed fashion, each operating mostly independent ...

  15. Salt intrusion study in Cochin estuary - Using empirical models

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, B.; Revichandran, C.; NaveenKumar, K.R.

    IN COCHIN ESTUARY 309 as well as the calculated results of Van der Burge models show great correlation between river discharge and salinity intrusion length (Table 1). Two counteracting effects determine the effect of tidal amplitude. Large tidal... since salinity incursion was not strong enough to completely mask the effect of fresh water flow. During the pre-monsoon, the river discharge is minimum and seawater influence is maximum upstream, the estuary is well-mixed and homogeneity exists...

  16. Battery-Sensing Intrusion Protection System (B-SIPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Buennemeyer, Timothy Keith

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation investigates using instantaneous battery current sensing techniques as a means of detecting IEEE 802.15.1 Bluetooth and 802.11b (Wi-Fi) attacks and anomalous activity on small mobile wireless devices. This research explores alternative intrusion detection methods in an effort to better understand computer networking threats. This research applies to Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and smart phones, operating with sensing software in wireless network environments to relay ...

  17. A Simulated Multiagent-Based Architecture for Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onashoga S. Adebukola

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a Multiagent-based architecture for Intrusion Detection System (MIDS is proposed to overcome the shortcoming of current Mobile Agent-based Intrusion Detection System. MIDS is divided into three major phases namely: Data gathering, Detection and the Response phases. The data gathering stage involves data collection based on the features in the distributed system and profiling. The data collection components are distributed on both host and network. Closed Pattern Mining (CPM algorithm is introduced for profiling users’ activities in network database. The CPM algorithm is built on the concept of Frequent Pattern-growth algorithm by mining a prefix-tree called CPM-tree, which contains only the closed itemsets and its associated support count. According to the administrator’s specified thresholds, CPM-tree maintains only closed patterns online and incrementally outputs the current closed frequent pattern of users’ activities in real time. MIDS makes use of mobile and static agents to carry out the functions of intrusion detection. Each of these agents is built with rule-based reasoning to autonomously detect intrusions. Java 1.1.8 is chosen as the implementation language and IBM’s Java based mobile agent framework, Aglet 1.0.3 as the platform for running the mobile and static agents. In order to test the robustness of the system, a real-time simulation is carried out on University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (UNAAB network dataset and the results showed an accuracy of 99.94%, False Positive Rate (FPR of 0.13% and False Negative Rate (FNR of 0.04%. This shows an improved performance of MIDS when compared with other known MA-IDSs.

  18. Usefulness of DARPA dataset for intrusion detection system evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Ciza; Sharma, Vishwas; Balakrishnan, N.

    2008-01-01

    The MIT Lincoln Laboratory IDS evaluation methodology is a practical solution in terms of evaluating the performance of Intrusion Detection Systems, which has contributed tremendously to the research progress in that field. The DARPA IDS evaluation dataset has been criticized and considered by many as a very outdated dataset, unable to accommodate the latest trend in attacks. Then naturally the question arises as to whether the detection systems have improved beyond detecting these old level ...

  19. Anti-Intrusion Effect of Lorazepam: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hong-Seock; Lee, Heung-Pyo; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Yong-Ku; Choi, Yun-Kyeung

    2013-01-01

    Objective Easy triggering of trauma-related episodic memory fragments caused by perceptual cues is tied to strong perceptual priming in the implicit memory system. And among benzodiazepines, only lorazepam has been consistently reported to have an atypical suppression effect on perceptual priming processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of single doses of lorazepam, diazepam, and a placebo on intrusive memories after exposure to a distressing videotape and to explore wh...

  20. Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Rogier A. Kievit; Spinhoven, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background: During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., ‘‘you are worthless’’). These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought suppression may paradoxically enhance occurrences (i.e., intrusions) of these memories, which may occur immediately or sometime after active suppression of these memories. Objective: Until now, studies...

  1. Intrusion Prevention in Depth System Research Based on Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Jie; Zheng Xiao; Liu Yabin; Shi Chenghui

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a data mining based intrusion prevention in depth system model to manage the huge amounts of unreliable and uncontrollable security events, which are generated by the extensive utilization of heterogeneous security devices in computer networks. A method of combining online detection and offline data mining is made use of as the core of the model. On the other hand, the work process of the system can be compartmentalized into two phases: online examination through pattern...

  2. Intrusion of anterior teeth to improve smile esthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekharan, Deepak; Balaji, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    A gummy smile is probably one of the most common causes of an unaesthetic smile. Causes include overeruption of maxillary anterior teeth and maxillary vertical excess. Intrusion of maxillary anterior teeth with Orthodontics and Le forte I superior repositioning may form a part of the solution. Of late the use of micro implants have improved the smile esthetics of borderline surgical cases by allowing the Orthodontist to intrude teeth more than what was possible with conventional Orthodontics.

  3. Decision Cost Feature Weighting and Its Application in Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Quan; GENG Huan-tong; WANG Xu-fa

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the cost-sensitive feature weighting strategy and its application in intrusion detection.Cost factors and cost matrix are proposed to demonstrate the misclassification cost for IDS.How to get the whole minimal risk, is mainly discussed in this paper in detail.From experiments, it shows that although decision cost based weight learning exists somewhat attack misclassification, it can achieve relatively low misclassification costs on the basis of keeping relatively high rate of recognition precision.

  4. Architecture of Computer Intrusion Detection Based on Partially Ordered Events

    OpenAIRE

    Vokorokos, Liberios; Balaz, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Information technology security nowadays presents one of the main priorities of modern society dependent on information. Protection of data access, availability, and integrity represents basic security properties insisted on information sources. Intrusion of one of the properties mentioned above may form penetration or attack on the computer system. Within protection mechanisms, various methods providing security rules relating individual levels of possible behavior are classified. Other prot...

  5. Mass memory formatter subsystem of the adaptive intrusion data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mass Memory Formatter was developed as part of the Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) to control a 2.4-megabit mass memory. The data from a Memory Controlled Processor is formatted before it is stored in the memory and reformatted during the readout mode. The data is then transmitted to a NOVA 2 minicomputer-controlled magnetic tape recorder for storage. Techniques and circuits are described

  6. Algorithm for distributed agent based network intrusion detection system (INDS)

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolovski, Aleksandar; Gelev, Saso

    2011-01-01

    The scope of this research paper is one of the most important aspects nowadays, the security and management of one computer network (methods and procedures to get a stable, reliable and redundant computer network) which is a key issue for any ICT Enterprise in this world of Information Age. This paper attempts to investigate the possible benefits of using the network security methods in combination with medical quarantine procedures, in order to create new algorithm for network intrusion d...

  7. Detection and Protection Against Intrusions on Smart Grid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Arvani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The wide area monitoring of power systems is implemented at a central control center to coordinate the actions of local controllers. Phasor measurement units (PMUs are used for the collection of data in real time for the smart grid energy systems. Intrusion detection and cyber security of network are important requirements for maintaining the integrity of wide area monitoring systems. The intrusion detection methods analyze the measurement data to detect any possible cyber attacks on the operation of smart grid systems. In this paper, the model-based and signal-based intrusion detection methods are investigated to detect the presence of malicious data. The chi-square test and discrete wavelet transform (DWT have been used for anomaly-based detection. The false data injection attack (FDIA can be detected using measurement residual. If the measurement residual is larger than expected detection threshold, then an alarm is triggered and bad data can be identified. Avoiding such alarms in the residual test is referred to as stealth attack. There are two protection strategies for stealth attack: (1 Select a subset of meters to be protected from the attacker (2 Place secure phasor measurement units in the power grid. An IEEE 14-bus system is simulated using real time digital simulator (RTDS hardware platform for implementing attack and detection schemes.

  8. Active Low Intrusion Hybrid Monitor for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Marlon; Campelo, Jose C.; Bonastre, Alberto; Ors, Rafael; Capella, Juan V.; Serrano, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Several systems have been proposed to monitor wireless sensor networks (WSN). These systems may be active (causing a high degree of intrusion) or passive (low observability inside the nodes). This paper presents the implementation of an active hybrid (hardware and software) monitor with low intrusion. It is based on the addition to the sensor node of a monitor node (hardware part) which, through a standard interface, is able to receive the monitoring information sent by a piece of software executed in the sensor node. The intrusion on time, code, and energy caused in the sensor nodes by the monitor is evaluated as a function of data size and the interface used. Then different interfaces, commonly available in sensor nodes, are evaluated: serial transmission (USART), serial peripheral interface (SPI), and parallel. The proposed hybrid monitor provides highly detailed information, barely disturbed by the measurement tool (interference), about the behavior of the WSN that may be used to evaluate many properties such as performance, dependability, security, etc. Monitor nodes are self-powered and may be removed after the monitoring campaign to be reused in other campaigns and/or WSNs. No other hardware-independent monitoring platforms with such low interference have been found in the literature. PMID:26393604

  9. Anomaly-based intrusion detection for SCADA systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most critical infrastructure such as chemical processing plants, electrical generation and distribution networks, and gas distribution is monitored and controlled by Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Systems (SCADA. These systems have been the focus of increased security and there are concerns that they could be the target of international terrorists. With the constantly growing number of internet related computer attacks, there is evidence that our critical infrastructure may also be vulnerable. Researchers estimate that malicious online actions may cause $75 billion at 2007. One of the interesting countermeasures for enhancing information system security is called intrusion detection. This paper will briefly discuss the history of research in intrusion detection techniques and introduce the two basic detection approaches: signature detection and anomaly detection. Finally, it presents the application of techniques developed for monitoring critical process systems, such as nuclear power plants, to anomaly intrusion detection. The method uses an auto-associative kernel regression (AAKR) model coupled with the statistical probability ratio test (SPRT) and applied to a simulated SCADA system. The results show that these methods can be generally used to detect a variety of common attacks. (authors)

  10. HYBRID FEATURE SELECTION ALGORITHM FOR INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Hasani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Network security is a serious global concern. Usefulness Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS are increasing incredibly in Information Security research using Soft computing techniques. In the previous researches having irrelevant and redundant features are recognized causes of increasing the processing speed of evaluating the known intrusive patterns. In addition, an efficient feature selection method eliminates dimension of data and reduce redundancy and ambiguity caused by none important attributes. Therefore, feature selection methods are well-known methods to overcome this problem. There are various approaches being utilized in intrusion detections, they are able to perform their method and relatively they are achieved with some improvements. This work is based on the enhancement of the highest Detection Rate (DR algorithm which is Linear Genetic Programming (LGP reducing the False Alarm Rate (FAR incorporates with Bees Algorithm. Finally, Support Vector Machine (SVM is one of the best candidate solutions to settle IDSs problems. In this study four sample dataset containing 4000 random records are excluded randomly from this dataset for training and testing purposes. Experimental results show that the LGP_BA method improves the accuracy and efficiency compared with the previous related research and the feature subcategory offered by LGP_BA gives a superior representation of data.

  11. Reconfigurable Hardware Architecture for Network Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kaleel Rahuman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion rule processing in reconfigurable hardware enables intrusion detection and prevention. The use of reconfigurable hardware for network security applications has great strides as Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA devices have provided larger and faster resources. This proposes architecture called “BV-TCAM” is presented, which is implemented for an FPGA-based Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDS. The BV-TCAM architecture combines the Ternary Content Addressable Memory (TCAM and Bit Vector (BV algorithm to effectively compress the data representation and throughput. A tree bitmap implementation of the BV algorithm is used for source and destination port lookup while a TCAM performs lookup for other header fields, which can be represented as a prefix or exact value. With the aid of small embedded TCAM, packet classification can be implemented in relatively small part of the available logic of an FPGA. The BV-TCAM architecture has been modelled by VHDL. Simulations were performed by MODELSIM. This architecture have to be synthesized and implement our design using Xilinx FPGA device."

  12. Active Low Intrusion Hybrid Monitor for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Marlon; Campelo, Jose C; Bonastre, Alberto; Ors, Rafael; Capella, Juan V; Serrano, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    Several systems have been proposed to monitor wireless sensor networks (WSN). These systems may be active (causing a high degree of intrusion) or passive (low observability inside the nodes). This paper presents the implementation of an active hybrid (hardware and software) monitor with low intrusion. It is based on the addition to the sensor node of a monitor node (hardware part) which, through a standard interface, is able to receive the monitoring information sent by a piece of software executed in the sensor node. The intrusion on time, code, and energy caused in the sensor nodes by the monitor is evaluated as a function of data size and the interface used. Then different interfaces, commonly available in sensor nodes, are evaluated: serial transmission (USART), serial peripheral interface (SPI), and parallel. The proposed hybrid monitor provides highly detailed information, barely disturbed by the measurement tool (interference), about the behavior of the WSN that may be used to evaluate many properties such as performance, dependability, security, etc. Monitor nodes are self-powered and may be removed after the monitoring campaign to be reused in other campaigns and/or WSNs. No other hardware-independent monitoring platforms with such low interference have been found in the literature. PMID:26393604

  13. Biological intrusion of low-level-waste trench covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. Past research on low-level waste shallow land burial methods has emphasized physical (i.e., water infiltration, soil erosion) and chemical (radionuclide leaching) processes that can cause waste site failure and subsequent radionuclide transport. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need to consider biological processes as being potentially important in reducing the integrity of waste burial site cover treatments. Plants and animals not only can transport radionuclides to the ground surface via root systems and soil excavated from the cover profile by animal burrowing activities, but they modify physical and chemical processes within the cover profile by changing the water infiltration rates, soil erosion rates and chemical composition of the soil. One approach to limiting biological intrusion through the waste cover is to apply a barrier within the profile to limit root and animal penetration with depth. Experiments in the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility were initiated to develop and evaluate biological barriers that are effective in minimizing intrusion into waste trenches. The experiments that are described employ four different candidate barrier materials of geologic origin. Experimental variables that will be evaluated, in addition to barrier type, are barrier depth and soil overburden depth. The rate of biological intrusion through the various barrier materials is being evaluated through the use of activatable stable tracers

  14. Sulfide Intrusion and Detoxification in the Seagrass Zostera marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Hasler-Sheetal

    Full Text Available Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field with scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods, and stable isotope tracing coupled with a mass balance of sulfur compounds. We found that Z. marina detoxified gaseous sediment-derived sulfide through incorporation and that most of the detoxification occurred in underground tissues, where sulfide intrusion was greatest. Elemental sulfur was a major detoxification compound, precipitating on the inner wall of the aerenchyma of underground tissues. Sulfide was metabolized into thiols and entered the plant sulfur metabolism as well as being stored as sulfate throughout the plant. We conclude that avoidance of sulfide exposure by reoxidation of sulfide in the rhizosphere or aerenchyma and tolerance of sulfide intrusion by incorporation of sulfur in the plant are likely major survival strategies of seagrasses in sulfidic sediments.

  15. Hybrid Intrusion Detection Using Ensemble of Classification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Govindarajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major developments in machine learning in the past decade is the ensemble method, which finds highly accurate classifier by combining many moderately accurate component classifiers. In this research work, new ensemble classification methods are proposed for homogeneous ensemble classifiers using bagging and heterogeneous ensemble classifiers using arcing classifier and their performances are analyzed in terms of accuracy. A Classifier ensemble is designed using Radial Basis Function (RBF and Support Vector Machine (SVM as base classifiers. The feasibility and the benefits of the proposed approaches are demonstrated by the means of real and benchmark data sets of intrusion detection. The main originality of the proposed approach is based on three main parts: preprocessing phase, classification phase and combining phase. A wide range of comparative experiments are conducted for real and benchmark data sets of intrusion detection. The accuracy of base classifiers is compared with homogeneous and heterogeneous models for data mining problem. The proposed ensemble methods provide significant improvement of accuracy compared to individual classifiers and also heterogeneous models exhibit better results than homogeneous models for real and benchmark data sets of intrusion detection.

  16. Active Low Intrusion Hybrid Monitor for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Navia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several systems have been proposed to monitor wireless sensor networks (WSN. These systems may be active (causing a high degree of intrusion or passive (low observability inside the nodes. This paper presents the implementation of an active hybrid (hardware and software monitor with low intrusion. It is based on the addition to the sensor node of a monitor node (hardware part which, through a standard interface, is able to receive the monitoring information sent by a piece of software executed in the sensor node. The intrusion on time, code, and energy caused in the sensor nodes by the monitor is evaluated as a function of data size and the interface used. Then different interfaces, commonly available in sensor nodes, are evaluated: serial transmission (USART, serial peripheral interface (SPI, and parallel. The proposed hybrid monitor provides highly detailed information, barely disturbed by the measurement tool (interference, about the behavior of the WSN that may be used to evaluate many properties such as performance, dependability, security, etc. Monitor nodes are self-powered and may be removed after the monitoring campaign to be reused in other campaigns and/or WSNs. No other hardware-independent monitoring platforms with such low interference have been found in the literature.

  17. Joint Hydrogeophysical Inversion: State Estimation for Seawater Intrusion Models in 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Steklova, K

    2016-01-01

    Seawater intrusion (SWI) is a complex process, where 3D modeling is often necessary in order to monitor and manage the affected aquifers. Here, we present a synthetic study to test a joint hydrogeophysical inversion approach aimed at solving the inverse problem of estimating initial and current saltwater distribution. First, we use a 3D groundwater model for variable density flow based on discretized flow and solute mass balance equations. In addition to the groundwater model, a 3D geophysical model was developed for direct current resistivity imaging and inversion. The objective function of the coupled problem consists of data misfit and regularization terms as well as a coupling term that relates groundwater and geophysical states. We present a novel approach to solve the inverse problem using an Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) to minimize this coupled objective function. The sensitivities are derived analytically for the discretized system of equations, which allows us to efficiently com...

  18. Non-intrusive low-rank separated approximation of high-dimensional stochastic models

    KAUST Repository

    Doostan, Alireza

    2013-08-01

    This work proposes a sampling-based (non-intrusive) approach within the context of low-. rank separated representations to tackle the issue of curse-of-dimensionality associated with the solution of models, e.g., PDEs/ODEs, with high-dimensional random inputs. Under some conditions discussed in details, the number of random realizations of the solution, required for a successful approximation, grows linearly with respect to the number of random inputs. The construction of the separated representation is achieved via a regularized alternating least-squares regression, together with an error indicator to estimate model parameters. The computational complexity of such a construction is quadratic in the number of random inputs. The performance of the method is investigated through its application to three numerical examples including two ODE problems with high-dimensional random inputs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Theoretical prediction of gold vein location in deposits originated by a wall magma intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Pablo; Maass-Artigas, Fernando; Cortés-Vega, Luis

    2016-05-01

    The isotherm time-evolution resulting from the intrusion of a hot dike in a cold rock is analized considering the general case of nonvertical walls. This is applied to the theoretical prediction of the gold veins location due to isothermal evolution. As in previous treatments earth surface effects are considered and the gold veins are determined by the envelope of the isotherms. The locations of the gold veins in the Callao mines of Venezuela are now well predicted. The new treatment is now more elaborated and complex that in the case of vertical walls, performed in previous papers, but it is more adequated to the real cases as the one in El Callao, where the wall is not vertical.

  20. Anterior Maxillary Intrusion and Retraction with Corticotomy-Facilitated Orthodontic Treatment and Burstone Three Piece Intrusive Arch

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar, Ramachandra; M K Karthikeyan; Saravanan, R.; Kannan, K.S.; Arun Raj, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    An adult patient with proclination and spacing was performed orthodontic treatment combined with corticotomy and the burstone three piece intrusive arch who desired a shortened treatment period. The patient had Angle’s Class I malocclusion with flaring of the maxillary and mandibular incisors. Pre adjusted edgewise appliance (MBT prescription) was fixed to the maxillary and mandibular teeth. Then corticotomy was performed on the cortical bone of the buccal sides in the maxillary anterior regi...

  1. Evidence for multiple pulses of crystal-bearing magma during emplacement of the Doros layered intrusion, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Smith, T. M.; Ashwal, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Doros Complex is a relatively small (maximum 3.5 km × 7.5 km) shallow-level, lopolithic, layered mafic intrusion in the early Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province. The stratigraphy broadly comprises a minor, fine-grained gabbroic sill and a sequence of primitive olivine-cumulate melagabbros, with a basal chilled margin, an intermediate plagioclase-cumulate olivine gabbro, and a sequence of mineralogically and texturally variable, intermediate, strongly foliated, plagioclase-, olivine- or magnetite-cumulate gabbros. An evolved syenitic (bostonite) phase occurs as cross-cutting dykes or as enclaves within the foliated gabbros. Major element modelling of the liquid line of descent shows that the spectrum of rock types, including the bostonite, is consistent with the fractionation of a basaltic parental magma that crystallised olivine, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite, K-feldspar and apatite. However, the stratigraphic succession does not correspond to a simple progressive differentiation trend but instead shows a series of punctuated trends, each defined by a compositional reversal or hiatus. Incompatible trace element concentrations do not increase upwards though the body of the intrusion. The major units show similar, mildly enriched rare earth element patterns, with minimal Eu anomalies. Back-calculation of the rare earth element concentrations of these cumulate rocks produces relatively evolved original liquid compositions, indicating fractionation of this liquid from a more primitive precursor. Based on combined field, petrographic, geochemical and geophysical evidence, we propose an origin for the Doros Complex by a minimum of seven closely spaced influxes of crystal-bearing magmas, each with phenocryst contents between 5% and 55%. These findings represent a departure from the traditional single-pulse liquid model for the formation of layered mafic intrusions and suggest the presence of an underlying magmatic mush column, i.e., a large

  2. Coal metamorphism by igneous intrusion in the Raton Basin, CO and NM: Implications for generation of volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Jennifer R.; Whittington, Alan G. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia MO 65211 (United States); Crelling, John C. [Department of Geology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Rimmer, Susan M. [Department of Geological Sciences. University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2007-06-01

    The Raton Basin contains a series of Tertiary mafic dikes and sills that have altered millions of tons of coal to natural coke and may have played a minor role in generating some of the large coalbed methane resources currently being exploited in this region. Four outcrops within the Raton Basin were selected to investigate local coal rank elevation and volatile generation due to intrusive activity. Coal and organic shale samples were collected on traverses across meter-scale dikes and sills, and were analyzed for vitrinite reflectance, total organic carbon, bulk carbon isotopic ratios, and coke petrography. Reflectance patterns in the contact aureoles of the dikes display very consistent concave-up patterns, with reflectance values returning to background within one intrusion width from the contact. Bulk coal samples collected across dikes display an increase in {delta}{sup 13}C of approximately 1 permille approaching all contacts. Reflectance patterns within the contact aureoles of sills do not decrease significantly until one half of an intrusion width away from the contact, but then drop steeply to background values by one intrusion width away. Bulk coal samples display complex isotopic patterns approaching sills, with an initial increase in {delta}{sup 13}C followed by a steep decrease of approximately 1.5 permille approaching the top contacts. The distinct isotopic and reflectance patterns for dikes and sills may indicate that the coal in the contact aureoles of the sills experienced a longer heating duration than the coal near the dike contacts. This longer heating duration was due to the low thermal conductivity of coal, which acts as a thermal insulator to the sills that intrude coal beds. This style of intrusion is commonly observed throughout the central portions of the Raton Basin. By contrast, dikes intrude a variety of country rock types, and are not insulated by coal. Heat may escape the contact zone through nearby sandstones or shales. Based on

  3. Isotope-geochemical Nd-Sr evidence of Palaeoproterozoic plume magmatism in Fennoscandia and mantle-crust interaction on stages of layered intrusions formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, Pavel; Bayanova, Tamara; Kunakkuzin, Evgeniy; Steshenko, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    Palaeoproterozoic Fennoscandian layered intrusions belong to the pyroxenite-gabbronorite-anorthosite formation and spread on a vast area within the Baltic Shield. Based on isotope U-Pb, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and Re-Os data the duration of this formation can be to 100-130 Ma (2.53-2.40 Ga) [Serov et. al., 2008; Bayanova et. al., 2009]. We have studied rocks of layered PGE-bearing Fedorovo-Pansky, Monchetundra, Burakovsky, Olanga group intrusions and Penikat intrusion. According to recent and new complex Nd-Sr-REE data magma source of the vast majority of these intrusions was a mantle reservoir with unusual characteristics: negative values of ɛNd (from 0 to -4) and ISr = 0.702-0.706, flat spectra of REE (value of (La/Yb)N ~ 1.0-5.8) with positive Eu-anomalies [Bayanova et. al., 2009; Bayanova et. al., 2014]. However, the distribution of REE for ore-bearing gabbronorite intrusions Penikat (Sm-Nd age is 2426 ± 38 Ma [Ekimova et. al., 2011]) has a negative Eu-anomalies. This may be due to the formation of plagioclase and its removal from the magma chamber. One of the aims of isotope geochemical investigations is to establish the contribution of mantle components in the formation of layered intrusions rocks and the degrees of contamination of the magma source by crustal material. To calculate the proportion of mantle component model binary mixture was used [Jahn et. al., 2000]. As the mantle components we used data for CHUR: ɛNd = 0, [Nd] = 1.324 [Palm, O'Neil, 2003] and for crustal components were used host-rocks Nd-data. The proportion of mantle component for the studied intrusions was 77-99%. Also, data were obtained for the Monchetundra dike complex and amphibolized gabbro, for which the proportion of mantle material was 20-40%. For these rocks a significant crustal contamination is most likely. This process resulted in low values of ɛNd, a direct relationship between ɛNd and Nd concentration, and significant differences between the U-Pb and Sm-Nd model ages. A

  4. The assessment of human intrusion into underground repositories for radioactive waste Volume 1: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared with the primary objective of establishing a methodology for the assessment of human intrusion into deep underground repositories for radioactive wastes. The disposal concepts considered are those studied in the performance assessment studies Pagis and Pacoma, coordinated by the CEC. These comprise four types of host rock, namely: clay, granite, salt and the sub-seabed. Following a review of previous assessments of human intrusion, a list of relevant human activities is derived. This forms the basis for detailed characterization of groundwater abstraction and of exploitation of mineral and other resources. Approaches to assessment of intrusion are reviewed and consideration is given to the estimation of probabilities for specific types of intrusion events. Calculational schemes are derived for specific intrusion events and dosimetric factors are presented. A review is also presented of the capacity for reduction of the risks associated with intrusions. Finally, conclusions from the study are presented

  5. Analysis of Fuzzy Logic Based Intrusion Detection Systems in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chaudhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the advancement in wireless technologies, many of new paradigms have opened for communications. Among these technologies, mobile ad hoc networks play a prominent role for providing communication in many areas because of its independent nature of predefined infrastructure. But in terms of security, these networks are more vulnerable than the conventional networks because firewall and gateway based security mechanisms cannot be applied on it. That’s why intrusion detection systems are used as keystone in these networks. Many number of intrusion detection systems have been discovered to handle the uncertain activity in mobile ad hoc networks. This paper emphasized on proposed fuzzy based intrusion detection systems in mobile ad hoc networks and presented their effectiveness to identify the intrusions. This paper also examines the drawbacks of fuzzy based intrusion detection systems and discussed the future directions in the field of intrusion detection for mobile ad hoc networks.

  6. Intrusion detection system and technology of layered wireless sensor network based on Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genjian Yu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The intrusion detection system and technology of classified layered-wireless sensor network was able to meet the high safety requirements of wireless sensor network, it is urgent for us to improve the identification and generalization of detection system about characters of intrusion. In this paper, we design an intelligent intrusion detection system which realize intelligence, the effective and direct way was to add the methods,  and it was used for identification and generalization of intrusion characters to the Agent function of intrusion detection. It could obtain credible judgment by updating and examining the database for the actions which the general misuse detection or anomaly detection were not sure if the intrusion was formed.

  7. A Comprehensive Study on Classification of Passive Intrusion and Extrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Kalaivani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyber criminals compromise Integrity, Availability and Confidentiality of network resources in cyber space and cause remote class intrusions such as U2R, R2L, DoS and probe/scan system attacks .To handle these intrusions, Cyber Security uses three audit and monitoring systems namely Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS, Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS. Intrusion Detection System (IDS monitors only inbound traffic which is insufficient to prevent botnet systems. A system to monitor outbound traffic is named as Extrusion Detection System (EDS. Therefore a hybrid system should be designed to handle both inbound and outbound traffic. Due to the increased false alarms preventive systems do not suite to an organizational network. The goal of this paper is to devise a taxonomy for cyber security and study the existing methods of Intrusion and Extrusion Detection systems based on three primary characteristics. The metrics used to evaluate IDS and EDS are also presented.

  8. Cognitive avoidance of intrusive memories: recall vantage perspective and associations with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alishia D; Moulds, Michelle L

    2007-06-01

    Although recent research demonstrates that intrusive memories represent an overlapping cognitive feature of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is still a general paucity of research investigating the prevalence and maintenance of intrusive memories in depression. The current study investigated the association between a range of cognitive avoidant mechanisms that characterize PTSD samples (i.e., suppression, rumination, emotional detachment, and an observer vantage perspective) and intrusive memories of negative autobiographical events in relation to dysphoria. Hypotheses were based on the proposition that employment of these cognitive mechanisms would hinder the emotional processing of the negative event, thus contributing to the maintenance of intrusions. Results supported an association between negative intrusive memories, dysphoria, and avoidant mechanisms. Significant differences were also found between field and observer memories and measures of emotional detachment and rumination. Implications relating to intrusive memory maintenance and treatment approaches are discussed. PMID:17067549

  9. The assessment of human intrusion into underground repositories for radioactive waste Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared with the primary objective of establishing a methodology for the assessment of human intrusion into deep underground repositories for radioactive wastes. The disposal concepts considered are those studied in the performance assessment studies Pagis and Pacoma, coordinated by the CEC. These comprise four types of host rock, namely: clay, granite, salt and the sub-seabed. Following a review of previous assessments of human intrusion, a list of relevant human activities is derived. This forms the basis for detailed characterization of groundwater abstraction and of exploitation of mineral and other resources. Approaches to assessment of intrusion are reviewed and consideration is given to the estimation of probabilities for specific types of intrusion events. Calculational schemes are derived for specific intrusion events and dosimetric factors are presented. A review is also presented of the capacity for reduction of the risks associated with intrusions. Finally, conclusions from the study are presented

  10. Physical and numerical modeling of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is a worldwide problem caused, among others factors, by aquifer overexploitation, rising sea levels, and climate changes. To limit the deterioration of both surface water and groundwater quality caused by saline intrusion, in recent years many research studies have been developed to identify possible countermeasures, mainly consisting of underground barriers. In this context, physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of general solutions to contain the salt wedge. This work presents a laboratory experiment where seawater intrusion was reproduced in a specifically designed sand-box. The physical model, built at the University of Padova, represents the terminal part of a coastal aquifer and consists of a flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 49 cm with glass beads characterized by a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10 ≈ 1.5. The resulting porous media is homogeneous, with porosity of about 0.37 and hydraulic conductivity of about 1.3×10‑3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank filled by freshwater provides the recharge to the aquifer. The downstream tank simulates the sea and red food dye is added to the saltwater to easily visualize the salt wedge. The volume of the downstream tank is about five times the upstream one, and, due to the small filtration discharge, salt concentration variations (i.e., water density variations) due to the incoming freshwater flow are negligible. The hydraulic gradient during the tests is constant, due to the fixed water level in the two tanks. Water levels and discharged flow rate are continuously monitored. The experiment presented here had a duration of 36 h. For the first 24 h, the saltwater wedge was let to evolve until quasi stationary condition was obtained. In the last 12 h, water withdrawal was carried out at

  11. The Mobile Intrusion Detection and Assessment System (MIDAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlowe, H.D.; Coleman, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes MIDAS, the Mobile Intrusion Detection and Assessment System. MIDAS is a security system that can be quickly deployed to provide wide area coverage for a mobile asset. MIDAS uses two passive infrared imaging sensors, one for intruder detection and one for assessment. Detected targets are tracked while assessment cameras are directed to view the intruder location for operator observation and assessment. The dual sensor design allows simultaneous detection, assessment, and tracking. Control and status information is provided to an operator using a color graphics terminal, touch panel driven menus, and a joystick for control of the assessment sensor pan and tilt. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  12. Performance analysis of an infrared interior intrusion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology for characterizing the performance of a class of infrared (IR) interior intrusion monitors or detectors is presented. The methodology is developed around a specific commercial IR detector, the InfrAlarm, manufactured by Barnes Engineering Company (Models 19-124 and 19-115A). Performance is characterized by the probability of detecting an intruder as a function of intruder parameters. InfrAlarm is a passive infrared detector consisting of antimony and bismuth thermocouples connected to form a thermopile. IR energy emitted by objects is transmitted without physical contact to the detector receiver. The receiver in this case is a set of thermocouples which are sensitive to temperature changes

  13. Performance Enhancement of Intrusion Detection using Neuro - Fuzzy Intelligent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. K. S. Anil Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research work aims at developing hybrid algorithms using data mining techniques for the effective enhancement of anomaly intrusion detection performance. Many proposed algorithms have not addressed their reliability with varying amount of malicious activity or their adaptability for real time use. The study incorporates a theoretical basis for improvement in performance of IDS using K-medoids Algorithm, Fuzzy Set Algorithm, Fuzzy Rule System and Neural Network techniques. Also statistical significance of estimates has been looked into for finalizing the best one using DARPA network traffic datasets.

  14. Intrusion Detection in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Classification Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrokotsa, Aikaterini; Douligeris, Christos

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the design and evaluation of intrusion detection models for MANETs using supervised classification algorithms. Specifically, we evaluate the performance of the MultiLayer Perceptron (MLP), the Linear classifier, the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), the Naive Bayes classifier and the Support Vector Machine (SVM). The performance of the classification algorithms is evaluated under different traffic conditions and mobility patterns for the Black Hole, Forging, Packet Dropping, and Flooding attacks. The results indicate that Support Vector Machines exhibit high accuracy for almost all simulated attacks and that Packet Dropping is the hardest attack to detect.

  15. RNA intrusions change DNA elastic properties and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsiang-Chih; Koh, Kyung Duk; Evich, Marina; Lesiak, Annie L.; Germann, Markus W.; Bongiorno, Angelo; Riedo, Elisa; Storici, Francesca

    2014-08-01

    The units of RNA, termed ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs), have been recently found as the most abundant defects present in DNA. Despite the relevance, it is largely unknown if and how rNMPs embedded in DNA can change the DNA structure and mechanical properties. Here, we report that rNMPs incorporated in DNA can change the elastic properties of DNA. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based single molecule elasticity measurements show that rNMP intrusions in short DNA duplexes can decrease - by 32% - or slightly increase the stretch modulus of DNA molecules for two sequences reported in this study. Molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy identify a series of significant local structural alterations of DNA containing embedded rNMPs, especially at the rNMPs and nucleotide 3' to the rNMP sites. The demonstrated ability of rNMPs to locally alter DNA mechanical properties and structure may help in understanding how such intrusions impact DNA biological functions and find applications in structural DNA and RNA nanotechnology.The units of RNA, termed ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs), have been recently found as the most abundant defects present in DNA. Despite the relevance, it is largely unknown if and how rNMPs embedded in DNA can change the DNA structure and mechanical properties. Here, we report that rNMPs incorporated in DNA can change the elastic properties of DNA. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based single molecule elasticity measurements show that rNMP intrusions in short DNA duplexes can decrease - by 32% - or slightly increase the stretch modulus of DNA molecules for two sequences reported in this study. Molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy identify a series of significant local structural alterations of DNA containing embedded rNMPs, especially at the rNMPs and nucleotide 3' to the rNMP sites. The demonstrated ability of rNMPs to locally alter DNA mechanical properties and structure

  16. Effects of climate variability on saltwater intrusions in coastal aquifers in Southern Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rena; Sonnenborg, Torben; Engesgaard, Peter; Høyer, Anne-Sophie; Jørgensen, Flemming; Hisnby, Klaus; Hansen, Birgitte; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Piotrowski, Jan A.

    2016-04-01

    As in many other regions of the world fresh water supply in Denmark is based on groundwater resources. Aquifers in the low-lying areas in the south-west of Jutland are particularly vulnerable to saltwater intrusions which are likely to intensify due to relative sea level rise. To understand the dynamics and development of this complex flow system, the initial hydrodynamic conditions imposed by the last Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS) must be taken into account. The whole region has undergone changes in climatic and hydraulic conditions within the last 15000 years that may show influence on the present flow conditions. It is likely that the groundwater-flow dynamics, driven by the postglacial hydraulic head drop and the relative sea level rise are not yet equilibrated. Enhanced by the potential future sea level rise due to climate change, contamination of fresh-water aquifers will continue. The 2800-km2 - large coast-to-coast study area located in the southern part of Jutland was partly overridden by the Weichselian ice sheet. Geophysical and geological mapping shows salt water intrusions up to 20 km inland from the present coast. Based on a geological voxel model spanning Miocene through Quaternary deposits a large-scale 3D numerical groundwater flow and salt water transport model has been developed. It includes density-driven flow and simulates the distribution of the current saltwater intrusions and their evolution during the last 15000 years. Particle tracking and direct age simulations are performed to identify recharge areas and constrain groundwater ages. The simulated ages are compared to ages derived from isotope analysis of groundwater samples both from Miocene and Quaternary aquifers. The origin of the groundwater is determined based on isotopic and chemical composition. Additionally, heavy noble gas analysis is carried out to estimate recharge temperatures and mechanisms at locations where groundwater recharge during the last glaciation is indicated. This

  17. A Heuristic Clustering Algorithm for Intrusion Detection Based on Information Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied on the clustering problem for intrusion detection with the theory of information entropy, it was put forward that the clustering problem for exact intrusion detection based on information entropy is NP-complete, therefore, the heuristic algorithm to solve the clustering problem for intrusion detection was designed, this algorithm has the characteristic of incremental development, it can deal with the database with large connection records from the internet.

  18. Mining Association Rules to Evade Network Intrusion in Network Audit Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kamini Nalavade; B. B. Meshram

    2014-01-01

    With the growth of hacking and exploiting tools and invention of new ways of intrusion, intrusion detection and prevention is becoming the major challenge in the world of network security. The increasing network traffic and data on Internet is making this task more demanding. There are various approaches being utilized in intrusion detections, but unfortunately any of the systems so far is not completely flawless. The false positive rates make it extremely hard to analyse and react to attacks...

  19. An Intrusion Tolerance Method Based on Energy Attack for Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Jiang; Jie Huang

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor network is vulnerable to malicious attacks because of the broadcast nature of wireless signal. In order to overcome the shortcomings of existing methods, this paper presents an intrusion tolerance method against malicious nodes. Different from the traditional intrusion tolerance methods based on encryption, authentication, and multirouting, the proposed method uses active protection to achieve intrusion tolerance. Small power consumption of many normal nodes is exchanged for l...

  20. Intrusion detection system and technology of layered wireless sensor network based on Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Genjian Yu; Kunpeng Weng

    2013-01-01

    The intrusion detection system and technology of classified layered-wireless sensor network was able to meet the high safety requirements of wireless sensor network, it is urgent for us to improve the identification and generalization of detection system about characters of intrusion. In this paper, we design an intelligent intrusion detection system which realize intelligence, the effective and direct way was to add the methods,  and it was used for identification and generalization of intru...

  1. Protection of an intrusion detection engine with watermarking in ad hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrokotsa, A.; Komninos, N.; Douligeris, C.

    2010-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks have received great attention in recent years, mainly due to the evolution of wireless networking and mobile computing hardware. Nevertheless, many inherent vulnerabilities exist in mobile ad hoc networks and their applications that affect the security of wireless transactions. As intrusion prevention mechanisms, such as encryption and authentication, are not sufficient we need a second line of defense, Intrusion Detection. In this pa-per we present an intrusion detecti...

  2. Toward Intelligent Intrusion Prediction for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Three-Layer Brain-Like Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Wu; Song Liu; Zhenyu Zhou; Ming Zhan

    2012-01-01

    The intrusion prediction for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is an unresolved problem. Hence, the current intrusion detection schemes cannot provide enough security for WSNs, which poses a number of security challenges in WSNs. In many mission-critical applications, such as battle field, even though the intrusion detection systems (IDSs) without prediction capability could detect the malicious activities afterwards, the damages to the WSNs have been generated and could hardly be restored. In ...

  3. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON FOR INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM USING NEURAL NETWORK WITH KDD DATASET

    OpenAIRE

    S. Devaraju; Ramakrishnan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Intrusion Detection Systems are challenging task for finding the user as normal user or attack user in any organizational information systems or IT Industry. The Intrusion Detection System is an effective method to deal with the kinds of problem in networks. Different classifiers are used to detect the different kinds of attacks in networks. In this paper, the performance of intrusion detection is compared with various neural network classifiers. In the proposed research the four types of cla...

  4. Multi-Objective Management of Saltwater Intrusion in Groundwater. Optimization under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Coastal aquifers are very vulnerable to seawater intrusion through, for example, the overdraft of groundwater exploitation or insufficient recharge from upstream. Problems of salt-intrusion into groundwater have become a considerable concern in many countries with coastal areas. There have been a number of studies that have tried to simulate groundwater flow system in regions under threat of saltwater intrusion into coastal aquifers. These aquifer systems are characterized by either a single ...

  5. A Survey and Comparative Analysis of Data Mining Techniques for Network Intrusion Detection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Reema Patel; Amit Thakkar; Amit Ganatra

    2012-01-01

    Despite of growing information technology widely, security has remained one challenging area for computers and networks. In information security, intrusion detection is the act of detecting actions that attempt to compromise the confidentiality, integrity or availability of a resource. Currently many researchers have focused on intrusion detection system based on data mining techniques as an efficient artifice. Data mining is one of the technologies applied to intrusion detection to invent a ...

  6. A New Semi-unsupervised Intrusion Detection Method Based on Improved DBSCAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-yong Li

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of the existing intrusion detection systems, this paper proposed a new semi-unsupervised intrusion detection model based on improved DBSCAN algorithm, called IIDBG, and it was applied to detection engine. In IIDBG, distance calculation formula and clusters merger process were improved based on the DBSCAN and existing the improved algorithm IDBC. The experiments demonstrate that our method outperforms the existing clustering methods in terms of accuracy and detecting unknown intrusions.

  7. Intrusive luxation in primary teeth – Review of literature and report of a case

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Megha

    2011-01-01

    Luxation injuries such as intrusion are commonly seen in the primary dentition. Intrusion drives the tooth deeper into the alveolar socket, which results in damage to the pulp and peridontium. Difficulty in gaining compliance from a very young child and the risk of damaging the permanent tooth germ makes the management of these injuries challenging. Careful clinical and radiographic examination along with regular follow-up is essential. A case of intrusive luxation to the maxillary central in...

  8. HIERARCHICAL DESIGN BASED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM FOR WIRELESS AD HOC SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saiful Islam Mamun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless ad hoc sensor network becomes popular both in civil and military jobs.However, security is one of the significant challenges for sensor network because of their deploymentin open and unprotected environment. As cryptographic mechanism is not enough to protect sensornetwork from external attacks, intrusion detection system needs to be introduced. Though intrusionprevention mechanism is one of the major and efficient methods against attacks, but there might besome attacks for which prevention method is not known. Besides preventing the system from someknown attacks, intrusion detection system gather necessary information related to attack technique andhelp in the development of intrusion prevention system. In addition to reviewing the present attacksavailable in wireless sensor network this paper examines the current efforts to intrusion detectionsystem against wireless sensor network. In this paper we propose a hierarchical architectural designbased intrusion detection system that fits the current demands and restrictions of wireless ad hocsensor network. In this proposed intrusion detection system architecture we followed clusteringmechanism to build a four level hierarchical network which enhances network scalability to largegeographical area and use both anomaly and misuse detection techniques for intrusion detection. Weintroduce policy based detection mechanism as well as intrusion response together with GSM cellconcept for intrusion detection architecture.

  9. MA- IDS: A Distributed Intrusion Detection System Based on Data Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian-hua; JIN Hai; CHEN Hao; HAN Zong-fen

    2005-01-01

    Aiming at the shortcomings in intrusion detection systems (IDSs) used in commercial and research fields,we propose the MA-IDS system, a distributed intrusion detection system based on data mining. In this model, misuse intrusion detection system (MIDS) and anomaly intrusion detection system (AIDS) are combined. Data mining is applied to raise detection performance, and distributed mechanism is employed to increase the scalability and efficiency. Host- and network-based mining algorithms employ an improved Bayesian decision theorem that suits for real security environment to minimize the risks incurred by false decisions. We describe the overall architecture of the MA-IDS system, and discuss specific design and implementation issue.

  10. [A negative meta-cognitive belief about thought suppression induces intrusive thoughts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yosuke; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the causal relationship between meta-cognitive beliefs about thought suppression and intrusive thoughts. We conducted structural equation modeling using a cross-lagged effect model and a synchronous effect model. Results revealed that the Paradoxical Effect subscale score synchronously increased the frequency of intrusive thoughts. On the other hand, the frequency of intrusive thoughts did not affect the degree of confidence in meta-cognitive beliefs. These results demonstrate a causal relationship between meta-cognitive beliefs about thought suppression and intrusive thoughts. The cognitive processes underlying this causal relationship and future directions of research about thought suppression are discussed. PMID:26012266

  11. Classification of Magmatic Sulphide Deposits in China and Mineralization of Small Intrusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Many important metal resources, such as Ni (Cu, Co), PGE, exist in magmatic sulfide deposits, are a hot spot in geological research. We divide the magmatic sulphide deposits in China into four types according to their tectonic setting, intruding mode, ore deposit mode, main metallogenic elements. The four types are as follows: (1) Small-intrusion deposits in paleo-continent; (2) Smallintrusion deposits in continental flood basalt; (3) Small-intrusion deposits in orogenic belt; and (4) The deposits associated with ophiolites. On the basis of the classification, we put forward that the main magmatic metallogenic type in China is small-intrusion metallogeny, and describe its characteristics from small intrusions related concept, three geologic settings, three volcanic-intrusive assemblages and metallogenic key factors. According to the experiences of prospecting at home and abroad, we point out that there is big potential in prospecting small-intrusion deposits, which need further study. At last, we indicate that small-intrusion metallogeny not only widely distributes in mafic-ultramafic intrusions,but also has an important economic value and scientific significance in intermediate-acid intrusions.

  12. Management of a rare combination of avulsion and intrusive luxation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Dharmani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In traumatic dental injury, concomitant occurrence of avulsion and intrusive luxation is exceptional. This is because the vectors of forces responsible for both avulsive and intrusive injuries are in different directions. The present case report reviews the management of a rare combination of avulsion in right maxillary lateral incisor (tooth #12 and intrusive luxation in right maxillary central incisor (tooth #11 in a 22-year-old Asian male. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was done at 12-month follow-up. Various treatment modalities and complications associated with both avulsion and intrusion are also discussed in the paper.

  13. Biological intrusion barriers for large-volume waste-disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    intrusion of plants and animals into shallow land burial sites with subsequent mobilization of toxic and radiotoxic materials has occured. Based on recent pathway modeling studies, such intrusions can contribute to the dose received by man. This paper describes past work on developing biological intrusion barrier systems for application to large volume waste site stabilization. State-of-the-art concepts employing rock and chemical barriers are discussed relative to long term serviceability and cost of application. The interaction of bio-intrusion barrier systems with other processes affecting trench cover stability are discussed to ensure that trench cover designs minimize the potential dose to man. 3 figures, 6 tables

  14. Observational relations between potential vorticity intrusions and pre-monsoon rainfall over Indian sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, M.; Sridharan, S.

    2014-02-01

    The climatology of potential vorticity (PV) intrusion events to low latitudes, identified from the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting) reanalysis (ERA) interim data for the years 1982-2012, shows that the intrusion events occur, though less in number, over African and Indian sectors (0°-90°E) also, in addition to the well known intrusions over Eastern Pacific and Atlantic sectors. The seasonal variation of the PV intrusion events over Indian sector (50°E-90°E) shows that the intrusion events are more during pre-monsoon months, in particular during March and April contrary to the case over Eastern Pacific and Atlantic sectors, where the intrusions are more during winter. It is interesting to note that no intrusion events occur during the Indian monsoon months (June-September) due probably to the presence of tropical easterly jet. Though the number of PV intrusions is less, it plays a profound role in triggering deep convection and associated precipitation over Indian sector. Four cases are presented to show that these PV intrusions are clearly associated with deep convection and precipitation over Indian sector during the pre-monsoon months.

  15. 3D modeling of a dolerite intrusion from the photogrammetric and geophysical data integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, João; Machadinho, Ana; Figueiredo, Fernando; Mira, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study is create a methodology based on the integration of data obtained from various available technologies, which allow a credible and complete evaluation of rock masses. In this particular case of a dolerite intrusion, which deployed an exploration of aggregates and belongs to the Jobasaltos - Extracção e Britagem. S.A.. Dolerite intrusion is situated in the volcanic complex of Serra de Todo-o-Mundo, Casais Gaiola, intruded in Jurassic sandstones. The integration of the surface and subsurface mapping, obtained by technology UAVs (Drone) and geophysical surveys (Electromagnetic Method - TEM 48 FAST), allows the construction of 2D and 3D models of the study local. The combination of the 3D point clouds produced from two distinct processes, modeling of photogrammetric and geophysical data, will be the basis for the construction of a single model of set. The rock masses in an integral perspective being visible their development above the surface and subsurface. The presentation of 2D and 3D models will give a perspective of structures, fracturation, lithology and their spatial correlations contributing to a better local knowledge, as well as its potential for the intended purpose. From these local models it will be possible to characterize and quantify the geological structures. These models will have its importance as a tool to assist in the analysis and drafting of regional models. The qualitative improvement in geological/structural modeling, seeks to reduce the value of characterization/cost ratio, in phase of prospecting, improving the investment/benefit ratio. This methodology helps to assess more accurately the economic viability of the projects.

  16. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits–A deposit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements are not as rare in nature as their name implies, but economic deposits with these elements are not common and few deposits have been large producers. In the past 25 years, demand for rare earth elements has increased dramatically because of their wide and diverse use in high-technology applications. Yet, presently the global production and supply of rare earth elements come from only a few sources. China produces more than 95 percent of the world's supply of rare earth elements. Because of China's decision to restrict exports of these elements, the price of rare earth elements has increased and industrial countries are concerned about supply shortages. As a result, understanding the distribution and origin of rare earth elements deposits, and identifying and quantifying our nation's rare earth elements resources have become priorities. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. The general mineral deposit model summarized here is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits are discussed together because of their spatial association, common enrichment in incompatible elements, and similarities in genesis. A wide variety of commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks, such as rare earth elements, niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other enrichments include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium.

  17. MIDAS, the Mobile Intrusion Detection and Assessment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arlowe, H.D.; Coleman, D.E.; Williams, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    MIDAS is a semiautomated passive detection and assessment security system that can be quickly deployed to provide wide-area coverage for a mobile military asset. Designed to be mounted on top of an unguyed telescoping mast, its specially packaged set of 32 infrared sensors spin 360 degrees every two seconds. The unit produces a low resolution infrared image by sampling each sensor more than 16,000 times in a single 360-degree rotation. Drawing from image processing techniques, MIDAS detects vehicular and pedestrian intruders and produces an alarm when an intrusion is detected. Multiple intruders are tracked. MIDAS automatically directs either an assessment camera or a FLIR to one of the tracks. The alerted operator assesses the intruder and initiates a response. Once the operator assesses an intruder, the system continues to track it without generating new alarms. Because the system will track multiple targets and because the assessment system is a separate pan and tilt unit, the detection and tracking system cannot be blind-sided while the operator is assessing a diversionary intrusion. 4 figs.

  18. Less is More: Data Processing with SVM for Intrusion Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Hai-jun; HONG Fan; WANG Ling

    2009-01-01

    To improve the detection rate and lower down the false positive rate in intrusion detection system,dimensionality reduction is widely used in the intrusion detection system.For this purpose,a data processing (DP) with support vector machine (SVM) was built.Different from traditionally identifying the redundant data before purging the audit data by expert knowledge or utilizing different kinds of subsets of the available 41-connection attributes to build a classifier,the proposed strategy first removes the attributes whose correlation with another attribute exceeds a threshold,and then classifies two sequence samples as one class while removing either of the two samples whose similarity exceeds a threshold.The results of performance experiments showed that the strategy of DP and SVM is superior to the other existing data reduction strategies (e.g.,audit reduction,rule extraction,and feature selection),and that the detection model based on DP and SVM outperforms those based on data mining,soft computing,and hierarchical principal component analysis neural networks.

  19. A Retroactive-Burst Framework for Automated Intrusion Response System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shameli-Sendi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an adaptive and cost-sensitive model to prevent security intrusions. In most automated intrusion response systems, response selection is performed locally based on current threat without using the knowledge of attacks history. Another challenge is that a group of responses are applied without any feedback mechanism to measure the response effect. We address these problems through retroactive-burst execution of responses and a Response Coordinator (RC mechanism, the main contributions of this work. The retroactive-burst execution consists of several burst executions of responses with, at the end of each burst, a mechanism for measuring the effectiveness of the applied responses by the risk assessment component. The appropriate combination of responses must be considered for each burst execution to mitigate the progress of the attack without necessarily running the next round of responses, because of the impact on legitimate users. In the proposed model, there is a multilevel response mechanism. To indicate which level is appropriate to apply based on the retroactive-burst execution, we get help from a Response Coordinator mechanism. The applied responses can improve the health of Applications, Kernel, Local Services, Network Services, and Physical Status. Based on these indexes, the RC gives a general overview of an attacker’s goal in a distributed environment.

  20. Nuclear data needs for non-intrusive inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various nuclear-based techniques are being explored for use in non-intrusive inspection. Their development is motivated by the need to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, to thwart trafficking in illicit narcotics, to stop the transport of explosives by terrorist organizations, to characterize nuclear waste, and to deal with various other societal concerns. Non-intrusive methods are sought in order to optimize inspection speed, to minimize damage to packages and containers, to satisfy environmental, health and safety requirements, to adhere to legal requirements, and to avoid inconveniencing the innocent. These inspection techniques can be grouped into two major categories: active and passive. They almost always require the use of highly penetrating radiation and therefore are generally limited to neutrons and gamma rays. Although x-rays are widely employed for these purposes, their use does not constitute nuclear technology and therefore is not discussed here. This paper examines briefly the basic concepts associated with nuclear inspection and investigates the related nuclear data needs. These needs are illustrated by considering four of the methods currently being developed and tested

  1. Nuclear data needs for non-intrusive inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various nuclear-based techniques are being explored for use in non-intrusive inspection. Their development is motivated by the need to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, to thwart trafficking in illicit narcotics, to stop the transport of explosives by terrorist organizations, to characterize nuclear waste, and to deal with various other societal concerns. Non-intrusive methods are sought in order to optimize inspection speed, to minimize damage to packages and containers, to satisfy environmental, health and safety requirements, to adhere to legal requirements, and to avoid inconveniencing the innocent. These inspection techniques can be grouped into two major categories: active and passive. They almost always require the use of highly penetrating radiation and therefore are generally limited to neutrons and gamma rays. Although x-rays are widely employed for these purposes, their use does not constitute 'nuclear technology' and therefore is not discussed here. This paper examines briefly the basic concepts associated with nuclear inspection and investigates the related nuclear data needs. These needs are illustrated by considering four of the methods currently being developed and tested. (author)

  2. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981

  3. Nuclear data needs for non-intrusive inspection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. L.; Michlich, B. J.

    2000-11-29

    Various nuclear-based techniques are being explored for use in non-intrusive inspection. Their development is motivated by the need to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons, to thwart trafficking in illicit narcotics, to stop the transport of explosives by terrorist organizations, to characterize nuclear waste, and to deal with various other societal concerns. Non-intrusive methods are sought in order to optimize inspection speed, to minimize damage to packages and containers, to satisfy environmental, health and safety requirements, to adhere to legal requirements, and to avoid inconveniencing the innocent. These inspection techniques can be grouped into two major categories: active and passive. They almost always require the use of highly penetrating radiation and therefore are generally limited to neutrons and gamma rays. Although x-rays are widely employed for these purposes, their use does not constitute nuclear technology and therefore is not discussed here. This paper examines briefly the basic concepts associated with nuclear inspection and investigates the related nuclear data needs. These needs are illustrated by considering four of the methods currently being developed and tested.

  4. The role of human intrusion in the dutch safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Netherlands the OPLA research program in which a large number of possible disposal concepts for radioactive waste is investigated has been carried out recently. The disposal concepts concern three different waste strategies, two disposal techiques and three different types of salt formations. In the OPLA program the post-closure safety of the disposal concepts has been investigated. The paper reviews the role of the human intrusion in this safety study. The hydrological consequences of human activities in the underground are discussed and it has been demonstrated that these effects could be taken into account during the groundwater transport calculations. Four different scenario's for human intrusion in the repository have been studied to obtain an indication of the radiological effects. The results show that extremely high doses may result if, after several hundred years, human beings come into direct contact with highly active waste. For the final assessment the probability that the doses will be received should be calculated. This should be done in a subsequent research

  5. A new data normalization method for unsupervised anomaly intrusion detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long-zheng CAI; Jian CHEN; Yun KE; Tao CHEN; Zhi-gang LI

    2010-01-01

    Unsupervised anomaly detection can detect attacks without the need for clean or labeled training data.This paper studies the application of clustering to unsupervised anomaly detection(ACUAD).Data records are mapped to a feature space.Anomalies are detected by determining which points lie in the sparse regions of the feature space.A critical element for this method to be effective is the definition of the distance function between data records.We propose a unified normalization distance framework for records with numeric and nominal features mixed data.A heuristic method that computes the distance for nominal features is proposed,taking advantage of an important characteristic of nominal features-their probability distribution.Then,robust methods are proposed for mapping numeric features and computing their distance,these being able to tolerate the impact of the value difference in scale and diversification among features,and outliers introduced by intrusions.Empirical experiments with the KDD 1999 dataset showed that ACUAD can detect intrusions with relatively low false alarm rates compared with other approaches.

  6. Experiments on Adaptive Techniques for Host-Based Intrusion Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research explores four experiments of adaptive host-based intrusion detection (ID) techniques in an attempt to develop systems that can detect novel exploits. The technique considered to have the most potential is adaptive critic designs (ACDs) because of their utilization of reinforcement learning, which allows learning exploits that are difficult to pinpoint in sensor data. Preliminary results of ID using an ACD, an Elman recurrent neural network, and a statistical anomaly detection technique demonstrate an ability to learn to distinguish between clean and exploit data. We used the Solaris Basic Security Module (BSM) as a data source and performed considerable preprocessing on the raw data. A detection approach called generalized signature-based ID is recommended as a middle ground between signature-based ID, which has an inability to detect novel exploits, and anomaly detection, which detects too many events including events that are not exploits. The primary results of the ID experiments demonstrate the use of custom data for generalized signature-based intrusion detection and the ability of neural network-based systems to learn in this application environment

  7. Nuclear-power-plant perimeter-intrusion alarm systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, D.J.

    1982-04-01

    Timely intercept of an intruder requires the examination of perimeter barriers and sensors in terms of reliable detection, immediate assessment and prompt response provisions. Perimeter security equipment and operations must at the same time meet the requirements of the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 73.55 with some attention to the performance and testing figures of Nuclear Regulatory Guide 5.44, Revision 2, May 1980. A baseline system is defined which recommends a general approach to implementing perimeter security elements: barriers, lighting, intrusion detection, alarm assessment. The baseline approach emphasizes cost/effectiveness achieved by detector layering and logic processing of alarm signals to produce reliable alarms and low nuisance alarm rates. A cost benefit of layering along with video assessment is reduction in operating expense. The concept of layering is also shown to minimize testing costs where detectability performance as suggested by Regulatory Guide 5.44 is to be performed. Synthesis of the perimeter intrusion alarm system and limited testing of CCTV and Video Motion Detectors (VMD), were performed at E-Systems, Greenville Division, Greenville, Texas during 1981.

  8. Doses resulting from intrusion into uranium tailings areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the future, it is conceivable that institutional controls of uranium tailings areas may cease to exist and individuals may intrude into these areas unaware of the potential radiation hazards. The objective of this study was to estimate the potential doses to the intruders for a comprehensive set of intrusion scenarios. Reference tailings areas in the Elliot Lake region of northern Ontario and in northern Saskatchewan were developed to the extent required to calculate radiation exposures. The intrusion scenarios for which dose calculations were performed, were categorized into the following classes: habitation of the tailings, agricultural activities, construction activities, and recreational activities. Realistic exposure conditions were specified and annual doses were calculated by applying standard dose conversion factors. The exposure estimates demonstrated that the annual doses resulting from recreational activities and from construction activities would be generally small, less than twenty millisieverts, while the habitational and agricultural activities could hypothetically result in doses of several hundred millisieverts. However, the probability of occurrence of these latter classes of scenarios is considered to be much lower than scenarios involving either construction or recreational activities

  9. A NOVEL TECHNIQUE TO DETECT INTRUSION IN MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Mandal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel technique has been proposed for intrusion detection in MANET, where agents are fired from a node for each node randomly and detect the defective nodes. Detection is based on triangular encryption technique (TE[9,10], and AODV[1,2,3,8] is taken as routing protocol. The scheme is an ‘Agent’ based intrusion detection system. This technique is applied on two types of defective nodes namely packet sinking and black hole attack. For simulation purpose we have taken NS2 (2.33 and three type of parameters are considered. These are number of nodes, percentage of node mobility and type of defectivenodes. For analysis purpose 20, 30, 30, 40, 50 and 60 nodes are taken with variability. Percentage of defectiveness as 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%.Packet sink and black hole attack are considered as defectiveness of nodes. We have considered generated packets, forward packets, average delay and drop packets as comparisons and performance analysis parameters.

  10. Volcano growth mechanisms and the role of sub-volcanic intrusions: Insights from 2D seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Craig; Hunt-Stewart, Esther; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.

    2013-07-01

    Temporal and spatial changes in volcano morphology and internal architecture can determine eruption style and location. However, the relationship between the external and internal characteristics of volcanoes and sub-volcanic intrusions is often difficult to observe at outcrop or interpret uniquely from geophysical and geodetic data. We use high-quality 2D seismic reflection data from the Ceduna Sub-basin, offshore southern Australia, to quantitatively analyse 56, pristinely-preserved, Eocene-age volcanogenic mounds, and a genetically-related network of sub-volcanic sills and laccoliths. Detailed seismic mapping has allowed the 3D geometry of each mound to be reconstructed and distinct seismic facies within them to be recognised. Forty-six continental, basaltic shield volcanoes have been identified that have average flank dips of attributed to intrusions with complex morphologies; and/or (iii) reflect magma movement along pre-existing fracture systems. These complexities should therefore be considered in eruption forecasting models that link pre-eruption ground deformation to subterranean magma emplacement depth and volume. More generally, our study highlights the key role that seismic reflection data can play in understanding the geometry, distribution and evolution of ancient and modern volcanic systems.

  11. Physical Properties and Distribution of Intrusive Rocks (Plutons) in the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, D. A.; Watt, J. T.; Glen, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    outcrop pattern of the Ruby Mountains (Ponce and Watt, 2010). Other possible plutons have been inferred to underlie the Indian Peak Caldera complex in east-central Nevada. Physical property measurements and geophysical interpretations indicate that many plutons mapped along the Nevada-Utah border, such as those in the Kern Mountains and Snake Range (e.g., Best, 1974), are essentially non-magnetic and are part of a belt of peraluminous muscovite-bearing plutons (Miller and Bradfish, 1980). Not only could these plutons be much more extensive than their outcrop pattern suggests, but other similar plutons could exist throughout this area. This study of intrusive rocks in the Great Basin is part of an effort to understand the temporal and spatial association of plutons with mineral deposits. These data combined with other databases like the age of intrusions and their geochemistry (e.g., DuBray and Crafford, 2007; DuBray et al., 2007) provide a useful tool for studying intrusive rocks and the evolution of magmatism in the Great Basin.

  12. Multi-pattern string matching algorithms comparison for intrusion detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Awsan A.; Rashid, Nur'Aini Abdul; Abdulrazzaq, Atheer A.

    2014-12-01

    Computer networks are developing exponentially and running at high speeds. With the increasing number of Internet users, computers have become the preferred target for complex attacks that require complex analyses to be detected. The Intrusion detection system (IDS) is created and turned into an important part of any modern network to protect the network from attacks. The IDS relies on string matching algorithms to identify network attacks, but these string matching algorithms consume a considerable amount of IDS processing time, thereby slows down the IDS performance. A new algorithm that can overcome the weakness of the IDS needs to be developed. Improving the multi-pattern matching algorithm ensure that an IDS can work properly and the limitations can be overcome. In this paper, we perform a comparison between our three multi-pattern matching algorithms; MP-KR, MPHQS and MPH-BMH with their corresponding original algorithms Kr, QS and BMH respectively. The experiments show that MPH-QS performs best among the proposed algorithms, followed by MPH-BMH, and MP-KR is the slowest. MPH-QS detects a large number of signature patterns in short time compared to other two algorithms. This finding can prove that the multi-pattern matching algorithms are more efficient in high-speed networks.

  13. Non-intrusive face verification by a virtual mirror interface using fractal codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Ben; Tangelder, Johan

    2005-01-01

    Key factors in the public acceptance of biometric systems are non-intrusiveness, ease of use, and trust. In this paper we propose a biometric identity verification system consisting of a non-intrusive virtual mirror interface, and a face verifier using fractal coding to store the biometric template

  14. Passive intrusion detection in wireless networks by exploiting clustering-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Chen, Yingying; Desai, Sachi; Quoraishee, Shafik

    2010-04-01

    The large-scale wireless sensing data collected from wireless networks can be used for detecting intruders (e.g., enemies in tactical fields), and further facilitating real-time situation awareness in Army's networkcentric warfare applications such as intrusion detection, battlefield protection and emergency evacuation. In this work, we focus on exploiting Received Signal Strength (RSS) obtained from the existing wireless infrastructures for performing intrusion detection when the intruders or objects do not carry any radio devices. This is also known as passive intrusion detection. Passive intrusion detection based on the RSS data is an attractive approach as it reuses the existing wireless environmental data without requiring a specialized infrastructure. We propose a clustering-based learning mechanism for passive intrusion detection in wireless networks. Specifically, our detection scheme utilizes the clustering method to analyze the changes of RSS, caused by intrusions, at multiple devices to diagnose the presence of intrusions collaboratively. Our experimental results using an IEEE 802.15.4 (Zigbee) network in a real office environment show that our clustering-based learning can effectively detect the presence of intrusions.

  15. RePIDS: a multi tier real-time payload-based intrusion detection system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamdagni, Aruna; Tan, Zhiyuan; Nanda, Priyadarsi; He, Xiangjian; Liu, Ren Ping

    2013-01-01

    Intrusion Detection System (IDS) deals with huge amount of network traffic and uses large feature set to discriminate normal pattern and intrusive pattern. However, most of existing systems lack the ability to process data for real-time anomaly detection. In this paper, we propose a 3-Tier Iterative

  16. Individual differences in experiencing intrusive memories : The role of the ability to resist proactive interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwoerd, Johan; Wessel, Ineke; de Jong, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored whether a relatively poor ability to resist or inhibit interference from irrelevant information in working memory is associated with experiencing undesirable intrusive memories. Non-selected participants (N = 91) completed a self-report measure of intrusive memories, and carried

  17. Vividness of general mental imagery is associated with the occurrence of intrusive memories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Morina; E. Leibold; T. Ehring

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives: Intrusive memories of traumatic events constitute a core feature of post-traumatic stress disorder. However, the association of pre-traumatic factors with post-traumatic intrusive memories is still only poorly understood. The current study investigated the extent to which

  18. Longitudinal Relations of Intrusive Parenting and Effortful Control to Ego-Resiliency during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zoe E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal relations among ego-resiliency (ER), effortful control (EC), and observed intrusive parenting were examined at 18, 30, and 42 months of age ("Ns" = 256, 230, and 210) using structural equation modeling. Intrusive parenting at 18 and 30 months negatively predicted EC a year later, over and above earlier levels. EC at…

  19. Numerical simulation and analysis of saltwater intrusion lengths in the Pearl River Delta, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Feng, H.; Zheng, J.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Vegt, van der M.; Zhu, Y.; Cai, H.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, large-scale saltwater intrusion has been threatening the freshwater supply in the metropolitan cities surrounding the Pearl River delta (PRD). Therefore, a better understanding of the saltwater intrusion process in this region is necessary for local water resource management. In thi

  20. Microstructure in hardened cement pastes measured by mercury intrusion porosimetry and low temperature microcalorimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Baroghel, V.B.; Künzel, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Cumulated pore size distributions for hardened cement pastes measured by mercury intrusion porosimetry from two laboratories and low temperature microcalorimetry from one laboratory are presented.......Cumulated pore size distributions for hardened cement pastes measured by mercury intrusion porosimetry from two laboratories and low temperature microcalorimetry from one laboratory are presented....

  1. Intrusive Thoughts and Young Children's Knowledge about Thinking following a Natural Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprung, Manuel; Harris, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: "Hurricane Katrina" devastated the Mississippi Gulf Coast in August 2005. Intrusive re-experiencing is a common posttraumatic stress symptom. However, young children with limited introspection skills might have difficulties identifying their intrusive thoughts. Method: A sample of 165 5- to 9-year-old children were surveyed about their…

  2. Multi-Objective Management of Saltwater Intrusion in Groundwater. Optimization under Uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, T.M.

    2004-01-01

    Coastal aquifers are very vulnerable to seawater intrusion through, for example, the overdraft of groundwater exploitation or insufficient recharge from upstream. Problems of salt-intrusion into groundwater have become a considerable concern in many countries with coastal areas. There have been a nu

  3. Mining Association Rules to Evade Network Intrusion in Network Audit Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Nalavade

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of hacking and exploiting tools and invention of new ways of intrusion, intrusion detection and prevention is becoming the major challenge in the world of network security. The increasing network traffic and data on Internet is making this task more demanding. There are various approaches being utilized in intrusion detections, but unfortunately any of the systems so far is not completely flawless. The false positive rates make it extremely hard to analyse and react to attacks. Intrusion detection systems using data mining approaches make it possible to search patterns and rules in large amount of audit data. In this paper, we represent a model to integrate association rules to intrusion detection to design and implement a network intrusion detection system. Our technique is used to generate attack rules that will detect the attacks in network audit data using anomaly detection. This shows that the modified association rules algorithm is capable of detecting network intrusions. The KDD dataset which is freely available online is used for our experimentation and results are compared. Our intrusion detection system using association rule mining is able to generate attack rules that will detect the attacks in network audit data using anomaly detection, while maintaining a low false positive rate.

  4. Intrusion of overerupted molars by corticotomy and orthodontic skeletal anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Cheol-Hyun; Wee, Jin-Uk; Lee, Hyun-Sun

    2007-11-01

    This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a 26-year-old female patient with overerupted left maxillary molar teeth. Her chief complaint was that the maxillary left first and the second molar intruded into the space required for the mandibular left first and the second molars, preventing prosthodontic treatment. The authors performed a corticotomy and used orthodontic skeletal anchorage with a miniplate and orthodontic miniscrews with a head modified to provide a specially designed hook. With this approach, they were able to achieve a sufficient amount of molar intrusion without discomfort, root resorption, or extrusion of the adjacent teeth. The first molar was intruded 3.0 mm and second molar was intruded 3.5 mm during 2 months of treatment. These results have been maintained for 11 months. PMID:18004918

  5. Mining Techniques in Network Security to Enhance Intrusion Detection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Salem

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In intrusion detection systems, classifiers still suffer from several drawbacks such as data dimensionalityand dominance, different network feature types, and data impact on the classification. In this paper twosignificant enhancements are presented to solve these drawbacks. The first enhancement is an improvedfeature selection using sequential backward search and information gain. This, in turn, extracts valuablefeatures that enhance positively the detection rate and reduce the false positive rate. The secondenhancement is transferring nominal network features to numeric ones by exploiting the discrete randomvariable and the probability mass function to solve the problem of different feature types, the problem ofdata dominance, and data impact on the classification. The latter is combined to known normalizationmethods to achieve a significant hybrid normalization approach. Finally, an intensive and comparativestudy approves the efficiency of these enhancements and shows better performance comparing to otherproposed methods.

  6. Network Intrusion Detection Evading System using Frequent Pattern Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Dhurpate#1 , L.M.R.J. Lobo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Signature based NIDS are efficient at detecting attacks for what they are prepared for. This makes an intruderto focus on the new evasion technique to remain undetected. Emergence of new evasion technique may cause NIDS to fail. Unfortunately, most of these techniques are based on network protocols ambiguities, so NIDS designers must take them into account when updating their tools. This paper presents a framework for evading network intrusion detection system and detection over NIDS using frequent element pattern matching. The core of the framework is to model the NIDS using Adaboost algorithm that allows the understanding of how the NIDS classifies network data. We look for some way of evading the NIDS detection by changing some of the fields of the packets. We use publicly available dataset (KDD-99 for showing the proof of our concept. For real time evasion detection NIDS is build with Apriori algorithm to analyze NIDS robustness with high detection rate accuracy

  7. Non-intrusive Shock Measurements Using Laser Doppler Vibrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statham, Shannon M.; Kolaini, Ali R.

    2012-01-01

    Stud mount accelerometers are widely used by the aerospace industry to measure shock environments during hardware qualification. The commonly used contact-based sensors, however, interfere with the shock waves and distort the acquired signature, which is a concern not actively discussed in the community. To alleviate these interference issues, engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are investigating the use of non-intrusive sensors, specifically Laser Doppler Vibrometers, as alternatives to the stud mounted accelerometers. This paper will describe shock simulation tests completed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, compare the measurements from stud mounted accelerometers and Laser Doppler Vibrometers, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of introducing Laser Doppler Vibrometers as alternative sensors for measuring shock environments.

  8. Authentication Algorithm for Intrusion Detection in Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Santra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Security has been a major issue in wireless networks. In a wireless network, wireless devices are prone to be unauthorized accessing data or resources. Hence it becomes necessary to consider issues of security such as : 1. Authentication, 2. Access Control. Traditional methods of Authentication has been to assign user names and passwords. This is extremely vulnerable to be accessed and misused. Therefore, to overcome these problems, This paper proposes a method by which the Username and Password are stored in an Hashed format, with the help of Neural Network learning the hashes instead of storing them in the tables. Thus, reducing the risk of being accessed. Therefore, a combination of authentication and access control could make a good tool for intrusion detection.

  9. Non-intrusive Quality Analysis of Monitoring Data

    CERN Document Server

    Brightwell, M; Suwalska, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Any large-scale operational system running over a variety of devices requires a monitoring mechanism to assess the health of the overall system. The Technical Infrastructure Monitoring System (TIM) at CERN is one such system, and monitors a wide variety of devices and their properties, such as electricity supplies, device temperatures, liquid flows etc. Without adequate quality assurance, the data collected from such devices leads to false-positives and false-negatives, reducing the effectiveness of the monitoring system. The quality must, however, be measured in a non-intrusive way, so that the critical path of the data flow is not affected by the quality computation. The quality computation should also scale to large volumes of incoming data. To address these challenges, we develop a new statistical module, which monitors the data collected by TIM and reports its quality to the operators. The statistical module uses Oracle RDBMS as the underlying store, and builds hierarchical summaries on the basic events ...

  10. An Intrusion Detection System for Kaminsky DNS Cache poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhrubajyoti Pathak, Kaushik Baruah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Domain Name System (DNS is the largest and most actively distributed, hierarchical and scalable database system which plays an incredibly inevitable role behind the functioning of the Internet as we know it today. A DNS translates human readable and meaningful domain names such as www.iitg.ernet.in into an Internet Protocol (IP address such as 202.141.80.6. It is used for locating a resource on the World Wide Web. Without a DNS, the Internet services as we know it, would come to a halt. In our thesis, we proposed an Intrusion Detection System(IDS for Kaminsky cache poisoning attacks. Our system relies on the existing properties of the DNS protocol.

  11. Medical image of the week: alpha intrusion into REM sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old woman with a past medical history of hypertension and chronic headaches was referred to the sleep laboratory for high clinical suspicion for sleep apnea based on a history of snoring, witnessed apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. An overnight sleep study was performed. Images during N3 Sleep and REM sleep are shown (Figures 1 and 2. Alpha intrusion in delta sleep is seen in patients with fibromyalgia, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, anxiety disorder, and primary sleep disorders like psychophysiological insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, circadian disorders and narcolepsy (1. Bursts of alpha waves during REM sleep may be more common during phasic REM than tonic REM. The REM alpha bursts (alpha activity lasting at least 3 seconds without an increase in EMG amplitude may represent microarousals (2. Hypersynchronous theta activity should be differentiated from the spike and waveform activity seen in seizures.

  12. A Multi-Dimensional approach towards Intrusion Detection System

    CERN Document Server

    Thakur, Manoj Rameshchandra

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest a multi-dimensional approach towards intrusion detection. Network and system usage parameters like source and destination IP addresses; source and destination ports; incoming and outgoing network traffic data rate and number of CPU cycles per request are divided into multiple dimensions. Rather than analyzing raw bytes of data corresponding to the values of the network parameters, a mature function is inferred during the training phase for each dimension. This mature function takes a dimension value as an input and returns a value that represents the level of abnormality in the system usage with respect to that dimension. This mature function is referred to as Individual Anomaly Indicator. Individual Anomaly Indicators recorded for each of the dimensions are then used to generate a Global Anomaly Indicator, a function with n variables (n is the number of dimensions) that provides the Global Anomaly Factor, an indicator of anomaly in the system usage based on all the dimensions consid...

  13. A Scalable Intrusion Detection System for IPv6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bin; LI Zhitang; LI Zhanchun

    2006-01-01

    The next generation protocol IPv6 brings the new challenges to the information security. This paper presents the design and implementation of a network-based intrusion detection system that support both IPv6 protocol and IPv4 protocol. This system's architecture is focused on performance, simplicity, and scalability. There are four primary subsystems that make it up: the packet capture, the packet decoder, the detection engine, and the logging and alerting subsystem. This paper further describes a new approach to packet capture whose goal is to improve the performance of the capture process at high speeds. The evaluation shows that the system has a good performance to detect IPv6 attacks and IPv4 attacks, and achieves 61% correct detection rate with 20% false detection rate at the speed of 100 Mb·s-1.

  14. Intrusion Detection System with Hierarchical Different Parallel Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Safaiezadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Todays, lives integrated to networks and internet. The needed information is transmitted through networks. So, someone may attempt to abuse the information and attack and make changes by weakness of networks. Intrusion Detection System is a system capable to detect some attacks. The system detects attacks through classifier construction and considering IP in network. The recent researches showed that a fundamental classification cannot be effective lonely and due to its errors, but mixing some classifications provide better efficiency. So, the current study attempt to design three classes of support vector machine, the neural network of multilayer perceptron and parallel fuzzy system in which there are trained dataset and capability to detect two classes. Finally, decisions made by an intermediate network due to type of attack. In the present research, suggested system tested through dataset of KDD99 and results indicated appropriate efficiency 99.71% in average.

  15. A model for anomaly classification in intrusion detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, V. O.; Galhardi, V. V.; Gonçalves, L. B. L.; Silva, R. C.; Cansian, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are traditionally divided into two types according to the detection methods they employ, namely (i) misuse detection and (ii) anomaly detection. Anomaly detection has been widely used and its main advantage is the ability to detect new attacks. However, the analysis of anomalies generated can become expensive, since they often have no clear information about the malicious events they represent. In this context, this paper presents a model for automated classification of alerts generated by an anomaly based IDS. The main goal is either the classification of the detected anomalies in well-defined taxonomies of attacks or to identify whether it is a false positive misclassified by the IDS. Some common attacks to computer networks were considered and we achieved important results that can equip security analysts with best resources for their analyses.

  16. An Improved Intrusion Detection based on Neural Network and Fuzzy Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang He

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The computer network security plays an important role in modern computer systems with the widespread use of network. Intrusion diction technology has become very important in the area of network security research. Performance of common intrusion detection system is low and error detection rate is high. In order to overcome the current high rate of false positives, low detection rate and other defects of intrusion detection system, a new detection algorithm—T-S FNN based network intrusion detection algorithm is presented. This algorithm uses T-S FNN to classify objects, divides eigen-space of objects and recognizes normal behaviors and intrusions. The results of experiment show that the new method is feasible, effective and extensible. The false detection rate is reduced and the rate of correct detection is raised to a certain extent too

  17. WiFi Miner: An Online Apriori-Infrequent Based Wireless Intrusion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ahmedur; Ezeife, C. I.; Aggarwal, A. K.

    Intrusion detection in wireless networks has become a vital part in wireless network security systems with wide spread use of Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN). Currently, almost all devices are Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) capable and can access WLAN. This paper proposes an Intrusion Detection System, WiFi Miner, which applies an infrequent pattern association rule mining Apriori technique to wireless network packets captured through hardware sensors for purposes of real time detection of intrusive or anomalous packets. Contributions of the proposed system includes effectively adapting an efficient data mining association rule technique to important problem of intrusion detection in a wireless network environment using hardware sensors, providing a solution that eliminates the need for hard-to-obtain training data in this environment, providing increased intrusion detection rate and reduction of false alarms.

  18. Early Permian intrusions in the Paleozoic sediments of the Eastern North Sea area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, O.R.; Andresen, Katrine Juul; Rasmussen, Jens Andreas

    Permian Kupfershiefer which is a potential source rock, has local depositional maxima associated to the basement faults. Salt structures which have been periodically active during the post Paleozoic dominate the northern part of the study area. The Paleozoic intrusions observed in the hanging-wall segment......This study presents the geometry of Paleozoic intrusions in the Skagerrak area located at the northern flank of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High and suggests factors controlling the formation of the intrusions. The intrusions have here been mapped in detail using 3D seismic data. The study area is located...... recorded across the entire North Sea Basin. The easternmost intrusions and extrusions have been associated to the “Skagerrak-Centered Large Igneous Province” that has an early Permian age of c. 297 Ma. Compared to the Southern Permian Basin which historically has been intensely investigated because of the...

  19. Dike intrusions during rifting episodes obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarelli, L; Rivalta, E; Shuler, A

    2014-01-01

    As continental rifts evolve towards mid-ocean ridges, strain is accommodated by repeated episodes of faulting and magmatism. Discrete rifting episodes have been observed along two subaerial divergent plate boundaries, the Krafla segment of the Northern Volcanic Rift Zone in Iceland and the Manda-Hararo segment of the Red Sea Rift in Ethiopia. In both cases, the initial and largest dike intrusion was followed by a series of smaller intrusions. By performing a statistical analysis of these rifting episodes, we demonstrate that dike intrusions obey scaling relationships similar to earthquakes. We find that the dimensions of dike intrusions obey a power law analogous to the Gutenberg-Richter relation, and the long-term release of geodetic moment is governed by a relationship consistent with the Omori law. Due to the effects of magma supply, the timing of secondary dike intrusions differs from that of the aftershocks. This work provides evidence of self-similarity in the rifting process. PMID:24469260

  20. Design Network Intrusion Detection System using hybrid Fuzzy-Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    muna mhammad taher jawhar & Monica Mehrotra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As networks grow both in importance and size, there is an increasing need for effective security monitors such as Network Intrusion Detection System to prevent such illicit accesses. Intrusion Detection Systems technology is an effective approach in dealing with the problems of network security. In this paper, we present an intrusion detection model based on hybrid fuzzy logic and neural network. The key idea is to take advantage of different classification abilities of fuzzy logic and neural network for intrusion detection system. The new model has ability to recognize an attack, to differentiate one attack from another i.e. classifying attack, and the most important, to detect new attacks with high detection rate and low false negative. Training and testing data were obtained from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA intrusion detection evaluation data set.

  1. Nuisance alarm suppression techniques for fibre-optic intrusion detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Seedahmed S.; Visagathilagar, Yuvaraja; Katsifolis, Jim

    2012-02-01

    The suppression of nuisance alarms without degrading sensitivity in fibre-optic intrusion detection systems is important for maintaining acceptable performance. Signal processing algorithms that maintain the POD and minimize nuisance alarms are crucial for achieving this. A level crossings algorithm is presented for suppressing torrential rain-induced nuisance alarms in a fibre-optic fence-based perimeter intrusion detection system. Results show that rain-induced nuisance alarms can be suppressed for rainfall rates in excess of 100 mm/hr, and intrusion events can be detected simultaneously during rain periods. The use of a level crossing based detection and novel classification algorithm is also presented demonstrating the suppression of nuisance events and discrimination of nuisance and intrusion events in a buried pipeline fibre-optic intrusion detection system. The sensor employed for both types of systems is a distributed bidirectional fibre-optic Mach Zehnder interferometer.

  2. Time to face it! Facebook intrusion and the implications for romantic jealousy and relationship satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphinston, Rachel A; Noller, Patricia

    2011-11-01

    Young people's exposure to social network sites such as Facebook is increasing, along with the potential for such use to complicate romantic relationships. Yet, little is known about the overlaps between the online and offline worlds. We extended previous research by investigating the links between Facebook intrusion, jealousy in romantic relationships, and relationship outcomes in a sample of undergraduates currently in a romantic relationship. A Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire was developed based on key features of technological (behavioral) addictions. An eight-item Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire with a single-factor structure was supported; internal consistency was high. Facebook intrusion was linked to relationship dissatisfaction, via jealous cognitions and surveillance behaviors. The results highlight the possibility of high levels of Facebook intrusion spilling over into romantic relationships, resulting in problems such as jealousy and dissatisfaction. The results have implications for romantic relationships and for Facebook users in general. PMID:21548798

  3. Design And Efficient Deployment Of Honeypot And Dynamic Rule Based Live Network Intrusion Collaborative System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Prasad.B

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The continuously emerging, operationally and managerially independent, geographically distributedcomputer networks deployable in an evolutionarily manner have created greater challenges in securingthem. Several research works and experiments have convinced the security expert that Network IntrusionDetection Systems (NIDS or Network Intrusion Prevention Systems (NIPS alone are not capable ofsecuring the Computer Networks from internal and external threats completely. In this paper we presentthe design of Intrusion Collaborative System which is a combination of NIDS,NIPS, Honeypots, softwaretools like nmap, iptables etc. Our Design is tested against existing attacks based on Snort Rules andseveral customized DDOS , remote and guest attacks. Dynamic rules are generated during every unusualbehavior that helps Intrusion Collaborative System to continuously learn about new attacks. Also aformal approach to deploy Live Intrusion Collaboration Systems based on System of Systems Concept isProposed.

  4. On a new benchmark for the simulation of saltwater intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckl, Leonard; Graf, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    To date, many different benchmark problems for density-driven flow are available. Benchmarks are necessary to validate numerical models. The benchmark by Henry (1964) measures a saltwater wedge, intruding into a freshwater aquifer in a rectangular model. The Henry (1964) problem of saltwater intrusion is one of the most applied benchmarks in hydrogeology. Modelling saltwater intrusion will be of major importance in the future because investigating the impact of groundwater overexploitation, climate change or sea level rise are of key concern. The worthiness of the Henry (1964) problem was questioned by Simpson and Clement (2003), who compared density-coupled and density-uncoupled simulations. Density-uncoupling was achieved by neglecting density effects in the governing equations, and by considering density effects only in the flow boundary conditions. As both of their simulations showed similar results, Simpson and Clement (2003) concluded that flow patterns of the Henry (1964) problem are largely dictated by the applied flow boundary conditions and density-dependent effects are not adequately represented in the Henry (1964) problem. In the present study, we compare numerical simulations of the physical benchmark of a freshwater lens by Stoeckl and Houben (2012) to the Henry (1964) problem. In this new benchmark, the development of a freshwater lens under an island is simulated by applying freshwater recharge to the model top. Results indicate that density-uncoupling significantly alters the flow patterns of fresh- and saltwater. This leads to the conclusion that next to the boundary conditions applied, density-dependent effects are important to correctly simulate the flow dynamics of a freshwater lens.

  5. The interplay between rumination and intrusions in the prediction of concurrent and prospective depression symptoms in two non-clinical samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, J.; Wessel, I.; Schreurs, E.; Raes, F.

    2012-01-01

    Depressed patients commonly experience intrusive memories. There is some evidence that ruminative responses to those intrusions are important for maintaining depressive symptoms. Three models concerning the interplay of intrusions and rumination in the prediction of depressive symptoms were tested i

  6. Predicting salt intrusion into freshwater aquifers resulting from CO2 injection – A study on the influence of conservative assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Lena; Binning, Philip John; Class, Holger

    2013-01-01

    with constant salinity in the brine phase. The second approach takes compositional effects into account and considers salinity as a variable parameter in the water phase. A spatial model coupling is introduced to adapt the increased model complexity to the required complexity of the physics. The immiscible two...... to an underestimation of hazards. This study compares two conceptual model approaches for the numerical simulation of brine-migration scenarios through a vertical fault and salt intrusion into a fresh water aquifer. The first approach calculates salt discharge into freshwater using an immiscible two-phase model......-phase model is applied in the CO2 storage reservoir and spatially coupled to a single-phase (water) two-component (water, salt) model, where salt mass fraction is a variable. A Dirichlet–Neumann technique is used for the coupling conditions at the interface of the two models. The results show...

  7. The Interplay between Rumination and Intrusions in the Prediction of Concurrent and Prospective Depressive Symptoms in Two Nonclinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Jorien; Wessel, Ineke; Schreurs, Ellen; Raes, Filip

    2012-01-01

    Depressed patients commonly experience intrusive memories. There is some evidence that ruminative responses to those intrusions are important for maintaining depressive symptoms. Three models concerning the interplay of intrusions and rumination in the prediction of depressive symptoms were tested in students in 2 studies (N = 711): (a) rumination…

  8. Intrusion Detection in Computer Networks using a Fuzzy-Heuristic Data Mining Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Saadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the use of Simulated Annealing (SA algorithm for creating a consistent intrusion detection system is presented. The ability of fuzzy systems to solve different types of problems has been demonstrated in several previous studies. Simulated Annealing based Fuzzy Intrusion Detection System (SAF-IDS crosses the estimated cognitive method of fuzzy systems with the learning capability of SA. The objective of this paper is to prove the ability of SAF-IDS to deal with intrusion detection classification problem as a new real-world application area which is not previously undertook with SA-based fuzzy system. Here, the use of SA is an effort to efficiently explore and exploit the large examines space usually related with the intrusion detection problem, and finds the optimum set of fuzzy if-then rules. The proposed SAF-IDS would be capable of extracting precise fuzzy classification rules from network traffic data and relates them to detect normal and invasive actions in computer networks. Tests were performed with KDD-Cup99 intrusion detection benchmark which is widely used to calculate intrusion detection algorithms. Results indicate that SAF-IDS provides more accurate intrusion detection system than several well-known and new classification algorithms.

  9. An Agent Based Intrusion Detection Model for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Reshmi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion detection has over the last few years, assumed paramount importance within the broad realm of network security, more so in case of wireless mobile ad hoc networks. The inherently vulnerable characteristics of wireless mobile ad hoc networks make them susceptible to attacks in-spite of some security measures, and it may be too late before any counter action can take effect. As such, there is a need to complement traditional security mechanisms with efficient intrusion detection and response systems. This paper proposes an agent-based model to address the aspect of intrusion detection in cluster based mobile wireless ad hoc network environment. The model comprises of a set of static and mobile agents, which are used to detect intrusions, respond to intrusions, and distribute selected and aggregated intrusion information to all other nodes in the network in an intelligent manner. The model is simulated to test its operation effectiveness by considering the performance parameters such as, detection rate, false positives, agent overheads, and intrusion information distribution time. Agent based approach facilitates flexible and adaptable security services. Also, it supports component based software engineering components such as maintainability, reachability, reusability, adaptability, flexibility, and customization.

  10. The Effect of an Executive Functioning Training Program on Working Memory Capacity and Intrusive Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomyea, Jessica; Amir, Nader

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent intrusive thoughts are apparent across numerous clinical disorders, including depression (i.e., rumination) and anxiety disorders (e.g., worry, obsessions; Brewin et al. 2010). Theoretical accounts of intrusive thoughts suggest that individual differences in executive functioning, specifically poor inhibitory control, may account for the persistence of these thoughts in some individuals (e.g., Anderson and Levy 2009). The present study examined the causal effect of inhibitory control on intrusive thoughts by experimentally manipulating inhibition requirements in a working memory capacity (WMC) task and evaluating the effect of this training on intrusive thoughts during a thought suppression task. Unselected undergraduate participants were randomly assigned to repeatedly practice a task requiring either high inhibitory control (training condition) or low inhibitory control (control condition). Results indicated that individuals in the training condition demonstrated significantly greater WMC performance improvements from pre to post assessment relative to the control group. Moreover, individuals in the training group experienced fewer intrusions during a thought suppression task. These results provide support for theoretical accounts positing a relationship between inhibitory control and intrusive thoughts. Moreover, improving inhibitory control through computerized training programs may have clinical utility in disorders characterized by recurrent intrusive thoughts (e.g., depression, PTSD). PMID:22514357

  11. Intrusion-extrusion spring performance of -COK-14 zeolite enhanced by structural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschhock, Christine E A; De Prins, Michiel; Verheijen, Elke; Ryzhikov, Andrey; Jean Daou, T; Nouali, Habiba; Taulelle, Francis; Martens, Johan A; Patarin, Joël

    2016-07-28

    -COK-14 zeolite, the variant of COK-14 (OKO topology) with a systematically interrupted framework, exhibits unusual behaviour in high pressure intrusion-extrusion cycles of 20 M LiCl solution. After the first cycle with deviating behaviour and partially irreversible intrusion, subsequent cycles show stable reversible behaviour. The system behaves like a spring with unique progressive intrusion in the range of 10-120 MPa followed by enhanced uptake before saturation. While the intrusion-extrusion cycling leads to fragmented crystals, powder diffraction reveals high crystallinity of the fragments. Based on the detailed characterisation of the zeolite samples with XRD, Rietveld refinement, N2 adsorption, TGA and (29)Si MAS NMR before and after intrusion-extrusion experiments, a model of the structure of the intruded -COK-14 samples is proposed. Intrusion-extrusion of LiCl solution systematically breaks the most strained bonds in the structure which results in a new framework connectivity with enhanced stability, which persists during the harsh intrusion-extrusion conditions. PMID:27346703

  12. The roles of noradrenergic and glucocorticoid activation in the development of intrusive memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bryant

    Full Text Available Intrusive memories are a common feature of many psychological disorders. Recent evidence has potentially extended cognitive models of intrusions by identifying the role of biological markers of arousal at the time of consolidation in subsequent memory for emotional events. This study investigated the role of arousal during consolidation in the development of intrusive memories. Seventy-eight university students (37 men and 41 women viewed 20 negative and 20 neutral images. Half the participants then underwent a cold pressor test (High Stress, immersing their hand in ice water, while the remaining participants immersed their hand in warm water (Low Stress. Samples of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA and cortisol were collected from participants at baseline and following the stressor challenge. Participants completed a delayed free recall test and intrusion questionnaires two days later. Participants in the High Stress condition reported more intrusions of negative images than participants in the Low Stress condition. An interaction variable in a linear regression of increased noradrenergic and cortisol values predicted intrusive memories of emotional stimuli for men but not women. These findings are consistent with recent evidence of the combined effects of noradrenaline and corticoid responses to stress on emotional memories, and also with increasing evidence of gender differences in how stress hormones influence formation of emotional memories. These findings point to possible mechanisms by which development of intrusions may be prevented after consolidation of traumatic experiences.

  13. Design and implementation of self-protection agent for network-based intrusion detection system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱树人; 李伟琴

    2003-01-01

    Static secure techniques, such as firewall, hierarchy filtering, distributed disposing,layer management, autonomy agent, secure communication, were introduced in distributed intrusion detection. The self-protection agents were designed, which have the distributed architecture,cooperate with the agents in intrusion detection in a loose-coupled manner, protect the security of intrusion detection system, and respond to the intrusion actively. A prototype self-protection agent was implemented by using the packet filter in operation system kernel. The results show that all the hosts with the part of network-based intrusion detection system and the whole intrusion detection system are invisible from the outside and network scanning, and cannot apperceive the existence of network-based intrusion detection system. The communication between every part is secure. In the low layer, the packet streams are controlled to avoid the buffer leaks exist ing in some system service process and back-door programs, so as to prevent users from misusing and vicious attack like Trojan Horse effectively.

  14. German viewpoints on the integration of human intrusion scenarios in safety cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaus Fischer-Appelt (GRS) indicated that there is a broad consensus that site selection, repository design, construction and closure should require measures aiming at a reduction of both the likelihood and consequences of human intrusion. In Germany, two documents apply primarily concerning the treatment of human intrusion scenarios in a safety case: the BMU Draft Guideline for the disposal of radioactive wastes in geological formations: 'Safety Requirements Governing the Final Disposal of Heat-Generating Radioactive Waste' BMU 08/ and the conclusions of a Working Group on Scenario Development relative to Human intrusion: 'Position of the Working Group on 'Scenario Development: Handling of human intrusion into a repository for radioactive waste in deep geological formations' /SCD 08/. Conclusions from both documents coincide regarding the following recommendations: - Only inadvertent human intrusion has to be treated in the safety case. - The reduction of the likelihood of human intrusion can be ensured by information maintenance, and intrinsically, by a strategy of deep disposal. There is no possibility for stipulating protection criteria since human behaviour in the distant future is absolutely speculative. - A limited number of selected (stylised) scenarios based on current human activities and technical abilities have to be treated in the safety case. A Guideline with specifications of reference scenarios for human intrusion is regarded as helpful but is not yet available today

  15. Structural control on basaltic dike and sill emplacement, Paiute Ridge mafic intrusion complex, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late Miocene basaltic sills and dikes in the Paiute Ridge area of southern nevada show evidence that their emplacement was structurally controlled. Basaltic dikes in this area formed by dilating pre-existing vertical to steeply E-dipping normal faults. Magma propagation along these faults must have required less energy than the creation of a self-propagated fracture at dike tips and the magma pressure must have been greater than the compressive stress perpendicular to the fault surface. N- to NE-trending en echelon dikes formed locally and are not obviously attached to the three main dikes in the area. The en echelon segments are probably pieces of deeper dikes, which are segmented perhaps as a result of a documented rotation of the regional stresses. Alternatively, changes in orientation of principal stresses in the vicinity of each en echelon dike could have resulted from local loads associated with paleotopographic highs or nearby structures. Sills locally branched off some dikes within 300 m of the paleosurface. These subhorizontal bodies occur consistently in the hanging wall block of the dike-injected faults, and intrude Tertiary tuffs near the Paleozoic-Tertiary contact. The authors suggest that the change in stresses near the earth's surface, the material strength of the tuff and paleozoic rocks, and the Paleozoic bedding dip direction probably controlled the location of sill formation and direction of sill propagation. The two largest sills deflected the overlying tuffs to form lopoliths, indicating that the magma pressure exceeded vertical stresses at that location and that the shallow level and large size of the sills allowed interaction with the free (earth's) surface. 32 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. A conduit-related genesis of the Lengshuiqing intrusive assemblage (Sichuan, SW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Marian; Wilson, Allan H.; Yao, Yong; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Chunnett, Gordon; Luo, Yaonan; Mafurutu, Leonard; Phadagi, Rofhiwa

    2010-01-01

    Lengshuiqing is part of the late Proterozoic igneous province from the western margin of the Yangtze craton. The Lengshuiqing area comprises five ultramafic-mafic intrusions, emplaced in the late Proterozoic Yanbian Group. The intrusions from Lengshuiqing contain cumulate ultramafic zones (peridotite + olivine pyroxenite), with cumulus olivine and Cr-spinel, and intercumulus pyroxenes, hornblende, phlogopite and plagioclase. Ni-Cu ore (pyrrhotite + pentlandite + chalcopyrite) is hosted in the ultramafic zones. Olivine-free diorite-quartz diorite ± gabbro and granite zones commonly occur above the ultramafic rocks. The genesis of the intrusions (conduit-related accumulation or differentiation from stagnant magma) was investigated. The amount of sulphides in the intrusions from Lengshuiqing is one order of magnitude bigger than the sulphides that can be dissolved by a volume of mafic magma similar with the volume of the intrusions. Most intrusions from Lengshuiqing have bulk composition (peridotite ± diorite ± granite) more magnesian (MgO = 21-22%; Mg# > 78) than the deduced composition of their parental magma (MgO = 9-11%; Mg# = 64-67). This indicates the accumulation of sulphide and mafic silicates from a volume of magma much bigger than the volume of the intrusions, which can be explained by the fractionation from magma ascending through the intrusions to shallower depths. A continuous supply and vent of magma is consistent with the lack of chilled margins, the melting of the wall rocks and the generation of high-temperature mineral assemblages (K-feldspar, diopside, and sillimanite) in the Yanbian Group. The intrusions from Lengshuiqing are seen as microchambers on conduits draining olivine-, Cr-spinel-, and sulphide-bearing mafic magma from a larger staging chamber.

  17. Forecasting volcanic eruptions: the narrow margin between eruption and intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Alexander; Kilburn, Christopher; Wall, Richard; Charlton, Danielle

    2016-04-01

    Volcano-tectonic (VT) seismicity is one of the primary geophysical signals for monitoring volcanic unrest. It measures the brittle response of the crust to changes in stress and provides a natural proxy for gauging the stability of a pressurizing body of magma. Here we apply a new model of crustal extension to observations from the 2015 unrest of Cotopaxi, in Ecuador. The model agrees well with field data and is consistent with accelerating unrest during the pressurization and rupture of a vertically-extended magma source within the volcanic edifice. At andesitic-dacitic stratovolcanoes in subduction zones, unrest after long repose is often characterised by increases in VT event rate that change from an exponential to hyperbolic trend with time. This sequence was observed when renewed unrest was detected in April 2015 at Cotopaxi, following at least 73 years of repose. After about 80 days of elevated seismicity at an approximately steady rate, the numbers of VT events increased exponentially with time for c. 80 days, before increasing for c. 15 days along a faster, hyperbolic trend. Both trends were characterised by the same value of 2 for the ratio of maximum applied stress SF to tensile strength of the crust σT, consistent with the pressurization of an approximately vertical, cylindrical magma body. The hyperbolic trend indicated a potential rupture on 25 September. Rupture appears to have occurred on 21-22 September, when the VT rate rapidly decreased. However, no major eruption accompanied the change, suggesting that a near-surface intrusion occurred instead. Although the quantitative VT trends were consistent with the rupture of a magmatic body, they could not on their own distinguish between an eruptive or intrusive outcome. An outstanding goal remains to identify additional precursory characteristics for quantifying the probability that magma will reach the surface after escaping from a ruptured parent body. Data for this analysis were kindly made available

  18. A New Intrusion Detection System Based on KNN Classification Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Li

    2014-01-01

    abnormal nodes from normal nodes by observing their abnormal behaviors, and we analyse parameter selection and error rate of the intrusion detection system. The paper elaborates on the design and implementation of the detection system. This system has achieved efficient, rapid intrusion detection by improving the wireless ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing protocol (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance the Vector Routing, AODV. Finally, the test results show that: the system has high detection accuracy and speed, in accordance with the requirement of wireless sensor network intrusion detection.

  19. An Intrusion Detection System Based on Multi-Level Clustering for Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butun, Ismail; Ra, In-Ho; Sankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an intrusion detection system (IDS) framework based on multi-level clustering for hierarchical wireless sensor networks is proposed. The framework employs two types of intrusion detection approaches: (1) "downward-IDS (D-IDS)" to detect the abnormal behavior (intrusion) of the subordinate (member) nodes; and (2) "upward-IDS (U-IDS)" to detect the abnormal behavior of the cluster heads. By using analytical calculations, the optimum parameters for the D-IDS (number of maximum hops) and U-IDS (monitoring group size) of the framework are evaluated and presented. PMID:26593915

  20. An Intrusion Detection System Based on Multi-Level Clustering for Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Butun; In-Ho Ra; Ravi Sankar

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an intrusion detection system (IDS) framework based on multi-level clustering for hierarchical wireless sensor networks is proposed. The framework employs two types of intrusion detection approaches: (1) “downward-IDS (D-IDS)” to detect the abnormal behavior (intrusion) of the subordinate (member) nodes; and (2) “upward-IDS (U-IDS)” to detect the abnormal behavior of the cluster heads. By using analytical calculations, the optimum parameters for the D-IDS (number of maximum hops...