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Sample records for austromegabalanus psittacus molina

  1. Morfología del aparato reproductor del picoroco Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782) (Cirripedia, Balanidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Contreras; Nicolás Luna; Enrique Dupré

    2015-01-01

    Descripción morfológica de las estructuras reproductivas de Austromegabalanus psittacus en dos periodos de maduración sexual. Se determinó que es un organismo hermafrodita que transfiere sus espermatozoides mediante un órgano intromitente o pene. El aparato reproductor masculino consta de testículos organizados en acinos que se distribuyen arboriformemente, dos conductos deferentes que se unen en la base del pene para formar el conducto eyaculador. El aparato reproductor femenino consiste pri...

  2. Morfología del aparato reproductor del picoroco Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782 (Cirripedia, Balanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Contreras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Descripción morfológica de las estructuras reproductivas de Austromegabalanus psittacus en dos periodos de maduración sexual. Se determinó que es un organismo hermafrodita que transfiere sus espermatozoides mediante un órgano intromitente o pene. El aparato reproductor masculino consta de testículos organizados en acinos que se distribuyen arboriformemente, dos conductos deferentes que se unen en la base del pene para formar el conducto eyaculador. El aparato reproductor femenino consiste principalmente en un ovario sacular que rodea al resto del cuerpo y se encuentra adherido a través de musculatura a la base de las placas operculares. Se organiza internamente en sacos acinares elongados que contienen ovogonias y ovocitos previtelogénicos adheridos a su pared y vitelogénicos y maduros libres dentro del lumen. Se observaron diferencias notorias en los ovarios entre los organismos recolectados en septiembre y octubre. En septiembre presentaron coloración amarillenta y en su interior se encontraron dos estructuras compactas denominadas lamelas ovígeras en cuyo interior se observaron ovocitos fecundados, embriones en diferentes estados de desarrollo y nauplius libres en la cavidad corporal; en octubre los ovarios son gruesos, blanquecinos y con gran cantidad de fluido lechoso en su interior.

  3. Diversification of Chilean aquaculture: the case of the giant barnacle Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782 Diversificación de la acuicultura chilena: el caso del cirripedio gigante Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782

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    Daniel A López

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is presented supporting the technical and economic possibilities of giant barnacle Austromegabalanuspsittacus (Molina, 1782 culture, one of the main alternatives for diversifying aquaculture in Chile. Spat collection from the wild varied between different sites in the north and south of the country and according to type of artificial collector. Growth also varied between sites (greater in the north, technological systems (greater in tubular systems and depths (greater at 4 m. Average commercial size in the national market was reached over a period between 18 and 24 months. A long-line can produce between 7 to 10 gross ton during this period, therefore average annual fisheries production can be reached with only 10 to 30 long-lines, in an area of 1 to 3 ha. There is demand for this resource in the external market, particularly in the Japanese market, either as product similar to "fujit subo" (Balanus rostratus, or as a new resource; the relationship between production costs and price determines that giant barnacle culture has commercial potential. Economic indicators for cultured giant barnacle were as follows: net present value (NPV: US$ 490,000; internal rate of return (IRR: 32%; discounted payback period (DPBP: 4 years. Results obtained suggest the natural bank repopulation option, and the development of mass cultures. Giant barnacle culture is based on biological characteristics that differentiate it from other crustaceans species, as well as simple and economic production technologies and favourable economic projections on external markets.Se presentan evidencias de las posibilidades técnicas y económicas del cultivo del cirripedio gigante o "picoroco", Austromegabalanus psittacus (Molina, 1782. Esta especie es una de las principales alternativas para la diversificación de la acuicultura en Chile. La captación de semilla desde el ambiente varió entre distintos sitios del norte y sur del país y según el tipo de colector

  4. a zamorategui-molina

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. A ZAMORATEGUI-MOLINA. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 40 Issue 7 December 2017 pp 1309-1318. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic application of Ni catalysts supported on alumina–zirconia mixed oxides · J ÁNGEL-SOTO M ...

  5. Grey Parrots Psittacus erithacus in Kampala, Uganda – are they ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The globally Vulnerable Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) has been seen in Kampala, Uganda's capital city, in increasing numbers in recent years. This apparently new behaviour of a typically forest species is helped by the presence of many large trees, which provide roosting and nesting sites, and fruiting trees where they ...

  6. A Survey of African Grey Parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ) Trade and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intensive field based African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) trade and trafficking survey lasting 14 days was undertaken on the request of the Pheasant Conservation Group; International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), to determine the existence or non-existence of parrots trapping, ...

  7. Breeding biology of African grey parrot ( Psittacus erithacus ) in Kom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parrots are considered a globally threatened group but, despite that, little is known about the ecology and biology of many species in the wild, this is the case for African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). The aim of this work was to study the reproductive biology of the wild grey parrot and its involvement in the conservation ...

  8. HYPOCALCEMIC SYNDROME IN AFRICAN GREY PARROT (PSITTACUS ERITHACUS ERITHACUS

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    Selma Filipović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old male African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus was presented to the Surgery Clinic of Veterinary Faculty of the University of Sarajevo. The presenting complaint was several seizures observed two days ago. The bird was kept indoors without any other bird species, and fed whole-seed diet with no vitamin and mineral supplementation. Blood biochemistry analysis revealed hypocalcemia. The treatment consisted of oral administration of calcium and vitamins A and D. The applied therapy resulted in very fast positive response and prevented recurrence of seizures.

  9. Putative Adult Neurogenesis in Old World Parrots: The Congo African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus and Timneh Grey Parrot (Psittacus timneh

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    Pedzisai Mazengenya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we examined for the first time, the potential for adult neurogenesis throughout the brain of the Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus and Timneh grey parrot (Psittacus timneh using immunohistochemistry for the endogenous markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, which labels proliferating cells, and doublecortin (DCX, which stains immature and migrating neurons. A similar distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was found throughout the brain of the Congo African grey and Timneh grey parrots, but minor differences were also observed. In both species of parrots, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, subventricular zone of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and the rhombencephalon. The olfactory bulb and telencephalic subdivisions exhibited a higher density of both PCNA and DCX immunoreactive cells than any other brain region. DCX immunoreactive staining was stronger in the telencephalon than in the subtelencephalic structures. There was evidence of proliferative hot spots in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricle in the Congo African grey parrots at rostral levels, whereas only the dorsal accumulation of proliferating cells was observed in the Timneh grey parrot. In most pallial regions the density of PCNA and DCX stained cells increased from rostral to caudal levels with the densest staining in the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL. The widespread distribution of PCNA and DCX in the brains of both parrot species suggest the importance of adult neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity during learning and adaptation to external environmental variations.

  10. 2016 AMS Mario J. Molina Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Renyi [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-29

    A named symposium to honor Dr. Mario J. Molina was held 10–14 January 2016, as part of the 96th American Meteorological Society (AMS) Annual Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana. Dr. Molina first demonstrated that industrially produced chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) decompose in the stratosphere and release chlorine atoms, leading to catalytic ozone destruction. His research in stratospheric chemistry was instrumental to the establishment of the 1987 United Nations Montreal Protocol to ban ozone-depleting substances worldwide. Dr. Molina’s contributions to preserving the planet Earth not only save the atmospheric ozone layer, but also protect the climate by reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases. He was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his pioneering research in understanding the stratospheric ozone loss mechanism. In 2013, President Barack Obama announced Dr. Molina as a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. The 2016 AMS Molina Symposium honored Dr. Molina’s distinguished contributions to research related to atmospheric chemistry. The symposium contained an integrated theme related to atmospheric chemistry, climate, and policy. Dr. Molina delivered a keynote speech at the Symposium. The conference included invited keynote speeches and invited and contributed oral and poster sessions, and a banquet was held on Tuesday January 12, 2016. The symposium covered all aspects of atmospheric chemistry, with topics including (1) Stratospheric chemistry, (2) Tropospheric chemistry, (3) Aerosol nucleation, growth, and transformation, (4) Aerosol properties, (5) Megacity air pollution, and (6) Atmospheric chemistry laboratory, field, and modeling studies. This DOE project supported 14 scientists, including graduate students, post docs, junior research scientists, and non-tenured assistant professors to attend this symposium.

  11. Contribution to the feeding ecology of the banded puffer fish Colomesus psittacus (Tetraodontidae in north Brazilian mangrove creeks

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    U. Krumme

    Full Text Available Stomach contents were examined from 102 banded puffer, Colomesus psittacus (Tetraodontidae, caught from intertidal mangrove creeks at diurnal neap tides between June and September, 1997 (early dry season near Bragança (north Brazil. The study found that C. psittacus were specialized predators of Cirripedia (Balanus spp. and Brachyuran crabs (Uca spp., Pachygrapsus gracilis (mean: 58 and 38% by dry weight, respectively, emphasizing a short food chain in the mangrove system. Cirripedia and Brachyura dominated the diet in all size classes, however, the prey spectrum narrowed with fish size. The mean daily consumption of Cirripedia and Brachyura was 6.2% body weight of C. psittacus. On average C. psittacus consumed 100.3 g.ha-1.d-1 of Cirripedia and 178.7 g.ha-1.d-1 of Brachyura (wet weight. The predation on Brachyuran crabs - a significant driver of fluxes of organic matter and energy in the system - provides C. psittacus with an important ecological function in the mangrove food web. A plant-animal interaction is proposed where C. psittacus exerts a mutually beneficial cleaning function on the Aufwuchs (Cirripedia and associated epibiota of Rhizophora mangle stilt roots. Our results and those of other studies suggest that C. psittacus encounter optimum foraging conditions in the mangrove at high inundations at daylight (spring tide-day whereas darkness and low inundations are linked to poor foraging conditions (neap tide-night. The C. psittacus resource could be used as an alternative income in the region in terms of i sustainable catch and filet processing for exports to East Asia, ii developing certified aquaculture methods for breeding puffers for the aquarium trade.

  12. Anatomopathological study of parrot pufferfishColomesus psittacus parasitized by the aspidogastreanRohdella sp.

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    Michele Velasco Oliveira da Silva

    Full Text Available Aspidogastrea are globally-distributed parasites of the class Trematoda, which have been described as pathogens of a range of aquatic organisms, in marine and freshwater environments. The principal morphological characteristic of the group is an adhesive ventral disc, which is responsible for fixing the parasite to the host organism. In this study, 112 specimens ofColomesus psittacus from the municipality of Cametá, in the state of Pará (Brazil, were necropsied. Platyhelminthes of the genus Rohdella attached to the mucous membrane of the fish's intestine by the adhesive disc were observed. Fragments of parasitized tissue were fixed in Davidson solution and then processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Other fragments were fixed in glutaraldehyde, processed and observed under a scanning electron microscope. The prevalence of the parasite was 76.4%, mean intensity of infection was 8.0 and mean abundance was 6.2. The parasitism provoked chronic enteritis with diffused inflammatory infiltration. The adherence of the parasite to the mucous membrane of the intestine resulted in strangulation and hyperplasia of the region, as well as causing hypertrophy of the muscle of the mucous membrane. The present study describes the anatomopathological and ultrastructural aspects of the parasitism of the intestine of C. psittacus byRohdella sp.

  13. Genetic diversity of bottle gourd ( Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.) is an important crop in rural communities in South Africa but it remains under-researched. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity present amongst bottle gourd landraces grown by smallholder farmers in South Africa using morphological traits and 11 ...

  14. Social isolation shortens telomeres in African Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus.

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    Denise Aydinonat

    Full Text Available Telomeres, the caps of eukaryotic chromosomes, control chromosome stability and cellular senescence, but aging and exposure to chronic stress are suspected to cause attrition of telomere length. We investigated the effect of social isolation on telomere length in the highly social and intelligent African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus. Our study population consisted of single-housed (n = 26 and pair-housed (n = 19 captive individuals between 0.75 to 45 years of age. Relative telomere length of erythrocyte DNA was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. We found that telomere length declined with age (p<0.001, and socially isolated parrots had significantly shorter telomeres compared to pair-housed birds (p<0.001 - even among birds of similar ages. Our findings provide the first evidence that social isolation affects telomere length, which supports the hypothesis that telomeres provide a biomarker indicating exposure to chronic stress.

  15. "Non qua servus est, sed qua homo." Der rechtliche Status von Sklaven bei Luis de Molina

    OpenAIRE

    Simmermacher, Danaë

    2014-01-01

    Luis de Molina (1535-1600) grants slaves a legal status through which they can take up a position with respect to their masters between equivalent legal entity and legal object. Here, what is decisive is the figure of the subjective right, which both for Molina and modern proponents of this legal concept describes the 'right per se'. According to Molina's definition of ius, the denial of a subjective right or the hindrance of exercising an individual right represents an injustice. The rights ...

  16. Variation in phenolic compounds of Ugni molinae populations and their potential use as antioxidant supplement

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    Marcia A. Avello

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we carried out a comparative study of total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity of aqueous leaf extracts of Ugni molinae Turcz., Myrtaceae (infusion and Soxhlet extracted prepared from continent and Juan Fernández Island samples. The results revealed that total phenol content (TPC, tannins (TTC and flavonoids (TFC for U. molinae extracts (infusion and Soxhlet extracts from island leaves were 38.5, 56.7 and 37.5% higher than those obtained with leaves from the continent, respectively. Also, HPLC profiles showed important differences between U. molinae populations. In vitro antioxidant capacity (scavenging of DPPH radical for 1% infusion and aqueous extract (Soxhlet method of U. molinae from island samples, was 15% greater than from continent samples. Further, in vivo impact of U. molinae intake (1% infusion was studied in plasma samples obtained from healthy volunteers. Participants that consumed tea prepared with leaves from island population showed higher TBARS reduction and plasma antioxidant capacity (TEAC-CUPRAC than those who consumed tea prepared with leaves from continental population. The conditions of the territory in which U. molinae populations growth could explain the differences in their composition and activity. According to results, island U. molinae populations could be an important source of study for the development of an antioxidant supplement, and thereby contribute to the use of this species that has becoming an ecological problem in the island.

  17. Gnathostomatidae nematode parasite of Colomesus psittacus (Osteichthyes, Tetraodontiformes) in the Ilha de Marajó, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Raul Henrique da Silva; Santana, Ricardo Luís Sousa; Melo, Francisco Tiago Vasconcelos; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos; Giese, Elane Guerreiro

    2017-01-01

    The genus Gnathostoma comprises 17 species, whose adult specimens are found in the stomach serosa of animals that consume raw fish; some species of the genus are zoonotic agents. The present study describes the presence of a nematode (Gnathostomatidae) parasitizing the digestive tract of Colomesus psittacus in the Ilha de Marajó in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. Thirty specimens of C. psittacus were collected in the municipality of Soure, Ilha de Marajó, state of Pará, Brazil, transported to the laboratory, necropsied and the helminths were collected and fixed. Of the 30 fish that were studied, 16.67% were parasitized with nematodes. The nematode larvae found encysted in the intestinal serosa have anterior region with two lips, each with a pair of papillae; a cephalic bulb armed with six rows of discontinuous spines; four cervical sacs; a claviform esophagus; cuticular striations along the body; a simple excretory pore; and a short tail ending in a mucron. These morphological structures are diagnostic characters of the genus Gnathostoma, whose adults parasitize the stomach of carnivorous mammals and, rarely, the stomach of fish. However, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds are intermediate hosts of the third-stage larvae (L3), and humans may act as accidental hosts.

  18. Litter Decomposition of Acacia caven (Molina Molina and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems Descomposición de Hojarascas de Acacia caven (Molina Molina y Lolium multiflorum Lam. en Ecosistemas de Clima Mediterráneo

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    Ingrid Martínez G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of the Mediterranean interior dryland of Chile, dominated by an espinal agroecosystem of Acacia caven (Molina Molina, show low productivity as a result of soil degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate litter decomposition of A. caven and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in espinal ecosystems: well preserved (Wp 50 to 80%, typical (Pd 25 to 50%, and degraded (De with 10 to 25% cover. During 420 d and starting in April 2004 until August 2005, weight loss in litter bags and chemical composition (hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, non-structural components, ash, N, C, C/N ratio, and P were determined by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS and the Van Soest protocol. Weight loss ranged from 31 to 52% in L. multiflorum and 26 to 40% in A. caven after 420 d. During the chemical decomposition process of L. multiflorum, cellulose degradation was relevant in the labile phase while lignin was important in the recalcitrant phase. On the other hand, non-structural components and cellulose were degraded in the labile phase and lignin in the recalcitrant stage for A. caven. Moreover, both litters improved N concentration during the decomposition process. Espinal ecosystems with higher canopy cover (Pd and Wp had a positive influence, and showed early effects during the decomposition process, especially in the De espinal ecosystem, probably because of the microenvironmental conditions it generated. A better knowledge of the dynamics of litter decomposition in ecosystems was achieved by using both techniques: litter bags and NIRS.Los ecosistemas del secano interior mediterráneo de Chile presentan una baja productividad debido a la degradación de los suelos, dominados por un agroecosistema espinal de Acacia caven (Molina Molina. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la descomposición de hojarascas de A. caven y Lolium multiflorum Lam., en ecosistemas espinales: densos (Wp con cobertura de 50-80%, poco densos (Pd 25-50% y

  19. Ultrasonically enhanced extraction of bioactive principles from Quillaja Saponaria Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete-Garretón, L; Vargas-Hernández, Yolanda; Cares-Pacheco, María G; Sainz, Javier; Alarcón, John

    2011-07-01

    A study of ultrasonic enhancement in the extraction of bioactive principles from Quillaja Saponaria Molina (Quillay) is presented. The effects influencing the extraction process were studied through a two-level factorial design. The effects considered in the experimental design were: granulometry, extraction time, acoustic Power, raw matter/solvent ratio (concentration) and acoustic impedance. It was found that for aqueous extraction the main factors affecting the ultrasonically-assisted process were: granulometry, raw matter/solvent ratio and extraction time. The extraction ratio was increased by Ultrasonics effect and a reduction in extraction time was verified without any influence in the product quality. In addition the process can be carried out at lower temperatures than the conventional method. As the process developed uses chips from the branches of trees, and not only the bark, this research contributes to make the saponin exploitation process a sustainable industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Noticia preliminar de los grabados de la Peña Escrita (Canales de Molina, Guadalajara

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    María Luisa CERDEÑO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La Peña Escrita está situada en el término de Canales de Molina, a escasos kilómetrros de Molina de Aragón al noreste de la provincia de Guadalajara. El paraje lo componen una serie de afloramientos de rocas calizas entre las que discurre el arroyo de la Dehesa que poco después, aguas abajo, desemboca en el río Gallo, afluente del Tajo.

  1. Anatomopathological study of parrot pufferfish Colomesus psittacus parasitized by the aspidogastrean Rohdella sp. Estudo anatomopatológico do peixe baiacu papagaio Colomesus psittacus parasitado pelo aspidogastrea Rohdella sp.

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    Michele Velasco Oliveira da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspidogastrea are globally-distributed parasites of the class Trematoda, which have been described as pathogens of a range of aquatic organisms, in marine and freshwater environments. The principal morphological characteristic of the group is an adhesive ventral disc, which is responsible for fixing the parasite to the host organism. In this study, 112 specimens of Colomesus psittacus from the municipality of Cametá, in the state of Pará (Brazil, were necropsied. Platyhelminthes of the genus Rohdella attached to the mucous membrane of the fish's intestine by the adhesive disc were observed. Fragments of parasitized tissue were fixed in Davidson solution and then processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Other fragments were fixed in glutaraldehyde, processed and observed under a scanning electron microscope. The prevalence of the parasite was 76.4%, mean intensity of infection was 8.0 and mean abundance was 6.2. The parasitism provoked chronic enteritis with diffused inflammatory infiltration. The adherence of the parasite to the mucous membrane of the intestine resulted in strangulation and hyperplasia of the region, as well as causing hypertrophy of the muscle of the mucous membrane. The present study describes the anatomopathological and ultrastructural aspects of the parasitism of the intestine of C. psittacus by Rohdella sp.Os Aspidogastreas são parasitos da classe Trematoda, distribuídos globalmente e têm sido descritos como patógenos em uma gama de organismos aquáticos de ambientes marinhos e de água doce. A principal característica morfológica do grupo é um disco adesivo na região ventral responsável pela fixação do parasito no organismo hospedeiro. Neste estudo, 112 espécimes de Colomesus psittacus provenientes do município de Cametá, no estado do Pará (Brasil, foram necropsiados. Foram observados platelmintos do gênero Rohdella aderidos à mucosa intestinal através do disco adesivo. Fragmentos de tecido com

  2. Endoscopic Removal of Gastrointestinal Foreign Bodies in Two African Grey Parrots ( Psittacus erithacus) and a Hyacinth Macaw ( Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Robert J; Divers, Stephen J

    2017-12-01

    Two African grey parrots ( Psittacus erithacus) and one hyacinth macaw ( Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) were examined because of varying clinical signs ranging from general lethargy to seizure-like episodes and regurgitation. Radiography and fluoroscopy in the 3 birds demonstrated variable degrees of gastric abnormalities, suggesting the presence of foreign material or stricture-like defects. Upper gastrointestinal rigid endoscopy by ingluviotomy revealed foreign bodies that were removed endoscopically. Minor postoperative complications were pulmonary congestion or mild aspiration and cardiac arrhythmia, both of which resolved, and no serious deleterious effects were associated with endoscopy in the short or long term. Endoscopy is recommended for examination and removal of foreign bodies from the upper gastrointestinal tract because it is less invasive and traumatic than traditional surgical approaches.

  3. Ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from Quillaja Saponaria Molina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cares, M. G.; Vargas, Y.; Gaete, L.; Sainz, J.; Alarcón, J.

    2010-01-01

    A study of ultrasonically assisted extraction of bioactive principles from Quillaja Saponaria Molina (Quillay) is presented. To address the problem it was studied the effects that could influence the extraction process through a two-level Factorial Design. The effects considered in the Experimental Design were: Granulometry, Extraction time, Acoustic Power and Acoustic Impedance. The production of the quillaja extracts is done with an aqueous extraction and the process is assisted by an ultrasonic field; no other solvents are used in its production. The final product only incorporates natural ingredients and raw materials, authorized for their use in food manufacturing processes. The principal factors affecting the ultrasonic extraction process were: Granulometry and Extraction time. The enhanced of ultrasonic assisted extraction ratio was measuring the increasing yield of extracted components, the extraction ratio was increased by ultrasonic effect and a reduction in extraction time was verified. In addition the process can be carried out at temperatures lower than the traditional way. The influence of ultrasound on the quality of bioactive principles was examined by HPLC technique and no influence of ultrasound on natural components was found.

  4. Insecticidal Activity of Peumus boldus Molina Essential Oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky Actividad Insecticida del Aceite Esencial de Peumus boldus Molina sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Betancur R; Gonzalo Silva A; J. Concepción Rodríguez M; Susana Fischer G; Nelson Zapata S.M

    2010-01-01

    In stored grains, the main agents diminishing production are insects, which can produce losses between 20% and 80% before harvest or under storage. The insecticidal properties of the essential oil of fresh leaves of Peumus boldus Molina against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) adults were determined under laboratory conditions. The highest mortality (100%) was achieved at 4% concentration by contact with a treated glass surface. The same concentration in impregnated corn (Zea may...

  5. Novel acetylated triterpenoid saponins in a chromatographic fraction from Quillaja saponaria Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, L I; Kenne, L

    2000-12-01

    Six novel fucose 3-O-acetylated saponins, with a quillaic acid aglycone, were isolated from a bark extract from the Quillaja saponaria Molina tree. In addition, a saponin with a novel aglycone (phytolaccagenic acid) and a novel fatty acyl group [(S)-2-methylbutanoyl] for Quillaja saponins was found. The compounds were characterised using NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods.

  6. Separation and structural analysis of saponins in a bark extract from Quillaja saponaria Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, L I; Kenne, L

    1999-07-20

    Six major saponins were isolated from a bark extract from Quillaja saponaria Molina. Solid-phase extraction, followed by a two-step reversed-phase HPLC separation procedure with phosphate and ammonium acetate buffers of different pH values, was used. The compounds were characterised using NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods.

  7. Kinetic and equilibrium characteristics of sorption of saponin of Quillaja Saponaria Molina on chitosan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironenko, N. V.; Smuseva, S. O.; Brezhneva, T. A.; Selemenev, V. F.

    2016-12-01

    The equilibrium and kinetic curves of the sorption of saponin of Quillaja saponaria molina on chitosan were analyzed. The inner diffusion was found to be limiting, and its coefficients were calculated. It was found that the form of the curves of the sorption isotherms of saponin is determined by the competing processes of association in solution and absorption by chitosan.

  8. Avian papillomaviruses: the parrot Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus (PePV genome has a unique organization of the early protein region and is phylogenetically related to the chaffinch papillomavirus

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    Jenson A Bennett

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An avian papillomavirus genome has been cloned from a cutaneous exophytic papilloma from an African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus. The nucleotide sequence, genome organization, and phylogenetic position of the Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus (PePV were determined. This PePV sequence represents the first complete avian papillomavirus genome defined. Results The PePV genome (7304 basepairs differs from other papillomaviruses, in that it has a unique organization of the early protein region lacking classical E6 and E7 open reading frames. Phylogenetic comparison of the PePV sequence with partial E1 and L1 sequences of the chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs papillomavirus (FPV reveals that these two avian papillomaviruses form a monophyletic cluster with a common branch that originates near the unresolved center of the papillomavirus evolutionary tree. Conclusions The PePV genome has a unique layout of the early protein region which represents a novel prototypic genomic organization for avian papillomaviruses. The close relationship between PePV and FPV, and between their Psittaciformes and Passeriformes hosts, supports the hypothesis that papillomaviruses have co-evolved and speciated together with their host species throughout evolution.

  9. Field immobilization of Molina's hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga) using ketamine and xylazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Diego F; Vidal, Estela Luengos; Casanave, Emma B; Lucherini, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    We injected 27 adult Molina's hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus chinga) intramuscularly by hand with ketamine hydrochloride (KH) and xylazine hydrochloride (XH) in the Pampas grassland of Argentina. Skunks were immobilized with a mean (±SD) dosage of 24.9±6.5 mg/kg KH and 1.9±0.6 mg/kg XH. The mean effective dosages of KH (27.6 mg/kg) and XH (1.7 mg/kg) were higher and lower, respectively, than those reported in skunks previously. Mean induction and recovery time were 5.3±1.9 min and 47.7±18.5 min, respectively. Hypothermia was the only problem detected in field immobilization and occurred in winter but did not appear to be associated with to drug doses. We conclude that KH/XH is a safe immobilizing drug combination for Molina's hog-nosed skunk.

  10. A 4-methyl-7-hydroxyphthalide glycoside and other constituents from Quillaja saponaria molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeck, C; Schneider, C; Rotscheidt, K; Breitmaier, E

    1995-11-01

    A so far unknown 4-methyl-7-hydroxyphthalideglycoside has been isolated from the methanol extract of the bark of Quillaja saponaria molina. Its structure has been established from NMR experiments as 7-O(-)[beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-arabinopyranosyl]-7-hydrox y-4-methy l -1[3H]-isobenzofuranone. Two known compounds, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and lyoniresinol-3 alpha-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside were also identified.

  11. Structural studies of triterpenoid saponins with new acyl components from Quillaja saponaria Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S; Kenne, L

    2000-11-01

    Eight new triterpenoid saponins were isolated from a bark extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina by silica and reverse phase chromatography. The saponins were characterized by spectroscopic data and chemical methods as phytolaccagenic acid, 22beta-hydroxy-quillaic acid, and echinocystic acid substituted with different oligosaccharides at C-3 and C-28. The O-4 of the fucosyl residue in the 28-O-oligosaccharide was substituted with either acetyl, (S)-2-methylbutanoyl, or (3S,4S)-3-hydroxy-4-methylhexanoyl groups.

  12. Moderno/Posmoderno/Neomoderno: El jinete polaco, de Antonio Muñoz Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Beatriz Ferrari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Muñoz Molina (Úbeda, 1956 es ya, sin lugar a dudas, uno de los más destacados novelistas españoles contemporáneos. boga en la década que va de 1960 a 1970 al “realismo depurado” y al compromiso ético. La narrativa de Muñoz Molina apela constantemente a los cruces de códigos y al hacerlo va adoptando singulares modulaciones; itinerario que en su recorrido irá dando cuenta de un posicionamiento ideológico frente a los fenómenos derivados de la industria cultural –fenómenos camp y kitsch–, los géneros menores, la intertextualidad y lo intermedial. En esta curva, El jinete polaco significaría un punto de inflexión dentro de la producción narrativa del autor. En ella Muñoz Molina escribe una novela inspirada todavía en un motivo pictórico, pero abandona la astucia narrativa del final sorprendente y combina múltiples peripecias, historias cruzadas, diversos puntos de vista que apuntan a construir algo semejante a lo que Mario Vargas Llosa intuyó en Cien años de soledad de García Márquez, una “novela total”.

  13. Designing Universitas Indonesia Molina EV Bus Dashboard Using ECQFD and TRIZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiq Pradhila, Muhammad; Suzianti, Amalia; Putri Adinda, Prilly

    2018-01-01

    Universitas Indonesia is involved in the national electric car development program. One of the focus by the research team is to develop the Molina EV Bus which is planned to replace the current operational bus at UI so that it can be more environmental friendly. With UI developing facilities for the disabled, the Molina research team planned to make a new prototype of the Molina EV Bus to contribute to the facilities developed for the disabled. The new prototype is expected to increase the quality of the previous features of the EV Bus, including the dashboard that had been ignored. To support the development of the new prototype, this research was conducted to design a suitable dashboard for the new prototype. Design of the prototype are made using Autodesk Inventor. This research used the integration of ECQFD (Environmentally Conscious Quality Function Deployment) and TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) method. ECQFD was used to translate user needs into quality characteristics based on environmental aspects. TRIZ was used to translate the quality characteristics into technical specifications. This research has generated 3 sustainable, innovative, and user-preferred dashboard design recommendation for the new prototype.

  14. Reference intervals of plasma calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium for African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Fernanda M; Gaunt, Stephen D; Kearney, Michael T; Rich, Gregory A; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-12-01

    Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and magnesium (Mg) are important elements for body homeostasis in several diseases associated with imbalances in the plasma concentration of these ions. This is the first published report of reference intervals for Mg in association with Ca and P levels for psittacine species. One milliliter of blood was collected from 26 Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) and 24 African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). The plasma concentrations of Ca, P, and Mg were determined for each sample. Statistical analyses were performed including all data (analysis 1) and after exclusion of the subjects with Ca > or = 14.00 mg/dl (3.5 mmol) (analysis 2). The data from analysis 1 have a narrower interval than that observed in analysis 2. Following the normality test (Shapiro-Wilk, alpha = 0.05), the univariate and mean procedures were run. For the reference intervals, the lower and upper values were used, after elimination of the outliers calculated by Blom scores from the ranked variables. The analysis 1 references for the Hispaniolans were Ca = 8.80-10.40 mg/dl (2.20-2.60 mmol/L), P = 1.80-4.40 mg/dl (0.58-1.42 mmol/L), Mg = 1.80-3.10 mg/dl (0.74-1.27 mmol/L), and Ca:P ratio = 2.62-5.39; for the African greys analysis 1 references were Ca = 8.20-20.20 mg/dl (2.05-5.05 mmol/L), P = 2.50-5.90 mg/dl (0.81-1.91 mmol/L), Mg = 2.10-3.40 mg/dl (0.82-1.4 mmol/L), and Ca:P ratio = 1.81-3.77. The analysis 2 references for the Hispaniolans were Ca = 8.80-10.30 mg/dl (2.20-2.58 mmol/L), P = 1.80-3.80 mg/dl (0.58-1.23 mmol/L), Mg = 1.90-3.00 mg/dl (0.82-1.07 mmol/L), Ca:P ratio = 2.62-5.39; for the African greys analysis 2 references were Ca = 1.07 mmol/L), Ca:P ratio = 1.67-3.50. The results of this study are important for evaluating Mg concentrations in relation to the Ca and P parameters in psittacines. This information will be particularly helpful for veterinarians evaluating the hypocalcemic syndrome in African grey parrots and other disease processes

  15. El “Mundus Subterraneus” de Juan Ignacio Molina o el geólogo como economista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orrego G., Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In general, the work of the Chilean ex Jesuit Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 has not been studied under the light of history of geology. This article attempts to reconstruct the origin and morphology of the ideas in which the Chilean naturalist developed about the internal structure of the Earth. We will see how the geological ideas elaborated by Molina went beyond the scientific reflection. The development of a particular discipline as political economy during the eighteenth century also influenced Juan Ignacio Molina´s thoughts about the internal organization of the Earth, geological processes and the descriptions of the nature of Chilean kingdom in the late eighteenth century.En general, la obra del ex jesuita chileno Juan Ignacio Molina (1740-1829 no ha sido estudiada con profundidad a la luz de la historia de la geología. Este artículo reconstruye el origen y la morfología de parte de las ideas que el naturalista chileno elaboró sobre la estructura interna de la Tierra. Se verá cómo las ideas geológicas desarrolladas por Molina fueron más allá de la simple reflexión científica. El desarrollo de una disciplina particular y novedosa como la economía política, también influyó en el tipo de reflexiones que Juan Ignacio Molina desarrolló sobre la organización interior de la Tierra, los procesos geológicos y las descripciones sobre la naturaleza del Reino de Chile a fines del siglo XVIII.

  16. Domestication in Murtilla (Ugni molinae) Reduced Defensive Flavonol Levels but Increased Resistance Against a Native Herbivorous Insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Fuentes, Manuel; Parra, Leonardo; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Seguel, Ivette; Ceballos, Ricardo; Quiroz, Andres

    2015-06-01

    Plant domestication can have negative consequences for defensive traits against herbivores, potentially reducing the levels of chemical defenses in plants and consequently their resistance against herbivores. We characterized and quantified the defensive flavonols from multiple cultivated ecotypes with wild ancestors of murtilla, Ugni molinae Turcz, an endemic plant from Chile, at different times of the year, and examined their effects on a native insect herbivore, Chilesia rudis Butler (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). We hypothesized that domestication results in a decrease in flavonol levels in U. molinae plants, and that this negatively affected C. rudis performance and preference. Ethanolic extracts were made from leaves, stems, and fruit of murtilla plants for flavonol analysis. Flavonols identified were kaempferol, quercetin, rutin, and quercetin 3-D-β-glucoside, the last two being the most abundant. More interestingly, we showed differences in flavonol composition between wild and cultivated U. molinae that persisted for most of the year. Relative amounts of all four flavonols were higher in wild U. molinae leaves; however, no differences were found in the stem and fruit between wild and cultivated plants. In choice and no-choice assays, C. rudis larvae gained more mass on, and consumed more leaf material of, wild as compared with cultivated U. molinae plants. Moreover, when applied to leaves, larvae ate more leaf material with increasing concentrations of each flavonol compound. Our study demonstrates that domestication in U. molinae reduced the amount of flavonols in leaves as well as the performance and preference of C. rudis, indicating that these compounds stimulate feeding of C. rudis. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Estereotipos y transgresión en los cuentos de Jennie Carrasco Molina

    OpenAIRE

    Moyano, Beatriz Elisa

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo ha sido producido en el marco del proyecto Literatura y cultura hispanoamericanas: géneros y subjetividades en tiempos recientes (CIUNSa nº 1913) el cual, dirigido por la Dra. Elena Altuna, examina textualidades cuestionadoras de las diferencias taxativas que afectan los géneros textuales y sexuales tradicionales. La comunicación se centra en la impugnación que los cuentos de la escritora ecuatoriana Jennie Carrasco Molina, contenidos en La diosa en el espejo ([1995] 2000)...

  18. Insectos asociados al cultivo del tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) en costa central - La Molina

    OpenAIRE

    Callohuari Quispe, Yony Tito

    2016-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Entomología El objetivo esta investigación fue determinar la entomofauna asociada al cultivo de tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) en condiciones de la costa central, con particular atención a aquellos insectos que causan daño al cultivo y en algunos casos, a los parasitoides de éstos. Las evaluaciones se realizaron cada siete días y se emplearon las siguientes metodologías: evaluación por metro lineal, evaluación por ór...

  19. Characterization of some O-acetylated saponins from Quillaja saponaria Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S; Kenne, L

    2000-07-01

    Sixteen saponins were identified from a bark extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina. The compounds were characterized, using NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and monosaccharide analysis, as quillaic acid substituted at C-3 with oligosaccharides consisting of a disaccharide, beta-D-Galp-(1-->2)-beta-D-GlcpA substituted with either D-xylose or L-rhamnose and at C-28 with complex oligosaccharide structures consisting of a disaccharide, alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->2)-4-O-acetyl-beta-D-Fucp, substituted with various amount of D-xylose. D-glucose, D-apiose, and L-rhamnose.

  20. Triterpenoid saponins containing an acetylated branched D-fucosyl residue from Quillaja saponaria Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S; Falk, E; Kenne, L; Rönnberg, B; Sundquist, B G

    2000-04-01

    Seven novel saponins were isolated from a bark extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina. the compounds were characterized, using mainly NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods, as quillaic acid substituted at C-3 with oligosaccharides consisting of various compositions of D-glucuronic acid D-galactose, D-xylose, and L-rhamnose and at C-28 with complex oligosaccharide structures consisting of various compositions of D-xylose, L-rhamnose, D-apiose and a branched 4-O-acetyl-D-fucose residue.

  1. Articulismo en democracia. Las columnas de Antonio Muñoz Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Corbellini

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The writer's column format related to Muñoz Molina's last novels (Sefarad. Una novela de novelas; Ventanas de Manhattan; Días de diario , where the concept of genre is not clear, they alternate narrative and argumentation, tales and essay. I will analyze the writing of published columns as "Ida y vuelta" in the suplement Babelia of El país, as a format that allows experimentation with the language and the narrator; and simultaneously constructs an ego with the will of style, and for providing a rewatching form of knowledge and thought

  2. Feeding habits of Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae) in the extreme south of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Peters,Felipe Bortolotto; Roth,Paulo Ricardo de Oliveira; Christoff,Alexandre Uarth

    2011-01-01

    Feeding habits of the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782) in the extreme south of Brazil. We analyzed 60 stomachs of road-kills of C. chinga in the extreme south of Brazil. The contents revealed 808 prey parts, including invertebrates (frequency of occurrence - FO = 96.7% and relative abundance - RA = 94.7%), vertebrates (FO = 18.3% and RA = 2.8%) and plants (FO = 31.7% and RA = 2.3%). We identified 18 kinds of food, including the invertebrate order Coleoptera which show...

  3. Paralelismos y divergencias entre Juan Tenorio de Tirso de Molina y Miguel Páramo, personaje de Juan Rulfo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlinda Ramírez-Barradas.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este breve artículo se presentan algunas características de Miguel Páramo que, primero, permiten incluirlo en la larga lista de personajes donjuanescos derivados de la obra de Tirso de Molina y que, además, hacen posible entender su función trágica.Summary: This article presents some of Miguel Páramo's characteristics that, first, allow including him in the long list of prominent Don Juan figures derived from Tirso de Molina's work and, in addition, make it possible to understand his tragic function.

  4. An association between feather damaging behavior and corticosterone metabolite excretion in captive African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluca Costa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus are kept as pets and are frequently hand-reared. It has been observed that hand-reared African grey parrots may develop behavioral disorders such as feather damaging behavior (FDB. It is well known that chronic stress is involved in behavioral disorders in captive parrots. The main glucocorticoid in birds is corticosterone; its quantification provides information about adrenocortical activity and is considered to be a reliable indicator of stress levels in birds. We analyzed the differences in the excretion of corticosterone metabolites (CM in the droppings of African grey parrots characterized by: 1. different rearing histories (parent rearing vs. hand rearing; and 2. the presence or absence of FDB in hand-reared parrots. Methods A total of 82 African grey parrots that were kept in captivity were considered. According to breeding methods, three groups of birds were defined: 1. The parent-reared (PR parrots included birds kept in pairs (n = 30 pairs with a conspecific partner of the opposite sex. All of these birds were healthy and never showed FDB signs; 2. The healthy hand-reared parrots (H-HR included pet parrots individually kept, that were hand-reared and did not display any sign of FDB (n = 11, 7 males and 4 females; 3. The FDB hand-reared parrot (FDB-HR included pet parrots individually kept, that were hand-reared and displayed FDB (n = 11, 7 males and 4 females. Droppings were collected in the morning over three alternating days in autumn 2014 and spring 2015. The CM were determined using a multi-species corticosterone enzyme immunoassay kit. Split-plot repeated-measure ANOVA was used to examine any differences using group, season and group × season as the main factors. Results Different quantities of CM in droppings were found for the three groups. The mean CM value was 587 ng/g in the PR parrots, 494 ng/g in the H-HR parrots and 1,744 ng/g in the FDB-HR parrots, irrespective of the

  5. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of wild and cultivated murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Riquelme Augusto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade a considerable increase in the number of studies addressing the use of antioxidants from natural sources has led to the identification and understanding of the potential mechanisms of biologically active components. This results from the fact that they can be used to replace synthetic antioxidants commonly used in food. Murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz is a native berry grown in Chile, and in the present study, the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied. Hydroalcoholic extracts of dehydrated fruits from two genotypes of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. were produced. Extracts of wild murtilla and 14-4 genotype fruits had 19.35 and 40.28mg GAE/g for Total Phenolic Compounds, 76.48, and 134.35μmol TEAC/g for DPPH, and 157.04 and 293.99 μmol TEAC/g for ABTS, respectively. Components such as quercetin, epicatechin, and gallic, benzoic and hydrocaffeic acids were identified by CG/MS analysis. All of them showed antioxidant activity. Therefore, it is possible to say that the hydroalcoholic extracts of murtilla have antioxidant potential to be used in lipidic food.

  6. Page 1 48 V V S Sarma Garcia-Molina H, Barbara D 1984 Proc. 4th ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Garcia-Molina H, Barbara D 1984 Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Distributed Computing Systems (Silver. Spring, MD: IEEE Comput. Soc. Press) pp. 340–346 -. Goel A 1983 A Guidebook for Software Reliability Assessment, Tech. Rept. 83–11 (New York,. Syracuse Univ. Dept. Ind. Eng. & OR). Goel A 1985 IEEE Trans. Software Eng.

  7. Insecticidal Activity of Peumus boldus Molina Essential Oil against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky Actividad Insecticida del Aceite Esencial de Peumus boldus Molina sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Betancur R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In stored grains, the main agents diminishing production are insects, which can produce losses between 20% and 80% before harvest or under storage. The insecticidal properties of the essential oil of fresh leaves of Peumus boldus Molina against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were determined under laboratory conditions. The highest mortality (100% was achieved at 4% concentration by contact with a treated glass surface. The same concentration in impregnated corn (Zea mays L. grain, resulted in 98.7% mortality. Mortality by fumigant action at 6 h was 100% with 35 µL oil in 0.15 L (air volume. Concentrations 1, 2 and 4% of essential oil produced 0% F1 adult emergence. At 10 d of residual effect, the 4% concentration reached 63.7% mortality. All treatments were repellent to adults of S. zeamais and corn grain germination was not affected by any treatment.Los principales agentes que disminuyen la producción en los granos almacenados son los insectos, antes de la cosecha y en el almacenamiento pueden causar pérdidas de 20 a 80%. Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del aceite esencial de hojas frescas de Peumus boldus Molina para el control de adultos de gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky en laboratorio. La mayor mortalidad (100% por contacto con una superficie de vidrio tratada se obtuvo con la concentración de 4%. Esta misma concentración produjo 98,7% de mortalidad en exposición a grano de maíz (Zea mays L. tratado. El efecto fumigante a las 6 h de exposición fue 100% con 35 µL de aceite en 0,15 L (volumen de aire. Con las concentraciones de 1, 2 y 4% de aceite esencial, el porcentaje de emergencia de la F1 fue 0%. A los 10 d de efecto residual se alcanzó 63,7% de mortalidad con la concentración de 4%. Todos los tratamientos fueron repelentes para adultos de S. zeamais y ningún tratamiento afectó la germinación de los granos.

  8. Toxicity of Boldo Peumus boldus Molina for Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and Tribolium castaneum Herbst Toxicidad del Boldo, Peumus boldus Molina, sobre Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y Tribolium castaneum Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Ortiz U

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky and the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum Herbst are two key pests of stored-grain products worldwide. The insecticidal activity of boldo (Peumus boldus Molina powder, liquid ethanolic and hexanic extracts against S. zeamais and T. castaneum were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The evaluated variables were mortality, emergence of adult insects (F1, and grain weight loss. The experimental design was completely randomized. The mortality in S. zeamais was 100% even at the lowest powder concentration (0.5% w/w, whereas emergence of F1 adult insects was 0% and grain weight loss was El gorgojo del maíz (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky y el gorgojo castaño de la harina (Tribolium castaneum Herbst son plagas primarias de productos almacenados a nivel mundial. Se evaluó en laboratorio la actividad insecticida de polvo y extractos líquidos etanólicos y hexánicos del boldo (Peumus boldus Molina sobre S. zeamais y T. castaneum. Las variables evaluadas fueron mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos (F1 y pérdida de peso de los granos con un diseño experimental completamente al azar. La mortalidad en S. zeamais fue 100%, incluso con la concentración menor (0,5% p/p mientras que la emergencia de insectos adultos y la pérdida de peso de granos de maíz fue < 0,08%. Para T. castaneum sólo las concentraciones de 8 y 16% p/p de polvo causaron una mortalidad de 100%. Los extractos en agua, etanol, y hexano tuvieron un efecto insecticida de 100% en S. zeamais, mientras que en T. castaneum sólo el extracto en etanol alcanzó este valor. Por lo tanto, el polvo y los extractos evaluados de P. boldus presentan actividad insecticida contra S. zeamais y T. castaneum y son promisorios para utilizarse contra éstas y otras plagas de granos almacenados.

  9. Tirso de Molina: the Dramatist in the Crisis of the Succession of 1621

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    Alan K.G. Paterson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The crisis is the political upheaval that accompanied the ascent of Olivares to power. Its repercussions on the religious and literary career of Fr. Gabriel Téllez/Tirso de Molina are examined. The primary documents analysed include the two passages in Téllez’s Historia de la Orden de la Merced (one from the early 1630s. the other revised towards the end of the decade containing his hostile criticism of the struggle between the two groups, Lerma’s associates and those of Olivares. This hostility relates to the sentence issued by the Junta de Reformación (1625 and to be meted out as its response to the notorious case of Fr. Gabriel Téllez oka Tirso de Molina, etc. This connection confirms our seeing Tirso as a notable political victim. Yet in the thirties, Tirso’s position is complex. To offset the clear indications of a major if not terminal disruption to his activity as dramatist, the circumstances attendant on the Parte tercera de las comedias (1634 are examined to show how Fr. Gabriel came to the defence of his creation Tirso de Molina, by ensuring his survival in print. The text of the Junta’s sentence informs us of the reason its judges had to silence the dramatist; it concerns his writing plays which are profane and give bad examples. This information invites us to ask to which plays can the harsh sentence of the Junta refer? The reply to this question forms the main theme of the study. It is argued that La venganza de Tamar is a work seriously involved in the turbulent politics of the succession. This argument is preceded by an essential study on the text as authorized by Tirso and subject to the editorial scrutiny of Lucas de Avila. The nexus of images referring to physical hunger that develops into sexual and political hunger is coordinated with the recurring image of the body, presented in a series of progressively morbid pathological states. The human body receives focus in a spectacular way, as a conspicuous object on

  10. Column gamma-ray scanning of the 'Hector Molina' Distillery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derivet Zarzabal, M.; Capote Ferrera, E.; Fernandez Gomez, I.; Carrazana Gonzalez, L.; Borroto Portela, J.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray scanning, often referred to as 'column scanning', is a convenient, cost effective, fast, efficient and non-invasive technique to examine internal characteristics of a certain equipment, like alcohol distillation columns, while it is in operation. Column scanning allows to engineers, to study hydraulics tray inside of distillation column in on-line condition. It provides essential data to optimize the performance of columns, extend column run times, to evaluate effects of defective track and to identify maintenance requirements. This knowledge can reduce repair times significantly. In the year 2014, the Environmental Radiological Surveillance Laboratory from Center of Radiation Protection and Hygiene, introduced this service in the 'Hector Molina' Distillery. The diagnosis carried out allowed the detection of some anomalies in its operation. In this work the results obtained during gamma-ray scanning of the column are shown. (Author)

  11. Los realismos en Beatus Ille de Antonio Muñoz Molina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papa Mamour Diop

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: This work deals with the current debate about reality and its literary and artistic expression: realism. In Beatus Ille, Antonio Muñoz Molina’s first novel, the fictional universe reveals three kinds of realism: the epic and elegiac realism, the historic realismand the magic realism. SPANISH: En este trabajo, abordamos el actual debate sobre la realidad y su expresión literaria y artística: el realismo. En Beatus Ille, primera novela de Antonio Muñoz Molina, eluniverso novelesco permite percibir tres tipos de realismos: el realismo épico elegiaco, el realismo histórico o contrafactual y el realismo mágico.

  12. Artful Women in Positions of Power: Three Examples from Tirso de Molina

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    David Hildner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines three plays by Tirso de Molina (Amar por señas, El castigo del penséque and Quien calla otorga in which female protagonists in positions of power (or as relatives of those in power use their authority to confuse and deceive the male protagonists, who is a foreigner in their lands. Their position allows them to go beyond the typical deceptions of Tirso’s intrigue comedies (e. g., Don Gil de las calzas verdes. Concretely, they manage to detain the young man physically, to torment him without revealing their identity and to send ambiguous message that keep the male character in uncertainty. However, they are constrained by their sense of honor and it is implied that, after the traditional wedding that ends these plays, the women will no longer have the authority to continue their manipulation.

  13. Alonso Quesada, Agustín Millares Carlo, Argote de Molina y el solar norte de la catedral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Henríquez Jiménez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan dos textos: una carta de don Agustín Millares Carlo y una "Crónica de la ciudad" de Alonso Quesada, que no aparece en su Obra Completa, en los que se habla del solar norte de la catedral de Las Palmas y del enterramiento en él del historiador y genealogista sevilano Gonzalo Argote de Molina.Two Texts are presented: A letter from D. Agustín Millares Carlo and a "Crónica de la ciudad" from Alonso Quesasda, that doesn't appear in the Obra Completa from Alonso Quesada in which is spoken about the north building site of Las Palnias' cathedral and of the burial in it of the genealogist and historian Gonzalo Argote de Molina from Seville.

  14. Changes in biomass and chemical composition during lecithotrophic larval development of the Southern king crab, Lithodes santolla (Molina)

    OpenAIRE

    Lovrich, G. A.; Thatje, S.; Calcagno, J. A.; Anger, Klaus; Kaffenberger, A.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in biomass and elemental composition (dry mass, W; carbon, C; nitrogen, N; hydrogen, H) were studied in the laboratory during complete larval and early juvenile development of the southern king crab, Lithodes santolla (Molina), formerly known as Lithodes antarcticus (Jacquinot). At 6±0.5 °C, total larval development from hatching to metamorphosis lasted about 10 weeks, comprising three demersal zoeal stages and a benthic megalopa, with mean stage durations of 4, 7, 11 and 47 days, res...

  15. Feeding ecology of the Green-cheeked parakeet (Pyrrhura molinae in dry forests in western Brazil Ecologia alimentar da Tiriba-de-cara-suja (Pyrrhura molinae em matas secas do oeste brasileiro

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    J. Ragusa-Netto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pyrrhura includes small to medium-sized parakeets, which inhabit both low and dry alongside tall rainforests, mainly in South America. Pyrrhura molinae is still common, year round, in the markedly seasonal forests of western Brazil. This parakeet, as well as most Neotropical parrots, continues to be poorly understood. Hence, in the present study I examined their foraging ecology both in a highly deciduous and in a semi-deciduous forest in western Brazil. In addition, I assessed the relationship between food resource production (flowers and fruits, and the diet of this parakeet. Pyrrhura molinae exhibited a flexible diet consisting of 16 tree species, from which it consumed flowers (three species, seeds (three species, fruit pulp or aril (four species, and both pulp and seeds (six species. Parakeets consumed a wide array of fleshy fruits in the semi-deciduous forest, especially Cecropia pachystachya catkins. Conversely, in the highly deciduous forest they extensively foraged for figs (70% of the diet, in addition to nectar and seeds from dry fruits. Ficus calyptroceras, besides being abundant, bore fruits year round, and was substantially used by parakeets every month. Potentially, by exploiting a diverse set of plant food resources, and particularly due to the substantial use of figs, asynchronously produced, Pyrrhura molinae persists during the long dry season in the markedly seasonal forests of western Brazil.O gênero Pyrrhura é constituido de pequenos periquitos comuns tanto em matas secas quanto úmidas, sobretudo da América do Sul. Pyrrhura molinae ocorre durante o ano todo em florestas altamente sazonais do oeste brasileiro. Essa espécie, bem como a maioria dos psitacídeo, permanece pouco conhecida. Portanto, nesse estudo, foi examinada a ecologia alimentar de P. molinae em dois tipos de florestas secas (altamente decídua e semidecídua, do oeste brasileiro, bem como as relações entre a produção de flores frutos e a

  16. Isotope (δ13C, δ15N, δ2H) diet-tissue discrimination in African grey parrot Psittacus erithacus: implications for forensic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Craig; Skhosana, Felix; Butler, Mike; Gardner, Brett; Woodborne, Stephan

    2017-12-01

    Diet-tissue isotopic relationships established under controlled conditions are informative for determining the dietary sources and geographic provenance of organisms. We analysed δ 13 C, δ 15 N, and non-exchangeable δ 2 H values of captive African grey parrot Psittacus erithacus feathers grown on a fixed mixed-diet and borehole water. Diet-feather Δ 13 C and Δ 15 N discrimination values were +3.8 ± 0.3 ‰ and +6.3 ± 0.7 ‰ respectively; significantly greater than expected. Non-exchangeable δ 2 H feather values (-62.4 ± 6.4 ‰) were more negative than water (-26.1 ± 2.5 ‰) offered during feather growth. There was no positive relationship between the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values of the samples along each feather with the associated samples of food offered, or the feather non-exchangeable hydrogen isotope values with δ 2 H values of water, emphasising the complex processes involved in carbohydrate, protein, and income water routing to feather growth. Understanding the isotopic relationship between diet and feathers may provide greater clarity in the use of stable isotopes in feathers as a tool in determining origins of captive and wild-caught African grey parrots, a species that is widespread in aviculture and faces significant threats to wild populations. We suggest that these isotopic results, determined even in controlled laboratory conditions, be used with caution.

  17. Plasma osmolality reference values in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Acierno, Mark; Mitchell, Mark; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bryant, Heather; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-06-01

    Birds are routinely presented to veterinarians for dehydration. Success with these cases ultimately depends on providing replacement fluids and re-establishing fluid homeostasis. Few studies have been done to determine reference ranges for plasma osmolality in birds. The goals of this study were to determine reference values for plasma osmolality in 3 species of parrots and to provide recommendations on fluid selection for replacement therapy in these species. Blood samples were collected from 21 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 21 Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), and 9 red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), and were placed into lithium heparin containers. Plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing point depression osmometer. Summary statistics were computed from the average values. Reference ranges, calculated by using the robust method, were 288-324, 308-345, and 223-369 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. The mean +/- SD values were 306 +/- 7, 327 +/- 7, and 304 +/- 18 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. Comparisons with osmolality values in mammals and values previously reported for psittacine bird species suggest that plasma osmolality is slightly higher in parrots than in mammals, species-specific differences exist, and differences between reported values occur. Overall, fluids with an osmolarity close to 300-320 mOsm/L, such as Normosol-R, Plasmalyte-R, Plasmalyte-A, and NaCl 0.9%, can be recommended in parrots for fluid replacement therapy when isotonic fluids are required.

  18. Computed tomographic anatomy of the heads of blue-and-gold macaws (Ara ararauna), African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), and monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veladiano, Irene A; Banzato, Tommaso; Bellini, Luca; Montani, Alessandro; Catania, Salvatore; Zotti, Alessandro

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To create an atlas of the normal CT anatomy of the head of blue-and-gold macaws (Ara ararauna), African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), and monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus). ANIMALS 3 blue-and-gold macaws, 5 African grey parrots, and 6 monk parakeets and cadavers of 4 adult blue-and-gold macaws, 4 adult African grey parrots, and 7 monk parakeets. PROCEDURES Contrast-enhanced CT imaging of the head of the live birds was performed with a 4-multidetector-row CT scanner. Cadaveric specimens were stored at -20°C until completely frozen, and each head was then sliced at 5-mm intervals to create reference cross sections. Frozen cross sections were cleaned with water and photographed on both sides. Anatomic structures within each head were identified with the aid of the available literature, labeled first on anatomic photographs, and then matched to and labeled on corresponding CT images. The best CT reconstruction filter, window width, and window level for obtaining diagnostic images of each structure were also identified. RESULTS Most of the clinically relevant structures of the head were identified in both the cross-sectional photographs and corresponding CT images. Optimal visibility of the bony structures was achieved via CT with a standard soft tissue filter and pulmonary window. The use of contrast medium allowed a thorough evaluation of the soft tissues. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The labeled CT images and photographs of anatomic structures of the heads of common pet parrot species created in this study may be useful as an atlas to aid interpretation of images obtained with any imaging modality.

  19. Memorial and biographical history of Spain: El jinete polaco by Antonio Muñoz Molina

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    Felipe Oliver Fuentes Kraffczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The novel El jinete polaco by Antonio Muñoz Molina is a highly complex work in which the narrator mixes multiple plotlines in an effort to recreate or remember part of his family past. In the process, the collective memory of the town and people of Mágina (an allegoric space that represents the peasant life of the olive growers of southern Spain appears as a rich and contradictory montage of dreams and failures. And in a third level of discourse, the recent past of Spain also emerges through the main historic al events: the civil war, the protracted military government, and the economic development and current consolidation of democracy. In order to achieve this complex and ambitious narrative project, in El jinete polaco time is not represented as uninterrupted historical timeline but as the rich mixture of the simultaneous experiences of different life courses in terms of both values and cultural patterns in order to understand how the rapid social change affects relations between the various age groups. In other words, time is constructed as a synthesis of the biographical dimension within collective memory and major historical events. This paper seeks to point out the similarities and differences between biographical discourse, collective memory and history.

  20. Microencapsulation of maqui (Aristotelia chilensis Molina Stuntz leaf extracts to preserve and control antioxidant properties

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    Leslie Vidal J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation technology is an alternative to stabilize stress factors and protect food ingredients or additives, which include environmentally sensitive bioactive principles in protective matrices to increase their functionality and life span. The objective of this research was to study conditions to obtain microcapsules with antioxidant capacity from a maqui (Aristotelia chilensis [Molina] Stuntz, Elaeocarpaceae leaf extract by emulsification and subsequent retention after microencapsulation. Microcapsules were produced by water-in-oil emulsion (W/O using a phase of the aqueous maqui leaf extract and gum arabic, and a liquid vaseline phase. Maqui leaf extract antioxidant capacity was 99.66% compared with the aqueous phase of the emulsion at 94.38 and 93.06% for 5% and 15% gum arabic, respectively. The mean yield of maqui leaf extract microencapsulation with 5% gum arabic varied between 38 and 48%, whereas with 15% gum arabic it was 39%. Once the antioxidant microcapsules were formed, mean extract antioxidant capacity ranged between 30 and 35%. Both yields responded similarly to changes in gum arabic concentrations (5% and 15% in the aqueous phase of the emulsion; 5% concentration produced a microcapsule size from 1.0 to 10 urn. Maqui leaf extracts with high phenolic compound levels, which can be stabilized and protected by the microencapsulation process, produce new natural preservative systems as compared with their synthetic counterparts.

  1. Insecticidal activity of powder and essential oil of Cryptocarya alba (Molina Looser against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

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    Juan J Pinto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cereals constitute a relevant part of human and domestic animal diet. Under storage conditions, one of the most significant problems of these crops is insect pests as the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. This insect species is usually controlled by means of synthetic insecticides but problems as toxic residues and resistance has led to the search for more friendly control alternatives such as botanical insecticides. The aim of this research was to evaluate, under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of the powder and the essential oil of peumo (Cryptocarya alba [Molina] Looser; Lauraceae leaves against S. zeamais. The variables assessed were toxicity by contact and fumigant activity, adult emergence (F1, repellent effect, and impact on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. seed germination. A completely randomized design was used with five treatments and 10 replicates. The higher mortality levels were obtained at 80 g powder kg-1 grain and 40 mL essential oil kg-1 grain of C. alba; in both cases, the mortality of adult S. zeamais surpassed 80%. The emergence of adults S. zeamais (F1 was reduced by 100% at 80 g powder kg-1 grain and 40 mL essential oil kg-1 grain. Germination of wheat seeds treated with C. alba powder and essential oil was not affected. Both, the powder and the oil treatments showed repellent effect, but not fumigant activity.

  2. In vivo and in vitro induction of IL-6 by Quillaja saponaria molina triterpenoid formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behboudi, S; Morein, B; Villacres-Eriksson, M

    1997-09-01

    Quillaja saponaria Molina and some of the defined Quillaja components are potent adjuvants. An important function of adjuvants is the activation of antigen-presenting cells (APC), a prerequisite for the development of immune responses. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been identified as a key factor in the generation of cytolytic T lymphocytes, which constitute an important effector mechanism elicited by immuno-stimulatory complex (iscom)-borne antigens. To identify factors relevant to the unique property of iscoms to mediate CTL responses, we analysed the capacity of different defined Quillaja triterpenoid components in various formulations to stimulate production of IL-6 by APC in vitro and in vivo. The iscom formed with Quillaja adjuvant and incorporated influenza virus envelope proteins elicited the highest secretion of IL-6. The production of IL-6 was also stimulated by the antigen free matrix of the iscom and even by the Quillaja triterpenoids as free components albeit to a significantly lesser extent. Among the various combinations of QH-A and QH-C tested and also the original semipurified spikoside, the QH 7.0.3 matrix was the most efficient formulation for activation of IL-6 production by APC. In general, an increasing proportion of QH-A vs QH-C increases the capacity to activate APC. The results demonstrate that the incorporated antigen and the adjuvant component in the same particle have the synergistic effects on immunogenicity.

  3. Separation and characterization of saponins with adjuvant activity from Quillaja saponaria Molina cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensil, C R; Patel, U; Lennick, M; Marciani, D

    1991-01-15

    Saponins were purified from Quillaja saponaria Molina bark by silica and reverse phase chromatography. The resulting purified saponins were tested for adjuvant activity in mice. Several distinct saponins, designated QS-7, QS-17, QS-18, and QS-21, were demonstrated to boost antibody levels by 100-fold or more when used in mouse immunizations with the Ag BSA and beef liver cytochrome b5. These purified saponins increased titers in all major IgG subclasses. To determine optimal dose in mice for adjuvant response, QS-7 and QS-21 were tested in a dose-response study in intradermal immunization with BSA in mice; for both of these purified saponins, adjuvant response (determined by stimulation of ELISA titers to BSA) neared maximum at doses of 5 micrograms and was shown to plateau up to the highest dose tested, 80 micrograms. These purified saponins vary considerably in their toxicity, as assessed by lethality in mice; the main component, QS-18, being the most toxic. Saponins QS-7 and QS-21 showed no or very low toxicity in mice, respectively. None of these saponins stimulated production of reaginic antibodies. The monosaccharide composition of these saponins showed similar but distinct compositions with all four containing fucose, xylose, galactose and glucuronic acid. Predominant differences were observed in the quantities of rhamnose, arabinose, and glucose. Monomer m.w. (determined by size exclusion HPLC) were determined to range from 1800 to 2200.

  4. Separation and structural analysis of some saponins from Quillaja saponaria Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, N T; Kenne, L; Rönnberg, B; Sundquist, B G

    2000-01-12

    A fraction of saponins from Quillaja saponaria Molina, QH-B, was fractionated by consecutive separations on three different reverse-phase HPLC systems. Eight compounds were isolated and the structures of these were elucidated mainly by sugar analysis and NMR spectroscopy. The structures consisted of a quillaic acid substituted with two different trisaccharides at C-3, beta-D-Galp-(1-->2)-[alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->3)]-beta-D-GlcpA and beta-D-Galp-(1-->2)-[beta-D-Xylp-(1-->3)]-beta-D-GlcpA, and a tetra- or pentasaccharide at C-28, beta-D-Xylp-(1-->4)-[beta-D-Glcp-(1-->3)]-alpha-L-Rhap-(1--> 2)-beta-D-Fucp and beta-D-Apif-(1-->3)-beta-D-Xylp-(1-->4)-[beta-D-Glcp-(1-->3) ]-alpha-L- Rhap-(1-->2)-beta-D-Fucp. These compounds were further substituted with an acyl group either at O-3 or O-4 of the fucose residue, which is the sugar linked to C-28 of the quillaic acid.

  5. Phenolic constituents in commercial aqueous Quillaja (Quillaja saponaria Molina) wood extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Christiane; Conrad, Jürgen; Carle, Reinhold; Weiss, Jochen; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin

    2015-02-18

    Phenolic compounds in aqueous, saponin-rich soapbark tree (Quillaja saponaria Molina) extracts were qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by HPLC-PDA-MS(n) and NMR spectroscopy. (+)-Piscidic acid represented the major constituent (75-87% (w/w) of total phenolics) in all examined extracts (n = 4), ranging from 22.1 ± 0.1 to 34.0 ± 0.2 mg/g of dry matter (DM). Derivatives of p-coumaric acid were present at concentrations from 2.2 to 9.3 mg/g of DM (8.1-20.4% of total phenolics), whereas other phenolic constituents such as glucosyringic acid and vanillic acid derivatives accounted for less than 7% of total phenolics. Generally, all Quillaja extracts showed a highly similar but unique pattern, potentially being useful to authenticate Quillaja extracts in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical formulations. Furthermore, the desired antioxidant activity as well as undesired browning reactions in the final product might also be explained by these phenolic compounds, which were identified for the first time in Q. saponaria extracts.

  6. Quillajasides A and B: New Phenylpropanoid Sucrose Esters from the Inner Bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Christiane; Conrad, Jürgen; Steingass, Christof B; Beifuss, Uwe; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2015-10-14

    The phenolic composition of freshly prepared aqueous extracts of the inner bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina was compared to that of commercially available Quillaja extracts, which are currently used as emulsifiers in foods and cosmetics. Major phenolics in both extracts were (+)-piscidic acid and several p-coumaroyl sucrose esters. Among the latter, two new compounds were isolated and characterized: α-l-rhap-(1→4)-α-l-rhap-(1→3)-(4-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-α-d-glup-(1→2)-(3-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-β-d-fruf (quillajaside A) and β-d-apif-(1→4)-α-l-rhap-(1→4)-α-l-rhap-(1→3)-(4-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-α-d-glup-(1→2)-(3-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-β-d-fruf (quillajaside B). In addition, a putative biosynthetic pathway of at least 20 structurally related p-coumaroyl sucrose esters was tentatively identified. Besides their antioxidant activity and their potential function as substrate for enzymatic browning reactions, the new compounds are highly characteristic for both the inner bark of Q. saponaria and commercial extracts derived therefrom. Consequently, they might serve as authenticity markers for the detection of Quillaja extracts in food and cosmetic formulations.

  7. Adjuvant activity of non-toxic Quillaja saponaria Molina components for use in ISCOM matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, B; Fekadu, M; Morein, B

    1995-10-01

    It is well established that ISCOMs function efficiently as an antigen-presenting system and protective immunity has been evoked against a variety of infectious agents. The built-in saponin adjuvant from Quillaja saponaria Molina is responsible for the strong immunoenhancing activity displayed by the ISCOM. However, to allow the use of ISCOMs in human vaccines it is necessary to determine the immunological properties and toxicity of chemically defined Quillaja components. Thus, the present study was carried out in a mouse model to determine the adjuvant activity and toxicity of "free", isolated Quillaja components, as well as formulated into particles, i.e. ISCOM matrix. The purified Quillaja components and the ISCOM matrix formulations were examined for their adjuvant activity in a model system consisting of purified influenza virus antigen and Quillaja saponins. It was demonstrated that a Quillaja component, designated QH-C, either as a "free" component or in an ISCOM matrix, has a strong adjuvant activity, but little or no toxicity in the doses tested. In addition, QH-C in the form of ISCOM matrix does not induce any local reactions at the site of injection. Thus, ISCOMs containing the QH-C component, devoid of toxicity, but with strong adjuvant activity, can prove to be useful in adjuvant formulations for human use.

  8. Morphology of the testes and epididymal ducts in the pampas cat Leopardus colocolo (Molina, 1782

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    Mahmoud Mehanna

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The pampas cat Leopardus colocolo (Molina, 1782 is a species of the Felidae family, widely distributed in South America, included on CITES Appendix II and classified as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List, with population trend decreasing. Based on this information, the objective of this study is to describe morphologically the testes and epididymal ducts of pampas cat. The animal, coming from the Federal University of Mato Grosso Zoo, Brazil, had died after anesthesia procedure and the male reproductive system was dissected to collect the testicles. The samples taken were fragmented and histologically examined. From the microscopic analysis of the testes were identified: vaginal and tunica albuginea, formed by dense connective tissue modeled with large amount of collagen fibers. The tunica albuginea fibrous septa emits into the body. The seminiferous tubules are coiled and coated internally by spermatogenic epithelium consisting of Sertoli cells, surrounded by a basement membrane in the presence of myoid cells. The interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules, is composed of loose connective tissue, blood and lymph vessels, and Leydig cells in polyhedral shape. The epididymal ducts showed pseudostratified columnar epithelium with secretory cells of which stereocilia design, situated on a basement membrane filled by myoid cells. This epithelium has principal and basal cells, the main cell design stereocilia toward the lumen of the epididymal duct.

  9. Memory, orality and identity in an account of Sefarad, by Antonio Muñoz Molina

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    María Victoria Martínez Arrizabalaga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the late twentieth century, astrong interest in reinstate culture and spanish social life into a common culture of European memory is observed in various fields. Sefarad (2001 of Antonio Muñoz Molina stands as a “novel of novels” which builds an essential cultural bridge between these aspects. The author deepens over seventeen stories in major events that marked the European twentieth century: persecution, forced migration, exile and uprooting. Precisely, the spanish exile in 1939 “links the spanish memory and history with European: private and ‘small stories’ with the great speech of History” (Hristova 2011: 28. Another major theme of Sefarad, between memory and exile, is the problem of identity. In this framework we propose to investigate the technical procedures of building the narrator's voice of “Scheherazade”, an older woman who tells her experiences of a very complex world, intertwined her memories of past decades as a “child of war” in Russia with her life nowadays in Madrid where she wonders about her own identity.

  10. Robertsonian chromosome polymorphism of Akodon molinae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae: analysis of trivalents in meiotic prophase Polimorfismo cromosómico Robertsoniano de Akodon molinae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae

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    RAÚL FERNÁNDEZ-DONOSO

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Akodon molinae (with 2n = 42-43-44 and an FN = 44 shows a remarkable polymorphism of chromosome 1 in natural and laboratory populations. Specimens 2n = 42, named single homozygotes (SH, have a chromosome pair 1 formed by two large metacentric chromosomes. Specimens 2n = 3, heterozygotes (Ht, have one chromosome 1 and two medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes, 1a and 1b, which are homologous with the long and short arms of chromosome 1 respectively. Specimens 2n = 44 are double homozygotes (DH, with just two pairs of medium-sized subtelocentric chromosomes, 1a and 1b. Analysis of meiotic metaphases I and II showed that anomalous segregation occurs more frequently in spermatocytes carrying the 1a and 1b chromosomes. This would disturb gametogenesis and other reproductive and developmental processes, producing a marked decrease in viability of DH individuals. There is, as yet, no satisfactory explanation for these phenomena. To investigate structural elements which might explain such segregational anomalies, we have studied bivalent and trivalent synapsis in pachytene spermatocytes from SH, Ht and DH specimens. Of a total of 80 spermatocyte nuclei microspreads, the following results were obtained: of 16 microspreads from two SH individuals, 20 autosomic bivalents plus the XY bivalent were observed; of 48 microspreads from three Ht individuals, 19 autosomic bivalents, 1 trivalent and an XY bivalent were seen; and of the 16 microspreads from two DH individuals, 21 autosomic bivalents plus the XY bivalent were found. Trivalents analysed showed complete pairing between the short arms of 1a and 1b, and having an apparently normal synaptonemal complex (SC with lengths of 1 and 2.8 µm. The trivalent SC showed three telomeric ends, corresponding to arms: q1 and q1a; p1 and q1b; and p1a and p1b, with attachment plates to the nuclear envelope of normal organisation. None of the trivalents showed asynapsis or desynapsis between p1a and p1b, nor an

  11. EL PERFIL DE LOS DIRECTIVOS DE LA UNIVERSIDAD PUBLICA PERUANA: El caso de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM)

    OpenAIRE

    JERI, LEONCIO HERTZ FERNANDEZ

    2011-01-01

    El presente articulo, analiza el perfil del directivo de la Universidad Pública Peruana (UPPe) a partir de una revisión bibliográfica y según la metodología de competencias. La aplicación es en el caso de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, una universidad peruana con 107 años de existencia, y que durante el 2009 eligió sus nuevos directivos para los siguientes 5 años. La definición del perfil, resulta mas interesante en la parte de las competencias de gestión; toda vez que en el diagn...

  12. Saponins from Quillaja saponaria Molina: isolation, characterization and ability to form immuno stimulatory complexes (ISCOMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hoang L; Ross, Benjamin P; McGeary, Ross P; Shaw, P Nicholas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Davies, Nigel M

    2006-10-01

    ISCOMs have received much attention as vaccine adjuvants due to their immunostimulatory effects. They are colloidal particles typically comprised of phospholipids, cholesterol and Quil A, a crude mixture of saponins extracted from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina. We have previously shown that ISCOMs can be prepared by ether injection wherein an ether solution of phospholipids and cholesterol in a mass ratio of 5:2 is injected into a solution of Quil A at a mass ratio of 7 lipids: 3 Quil A. The aim of this study was firstly to isolate and characterise discrete fractions of Quil A and secondly to investigate which of these fractions were able to form ISCOMs by the method of ether injection. Six fractions of Quil A were isolated by semi-preparative reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and characterised by analytical HPLC, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and the qualitative Liebermann-Burchard and Molisch tests for triterpenoids and carbohydrates respectively. ISCOMs were subsequently prepared from the isolated fractions by the method of ether injection and the resulting preparations characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and negative stain transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The molecular weights of the major compounds in the fractions ranged from approximately 1200 to approximately 2300 Da; all fractions tested positive for triterpenoids and saccharides and four of the fractions were identified as QS-7, QS-17, QS-18 and QS-21 by analysis (LC-MS and analytical HPLC). Injection of ether solutions of lipids into aqueous solutions of QS-17, QS-18 or QS-21 all resulted in homogeneous ISCOM dispersions. The combination of lipids and QS-7 by ether injection produced lamellae and liposomes as the prominent structures and a minor amount of ISCOMs. The remaining two hydrophilic, low molecular weight fractions of Quil A did not produce ISCOMs, instead liposomes and helical structures predominated in the

  13. Feeding habits of Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae in the extreme south of Brazil

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    Felipe Bortolotto Peters

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782 in the extreme south of Brazil. We analyzed 60 stomachs of road-kills of C. chinga in the extreme south of Brazil. The contents revealed 808 prey parts, including invertebrates (frequency of occurrence - FO = 96.7% and relative abundance - RA = 94.7%, vertebrates (FO = 18.3% and RA = 2.8% and plants (FO = 31.7% and RA = 2.3%. We identified 18 kinds of food, including the invertebrate order Coleoptera which showed the highest FO (86.7% and RA (75.2%. Other important orders were Orthoptera (FO = 35% and RA = 10.4% and Araneae (FO = 41.7% and RA = 4%. The combination of occurrence and abundance of the preys consumed allowed classifying C. chinga as an omnivorous with a predominance of insects, especially Coleoptera, consuming other invertebrates, vertebrates and plants in smaller numbers. Behavioral and morphological adaptations of C. chinga favor the predation of insects, which are preys that offer low physical resistance and are available in all terrestrial environments.

  14. [Comparative anatomical study of the ventral brain arteries of the Pudu pudu (Molina, 1782) with those of the cow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer-Delaunoy, W

    1997-06-01

    Comparative anatomical study of the ventral brain arteries of the Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) with those of the cow. A comparison using the corrosion method was made between Pudú pudu (Molina, 1782) ventral brain arteries and those of the cow. The Pudú's Rete mirabile epidurale rostrale (Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, 1994) is ventrally formed by branches of the A. maxillaris, and caudally formed by the A. vertebralis. The Hypophysis is surrounded by the Rete mirabile rostrale. The lateral parts are rostrally joined to that gland by a thin vascular bridge and caudally by thick arteries. The Pudú's Circulus arteriosus cerebri asymmetrical, that is, on the right side the A. cerebri rostralis ends in the A. cerebri media. The left-side A. cerebri rostralis irrigates every rostral portion of the encephalon. In the cow, practically the same arteries come out of the Circulus arteriosus cerebri, which is not asymmetrical. The A. cerebri caudalis comes first out of the A. communicans caudalis and then the branches for the Pons, and finally the A. cerebelli rostralis. In this species, there are arterial blocks that are not present in Pudú.

  15. Luis de Molina y la esclavitud de los negros africanos en el siglo XVI. Principios doctrinales y conclusiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Añoveros, Jesús María

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important consequences of Portuguese discoveries was the black slavery business. A most reputed theologist and jurist of the time, Juan de Molina, who had a first-hand knowledge of the subject, made a thorough analysis of the justness of slavery from a Theology and Law perspective, while showing himself opposed to the same. His doctrine set basis for future thought and he must be considered as the first great tratadist on black slavery.

    Una de las consecuencias más importantes de los descubrimientos portugueses en África fue el negocio de los esclavos negros. Luis de Molina, uno de los teólogos y juristas más importantes de su época y con un gran conocimiento del asunto, trató el tema de la licitud de los esclavos negros en amplitud, analizándolo desde la perspectiva de la teología y del derecho, sin omitir su opinión personal contraria a dicha esclavitud. Su doctrina creó escuela y debe ser considerado como el primer gran tratadista de la esclavitud de los negros.

  16. A liberdade humana e as suas diferentes situações existenciais: a infância, o sono, a demência e a ignorância no pensamento de Luis de Molina (1535-1600 = Human freedom and its different existential situations: infancy, sleep, insanity and ignorance according to Luis de Molina(1535-1600

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebalde, João Carlos Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, pretende-se mostrar como o jesuíta Luis de Molina define a liberdade humana e a pensa em diferentes situações existenciais, nomeadamente a infância, o sono, a demência e a ignorância, na obra Concordia liberi arbitrii cum gratiae donis, divina praescientia, providentia, praedestinatione et reprobatione (1588. Discute-se também a importância da educação, da medicina e da religião no desenvolvimento do ser humano, no pensamento de Molina

  17. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fruit extracts in an oil model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusto-Obara, T.R.; Pirce, F.; Scheuermann, E.; Spoto, M.H.F.; Vieira, T.M.F.S.

    2017-01-01

    An oil model system was used to analyze the antioxidant activity of Chilean fruit extracts and to determine their odor sensory effect. Hydroalcoholic extracts from wild and 14-4 genotype murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fruit were assessed by the Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions for producing high total phenolic-content extracts were 49.5% (v/v) ethanol at 30 ºC, which yielded 18.39 and 26.14 mg GAE·g−1 dry matter, respectively. The optimized extracts were added to a lipid model system and evaluated via the Schaal Oven Test. After 96 hours, 150 and 200 mg·kg−1 oil of the wild and 14-4 genotype extracts, respectively, showed an antioxidant capacity similar to TBHQ (200 mg·kg−1 oil) in terms of peroxide values and odor. Thus, murtilla fruit extracts are a natural source of antioxidants for protecting lipidic foods, such as soybean oil. [es

  18. Effect of saponin from Quillaja saponaria (molina) on antibody, tumour necrosis factor and interferon-gamma production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebara, V C; Petricevich, V L; Raw, I; da Silva, W D

    1995-08-01

    Saponin has been described to contain adjuvant activity in vaccination protocols, in protection against disease, and on humoral immune response. In this paper we describe the effect of a pure saponin from Quillaja saponaria (molina) on the immune response elicited in mice by two antigens, BSA and Crotalus durissus terrificus (South American rattlesnake) venom. Antibody production as measured by ELISA shows that saponin was able to increase antibody synthesis to both antigens. Moreover, mice immunized with verom plus saponin were completely protected against the lethal effects of the venom. The effect of saponin was also evaluated for cytokine production. Tumour necrosis factor activity about 2.9 times higher than in control mice was detectable in sera from animals immunized with saponin. Interferon-gamma was produced only when BSA and saponin were injected together into the mice.

  19. Angélica y el desencadenamiento de la locura: Lope de Rueda y Tirso de Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermenegildo, Alfredo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available La locura, como recurso dramático, aparece en dos obras separadas por unas cuantas décadas: la Mederà, de Lope de Rueda, y La villana de la Sagra, de Tirso de Molina. En la primera, la presencia destructora y conflictiva de unos hermanos gemelos desencadena la locura de unos individuos, los padres de la protagonista, que alteran con sus andanzas la convivencia social del grupo a que pertenecen. La fiesta carnavalesca está también en la base misma de la construcción de los locos. En la obra de Tirso, la locura del galán, de don Luis, es utilizada para detener, con su fondo libresco, el desarrollo previsible de la fábula.…

  20. The Andean hog-nosed skunk Conepatus chinga Molina, 1782 as a new definitive host for Spirometra erinacei Faust, Campbell & Kellog, 1929.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Puerta, Luis A; Ticona, Daniel S; López-Urbina, María T; González, Armando E

    2009-03-23

    This report describes the finding of Spirometra erinacei Faust, Campbell & Kellog, 1929 (Cestoda, Diphyllobothridae) infecting the small intestine of two Andean hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus chinga Molina, 1782), collected from the locality "Abra La Raya", at Cusco, Peru. Four cestodes were studied and identified as S. erinacei. This is the first report showing that the Andean hog-nosed skunk is one of the natural hosts for this parasite.

  1. Insecticidal Properties of Peumus boldus Molina Powder Used Alone and Mixed with Lime Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleopter: Curculionidae Propiedades Insecticidas del Polvo de Peumus boldus Molina Solo y en Mezcla con Cal contra Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bustos-Figueroa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal properties of boldus (Peumus boldus Molina powder used alone and mixed with lime against adults of maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Additionally, aeration effects (presence or absence and temperature (room temperature vs. 3 ºC on insecticidal properties were studied over time. A mortality rate of 100% was observed at 20 g kg-1 (w/w of P. boldus powder when used alone and mixed with lime in proportions of 50:50, 60:40, and 80:20. The 50% lethal concentration (LC50 for all treatments was Se evaluaron las propiedades insecticidas del polvo de boldo (Peumus boldus Molina, solo y en mezcla con cal, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Adicionalmente, se evaluó el efecto de la aeración (presencia vs. ausencia y de la temperatura (temperatura ambiente vs. 3 ºC sobre la mortalidad y emergencia de adultos de la F1. La concentración de 20 g kg-1 (p/p del polvo de boldo ya sea solo o en combinación con cal en las proporciones de 50:50, 60:40 y 80:20 mostraron 100% de mortalidad. La concentración letal 50% (CL50, en todos los tratamientos fue menor a 5 g kg-1 (p/p mientras que la CL90 no superó 11 g kg-1 (p/p. La mezcla del polvo con los granos de maíz tanto solo como en mezcla con cal no afectó la germinación. La temperatura y la aeración no afectaron la mortalidad de los adultos parentales ni la emergencia de adultos de la F1. Cuando se mezcló el maíz con el polvo de boldo molido 24 h antes de la infestación con adultos, la mortalidad de los adultos parentales y la emergencia de adultos de la F1 fue de 100 y de 0%, respectivamente. Los resultados no fueron satisfactorios cuando el polvo de boldo almacenado durante 30, 60 y 90 d fue mezclado con el maíz infestado. La toxicidad del follaje de boldo es alta 24 h después de pulverizarse; si el tiempo es mayor, la toxicidad declina significativamente.

  2. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fruit extracts in an oil model system; Actividad antioxidante y evaluación sensorial de extractos de frutos de murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.) en un sistema modelo aceitoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto-Obara, T.R.; Pirce, F.; Scheuermann, E.; Spoto, M.H.F.; Vieira, T.M.F.S.

    2017-07-01

    An oil model system was used to analyze the antioxidant activity of Chilean fruit extracts and to determine their odor sensory effect. Hydroalcoholic extracts from wild and 14-4 genotype murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fruit were assessed by the Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions for producing high total phenolic-content extracts were 49.5% (v/v) ethanol at 30 ºC, which yielded 18.39 and 26.14 mg GAE·g−1 dry matter, respectively. The optimized extracts were added to a lipid model system and evaluated via the Schaal Oven Test. After 96 hours, 150 and 200 mg·kg−1 oil of the wild and 14-4 genotype extracts, respectively, showed an antioxidant capacity similar to TBHQ (200 mg·kg−1 oil) in terms of peroxide values and odor. Thus, murtilla fruit extracts are a natural source of antioxidants for protecting lipidic foods, such as soybean oil. [Spanish] Se analizó la actividad antioxidante de extractos de una fruta chilena en un sistema modelo aceitoso y se determinó el efecto sobre las características organolépticas. Se utilizaron extractos hidroalcohólicos de frutos de murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.) silvestre y del genotipo 14-4, y se aplicó la Metodología de Superficie de Respuesta. Las condiciones óptimas para obtener extractos con altos contenidos de fenoles totales fueron 49,5% (v/v) de etanol a 30 °C, lo que produjo 18,39 y 26,14 mg AGE g−1 materia seca, respectivamente. Los extractos optimizados se añadieron a un sistema modelo aceitoso y se evaluaron a través de una prueba de estabilidad en horno Schaal. Después de 96 horas, los extractos de frutos silvestre (150 mg·kg−1 aceite) y genotipo 14-4 (200 mg·kg−1 aceite) mostraron una capacidad antioxidante similar al TBHQ (200 mg·kg−1 aceite) en términos de índice de peróxido y respecto a las características organolépticas. Se concluye que los extractos de frutos de murtilla son una fuente natural de antioxidantes para la protección de los alimentos lip

  3. Determination of polyphenolic profile, antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of maqui [Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz] a Chilean blackberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genskowsky, Estefania; Puente, Luis A; Pérez-Álvarez, José A; Fernández-López, Juana; Muñoz, Loreto A; Viuda-Martos, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine (1) the polyphenolic profile (phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins), (2) the antioxidant using four different methodologies (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and FIC) and (3) the antibacterial properties of maqui berry [Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz] (MB) grown in Chile. The HPLC analysis of MB showed a total of 19 polyphenolic compounds identified as anthocyanins (eight compounds), flavonols (10 compounds) and ellagic acid. Delphinidin derivatives were the predominant anthocyanins while quercetin derivatives were the predominant flavonols. MB showed an antioxidant activity measured with DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and FIC methods of 28.18, 18.66, 25.22 g Trolox equivalent kg(-1) and 0.12 g ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid equivalent kg(-1) , respectively. With regard to the antibacterial activity, all strains tested were affected by MB. Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria innocua showed the highest sensitivity to maqui berry extracts with MIC values of 40 and a 50 mg mL(-1) , respectively. The results suggest that maqui berry has a great potential to be employed in the food industry as potential food ingredient to functional food development or as bio-preservative. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit extracts in an oil model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Augusto-Obara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An oil model system was used to analyze the antioxidant activity of Chilean fruit extracts and to determine their odor sensory effect. Hydroalcoholic extracts from wild and 14-4 genotype murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit were assessed by the Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions for producing high total phenolic-content extracts were 49.5% (v/v ethanol at 30 ºC, which yielded 18.39 and 26.14 mg GAE·g-1 dry matter, respectively. The optimized extracts were added to a lipid model system and evaluated via the Schaal Oven Test. After 96 hours, 150 and 200 mg·kg-1 oil of the wild and 14-4 genotype extracts, respectively, showed an antioxidant capacity similar to TBHQ (200 mg·kg-1 oil in terms of peroxide values and odor. Thus, murtilla fruit extracts are a natural source of antioxidants for protecting lipidic foods, such as soybean oil.

  5. In vitro activation of antigen-presenting cells (APC) by defined composition of Quillaja saponaria Molina triterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behboudi, S; Morein, B; Villacres-Eriksson, M

    1996-07-01

    The capacity of adjuvants to stimulate cytokine production by APC is important for the initiation of the immune response. Novel adjuvant formulations based on the iscom technology have been developed using selected triterpenoid components from Quillaja saponaria Molina. Five of these new Quillaja formulations were used to prepare matrix (an antigen-free particle) and tested for their capacity to stimulate IL-1 secretion by murine peritoneal cells in vitro. The formulation denominated QH 7.0.3 was superior to the other matrix formulations, including the original spikoside matrix. The QH 7.0.3 formulation in iscoms containing influenza virus envelope antigens induced IL-1 secretion more efficiently than the antigen-free matrix, or a mixture of matrix and viral antigens, or the free Quillaja components of similar composition. Compared with adjuvants known as IL-1 inducers, QH 7.0.3 flu-iscoms were as efficient as the most prominent IL-1 inducer, i.e. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and superior to cholera toxin (CT) and muramyl dipeptide (MDP). These results indicate that the composition per se of triterpenoids included in iscoms or matrix has a prominent influence on the level of APC activation which may result in qualitatively different immune responses in vivo.

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in two morphological root types of Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch Infección por micorrizas arbusculares en dos tipos de raíces de Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diehl

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch is a conifer distributed in the Andean-Patagonian forests in the south of Argentina and Chile. The main objective of this work was to relate the different root classes appearing in A. araucana to mycorrhizal behavior. Samples were collected in three different sites in the Lanín National Park (NW Patagonia, Argentina. Two different root classes were present in A. araucana: longitudinal fine roots (LFR and globular short roots (GSR. Both had extensive mycorrhizal arbuscular symbiosis (AM and presented abundant hyphae and coils in root cells, a characteristic of the anatomical Paris-type. Dark septate fungal endophytes were also observed. Values of total AM colonization were high, with similar partial AM% values for each root class. Seasonal differences were found for total and partial colonization, with higher values in spring compared to autumn. Regarding the percentage of fungal structures between root classes, values were similar for vesicles and arbuscules, but higher coil percentages were observed in GSR compared to LFR. The percentages of vesicles increased in autumn, whereas the arbuscule percentages increased in spring, coinciding with the plant growth peak. Results show that both root classes of A. araucana in Andean-Patagonian forests are associated with AM fungi, which may have ecological relevance in terms of the importance of this symbiosis, in response to soil nutrient-deficiencies, especially high P-retention.La conífera Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch se encuentra distribuida en los bosques Andino-Patagónicos de Argentina y Chile. En este trabajo se relacionaron las diferentes clases morfológicas de raíces presentes en la especie con el comportamiento micorrícico. Las muestras fueron tomadas en tres sitios del Parque Nacional Lanín (NO de Patagonia, Argentina. Se observaron dos clases diferentes de raíces: raíces finas longitudinales (RFL y raíces cortas globulares (RCG. Ambas clases

  7. Distribución del Ruido Ambiental en el Campus de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina en el periodo Enero-Marzo 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez C., Oscar; Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).; Yoza Y., Luis; Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).; Arellano V., Ana; Ing. Ambiental (Perú).

    2009-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo como finalidad determinar la distribución del ruido ambiental en el campus de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM) para el periodo enero – marzo del 2007, para lo cual se efectuó un cuadriculado del campus y sus límites, con un total de 69 estaciones, cuyas mediciones se realizaron en los horarios diurno y nocturno en días laborables, y posteriormente se elaboraron los mapas de distribución de ruido ambiental diurno, nocturno y el indicador Lden (diurno-t...

  8. Factores socioeconómicos y de comportamiento relacionados con caries dental en escolares del distrito de La Molina, Lima, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Mattos Vela, Manuel Antonio; Facultad de Odontología. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima,

    2014-01-01

    El propósito del estudio fue determinar los factores socioeconómicos y de comportamiento relacionados con la historia de caries dental (HCD) en niños de 6 y 12 años de edad de colegios estatales del distrito de La Molina, en Lima, Perú. Se examinó clínicamente una muestrarepresentativa de 257 y 139 niños de 6 y 12 años respectivamente siguiendo los criterios diagnósticos de la OMS para la caries dental. La información sobre los posibles indicadores de riesgo de caries fue recolectada por medi...

  9. Niveles de inteligencia emocional y desempeño laboral en el personal de salud administrativo de la Micro Red La Molina - Cieneguilla

    OpenAIRE

    Yabar Bornaz, Kathya

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar si la inteligencia emocional se relaciona con el desempeño laboral del personal de salud administrativo que labora en la Micro Red La Molina - Cieneguilla, período 2014. Metodología: La investigación es de enfoque cuantitativo. Es una investigación básica que se ubica en el nivel descriptivo y correlacional. El diseño de la investigación es no experimental: transversal: correlacional. La población de estudio estuvo conformado por el personal de salud administrativo de la...

  10. Avaliação da qualidade de folhas de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina comercializadas em Curitiba, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.S. Barbosa

    Full Text Available Foi realizada a avaliação da qualidade de amostras de boldo-do-chile (Peumus boldus Molina comercializadas na Região Metropolitana de Curitiba. Os resultados mostraram que todas as amostras são autênticas, mas os resultados das análises físico-químicas mostraram-se discrepantes em relação aos parametros da Farmacopéia Brasileira e outras bibliografias de referência.

  11. Refugios vegetales para el fomento de la entomofauna benéfica en el agroecosistema del cultivo de maíz en La Molina

    OpenAIRE

    Quispe Tarqui, Reinaldo

    2015-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Entomología El empleo de plantas para proporcionar recursos necesarios (huésped/presa alternativa, refugio, néctar y polen) a los enemigos naturales, se denomina manejo de hábitat, rama creciente del control biológico de conservación. Con el objetivo de evaluar la diversidad de la entomofauna asociada a 15 especies botánicas, agrupadas en tres refugios vegetales, adyacentes al cultivo de maíz (var. PM-303) se implemen...

  12. César Molinas, Qué hacer con España. Del capitalismo castizo a la refundación de un país, Barcelona, Destino, 2013, 302 pp. [Ressenya de llibre

    OpenAIRE

    Prat Sabartés, Marc; Trillas, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    El libro de César Molinas es un trabajo ambicioso. Tiene tres partes: una de prospectiva global, una de diagnóstico de la situación de España y otra de propuestas sobre cómo solucionar sus principales problemas. Respecto a la primera parte, la más extensa, Molinas avala la hipótesis del fin de la Historia, pronosticando el carácter irreversible de la globalización y la democracia liberal, así como la posibilidad de que se alcance nada menos que la inmortalidad humana...

  13. Terminología botánica indígena en el vocabulario castellano-mexicano (1555 de Fray A. de Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galeote Manuel

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Las voces indígenas de la flora americana, que fray Alonso de Molina incluye en la sección castellana de su obra: Aquí comience un vocabulario en la lengua castellana y mexicana (México, Juan Pablos, 1555 se analizan desde el punto de vista histórico y sociolingüístico. Se trata del primer vocabulario de Molina el Nebrija de las Indias y, además, el primer diccionario impreso en México y en América. En las entradas castellanas, los términos indígenas americanos de la flora (plantas y frutas constituyen uno de los campos onomasiológicos más numerosos (maíz, cacao, maguey, chía, ají, etc. De los once términos indígenas hemos contabilizado casi un centenar de ocurrencias. En conclusión, este vocabulario muestra el fondo léxico patrimonial del español y los indoamericanismos que se acomodaron a las estructuras de la lengua castellana.

  14. [Biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the Neogene micromammalian faunas from the Calatayud-Teruel Basin (Spain) / Freudenthal, M. (editor)]: Rodents and lagomorphs from a lower Vallesian fissure filling near Molina de Aragon (Prov. Guadalajara, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anduenza, J.I.L.

    1988-01-01

    A new lower Vallesian micromammalian fauna from a locality near Molina de Aragon is described. Five species of Cricetidae, three species of Sciuridae - including a new one (Heteroxerus molinensis) -, two species of Gliridae, and one lagomorph species are described. Also, the paleoecological

  15. Chilean berry Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit and leaves extracts with interesting antioxidant, antimicrobial and tyrosinase inhibitory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Bustos, Fernanda; Valenzuela, Ximena; López-Carballo, Gracia; Vilariño, Jose M; Galotto, Maria Jose

    2017-12-01

    The knowledge of the biological properties of fruits and leaves of murta (Ugni molinae Turcz.) has been owned by native Chilean culture. The present study investigated the phenolic content, the antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-tyrosinase activities of different murta fruit and leaves extracts to approach their uses on future food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications. Extractions of murta fruit and leaves were carried out under water, ethanol and ethanol 50%. Phenolic content of these extracts was measured through Folin Ciocalteu test and the antioxidant power by four different antioxidant systems (ORAC, FRAP, DPPH and TEAC assays) owing to elucidate the main mechanism of antioxidant. Some flavonoids, such as rutin, isoquercitrin and quercitrin hydrate were identified and quantified through HPLC analysis. Antimicrobial activity was determined measuring minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values against Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, and the effect of these extracts on L. monocytogenes was confirmed by flow cytometry. Highest contents of polyphenol compounds were obtained in hydroalcoholic extracts (28±1mggallicacid/g dry fruit, and 128±6mggallicacid/g dry leaves). The same trend was found for the values of biological properties: hydroalcoholic extracts showed the strongest activities. Leaves presented higher antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-tyrosinase properties than murta fruit. Highest antioxidant activity values according to ORAC, FRAP, TEAC and DPPH were 80±8mgTrolox/g, 70±2mgTrolox/g, 87±8mgTrolox/g and 110±12mgTrolox/g, respectively, for murta fruit samples, and 280±10mgTrolox/g, 192±4mgTrolox/g, 286±13mgTrolox/g and 361±13mgTrolox/g, respectively, for murta leaves. These activities were confirmed by HPLC analysis that revealed highest presence of analyzed compounds on leaves hydroalcoholic extract. Regarding to antimicrobial analysis, hydroalcoholic leaves extract presented the

  16. "La quincena soviética" (1988) de Vicente Molina Foix: del examen de la identidad a la imposibilidad del amor

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Samos, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    El problema de la identidad es una preocupación relevante en la narrativa española del siglo XX. Aparece en función de su formación, conversión o disolución frente a la coyuntura histórica del momento. En "La quincena soviética" (1988) de Vicente Molina Foix, la cuestión de la identidad se debate entre las necesidades e intereses particulares del personaje y las exigencias del activismo político en la España franquista. Este estudio indaga la formación de la compleja identidad de Ramiro/Simón...

  17. Occurrence of Conepatus chinga (Molina (Mammalia, Carnivora, Mustelidae and other terrestrial mammals in the Serra do Mar, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper 19 additional mammalian species are reported in the Atlantic forest of the Paranean Serra do Mar, southern Brazil, including threatened and rare species. These findings resulted from a one-year field research in the western slope of the Serra do Mar, Piraquara municipality, with additional review of reports about mammal distribution in the region. Preliminarily mammal richness in the region is round 54 species, but this number could be higher with more systematic surveys, particularly with regards to bats. The occurrence of the hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, is reported for the first time in the eastern portion of Paraná, a State vastly deforested during the last century in Brazil.Neste artigo, 19 espécies adicionais de mamíferos são informadas para a Floresta Atlântica da Serra do Mar paranaense, sul do Brasil, incluindo espécies ameaçadas e raras. Este relato é resultado de uma pesquisa de campo de um ano na vertente oeste da Serra do Mar, município de Piraquara¸ com revisão adicional de relatos sobre a distribuição de mamíferos na região. A riqueza preliminar de mamíferos na Serra do Mar paranaense é de 54 espécies, mas este número poderá aumentar quando mais inventários faunísticos forem realizados, principalmente para morcegos. A ocorrência do cangambá, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, é relatada pela primeira vez na porção leste do Paraná, um Estado altamente desflorestado neste último século no Brasil.

  18. Presence of a Phytoplasma Associated with Witches’-Broom Disease in Ugni molinae Turcz. and Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer Determined by DAPI, PCR, and DNA Sequencing Presencia de un Fitoplasma Asociado a la Enfermedad de "Escoba de Bruja" en Ugni molinae Turcz. y Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer Determinado Mediante DAPI, PCR y Secuenciación de ADN

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    Nolberto Arismendi S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. and common chaura (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer are native species of Chile. Plants of both species have shown over-branching like witches' broom. The causal agents of these symptoms in many plants are phytoplasma. To verify the presence of these microorganisms, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were performed in symptomatic and asymptomatic plants. Positive PCR samples were sequenced to identify the pathogens involved. In individuals of both species with witches’ broom symptoms, DAPI staining showed fluorescent bodies in the phloem tissues, but not in asymptomatic plants. Verification by nested-PCR, phytoplasmatic DNA was amplified from diseased murta and chaura, but not in apparently healthy plants. Sequencing of amplified products allowed locating phytoplasma within the ash yellows group (16SrVII and related to Candidatus phytoplasma fraxini. This is the first report of phytoplasma in Chilean native species. Considering the diversity of plant species infected by the ash yellows group suggests that G. phillyreifolia and U. molinae could be a phytoplasma reservoir for other economically important agricultural crops.La murta (Ugni molinae Turcz. y la chaura común (Gaultheria phillyreifolia (Pers. Sleumer son especies nativas de Chile. En plantas de ambas especies se ha observado una sobre-ramificación de tipo "escoba de bruja". En muchas plantas los agentes causales de esta sintomatología son fitoplasmas. Para verificar la presencia de estos microorganismos se analizaron plantas con y sin síntomas mediante tinciones DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-fenilindol y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR. Muestras positivas en la PCR fueron secuenciadas para identificar al fitopatógeno implicado. En individuos de ambas especies con síntomas de escoba de bruja, la tinción DAPI permitió observar cuerpos fluorescentes en los tejidos del floema, situaci

  19. Effect of vacuum storage on shelf life of a grain protector based on Peumus boldus Molina foliage powder and lime against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsk

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    Paulina Rivera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Coleoptera: Curculionidae is a key pest of stored grain maize. As an ecological pest control alternative, the use of botanical insecticides, such as powder from boldus (Peumus boldus Molina foliage singly or mixed with lime, has been evaluated. Unfortunately, its shelf life is very short and does not exceed 15 d. The effectiveness of vacuum storage on insecticidal properties of a natural grain protector produced with boldus powder:lime at proportions of 50:50 and 60:40 against adults of S. zeamais was assessed under laboratory conditions. Treatments were evaluated at 1% and 2% (w/w for 150 d of storage. All treatments based on boldus powder kept the level of mortality by contact activity over 80% at 150 d of storage. The highest toxicity, as a fumigant, was observed in treatments 50:50 at 2% and 60:40 at 1% and 2% with mortality over 60%. The grain weight loss was less than 1% and seed germination was not affected. With the exception of 0:100 at 2% without vacuum storage, all treatments were repellent to S. zeamais. Vacuum storage extended shelf life of the grain protector for 150 d.

  20. Bioactivity of Peumus boldus Molina, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul. and Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde (Monimiacea essential oils against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

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    Carmen Herrera-Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is one of most important pest of stored seeds worldwide, but its current control method is based on the use of synthetic insecticides, usually leading to undesirable problems such as insecticide residues on treated food, human intoxications, and insect resistance development. Therefore the search of friendly alternative methods is required. The aim of this study was to assess, under laboratory conditions, the insecticidal properties of Peumus boldus Molina, Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz & Pav. Tul., and Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser Schodde essential oils against S. zeamais. The phytochemical analysis of the three essential oils showed 1,8-cineole, safrole and methyleugenol as the common components; all of them documented with insecticidal activity from essential oils from other plant species. The highest toxicity (100% mortality of these three oils acting as a contact insecticide was observed at 24 h exposure at 4% concentration. The estimated LC50 values for P. boldus, L. sempervirens, and L. philippiana were 0.37, 1.02, and 0.28 μL g-1, respectively. Peumus boldus exhibited the highest fumigant activity with 100% adult mortality at 30 μL oil L-1 air. At ≥ 0.5% (v/w concentration, all essential oils showed repellent activity. These three essential oils showed a promissory insecticidal activity against the maize weevil.

  1. Landscape dynamics and fire activity since 6740 cal yr BP in the Cantabrian region (La Molina peat bog, Puente Viesgo, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Obiol, R.; García-Codron, J. C.; Pèlachs, A.; Pérez-Haase, A.; Soriano, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    A lack of paleobotanic studies with adequate resolution and multiproxy approaches has limited proper discussion of vegetation dynamics in Cantabria and of the role of fires in the configuration of the plant landscape during the Holocene in the northwest part of the Iberian peninsula. The pollen diagram of La Molina peat bog in Puente Viesgo (43°15‧38″ N-3°58‧37″ W; ETRS89), located at 484 m.a.s.l., and the study of its sedimentary charcoals allowed the acquisition of a continuous and thorough fire sequence for the last 6700 cal yr BP and an understanding of its relationship to the forest. The results show the importance of human influence on the incidence and characteristics of fire activity during the different phases studied: the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman period, and Middle Ages. A synergy seems to exist between dry climate periods (especially during Bond events 3 and 4) and a greater presence of biomass. As the Holocene advances, vegetation coverage clearly tends to decrease. This study provides key elements for understanding the role of fire activity in the forest dynamics of deciduous and evergreen Quercus, Corylus, Pinus, Fagus, and Alnus and demonstrates the strongly artificialized character of the present landscape.

  2. Glycosyl compositions and structural characteristics of the potential immuno-adjuvant active saponins in the Quillaja saponaria Molina extract quil A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Setten, D C; van de Werken, G; Zomer, G; Kersten, G F

    1995-01-01

    Fifty saponin components of Quil A, a commercially available extract from the bark of the South American tree Quillaja saponaria Molina, were partially structurally characterised. The molecular weights were determined by fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The glycosyl and elemental composition of all the saponins was determined by applying our recently developed method, monomer mapping, consisting of a computer program and accurate mass measurements. Support for the presumed identity of the aglycone, i.e. quillaic acid, was found in the accurate mass determination, 1H NMR measurement and chemical reactions. The saponin composition of Quil A was shown to consist of pairs. Within the 3-O bound glycosyl moiety of a pair there was a structural difference: a pentose and rhamnose were interchanged. Structural differences between different pairs were located in the 28-O bound glycosyl moiety. A structural element, unknown to date and of which the elemental composition was deduced to be C8H12O5, was found in the 28-O bound glycosyl moiety of several saponins.

  3. Texto literario y texto fílmico : análisis comparativo-textual de "El invierno en Lisboa, Beltenebros y Plenilunio" de Antonio Muñoz Molina

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Naveira, Marta Maria

    2016-01-01

    En la tesis Texto literario y texto jilmico. A nálisis comparativo-textual de El invierno en Lisboa, Beltenebros y Plenilunio de Antonio Muñoz Molina analizamos, desde una perspectiva narratológica y filmica, las tres novelas del escritor y sus adaptaciones cinematográficas. El alcance de las relaciones entre cine y literatura es muy amplio y opera en ambas direcciones. En este trabajo se lleva a cabo un estudio comparativo de los textos con el fin de comprobar si mantienen ...

  4. Effects of carbohydrate modification of Quillaja saponaria Molina QH-B fraction on adjuvant activity, cholesterol-binding capacity and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, B; Fekadu, M; Behboudi, S; Kenne, L; Morein, B

    1997-12-01

    The iscom is an efficient antigen-presenting system for various antigens inducing both MHC class I and class II restricted immune responses. Protective immunity has been evoked against a variety of infectious agents. The saponin adjuvant Quil A, which was originally used to form iscoms, is composed of a mixture of structurally similar triterpenoids from Quillaja saponaria Molina having different biological activities. A purified, toxic Quillaja triterpenoid fraction with strong adjuvant activity, designated QH-B, was used to study whether modification of the carbohydrate moiety with sodium periodate would alter the toxicity without harming adjuvant activity and cholesterol-binding capacity. Most sugars, and in particular Api, Gal and Xyl, were modified by periodate treatment with only minor changes of the molecular weights indicating no loss of sugar residues. The adjuvant activity of QH-B was reduced in a dose-related manner, and at a concentration of 25 mM sodium periodate a significant reduction in toxicity was observed. The differences in both toxicity and adjuvant activity of the periodate-treated QH-B could be derived from alterations in the structure of the sugars Gal and Xyl, while modification of Api may influence adjuvant activity but not toxicity in vivo. The cholesterol-binding capacity, a prerequisite for iscom formation, was not affected by periodate oxidation at the doses tested. However, the use of modified QH-B as described in the present study for iscom-matrix formation resulted in "saponin-lipid complexes" which, to a various degree or totally, deviated from the characteristic iscom morphology.

  5. Biological and morphometric aspects and rearing of Syssphinx molina (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, a defoliator of parica tree Aspectos biológicos e morfométricos e criação de Syssphinx molina (Cramer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, desfolhadora de paricá

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    Telma Fátima Vieira Batista

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to describe the biological and morphometric aspects of the parica tree defoliator, Syssphinx molina (Cramer, and make recommendations about the insect rearing. The life cycle was 62.9 days with mean periods for the egg, larval, pre-pupal and pupal stages of 5.6, 31.1, 2.2 and 16.6 days respectively. The pupal viability was 60.5% for females and 48.6% for males. The sexual ratio was 0.5 with mean production of 182.3 ± 2.2 eggs per female and egg viability of 24.3%. The mean longevity was 7.9 ± 2 and 8.1 ± 3 days for females and males respectively. Other parameters were also observed and compared with description of other Saturniidae species.O objetivo desse trabalho foi descrever os aspectos biológicos e morfométricos da lagarta desfolhadora do paricá, Syssphinx molina (Cramer, e fazer recomendações para a criação do inseto. O ciclo de vida foi de 62,9 dias com períodos médios para as fases de ovo, lagarta, pré-pupa e pupa de 5,6; 31,1; 2,2 e 16,6 dias, respectivamente. A viabilidade das pupas foi de 60,5% para fêmeas e 48,6% nos machos. A razão sexual foi de 0,5 e a produção média de 182,3 ± 2,2 ovos por fêmea com viabilidade de ovos de 24,3%. A longevidade média foi de 7,9 ± 2 e 8,1 ± 3 dias para fêmeas e machos, respectivamente. Outros parâmetros foram igualmente observados e comparados com a descrição de outras espécies de Saturniidae.

  6. Una evaluación de los índices bibliométricos I e Is de Molina-Montenegro & Gianoli aplicada a investigadores en ciencias ecológicas en Chile An assessment of the bibliometric indices I and Is of Molina-Montenegro & Gianoli applied to researchers in ecological sciences in Chile

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    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El interés por medir la producción científica ha originado un creciente número de índices. En este comentario examino críticamente los índices I e Is propuestos por Molina-Montenegro & Gianoli (2010; en este número, y los criterios empleados por estos autores para incorporar o excluir a científicos de su base de datos de investigadores chilenos en ecología. Además analizo la relación estadística entre los índices de producción científica I, Is y h de Hirsch, y las variables que los componen. Para ello empleo análisis de correlación y de regresión lineal. Los resultados muestran que luego de la corrección por el número de coautores y de autocitas que incorpora el índice I, este está principalmente asociado al log10 del número de alocitas, y mantiene una alta correlación con el índice h. Esto sugiere que el número de coautores y de autocitas no son predictores importantes de las diferencias entre ambos índices. En cambio, el índice Is es el único que disminuye con la edad científica, lo que se considera un efecto indeseable, y resultante de corregir mediante la división del valor del índice I por la edad científica. Al examinar los residuos de la regresión entre el log10 del número de alocitas y la edad científica se distingue nítidamente a quiénes habría que promover, contratar o premiar, lo que constituye una manera más simple y directa de evaluar comparativamente la producción de un investigador.The interest in measuring the scientific output has led to an increasing number of indices being proposed. In this commentary I critically examine the indices I and Is proposed by Molina-Montenegro & Gianoli (2010; in this issue, and the criteria employed by these authors to incorporate or exclude scientists from their database of Chilean researchers in ecology. I also assess the statistical relationship between the indices of scientific output I, Is and Hirsch's h, and the primary variables that compose them

  7. Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile sold in Campinas, Brazil

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    Liliana de O. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A sociedade atual tem buscado a fitoterapia como um importante recurso terapêutico, sendo a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica destes produtos um requisito essencial, considerando a sua origem. Deste modo, o objetivo da pesquisa foi realizar a contagem e a identificação de fungos filamentosos em 20 amostras de folhas de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e de Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados da cidade de Campinas, Brasil, usando as técnicas microbiológicas clássicas. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que 45% das amostras analisadas se situavam fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na análise quantitativa da contaminação fúngica entre amostras comercializadas em farmácias de manipulação e mercados, tanto para o boldo-do-Chile como para a sene. Os fungos identificados nestas amostras foram: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium e Monilia sitophila. Estes resultados demonstraram o baixo nível de qualidade desses fitoterápicos, pois, além do elevado número de amostras contaminadas, foram identificados fungos de gêneros produtores de micotoxinas, como o Aspergillus e o Penicillium. Verifica-se a urgência na realização de adequado controle de qualidade microbiológico dos fitoterápicos e de implantação de fiscalização efetiva, para garantir a segurança e eficácia destes produtos.The consumption of medicinal plants has increased during the last years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and identify fungi specimens present in samples of Cassia acutifolia Delile (20 (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (Boldo-do-Chile (20, that were purchased in drugstores and markets of Campinas, Brazil, by usual methods. The results showed that 45% of samples did not fit the minimum

  8. Importance and practices of Egusi crops (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv. 'Aklamkpa' in sociolinguistic areas in Benin

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    Coulibaly O.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance et culture de Egusi (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. cv ' Aklamkpa ' dans les régions sociolinguistiques du Bénin. Les légumes traditionnels africains sont considérés comme potentiellement utiles pour contribuer à la sécurité alimentaire et à la génération de revenu au niveau des communautés locales. Cependant, Egusi (Citrullus lanatus subsp. mucosospermus, Cucumeropsis mannii et Lagenaria siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa ' a rarement fait l'objet de recherche et de promotion alors que sa culture persiste dans les systèmes de production de plusieurs pays de l'Afrique de l'Ouest. Cette étude met l'accent sur le rôle social des cultures de Egusi et leur importance dans le système de production des groupes sociolinguistiques au Bénin. En 2005, une investigation des systèmes de production et de culture de cinq régions socioculturelles prédominantes indique que la culture de Egusi est classée parmi les dix premières spéculations, selon la perception des ménages interrogés. Le rang attribué aux cultures de Egusi est relatif au genre mais pas à l'âge. Les agriculteurs allouent en moyenne 0,74 ha pour la production de Egusi, avec une différence significative d'une région sociolinguistique à une autre. Dans la communauté Mahi-Fon du centre Bénin, par exemple, nous avons observé des champs de production de Egusi allant jusqu'à 5 ha. L'espèce la plus cultivée est C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus. Cependant, dans la communauté Adja du sud Bénin, la préférence des agriculteurs est pour L. siceraria cv. ' Aklamkpa '. Egusi se cultive au champ et en jardin de case, soit en association ou en monoculture. C. mannii est généralement cultivée en association et joue un rôle social très important dans les communautés Nagot-Yoruba. Bien que Egusi ne soit pas une culture réservée aux femmes, ces dernières réalisent la plupart des activit

  9. EFECTO DE LA DENSIDAD DE PLANTACIÓN EN SANDÍA SIN SEMILLA INJERTADA SOBRE BULE (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl.

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    Jesus Lopez Elias

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha incrementado el interés en sandía injertada sobre portainjertos tolerantes a Fusarium. En virtud de que la densidad de plantación es un factor determinante en el grado de competencia entre las plantas y de que el rendimiento por planta disminuye a medida que la densidad por unidad de superficie se incrementa, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de tres densidades de plantación, en hileras a 2.0 m de separación con plantas espaciadas a 1.25, 1.55 y 2.00 m, sobre la producción y calidad de sandía sin semilla híbrido ‘Tri-X 313’, injertada sobre bule (Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. híbrido ‘Emphasis’. El experimento se desarrolló utilizando un diseño en bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Las densidades de plantación evaluadas no influyeron sobre la producción de sandía sin semilla, híbrido ‘Tri-X 313’, injertada sobre L. siceraria; Sin embargo, las plantas injertadas mostraron una disminución del rendimiento por superficie con respecto de aquellas sin injertar, que varió del 10 al 24%, por lo que su uso está restingido a suelos con problemas de estrés causado principalmente por enfermedades. El peso promedio del fruto se incrementó en un 10% con el espaciamiento a 2.00 m. Asimismo, el número de frutos por planta disminuyó significativamente a medida que la densidad se incrementó. Los resultados en sandía injertada no fueron positivos por unidad de superficie; sin embargo, se obtuvo mayor producción por planta a menor densidad de plantación (mayor espaciamiento. Dado el incremento en los costos de producción al utilizar plantas injertadas, existe ventaja en el uso de menor densidad de plantación (mayor espaciamiento, pudiendose usar hasta un 50% menos densidad de plantación que en sandía sin injertar, sin afectar significativamente la producción y la

  10. El túnel viario de María de Molina en Madrid. Optimización en el diseño y descripción de las soluciones estructurales adoptadas

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    Granda San Segundo, Laura

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Maria de Molina tunnel which will join paseo de la Castellana and Velázquez street with the N-II highway (Madrid - Barcelona will be the largest municipal underground work in Spain. The tunnel is 1171 meters long and it will absorbe a traffic of 30000 vehicles going out every day. The initial part of the tunnel has been designed as false tunnels made with foundation walls and slabs. The concrete has been cast over the ground and the tunnel has been excavated afterwards in order to minimize the effect of the work on Madrid traffic. Once a sufficient depth has been reached, two different construction systems have been proposed, depending on the conditions the tunnel finds in each case. The project presents some singular points in which the solutions adopted are structurally extraordinary.El túnel viario de María de Molina, que unirá el Paseo de la Castellana y la calle Velázquez con la N-II de Madrid a Barcelona, constituirá la mayor obra municipal de pasos subterráneos. El túnel de un total de 1.171 m de longitud va a absorber una salida de tráfico de 30.000 vehículos diarios. En los tramos iniciales se han proyectado falsos túneles con pantallas y losas hormigonadas sobre el terreno y excavadas a posteriori, para minimizar los efectos tráfico. Cuando se alcanza una profundidad adecuada se ha planteado la ejecución de un túnel con dos sistemas constructivos diferentes, dependiendo de los condicionantes que se encuentran en cada momento. El proyecto presenta una serie de puntos singulares en los que las soluciones adoptadas son estructuralmente extraordinarias

  11. Caractérisation botanique et agronomique de trois espèces de cucurbites consommées en sauce en Afrique de l'Ouest : Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin et Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl

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    Zoro Bi I.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical and agronomical characterisation of three species of cucurbit consumed as sauce in West Africa: Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl. There are in Côte d'Ivoire at least five species of cucurbit incorrectly called ""pistaches"" in town and cultivated at small scale by women for their oleaginous seeds that are a great importance in the sociocultural live of several peoples. Nevertheless, few studies aimed at the improvement of these plants (related notably to taxonomy, genetic resources collecting missions, genetic characterisation, agronomic evaluation, and selection have been carried out. In order to set up a list of reliable traits that should be examined easily during and after collecting missions, we carry out in the present study, for three species (Citrullus sp., Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Lagenaria siceraria (Molina Standl a botanic description and an analysis of eleven agronomic traits: 100-seeds weight, germination rate, seedlings emergence time, matured fruit weight, matured fruit decomposition time, mean number of seeds per fruit, seeds shape, fruit diameter, fruit interior cavity diameter, flowering time, and fruiting time. Statistical analyses using nine of these traits showed that the three species can be completely distinguished with six traits whereas the three other traits allowed partial distinction. Low yields have been observed for the three species: 11.41 kg/ha of decorticated seeds for C. mannii, 18.51 kg/ha for Citrullus sp. and 75.14 kg/ha for L. siceraria. From the observed yield components, the possibilities to improve the production of these cucurbits are discussed.

  12. A Survey of African Grey Parrots (Psittacus Erithacus) Trade and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    A Survey of African Grey Parrots……..Edem et al EJESM Vol.1 no.2 2008. 69. Background to Nigerian Biodiversity. Conservation. Nigerian Government's policy goal on conservation of biodiversity is to ensure sustainable use of forest resources and preservation diverse benefits accruing from wildlife conservation for.

  13. Breeding biology of African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) in Kom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Department of Physiology and Animal Production, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences, ... cause of nest loss in many birds (Nilsson, .... The eggs observed in abandoned nests were measured using a calliper. The duration of the nesting cycle of grey parrot (GP) in the study area was calculated based on the time ...

  14. Tirso de Molina, Indios y Encomenderos

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    Caro López, Ceferino

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In the text of Tirso's Trilogía de los Pizarro elements are to be found which allow to affirm that the playwright availed himself of an occasional commission to make an instrument of political criticism aiming at false advisers and validos. Tirso fought against the novelties in the government and policy of the Inidies and stood for the abolition of the humanitarian measures of the Leyes Nuevas and the strengthening of the encomenderos' power. Thus the Trilogy presents itself as a telling instance of the mental shift between Renaissance erasmism and the crisis of the Counter-Reformation.

    En la Trilogía de los Pizarro hay elementos que permiten afirmar que el dramaturgo usó un encargo ocasional para hacer un instrumento de crítica de la política de su tiempo, poniendo en evidencia la figura de los validos y de los malos consejeros. Contra las novedades introducidas en el gobierno y en la política indiana Tirso proponía la abolición de las medidas humanitarias incluidas en las Leyes Nuevas y el fortalecimiento de la autoridad de los encomenderos. La Trilogía se presenta por lo tanto como un ejemplo del cambio cultural entre el erasmismo del Renacimiento y la crisis de la Contrarreforma.

  15. Case 3058. Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 and Callorhinus Gray, 1859 (Mammalia, Pinnipedia): proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca pusilla Schreber, [1775] as the type species of Arctocephalus; and Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866: proposed conservation by the designation of Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 as the type species of Otaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A.L.; Robbins, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this application is to conserve the accustomed understanding and usage of the fur seal name Arctocephalus F. Cuvier, 1826 by the designation of Phoca pusilia Schreber, [1775] as the type species, thus conserving also the name Callorhinus Gray, 1859. At present Phoca ursina Linnaeus, 1758 is the valid type species of both Arctocephalus and Callorhinus. The name Arctocephalus relates to a genus of some seven fur seals from the southern hemisphere, while Callorhinus is used for the single species C. ursinus (Linnaeus) from the northern hemisphere. It is also proposed that the universal understanding of the names Otaria Peron, 1816 and Eumetopias Gill, 1866 should be conserved for the southern and northern sea lions respectively by designating Phoca leonina Molina, 1782 (for which the valid specific name is P. byronia de Blainville, 1820) as the type species of Otaria. At present Phoca jubata Schreber, [1776] is the type species of Otaria and the name Otaria is a senior subjective synonym of Eumetopias. The four genera Arctocephalus, Callorhinus, Otaria and Eumetopias are all placed in the family OTARIIDAE Gray, 1825.

  16. Aproximación a la confrontación jurídico-económica entre María de Molina y las aljamas castellanas a finales del siglo XIII y principios del siglo XIV

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    Rica AMRAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail a été conçu dans une perspective bien précise : l’aspect historiographique de la question, introduit par les chroniques. Toutefois, à cause du laconisme de ces textes, et bien que la base de notre étude soit le récit historiographique des règnes de Sanche IV et de Ferdinand IV, nous avons aussi utilisé la documentation des cortès et celle de la collection Burriel. D’autres documents, relatifs à des conciles et à des synodes, proviendront de la jurisprudence ecclésiastique. Nous évoquerons d’abord les communautés juives castillanes dans leur situation interne (sociale et spirituelle et analyserons la situation économique à laquelle la majorité de leurs membres fut soumise, avant de passer au coeur de notre propos : les relations de Marie de Molina avec les juifs (points communs avec les époques antérieures, changements provoqués par la reine et enfin signification de sa politique envers cette minorité et impact de celle-ci au XIVe siècle.El presente trabajo ha sido concebido bajo una visión bien dirigida : la vertiente historiográfica que introducen las crónicas. Sin embargo y debido a la parquedad de las mismas, y aunque las bases serán estas, las del periodo de Sancho IV y Fernando IV, me he permitido también utilizar los documentos de Cortes, al mismo tiempo que algunos sobre el periodo insertos en la colección Burriel ; otros provendrán de la jurisprudencia eclesiástica, relativos a concilios y sínodos. Y ya en un segundo plano trabajaremos sobre las aljamas castellanas (situación social y espiritualidad desde un punto de vista interno ; analizaremos desde la óptica de la mayoría la situación económica a los que estos se vieron sometidos y por último, lo que será el centro de nuestro estudio, la relación de María de Molina con la comunidad judía : los puntos comunes con épocas anteriores, los cambios que esta realiza en su relación con la comunidad, para concluir con lo que

  17. Fouling community dominated by Metridium senile (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria in Bahía San Julián (southern Patagonia, Argentina

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    Juan Pablo Martin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to provide information about a harbour-fouling community dominated by Metridium senile in southern Patagonia. Several steel tubes from the wharf of Puerto San Julián were extracted to perform repair tasks, allowing the attached benthic community to be studied. Sampling was conducted at three levels: lower intertidal, 3-4 m depth and 6-7 m depth. In the lower intertidal, M. senile had a relative abundance of 43%, the most abundant accompanying species being Perumytilus purpuratus, Mytilus edulis platensis and Aulacomya atra atra. At subtidal level, the anemone showed relative abundances of 64% and 65%, and was accompanied by Monocorophium insidiosum at 3-4 m depth and by polychaetes of families Sabellidae and Syllidae at 6-7 m at depth. In the lower intertidal, epibiosis was more frequent on P. purpuratus, A. atra atra and M. edulis platensis, while in the subtidal, the richness of substrate-organisms increased significantly and the anemone was fixed to A. atra atra, M. edulis platensis, Paramolgula gregaria, Crepipatella dilatata, Austromegabalanus psittacus, Hiatella arctica, Polyzoa opuntia, Pyura sp. and Sabellidae tubes. The ability of M. senile to settle on many different organisms, along with other strategies, makes it a colonizer able to displace other species that could compete with it for substratum. Given the cosmopolitan nature of M. senile, the fact that this species has not been previously reported in the coastal zone of the region, and the results of our study, we discuss the possibility that this sea anemone is an invasive alien species in southern Patagonia, or at least a cryptogenic species.

  18. Review of Studies on Visual Perception in Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus: The Muller-Lyer Illusion, Amodal and Modal Completion

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    Irene M. Pepperberg

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Few avian studies on optical illusions are directly comparable to those with humans. Grey parrots that have some referential use of English speech, however, allow for such comparative studies, as these birds can be tested just as are humans, by asking them to describe exactly what they have seen. Here I review two studies, one on the Müller-Lyer illusion (Pepperberg, Vicinay, & Cavanagh, 2008, one on amodal and modal perception (Pepperberg & Nakayama, 2016, that demonstrate similarities between human and Grey parrot perceptual abilities.

  19. The hydrodynamic trails of Lepomis gibbosus (Centrarchidae), Colomesus psittacus (Tetraodontidae) and Thysochromis ansorgii (Cichlidae) investigated with scanning particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Wolf; Bleckmann, Horst

    2004-04-01

    The hydrodynamic trails of fish belonging to the families Centrarchidae, Tetraodontidae and Cichlidae were investigated. Water movements were measured in six horizontal planes, spaced 10-12 mm apart, for up to 5 min after the passage of a fish, using a computer controlled array of modulated laser diodes. We measured continuously and non-continuously swimming fish. Water velocities decayed rapidly in the leading seconds after the passage of a fish, but could still be measured for a period considerably longer than that. In still water (median water velocity fish was sufficient to be sensed by a piscivorous predator at a distance where vision or hearing frequently fail. Acoustic stimuli estimated from a dipole model in a distance that would be covered by the tested fish in 1 min (4-25 m) were 1.5 x 10(-7) to 3.1 x 10(-10) m s(-2), while the hearing threshold of a perch is three orders of magnitude above that. By contrast, the fish wakes after 1 min (except for one Colomesus wake) contained water velocities between 0.95 and 2.05 mm s(-1), which are within the detection range of hydrodynamic sensory systems. The three species differed with respect to water velocities, the spatial extent of the fish-generated water disturbances and the structure of the wake.

  20. Reestablecimiento de Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae en el norte de Chile Reestablishment of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae in northern Chile

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    Miguel Avendaño

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hasta fines del siglo pasado no existían registros de la presencia de Choromytilus chorus al norte de los 23°S, pese a antecedentes que señalaban su existencia en épocas pasadas. Ciertos cambios relacionados con las masas de agua costeras de esta zona, habrían generado la ausencia o escasez que presentaba el entorno costero actual. Sin embargo, hace una década atrás, su presencia en el norte de Chile, comienza a tener connotación pesquera. En el presente trabajo se confirma su reestablecimiento en las regiones de Antofagasta y Tarapacá, mediante prospecciones realizadas en seis lugares donde se registró su presencia, así como mediante la captación de semilla en colectores suspendidos. Se indica interacción con Aulacomya ater, a la cual ha desplazado a estratos más profundos, mientras que su reestablecimiento, iniciado en las regiones de Atacama y Antofagasta, y que se amplió posteriormente a la región de Tarapacá; permite postular la hipótesis que la dinámica de estos bancos, respondería a una estructura de metapoblación, dado el sistema de corrientes y vientos que predominan en la zona norte, permitiendo la advección larval de poblaciones existentes en la región de Coquimbo.Despite indications of its presence in past ages, until the end of the last century, no records showed Choromytilus chorus north of 23°S. Certain changes related to coastal water masses in the zone could be responsible for the present lack or scarcity of this species in the coastal area. However, a decade ago, this species appeared in northern Chile in the context of fisheries. This study confirms the re-establishment of C. chorus in the Antofagasta and Tarapaca regions through surveys at six sites where the species had been registered and spat collection using suspended collectors. This species has interacted with Aulacomya ater, displacing it towards deeper habitats. The re-establishment of C. chorus began in the Atacama and Antofagasta regions and later extended to the Tarapaca region. Thus, we hypothesize that the dynamics of these shoals correspond to a metapopulation structure that has allowed larval advection, given the current system and predominant winds in the northern zone, from populations existing in the Coquimbo region.

  1. Sistema reproductivo de hembras y machos en Cancer setosus (Molina, 1782 (Decapoda, Brachyura The reproductive system of females and males in Cancer setosus (Molina, 1782 (Decapoda, Brachyura

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    Merari Goldstein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las hembras del género Cáncer presentan una espermateca cuya conexión con el ovario puede ser dorsal o ventral, dependiendo de la especie. La espermateca es una estructura especializada para la recepción de los espermatóforos los cuales son colocados por el macho durante la cópula. El objetivo de este estudio es la descripción y medición de las estructuras reproductivas de ambos sexos en la jaiba peluda Cáncer setosus. Las hembras presentan un par de ovarios de conformación tipo H, siendo los lóbulos anteriores 2,4 veces más largos que los lóbulos posteriores. La espermateca es de paredes no extensibles y presentó una conexión de tipo ventral con el oviducto, lo que indica una fecundación interna para esta especie. El 64% de las hembras estudiadas presentó un par de tapones espermáticos: En los machos el primer par de pleópodos es tubular con su extremos distal aguzado y/o abierto formando un doblez. El segundo par de pleópodos termina en una estructura en forma de embudo con 12 prolongaciones laterales. Los testículos pares tienen un color blanquecino, y convergen en un vaso deferente, en el cual se puede distinguir tres zonas: una proximal, media y posterior. Cada uno de estos tiene un rol en la elaboración de los espermatóforos y la producción de líquido seminal.Females of the genus Cancer have a spermathecae whose connection with the ovary can be dorsal or ventral, depending on the species. The spermathecae is a structure specialized in receiving the spermatophores released by the male during mating. This study aims to describe and measure the reproductive structures of both sexes in the crab C setosus. Females have a pair of ovaries in an H-type conformation; the anterior lobes are 2.4 times longer than the posterior lobes. The spermathecae has walls that are not extensible and a ventral-type connection with the oviduct, which indicates internal fertilization for this species. Sixty-four percent (64% of the studied females presented a couple of spermatic blockages. In males, the first pair of pleopods is tubular, with the distal tips pointed and/or open, forming a fold. The second pair of pleopods ends in a funnel structure with 12 side extensions. The two testes are whitish in color and converge in a vas deference (VD that has three zones: proximal, middle, and posterior. Each of these plays a role in the elaboration of the spermatophores and seminal fluid production.

  2. LAS CIENCIAS SOCIALES EN LA UCT EN 1971, POR VÍCTOR RAVIOLA MOLINA

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    Victor Raviola Molina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hasta el golpe de Estado, nuestro país se perfilaba como una «cosmópolis intelectual», exhibiendo condiciones como estabilidad política, modernización del sistema educacional universitario y gestión de redes internacionales tejidas desde algunas universidades. Esto propicia el florecimiento de centros académicos de investigación y formación, constituyendo un polo para intelectuales latinoamericanos, europeos y americanos que se insertan en estas instituciones con el objetivo de fortalecer dichas iniciativas, y analizar los procesos sociopolíticos que estaban teniendo lugar. En este contexto, y aun cuando en una condición periférica que implica sobre todo precariedad de recursos, las instituciones regionales buscaron afianzar su posición, se pensaron no sólo como instancias formativas, sino también de investigación, contribuyendo a través de la ciencia al desarrollo en el plano local.En la década de los setenta, la sede regional de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, hoy Universidad Católica de Temuco, abría un panorama auspicioso para el desarrollo de las ciencias sociales. Desde el Centro de Estudios de la Realidad Regional (CERER, y con el propósito de formar investigadores locales, se da apertura en 1971 a un programa de especialización denominado «Carrera de Investigadores en Ciencias Sociales», el que fue antesala de la fundación de la carrera de Licenciatura en Antropología en 1973, la tercera en el país y la segunda regional.Consideramos relevante este discurso pronunciado por el entonces director de Sede, don Víctor Raviola, en la inauguración anual de actividades académicas, en tanto deja testimonio de un estilo de universidad, a saber: regionalista, comprometida con la investigación científica aplicada, y vinculada con el medio local. Las palabras del profesor Raviola resultan señeras respecto del desarrollo de las ciencias sociales a nivel regional, proyecto que decae paulatinamente a partir de 1973 y que concluye con el cierre de la carrera de Antropología en 1978. En 1970 se da inicio a un proyecto que quedará inconcluso y que sólo volverá a cobrar fuerza en la década de los noventa con la apertura de las carreras de Antropología y Trabajo Social y la posterior creación de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales en el primer decenio del siglo XXI.Agradecemos a Gloria Vergara Segura la transcripción de este texto (Héctor Mora Nawrath.

  3. Recuerdo e imaginación en Beltenebros de Antonio Muñoz Molina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Lauge

    2004-01-01

    Nueva narrativa, novela, sujeto, búsqueda de identidad, den nye spanske roman, subjekt, identitet......Nueva narrativa, novela, sujeto, búsqueda de identidad, den nye spanske roman, subjekt, identitet...

  4. Morphometry, growth and reproduction of an Atlantic population of the razor clam Ensis macha (Molina, 1782

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    Pedro J. Barón

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Ensis macha is a razor clam distributed throughout the coasts of southern Argentina and Chile. Even though it represents a valuable fishery resource, the exploitation of its Atlantic populations has begun only in recent years. This study provides the first estimates of growth rate, an interpretation of the reproductive cycle on the coast of the northern Argentine Patagonia and an analysis of the species morphometry. Growth was estimated by direct observation of growth rings on the valves by two observers. The reproductive cycle was interpreted by the analysis of temporal change of oocyte size frequency distributions. Parameter estimations for the von Bertalanffy equations respectively obtained by observers 1 and 2 were 154 and 153.7 mm for L?, 0.25 and 0.20 yr-1 for k, and -0.08 and -0.72 yr for t0. Two spawning peaks were detected: September-November 1999 and May-June 2000. However, mature females were found all year round. An abrupt change in the relationship between shell length and height was detected at 11.2 mm length.

  5. Distribution and observations on the population of marine otters Lontra felina(Molina 1782 in Peru

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    Manuel Apaza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the distribution of marine otter Lontra felinaon the Peruvian coast, from Punta Aguja (05°47'S to the boundary with Chile (18°21'S. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the literature on L. felinato elucidate a northern boundary of its geographic distribution, concluding that there is no solid evidence of a possible northern limit at 6°S. For the same reasons, the affirmation of a "historic distribution" to the Lobos de Tierra island was discarded. It is also presented information of 272 otters from 130 locations between the years 2000 and 2010. The distribution of these records no has spatial autocorrelation, suggesting a homogeneous distribution. Considering the morphostructure and geomorphology of the Peruvian coast we can see similarities with the division into three zones: north, central and south, the last two add all records of otters, which could provide habitat characteristics that, allow a continuous distribution of L. felina. Finally there is an increase in the number of otters in the Peruvian coast to compare the current values with those of 40 years ago, but we show the lack of traceability of the latest information. We suggest undertaking research linking abundances and densities of otters with the characterization and distribution of their habitats, and behavioral studies that reveal the processes or intrinsic characteristics of the species to move into its geographic range.

  6. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on rheological and thermophysical properties of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto; Ah-Hen, Kong; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zura-Bravo, Liliana

    2016-06-01

    Effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on rheological and thermophysical properties of murtilla berries were evaluated after pressure treatments for 5 min between 100 and 500 MPa. Differential scanning calorimetry was employed to measure specific heat capacity. HHP caused a significant decrease in specific heat and density, while thermal diffusivity did not changed significantly. Thermal conductivity showed a slight increase upon HHP treatment. Apparent viscosity increased significantly above 200 MPa HHP treatment. Apparent viscosity of treated samples between 200 and 400 MPa did not differ significantly and the increase was significant at 500 MPa. Herschel-Bulkley, Bingham and Ostwald de Waele models were used to describe the rheological behaviour of murtilla purée, and Ostwald de Waele model gave the best fit for the experimental data.

  7. El castillo de Embid : Señorío de Molina, Guadalajara

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    Antonio Perla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El año 2004, el Instituto del Patrimonio Histórico Español (IPHE en colaboración con el Ayuntamiento de Embid se pusieron de acuerdo para abordar la urgente restauración del castillo de Embid. Su estado de conservación era tal que amenazaba una ruina mucho mayor de la que presentaba después de que en los años 90 se viniera abajo la torre noreste. La torre del homenaje estaba a punto de desaparecer completamente. El proyecto y los trabajos de restauración le fueron encargados al arquitecto Pedro Ponce de León por el Ministerio de Cultura. El presente estudio es fruto del encargo para dicho proyecto. El 2006 terminaron los trabajos de restauración y con ellos la recuperación de un conjunto que estuvo a punto de perderse definitivamente. Sus restos preservados seguramente sirvan para que en el futuro se arroje más luz sobre una historia aún incompleta.In 2004, the Spanish Institute of Historical Patrimony in collaboration with the town council of Embid, agreed to address the urgent need of restoration of the castle of Embid. Its condition was such that was it was threatened by ruin, much greater than the one it endured after the northeast tower came down in the 90’s. The tower of the homage was about to disappear entirely. The Ministry of Culture commissioned the project and the restoration to the architect Pedro Ponce de Leon. This article is the result of the commission for the project. In 2006 the restoration ended and with it the recovery of the whole set was about to disappear. In the future its preserved remains would probably provide more insight to an incomplete episode.

  8. Instituto de Estudios Humanísticos Abate Juan Ignacio Molina Universidad de Talca

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    José Díaz Osorio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available EL AUGE DE LA vitivinicultura, producto de la “Revolución Tecnológica” que se ha incorporado a esta área productiva, ha significado cambios profundos no tan solo en los aspectos económicos que esta actividad involucra, sino que también en el cambio de la perspectiva que la sociedad chilena tradicionalmente ha tenido respecto de ella. Es así como el conocimiento profundo e histórico de este subsector de la producción, es hoy en día materia de discusión en círculos intelectuales y académicos, perneando incluso al resto de los sectores de nuestra sociedad.

  9. Tirso de Molina's comedy «Las Quinas de Portugal» and Salazar's censorship

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    António Apolinário Lourenço

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In March 1968, Portuguese censors stopped the broadcast on public television —which was the only television network at the time— of Tirso de Molina’s comedy Las quinas de Portugal. This play stages the most important creation myth for the Portuguese nation: on the eve of the battle of Ourique, a crucified Christ appeared and offered Count Afonso Henriques his five holy wounds as a symbol for the Portuguese coat of arms. In this article, I intend to understand the ethical and political reasoning of the censors who read this play, written by one of the most important playwrights of the Spanish Golden Age

  10. Antiviral activity obtained from aqueous extracts of the Chilean soapbark tree (Quillaja saponaria Molina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roner, Michael R; Sprayberry, Jennifer; Spinks, Matthew; Dhanji, Salima

    2007-01-01

    Natural, aqueous extracts of Quillaja saponaria, the Chilean soapbark tree, contain several physiologically active triterpenoid saponins that display strong adjuvant activity when used in either human or animal vaccines. In this paper, we describe studies that demonstrate a novel antiviral activity of Quillaja extracts against six viruses: vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, varicella zoster virus, human immunodeficiency viruses 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2) and reovirus. We demonstrate that microgram amounts of extract, while exhibiting no cell cytotoxicity or direct virucidal activity, prevent each of the six viruses tested from infecting their host cells. In addition, the presence of residual amounts of extract continue to block virus infection and render cells resistant to infection for at least 16 h after the removal of the extract from the cell culture medium. We demonstrate that a Quillaja extract possesses strong antiviral activity at concentrations more than 100-fold lower than concentrations that exhibit cell cytotoxicity. Extract concentrations as high as 100 microg ml(-1) are not cytotoxic, but concentrations as low as 0.1 microg ml(-1) are able to block HIV-1 and HIV-2 virus attachment and infection.

  11. Electrophoretic mobility as a tool to separate immune adjuvant saponins from Quillaja saponaria Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilabert-Oriol, Roger; Weng, Alexander; von Mallinckrodt, Benedicta; Stöshel, Anja; Nissi, Linda; Melzig, Matthias F; Fuchs, Hendrik; Thakur, Mayank

    2015-06-20

    Quillaja saponins are used as adjuvants in animal vaccines but their application in human vaccination is still under investigation. Isolation and characterization of adjuvant saponins is very tedious. Furthermore, standardization of Quillaja saponins is critical pertaining to its application in humans. In this study, a convenient method based on agarose gel electrophoresis was developed for the separation of Quillaja saponins. Six different commercial Quillaja saponins were segregated by size/charge into numerous fractions. Each of the fractions was characterized by ESI-TOF-MS spectroscopy and thin layer chromatography. Real-time impedance-based monitoring and red blood cell lysis assay were used to evaluate cytotoxicity and hemolytic activities respectively. Two specific regions in the agarose gel (delimited by specific relative electrophoretic mobility values) were identified and characterized by exclusive migration of acylated saponins known to possess immune adjuvant properties (0.18-0.58), and cytotoxic and hemolytic saponins (0.18-0.94). In vivo experiments in mice with the isolated fractions for evaluation of adjuvant activity also correlated with the relative electrophoretic mobility. In addition to the separation of specific Quillaja saponins with adjuvant effects as a pre-purification step to HPLC, agarose gel electrophoresis stands out as a new method for rapid screening, separation and quality control of saponins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevention of rotavirus infections in vitro with aqueous extracts of Quillaja Saponaria Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roner, Michael R; Tam, Ka Ian; Kiesling-Barrager, Melody

    2010-07-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea disease in newborns and young children worldwide, estimated to be responsible for over 300,000 childhood deaths every year, mostly in developing countries. Rotavirus-related deaths represent approximately 5% of all deaths in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide. Saponins are readily soluble in water and are approved by the US FDA for inclusion in beverages intended for human consumption. The addition of saponins to existing water supplies offers a new form of intervention into the cycle of rotavirus infection. We believe that saponins will 'coat' the epithelium of the host's small intestine and prevent attachment of rotavirus. This experiment provides in vitro data for the possibility of including saponin in drinking water to prevent infections of rotavirus. We demonstrate that microgram amounts of extract, while exhibiting no cell cytotoxicity or direct virucidal activity, prevent rotavirus from infecting its host cells. In addition, the presence of residual amounts of extract continue to block viral infection and render cells resistant to infection for at least 16 h after the removal of the extract from the cell culture media. We demonstrate that two Quillaja extracts possess strong antiviral activity at concentrations more than 1000-fold lower than concentrations exhibiting cell cytotoxicity. Extract concentrations as high as 1000 μg/ml are not cytotoxic, but concentrations as low as 1.0 μg/ml are able to block rotavirus and reovirus attachment and infection.

  13. Isolation and quantification of Quillaja saponaria Molina saponins and lipids in iscom-matrix and iscoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behboudi, S; Morein, B; Rönnberg, B

    1995-12-01

    In the iscom, multiple copies of antigen are attached by hydrophobic interaction to a matrix which is built up by Quillaja triterpenoid saponins and lipids. Thus, the iscom presents antigen in multimeric form in a small particle with a built-in adjuvant resulting in a highly immunogenic antigen formulation. We have designed a chloroform-methanol-water extraction procedure to isolate the triterpenoid saponins and lipids incorporated into iscom-matrix and iscoms. The triterpenoids in the triterpenoid phase were quantitated using orcinol sulfuric acid detecting their carbohydrate chains and by HPLC. The cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine in the lipid phase were quantitated by HPLC and a commercial colorimetric method for the cholesterol. The quantitative methods showed an almost total separation and recovery of triterpenoids and lipids in their respective phases, while protein was detected in all phases after extraction. The protein content was determined by the method of Lowry and by amino acid analysis. Amino acid analysis was shown to be the reliable method of the two to quantitate proteins in iscoms. In conclusion, simple, reproducible and efficient procedures have been designed to isolate and quantitate the triterpenoids and lipids added for preparation of iscom-matrix and iscoms. The procedures described should also be useful to adequately define constituents in prospective vaccines.

  14. Altered immunomodulating and toxicological properties of degraded Quillaja saponaria Molina saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, D J; Pathak, A K; Reynolds, R C; Seitz, L; May, R D

    2001-04-01

    Quillaja saponins are readily hydrolyzed under physiological conditions, yielding deacylated forms that are significantly less toxic than their precursors. Yet, deacylated saponins are unable to stimulate a strong primary immune response. Although deacylated saponins elicit a strong total IgG response, their capacity to stimulate a Thl type IgG isotype profile (i.e. high levels of IgG2a and IgG2b) has been significantly diminished. Instead, an IgG profile closer to that of a Th2 immune response is stimulated (i.e. high IgG1 levels). Deacylated saponins have also lost their capacity to elicit an effective T cell immunity, as shown by their stimulation of a marginal lymphoproliferative response and their inability to elicit the production of cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL). Modification of the immune-modulating properties brought by the degradation of quillaja saponins during vaccine storage may change the intended immune response from a Th1 to a Th2 type. This alteration would have negligible effects on vaccines depending on Th2 immunity mediated by neutralizing antibodies. However, the performance of vaccines directed against intracellular pathogens as well as therapeutic cancer vaccines may be seriously affected by the loss of their capacity to stimulate both a Th1 immune response and the production of CTL.

  15. Characterization of in vivo anti-rotavirus activities of saponin extracts from Quillaja Saponaria Molina

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Ka Ian; Roner, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea disease in newborns and young children worldwide with approximately 300,000 pre-adolescent deaths each year. Quillaja saponins are a natural aqueous extract obtained from the Chilean soapbark tree. The extract is approved for use in humans by the FDA for use in beverages as a food addictive. We have demonstrated that Quillaja extracts have strong antiviral activities in vitro against six different viruses. In this study, we evaluated the in vi...

  16. Characterization of in vivo anti-rotavirus activities of saponin extracts from Quillaja saponaria Molina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Ka Ian; Roner, Michael R

    2011-06-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea disease in newborns and young children worldwide with approximately 300,000 pre-adolescent deaths each year. Quillaja saponins are a natural aqueous extract obtained from the Chilean soapbark tree. The extract is approved for use in humans by the FDA for use in beverages as a food addictive. We have demonstrated that Quillaja extracts have strong antiviral activities in vitro against six different viruses. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo antiviral activity of these extracts against rhesus rotavirus (RRV) using a mouse model. We established that at a dosage of 0.015 mg/mouse of saponin extract, RRV induced diarrhea can be significantly reduced from 79% to 11% when mice are exposed to 500 plaque-forming-units (PFU) for each of five consecutive days. Additionally, while a reduction of RRV induced diarrhea depended both on the concentration of virus introduced and on the amount of Quillaja extract given to each mouse, the severity and interval of diarrhea under a variety of conditions tested, in all the treated mice were greatly reduced when compared to those that did not receive the Quillaja extracts. Mechanistically, there is strong evidence that the Quillaja extracts are able to "block" rotavirus infection by inhibiting virus-host attachment through disruption of cellular membrane proteins and/or virus receptors. We believe that Quillaja extracts have promise as antivirals to reduce rotavirus infection and the severity of the disease in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mi Confesión. Revelaciones de un criminal de guerra (Mauricio Aranguren Molina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Gonzálvez Torralbo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hablar de un libro como el que paso a reseñar, implica comentar en un primer momento, qué es aquello que entendemos por confesión. Señalo esto porque cuando vemos la carátula del libro y leemos su título, el lector puede pensar que el protagonista del mismo revela voluntariamente acontecimientos de su propia vida, pero no sólo eso sino que además el lector puede pensar también que ésto s acontecimientos son relatados con el ánimo, no sólo de la revelación de una verdad, la verdad de Carlos Castaño, sino también con la intención de buscar una reconciliación (no sabría muy bien con quién pues son muchos los que han sufrido su falta de piedad por todos los crímenes cometidos. Es cierto, que cualquier tipo de confesión de un paramilitar que busque el perdón nunca se sostendrá,pero una confesión de un paramilitar es algo que llama la atención, sea esta del calibre que sea y sea cual sea el motivo de la misma.

  18. Molecular identification and successful treatment of Chlamydophila psittaci (genotype B) in a clinically affected Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmyar, J.; Rajabioun, M.; Zaeemi, M.; Afshari, A.

    2016-01-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is caused by Chlamydiophila psittaci with the highest infection rate in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes). A two-year-old Congo African grey parrot was examined since the bird had shown clinical signs of anorexia, depression, diarrhea, and mild dyspnea and based on biochemical and hemathological analysis the bird was diagnosed as having anemia, leukocytosis, heterophilia, lymphopenia and monocytosis. With regards to clinical and paraclinical findings, the case was diagnosed to be carrying Chlamydiophila spp. In addition, choanal cleft and cloaca swabs were positive for Chlamydiophila spp. in a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (600 bp amplicon). Polymerase chain reaction products were typed by ompA gene-based PCR, using CTU/CTL primers (1050 bp amplicon). The PCR product sequence was compared with the sequences obtained from GenBank. The phylogenetic tree has revealed 100% identity with genotype B obtained from previous studies. The bird was hospitalized and treated with doxycycline regimen for 45 days, with a weekly sampling process to trace the presence of C. psittaci DNA in faecal and choanal swabs, this process continued to the point where the specimens turned negative after two weeks. Laboratory and radiology results were within normal limits after the treatment. Genotype B is predominantly isolated from Columbidae and there have not been any reports regarding the clinically affected African gray parrot with this genotype. Subsequently, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of chlamydiosis by genotype B on Congo African grey parrot. PMID:28224015

  19. CT-assisted versus silicone rubber cast morphometry of the lower respiratory tract in healthy amazons (genus Amazona) and grey parrots (genus Psittacus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krautwald-Junghanns, M.E.; Valerius, K.P.; Duncker, H.R.; Sohn, H.G.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the normal respiratory tract of grey parrots and amazons by using two different methods. The lower respiratory tract of five amazons and four grey parrots, all healthy, were investigated applying computerised tomography (CT). Volumes and densities of the body, the body cavities, the normal lungs, and the airsacs in the living animals were defined as reference values of healthy birds to give a basis for future CT-diagnosis of respiratory diseases and their precise locations in parrots. In a parallel study, the lung and air sac volumes of six amazons and two grey parrots were measured using silicone rubber casts produced after the method described byH.-R. Duncker. Values for identical respiratory structures gained by these different methods were compared

  20. OSTEOMETRÍA DE VICUGNA VICUGNA MOLINA, 1782 EN EL PLEISTOCENO FINAL DE PATAGONIA MERIDIONAL CHILENA: IMPLICANCIAS PALEOECOLÓGICAS Y BIOGEOGRÁFICAS / Osteometry of Vicugna vicugna Molina, 1782 in the late Pleistocene of southern chilean Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Labarca Encina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  Se presenta un análisis osteométrico uni y multivariado con los materiales fósiles -principalmente huesos cortos y falanges- de Vicugna sp. del yacimiento Cueva Lago Sofía 4 (13500 – 11000 AP, ubicado en la provincia de Última Esperanza (Región de Magallanes, Chile. Los resultados indican que los elementos analizados poseen un tamaño compatible con los registrados para Vicugna vicugna, no superando en ningún caso a los especímenes conocidos para Vicugna gracilis del Pleistoceno de la región Pampeana. Esto confirma la información morfológica y de ADN antiguo que indicaba la presencia de Vicugna vicugna en la Patagonia meridional chilena. Se discuten los resultados en términos taxonómicos, biogeográficos y paleoecológicos sugiriendo que la presencia de este taxón fuera de su rango actual de distribución se debió a las condiciones ambientales compartidas entre la Puna y Patagonia austral durante la transición Pleistoceno-Holoceno. La extinción de V. vicugna se habría debido al impacto de los cambios climáticos ocurridos al inicio del Holoceno producto de su dieta pastadora y etología no migratoria y territorial, a lo que se habría sumado una caza por parte de depredadores humanos y no humanos.Palabras clave: género Vicugna, osteometría, Pleistoceno, Patagonia AbstractThis contribution presents the results of single and multi-variable osteometric analyses performed on a sample of short bones and phalanxes assigned to Vicugna sp. from Lago Sofía Cave 4 site (13500 – 11000 BP, Región de Magallanes, Chile. The elements analyzed show a similar size to the reference collections for Vicugna vicugna, and do not exceed the metrics for the pampean pleistocenic specimens of Vicugna gracilis. This confirms the morphological and ancient DNA data that indicated the presence of vicuña in southern Chilean Patagonia. The taxonomic, biogeographic and palaeoecologic discussion of these results, suggests that the presence of this species outside its current distribution range was due to shared environmental conditions between the Puna and Patagonia during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The extinction of this form is, most likely, due to the impact of climatic change during the begining of the Holocene over its pasturing diet and its territorial and non migratory habits. It is added to this, a hunting pressure by human and non-human predators.Keywords: Vicugna genus, osteometry, Pleistocene, Patagonia 

  1. Variabilidad genética y estructura poblacional del tunicado Pyura chilensis Molina, 1782, en la costa de Chile Genetic variability and population structure in tunicate Pyura chilensis Molina, 1782, in the coast of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA P ASTORGA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El tunicado Pyura chilensis se ha considerado una especie de importancia ecológica, por concentrar una gran diversidad biológica en sus agregaciones y de importancia económica por ser un recurso de extracción por pescadores artesanales. Sin embargo, se han detectado cambios en la distribución y abundancia de sus poblaciones adjudicados a su sobreexplotación. Para llegar a establecer medidas de conservación de un recurso, es necesario entre otras cosas, conocer su variabilidad genética y su estructura poblacional, estimando los patrones y sus causas. Por lo tanto, en el presente trabajo se determinó el grado de variabilidad genética aloenzimática del piure P. chilensis y su estructura poblacional en base a tres localidades (Antofagasta, Talcahuano y Puerto Montt en la costa chilena. Los loci polimórficos obtenidos fueron Mdh-1 y Pgi-1. Los valores de Fst mostraron leve estructuración poblacional entre localidades (Fst 0,019 al igual que la prueba exacta de diferenciación genética (P = 0,031. Se observó diferenciación para la localidad de Puerto Montt en relación a las otras dos localidades en algunos de los dos loci. Los niveles de variabilidad observados en esta especie corresponden a lo esperados para otras ascidias. La estructuración genética poblacional puede ser explicada por una combinación de diferentes factores, entre los que destacan: (i el tiempo del periodo larval de 12 a 24 h, lo cual no facilitaría una amplia dispersión a lo largo de 2.500 km de costa y (ii las condiciones oceanográficas diferenciales entre localidades, junto a patrones de circulación cerrados que podrían llegar a restringir el flujo génico. Por último, proponemos que un conocimiento adecuado del grado de variabilidad, estructura y dinámica genética de las poblaciones son aspectos esenciales para tomar medidas de conservación de recursos explotados, tanto en ambientes abiertos como en áreas de manejoThe ascidian Pyura chilensis is an ecologically important species due to its aggregates, providing habitat for other species. In addition, it is an economically important species being commercially exploited along the coast of Chile. Here, changes in distribution and abundance have been observed during the last decade that have been linked to overfishing. Patterns of genetic variation and population structure are important to understand biodiversity, management and conservation of species. Thus, the main objective of this study was to determine the genetic variability and population structure of Pyura chilensis in three localities along the Chilean coast (Antofagasta, Talcahuano, Puerto Montt. The polymorphic loci obtained were: Mdh-1 and Gpi-1 for P. chilensis. The Fst values showed slight population structure (Fst = 0.019, and the genetic differentiation showed statistically significant values (P = 0.031. The Puerto Montt locality was significantly different from the other two sites in the pairwise comparison in some loci. The genetic differentiation among localities of P. chilensis could be explained by a combination of different causes: (i low larval dispersion capacity associated to the larval life time of this species (12 to 24 h, and (ii differences in oceanographic conditions between localities and a closed circulation pattern that restrict dispersion. We conclude that monitoring of genetic diversity levels are essential to establish conservation and management plans of exploited marine resources

  2. Respuestas foliares de Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae a la fragmentación del bosque maulino Leaf responses of Aristotelia chilensis (Molina Stuntz (Elaeocarpaceae to the fragmentation of the Maulino forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIORELLA REPETTO-GIAVELLI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La fragmentación que ha sufrido el bosque nativo de Chile debido a la fuerte presión antrópica ha causado, además de la grave pérdida de habitat, la modificación del microclima de los parches de bosque remanente que alguna vez constituyeron un bosque continuo de especies nativas. Estos cambios generarían respuestas morfológicas, químicas y fisiológicas en plantas capaces de adaptarse a las nuevas condiciones. Este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar respuestas a nivel de las hojas ante el aumento de radiación solar y disminución de agua en el suelo que ocurre al interior de los fragmentos. Para esto utilizamos a Aristotelia chilensis, especie que crece tanto en fragmentos como en bosque continuo, y comparamos parámetros relacionados a su morfología foliar en bosque y fragmentos y medimos su repercusión en la capacidad fotosintética de A. chilensis. En términos morfológicos, se observó una disminución del área foliar y del área foliar específica en los fragmentos, siendo 1,2 veces menor que en el bosque continuo. En los fragmentos, el grosor de la epidermis y del parénquima esponjoso son más de 1,3 veces mas gruesos que en el bosque continuo. El grosor del parénquima en empalizada, en cambio, no se vio modificado. La cantidad de nitrógeno en las hojas es 1,2 veces mayor en el bosque continuo que en los fragmentos, mientras que el contenido de carbono no varía. La conductancia estomática en el bosque continuo fue 1,5 veces mayor que en los fragmentos. Aristotelia chilensis responde morfológica y fisiológicamente ante los cambios abióticos generados por la fragmentación de los bosques, lo que le permite sobrevivir tanto en ambientes de baja luminosidad como el bosque continuo y en ambientes de alta luminosidad y bajo contenido hídrico como los fragmentos de bosque, manteniendo tasas fotosintéticas semejantes en ambos ambientesFragmentation of the Maulino forest implies significant habitat loss, as well as the modification of the microclimatic conditions of the remaining forest patches. Fragments are drier, hotter and receive more light than the continuous forest. These changes might induce morphological, chemical and physiological responses on individuals inhabiting forest patches. This study aims to identify morpho and physiological changes in Aristotelia chilensis, an evergreen tree that grows both in forest fragments and continuous forest. Leaves were 1.2 times smaller in forest fragments than in the continuous forest. Similar reduction was observed on specific leaf area (SLA. In forest fragments, the thickness of epidermis and of the spongy mesophyll was more than 1.3 times larger than that on the continuous forest, whereas the thickness of the palisade mesophyll did not differ. The amount of foliar nitrogen was 1.2 times larger in the continuous forest than in fragments, whereas the carbon content did not differ. Stomatal conductance in the continuous forest was 1.5 fold higher than that in forest fragments. Changes depicted by A. chilensis allows it to survive in environments of low luminosity as the continuous forest, and in environments of low water content as the forest fragments, maintaining similar photosynthetic rates in both environments

  3. Lipid, fatty acid and protein utilization during lecithotrophic larval development of Lithodes santolla (Molina) and Paralomis granulosa (Jacquinot)

    OpenAIRE

    Kattner, G.; Graeve, M.; Calcagno, J.A.; Lovrich, G.A.; Thatje, S.; Anger, K.

    2003-01-01

    During the larval development of the subantarctic king crab, Lithodes santolla, and stone crab, Paralomis granulosa, we compared changes in the carbon, fatty acid and protein contents of larvae reared under constant conditions from hatching to metamorphosis, either in presence or absence of food (Artemia spp. nauplii). In both species the feeding condition had no influence on any of the chemical parameters studied, indicating a fully lecithotrophic (i.e. non-feeding) mode of development from ...

  4. NUEVO REGISTRO DE LA NUTRIA MARINA Lontra felina (MOLINA, 1782) AL NORTE DE SU DISTRIBUCIÓN ACTUAL

    OpenAIRE

    Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; University of Exeter, Penyrn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, United Kingdom.; Valqui, Juan; Centro de Ornitología y Biodiversidad (CORBIDI). Calle Santa Rita 105 Of. 202, Lima 33, Perú.; Mangel, Jeffrey C.; University of Exeter, Penyrn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, United Kingdom.

    2011-01-01

    La nutria marina Lontra felina es una especie en peligro de extinción cuyo rango de distribución es controversial, siendo considerada el área de Chimbote (9°10´S) como el límite norte de su distribución actual. Aquí se documenta por primera vez su presencia a 115 km al norte de Chimbote, en el puerto artesanal de Huanchaco (08°04´S). La discusión de esta nota científica busca promover la generación de investigaciones que esclarezcan tanto los factores que determinan la presencia de la nutria ...

  5. [The efficacy of the school health exam at the Molina de la Vega Health Center of Huelva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo Berutich, A; Alvarez González, L; Mayorga Ramos, E; Calles Romero, I; González Villanueva, L; Miguélez de Blas, J

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of the school health test, by studying; the number of unknown anomalies detected; the number of children who went to confirm the anomalies; and the number of anomalies confirmed. A descriptive observational study, with a subsequent followup, aimed at all students tested from the first, fifth and eighth years of EGB from the six schools in the basic area of "Molino de la Vega" in Huelva (714 in total). A total of 172 anomalies were detected (24% of the examined). Of those, 133 (77.3%) were followed and 112 (84.2%) came back to confirm the diagnosis, being the highest percentage (100%) for empty scrotum and the lowest (75%) for somatometric anomalies. A number of 73 (79.76%) of the anomalies detected were confirmed, reaching the maximum for visual alterations (86.48%) and the minimum for raquis deviations (65.21%). Of the children examined a 10.22% had anomalies not detected before. The school test proved highly efficient. Given the high number of anomalies detected in our basic health area, the percentage of children who went to confirm the diagnosis together with the high percentage of anomalies confirmed.

  6. Feeding habits of coypu (Myocastor coypus Molina 1978 in the wetlands of the Southern region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioni G. Colares

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the diet of coypu (Myocastor coypus in two areas (Santa Isabel do Sul wetlands - Area 1, and Santa Marta Farm - Area 2 in the Southern region of Brazil, using microhistological analyses of feces. Twenty-four plant species were identified from collected feces samples. Among the identified species, nine are common in the animals' diet in both areas; the presence of Oriza sativa was not detected in any of the samples. Among the identified species, 84% and 54% of the coypu's diet from Areas 1 and 2, respectively, are aquatic plants. Poaceae family was most common, being found in 82% of the samples from both areas. Paspalum disthichum (Area 1 and Panicum tricholaenoides (Area 2 were the most frequent species on the coypu's diet. The diet comparison for both areas indicates that feeding habits vary depending on the type of habitat, environmental conditions and food availability. The absence of rice in our analysis may be an indication for the preservation of native areas around watercourses, so as to prevent coypu from invading irrigated crops.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a dieta do ratão-do-banhado (Myocastor coypus, em duas regiões (áreas alagadas em Santa Isabel do Sul - Área 1 e Fazenda Santa Marta - Área 2, na região sul do Brasil, utilizando microhistological análises de fezes. Foram identificadas 24 espécies de plantas nas amostras de fezes coletadas. Entre as espécies identificadas, nove são comuns a dieta dos animais de ambas as áreas, não sendo detectada a presença de Oriza sativa em nenhuma das amostras. Entre as espécies identificadas, 84% e54% da dieta do ratão-do-banhado, nas Áreas 1 e 2 respectivamente, são plantas aquáticas. A família Poaceae foi a mais abundante, sendo encontrada em 82% das amostras de ambasas áreas. Paspalum disthichum (Área 1 e Panicum tricholaenoides (Área 2, foram as espécies mais frequentes na dieta do ratão-do-banhado. A comparação da dieta de ambas as áreas mostrou que a alimentação varia dependendo do tipo de habitat, condições ambientais e de disponibilidade alimentar. A ausência de arroz na nossa análise pode ser um indicativo de que a preservação de áreas nativas ao redor de cursos d'água, evita que o ratão-do-banhado utilize as culturas de arroz.

  7. Degradation of Quillaja saponaria Molina saponins: loss of the protective effects of a herpes simplex virus 1 subunit vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcian, Dante J; Ptak, Roger G; Voss, Thomas G; Reynolds, Robert C; Pathak, Ashish K; Chamblin, Tyler L; Scholl, David R; May, Richard D

    2002-11-01

    Quillaja saponins (Q. saponins) are readily hydrolyzed at neutral pH to yield degraded deacylated saponins (DS-saponins). Degradation of Q. saponins resulted in some reduction of their capacity to elicit IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b isotypes against the highly immunogenic envelope glycoprotein D (gD) from herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1). Addition to gD of a dose of DS-saponins tenfold higher than the original Q. saponins dose stimulated lower IgG2a and IgG2b titers than those obtained with gD alone or combined with native saponins. However, the IgG1 response was somewhat similar in all the groups. In contrast, Q. saponins' deacylation resulted in a significant reduction in both the production of HSV-1 neutralizing antibodies and survival rates after viral challenge. Vaccination with gD alone did not protect mice against a lethal challenge with HSV-1, while the addition of Q. saponins to gD resulted in protection against HSV-1. Vaccines containing partially deacylated saponins yielded lower survival rates, while vaccines containing DS-saponins did not protect mice against HSV-1. Increasing the dose of DS-saponins tenfold resulted in a marginal increase in protection. These results show that degradation of Q. saponins during storage can have a deleterious effect on vaccines' efficacies.

  8. Occurrence of Conepatus chinga (Molina) (Mammalia, Carnivora, Mustelidae) and other terrestrial mammals in the Serra do Mar, Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2004-01-01

    In this paper 19 additional mammalian species are reported in the Atlantic forest of the Paranean Serra do Mar, southern Brazil, including threatened and rare species. These findings resulted from a one-year field research in the western slope of the Serra do Mar, Piraquara municipality, with additional review of reports about mammal distribution in the region. Preliminarily mammal richness in the region is round 54 species, but this number could be higher with more systematic surveys, partic...

  9. Manejo de residuos vegetales sólidos en el desarrollo de la conciencia ambiental de los jardineros de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina.

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Murillo, Rosario Carmen.

    2014-01-01

    Universidad Nacional de Educacion - UNE Se realizó un investigación de tipo aplicada, con método experimental y diseño cuasiexperiemntal, con una población muestra de 30 participantes, conformada por un grupo de once mujeres y diecinueve hombres, cuyas edades fluctúan entre los 30 y 46 años, se empleó la técnica de la encuesta y como instrumento el cuestionario; con el objetivo de establecer en qué medida el manejo de residuos vegetales sólidos, influye en la conciencia ambiental de los ja...

  10. Integrated Use of Biomarkers (O : N Ratio and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition) on Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782) (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) as a Criteria for Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide Exposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Führer, Eduardo; Rudolph, Anny; Espinoza, Claudio; Díaz, Rodrigo; Gajardo, Marisol; Camaño, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    The effect of residual concentrations of organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 4E) on the activity of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme and oxygen : nitrogen ratio in the mussel Aulacomya ater was analyzed. Toxicity tests show a sensitivity to the pesticide in the bivalve estimated at 16 μg L−1 (LC50−96 hours). Concentrations between 0.2 and 1.61 μg L−1 were able to inhibit significantly the AChE activity, and concentrations between 0.8 and 1.61 μg L−1 stimulate ammonia excretion and decrease oxygen : ammonia-N (O : N) ratio, with respect to the control group. A. ater proved to be a species sensitive to pesticide exposure and easy to handle in lab conditions. Thus, it is recommended as a bioindicator for use in programs of environmental alertness in the Eastern South Pacific coastal zone. PMID:22619673

  11. Osteometría de Vicugna vicugna Molina, 1782 en el Pleistoceno final de Patagonia meridional chilena: Implicancias paleoecológicas y biogeográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Labarca Encina

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents the results of single and multi-variable osteometric analyses performed on a sample of short bones and phalanxes assigned to Vicugna sp. from Lago Sofía Cave 4 site (13500 – 11000 BP, Región de Magallanes, Chile. The elements analyzed show a similar size to the reference collections for Vicugna vicugna, and do not exceed the metrics for the pampean pleistocenic specimens of Vicugna gracilis. This confirms the morphological and ancient DNA data that indicated the presence of vicuña in southern Chilean Patagonia. The taxonomic, biogeographic and palaeoecologic discussion of these results, suggests that the presence of this species outside its current distribution range was due to shared environmental conditions between the Puna and Patagonia during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The extinction of this form is, most likely, due to the impact of climatic change during the begining of the Holocene over its pasturing diet and its territorial and non migratory habits. It is added to this, a hunting pressure by human and non-human predators.

  12. The physical, chemical and functional characterization of starches from Andean tubers: oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina), olluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas) and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz & Pavón)

    OpenAIRE

    Valcárcel-Yamani, Beatriz; Rondán-Sanabria, Gerby Giovanna; Finardi-Filho, Flavio

    2013-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and functional properties of starches isolated from the Andean tubers oca (Oxalis tuberosa M.), olluco (Ullucus tuberosus C.) and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum R. & P.) were studied. The tubers were obtained from a local grocery. The morphology of the starch granules (size and shape) was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which revealed ellipsoid, oval, conical, pear-shaped and prismatic forms: ellipsoids and oval granules with lengths up to 54.30 µm in oc...

  13. The physical, chemical and functional characterization of starches from Andean tubers: oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina, olluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz & Pavón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Valcárcel-Yamani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The physical, chemical, and functional properties of starches isolated from the Andean tubers oca (Oxalis tuberosa M., olluco (Ullucus tuberosus C. and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum R. & P. were studied. The tubers were obtained from a local grocery. The morphology of the starch granules (size and shape was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM, which revealed ellipsoid, oval, conical, pear-shaped and prismatic forms: ellipsoids and oval granules with lengths up to 54.30 µm in oca; with lengths up to 32.09 µm for olluco starch granules; and with predominantly truncated spherical or oval forms and smaller dimensions (up to 16.29 um for mashua starch granules. Amylose contents were similar among the samples: 27.60% (oca, 26.49% (olluco and 27.44% (mashua. Olluco starch had less swelling power, forming opaque, less firm gels. All three starch gels showed the same stability on refrigeration and presented high syneresis under freezing temperatures, with a variation of 40.28 to 74.42% for olluco starch. The starches cooked easily, with high peak viscosity. The low gelatinization temperatures and high stability during cooling make these starches suitable feedstock for use in formulations that require milder processing temperatures and dispense freezing storage.

  14. In vitro activity on human gut bacteria of murta leaf extracts (Ugni molinae Turcz. ), a native plant from southern chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, C.; Canquil, N.; Jorquera, M.

    2012-01-01

    –DAD–MSn. Concentrations (log10 CFU/mL) of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in media containing the extract and FOS were 7.33 ± 0.05/4.95 ± 0.20 and 6.44 ± 0.22/6.05 ± 0.06, respectively. Clostridia, anaerobes and Enterobacteriaceae grew to a similar extent in media containing murta extract and FOS. In vitro tests (disk...

  15. Instructions and Manuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gigone, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Kindergarten and Nursery (Giancarlo de Carlo associati) Inner city arts (Michael Maltzan Architecture) Colegio Gerardo Molina (Giancarlo Mazzanti arquitectos)......Kindergarten and Nursery (Giancarlo de Carlo associati) Inner city arts (Michael Maltzan Architecture) Colegio Gerardo Molina (Giancarlo Mazzanti arquitectos)...

  16. Descripción histológica y caracterización de los estados de madurez gonadal de hembras de Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae Histological description and characterization of the ovarian cycle of Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, 1782 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Moreno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La extracción indiscriminada y alteraciones del medio natural, han puesto en peligro de extinción al único Palaemónido dulceacuícola de interés comercial, presente en aguas continentales chilenas. Aun cuando esta situación, ha despertado el interés en estudios que permitan su reproducción controlada en cautiverio, actualmente es escaso el conocimiento acerca de aspectos reproductivos básicos de esta especie. Dada su importancia, este trabajo describe y caracteriza el proceso completo de maduración gonadal en hembras de Cryphiops caementarius, en base a cambios en la morfología externa e interna del ovario. Hembras adultas extraídas del río Limarí, fueron disectadas y sus ovarios removidos y preparados para análisis histológicos. Tejido fibromuscular divide el tejido gonadal de cada lóbulo en sacos ováricos de forma semicónica (conos de maduración, al interior del los cuales se encuentran ovocitos en diferentes estados de desarrollo de acuerdo a observaciones microscópicas de tamano, morfología y tinción con H-E, las células reproductoras femeninas se clasificaron en seis tipos, ovogonias (Ov, ovocitos previtelogénicos tempranos (O1, ovocitos previtelogénicos tardíos (O2, ovocitos vitelogénicos tempranos (O3, ovocitos vitelogénicos tardíos (O4 y ovocitos Maduros (OM. El ciclo de madurez gonadal se dividió en cinco estados según la cantidad y tipo de ovocitos presentes. Los estados 0 y I, corresponden a desovado y previtelogénesis. Los estados II y III a vitelogénesis temprana y vitelogénesis intermedia, mientras el estado IV corresponde a madurez avanzada. La presencia de ovogonias y ovocitos previtelogénicos junto a ovocitos completamente maduros en el estado de madurez avanzada, refleja la capacidad de esta especie de realizar ciclos consecutivos de madurez en intervalos cortos de tiempo.Its indiscriminate extraction and alterations of its natural environment, has put in danger of extinction the only commercial freshwater Palemonid present in Chilean inland waters. Even though this situation has awakened interest in studies which allow its controlled reproduction in captivity, currently little is known regarding basic reproductive aspects of this species. Given its relevance, this work describes and characterizes the whole ovarian cycle of Cryphiops caementarius, based on changes in external and internal ovarian morphology. Adult C. caementarius females, obtained from Limarí River, were dissected and its ovaries removed and prepared for histological examinations. Fibromuscular tissue divides the ovarian tissue of each lobe into cone-shaped ovarian pouches (Maturation cones, each one containing various steps of oocytes according to the stages of ovarian development. Based on light microscopic observations of cells' sizes, morphology, and staining with H-E, the female germ cells could be classified into six different types, which include oogonia (Ov, early previtellogenic oocytes (O1, late previtellogenic oocytes (O2, early vitellogenic oocytes (O3, late vitellogenic oocytes (O4 and mature oocytes (OM. The ovarian cycle is divided into five stages based on the amount and types of oocytes present in each stage. Stage 0 and I are spawned and previtellogenesis stages. Stage II and III are early and intermediate vitellogenesis stages, while stage IV is maturity advanced stage. The presence of oogonia and previtellogenic oocytes among fully mature oocytes in stage IV reflect the capacity of the ovary of C. caementarius females to start a new full maturity cycle in a short time period.

  17. Modificación de la estructura espermática de la jaiba Cancer setosus (Molina, 1782 (Decapoda: Brachyura durante su reacción acrosomal inducida Modifícation of the spermatic structure of the crab Cancer setosus (Molina, 1782 (Decapoda: Brachyura during induced acrosomal reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merari Goldstein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El espermatozoide de Cancer setosus está compuesto de un acrosoma esférico y un núcleo en forma de copa que rodea la mitad basal del acrosoma que se ensancha en la zona ecuatorial del acrosoma. Los espermatozoides extraídos del receptáculo seminal de la hembra, después de permanecer por 15 min en el agua de mar experimentan la reacción acrosomal, la que comienza con la elongación de la vesícula acrosómica seguido de la extrusión de su contenido. Posteriormente, el perforatorium se proyecta aproximadamente ≈1 µm hacia delante más allá del extremo apical del contenido acrosomal extruido, formando un filamento acrosomal con su extremo distal expandido en una estructura similar a un tridente.The spermatozoon of Cancer setosus consists of a spherical acrosome and a cup-shaped nucleus surrounding the lowest zone of the acrosome and widening at the equatorial área of the acrosome. The spermatozoa extracted from the seminal receptacle of the female and placed in sea water for 15 min underwent the acrosome reaction, which started with the elongation of the acrosomal vesicle followed by the extrusión of its contents. Subsequently, the perforatorium projected forward ≈ 1µm beyond the apical end of the extruded acrosomal vesicle contents, forming an acrosomal filament with a trident-shaped structure on the apical end.

  18. Modificación de la estructura espermática de la jaiba Cancer setosus (Molina, 1782) (Decapoda: Brachyura) durante su reacción acrosomal inducida Modifícation of the spermatic structure of the crab Cancer setosus (Molina, 1782) (Decapoda: Brachyura) during induced acrosomal reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Merari Goldstein; Enrique Dupré

    2011-01-01

    El espermatozoide de Cancer setosus está compuesto de un acrosoma esférico y un núcleo en forma de copa que rodea la mitad basal del acrosoma que se ensancha en la zona ecuatorial del acrosoma. Los espermatozoides extraídos del receptáculo seminal de la hembra, después de permanecer por 15 min en el agua de mar experimentan la reacción acrosomal, la que comienza con la elongación de la vesícula acrosómica seguido de la extrusión de su contenido. Posteriormente, el perforatorium se proyecta ap...

  19. Ontogenetic variation in light interception, self-shading and biomass distribution of seedlings of the conifer Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch Variación ontogenética en la intercepción lumínica, autosombramiento y distribución de biomasa en plántulas de la conífera Araucaria araucana (Molina K. Koch

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    CHRISTOPHER H LUSK

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors thought to contribute to ontogenetic declines in plant growth rates is diminishing light interception efficiency, as a result of the difficulties of avoiding self-shading among a growing number of leaves, and by stems. The effects of plant size on self-shading and light interception have rarely been quantified, however. We used a three-dimensional digitising system to construct virtual models of the architecture of Araucaria araucana seedlings 71 to 358 mm tall, and modelled their light interception in the forest understorey using the program YPLANT. We also analyzed seedling allometry, to determine the combined effects of biomass distribution and self-shading on total light interception. Average light interception efficiencies calculated for A. araucana (29 % were the lowest reported for rainforest tree seedlings, reflecting the limitations imposed by short leaves, lack of petioles and an inability to develop planar foliage geometry on branches. Total light interception was related to seedling leaf area by an exponent of 0.735, reflecting increasing self-shading as seedlings grew bigger. However, because leaf area was related to seedling mass by an exponent of 1.24, light interception scaled nearly isometrically (0.91 power with seedling mass. This resulted from taller plants having proportionally thinner stems, and a smaller fraction of their biomass in roots. Thus, an ontogenetic increase in self-shading in A. araucana is largely offset by allocation changes which increase leaf area ratio as seedlings grow bigger. These mechanisms conserving the relationship of light interception with plant mass seem likely to be restricted to species with long-lived leaves, growing in humid situations protected from wind stress. In open habitats, where wind and drought stress likely make such allocation patterns less feasible, the role of self-shading in ontogenetic declines in relative growth rate may be more evidentLa caída en la eficiencia de intercepción de la luz es considerada como uno de los factores responsables del declive ontogenético en las tasas de crecimiento relativo de las plantas, debido a la dificultad de evitar el autosombramiento entre un creciente número de hojas. Sin embargo, rara vez se ha cuantificado el efecto de tamaño de las plantas sobre el autosombramiento y la eficiencia en intercepción de la luz. Utilizamos un sistema de digitalización para construir modelos virtuales tridimensionales de la arquitectura de plántulas 71-358 mm de alto de la conífera Araucaria araucana, y modelamos su intercepción de la luz en el sotobosque mediante el programa YPLANT. Analizamos además la alometría de las plántulas para determinar los efectos combinados de la distribución de biomasa y el autosombramiento sobre la intercepción total de luz a nivel de la planta entera. La eficiencia promedio de intercepción de la luz de A. araucana (29 % fue la más baja documentada para plántulas de especies de bosques húmedos, reflejando las limitaciones impuestas por hojas cortas, carencia de pecíolos, y la incapacidad de desarrollar follaje plagiotrópico. La intercepción total de luz por las plántulas fue proporcional al área foliar0,735, producto de un aumento en el autosombramiento en función del tamaño. Sin embargo, debido a la relación del área foliar con la potencia 1,24 de la masa de las plántulas, la intercepción de luz se acercó a la proporcionalidad directa (exponente 0,91 con la masa. Este patrón fue producto de la relativa delgadez de los tallos de las plántulas grandes, y su baja proporción de biomasa radicular. Por tanto, el declive ontogenético en la eficiencia de intercepción de la luz fue en gran medida compensada por cambios de asignación que aumentaron la superficie foliar de las plántulas grandes. Estos mecanismos que conservaron la relación de la ganancia potencial de carbono con la masa de las plántulas probablemente serán vistos solamente en especies con hojas muy longevas, en hábitats húmedos con poco viento. En ambientes abiertos, donde los estrés por sequía y viento podrían seleccionar en contra tales patrones de asignación, es probable que se evidencie más claramente el rol del autosombramiento en los declives ontogenéticos en la tasa de crecimiento relativo

  20. New records and description of the microstructural patterns of guard hair in Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora, Skunk) for the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Bazilio; Elvira de Bastiani; Cláudia Golec

    2015-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n1p79Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar novos registros de Conepatus chinga para os estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina, na região Sul do Brasil, contribuindo para aumentar o conhecimento sobre sua distribuição, além de descrever os padrões microestruturais de seu pelo-guarda. Foram encontrados três espécimes atropelados nas margens da rodovia BR-280, sendo dois no município de Palmas, no Paraná, e um no município de Abelardo Luz, em Santa Catari...

  1. Novos registros e descrição dos padrões microestruturais do pelo-guarda de Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782 (Carnivora, Mephitidae para os estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Bazilio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n1p79 Este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar novos registros de Conepatus chinga para os estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina, na região Sul do Brasil, contribuindo para aumentar o conhecimento sobre sua distribuição, além de descrever os padrões microestruturais de seu pelo-guarda. Foram encontrados três espécimes atropelados nas margens da rodovia BR-280, sendo dois no município de Palmas, no Paraná, e um no município de Abelardo Luz, em Santa Catarina. Para a descrição do padrão cuticular e medular dos pelos-guarda, foram confeccionadas 60 lâminas. Conepatus chinga apresenta um padrão cuticular ondeado transversal e um padrão medular anisocélico. A descrição dos padrões microestruturais de C. chinga facilita a realização de estudos relacionados à sua ecologia, ampliando as chances de identificação de pelos encontrados em amostras de fezes de carnívoros em estudos mastofaunísticos.

  2. Programa "Actividad Lúdica" para disminuir el comportamiento agresivo en niños de 5 años de la I.E.I N° 365 "La Molina", Carabayllo, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Arquiñigo Rios, Yeny Jessica

    2017-01-01

    La investigación que se ha realizado tiene por objetivo la gran tarea de realizar la disminución del comportamiento agresivo mediante el Programa “Actividad Lúdica” para disminuir el comportamiento agresivo en niños de 5 años de la I.E.I N° 365 “ La Molina” , Carabayllo 2016. Es una investigación aplicada, con diseño experimental de subdiseño pre experimental, en una población de 55 niños y una muestra de 25 niños de 5 años respectivamente. Luego de obtener la validez y conf...

  3. New records and description of the microstructural patterns of guard hair in Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782 (Carnivora, Skunk for the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Bazilio

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show new records of Conepatus chinga for the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil, contributing to increase knowledge on its distribution, besides describing the microstructural patterns of its guard hair. Three run-over specimens were found in highway BR-280, two of them in the town of Palmas, in Paraná, and one in the town of Abelardo Luz, in Santa Catarina. For describing the cuticular and medullary pattern of guard hairs, sixty slides were made. Conepatus chinga has a cross-sectional and undulated cuticular pattern and an anisocytic medullary pattern. The description of microstructural patterns of C. chinga makes it easier to conduct studies related to its ecology, increasing the chances to identify hairs found in fecal samples from carnivores in mastofauna studies.

  4. Determination of the Morphology of the Starch Granules and the Optimum Internal Cooking Temperature of Four Andean Crops: Oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina, Olluco (Ullucus tuberosus Loz, Isaño (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellido-Valencia Omar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Andean grains (i.e. quinoa, amaranth have been increasingly studied in recent times, mainly due to the increase in international consumption. However, Andean tubers other than potatoes have not been so widespread and are mainly studied for their starch, previously extracted. This work studied the morphology of native starch in four of these crops (oca, olluco, isaño and aracacha, during cooking and the evolution of their internal temperature in relation to sensory acceptability. Using scanning electron microscopy, it was determined that the size of crude starch granules was between 9 μm to 38.2 μm for oca, 4.48 to 24.9 μm for olluco, 4.45 to 22.9 μm for isaño, and 5.36 to 23.8 μm for arracacha. Sensorially, it was determined that the optimum cooking temperature for arracacha was 89.1°C, 90.9°C for oca, 91°C for isaño, and 91.4 °C for olluco. All samples had optimal cooking times shorter than potato, with the isaño having the best heat transfer.

  5. Page 1 938 Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-12-09

    Dec 9, 2016 ... chimpanzee Pan trogolydes ellioti,. African Forest Elephant Loxodonta cyclotis, Red-rumped putty-nosed monkey. Cercopithecus nictitansludio , the African. Grey Parrots Psittacus erithacus among many others is thought to be low. Despite its high biodiversity and the apparent threats, there has been little.

  6. Gastrointestinal helminths of resident wildlife at the Federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-08-12

    Aug 12, 2014 ... African grey parrots Psittacus erithacus. 2. Royal python. Python regius. 1. Crowned cranes. Balearica regulorum. 2. Monitor lizard. Veranus niloticus. 2. Geese. Chen caerulescens. 4. Red headed love bird Agapornis pullarius. 2. Table 2: Parasite richness count and prevalence of nematodes in non-human ...

  7. Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology - Vol 87, No 2 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current distribution, breeding population and habitat use of the globally threatened Grey-necked Picathartes Picathartes oreas in south-eastern Nigeria: a call for conservation action · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Grey Parrots Psittacus erithacus in Kampala, Uganda – are they becoming suburbanised?

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 251 - 289 of 289 ... Vol 3, No 1 (2003), The impact of capture and trade in African grey parrot populations (Psittacus erithacus) in Lobeke National Park, south east Cameroon, Details PDF. A Ngenyi, Z Nzooh, L Usongo. Vol 4, No 2 (2004), The impact of the urban environment on plantain and banana production in Akwa ...

  9. Journal of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences - Vol 3, No 1 (2003)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of capture and trade in African grey parrot populations (Psittacus erithacus) in Lobeke National Park, south east Cameroon, EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Ngenyi, Z Nzooh, L Usongo, 11-16 ...

  10. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    in African grey (Psittacus erythacus) and amazon (Amazona spp) parrots. Avian Pathology, 19: 661 - 667. OIE (2012): World Organization for Animal. Health. Newcastle disease. Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals, Biological. Standards Commission, World. Organization for Animal Health,. Paris ...

  11. Nest-site characteristics and aspects of the breeding biology of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timneh Parrots Psittacus timneh are endemic to the moist forests of West Africa. Concerns over rapid declines in populations due to overharvesting for the pet trade and forest loss prompted the species' categorisation as Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in 2016. Despite these threats, few data exist ...

  12. Teguia, Alexis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performances zootechniques du poulet de chair soumis à un régime à base de résidus de semoule de manioc supplémenté par la spiruline (Spirulina platensis) Abstract PDF · Vol 11, No 5 (2017) - Articles Breeding biology of African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) in Kom National Park (South-Cameroon) and implications ...

  13. Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology - Vol 78, No 2 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology. ... Overview of the eleven Pan-African Ornithological Congresses · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT .... Abundance, movements and habitat use by African Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus) in Budongo and Mabira forest reserves, Uganda · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  14. Assessment of Aspergillus niger biofilm growth kinetics in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... Laboratorio de Micología y Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Av. La Molina s/n, Lima 12, Perú. Accepted 9 June, 2011. Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 was grown on bubble minicolumns aerated with pure oxygen either as biofilm or free-mycelium submerged systems. Growth kinetics ...

  15. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Franck Molina. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 32 Issue 1 January 2007 pp 145-155 Articles. Formal TCA cycle description based on elementary actions · Pierre Mazière Nicolas Parisey Marie Beurton-Aimar Franck Molina · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  16. 75 FR 61573 - Unblocking of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons Pursuant to Executive Order 12978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... 16689631 (Colombia) (individual) 3. BAEZA MOLINA, Carlos Alberto, c/o DERECHO INTEGRAL Y CIA. LTDA., Cali..., Colombia; c/o INTERCONTINENTAL DE AVIACION S.A., Bogota, Colombia; DOB 9 Mar 1938; POB Riofrio, Valle...

  17. Fauna helmintológica peruana: Paryphostomum huaccaci sp. n. (Echinostomotidoe parásito de Cathartes aura jota Molino, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Ibáñez H.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Es motivo de la presente nota, contribuir al conocimiento de un trematodo: Paryphostomum huaccaci sp. n. perteneciente o la Familia Echinostomatidae Poche, 1926 y que parásita a Cathartes aura jota Molina, 1782.

  18. Lisa maailmakirjanduse tõlkevaramule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Uued teosed sarjast "Maailmakirjanduse tõlkevaramu": Tirso de Molina "Sevilla pilkaja ja kivist külaline" ja Pedro Calderon de la Barca "Suur Maailmateater" (Tartu : Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, 2006)

  19. Plaadid / Margus Kiis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiis, Margus

    2004-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Courtney Love "American Sweetheart", Haltya "Electric Help Elves", Beats and Styles "This Is... Beats and Styles", "Ennio Morricone Remixes vol. 2", Delta Goodrem "Innocent Eyes", Juana Molina "Segundo"

  20. Cressier Patrice, Fierro Maribel, Molina Luis (ed., Los Almohades : problemas y perspectivas, Madrid, Consejo superior de investigaciones científicas, 2005 (Estudios árabes e islámicos : monografías, 11, 2 vol., 1 230 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Valérian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En réunissant les actes de trois séminaires organisés entre 2000 et 2002 à la Casa de Velázquez de Madrid sur les Almohades, ce volumineux ouvrage entend faire le point sur les « problèmes et perspectives » de l’histoire de ce qui fut à la fois un mouvement idéologique et religieux, une dynastie et un empire qui marquèrent profondément l’histoire du Maghreb médiéval. Un de ses mérites est de rassembler, autour de cette période charnière, historiens, philologues, archéologues, historiens de l’...

  1. Varela-Mato, V.; Cancela, J.M.; Ayan, C.; Molina, A.; Martín, V. Lifestyle and Health among Spanish University Students: Differences by Gender and Academic Discipline. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 2728–2741

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martín

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [1]. In the article it is mentioned that “the study obtained the approval of the university’s Students Vice-Chancellery and the government bodies of the involved academic centers and also by the Ethics Committee of the University of Vigo.” However, it should read: “The study obtained the approval of the university’s Students Vice-Chancellery and the government bodies of the involved academic centers” only.

  2. Caracterización estructural y propiedades funcionales de las harinas de los frutos de Prosopis alba Griseb., P. chilensis (Molina) Stuntz emend. Burkart y P. flexuosa DC. Desarrollo de un proceso de secado, molienda y mezcla para optimizar la calidad del producto

    OpenAIRE

    Mom, María Pía

    2012-01-01

    Prosopis alba, P. chilensis y P. flexuosa "algarrobos", características en las regiones fitogeográficas del Chaco y Monte, Argentina, constituyen un recurso natural con innumerables aplicaciones. Si bien el progresivo avance de la desertización ha puesto en riesgo a estas comunidades vegetales, es indudable que en la actualidad constituyen una fuente inagotable de productos y subproductos. A partir del estudio de los caracteres estructurales (micro, ultra, nano), propiedades funcionales y col...

  3. Commentary on: "Clonal evolution of chemotherapy-resistant urothelial carcinoma." Faltas BM, Prandi D, Tagawa ST, Molina AM, Nanus DM, Sternberg C, Rosenberg J, Mosquera JM, Robinson B, Elemento O, Sboner A, Beltran H, Demichelis F, Rubin MA.: Nat Genet. 2016 Oct 17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3692.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byron H

    2017-09-01

    Chemotherapy-resistant urothelial carcinoma has no uniformly curative therapy. Understanding how selective pressure from chemotherapy directs the evolution of urothelial carcinoma and shapes its clonal architecture is a central biological question with clinical implications. To address this question, we performed whole-exome sequencing and clonality analysis of 72 urothelial carcinoma samples, including 16 matched sets of primary and advanced tumors prospectively collected before and after chemotherapy. Our analysis provided several insights that are as follows: (1) chemotherapy-treated urothelial carcinoma is characterized by intrapatient mutational heterogeneity, and most mutations are not shared; (2) both branching evolution and metastatic spread are very early events in the natural history of urothelial carcinoma; (3) chemotherapy-treated urothelial carcinoma is enriched with clonal mutations involving L1 cell-adhesion molecule and integrin signaling pathways; and (4) APOBEC-induced mutagenesis is clonally enriched in chemotherapy-treated urothelial carcinoma and continues to shape the evolution of urothelial carcinoma throughout its lifetime. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Abundance of Conepatus chinga (Carnivora, Mephitidae) and other medium-sized mammals in grasslands of southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Kasper,Carlos B.; Bastazini,Vinícius A. G.; Soares,José B. G.; Freitas,Thales R. O. de

    2012-01-01

    Between January 2007 and December 2010, the abundance of medium-sized mammals was studied, with special focus on the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782), at four locations in southern Brazil. In this study, transect line methodology was used to obtain data for Distance Analyses. Transects were traveled by car at night, searching with spotlights along the edges of secondary roads in agricultural landscapes. Along 1,811 km, we obtained 620 observations of 20 mammal species...

  5. Abudância de Conepatus chinga (Carnivora, Mephitidae) e outros mamíferos de médio porte nos campos do sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Kasper, Carlos Benhur; Bastazini, Vinícius Augusto Galvão; Soares, José Bonifácio Garcia; Freitas, Thales Renato Ochotorena de

    2012-01-01

    Between January 2007 and December 2010, the abundance of medium-sized mammals was studied, with special focus on the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782), at four locations in southern Brazil. In this study, transect line methodology was used to obtain data for Distance Analyses. Transects were traveled by car at night, searching with spotlights along the edges of secondary roads in agricultural landscapes. Along 1,811 km, we obtained 620 observations of 20 mammal species...

  6. Elaboración y aplicación de un manual de Técnicas y Estrategias de aprendizaje cooperativo juntos aprendemos, para el desarrollo de la Inteligencia Lingüística en los estudiantes de Segundo Año paralelo A dela Escuela Fausto Molina de la ciudad de Riobamba en el período Académico 2013-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Cepeda, Olga Cumandá

    2015-01-01

    After conducted the preliminary study, it was determined that the primary objective of this research was to explore, analyze and determine the cooperative learning as a strategy for successful teaching in small groups, each one with students of varying skill levels using a variety of activities to enhance linguistic intelligence and determine the functionality of cooperative learning strategies as an alternative to the problem in this research, the reality is that in school is not used the co...

  7. Thematic Categorization and Analysis of Peer Reviewed Articles in the LISA Database, 2004-2005. A Review of: Gonzalez-Alcaide, Gregorio, Lourdes Castello-Cogolles, Carolina Navarro-Molina, et al. “Library and Information Science Research Areas: Analysis of Journal Articles in LISA.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.1 (2008: 150-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an updated categorization of Library and Information Science (LIS publications and to identify trends in LIS research.Design – Bibliometric study.Setting – The Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISA database via the CSA Illumina interface.Subjects – 11,273 item records published from 2004-2005 and indexed in LISA.Methods – First, a search was set up to retrieve all records from 2004-2005, limited to peer review items (called “arbitrated works” by the authors (150 and excluding book reviews. Second, thematic descriptor terms used for the records were identified. Frequency counts for descriptor term occurrence were compiled using Microsoft Access and Pajek software programs. From the results of this search, the top terms were analyzed using the Kamada-Kawai algorithm in order to eliminate descriptor term co-occurrence frequencies under 30. A cluster analysis was used to depict thematic foci for the remaining records, providing a co-word network that visually identified topic areas of most frequent publication. Conclusions were drawn from these findings, and recommendations for further research were provided.Main Results – The authors identified 18 “thematic research core fields” (152 clustered around three large categories, “World Wide Web”, “Education”, and “Libraries”, plus 12 additional peripheral categories, and provided a schematic of field interrelationships.Conclusion – Domains of greatest focus for research “continue to be of practical and applied nature,” (153 but include increased emphasis on the World Wide Web and communications technologies, as well as on user studies. A table of the most frequently occurring areas of research along with their top three descriptor terms is provided (Table1, 152 (e.g., “World Wide Web” as the top area of research, with “online information retrieval” (268 occurrences, “searching” (132 occurrences, and “web sites” (115 occurrences.

  8. Plant Flavonoid Content Modified by Domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Fuentes, Manuel; Parra, Leonardo; Lizama, Marcelo; Seguel, Ivette; Urzúa, Alejandro; Quiroz, Andrés

    2017-10-01

    Plant domestication can modify and weaken defensive chemical traits, reducing chemical defenses in plants and consequently their resistance against pests. We characterized and quantified the major defensive flavonols and isoflavonoids present in both wild and cultivated murtilla plants (Ugni molinae Turcz), established in a common garden. We examined their effects on the larvae of Chilesia rudis (Butler) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Insect community and diversity indices were also evaluated. We hypothesized that domestication reduces flavonoid contents and modifies C. rudis preference, the insect community, and diversity. Methanolic extracts were obtained from leaves of U. molinae plants and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed higher insect numbers (86.48%) and damage index (1.72 ± 0.16) in cultivated plants. Four new first records of insects were found associated with U. molinae. Diversity indices, such as Simpson, Shannon, and Margalef, were higher in cultivated plants than in wild plants. Furthermore, eight isoflavonoids were identified in U. molinae leaves for the first time. The five flavonols showed higher concentrations in wild U. molinae leaves (89.8 µg/g) than in cultivated plants (75.2 µg/g); however, no differences were found in isoflavonoids between wild and cultivated plants. The larvae of C. rudis consumed more leaf material of cultivated plants than wild plants in choice (3.8 vs. 0.8 mm2) and no-choice (7.5 vs. 3.0 mm2) assays. Our study demonstrates that domestication in U. molinae reduces the amount of flavonoids in leaves, increasing the preference of C. rudis and the insect community. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Efecto de la motilidad espermática en la producción de embriones in vitro en bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Ancco Gomez, Edith

    2017-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Producción Animal El sistema computarizado de análisis de semen y la fertilización in vitro son herramientas útiles para predecir la fertilidad. El presente estudio se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de la motilidad espermática en la producción de embriones in vitro en bovinos, la investigación se realizó en el Laboratorio de Biotecnología Reproductiva, de la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Los ov...

  10. "Vos sos la mujer araña, que atrapa a los hombres en su tela" : La construcción de la identidad feminina en El beso de la Mujer araña, de Manuel Puig.

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    La novela El beso de la mujer araña del escritor argentino Manuel Puig es una novela que trata dedos presos en una cárcel bonaerense durante la dictadura militar argentina. Esta tesina se centrará enla identidad femenina de Molina. El objetivo de esta tesina es examinar la celebración de lafemineidad de Molina, y su construcción de una identidad femenina. Esta identidad se conectarácon la idea de la identidad femenina como socialmente construida, opuesto a la noción de génerocomo algo innato....

  11. Historia del Lupus

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Rodríguez Gama

    2004-01-01

    Libro del Académico Antonio Iglesias (que ganó el Premio Sanofi-Aventis/ Academia Nacional de Medicina). Comentario del Académico Alvaro Rodríguez Gama Egon Lichtenberg, Manuel Elkin Patarroyo, Fernando Chalem, Javier Molina, Rafael Valle, José Fernando Molina y Ricardo Zúñiga entre tantos otros estudiosos y divulgadores de estos temas. El maestro Iglesias Gamarra relaciona además los esfuerzos realizados por otros científicos en Argentina, Chile, México, Perú, Brasil y Vene...

  12. Histopathological survey of protozoa, helminths and acarids of imported and local psittacine and passerine birds in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1992-12-01

    A total of 534 psittacine and passerine birds consisting of 241 imported and 293 local birds were examined histologically. As a result, the following parasites were found: Giardia (86 cases), Knemido-coptes (26 cases), coccidia (10 cases), Ascaridia (6 cases), Cryptosporidium (5 cases), Sarcocystis (5 cases), tapeworm (4 cases), microfilaria (2 cases), Hexamita (1 case), and Spiroptera (1 case). High incidences of giardiasis and knemido-coptic infestation were detected in the local birds, but rarely in the imported birds. Giardial trophozoites were observed mainly in the duodenum of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Knemidocoptic mites burrowed into the epidermis producing proliferative dermatitis in 25 budgerigars and 1 African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). This ectoparasite often infested the skin around the cloaca. Coccidiosis was seen only in the small intestines of the finch (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), African Grey Parrot, Rainbow lory (Trichoglossus haematodus), Indian Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri manillensis) and peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). Two parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva and Psittacus erithacus erithacus) and two budgerigars had intestinal cryptosporidiosis. Conjunctivitis associated with cryptosporidial infection was seen in a lovebird. Sarcocystis cysts containing crescent-shaped bradyzoites were found not only in the thigh and breast but also in the heart and cloacal muscles. Other organisms such as Ascaridia, tapeworm, microfilaria, Hexamita, and Spiroptera were clinically less significant. However, infections such as Giardia and Cryptosporidim might have zoonotic implications.

  13. Electrochemiluminescence from Tunicate, Tunichrome--Metal Complexes and Other Biological Samples (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-17

    ascidian, Ascidia ceratodes. Comp Biochem Physiol 1991;99A:585-92. 26. Roman AD, Molina J, Rivera L. Inorganic aspects of the blood chemistry of...ascidians, ionic composition, and Ti, V, Fe in the blood plasma of Pyura chilensis and Ascidia dispar. Bioi Bull 1988; 175:154-66. 27. Rosas I, BaezA

  14. 75 FR 32728 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List van Rossem's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... subspecies of gull-billed tern in North America (Molina 2008, p. 188) and six worldwide (Parnell et al. 1995..., p. 20). Increased vulnerability to extinction and other effects associated with small population... substantial information indicating that the van Rossem's gull-billed tern may be at risk of extinction now or...

  15. Filosofía y zoología en Aristóteles

    OpenAIRE

    Jhon Rozo Mila

    2014-01-01

    Finalidad, necesidad y accidente en Aristóteles. Un estudio sobre Partes de los animales y Generación de los animales. Liliana C. Molina González. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, 2010, 211 págs.

  16. The Use of System Dynamics Analysis and Modeling Techniques to Explore Policy Levers in the Fight Against Middle Eastern Terrorist Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    wives: Erika Vizcaino Payero, Mikie Matsuura, Ana Gloria Molina and Maria Nikolaou. Without you, we are ships without courses, and only with you have...GSPC) 35. Shining Path ( Sendero Luminoso, SL) 36. United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) Table 2. U.S. Department of State Designated

  17. 78 FR 37520 - Order Denying Export Privileges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Placido Molina, Jr., Inmate Number 90986-279, USP Pollock, U.S. Penitentiary, P.O. Box 2099... address at: Inmate Number 90986-279, USP Pollock, U.S. Penitentiary, P.O. Box 2099, Pollock, LA 71467, and...

  18. Influence of vacuum drying temperature on: physico-chemical composition and antioxidant properties of murta berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murta (Ugni molinae T.) berries were vacuum dried at a constant pressure of 15 kPa. The effects of processing temperatures (50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 °C) on the physico-chemical characteristics, the phenolic and flavonoid compounds, the antioxidant activity (measured by DPPH and ORAC) and the sugar and ...

  19. Depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged ≥60 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.jamda.2007.07.008]. 20. Tuesca-Molina R, Fierro Herrera N, Molinares Sosa A, et al. [Socializing groups as protective factor against depression in elderly people. Barranquilla, Colombia.] Rev Esp Salud Publica 2003 ...

  20. Honduras: A Pariah State, or Innovative Solutions to Organized Crime Deserving U.S. Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    lombia and Peru , to the United States.11 In the 1970s, Honduran drug trafficker Juan Ramon Matta lever- aged the country’s strategic geographic...reconciliacion-inter- nacional-desplazo-agenda-del- presidente -porfirio-lobo. 44. Victor Meza, Edmundo Orellana, Leticia Salomón, Thel- ma Mejia, and Feliz Molina

  1. A Randomized Effectiveness Trial of a Systems-Level Approach to Stepped Care for War-Related PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Laura Whitton-Bonnett (Fort Bliss). Site Principal Investi- gators: Fort Bliss—Melissa Molina, MD, Stanley Harmon, RN, MSN, FNP ; Fort Bragg—Lillie...Walker, MPAS, PA-C, Andrew Fletcher, MD, LTC, MC, Thurman Saunders, MSN, FNP -C, MAJ, AN; Fort Campbell—Lisa Ford, LTC, AN, FNP -BC, Vlatka Plymale, DO

  2. FY08 DRMRP Clinical Trial: Strengthening Pathways to PTSD Recovery Using Systems-Level Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    gators: Fort Bliss—Melissa Molina, MD, Stanley Harmon, RN, MSN, FNP ; Fort Bragg—Lillie Walker, MPAS, PA-C, Andrew Fletcher, MD, LTC, MC, Thurman Saunders...MSN, FNP -C, MAJ, AN; Fort Campbell—Lisa Ford, LTC, AN, FNP -BC, Vlatka Plymale, DO, CPT, MC, Jason Dailey, MD, MAJ, MC; Fort Carson—Nicholas Piantanida

  3. Commensal Bacteria Control Cancer Response to Therapy by Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriho Iida, Amiran Dzutsev, C. Andrew Stewart, Loretta Smith, Nicolas Bouladoux, Rebecca A. Weingarten, Daniel A. Molina, Rosalba Salcedo, Timothy Back, Sarah Cramer, Ren-Ming Dai, Hiu Kiu, Marco Cardone, Shruti Naik, Anil K. Patri, Ena Wang, Francesco M. Marincola, Karen M. Frank, Yasmine Belkaid, Giorgio Trinchieri, Romina S. Goldszmid Science 342(6161):967-970, 2013

  4. Low concentrations of ethanol during irradiation drastically reduce ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harinder Singh

    2018-02-13

    Feb 13, 2018 ... ethanol to living cells, especially eukaryotic cells (Manzo-. Avalos S and Saavedra-Molina 2010). Bacteria display far superior tolerance to radiation (1 to 15–30 kGy of c-rays in some .... in different lanes were compared with unirradiated DNA ..... genes from the salt-tolerant nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium.

  5. Robin Hoodist Oidipuseni / Pille-Riin Purje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Pille-Riin, 1963-

    1996-01-01

    'Ugala' külalisetendused Tallinnas: David Neilsoni 'Robin Hood' (lav. Peeter Tammearu); Mihhail Bulgakovi 'Poolearuline Jourdain' (lav. Üllar Saaremäe); Tirso de Molina 'Kadunud sõrmus' (lav. Andres Noormets); Talvo Pabuti 'Oidipuse kompleks' (lav. Andres Lepik); Anton Tshehhovi 'Kirsiaed' (lav. Kaarin Raid)

  6. CORRELATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF DRIED BERRY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malvaceae) in rats. Phytother. Res. 2002, 16, 283–285. 22. Rodríguez-Medina, I.C.; Beltrán-Debón, R.; Micol Molina, V.; Alonso-Villaverde, C. Joven,. J.; Menéndez, J.A.; Segura-Carretero, A.; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A. Direct characterization of.

  7. Artigo de Pesquisa Original

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E

    2015-05-27

    May 27, 2015 ... and food industries. Since fructans are carbohydrate reserves storage can reduce their contents. Additionally, the type of extraction used can provide a higher yield of fructans. ... developing colon cancer and tumors (Sabater-Molina et ..... oligofructans and their labeling patterns following CO2 feeding. New.

  8. Agua malgastada y agua utilizada: observaciones sobre la modernización del regadío en el Oasis de Kuqar (Xinjiang, República Popular China)

    OpenAIRE

    Faggi, Pierpaolo

    1993-01-01

    Texto traducido por Gloria Navarro Albaladejo y revisado por Juan Antonio Marco Molina Esta investigación ha sido financiada al 60% por el Ministerio Universitario de Investigación Científica y Técnica y por el Centro Nacional de Investigación de Italia

  9. Nobel prize awarded to pioneers in ozone research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This article details the achievements of the three individuals who shared the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry - Paul Crutzen, Mario Molina, and F. Sherwood Rowland - for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly the chemical processes that deplete the ozone layer. Background information about the ozone layer is presented as well as highlights of the ozone research done by the prize winners.

  10. Abdullah Jafri Malin see Muthuraju Sangu 93 Abe Mikiko see Kucho ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thaliana in response to salicylic acid. 317 de Los Angeles Chávez María see Gómez Hansel. 461 del Moral ML see Molina F. 363. Denise Juliette see Tenay Brandon. 351. Deobagkar Deepti see Biradar Vinayak. 917. Dhotre Dhiraj P see Gokhale Kaustubh. 301. Dhyani Anurag. Epicotyl morphophysiological dormancy in ...

  11. Fisica y vida cotidiana

    CERN Multimedia

    Méndez, R

    2002-01-01

    "Estaba harto de escuchar lo dificil que es ensenar fisica, interesar a los alumnos en gases, tiros parabolicos y campos magneticos. Por eso el profesor de Fisica de la Universidad de Murcia Rafael Garcia Molina decidio hace cinco anos dejar sin argumentos a sus colegas. Comenzo la busqueda de juguetes, regalos y objetos cotidianos para explicar la fisica" (1 page).

  12. Historien er ikke slut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurah, Thomas

    , Seamus Heaney, Stefan Heym, Peer Hultberg, Per Højholt, Imre Kertész, Jan Kjærstad, Ivan Klíma, Jaan Kross, Siegfried Lenz, Claudio Magris, Antonio Muñoz Molina, Cees Nooteboom, Ljudmila Petrusjevskaja, Christoph Ransmayr, Klaus Rifbjerg, Salman Rushdie, José Saramago, Peter Seeberg, Tage Skou...

  13. Bulletin of Materials Science | News

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis, characterization and catalytic application of Ni catalysts supported on alumina–zirconia mixed oxides · J ÁNGEL-SOTO M MARTÍNEZ-ROSALES P ÁNGEL-SOTO A ZAMORATEGUI-MOLINA · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Alumina and alumina–zirconia mixed oxides were compared as supports to prepare ...

  14. Saggio sulla storia civile del Chili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Trivero

    Full Text Available No hace mucho tiempo apareció en el mercado anticuario italiano un libro extremadamente raro e interesante para el mundo chileno y, particularmente mapuche. Se trata de la primera edición del "Saggio sulla storia civile del Chili", del jesuita Giovanni Ignazio Molina, publicado en Bologna en el año 1787.

  15. AMARI LDGE et al..xps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP Pro 2000

    elongated necrotic lesions surrounded by chlorosis, suggests a possible involvement of the pathogen phytotoxic-compound (Molina et al., 1989, Upadhyay et al., 1990). Some of these toxins, already identified, could constitute an alternative technique for a rapid screening of resistant genotypes in banana allowing an early.

  16. MaliSheep10R2 rev19JanAM

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Organic agriculture is often promoted as a sustainable way to increase overall farm performance, reduce poverty, mitigate climate change, and improve food security. ... La Molina, Peru. University of British Columbia, Canada. Dr. Roberto Ugás. Implementation of sustainable organic farming techniques. Dr. Andrew Riseman.

  17. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics, 1996-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumoto, Mitchell A., Ed.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Reports of language research in the 1996 issue include: "Corpus Planning for the Southern Peruvian Quechua Language" (Serafin M. Coronel-Molina); "Foreign Language Planning in U.S. Higher Education: The Case of a Graduate Business Program" (Mitchell A. Furumoto); "Charting New Directions: Of Communication in a Social…

  18. the structure of face-to-face casual conversation among the akans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coronel-Molina, Serafin M. 1998. Openings and Closings in Telephone Conversations between. Native Spanish Speakers. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics, 14 (1), 49 – 68. Firth, John Rupert, 1972. Verbal and Bodily Rituals of Greeting and Parting. In Jean Sybil La. Fontaine, ed., Interpretation of Rituals, 1-38.

  19. 2350-IJBCS-Article-Dr Laurent Kouakou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Lagenaria siceraria Molina has a high productive potential of fruits but the seeds weight remain low. The aim of this study is to regenerate doubled haploids from androgenesis in order to create genotypes with good agronomic characteristics. For this purpose, flower buds of six accessions namely NI185, NI202, NI215,.

  20. Report of a Rare Case of an Odontogenic Myxoma of the Maxilla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2010;14:19‑23. 5. Sivakumar G, Kavitha B, Saraswathi TR, Sivapathasundharam. B. Odontogenic myxoma of maxilla. Indian J Dent Res. 2008;19:62‑5. 6. Aquilino RA, Tuji FM, Eid NL, Molina OF, Joo HY, Neto FH. Odontogenic myxoma in the maxilla: A case report and characteristics on CT and MR.

  1. Identification of selected CITES-protected Araucariaceae using DART TOFMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip D. Evans; Ignacio A. Mundo; Michael C. Wiemann; Gabriela D. Chavarria; Pamela J. McClure; Doina Voin; Edgard O. Espinoza

    2017-01-01

    Determining the species source of logs and planks suspected of being Araucaria araucana (Molina) K.Koch (CITES Appendix I) using traditional wood anatomy has been difficult, because its anatomical features are not diagnostic. Additionally, anatomical studies of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze, Araucaria...

  2. Book review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This book stems from Kaphagawani's doctoral thesis. Its primary aim is to demonstrate the superiority of Leibniz over Aquinas and Molina regarding the solution to the prob- lem of freedom and necessity. It consists of nine chapters: chapter 1 is the Introduction, chapter 2 and 3 are, respectively, expositions and analyses of ...

  3. Fosforilación del receptor [alfa]1b-adrenérgico a través de receptores con actividad de tirosina cinasa /

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Muñoz, Tzindilu sustentante.

    2009-01-01

     tesis que para obtener el grado de Doctor en Ciencias Biomédicas, presenta Tzindilu Molina Muñoz ; asesor Jesús Adolfo García Saínz. 97, [20] páginas : ilustraciones. Doctorado en Ciencias Biomédicas UNAM, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, 2009

  4. Androgenic potential and anther in vitro culture of Lagenaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Androgenic potential and anther in vitro culture of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl an edible-seed cucurbit. Kouakou Laurent Kouakou, Tra Serge Doubi, Tra Serge Koffi, Kouadio Ignace Kouassi, Tanoh Hilaire Kouakou, Jean-Pierre Baudoin, Irié Arsène Zoro Bi ...

  5. De ontwikkeling van analytische methoden voor het bepalen van Quil A saponine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen-Fast AK; Derks HJGM

    1989-01-01

    Quil A is de naam voor een saponinemengsel dat gewonnen wordt uit de bast van de Quillaja Saponaria Molina. In een concentratie van 0,3 of meer g/l vormen deze saponines micellen, die de basis vormen voor "immunostimulating complexes" (iscoms). In dit rapport wordt het onderzoek

  6. Pulcherrimasaponin, from the leaves of Calliandra pulcherrima, as adjuvant for immunization in the murine model of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bernadete Pereira da; Soares, Juliana Baptista Rocha Correa; Souza, Edilma Paraguai de; Palatnik, Marcos; Sousa, Clarisa Beatriz Palatnik de; Parente, José Paz

    2005-01-11

    A novel triterpenoidal saponin, called pulcherrimasaponin (CP05), isolated from the leaves of Calliandra pulcherrima Benth. shows remarkable similarities to the previously described potent adjuvant, QS21 saponin (Quillaja saponaria Molina). On the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence, its structure was established as [3beta,16alpha,28[2E,6S[2E,6S(2E,6S)

  7. Coupling 2D Finite Element Models and Circuit Equations Using a Bottom-Up Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    EQUATIONS USING A BOTTOM-UP METHODOLOGY E. G6mezl, J. Roger-Folch2 , A. Gabald6nt and A. Molina’ ’Dpto. de Ingenieria Eldctrica. Universidad Polit...de Ingenieria Elictrica. ETSII. Universidad Politdcnica de Valencia. PO Box 22012, 46071. Valencia, Spain. E-mail: iroger adie.upv.es ABSTRACT The

  8. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences. Marie Beurton-Aimar. Articles written in Journal of Biosciences. Volume 32 Issue 1 January 2007 pp 145-155 Articles. Formal TCA cycle description based on elementary actions · Pierre Mazière Nicolas Parisey Marie Beurton-Aimar Franck Molina · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  9. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemistry. The 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to: Paul Crutzen, Max-Plank-Insti- tute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany; Mario. Molina, Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences and Department of. Chemistry, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA, and. F Sherwood Rowland, Department of Chemis-.

  10. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for the ornamental discus fish Symphysodon discus and cross-species amplification in other Heroini cichlid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado, Manuella Villar; Hrbek, Tomas; Gravena, Waleska; Fantin, Cleiton; DE Assunção, Enedina Nogueira; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Farias, Izeni P

    2008-11-01

    The discus fishes (Symphysodon spp.) are economically important ornamental species. Thirteen microsatellite markers were developed from a CT(12) - and CA(12) -enriched whole genomic DNA library of Symphysodon discus. Allelic variability was tested on 44 individuals of two species (S. discus and S. aequifasciatus). Allelic richness ranged from two to 11 alleles per locus and observed heterozygosities from 0.083 to 0.998. All loci were at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and no pair of loci showed linkage disequilibrium within a species. Cross-species amplification was also successfully performed in the Neotropical cichlids Uaru amphiacanthoides, Hoplarchus psittacus, Hypselecara coryphaenoides, Pterophyllum sp., Mesonauta sp. and Heros sp. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. [Leukosis in captive wild birds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loupal, G

    1984-10-01

    Among 2589 captive wild birds, examined between 1974 and 1983, we found leukosis in 26 birds belonging to 13 different species and five orders. We diagnosed lymphoid leukosis in 11 birds (two Melopsittacus undulatus, two Psittacus erithacus one Platycerus eximius, one Columba livia, one Streptopelia decaocto, one Polyplectron bicalcaratum, one Pavo cristatus, one Aptenodytes patachonia and one finch, species unknown), myeloid leukosis in 14 (nine Melopsittacus undulatus, two Agapomis personata fischeri, two Urgeainthus bengalus and one Neophemia pulchella) and stem cell leukosis in one bird (Serinus canaria). Among the cases with lymphoid leukosis we distinguished between lymphoblastic (four cases) and prolymphocytic forms (seven). Myeloid leukosis was subdivided into poorly differentiated (12 cases) and well differentiated myeloblastosis (two).

  12. Fijacion primaria y variaciones morfologicas, durante la metamorfosis de algunos bivalvos chilenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Uribe Barichivith

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The larval primary settlement and the changes originated during the metamorphosis of some species of Chilean bivalves, are comparatively studied, being described, the larval and post - larval stages from the veliconcha to late plantigrade. By observing in ropes "anchovetera" nets and plankton samples, in the mitiliculture of Codihué (41º 46'S; 73º 24'W, it was verified for Mytilus chilensis Hupé, 1854 and Aulacomya ater (Molina, 1782, primary settlement on the filamentous algae of genera Enteromorpha with an average size of 33º µ high, minimum average of definitive settlement, byssus positional changes, etc. Information concerning average and number of larval and post - larval attachment to different deep and inmersión period and morphological characters of larval and post - larval of: Bankia martensi Stempell, 1898 (Teredinidae, Pholas chiloensis (Molina, 1782 (Pholadidae y Chlamys patriae Doello Jurado, 1918 (Pectinidae, are also given.

  13. Temperature dependence of the ClONO{sub 2} UV absorption spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, J.B.; Talukdar, R.K.; Ravishankara, A.R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The temperature dependence of the ClONO{sub 2} absorption spectrum has been measured between 220 and 298 K and between 195 and 430 nm using a diode array spectrometer. The absorption cross sections were determined using both: (1) absolute pressure measurements at 296 K and (2) measurements at various temperatures relative to 296 K using a dual absorption cell arrangement. The temperature dependence of the ClONO{sub 2} absorption spectrum shows very broad structure. The amplitude of the temperature dependence relative to that at 296 K is weak at short wavelengths, < 2% at 215 nm and 220 K, but significant at the wavelengths important in the stratosphere, {approximately} 30% at 325 nm and 220 K. The authors ClONO{sub 2} absorption cross section data are in good general agreement with the previous measurements of Molina and Molina.

  14. Temperature dependence of the ClONO2 UV absorption spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, James B.; Talukdar, Ranajit K.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the ClONO2 absorption spectrum has been measured between 220 and 298 K and between 195 and 430 nm using a diode array spectrometer. The absorption cross sections were determined using both: (1) absolute pressure measurements at 296 K and (2) measurements at various temperatures relative to 296 K using a dual absorption cell arrangement. The temperature dependence of the ClONO2 absorption spectrum shows very broad structure. The amplitude of the temperature dependence relative to that at 296 K is weak at short wavelengths, less than 2% at 215 nm and 220 K, but significant at the wavelengths important in the stratosphere, about 30% at 325 nm and 220 K. Our ClONO2 absorption cross section data are in good general agreement with the previous measurements of Molina and Molina (1979).

  15. A full-coordinate model of the polymerase domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and its interaction with a nucleic acid substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlik, R. F.; Meyer, D. J.; Shibata, M.; Roskwitalski, R.; Ornstein, R. L.; Rein, R.

    1994-01-01

    We present a full-coordinate model of residues 1-319 of the polymerase domain of HIV-I reverse transcriptase. This model was constructed from the x-ray crystallographic structure of Jacobo-Molina et al. (Jacobo-Molina et al., P.N.A.S. USA 90, 6320-6324 (1993)) which is currently available to the degree of C-coordinates. The backbone and side-chain atoms were constructed using the MAXSPROUT suite of programs (L. Holm and C. Sander, J. Mol. Biol. 218, 183-194 (1991)) and refined through molecular modeling. A seven base pair A-form dsDNA was positioned in the nucleic acid binding cleft to represent the template-primer complex. The orientation of the template-primer complex in the nucleic acid binding cleft was guided by the positions of phosphorus atoms in the crystal structure.

  16. The Dissemination Of Accounting Research And Performance Reviews: The Role Of Publication Forms

    OpenAIRE

    SALVADOR CARMONA

    2005-01-01

    This project is supported financially by the CICYT research grants # 01-0657 and SEJ-2004-08176-C02-01. I would like to thank Jose Carlos Molina for assisting with the management of the database. Previous versions of this paper were presented at the Annual Congress of the European Accounting Association (Seville, 2003); the Accounting, Business and Financial History Conference (Cardiff, 2003); and the World Congress of Accounting Historians (Oxford, Mississippi, 2004). I am grateful to the pa...

  17. The Actual Problems of Modern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya E. Anikeeva

    2014-01-01

    The important aim of national and Spanish historiography and political science is to study history and foreign policy of modern Spain. The author studied articles and monographies of spanish politicians and researchers ( M. Rahoy, I. Aries, A. Rubalcaba, I. Molina) for the preparation of this article during the scientific trip to Madrid (Complutense University, Faculty of Political Science and Sociology), which was held in the framework of cooperation between the Bank Santander and MGIMO (Uni...

  18. What would have happened to the ozone layer if chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) had not been regulated?

    OpenAIRE

    P. A. Newman; L. D. Oman; A. R. Douglass; E. L. Fleming; S. M. Frith; M. M. Hurwitz; S. R. Kawa; C. H. Jackman; N. A. Krotkov; E. R. Nash; J. E. Nielsen; S. Pawson; R. S. Stolarski; G. J. M. Velders

    2009-01-01

    Ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was first proposed by Molina and Rowland in their 1974 Nature paper. Since that time, the scientific connection between ozone losses and CFCs and other ozone depleting substances (ODSs) has been firmly established with laboratory measurements, atmospheric observations, and modeling research. This science research led to the implementation of international agreements that largely stopped the production of ODSs. In this study we use a fully-c...

  19. STUDY OF SOIL AMPLIFICATION BASED ON MICROTREMOR AND SEISMIC RECORDS IN LIMA PERU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Diana; Sekiguchi, Toru; Nakai, Shoichi; Aguilar, Zenon; Lazares, Fernando

    The dynamic characteristics of the ground in Lima, capital of Peru, specifically the amplification are investigated. By using the small and large microtremor array measurements we estimated the soil velocity profiles with depths to the bedrock in many cases. These profiles were used to estimate the amplification factors. Important results are the large amplification factors at EMO, VSV, CAL and CMA (La Molina, Villa El Salvador, El Callao and Bellavista district, respectively).

  20. [Reseñas Bibliográficas] Atlas de la flora vascular silvestre de Burgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Aizpuru

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Es una reseña bibliográfica de la obra, Atlas de la flora vascular silvestre de Burgos / Alejandre Sáenz, J.M. García-López, L. Marín Padellano, G. Mateo Sanz, E. Miguélez del coso, C. Molina Martín, G. Montamarta Prieto, S. Patino Sánchez, M.A. Pinto Cebrián 6 J. Valencia Janices.

  1. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kazadi Buanga J, Ndiope JB. Syndrome de Yous- sef ou fistule vésico-utérine après césarienne. Analyse rétrospective de 6 dossiers. Médicine d'Afrique Noire 2001, 48:6. Trabelsi N, Makni MY, Guermazi H, Bouinah H,. Zmerli S. Les fistules vésico-utérines à propos de. 5 cas. Ann Urol 1989, 231113. Molina R, Lyme IC, ...

  2. Erectile Dysfunction Among HIV Patients Undergoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Dyslipidemia as a Main Risk Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Romero‐Velez, MD

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: ED is highly prevalent in HIV patients. Dyslipidemia should be considered as a risk factor for ED in HIV patients. Romero‐Velez G, Lisker‐Cervantes A, Villeda‐Sandoval CI, Sotomayor de Zavaleta M, Olvera‐Posada D, Sierra‐Madero JG, Arreguin‐Camacho LO, and Castillejos‐Molina RA. Erectile dysfunction among HIV patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy: Dyslipidemia as a main risk factor. Sex Med 2014;2:24–30.

  3. Sensor Systems for Biological Agent Attacks: Protecting Buildings and Military Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    germinate to form new fungal mycelia, which then produce asexual spores later in the season. For many fungi that produce large fruiting bodies (e.g...mushrooms) mycelia expand throughout the growing season and the fruiting bodies are produced and release spores in the fall. Thus, concentrated...airborne spores of Fusarium graminearum and other Fusarium species sampled over wheat plots. Can. J. Bot. 78:497-505. J. Molina Mediavilla, J. Angulo, E

  4. The lichen family Parmeliaceae in Poland. III. Parmelia serrana, new to Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Ossowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Parmelia serrana A. Crespo, M.C. Molina & D. Hawksw. is reported here for the first time from Poland. The species has been recorded from more than 20 localities and exclusively on the bark of trees. Its general distribution, habitat requirements, morphology, secondary chemistry are provided and the differences between this species and similar taxa, especially P. saxatilis and P. ernstiae, are discussed.

  5. La reagrupación familiar en el ámbito municipal en España. Análisis comparado en región mediterrânea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pastor Seller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En el artículo se presentan los resultados de una investigación comparativa de la evolución del proceso de reagrupación familiar de extranjeros no comunitarios en España, la Región de Murcia y el municipio de Molina de Segura en el período 2007-2014. Se analiza la evolución de la reagrupación familiar, mediante el acceso a fuentes secundarias. Para caracterizar el perfil del reagrupante se realizan entrevistas estructuradas al universo de solicitantes de informe de adecuación de vivienda para reagrupación familiar en Molina de Segura. Se aplica un cuestionario a extranjeros no comunitarios para describir las tendencias en reagrupación familiar en Molina de Segura y para conocer los conflictos surgidos en las familias reagrupadas se llevan a cabo entrevistas en profundidad a actores expertos y estratégicos. Los resultados evidencian que los cambios normativos y la actual crisis económica inciden, entre otros factores, a los procesos de reagrupación familiar. En este contexto es necesario incrementar los recursos destinados a los Servicios de Bienestar local para favorecer la integración real de las personas inmigrantes y mantener los niveles de cohesión social.

  6. Abundance of Conepatus chinga (Carnivora, Mephitidae and other medium-sized mammals in grasslands of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos B. Kasper

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Between January 2007 and December 2010, the abundance of medium-sized mammals was studied, with special focus on the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782, at four locations in southern Brazil. In this study, transect line methodology was used to obtain data for Distance Analyses. Transects were traveled by car at night, searching with spotlights along the edges of secondary roads in agricultural landscapes. Along 1,811 km, we obtained 620 observations of 20 mammal species. The most common species was the exotic European hare, Lepus europaeus (Pallas, 1778; the highest abundance estimated for South America was observed in one of the study areas, where its density was estimated as 32 individuals/km². Carnivores were the most commonly recorded mammals, represented by 10 species and comprising 51% of all observations. Molina's hog-nosed skunk occurred in all study areas, but occurred in sufficient numbers to obtain density estimates in only two of the areas. We estimated 1.4 to 3.8 individuals/km², in the first density estimate made by the transect method for a member of Conepatus in the Neotropics. These values are similar to those estimated for North American species of Mephitidae. In Brazil, C. chinga is apparently more abundant in the Pampa biome than in the grasslands of the Atlantic Forest. For two other carnivores, Lycalopex gymnocercus (Fisher, 1814 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, we estimated preliminary densities that were similar to those previously cited for different regions.

  7. Alcohol consumption and the risk of renal cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Wozniak MB, Brennan P, Brenner DR, Overvad K, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, Boutron-Ruault MC, Clavel-Chapelon F, Fagherazzi G, Katzke V, Kühn T, Boeing H, Bergmann MM, Steffen A, Naska A, Trichopoulou A, Trichopoulos D, Saieva C, Grioni S, Panico S, Tumino R, Vineis P, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Peeters PH, Hjartåker A, Weiderpass E, Arriola L, Molina-Montes E, Duell EJ, Santiuste C, Alonso de la Torre R, Barricarte Gurrea A, Stocks T, Johansson M, Ljungberg B, Wareham N, Khaw KT, Travis RC, Cross AJ, Murphy N, Riboli E, Scelo G.Int J Cancer. 2015 Oct 15;137(8):1953-66. [Epub 2015 Apr 28]. doi: 10.1002/ijc.29559.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Raman; Brennan, P; Brenner; Overvad, K; Olsen, A; Tjønneland, A; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Fagherazzi; Katzke, V; Kühn, T; Boeing, H; Bergmann, M M; Steffen, A; Naska, A; Trichopoulou, A; Trichopoulos, D; Saieva, C; Grioni, S; Panico, S; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, P H; Hjartåker, A; Weiderpass, E; Arriola, L; Molina-Montes, E; Duell, E J; Santiuste, C; Alonso de la Torre, R; Barricarte Gurrea, A; Stocks, T; Johansson, M; Ljungberg, B; Wareham, N; Khaw, K T; Travis, R C; Cross, A J; Murphy, N; Riboli, E; Scelo, G

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of renal cancer. However, there is no information available on the associations in renal cancer subsites. From 1992 to 2010, 477,325 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort were followed for incident renal cancers (n = 931). Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Information on past alcohol consumption was collected by lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. In multivariate analysis, total alcohol consumption at baseline was inversely associated with renal cancer; the HR and 95% CI for the increasing categories of total alcohol consumption at recruitment vs. the light drinkers category were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.82 (0.64-1.04), 0.70 (0.55-0.90), and 0.91 (0.63-1.30), respectively, (ptrend = 0.001). A similar relationship was observed for average lifetime alcohol consumption and for all renal cancer subsites combined or for renal parenchyma subsite. The trend was not observed in hypertensive individuals and not significant in smokers. In conclusion, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of renal cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Revision of the Megaperidae Manter, 1934 n. comb. (Syn. Apocreadiidae Skrjabin, 1942) including a reorganization of the Schistorchiinae Yamaguti, 1942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blend, Charles K; Karar, Yasser F M; Dronen, Norman O

    2017-11-28

    Modified and/or new keys to the four subfamilies now recognized within the Megaperidae Manter, 1934 n. comb. (Syn. Apocreadiidae Skrjabin, 1942) as well as the genera within each subfamily are presented. Two new genera, Paraschistorchis n. gen. and Plesioschistorchis n. gen., both within the Schistorchiinae Yamaguti, 1942, are erected and keys are provided to the species considered in both new genera-distinguished by possessing caeca that end either in separate ani or blindly. Plesioschistorchis callyodontis (Yamaguti, 1942) n. comb. and Plesioschistorchis haridis (Nagaty, 1957) n. comb. are re-described from new material collected from the common parrotfish, Scarus psittacus Forsskål (Perciformes: Scaridae), inhabiting the Red Sea off Egypt; S. psittacus represents a new host record for both species. The taxonomic status of Schistorchis sensu stricto Lühe, 1906 is examined and revised, a key to the four species we consider in this genus offered, and the monotypic genus Megacreadium Nagaty, 1956 declared a junior synonym of Schistorchis. Members of Schistorchis sensu stricto possess a unique "complex" (i.e. highly cellular/glandular) instead of "simple" (i.e. entirely muscular) type of oral sucker that is quite large in relation to body size; an elongate, somewhat sub-rectangular-shaped body; 5+ testes arranged in at least two rows; caeca that open via separate ani; a long post-testicular region; a median genital pore either at the anterior margin of or just anterior to the ventral sucker; and species of Schistorchis sensu stricto parasitize the intestine of marine fish within the Order Tetraodontiformes Berg. With the revision of this genus, we re-describe Schistorchis carneus Lühe, 1906 from the lower and mid-intestine of the white-spotted puffer, Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus) (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae), collected in the Red Sea off Egypt. Finally, a plea is made for further study of the Megaperidae n. comb. focusing, in particular, on the following

  9. Cuantificación de flujos sedimentarios de las cuencas amazónicas de Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Armijos Cardenas, Elisa Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Recursos Hídricos El presente estudio, trata sobre la cuantificación del flujo sedimentario, el grado de incertidumbre en las metodologías empleadas y la variabilidad temporal de los flujos líquidos y sólidos. Para este trabajo se consideró 8 estaciones hidrológicas y sedimentarias de la cuenca amazónica peruana, tres en el pie de monte y cinco en la llanura, sobre los ríos, Marañón, Huallaga, Ucayali, Amazonas, El Ti...

  10. La propuesta de un nuevo concepto de lo humano en El beso de la mujer araña

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Ruiz Luna

    1999-01-01

    Este trabajo pretende demostrar que en la novela El beso de la mujer araña (1976), del argentino Manuel Puig, se muestra simbólicamente la desigual relación entre la mujer y el hombre en la androcéntrica sociedad latinoamericana contemporánea, y cómo esa relación de dominio que deshumaniza a ambos elementos, puede llegar a convertirse en una relación de igualdad. Los personajes centrales de la novela, Luis Molina y Valentín Arregui, prueban que el camino para esa nueva humanidad debe pasar po...

  11. Gran minería y conflictos socioambientales : el caso del distrito de Espinar, Cusco

    OpenAIRE

    Huamaní Paccaya, Wilber

    2015-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Ecología Aplicada Uno de los problemas que enfrenta Espinar es la presencia de conflictos relacionados con la actividad expansiva de la gran minería. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer y determinar las causas-implicancias y las relaciones de los conflictos socio-ambientales de la gran minería en Espinar (1980- 2013). Para ello, primero se recopiló información sobre la historia de la minería, se identificó y se ca...

  12. Aislado y caracterización físico química del almidón de kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Javier, Percy

    2007-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Tecnología de Alimentos La presente investigación tuvo como principal objetivo determinar una nueva técnica de aislado de almidón proveniente de granos de Kiwicha. Para lo cual se caracterizó algunas propiedades físico-químicas correspondiente a los granos de kiwicha de la variedad Centenario. Luego se procedió a desarrollar 18 tratamientos, los mismos que son la resultante de la aplicación de soluciones con diferente...

  13. Los fundamentos de un fallo histórico : Los crímenes sexuales en el Terrorismo de Estado son delitos de Lesa humanidad en Mar del Plata

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Mailen

    2016-01-01

    La condena a reclusión perpetua a Gregorio Molina por violación y violación en grado de tentativa en junio de 2010 marcó un antes y un después en la historia de los procesos penales contra represores argentinos. El Tribunal consideró que eran delitos de Lesa humanidad y “que los tormentos padecidos por las mujeres eran específicos y dirigidos contra ellas por su condición de mujer, en una clara intencionalidad discriminatoria”. Así tras muchos años de silencio, la justicia condenaba por prime...

  14. Contenido de ß-caroteno, hierro y zinc en genotipos de camote (Ipomoea batatas L.) durante el almacenamiento, cocción y elaboración de pan

    OpenAIRE

    Carpio Ramos, Rosmery Violeta

    2016-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Tecnología de Alimentos El camote es uno de los alimentos básicos que han sido asignados para combatir la deficiencia de micronutrientes en especial la deficiencia de vitamina A, hierro y zinc. El presente estudio pretende contribuir con la selección de genotipos para el mejoramiento de la calidad nutricional del camote principalmente en el contenido de β-caroteno, materia seca, hierro y zinc, ayudando a reducir los p...

  15. Experiences in WWTP of the effects of co-digestion of substrates on the biogas production; Experiencia en EDAR de la codigestion de sustratos sobre la produccion de biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morenilla, J. J.; Bernacer, I.; Martinez, F.; Jardin, C.; Simon, P.; Ruiz, L.; Pradas, P.; Pastor, L.

    2010-07-01

    The use of co-digestion in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) offers the possibility of treating sludge in conjunction with other substrates from different sources (agricultural or agroindustrial residues, etc.)to offset the balance of nutrients and moisture, increasing significantly biogas production of the process. Pobla de Farnals (Valencia) WWTP and Molina de Segura (Murcia) WWTP have introduced landfill leachate of municipal solid waste (MSW) in the anaerobic digestion, resulting in an increase of the biogas production. the additions started with punctual discharges of small amounts of leachate, and later, the frequency and volume of the discharges increased depending on the results. (Author) 17 refs.

  16. A Randomized Effectiveness Trial of a Systems Level Approach to Stepped Care for War Related PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Investi- gators: Fort Bliss—Melissa Molina, MD, Stanley Harmon, RN, MSN, FNP ; Fort Bragg—Lillie Walker, MPAS, PA-C, Andrew Fletcher, MD, LTC, MC, Thurman...Saunders, MSN, FNP -C, MAJ, AN; Fort Campbell—Lisa Ford, LTC, AN, FNP -BC, Vlatka Plymale, DO, CPT, MC, Jason Dailey, MD, MAJ, MC; Fort Carson—Nicholas...Harmon, RN, MSN, FNP ; Fort Bragg - Lillie Walker, MPAS, PA-C, Andrew Fletcher, MD, LTC, MC, Thurman Saunders, MSN, FNP -C, MAJ, AN; Fort Campbell - Lisa

  17. La Cultura Musical de los Carnavales de Cádiz en la Educación Musical de los alumnos de 3er Ciclo de Primaria y Enseñanza Secundaria Obligatoria

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Ángel

    2000-01-01

    Se trata de la exposición resumida del Proyecto de Tesis Doctoral del mismo nombre, aprobado el 27 de abril de 1998, por la Comisión de Doctorado de la Universidad de Cádiz, y dirigido por la Dra. Dª Mª Angustias Ortiz Molina y el Dr. D. Félix Ángulo Rasco. Como Resumen de esta Comunicación, exponemos los Objetivos que se pretenden alcanzar con la realización de esta Tesis Doctoral: Objetivo Básico: Analizar comparativamente la interrelación que pueda existir entre la Cultura Musical del Carn...

  18. El contexto oral como aporte vital en la enseñanza de lectoescritura en la Unidad Educativa Intercultural Bilingüe Monseñor Leonidas Proaño de Riobamba

    OpenAIRE

    Illicachi Guzñay, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    La presente investigación analiza las actividades profesionales del proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje de la lectura y la escritura de los y las docentes pertenecientes a las Unidades Educativas Bilingües de Riobamba (Monseñor Leonidas Proaño, Escuela Alejo Sáez y, Unidad Educativa Hispana Mercedes de Jesús Molina); el plantel docente está conformado por maestros bilingües e hispanohablantes. Los y las estudiantes son pertenecientes a las comunidades indígenas. El propósito de esta investigac...

  19. Novidades taxonômicas em Maytenus (Celastraceae para a flora da Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Biral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available No decorrer dos estudos taxonômicos de Maytenus Molina desenvolvidos pelo autor para a América do Sul, novidades taxonômicas para a flora argentina são apresentadas. Essas novidades incluem três sinonimizações, cinco lectotipificações e um novo registro de ocorrência no país. Dessa forma objetiva-se atualizar as informações disponíveis sobre o presente táxon na Argentina.

  20. STRUCTURAL CAPITAL: DIAGNOSTIC ANALYSIS IN GROUPS OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (R&D) OF PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES IN COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Burmudez Rojo, Maribel Del Socorro; Pertuz Peralta, Vanessa Paola; Boscan Romero, Neida Coromoto

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the structural capital inside research and development groups (R & D) in public universities in Colombia. The study is mainly based on Sveiby (1997), (Snell et al, 1999), Obeso (1999), Teece (2000), Lev (2001), CIC (2003), Ordoñez (2004), Bontis (2004), Bueno (2005), Simó and Sallán (2008), Andriessen (2008), Alama (2008), Molina (2009), Paździor and Paździor (2012), Bratianu and Orzea (2013) and Bratianu (2014). They point out the intellectual capital a...

  1. Producción de tanasa de Aspergillus niger mediante un sistema de fermentación por adhesión a superficie (FAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés Avendaño, Paola Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Tecnología de Alimentos El presente trabajo de investigación tuvo como objetivo la producción de enzima tanasa a partir de Aspergillus niger ATCC 10864 mediante un sistema de Fermentación por Adhesión a Superfie (FAS), con las siguientes condiciones de cultivo: 40 ml de medio de cultivo; temperatura 28 °C; tiempo de incubación 96 horas; pH inicial 5.5; velocidad de agitación 175rpm. Se estudió tres concentraciones...

  2. Predicción de indicadores de generación de residuos sólidos de establecimientos de salud del MINSA [Ministerio de Salud] en Lima Metropolitana, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras Lima, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Ciencias Ambientales La presente investigación determinó modelos de predicción de composición de residuos sólidos de Establecimientos de Salud de categoría III pertenecientes al MINSA en Lima Metropolitana. Los modelos de predicción están en función al porcentaje en peso de residuos peligrosos generados diariamente, para lo cual se realizó estudios de caracterización a la totalidad de residuos generados durante 24 hor...

  3. Thermodynamics for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Kaufui Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition from Students: "It is a great thermodynamics text…I loved it!-Mathew Walters "The book is comprehensive and easy to understand. I love the real world examples and problems, they make you feel like you are learning something very practical."-Craig Paxton"I would recommend the book to friends."-Faure J. Malo-Molina"The clear diction, as well as informative illustrations and diagrams, help convey the material clearly to the reader."-Paul C. Start"An inspiring and effective tool for any aspiring scientist or engineer. Definitely the best book on Classical Thermodynamics out."-Seth Marini.

  4. Identificación de tubérculos andinos (Oxalis tuberosa, Ullucus tuberosus y Tropaeolum tuberosum) : mediante caracteres anatómicos y exomorfológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Melchiorre, Pedro

    1985-01-01

    p.141-153 Se determinan las diferencias morfológicas entre los tubérculos de oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina), ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus Loz.) y añu (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz et Pav.) provenientes del noroeste argentino (provincias de Salta y Jujuy). El estudio de su anatomía y su morfología externa reveló caracteres útiles para el reconocimiento de esas especies tanto a través de materiales actuales como arqueológicos. Se describen los caracteres aludidos y se presenta una clave para la dete...

  5. Evaluación de la calidad de servicio de centros deportivos privados. Influencia de la gestión en el bienestar de los usuarios

    OpenAIRE

    Molina García, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Titulo de tesis doctoral: Evaluación de la calidad de servicio de centros deportivos privados. Influencia de la gestión en el bienestar de los usuarios Presentada por: Dña. Nuria Molina García Dirigida por: Dr. D. Ferran Calabuig Moreno y Dr. D. Josep Crespo Hervàs TEMA: En tema o idea principal de este trabajo es conocer la realidad sobre la opinión de los usuarios de tres centros deportivos privados de la provincia de Alicante sobre dos temáticas principales, la calidad perci...

  6. Congreso www.derechotics.com 2010 De Miguel- Oltra Mesa 2

    OpenAIRE

    Cotino Hueso, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    La autorregulación europea de las redes sociales: análisis de las políticas de uso de la imagen de menores en España, por María de Miguel Molina, Profesora Contratada Doctora y Juan Vicente Oltra Gutiérrez, Profesor Titular de Escuela Universitaria, U. Politécnica de Valencia.Mesa 2: Control y responsabilidad en la redCongreso www.derechotics.com Valencia, 14-15 octubre 2010 Libertades informativas en internet: ejercicio, amenazas y garantías, Lorenzo Cotino (org.)

  7. Evaluación ecólogico - silvicultural y socio-económica de las plantaciones de caoba (Swietenia macrophylla King) en la comunidad indigena Sinchi Roca – Ucayali

    OpenAIRE

    Saavedra Muñoz, Luis Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Bosques y Gestión de Recursos Forestales Durante los años 2000 y 2001, el Ex Comité de Reforestación de Pucallpa estableció en la CC.II. Sinchi Roca un total de 720 ha de plantaciones forestales en fajas de enriquecimiento con la especie “caoba” Swietenia macrophylla, las mismas que estuvieron divididas en dos sectores, el sector Unihuaqui con 220 ha y el sector Guacamayo con 500 ha respectivamente, con el objeto de b...

  8. Valoración económica ambiental de los bofedales del distrito de Pilpichaca Huancavelica Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Crispin Cunya, Marianella

    2015-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Ciencias Ambientales Huancavelica forma parte del “El corredor Económico de los camélidos sudamericanos” junto a Apurimac y Ayacucho, donde hay presencia familias altoandinas con presencia de uno o varios NBI’s (Necesidades Básicas Insatisfechas) cuya principal actividad económica es la ganadería desarrollada en los bofedales. Los servicios ambientales propios de estos bofedales son el de provisión de agua y almacenam...

  9. Reserva de carbono en bofedales y su relación con la florística y condición del pastizal

    OpenAIRE

    León Tinoco, Angela Yenny

    2016-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Producción Animal Se evaluaron un total de 9 bofedales en las regiones de Ancash, Arequipa, Huancavelica y Puno a más de 3800 msnm durante la época de secano y de lluvia. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron: determinar la condición para pastoreo, evaluar la composición florística y estimar la cantidad de C así como la calidad de la materia orgánica almacenada en el suelo. La condición para pastoreo y la composición f...

  10. Cambios en el Esqueleto Facial, en las Relaciones Oclusales y Maxilomandibulares. Inducidos por la Distracción Osteogénica, en Microsomia Hemifacial.

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela E. Berrocal Revueltas

    2007-01-01

    La Distracción Osteogénica (DO) es el método más innovador, simple y racional, para el tratamiento de la microsomía hemifacial, descrito y analizado por Codivilla (1905), e Ilizarov (1954), y popularizado por Mc Carthy (1992); con importantes contribuciones de Ortiz Monasterio, Molina, Guerrero y Margaride, entre otros. La microsomía hemifacial, la segunda en frecuencia de todas las malformaciones craneofaciales, compromete diversas estructuras y órganos que afectan la calida...

  11. Seabed morphology and gas venting features in the continental slope region of KrishnaeGodavari basin, Bay of Bengal: Implications in gas–hydrate exploration

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.; Ramana, M.V.; Mazumdar, A.; Desa, M.; Badesab, F.K.

    ., Somoza, L., Diaz del Rio, V., Medialdea, T., Mata, M., León, R., 2007. Gas- related morphologies and diapirism in the Gulf of Cádiz. Geo-Marine Letters 27(2), 213--221. Gupta, S.K., 2006. Basin architecture and petroleum system of Krishna Godavari Basin....S., 1993. A study on generation of abnormal pressures in Krishna-Godavari basin. Indian Journal of Petroleum Geology 2, 20–30. Somoza, L., Diaz-del-Rio, V., León, R., Ivanov, M., Fernández-Puga, M., Gardner, J., Hernández-Molina, F., Pinheiro, L., Rodero...

  12. Caracterización y cuantificación del comportamiento reológico del hidrocoloide proveniente del nostoc (Nostoc sphaericum V.)

    OpenAIRE

    Roldán Carbajal, Williams Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Tecnología de Alimentos El Nostoc sphaericum V., alga andina peruana aún no ha sido industrializada siendo un recurso renovable, depositaria de numerosos lagos, manantiales y diversos ambientes acuáticos, su larga data de consumo indica una seguridad alimentaria como complemento nutricional económico. El objetivo de la investigación fue obtener y caracterizar el comportamiento reológico del hidrocoloide del alga (No...

  13. Caracterización y sosteniblidad de los sistemas agropecuarios tradicionales de Carhuaz, Ancash, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto Rodríguez, Juan Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Doctorado en Agricultura Sustentable Este trabajo se realizó con el objetivo general de (i) Caracterizar y determinar la sostenibilidad de los sistemas de producción agropecuaria tradicional de la provincia de Carhuaz, Ancash, Perú. Los objetivos específicos fueron (a) Describir la zona donde se ubican los sistemas de producción agropecuaria tradicional de Carhuaz, Ancash, Perú, (b) Caracterizar los sistemas de producción agropec...

  14. Evaluación de técnicas para la depuración de un agua residual no biodegradable procedente de la industria agroquímica

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Valle, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Proyecto Fin de Carrera leído en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos en el curso académico 2010/2011. Directores del Proyecto: Raúl Molina Gil y Mª Isabel Pariente Castilla El trabajo recogido en esta memoria forma parte de una línea de investigación desarrollada por el Grupo de Ingeniería Química y Ambiental de la Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnológicas de la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, sobre el tratamiento de aguas residuales. Esta investigación esta enmarcada den...

  15. Preparation and characterisation of quillaja saponin with less heterogeneity than Quil-A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Søren; San Martin, R.; Doberti, A.

    2000-01-01

    derived from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina, a tree of the rose family. A few different commercial sources exist, but due to the structural complexity and heterogeneity of these saponin preparations, it has been difficult to establish exactly which components are responsible for the adjuvant...... activity. By carefully selecting the bark source, live have succeeded in preparing a much less heterogeneous preparation of quillaja saponin. In this report we describe the preparation, in terms of structural complexity, hemolytic activity, adjuvant activity, and its ability to form ISCOM matrix. This new...

  16. Desarrollo de líneas mutantes dobles haploides de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.) mediante el cultivo "in vitro" de anteras y su evaluación en condiciones de campo

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Dávalos, Jorge Eduardo

    1999-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Mejoramiento Genético de Plantas La técnica de producción de Dobles Haploides (DH), está siendo utilizada en muchas áreas del mejoramiento genético y la investigación. Esta técnica proporciona dos ventajas importantes, la reducción del tiempo en el proceso de desarrollo de una variedad mejorada y permite mejorar la eficiencia de la selección. La homocigosidad de los individuos heterocigotas que ocurre en la primera ge...

  17. Genetic diversity and germplasm conservation of three minor Andean tuber crop species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malice M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional Andean agrosystems, three minor tuber crop species are of regional or local importance: oca (Oxalis tuberosa Molina, ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz and Pav.. Genetic diversity within these species is very large and could result from the high ecological and cultural variability that characterizes the Andean area. Nowadays, many anthropic or ecological factors cause the loss of diversity and contribute to genetic erosion. The development of conservation strategies for genetic resources of Andean tubers, in situ as well as ex situ, includes a better knowledge of diversity in addition to the study of Andean farming strategies linked to this genetic diversity.

  18. Visualization data on the freezing process of micrometer-scaled aqueous citric acid drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Bogdan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The visualization data (8 movies presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Freezing and glass transitions upon cooling and warming and ice/freeze-concentration-solution morphology of emulsified aqueous citric acid” (A. Bogdan, M.J. Molina, H. Tenhu, 2016 [1]. The movies recorded in-situ with optical cryo-miscroscopy (OC-M demonstrate for the first time freezing processes that occur during the cooling and subsequent warming of emulsified micrometer-scaled aqueous citric acid (CA drops. The movies are made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  19. Variación morfológica y molecular de la lúcuma (Pouteria lúcuma [R et. Pav] O. Kze) y su contribución al manejo sustentable de los huertos de Yaután y Laredo

    OpenAIRE

    Borbor Ponce, Miryam Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Doctorado en Agricultura Sustentable La lúcuma, fruta nativa del Perú y de alto potencial económico, fue estudiado en huertos familiares de los departamentos de La Libertad y Ancash por los siguientes objetivos: 1) Analizar la variabilidad del arboles promisorios 2) Determinar las estrategias de su producción 3) Describir su rol en la economía de los huertos familiares. Los agricultores seleccionaron 137 árboles en nueve huertos,...

  20. Sustentabilidad de la caficultura orgánica en La Convención Cusco

    OpenAIRE

    Marquez Romero, Fanny Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Doctorado en Agricultura Sustentable Con la finalidad de determinar la sustentabilidad de la caficultura orgánica en La Convención-Cusco se evaluó de forma comparativa la sostenibilidad de la producción de café arábico a nivel social, ambiental y económico del sistema orgánico y convencional, mediante indicadores estratégicos. La zona de estudio se encuentra en la ceja de selva del sur oeste del Perú. Se ha utilizado el método p...

  1. Capacidad comunicativa del sonido envolvente 5.1 en la producción publicitaria radiofónica en España

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Cid, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Tesis Doctoral leída en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos en julio de 2006. Directora de la Tesis: Clara Muela Molina The present Doctoral Thesis, along their five chapters, proposes in a theoretical and empirical way, a possible solution to the state of communicative crisis that suffers the current radio advertising production in Spain; it is analyzed the general state of the question, a study in depth is made of the technical-creative qualities of the system proposed (surrounding sound 5.1)...

  2. Utilización de proteina de soya y carragenina en salchichas tipo Huacho con bajo tenor graso

    OpenAIRE

    Salva Ruíz, Bettit Karim

    2008-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Tecnología de Alimentos El presente trabajo de investigación consistió en determinar la influencia de la sustitución de grasa por la adición de hidrocoloides (proteina texturizada de soya, carragenina, concentrado funcional de soya), pellejo de cerdo y combinaciones de estas en las características de la salchicha tipo Huacho. Se emplearon concentraciones de 20, 30, 40 y 50% de proteína texturizada de soya, para reduci...

  3. Habitat Preferences of the Grey Parrot in Heterogeneous Vegetation Landscapes and Their Conservation Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Tamungang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wild Grey Parrot Psittacus erithacus Linnaeus suffers from many habitat use challenges in the wake of extensive deforestation in its endemic range of West and Central African rainforests. To determine effects of these challenges on the bird species, seasonal densities of the Grey Parrot were determined using line transects in major heterogeneous vegetation types in the Korup Rainforest, south-western Cameroon. Results of the study highlight habitat preferences of this species on a seasonal base and under different situations of human activity intensity in the landscape. This information can be used to understand the causes of changes in the distribution and abundance of endangered species and also to determine sustainable conservation strategies. It is concluded that the parrot needs diverse vegetation types for survival in the wild state, as it depends on specific tree species for specific habitat resources such as food, roosts, security, and nests at specific periods of the year. Hence, the continuous survival of the Grey Parrot in the range states is not certain, if sustainable measures are not taken to conserve the parrot and its habitat resources both in and outside protected areas.

  4. Occurrence of Ornithonyssus sylviarum in pet birds from the district of Setúbal, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waap, Helga; Paulino, Diana; Cardoso, Rita

    2017-07-01

    Ornithonyssus sylviarum is a blood-feeding ectoparasite of birds and the most serious pest in poultry farms in North America. Although the mites are typically adapted to temperate climates, information on this mite in Europe is sparse, and Dermanyssus gallinae is considered to be the only mite impacting the poultry industry. The present study reports the occurrence of O. sylviarum in pet birds in Portugal. Mites were collected directly from birds and with traps placed in cages and nests at 20 different sampling places belonging to 6 municipalities in the district of Setúbal. In a total of 217 birds, O. sylviarum was identified in 47 out of 147 (32.0%) canaries (Serinus canaria), 14 out of 21 (14.3%) estrildid finches, 1 out of 24 (4.2%) budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and 1 out of 15 (6.7%) lovebirds (Agapornis spp.). Mites of the genus Dermanyssus were identified in 8 canaries (5.4%), 8 estrildid finches (38.1%) and 1 lovebird (6.7%). No mites were found in 6 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), 2 African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), 1 Bourke's parrot (Neophema bourkii) and 1 rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Considering the zoonotic potential and the risk of dissemination to poultry, the present findings underline the need for further monitoring of O. sylviarum in the wild and domestic avifauna in Portugal.

  5. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase concentrations in psittacine birds: reference values, factors of variation, and association with feather-damaging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosset, Claire; Bougerol, Christian; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David

    2014-03-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase is a glycoprotein enzyme used in the diagnosis of toxicosis by cholinesterase-inhibitor agents like organophosphates and carbamates. In animals, butyrylcholinesterase concentrations have been shown to vary depending on numerous factors such as age, sex, diet, and season of sampling. To establish reference values of plasma butyrylcholinesterase concentrations in common psittacine species, plasma butyrylcholinesterase concentrations were measured in 1942 companion psittacine birds. The birds were classified by age, sex, season, health status, and the presence of feather-damaging behavior. A significant difference was observed among species, with eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus) having the lowest and African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) having the highest reference values. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase concentrations varied by age, health status, and season but not by sex. Concentrations were significantly higher during autumn and spring than during winter and summer, and significantly lower in healthy birds than in sick birds. No significant association between butyrylcholinesterase concentrations and feather-damaging behavior could be established except in lovebirds (Agapornis species). Further research is needed to better understand the effect of nutritional and hormonal factors on butyrylcholinesterase concentrations in psittacine birds and its possible effect on bird cognition.

  6. PCR-based diagnosis, molecular characterization and detection of atypical strains of avian Chlamydia psittaci in companion and wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, S A; Peighambari, S M

    2013-02-01

    Chlamydiosis is one of the most important infectious diseases of birds. In this study, 253 clinical samples were taken from 27 bird species belonging to seven orders. Thirty-two (12.6%) samples were positive for Chlamydia psittaci major outer membrane gene (ompA) DNA by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twelve nested PCR-positive specimens were typed by ompA gene-based PCR-restricted fragment length polymorphism, using CTU/CTL primers and AluI restriction enzyme. Four restriction patterns were identified, including genotype A (two specimens from an African grey parrot [Psittacus erithacus] and a lorikeet [Trichoglossus haematodus]), genotype B (two specimens from a rock dove [Columbia livia] and a canary [Serinus canaria]), a third new restriction pattern (six specimens from African grey parrots), and a fourth new restriction pattern (two specimens from a ring-necked parakeet [Psittacula krameri] and an Alexandrine parakeet [Psittacula eupatria]). The third and the fourth restriction patterns are suggested to be provisional genotypes I and J, respectively. Partial sequencing of the ompA gene of seven specimens completely correlated with the results of PCR-restricted fragment length polymorphism and confirmed the presence of genotypes A and B and the two new provisional genotypes I and J. The two new genotypes have the closest identity with C. psittaci genotype F and Chlamydia abortus, respectively. From an evolutionary perspective, both new genotypes, particularly genotype J, are intermediate between the two species, C. psittaci and C. abortus.

  7. A new cryptic species of South American freshwater pufferfish of the genus Colomesus (Tetraodontidae, based on both morphology and DNA data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar R L Amaral

    Full Text Available The Tetraodontidae are an Acantomorpha fish family with circumglobal distribution composed of 189 species grouped in 19 genera, occurring in seas, estuaries, and rivers between the tropical and temperate regions. Of these, the genus Colomesus is confined to South America, with what have been up to now considered only two species. C. asellus is spread over the entire Amazon, Tocantins-Araguaia drainages, and coastal environments from the Amazon mouth to Venezuela, and is the only freshwater puffers on that continent. C. psittacus is found in coastal marine and brackish water environments from Cuba to the northern coast of South America as far south as to Sergipe in Brazil. In the present contribution we used morphological data along with molecular systematics techniques to investigate the phylogeny and phylogeography of the freshwater pufferfishes of the genus Colomesus. The molecular part is based on a cytochrome C oxidase subunit I dataset constructed from both previously published and newly determined sequences, obtained from specimens collected from three distinct localities in South America. Our results from both molecular and morphological approaches enable us to identify and describe a new Colomesus species from the Tocantins River. We also discuss aspects of the historical biogeography and phylogeography of the South American freshwater pufferfishes, suggesting that it could be more recent than previously expected.

  8. Are California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus Sensitive to the Attentional State of their Caretakers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Penel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human-animal relations appear in various contexts (homes, farms, zoos, aquatic parks, etc. possibly favoring the emergence of the ability to understand heterospecific communication signals in several species. Studies show that dogs (Canis familiaris have developed the ability to attribute attention to humans, reading their body, head and gaze cues. Horses (Equus caballus and other species including African gray parrots (Psittacus erithacus show this ability too. Here, we asked if California sea lions (Zalophus californianus can discriminate the attentional state of their caretakers. Four sea lions were tested in three increasingly complex experiments requiring them to make a choice between an attentive versus an inattentive caretaker. The first test asked whether sea lions could attribute attention to a human facing them versus facing away. In the second test, the caretaker’s head orientation towards the sea lion served as the attentional cue. In the final test, the inattentive caretaker wore dark sunglasses. The results were heterogeneous and showed a higher rate of success than failure in the test 1, but the opposite in test 2. The results in the test 3 were not significant. Furthermore, the latency measures suggested that the subjects did not understand the tasks. It therefore appears that in the situation used here sea lions mainly focused their attention on the experimenter’s body orientation; the head did not seem to be a pertinent cue.

  9. Do Birds Experience Sensory Pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cabanac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To answer the question of whether sensory pleasure exists in birds, I trained an African-gray parrot (Psittacus erythacus named Aristote to speak. Stage 1 of the study consisted in gaining Aristote's affection. In Stage 2 Aristote was taught to speak, following Irene Pepperberg's triangular method: another person and I would talk together and look at Aristote only when it used understandable French words. Thus Aristote learned to say a few words for obtaining toys or getting my attention; e.g. “donne bouchon” (give cork or “donne gratte” (give scratch/tickle, with the appropriate reward. In Stage 3, the word bon (good was added to the short list of words used by Aristote. I said “bon” when giving Aristote the stimuli it requested and which would, presumably, be pleasurable; e.g. gratte bon. Aristote started to use short sentences such as “yaourt bon” (good yogurt. Eventually, Aristote transferred the word bon to new stimuli such as raisin (grape, an association I myself had never made. Such a use of vocabulary, and moreover its transfer, likely shows that this bird experienced sensory pleasure.

  10. Carotenoid pigments and the selectivity of psittacofulvin-based coloration systems in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, K J; Nogare, M C

    2004-07-01

    Carotenoid pigments are commonly used as colorants of feathers and bare parts by birds. However, parrots (Aves: Psittaciformes) use a novel class of plumage pigments (called psittacofulvins) that, like carotenoids, are lipid-soluble and red, orange, or yellow in color. To begin to understand how and why parrots use these pigments and not carotenoids in their feathers, we must first describe the distribution of these two types of pigments in the diet, tissues, and fluids of these birds. Here, we studied the carotenoid content of blood in five species of parrots with red in their plumage to see if they show the physiological ability to accumulate carotenoids in the body. Although Scarlet (Ara macao) and Greenwing Macaws (Ara chloroptera) and Eclectus (Eclectus roratus), African Gray (Psittacus erithacus) and Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) Parrots all use psittacofulvins to color their feathers red, we found that they also circulated high concentrations of both dietary (lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin) and metabolically derived (anhydrolutein, dehydrolutein) carotenoids through blood at the time of feather growth, at levels comparable to those found in many other carotenoid-colored birds. These results suggest that parrots have the potential to use carotenoids for plumage pigmentation, but preferentially avoid depositing them in feathers, which is likely under the control of the maturing feather follicle. As there is no evidence of psittacofulvins in parrot blood at the tune of feather growth, we presume that these pigments are locally synthesized by growing feathers within the follicular tissue.

  11. Procesos de escritura en Beatus Ille (1986: primer estudio del “Archivo Personal de Antonio Muñoz Molina” (Arch. AMM/5/1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Valdivia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Beatus Ille (1986 fue la primera novela publicada de Antonio Muñoz Molina. En este artículo estudiamos, de manera pormenorizada, el contenido de la carpeta Arch. AMM/5/1 que se encuentra dentro del “Archivo Personal de Antonio Muñoz Molina” en la Biblioteca Nacional de España. Mediante el análisis de una importante cantidad de material inédito hemos reconstruido en este artículo los procesos de escritura sobre los que se levanta esta novela. En las siguientes páginas, explicamos el origen y el desarrollo de todo un conjunto de personajes, espacios, escenas y elementos fundamentales para la arquitectura narrativa de Beatus Ille. Gracias a este trabajo el lector especializado podrá comprender mejor algunas claves de lectura del conjunto de la producción de Muñoz Molina y, más concretamente, de la construcción ficcional de Beatus Ille.

  12. Stratospheric ozone - Impact of human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, Michael B.; Salawitch, Ross J.

    1989-01-01

    The current knowledge of the chemistry of the stratosphere is reviewed, with particular consideration given to the measurements from the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment and from the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. Analysis of the ATMOS data at 30 deg N suggests that the current understanding of the contemporary-stratosphere chemistry at mid-latitudes is relatively complete, except for possible problems with the diurnal variations of N2O5 at low altitudes, and with ClNO3 at higher altitudes. Except for some difficulties with these two compounds, the data from ATMOS agree well with the gas phase models for nitrogen and chlorine species at 30 deg N in spring. It is emphasized that, in addition to the HOCl mechanism proposed by Solomon et al. (1986), the ClO-BrO scheme proposed by McElroy et al. (1986), and the ClO dimer mechanism introduced by Molina and Molina (1987), other processes exist that are responsible for ozone removal.

  13. DO PENSAR HISTÓRICO Á NEGAÇÃO DO PÓS-TURISMO: Ensaio crítico sobre Pós-Turismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João dos Santos Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente ensaio propõe uma análise crítica do livro O Pós-Turismo, do mexicano Sergio Molina. Inicialmente, destacamos os métodos funcionalista, estruturalista e do materialismo histórico como instrumentos capazes de interpretar a realidade turística, mostrando seus avanços e limites, para, em seguida, discutir o conceito de pós-modernidade e o surgimento do sufixo “pós”. Assim, poderemos iniciar a discussão em torno do pós-turismo e explicitar o método utilizado por Molina para criar tal conceito e demonstrar como o mesmo contribui para o empobrecimento científico e acadêmico da teoria do Turismo, evidenciando que tal conceito aplica-se como uma construção voltada para o mercado e não para o saber turístico. Palavras-chave: Turismo. Teoria do Turismo. Pós-Turismo. Funcionalismo. Neoliberalismo. 

  14. Inhibitory action of some essential oils and phytochemicals on the growth of various moulds isolated from foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Leite de Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity profile of mould strains isolated from foods to some essential oils and phytochemicals. The assayed mould strains were: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium spp. According to results, Lippia alba N.E. Brown, Peumus boldus Molina, Lippia microphylla Phil., Citrus limon Risso and Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. essential oil and the phytochemicals citral, eugenol and mircene showed prominent antimould activity. Among the products that evidenced antimould activity, citral and eugenol showed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations, which was 1% and 4%, respectively, for the most of the tested mould strains.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil de sensibilidade de cepas de fungos filamentosos isolados de alimento a alguns óleos essenciais e fitoconstituintes. As cepas fúngicas utilizadas nos ensaios antimicrobianos foram: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger e Penicillium spp. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os óleos essenciais de L. Alba N.R. Brown, P. boldus Molina, L. microphylla Phill, C. limon Risso e C. citratus Stapf. e os fitoconstituintes citral, eugenol e mirceno mostraram destacada atividade antifúngica. Dentre os produtos que apresentaram atividade antifúngica, o citral e eugenol mostraram as menores CIM's, as quais foram 1% e 4%, respectivamente, para a maioria das cepas fúngicas testadas.

  15. Ámbar en la Meseta Oriental durante el Bronce Final: yacimientos locales e importaciones bálticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Cerdeño, M.ª

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the analysis done with two amber beads coming of the cemetery of Herrería II (Molina de Aragón, Guadalajara; it is dated in Late Bronze Age, preceding the Celtiberian period. The Baltic origin of the raw material has been confirmed by the analysis and this origin provides the evidence that continental cultural influences arrived to the meseta during mentioned period.

    En el presente trabajo se dan a conocer los resultados de los análisis de espectroscopía infrarroja realizados a dos cuentas de ámbar procedentes de la fase II de la necrópolis de Herrería (Molina de Aragón, Guadalajara, fechada a finales del Bronce Final y precedente inmediato de la primera fase celtibérica de dicho cementerio. Los resultados confirman la procedencia báltica de esta materia prima. Ello la convierte en una nueva evidencia +de la llegada de elementos continentales hasta la Meseta oriental, donde dicho substrato cultural desempeñó un papel importante en la gestación de los posteriores pueblos prerromanos.

  16. 2 obras de Barba Corsini, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barba Corsini, F. J.

    1969-02-01

    Full Text Available Chalet at Vallvidrera This is a beautiful house, specially adapted to the requirements of the owners (a couple with three children and servants. It has three storeys, facing the mountains. Since the location of this house is close to Barcelona, on the southwest slopes of the Tibidabo mountain, it has been selected by many Barcelona families as their permanent residence. Apartments building at La Molina This building in the Alpine style is well and flexibly adapted to the mountain slope. It has eleven storeys within four separate blocks at different levels, which, together with the internal fitting and design, make this a most exclusive and singular mountain hotel.Chalet en Vallvidrera Se trata de una bonita residencia, perfectamente adaptada a sus usuarios —un matrimonio con tres hijos y servicio—, distribuida en tres plantas y mirando hacia la montaña. Dada la proximidad a Barcelona del pequeño pueblo, situado en la ladera suroeste del Tibidabo, muchos barceloneses lo han elegido para residencia permanente. Edificio de apartamentos en La Molina Esta construcción, de un gran carácter alpino, se adapta flexiblemente al ritmo de la pendiente, con sus once plantas retrocediendo según lo imponen las características de la montaña y con cuatro cuerpos de diferentes alturas; todo lo cual, unido al tratamiento interior y a todas las comodidades de que se dispone, confieren al conjunto una categoría exclusiva y singular.

  17. A novel papillomavirus in Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) faeces sampled at the Cape Crozier colony, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsani, Arvind; Kraberger, Simona; Jennings, Scott; Porzig, Elizabeth L; Julian, Laurel; Massaro, Melanie; Pollard, Annie; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G

    2014-06-01

    Papillomaviruses are epitheliotropic viruses that have circular dsDNA genomes encapsidated in non-enveloped virions. They have been found to infect a variety of mammals, reptiles and birds, but so far they have not been found in amphibians. Using a next-generation sequencing de novo assembly contig-informed recovery, we cloned and Sanger sequenced the complete genome of a novel papillomavirus from the faecal matter of Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) nesting on Ross Island, Antarctica. The genome had all the usual features of a papillomavirus and an E9 ORF encoding a protein of unknown function that is found in all avian papillomaviruses to date. This novel papillomavirus genome shared ~60 % pairwise identity with the genomes of the other three known avian papillomaviruses: Fringilla coelebs papillomavirus 1 (FcPV1), Francolinus leucoscepus papillomavirus 1 (FlPV1) and Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus 1. Pairwise identity analysis and phylogenetic analysis of the major capsid protein gene clearly indicated that it represents a novel species, which we named Pygoscelis adeliae papillomavirus 1 (PaCV1). No evidence of recombination was detected in the genome of PaCV1, but we did detect a recombinant region (119 nt) in the E6 gene of FlPV1 with the recombinant region being derived from ancestral FcPV1-like sequences. Previously only paramyxoviruses, orthomyxoviruses and avian pox viruses have been genetically identified in penguins; however, the majority of penguin viral identifications have been based on serology or histology. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of a papillomavirus associated with a penguin species. © 2014 The Authors.

  18. Psittacid herpesviruses associated with mucosal papillomas in neotropical parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Darrel K; Tomaszewski, Elizabeth K; Jaeger, Laurie A; Phalen, David N

    2004-07-20

    Mucosal papillomas are relatively common lesions in several species of captive neotropical parrots. They cause considerable morbidity and in some cases, result in mortality. Previous efforts to identify papillomavirus DNA and proteins in these lesions have been largely unsuccessful. In contrast, increasing evidence suggests that mucosal papillomas may contain psittacid herpesviruses (PsHVs). In this study, 41 papillomas from 30 neotropical parrots were examined by PCR with PsHV-specific primers. All 41 papillomas were found to contain PsHV DNA. This 100% prevalence of PsHV infection in the papilloma population was found to be significantly higher than PsHV infection prevalence observed in other surveys of captive parrots. PsHV genotypes 1, 2, and 3, but not 4 were found in these lesions. Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus DNA and finch papillomavirus DNA were not found in the papillomas. A papilloma from a hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) was found to contain cells that had immunoreactivity to antiserum made to the common antigenic region of human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 major capsid protein. However, four other mucosal papillomas were negative for this immunoreactivity, and negative control tissues from a parrot embryo showed a similar staining pattern to that seen in the cloaca papilloma of the hyacinth macaw, strongly suggesting that the staining seen in hyacinth macaw papilloma was nonspecific. Based on these findings, it was concluded that specific genotypes of PsHV play a direct role in the development of mucosal papillomas of neotropical parrots and there is no evidence to suggest the concurrent presence of a papillomavirus in these lesions.

  19. A new species of Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes, Characidae) from the upper Guaviare River, Orinoco River Basin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alzate, Carlos A; Urbano-Bonilla, Alexander; Taphorn, Donald C

    2017-01-01

    Hyphessobrycon klausanni sp. n. is described from small drainages of the upper Guaviare River (Orinoco River Basin) in Colombia. It differs from all congeners by having a wide, conspicuous, dark lateral stripe extending from the anterior margin of the eye across the body and continued through the middle caudal-fin rays, and that covers (vertically) three or four horizontal scale rows. It also differs by having an orange-yellow stripe extending from the anterosuperior margin of the eye to the caudal peduncle above the lateral line in life. It differs from all other species of Hyphessobrycon that have a similar dark lateral stripe: H. cyanotaenia , H. loretoensis , H. melanostichos , H. nigricinctus , H. herbertaxelrodi , H. eschwartzae , H. montogoi , H. psittacus , H. metae , H. margitae , H. vanzolinii , and H. peruvianus in having only three or four pored scales in the lateral line, 21 to 24 lateral scales and six teeth in the inner premaxillary row. Hyphessobrycon klausanni differs from H. loretoensis in having seven to eight maxillary teeth (vs. three to four) and in having a longer caudal peduncle (12.4-17.0% SL vs. 4.6-8.0% SL). Additionally Hyphessobrycon klausanni can be distinguished from the other species of Hyphessobrycon with a dark lateral stripe from the Orinoco River Basin ( H. metae and H. acaciae ) in having two teeth in the outer premaxillary row (vs. three to four) and 10 branched pectoral-fin rays (vs. 11 to 12). It further differs from H. metae by the length of the snout (17.6-22.8% HL vs. 9.9-15.2% HL) and by the length of the caudal peduncle (12.4-17.0% SL vs. 7.3-11.8% SL).

  20. A new species of Hyphessobrycon (Characiformes, Characidae from the upper Guaviare River, Orinoco River Basin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. García-Alzate

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyphessobrycon klausanni sp. n. is described from small drainages of the upper Guaviare River (Orinoco River Basin in Colombia. It differs from all congeners by having a wide, conspicuous, dark lateral stripe extending from the anterior margin of the eye across the body and continued through the middle caudal-fin rays, and that covers (vertically three or four horizontal scale rows. It also differs by having an orange-yellow stripe extending from the anterosuperior margin of the eye to the caudal peduncle above the lateral line in life. It differs from all other species of Hyphessobrycon that have a similar dark lateral stripe: H. cyanotaenia, H. loretoensis, H. melanostichos, H. nigricinctus, H. herbertaxelrodi, H. eschwartzae, H. montogoi, H. psittacus, H. metae, H. margitae, H. vanzolinii, and H. peruvianus in having only three or four pored scales in the lateral line, 21 to 24 lateral scales and six teeth in the inner premaxillary row. Hyphessobrycon klausanni differs from H. loretoensis in having seven to eight maxillary teeth (vs. three to four and in having a longer caudal peduncle (12.4–17.0% SL vs. 4.6–8.0% SL. Additionally Hyphessobrycon klausanni can be distinguished from the other species of Hyphessobrycon with a dark lateral stripe from the Orinoco River Basin (H. metae and H. acaciae in having two teeth in the outer premaxillary row (vs. three to four and 10 branched pectoral–fin rays (vs. 11 to 12. It further differs from H. metae by the length of the snout (17.6–22.8% HL vs. 9.9–15.2% HL and by the length of the caudal peduncle (12.4–17.0% SL vs. 7.3–11.8% SL.

  1. Effects of mydriatic agents in cockatoos, African gray parrots, and Blue-fronted Amazon parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, J C; Paul-Murphy, J; Brunson, D; Murphy, C J

    1996-01-15

    To compare, in psittacines, the mydriatic effects of several topically applied curariform, sympathomimetic, and parasympatholytic drugs with and without the addition of surface-acting penetrating agents. Prospective, randomized controlled trial. 10 adult cockatoos (Cacatua sulphurea subspecies), 2 adult African gray parrots (Psittacus erithacus), and 3 adult Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). Three curariform drugs (d-tubocurarine, pancuronium, and vecuronium bromide) and 2 autonomic drugs (atropine and phenylephrine hydrochloride) were evaluated. Drugs were tested with and without the addition of a surface-acting penetrating agent, either saponin or benzalkonium chloride. The agent that resulted in the most significant change in pupillary diameter with the fewest systemic side effects in the cockatoos then was evaluated for its effects in the African gray parrots and the Blue-fronted Amazon parrots. During each drug trial, 1 eye was randomly selected to receive the control drug (0.9% NaCl), and the opposite eye was selected to receive the test drug. Each pupil was videotaped 5 (cockatoos only), 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 minutes after treatment. Pupil diameters were measured by use of a computerized image analysis system. Data for pupil size were analyzed by means of repeated measures ANOVA. Vecuronium without the addition of a surface-acting penetrating agent produced the most consistent and greatest pupillary dilatation in all 3 species with the fewest systemic side effects. Vecuronium is potentially a clinically useful, topical mydriatic agent for use in avian species. Documented differences in the prevalence of systemic side effects between species suggests that caution should be applied when applying this drug bilaterally.

  2. Multimedia Content Development as a Facial Expression Datasets for Recognition of Human Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamonto, N. E.; Maulana, H.; Liliana, D. Y.; Basaruddin, T.

    2018-02-01

    Datasets that have been developed before contain facial expression from foreign people. The development of multimedia content aims to answer the problems experienced by the research team and other researchers who will conduct similar research. The method used in the development of multimedia content as facial expression datasets for human emotion recognition is the Villamil-Molina version of the multimedia development method. Multimedia content developed with 10 subjects or talents with each talent performing 3 shots with each capturing talent having to demonstrate 19 facial expressions. After the process of editing and rendering, tests are carried out with the conclusion that the multimedia content can be used as a facial expression dataset for recognition of human emotions.

  3. Plant location and extraction procedure strongly alter the antimicrobial activity of murta extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, Carolina; Reyes, Agnes K.; Villarroel, Mario

    2009-01-01

    in extracting polyphenols, showing pure solvents-both water and ethanol-a lower extraction capacity. No correlation between antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content was found. Extracts from Murta leaves provoked a decrease in the growing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus......Leaves and fruits of Murta (Ugni Molinae Turcz.) growing in three locations of Chile with diverse climatic conditions were extracted by using ethanol/water mixtures at different ratios and the antimicrobial activity was assessed. Extracts containing the highest polyphenolic content were from murta...... plants grown nearer to the mountain (58 mg GAE/g murta), subjected to extreme summer/winter-day/night temperature changes and rainy regime. Extracts from leaves collected in the valley and coast contained 46 and 40 mg GAE/g murta, respectively. A mixture of 50% ethanol/water was the most efficient...

  4. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yihe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Results Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Conclusions Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model.

  5. Efecto de diferentes niveles de úrea y melaza sobre la digestibilidad in vitro del cogollo fresco de caña de azúcar Saccharum officinarum L.

    OpenAIRE

    González Gonzales, Haydeé Rufina María

    2013-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Nutrición En el presente estudio se evaluó el efecto e interacción de tres factores, urea (X1), melaza (X2) y cogollo fresco de caña de azúcar .de la variedad PCGl2-745 (X3) sobre la digestibilidad in vitro del cogollo fresco de caña de azúcar, mediante el modelo estadístico diseño central rotable de segundo orden. Las proporciones de urea y melaza de los tratamientos fueron designadas por el diseño en rel...

  6. La propuesta de un nuevo concepto de lo humano en El beso de la mujer araña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ruiz Luna

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende demostrar que en la novela El beso de la mujer araña (1976, del argentino Manuel Puig, se muestra simbólicamente la desigual relación entre la mujer y el hombre en la androcéntrica sociedad latinoamericana contemporánea, y cómo esa relación de dominio que deshumaniza a ambos elementos, puede llegar a convertirse en una relación de igualdad. Los personajes centrales de la novela, Luis Molina y Valentín Arregui, prueban que el camino para esa nueva humanidad debe pasar por una educación liberadora y una práctica consecuente.

  7. Tratamiento de aguas residuales industriales mediante un sistema continuo sono-fenton

    OpenAIRE

    Peso Hernández, Gonzalo L. del

    2008-01-01

    Proyecto Fin de Carrera leído en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos en el curso académico 2008/2009. Tutores del Proyecto: Mª Isabel Pariente Castilla y Raúl Molina Gil Este trabajo forma parte de la línea de investigación de ¿Tratamientos Avanzados de Depuración de Aguas Residuales¿ desarrollada por el grupo de Ingeniería Química y Ambiental de la Escuela Superior de Ciencias Experimentales y Tecnología (E.S.C.E.T.) de la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, en la que se estudia la aplicació...

  8. Reviews of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Mieke Bal. The Mottled Screen: Reading Proust Visually by Beryl Schlossman Anny Brooksbank Jones and Catherine Davies, eds. Latin American Women's Writing: Feminist Readings in Theory and Crisis by Rosemary Geisdorfer Feal Tomasa Cuevas. Prison of Women: Testimonies of War and Resistance in Spain, 1939-1975 by Yolanda Molina Gavilán David William Foster. Buenos Aires: Perspectives on the City and Cultural Production by Gustavo Geirola Belinda Jack. Francophone Literatures: An Introductory Survey by Claire L. Dehon Marx-Scouras, Danielle. The Cultural Politics of Tel Quel: Literature and the Left in the Wake of Engagement by Diane Fourny Jeffrey Mehlman. Genealogies of the Text: Literature, Psychoanalysis, and Politics in Modern France by Florence Martin Nancy Shawcross. Roland Barthes on Photography. by Philip Hadlock Lewis W. Tusken. Understanding Hermann Hesse: The Man, His Myth, His Metaphors by Theodore Ziolkowski

  9. Influence of agroclimatic parameters on phenolic and volatile compounds of Chilean virgin olive oils and characterization based on geographical origin, cultivar and ripening stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Nalda; Saavedra, Jorge; Tapia, Francisco; Sepúlveda, Betsabet; Aparicio, Ramón

    2016-01-30

    This study involved two commercial orchards located in Limarí Valley and Molina from two important Chilean production zones of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). The investigation evaluated the effects of climate, soil composition, agricultural practices (fertilization and irrigation) and variety (considering two harvests) on the compounds responsible for the flavor of EVOO (volatiles and phenols) and how these compounds can explain the differences in chemical profiles by geographical origin, cultivar and fruit ripeness stage. Varieties from the Limarí Valley presented the highest content of phenolic compounds. A significant relationship (P Chilean regions have much more influence than cultivars on the concentration of sensory quality compounds. Difference in latitude between orchards increases the importance of the geographical origin on the virgin olive oil chemical composition while full irrigation decreases the impact of the cultivar. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Gramáticas de la memoria. Variaciones en torno a la transición española en cuatro novelas recientes (1985-2000: Luna de lobos, Beatus ille, Corazón tan blanco y La caída de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel López de Abiada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos proponemos abordar aspectos relacionados con la memoria histórica en novelas recientes de cuatro autores españoles significativos para considerarlas y analizarlas desde criterios consustanciales a la transición española. Las obras elegidas son Luna de lobos (de Julio Llamazares, Beatus ille (de Antonio Muñoz Molina, Corazón tan blanco (de Javier Marías y La caída de Madrid (de Rafael Chirbes. No se nos escapa la ausencia de novelas de autores de la envergadura y el significado de Juan Marsé, Manuel Vázquez Montalbán, Juan Iturralde, José Luis Cebrián o Juan Eduardo Zúñiga.

  11. Eficiencia económica y canales de comercialización de productores de quinua del Distrito de San Jerónimo en la Región Apurímac

    OpenAIRE

    Taipe Cancho, Mario Humberto

    2017-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Economía Agrícola Se evalúa la eficiencia económica y los canales de comercialización empleados por los productores de quinua del Distrito de San Jerónimo – Apurímac. La data se obtuvo por encuesta a 30 productores de quinua y kiwicha de la asociación “Grano de Oro” durante la campaña agrícola 2009 - 2010. Las variables en estudio fueron los rendimientos de la producción de quinua, los factores de la producción y los ...

  12. Consideraciones taxonómicas en especies de Senecio de Argentina Taxonomic considerations on Argentine species of Senecio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto D. Tortosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se incluyen algunas especies de Senecio de Argentina, reconocidas hasta el presente como especies válidas, en la sinonimia de otras: S. francisci Phil. en S. polygaloides Phil.; S. gymnocaulos Phil. en S. kingii Hook. f.; S. molinae Phil. en S. glaber Less.; S. mustersii Speg. y su var. dentatus Cabrera en S. subumbellatus Phil. Senecio microcephalus Phil. y su var. angustifolius Cabrera son consideradas una variedad de S. subumbellatus y S. schreiteri Cabrera una variedad de S. leucostachys Baker. No se acepta la validez de las variedades Senecio gilliesii Hook. et Arn. var. dasycarpus Cabrera, S. glaber Less. var. pratensis (Phil. Cabrera, S. gnidioides Phil. var. gilvus (Phil. Cabrera, S. kingii Hook. f. var. paradoxus (Albov ex Kurtz Cabrera, S. leucomallus A. Gray var. incisus A. Gray, S. linariifolius Poepp. ex DC. var. heliophytoides (Phil. Reiche y var. subtomentosus Cabrera y de la forma S. perezii Cabrera fo. integerrimus Cabrera.

  13. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB congener concentrations in aquatic birds. Case study: Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALDO PACHECO FERREIRA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Livers from 108 birds found prostrate or dead in Ilha Grande Bay between 2005 and 2010 were analyzed for 16 PCB congeners (IUPAC numbers 8, 18, 28, 31, 52, 77, 101, 118, 126, 128, 138, 149, 153, 169, 170, and 180. The species analyzed were Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus 1758, Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus 1758, Egretta thula (Molina 1782, and Ardea cocoi (Linnaeus 1766. The analysis were performed using Origin software (7.5, 2004 with a significant level of p<0.05. Data were checked for adherence to the standard assumptions of parametric tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality and the Levene's test for homogeneity of variances. This has revealed differences in concentration for some congeners. Results indicate relatively low PCBs contamination in aquatic birds, but it is implied the close relationship of environmental contamination, showing potential power of widespread biological and mutagenic adverse effects in trophic levels, and therefore, signalling risk to human health.

  14. Nociones didácticas sobre oralidad y escritura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Soto Vázquez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Reseña de la obra. Mª de los Ángeles Jiménez Jiménez, María José Molina Rico, Ana María Rico Martín, Ana María Ramos García y José Rienda Polo (Grupo de investigación Hacia una sociedad del conocimiento y la información: divulgación pública del conocimiento en la Ciudad Autónoma de Melilla. Nociones didácticas sobre oralidad y escritura. Grupo Editorial Universitario. Melilla. 2008. 138 págs. ISBN: 978-84-8491-896-7.

  15. Hemoglobin affinity in Andean rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRVOJ OSTOJIC

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood hemoglobin oxygen affinity (P50 was measured in three Andean species and in the laboratory rat (control, all raised near sea level. Chinchilla lanigera (Molina, 1792 has an altitudinal habitat range from low Andean slopes up to 3000 m., while Chinchilla brevicaudata (Waterhouse, 1848 has an altitudinal range from 3000 to 5000 m. The laboratory type guinea pig, wild type guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, (Waterhouse, 1748, and laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus were also raised at sea level. The Andean species had high hemoglobin oxygen affinities (low P50 compared with the rat. Chinchilla brevicaudata had a higher affinity than Chinchilla lanigera. The wild type guinea pig had a higher affinity than the laboratory type. As has been shown in other species, this is another example of an inverse correlation between the altitude level and the P50 values. This is the first hemoglobin oxygen affinity study in Chinchilla brevicaudata.

  16. Impacto económico del sector cerámico en San José de Cúcuta (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Milena Mogrovejo Andrade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tuvo como finalidad determinar el impacto económico de las empresas del sector cerámico en la ciudad de San José Cúcuta (Colombia en el periodo 2008-2011. Se utilizó como instrumento un cuestionario estructurado aplicado a los empresarios del sector. Igualmente, se efectuaron entrevistas a directivos de organizaciones gremiales. El impacto económico se analizó siguiendo la metodología propuesta por Soto y Bergoeing (1998, Arbeláez y Sandoval (2006 y Molina, Coronado y Rivera (2008. Se concluye que este sector, en el periodo estudiado, presentó gran impacto económico, en particular en lo relativo al nivel de empleo, el aporte en impuestos al municipio, el consumo intermedio y el valor agregado.

  17. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Results Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Conclusions Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model. PMID:22540986

  18. Breeding of the plain-mantled tit-spintail (Leptasthenura aegithaloides in a variable hawk (Geranoaetus polyosoma nest in the Atacama Desert, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrich Cerpa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A strategy to avoid nest predation by various bird species is the selection of inaccessible sites or sites of actual danger for potential predators. In this sense nesting near a top predator may be an effective strategy to avoid nest predation, if this predator does not have a preference for eggs or nestlings of the first species. This note reports the first record of nesting by Plain-mantled Tit-Spinetail (Leptasthenura aegithaloides Kittlitz, 1830 in an active nest of the variable Hawk (Geranoaetus polyosoma Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 and the nesting of the common diuca-finch (Diuca diuca Molina, 1782 nearby, during two consecutive years, in the Atacama Desert, Chile. This occurred during the “flowering desert” phenomenon in October of 2014 and September of 2015. We discuss hypotheses that may explain this biological association and its possible ecological implications.

  19. Fuentes y dosis de nitrógeno en la productividad del maíz amarillo duro bajo dos sistemas de siembra

    OpenAIRE

    Sotomayor Alvarez, Raúl; Escuela de Post Grado, Especialidad de Producción Agrícola, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Apartado postal 12-056 – La Molina, Lima, Perú.; Chura Chuquija, Julián; Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Apartado postal 12-056 – La Molina, Lima, Perú.; Calderón Mendoza, Constantino; Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Apartado postal 12-056 – La Molina, Lima, Perú.; Sevilla Panizo, Ricardo; Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Apartado postal 12-056 – La Molina, Lima, Perú.; Blas Sevillano, Raúl; Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Apartado postal 12-056 – La Molina, Lima, Perú.

    2017-01-01

    Dado que el nitrógeno es el nutriente más importante para alcanzar altos rendimientos del cultivo de maíz, en el Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria-INIA (La Molina, Lima, Perú), se investigó la respuesta del cultivo de maíz amarillo duro a la fertilización nitrogenada con dos fuentes de insumo nitrogenado (sintético y orgánico) y con dos sistemas de siembra con riego por goteo en un suelo de textura franco arenoso, pH ligeramente alcalino y bajo en materia orgánica. Los tratamientos se ...

  20. How Do We See Art: An Eye-Tracker Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian; Pedreira, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We describe the pattern of fixations of subjects looking at figurative and abstract paintings from different artists (Molina, Mondrian, Rembrandt, della Francesca) and at modified versions in which different aspects of these art pieces were altered with simple digital manipulations. We show that the fixations of the subjects followed some general common principles (e.g., being attracted to saliency regions) but with a large variability for the figurative paintings, according to the subject’s personal appreciation and knowledge. In particular, we found different gazing patterns depending on whether the subject saw the original or the modified version of the painting first. We conclude that the study of gazing patterns obtained by using the eye-tracker technology gives a useful approach to quantify how subjects observe art. PMID:21941476

  1. Antimonumentos: trabalho de memória e de resistência

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    Márcio Seligmann-Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este ensaio apresenta uma reflexão sobre o fenômeno dos "antimonumentos" que surgiram no final do século XX como uma forma de lidar, pelo viés das artes, com a violência de Estado, como nos casos do nazismo e das ditaduras latino-americanas. Este texto faz inicialmente uma retomada da mnemotécnica, ou seja, da antiga "arte da memória", que tem como seu pai mítico Simônides de Ceos, para em seguida apresentar a cena moderna da "arte da memória" sob a rubrica dos antimonumentos. O trabalho apresenta e discute obras de, entre outros artistas, Jochen Gerz, Horst Hoheisel, Andreas Knitz, Marcelo Brodsky e Fulvia Molina.

  2. Fluctuations of Mediterranean outflow water circulation in the Gulf of Cadiz during MIS 5 to 7: Evidence from benthic foraminiferal assemblage and stable isotope records

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, A.D.; Rai, A.K.; Tiwari, M.; Naidu, P.D.; Verma, K.; Chaturvedi, M.; Niyogi, A.; Pandey, D.

    and Howe, 1979a, b). On entering the Gulf of Cadiz, MOW mixes rapidly with ambient NACW (Ambar and Howe, 1979a, b). The buoyancy of MOW being warm and high saline is not in equilibrium with the ambient NACW and it is held upwards by Coriolis force... Electronica, 4(1), 1-9. Hernández-Molina, F.J., Llave, E., Somoza, L., Fernández-Puga, M.C., Maestro, A., León, R., Medialdea, T., Barnolas, A., Garcia, M., Diaz del Rio, V., Fernández-Salas, L.M., Vázquez, J.T., Lobo, F., Alveirinho Dias, J.M., Rodero, J...

  3. "The great night of Europe is shot through with long, sinister trains"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Lasse-Emil

    2015-01-01

    of the millennium such a notion is constantly being challenged by global and transnational influences that affect and reshape the local memory discourse(s). The following article aims to show how the novel Sepharad by the Spanish author Antonio Muñoz Molina could be read as a literary manifestation...... of a “multidirectional memory”, in which different memory scenarios in dialogue inscribe the memory of the Spanish Civil War and the subsequent dictatorship into a common European memory context. In this sense, the novel can be read as a paradigmatic example of a transnational memory discourse, which tries to transcend......Since 1975 Spain has been engaged in the recuperation of the memory of the Francoist past. For a long time, under the headline “Spain is different”, the public debate has reflected a view of the Spanish experience as a particular event tied to the nation state. However, since the turn...

  4. Sefarad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Lasse-Emil

    2014-01-01

    is at stake is really a change of form in the memory debate. Drawing on theories from Astrid Erll (2011) and Michael Rothberg (2009), the article aims to show how the novel Sefarad by the Spanish author Antonio Muñoz Molina could be read as a literary manifestation of a multidirectional memory, in which......Since 1975 Spain has been engaged in the recuperation of the memory of the past. Yet there seems to be an agreement that it is only over the course of the last ten years that an open and genuine debate has started. The purpose of this article is to re-think the argument, stating that what...... different memory scenarios in dialogue inscribe the memory of the Spanish Civil War and the subsequent dictatorship into a common European memory context. Moreover, the article argues that Sefarad positions itself as a paradigmatic example of a global cosmopolitan memory discourse which tries to transcend...

  5. Raceways-based production of algal crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisti, Yusuf [Massey Univ., Palmerston North (New Zealand). School of Engineering

    2013-11-01

    Raceway ponds, or 'high-rate algal ponds', of various configurations have been used to treat wastewater since the 1950s. They are also known as Oswald ponds after their inventor W. J. Oswald. Large-scale outdoor culture of microalgae and cyanobacteria in raceways is well established (Terry and Raymond 1985; Oswald 1988; Borowitzka and Borowitzka 1989; Becker 1994; Lee 1997; Molina Grima 1999; Pulz 2001; Borowitzka 2005; Spolaore et al. 2006). Raceway culture is used commercially in the United States, Thailand, China, Israel and elsewhere, mostly to produce algae for relatively high-value applications. This chapter is focused on raceways typically used in the production of algal biomass and not in the treatment of wastewater. The engineering design, operation and performance characteristics of raceways are discussed. The biomass productivity of the raceways is assessed in relation to limits imposed by algal biology. The economics of algal oil production in raceways are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Las especies del género Gyropus Nitzsch, 1818 (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae parásitas de Octodontidae (Mammalia: Rodentia The species of the genus Gyropus Nitzch, 1818 (Phthiraptera: Gyropidae parasitic on the Octodontidae (Mammalia: Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOLORES DEL CARMEN CASTRO

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene por finalidad otorgar status específico pleno a la subespecie Gyropus parvus elongatus Castro, Cicchino & Torres-Mura, 1987, describir la nueva especie Gyropus distinctus a partir de materiales recolectados sobre Octodon degus (Molina, 1782 y Octodon lunatus Osgood, 1943 procedentes del centro de Chile y, finalmente, ofrecer un análisis de las posibles razones de la distribución geográfica y del rango de hospedadores conocidos para estas tres especiesThe purpose of this paper is to give full specific status to the subspecies Gyropus parvus elongatus Castro, Cicchino & Torres-Mura, 1987, to describe the new species Gyropus distinctus collected in Octodon degus and O. lunatus from central Chile, along with an analysis of the possible causes than could explain their geographic and host range distributions known to date for these three species

  7. Aplicación del análisis de regresión para el estudio de las pymes productivas españolas que obtienen informes motivados vinculantes de proyectos de I+D+i

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Molina, Ana Isabel; Díaz García, Pablo; Gisbert Soler, Víctor

    2017-01-01

    [ES] Se busca la creación de relaciones complejas entre los diversos aspectos de las pymes productivas españolas que realizan proyectos de I+D+i, consiguiéndose por lo tanto, modelos basados en rectas de regresión capaces de asistir a las empresas españolas hacia conseguir incluir la I+D+i en su estrategia empresarial. Pérez Molina, AI.; Díaz García, P.; Gisbert Soler, V. (2017). Aplicación del análisis de regresión para el estudio de las pymes productivas españolas que obtienen informes ...

  8. Triterpenoid saponins from Quillaja saponaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, S; Kenne, L; Lundgren, L N; Rönnberg, B; Sundquist, B G

    1998-05-01

    Three new saponins were isolated from a commercial bark extract of Quillaja saponaria Molina. These compounds were also obtained as degradation products from larger saponins in this extract when treated with strong alkali. The compounds were characterized, using mainly NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods, as quillaic acid 3-O-¿beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid¿, 3-O-¿alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->2)] -beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid¿ and 3-O-¿beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl -(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid¿, respectively.

  9. Preparation and characterisation of quillaja saponin with less heterogeneity than Quil-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstrup, S; San Martin, R; Doberti, A; Grande, H; Dalsgaard, K

    2000-04-28

    Immunisation against pathogens remains one of the most effective ways of preventing or reducing losses due to infectious diseases in animal husbandry. When inactivated vaccines are used, adjuvants are most often required to obtain satisfactory immune responses. One such type of adjuvant is saponin derived from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina, a tree of the rose family. A few different commercial sources exist, but due to the structural complexity and heterogeneity of these saponin preparations, it has been difficult to establish exactly which components are responsible for the adjuvant activity. By carefully selecting the bark source, we have succeeded in preparing a much less heterogeneous preparation of quillaja saponin. In this report we describe the preparation, in terms of structural complexity, hemolytic activity, adjuvant activity, and its ability to form ISCOM matrix. This new preparation could have implications for use per se, or as starting material for more effective preparation of pure substances.

  10. Electrospray ionization ion-trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry of Quillaja saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankefors, Johan; Broberg, Susanna; Nord, Lars I; Kenne, Lennart

    2011-07-01

    Fifteen identified C-18 fatty acyl-containing saponin structures from Quillaja saponaria Molina have been investigated by electrospray ionization ion-trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS(n)) in positive ion mode. Their MS(1)-MS(3) spectra were analyzed and ions corresponding to useful fragments, important for the structural identification of Quillaja saponins, were recognized. A few key fragments could describe the structural variations in the C-3 and the C-28 oligosaccharides of the Quillaja saponins. A flowchart involving a stepwise procedure based on key fragments from the MS(1)-MS(3) spectra of these saponins, together with key fragments from these saponins and 13 previously investigated saponins, was constructed for the identification of structural elements in Quillaja saponins. Peak intensity ratios in MS(3) spectra were found to be correlated to structural features of the investigated saponins and is therefore of value for the identification of regioisomers. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Solid-phase extraction NMR studies of chromatographic fractions of saponins from Quillaja saponaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Nils T; Baumann, Herbert; Kenne, Lennart

    2003-01-15

    The saponin mixture QH-B from the tree Quillaja saponaria var. Molina was fractionated by RP-HPLC in several steps. The fractions were analyzed by solid-phase extraction NMR (SPE-NMR), a technique combining the workup by solid-phase extraction with on-line coupling to an NMR flow probe. Together with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and comparison with chemical shifts of similar saponins, the structures of both major and minor components in QH-B could be obtained. The procedure described is a simple method to determine the structure of components in a complex mixture. The two major fractions of the mixture were found to contain at least 28 saponins, differing in the carbohydrate substructures. Eight of these have not previously been determined. The 28 saponins formed 14 equilibrium pairs by the migration of an O-acyl group between two adjacent positions on a fucosyl residue.

  12. NOTES ON TAXONOMY AND DISTRIBUTION OF MYRSIDEA SERINI (SÉGUY, 1944 (PHTHIRAPTERA: AMBLYCERA: MENOPONIDAE ON SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICAN PASSERINE BIRDS (AVES: PASSERIFORMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARMANDO C. CICCHINO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myrsidea serini (Séguy, 1944 is recorded from three different passerine hosts from Argentina and Chile: Carduelis barbata (Molina, 1782 (Fringillidae, Chrysomus thilius petersi (Laubmann, 1934 and Agelaioides badius badius (Vieillot, 1819 (Icteridae. Somatic features and body measurements from available specimens belonging to these host-populations are compared with those recorded from Old World hosts, finding only some slight differences in certain body measurements (here interpreted as correlated to differences in host sizes, but none in chaetotaxy. This species was synoxenic with Myrsidea psittaci Carriker, 1955 on C. t. petersi in at least two localities in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Comparative studies of external chorionic architecture of the eggs, preferential sites of oviposition, prevalence has been carried out for both species, along with some remarks concerning the still problematic species, Myrsidea argentina (Kellogg, 1906, originally recorded off Carduelis magellanica (Vieillot, 1805.

  13. Web 2.0 usage among New Zealand learners: Findings on gender difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Wei

    Full Text Available In this paper, gender differences in Web 2.0 usage by postgraduate students in New Zealand are presented. 84 postgraduate students drawn from two different convenience samples were surveyed to discover the extent to which they used and were familiar with Web 2.0 applications. According to Cuadrado-García, Ruiz-Molina and Montoro-Pons (2010, p. 367, \\"men and women differ in their interaction with technology\\". In this study, gender differences in the use of different Web 2.0 applications and technologies have been considered. Whilst findings from this study are limited by the way in which the populations were sampled, the sample size and having a majority of international students with English as a second language, it is interesting to note that there were only minor differences between the ways in which male and female postgraduate students use Web 2.0 applications.

  14. La agricultura nahua en el siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jácome Alba González

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Alonso de Molina’s Vocabulary is the main historical source followed by the author of this article in order to understand the Nahua agriculture at the end of the XVI century. There are also other historical sources utilized by Alba González to compare the information about types of soils, climate, vegetation, agricultural technicques and the technology associated with it and about irrigation. The article has a broad information about agricultural managements and the uses of plants -mainly corn- utilized in the agricultural labour, which was basic in the life of the Nahuas in Central Mexico. It has several tables with the data obtained from the historical sources which permit to understand the richness of this economic activity. This article is important for agricultural, ecological and historical studies and the information it presents is valuable.

  15. Mamíferos carnívoros e sua relação com a diversidade de hábitats no Parque Nacional dos Aparados da Serra, sul do Brasil Carnivore mammals and their relation with habitat diversity in Aparados da Serra National Park, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima M. dos Santos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of carnivore mammals was accomplished in Aparados da Serra National Park from February 1998 to March 2000. The park has 10,250 ha and is considered a biodiversity core area of the Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The landscape is characterized by relatively well preserved relicts of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze forest, grasslands and Atlantic Forest, which have contributed for the survival of endangered carnivore mammals. The National Park was divided in a grid of 16 km² cells using a 1:50,000 scale map. The animals were recorded using indirect methods, by identifying signs (scats, tracks and direct observation in 2.5 km long and 5 m wide transects, with 10 replicates in each grid cell. Interviews with local people were also used to confirm the animal presence. A total of 13 species was recorded: Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (G. Fischer, 1814, Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 were the most frequent species registered. Nasua nasua (Linnaeus 1766, Herpailurus yaguarondi (Lacépède, 1809, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815, Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758, Leopardus sp., Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1892 and Lontra longicaudis (Olfers, 1818 showed lower frequencies. The Park presented areas with significant differences (Mantel Test, P< 0.05 in species richness and composition related to habitat classes. Areas with high habitat richness presented high species richness. The Araucaria forest was the habitat that presented the higher carnivore richness. The border areas of the Park are influenced by several environmental degradation factors that could be affecting the distribution of carnivores.

  16. Sobre la atribución de los textos literarios. El caso de «El Burlador de Sevilla» y de «Tan largo me lo fiáis»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso D'Agostino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A partir de un juicio de Marcelino Menéndez Pelayo, la paternidad de El Burlador de Sevilla, tradicionalmente atribuido a Tirso de Molina, ha empezado a ser disputada. Los numerosos ensayos y las diferentes ediciones a cargo de Rodríguez López-Vázquez reconocen en Andrés de Claramonte al autor del primer Don Juan. Sin embargo no solo no hay ninguna prueba documental de que Claramonte haya intervenido en la creación del Burlador, sino que los múltiples indicios de tipo lingüístico, artístico o histórico-literario, acumulados por Rodríguez López-Vázquez, no tienen validez, en algunos casos porque se trata de características comunes a los dramaturgos del Siglo de Oro, en otros porque no poseen el significado que les da el crítico. The paternity of El Burlador de Sevilla, traditionally attributed to Tirso de Molina, has been discussed following a statement of Marcelino Menéndez Pelayo. Many essays and different editions by Rodríguez López-Vázquez recognize in Andrés de Claramonte the author of the first Don Juan. However, there is no documentary evidence that Claramonte intervened in the creation of the Burlador, and the various linguistic, artistic and literary historical clues accumulated by Rodríguez López-Vázquez are not valid, either because they consist in features common to the playwrights of the Golden Age, or because their meaning differs from the one given by the critic.

  17. Dos nuevos registros de ascidias (Tunicata: Ascidiacea para la costa continental de Chile Two new records of ascidians (Tunicata: Ascidiacea for the continental coast of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA CLARKE

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Las ascidias (Tunicata: Ascidiacea Asterocarpa humilis (Heller, 1878 (Styelidae y Molgula ficus (Macdonald, 1859 (Molgulidae se registran por primera vez, para la costa de Chile continental. Los ejemplares se recolectaron en los años 1997 y 1998 en tres localidades en los alrededores de la Bahía de Antofagasta, Chile (23º43´S; 70º 26´W, asociados a las agrupaciones de las ascidias Pyura chilensis Molina, 1872 y Ciona intestinalis Linnaeus, 1767, que se fijan en sistemas suspendidos de cultivo de ostiones y en mantos intermareales del «piure de Antofagasta», P. praeputialis (Heller, 1878. En el trabajo se describen las especies y se discuten sus distribuciones geográficas y la posibilidad que ambas hayan sido introducidas o invadido costas de Chile. Se destaca el carácter vivíparo para A. humilis. Con este trabajo el número de especies de ascidias descritas para Chile continental se eleva desde 53 a 55The ascidians (Tunicata: Ascidiacea Asterocarpa humilis (Heller, 1878 (Styelidae and Molgula ficus (Macdonald, 1859 (Molgulidae are recorded for the first time for the continental coast of Chile. The specimens were collected during 1997 and 1998 at 3 localities in and around the Bay of Antofagasta (23º 43´ S; 70º 26´ W, Chile, in suspended scallop aquaculture ropes, attached to Ciona intestinalis Linnaeus, 1767 and Pyura chilensis Molina, 1872, and in intertidal beds of the sea squirt P. praeputialis (Heller, 1878. This work describes the species and discusses their geographical distribution as well as possibilities for their introduction and/or invasion to Chile. The viviparous condition for A. humilis is communicated. The number of ascidians reported for continental Chile increases from 53 to 55

  18. Desvelando cercas: um olhar sobre a Educação do Campo no Sudeste do Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Ferreira dos Santos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vivemos numa época de mudanças na política, economia, ciência e tecnologia, o que tem gerado profundas transformações no modo de viver na sociedade. No entanto, o passado de abandono e isolamento no que tange a investimentos, infraestrutura e valorização ainda é latente em muitas escolas do espaço rural, o que demanda um olhar mais atento e crítico e a ampliação de pesquisas sobre essa questão. Assim, o presente estudo tem como objetivo mapear a realidade das escolas rurais das regionais de ensino de Arraias e Dianópolis localizadas no Sudeste do Tocantins, analisando sua atual situação. Para tanto, fez-se uso da pesquisa documental com uma abordagem predominantemente qualitativa para o trato e coleta de dados e informações disponíveis no acervo do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE, Secretaria de Estado da Educação do Tocantins (SEDUC e Ministério da Educação e Cultura (MEC. Além desses documentos, alguns autores embasaram nossas discussões sobre Educação do Campo: Arroyo, Caldart e Molina (2004, Caldart (2012, Kolling, Nery e Molina (1999, Nunes (2016, entre outros. Os resultados apontaram que ainda são frágeis as condições de atendimento educacional às populações que vivem no e do campo nas regionais estudadas, mesmo ante a ampliação das políticas públicas voltadas ao atendimento dos campesinos.

  19. Verdade e ficção nos «Diarios» de José María Arguedas

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    Rômulo Monte Alto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Após escrever El zorro de arriba y el zorro d abajo, José María Arguedas, escritor e antropólogo peruano, tentou se suicidar em sua sala na Universidad Agrária de la Molina, em Lima, 1969, como havia anunciado nas páginas que acabava de escrever; acabou falecendo três dias depois num hospital. Através da análise dos Diarios, contidos em seu último romance, queremos discutir o papel do diário na (reconstrução da trajetória pessoal do autor e na sua escolha como instrumento de anúncio de sua morte.Palavras-chave: Literatura peruana; José María Arguedas; Diarios; biografia.Resumen: Trás escribir El zorro de arriba y el zorro de abajo, José María Arguedas, escritor y antropólogo peruano, intentó suicidarse en su despacho en la Universidad Agraria de la Molina, en Lima, 1969, como había anunciado desde las páginas que acababa de escribir; tres dias después falleció en un hospital. A través del análisis de los Diarios presentes en su postrera novela buscamos discutir el papel del diario en la (reconstrucción de la trayectoria personal del autor y en su elección como instrumento de anuncio de su muerte.Palabras-clave: Literatura peruana; José María Arguedas; Diarios; biografía.Keywords: Peruvian literature; José María Arguedas; Diarios; biography.

  20. La democracia en el Perú: una terca voluntad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina ROMERO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La construcción de la democracia en el Perú es una vieja tarea que se realiza, aunque imperceptiblemente, lenta y tercamente tanto en la cultura política de los nuevos ciudadanos como en la organización política de la sociedad. El presente artículo es un ensayo sobre la aventura democrática en el primer lustro del siglo XXI yendo a las últimas décadas del siglo XX en el Perú, en las que la institucionalidad democrática adquiere nueva legitimidad, para entender las dificultades que los actores políticos encuentran y que se deben tomar en cuenta para hablar de la calidad de la democracia, en la línea que el artículo de Levine y Molina (2007 nos propone.ABSTRACT: The construction of democracy in Peru is a long standing challenge that has advanced slowly and stubbornly, if imperceptibly at time, in both the political culture of the citizens and the political organization of society. This article analyzes the «democratic adventure» in Peru in the first years of the 21st century in the context of the last two decades of the 20th, when democratic institutionalization achieved a new level of legitimacy, to identify the challenges to democracy that political actors have confronted. These elements will help analyze the quality of democracy along the lines proposed in the work of Levine and Molina (2007.

  1. Estudio hermenéutico de la izquierda colombiana como alternativa política de partido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Doris López

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio hermenéutico parte de los argumentosplanteados en el seminario electivo de comportamientopolítico, en el Doctorado de Ciencias Políticas,orientado por el doctor José Enrique Molina.La interpretación política de la izquierda en Colombiaha incidido a través de la historia como una fuerzaque, a pesar de su fragmentación, hoy se está consolidandocomo una alternativa de partido que abarca el manejode los comportamientos electorales desde lo psicológicoy lo sociológico.Este artículo está fundamentado en Pérez (2006 y enlos planteamientos de Torcal y Mainwaring. Se trató deinterpretar la posición de la izquierda como política alternativapara el mejoramiento de los estados sociales enlos países de América Latina.Palabras clave: Hermenéutica, Política de izquierda,Comportamiento electoral. AbstractThis hermeneutic study of the arguments raised inthe seminar elective political behavior, the Ph.D. in PoliticalScience, guided by Dr. José Enrique Molina.The political interpretation of the left in Colombiahas affected through history as a power that, despite itsfragmentation, today is emerging as an alternative partythat covers the management of electoral behavior fromthe psychological and the sociological.This paper it is based on Pérez (2006 and approachesTorcal and Mainwaring. He tried to interpret the positionof the left as an alternative for improving social conditionsin Latin American politics.Keywords: Hermeneutics, Leftist politics, ElectoralbehaviorCómo

  2. Reseñas de Libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oviedo Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alvarado López, Guillermo, El poder desde el espíritu: la visión política del Pentecostalismo en el México contemporáneo. Buenos Aires, Libros de la Araucaria, 2006, 149 pp.Páginas 193-196David Oviedo SilvaCandela Sevila, Virgilio F., Del franquismo a la democracia. La formación de la UCD en la provincia de Alicante. Alicante, Instituto de Cultura Juan Gil-Albert, 2007, 336 pp.Páginas 196-198Mónica Fernández AmadorCardenal, Ernesto, Vida perdida: memorias 1. México, Fondo de Cultura Económico, 2003, 446 pp.Páginas 198-199Gonzalo Ruiz BidónChaput, Marie-Claude (ed., « De l’anarchisme aux courants alternatifs (XIX-XXIè siècles », monográfico de Regards, 9 (2007, Université de Paris X-Nanterre, 460 pp.Páginas 199-201Iván López CabelloDíaz Rangel, Eleazar, La prensa venezolana en el siglo XX. Caracas, Ediciones B, 2007, 218 pp.Páginas 201-203Carmen Rodríguez González“El nuevo orden mundial y el mundo islámico”, dossier de Ayer. Revista de Historia Contemporánea, 65 (2007, 313 pp.Páginas 203-205Antonio Javier Martín CastellanosLewis Gaddis, John, El paisaje de la historia. Cómo los historiadores representan el pasado. Barcelona, Anagrama, 2004, 244 pp.Páginas 205-207David Molina RabadánMalgat, Gérard, Max Aub y Francia o la esperanza traicionada. Sevilla, Renacimiento, 2007, 416 pp.Páginas 207-209José Luis Gutiérrez MolinaMearsheimer, John; Walt, Stephen, El lobby israelí. Madrid, Taurus, 2007, 616 pp.Páginas 209-211Javier Lión BustilloMoradiellos García, Enrique, 1936: Los mitos de la Guerra Civil. Barcelona, Península, 2004, 249 pp.Páginas 211-212David Molina RabadánPrieto Borrego, Lucía; Barranquero Texeira, Encarnación, Población y Guerra Civil en Málaga: Caída, éxodo y refugio. Málaga, Servicio de Publicaciones-Centro de Ediciones de la Diputación de Málaga, 2007, 348 pp.Páginas 212-214Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaQuirosa-Cheyrouze y Muñoz, Rafael (coord., Historia de la Transición en

  3. Reseñas de Libros

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    Joaquín Piñeiro Blanca

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Álvarez Rey, Leandro (Estudio preliminar, recopilación y edición, Diego Martínez Barrio. Palabra de republicano. Sevilla, Ayuntamiento de Sevilla-Instituto de la Cultura y las Artes, 2007, 1.046 pp.Páginas 177-179Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaBancalari Molina, Alejandro, Orbe romano e Imperio Global. La romanización desde Augusto a Caracalla. Santiago de Chile, Editorial Universitaria, 2007, 330 pp.Páginas 179-182Francisco de Paula Villatoro SánchezBernal-Meza, Raúl y Saha, Suranjit (comps., Economía mundial y desarrollo regional. Buenos Aires, GEL, 2005, 403 pp.Páginas 182-184David Molina RabadánDavis, Mike, Planeta de Ciudades Miseria. Madrid, Foca Editorial, 2007, 283 pp.Páginas 184-185Daniel Alcalde GüelfoElguero Olavide, Ignacio, Los niños de los Chiripitifláuticos: retrato generacional de los nacidos en los 60. Madrid, La Esfera de los Libros, 2006, 672 pp.Páginas 185-189Daniel Francisco Álvarez EspinosaEstulin, Daniel, Los secretos del Club Bilderberg. Editorial Planeta, Barcelona, 2006, 304 pp.Páginas 190-191Mª del Rocío Piñeiro ÁlvarezFernández Bessa, Cristina et al., Frontera Sur. Nuevas políticas de gestión y externalización del control de la inmigración en Europa. Bilbao, Virus Editorial, 2008, 272 pp.Páginas 191-192Manuel Baraja EscuderoGonzález Clavero, Mariano; Pelaz Pérez, José Vidal; Pérez López, Pablo, Castilla y León en democracia. Partido, elecciones y personal político. 1977-2007. Salamanca, Junta de Castilla y León, 2007, 345 pp.Páginas 192-194Francisco de Paula Villatoro SánchezKhanna, Parag, El segundo mundo. Barcelona, Paidós, 2008, 570 pp.Páginas 194-196David Molina RabadánSanmartín Barros, Israel, Entre dos siglos. Globalización y pensamiento único. Madrid, Ediciones Akal, 2007, 334 pp.Páginas 196-198Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaToscano Gil, Francisco, Autonomía y potestad normativa local. Granada, Comares. 2007, 202 pp.Páginas 198-200José Joaquín Fernández AllesVV.AA., Ernesto

  4. Reseñas de Libros

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    José Antonio Ruiz Gil

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Beck, Ulrich; Grande, Edgar, La Europa Cosmopolita. Sociedad y Política en la Segunda Modernidad. Barcelona, Paidós, 2006, 392 pp.Páginas 187-189José Antonio Ruiz GilCastells, Manuel (ed., La sociedad red: una visión global. Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 2006, 558 pp.Páginas 189-191David Molina RabadánCuenca Toribio, José Manuel, Nacionalismo, Franquismo y Nacionalcatolicismo. Madrid, Editorial Actas, 2008, 220 pp.Páginas 191-193Ricardo Martín de la GuardiaDiamond, Jared, Colapso, Por qué unas sociedades perduran y otras desaparecen. Madrid, Debate, 2006, 854 pp.Páginas 193-195Daniel Alcalde GüelfoFumaroli, Marc, El Estado cultural (ensayo sobre una religión moderna. Barcelona, Acantilado, 2007, 147 pp.Páginas 195-197José Antonio Ruiz GilGarí, Manuel; Pastor, Jaime y Romero, Miguel (eds., 1968. El mundo pudo cambiar de base. Madrid, Los Libros de la Catarata, 2008, 365 pp.Páginas 197-199Ana Domínguez RamaMann, James, Los Vulcanos. El gabinete de guerra de Bush: Cheney, Powell, Rumsfeld, Rice, Wolfowitz, Armitage. Granada, Almed, 2007, 498 pp.Páginas 199-201David Molina RabadánMartín Muñoz, Gema, Iraq. Un fracaso de Occidente (1920-2003. Barcelona, Tusquets, 2003, 323 pp.Páginas 201-202José María Torrente GisbertMuñoz Aunión, Antonio, La política común europea de derecho de asilo. Valencia, Tirant Lo Blanc. 2007, 268 pp.Páginas 202-205José Joaquín Fernández AllesRey Tristán, Eduardo (dir., Memorias de la violencia en Uruguay y Argentina. Golpes, dictaduras, exilios (1973-2006. Santiago de Compostela, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela-CIEAM, 2007, 382 pp.Páginas 205-206Silvina JensenShlaim, Avi, El Muro de Hierro. Israel y el mundo árabe. Granada, Almed, 2003, 778 pp.Páginas 207-208José María Torrente GisbertWallerstein, Immanuel, Utopística o las opciones históricas del siglo XXI. Madrid, Siglo XXI Editores, 1998, 91 pp.Páginas 208-209Manuel Pérez Salinas

  5. Total Effective Xenoestrogen Burden in Serum Samples and Risk for Breast Cancer in a Population-Based Multicase–Control Study in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Fernández, Mariana F.; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Whelan, Denis; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Llorca, Javier; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Guevara, Marcela; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Barriuso-Lapresa, Laura; Tusquets, Ignasi; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Aragonés, Nuria; Olea, Nicolás; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollán, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most studies on endocrine-disrupting chemicals and breast cancer have focused on single compounds and have produced inconclusive findings. Objectives: We assessed the combined estrogenic effects of mixtures of xenoestrogens in serum and their relationship to breast cancer risk. Methods: A total of 186 incident pretreatment breast cancer cases and 196 frequency-matched controls were randomly sampled from a large population-based multicase–control study in Spain. The total effective xenoestrogen burden attributable to organohalogenated xenoestrogens (TEXB-α) and endogenous hormones and more polar xenoestrogens (TEXB-β) was determined in serum samples using high-performance liquid chromatography and E-Screen bioassay. Odds ratios for breast cancer comparing tertiles of serum TEXB-α and TEXB-β were estimated using logistic models, and smooth risk trends were obtained using spline models. Results: Cases had higher geometric mean TEXB-α and TEXB-β levels (8.32 and 9.94 Eeq pM/mL, respectively) than controls (2.99 and 5.96 Eeq pM/mL, respectively). The fully adjusted odds ratios for breast cancer (95% confidence intervals) comparing the second and third tertiles of TEXB-α with the first tertile were 1.77 (0.76, 4.10) and 3.45 (1.50, 7.97), respectively, and those for TEXB-β were 2.35 (1.10, 5.03) and 4.01 (1.88, 8.56), respectively. A steady increase in risk was evident across all detected TEXB-α levels and a sigmoidal trend was observed for TEXB-β. Individual xenoestrogens showed weak and opposing associations with breast cancer risk. Conclusions: This is the first study to show a strong positive association between serum total xenoestrogen burden and breast cancer risk, highlighting the importance of evaluating xenoestrogen mixtures, rather than single compounds, when studying hormone-related cancers. Citation: Pastor-Barriuso R, Fernández MF, Castaño-Vinyals G, Whelan D, Pérez-Gómez B, Llorca J, Villanueva CM, Guevara M, Molina-Molina JM

  6. AWARENESS LEVEL STUDY FOR IMPLEMENTING SEPARATION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE PROGRAM IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ARANDAS, JALISCO

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    Norberto Santiago-Olivares

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arandas municipality government in Jalisco, has been looking for solutions to the problem of its municipal solid waste (MSW disposal for some years. Nowadays there is a “dumping site" where these residues are deposited without any established control, promoting the generation of vermin and rodents such as: flies, cockroaches, rats, mouses, etc.; adding up to the air, soil and water pollution. The solution starts with the separation of municipal solid waste from the generation sites, but it does not make any sense to separate the waste if there is not a subsequent treatment system established. The population awareness for garbage separation at home is quite necessary, because if it is not carried out correctly, it won’t be able to give an effective further treatment to the municipal solid waste MSW generated. In countries and municipalities where garbage separation is already practiced, it was because the community is forced to do so, whether their garbage is not collected if it is not properly separated, or by the implementation of economic fines. With the support of the H. Ayuntamiento de Arandas and José Mario Molina Pasquel and Henríquez Technological Institute Campus Arandas, was carried out a study to determine the level of awareness that the population of Arandas has about the necessity to separate garbage at home. For this purpose, a survey was designed and applied to parents or guardians of students from educational institutions: CONALEP Arandas, UDG Regional High School, CBTIS and José Mario Molina Pasquel and Henríquez Technological Institute Campus Arandas. The research carried out was quantitative and descriptive type, where the selection of the sample was “for convenience” (to optimize time and costs in the application of the survey. According to the results obtained in the survey analysis, it was observed that Arandas population was concerned about the preservation of environment and they are willing to do garbage

  7. Porosity characterization of fresh and altered stones by ultrasound velocity and mercury intrusion porosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrivano, Simona; Gaggero, Laura; Gisbert Aguilar, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Porosity is the main physical feature dealing with rocks durability and storage capacity. The analysis of this parameter is key factor in predicting rock performances (Molina et al., 2011). There are several techniques that can be applied to acquire the widest information range possible about pores (e.g. size, shape, distribution), leading to a better understanding of decay processes and trapping capacity. The coupling of a detailed minero-petrographic analysis with physical measures such as ultrasounds and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) proved to be a valid tool for understanding the porous network and its evolution during weathering processes. Both fresh and salt-weathered samples were analysed to investigate the modification triggered in the porous network by crystallization. The ageing process was induced using a Na2SO4 saturated saline solution with the partial continuous immersion method (Benavente et al., 2001). The study was addressed to four sedimentary lithotypes: 1) Arenaria Macigno, a greywacke made up of thickened clasts of quartz, plagioclase and K-feldspar cemented by micritic calcite and phyllosilicates; 2) Breccia Aurora, a calcareous breccia with nodules of compact limestone and micritic cement joints; 3) Rosso Verona, a biomicrite where the compact bio-micrite matrix is cut by clay minerals veins; and 4) Vicenza Stone, an organogenic limestone rich in micro- and macro foraminifera, algae, bryozoans and remains of echinoderms, with iron oxides. An appropriate description of the porous network variation and recognition of the origin of secondary porosity was attained. The study defined that the pore shape and distribution (anisotropy coefficient K) has a fluctuation up to the 50% after weathering treatments and pore-size distribution (defined in a range between 0,0025 - 75 μm), allowing modelling the mechanisms of water transport and evaluating decay susceptibility of these lithotypes. Molina E, Cultrone G, Sebastián E, Alonso FJ, Carrizo L

  8. Reseñas de Libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oviedo Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aróstegui, Julio; Saborido, Jorge, El tiempo presente. Un mundo globalmente desordenado. Buenos Aires, Eudeba, 2005, 172 pp.Páginas 215-218David Oviedo SilvaDíaz, Lorenzo, 50 Años de TVE. Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 2006, 414 pp.Páginas 219-220Virginia Martín JiménezFernández Alles, José Joaquín, Las relaciones intergubernamentales en el Derecho Constitucional Español. Cádiz, Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Cádiz-Fundación Centro de Estudios Constitucionales 1812, 2007, 338 pp.Páginas 220-224Marcela Iglesias OnofrioHernández Sandoica, Elena; Baldó Lacomba, Marc y Ruiz Carnicer, Miguel Ángel, Estudiantes contra Franco (1939-1975. Oposición política y movilización juvenil. Madrid. La Esfera de los libros, 2007, 512 pp.Páginas 224-226Gonzalo Ruiz BidónJeffreys-Jones, Rhodri, Historia de los servicios secretos norteamericanos. Barcelona, Paidós, 392 pp.Páginas 226-228David Molina RabadánMartín Casares, Aurelia, Antropología del género. Culturas, mitos y estereotipos sexuales. Madrid, Ediciones Cátedra, 2006, 344 pp.Páginas 228-230Lucía Benítez EyzaguirreOrtega y Gasset, José, Historia como sistema. Obras Completas de José Ortega y Gasset. Madrid, Taurus, 2004-.Páginas 230-232Alfonso Pinilla GarcíaProcacci, Giuliano, Historia general del siglo XX. Barcelona, Crítica, 2005, 636 pp.Páginas 232-233Jesús María Ramos PérezReinert, Erik S., La globalización de la pobreza. Cómo se enriquecieron los países ricos… y por qué los países pobres siguen siendo pobres. Barcelona, Crítica, 2007, 370 pp.Páginas 233-235David Molina RabadánSaid, Edward W., Representaciones del intelectual. Barcelona, Editorial Debate, 2007, 142 pp.Páginas 235-237Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaSaviano, Roberto, Gomorra: un viaje al imperio económico y al sueño de poder de la Camorra. Madrid, Editorial Debate, 2007, 324 pp.Páginas 237-238Flavia Pascariello

  9. Variación anual de las propiedades insecticidas de Peumus boldus sobre Sitophilus zeamais Annual variation of insecticide properties of Peumus boldus on Sitophilus zeamais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pérez

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la variación anual en las propiedades insecticidas de Peumus boldus Molina, en el control de Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, bajo condiciones de laboratorio. El polvo de hojas de P. boldus se evaluó durante 12 meses, en concentraciones de 0,5, 1 y 2% (p/p. Se evaluaron 36 tratamientos con tres repeticiones, en un diseño experimental completamente al azar, con un arreglo factorial. Se determinó el porcentaje de mortalidad y emergencia de insectos adultos e inmaduros y pérdida de peso y germinación del grano. La mayor mortalidad se obtuvo en los meses de agosto y septiembre de 2003, para las tres concentraciones con un 100%, mientras que la menor fue en mayo de 2003, cuando solo la concentración de 2% fue próxima a 100% de mortalidad. La menor emergencia de insectos adultos y pérdida de peso se obtuvieron en los mismos tratamientos. El efecto sobre estados inmaduros fue menor que contra adultos, y la germinación de los granos de maíz fue afectada por los polvos de P. boldus. Las propiedades insecticidas del polvo de hojas de P. boldus no son estables durante el año, Mayo es el mes con la menor eficacia insecticida, y la germinación de las semillas se ve afectada por el polvo.The objective of this work was to determine the annual variation of Peumus boldus Molina insecticidal properties for the control of Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, under laboratory conditions. The powder of P. boldus leaves was evaluated, during 12 months, in 0.5, 1, and 2% (w/w concentrations. Thirty-six treatments, with three replications, were evaluated in a completely randomized experimental design, with a factorial arrangement. Evaluations were made for adult and immature insect percentage mortality and emergence, grain weight loss and seed germination. The greatest mortality was obtained in August and September 2003, in the three concentrations with 100%, and the lowest mortality was registered in May 2003

  10. Reseñas de Libros

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    Héctor Vega Deloya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Arizpe, Lourdes, Culturas en movimiento: Interactividad cultural y procesos globales. México, Cámara de los diputados LIX Legislatura, UNAM, CRIM, Editorial Miguel Ángel Porrúa, 2006, 368 pp.Páginas 203-206Héctor Vega DeloyaCárcel Ortí, Vicente, La Iglesia y la transición española. Valencia, Edicep C. B., 2003, 342 pp.Páginas 206-207Gonzalo Ruiz BidónChaput, Marie-Claude (éd., De l´anarquisme aux courants alternatifs (XIX-XXIe siècles. Régards 9, París, Publidix, Université de Paris X-Nanterre, 2006, 460 pp.Páginas 208-210Francisco de Paula Villatoro SánchezChuse, Loren, Mujer y flamenco. Sevilla, Signatura Ediciones, 2007, 228 pp.Páginas 210-212Gema León RavinaCores Trasmonte, Baldomero; Luis Porteiro Garea, A Coruña, TresCtres, 2005, 260 pp.Páginas 212-213Israel Sanmartín BarrosDíez Torre, Alejandro R., Trabajan para la eternidad. Colectividades de Trabajo y Ayuda Mutua durante la Guerra Civil en Aragón. Madrid, La Malatesta Editorial, Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza, 2009, 540 pp.Páginas 213-216José Luis Gutiérrez MolinaGonin, Jean Marc; Guez, Olivier, La caída del Muro de Berlín, Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 2009, 367 pp.Páginas 216-217Mª del Rocío Piñeiro ÁlvarezHardy, Jane, Poland´s new capitalism, London, Pluto Press, 2009, 258 pp.Páginas 217-218Daniel Alcalde GüelfoKaplan, Robert D., Por tierra, mar y aire. Las huellas globales del ejército americano. Barcelona, Ediciones B, 2008, 542 pp.Páginas 218-220David Molina RabadánMartínez, Jesús Manuel, Salvador Allende. Oviedo, Ediciones Nobel, 2009, 402 pp.Páginas 220-223Juan Gustavo Núñez OlguínTravaglio, Marco, La scomparsa dei fatti. Milano, Collana Pamphlet, Il Sagiatore, 2006, 316 pp.Páginas 223-225Flavia PascarielloZertal, Idith; Eldar, Akiva, Lords of the Land: The War for Israeli´s Settlements in The Occupied Territories, 1967-2007. Nueva York, Nation Books, 2009, 531 pp.Páginas 225-227Javier Lión Bustillo

  11. Reseñas de Libros

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    José Francisco Tinao Martín-Peña

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chomsky, Noam, Poder y Terror. Reflexiones posteriores al 11/09/2001. Barcelona, RBA, 2003, 155 pp.Páginas 133-135José Francisco Tinao Martín-PeñaCobo Romero, Francisco, Conflicto rural y violencia política. Jaén, Universidad de Jaén-Universidad de Granada, 1998, 381 pp.Páginas 135-137José Luis Gutiérrez MolinaColacrai, Miryam (ed., Relaciones Internacionales. Viejos temas, nuevos debates. Rosario, Centro de Estudios en Relaciones Internacionales de Rosario, 2001, 203 pp.Páginas 137-141David Molina RabadánCuenca Toribio, José Manuel, Historia y actualidad. Clío en la posada. Madrid, Actas, 2002, 402 pp.Páginas 141-143Alejandro Román AntequeraHardt, Michael; Negri, Antonio, Imperio. Barcelona, Paidós, 2002, 432 pp.Páginas 143-145Jesús Fernández GarcíaHowson, Gerald, Armas para España. La historia no contada de la Guerra Civil Española. Barcelona, Península, 2000, 450 pp.Páginas 145-148Roberto Germán Fandiño PérezKaku, Michio, Visiones: cómo la ciencia revolucionará la materia, la vida y la mente en el siglo XXI. Madrid, Debate, 1998, 484 pp.Páginas 148-150Rafael Gómez SánchezLemus López, Encarnación, En Hamelin... la Transición española más allá de la frontera. Oviedo, Septem Ediciones, 2001, 158 pp.Páginas 150-153Julio Pérez SerranoSalazar Vergara, Gabriel, Labradores, peones y proletarios. Formación y crisis de la sociedad popular chilena del siglo XIX. Santiago de Chile, LOM Ediciones, 2000, 3ª ed., 334 pp.Páginas 153-155Leonardo Mazzei de GraziaSantacreu Soler, José Miguel, Peseta y política: Historia de la peseta, 1868-2001. Barcelona, Ariel Historia, 2002, 196 pp.Página 155Joaquín Piñeiro Blanca

  12. Magnetotelluric investigation across the Agri Valley: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasco, Marianna; Romano, Gerardo; Siniscalchi, Agata; Alfredo Stabile, Tony

    2017-04-01

    The Agri Valley is an axial zone of the Southern Apennines thrust belt chain with a strong seismogenic potential where two important energy technologies responsible for inducing/triggering seismicity are active: (1) the disposal at the Costa Molina 2 injection well of the wastewater produced during the exploitation of the biggest onshore oil field in west Europe (27 wells producing more than 80,000 barrels of crude oil per day), managed by the Eni S.p.A., and (2) the water loading and unloading operations in the Pertusillo artificial reservoir. It is recognized the possibility that the fluctuation of the water level inside the reservoir, due to the hydrological cycle for example, produces pressure perturbations at the bottom of reservoir, causing induced seismicity. Furthermore it is even more known the role of fluids in the rupture processes which could cause an increase of pore pressure specially at high rate of injection fluids and/or for the presence of weakening of preexisting faults. With the aim to better characterize and understand the physical processes involved in the observed induced/triggered seismicity, in 2016 a broadband seismic network, covering an area of about 20 km x 20 km nearby the Pertusillo Dam and Costa Molina2 well has been installed in the framework of SIR-MIUR project INSIEME (INduced Seismicity in Italy: Estimation, Monitoring, and sEismic risk mitigation) and a MagnetoTelluric (MT) survey has been performed. The MT investigation consists of 25 soundings aligned along 30 km profile oriented at about N40 direction, orthogonal with the strike of the major and noticeable geological structures and crossing both of the source that may induce/trigger seismicity. In this work, we present the preliminary 2D resistivity model which provides useful deep geophysical information for understanding the geological and structural setting of the Agri Valley. Moreover, the comparison of the resistivity model with the earthquake location as inferred from

  13. ANTROPÓLOGAS PIONERAS Y NACIONALISMO liberal en Colombia, 1941-1949

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    MARCELA ECHEVERRI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available EN LOS AÑOS 1930 Y 1940 EL PROYECTO LIBERAL DEL ESTADO INTRODUJO IMPORTANTES INNOVACIONES en la educación como medio de integración nacional, que a su vez facilitaron el acceso femenino al ámbito profesional. Cuatro mujeres, que estudiaron y trabajaron como investigadoras en el Instituto Etnológico Nacional (1941, son protagonistas de la profesionalización de la antropología en el siglo veinte. Sus investigaciones fueron claves para el desarrollo de una dimensión social del discurso nacionalista, al aportar argumentos, sustentados científicamente, sobre la prehistoria y la cultura nacional. En este artículo se discuten las principales contribuciones de Alicia Dussán de Reichel, Virginia Gutiérrez de Pineda, Edith Jiménez de Muñoz y Blanca Ochoa de Molina en relación con los objetivos del Instituto Etnológico, así como para la configuración de una nacionalidad moderna basada en el pasado indígena.

  14. Diversity of Quill Mites of the Family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata) Parasitizing Owls (Aves: Strigiformes) With Remarks on the Host-Parasite Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Marciniak, Natalia; Sikora, Bozena

    2016-07-01

    The quill mite fauna of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) associated with owls (Aves: Strigiformes) is reviewed. A new genus is proposed, Neobubophilus Skoracki & Unsoeld gen. nov. It differs from closely related Bubophilus (Bubophilus Philips and Norton, 1978) by the absence of leg setae vsII in the both sexes. In addition, four new species are described: (1) Neobubophilus cunicularius Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) (Strigidae) from Paraguay; (2) Neobubophilus atheneus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769) and Athene brama (Temminck, 1821) (Strigidae), both from India; (3) Bubophilus tytonus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Tyto alba affinis (Blyth, 1862) (Tytonidae) from Cameroon, and (4) Megasyringophilus dalmas Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817) (Strigidae) from Venezuela. The following new host species are given: Bubo bubo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Strigidae) from Nepal for Bubophilus ascalaphus (Philips and Norton 1978) and Strix woodfordii (Smith, 1834) (Strigidae) from Tanzania for Bubophilus aluconis (aluconis Nattress and Skoracki 2009). A key for syringophilid genera and species associated with owls is constructed. The host-parasite relationships of syringophilid mites and owls are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com Version of Record, first published online May 24, 2016 with fixed content and layout in compliance with Art. 8.1.3.2 ICZN.

  15. Assessment of total bed material equations on selected Malaysia rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, A.; Abustan, I.; Mohd Remy Rozainy, M. A. Z.; Sabtu, N.

    2017-10-01

    Assessment of total sediment load equations on selected Malaysia rivers was done based on 35 sediment loads and hydraulic data. Four rivers were selected to make this assessment which are Sungai Perak, Sungai Kemaman, Sungai Pergau and Sungai Kurau. These rivers can be divided into three categories based on the river width, with Sungai Perak (300-350m) and Sungai Kemaman (150-200m) can categorised as big rivers, meanwhile, Sungai Pergau (30-45m) and Sungai Kurau (10-11m) can categorised as medium and small river respectively. The total sediment load equations used in this assessment are Ackers-White, Brownlie, Engelund-Hansen, Graf, Molinas-Wu, Karim-Kennedy and Yang. This paper also tested the local total sediment load equations by Ariffin and Sinnakaudan et al. to evaluate capabilities of the equations on different rivers in Malaysia. The graphs of the calculated equations versus measured sediment transport rates were plotted to shows the accuracy of the tested equations.

  16. F. Sherwood “Sherry” Rowland (1927-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Donald R.; Simpson, Isobel J.

    2012-10-01

    Frank Sherwood Rowland, known to his friends and colleagues as Sherry, died at his home in Corona del Mar, Calif., on 10 March 2012. He was 84. A Nobel Prize-winning atmospheric chemist, Sherry codiscovered the role of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in stratospheric ozone depletion, researched the accumulation of greenhouse gases on a planetary scale, and tirelessly communicated the global consequences of human activity to policy makers and the public. Sherry had a calm, gentle demeanor and was as respected for his integrity and humility as for his groundbreaking scientific achievements. Sherry was a long-time member and Fellow (1980) of AGU and received the AGU Roger Revelle Medal in 1994 for his substantial contributions to the awareness of global change. The following year, he shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Mario Molina and Paul Crutzen for their pioneering contributions to atmospheric chemistry, particularly the formation and decomposition of stratospheric ozone. In its citation, the Nobel Committee commended them for contributing to "our salvation from a global environmental problem that could have catastrophic consequences."

  17. Análise de metais pesados em amostras de Peumus boldus Mol. (Monimiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Schwanz

    Full Text Available Oito amostras, provenientes do Brasil, Chile e Argentina, de Peumus boldus Molina (Monimiaceae, espécie comum e abundante no Chile, cujas folhas são amplamente empregadas pela medicina tradicional para o tratamento de uma variedade de afecções do sistema digestivo e hepatobiliar, foram analisadas, após digestão nítrica, para a quantificação de ferro, manganês, cobre, chumbo, cromo, cobalto e níquel, por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Chumbo, cromo e cobalto não foram detectados (limite de detecção de 5 µg/g em nenhuma das amostras. Todas as amostras apresentaram maior teor em ferro, que variou de 109,7 mg/kg a 315,7 mg/kg, seguido por manganês (65,5 mg/kg a 158,8 mg/kg, cobre (3,04 mg/kg a 9,16 mg/kg e níquel (0,77 mg/kg a 4,31 mg/kg.

  18. Neonatal pressure ulcers: prevention and treatment

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    García-Molina P

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pablo García-Molina,1,2 Alba Alfaro-López,1 Sara María García-Rodríguez,1 Celia Brotons-Payá,1 Mari Carmen Rodríguez-Dolz,1,2 Evelin Balaguer-López1,2 1Department of Nursing, University of Valencia, 2Research Group of Pediatric Nutrition, INCLIVA Foundation, Valencia, Spain Abstract: Health professionals should be prepared to respond to the needs of hospitalized neonates. The health team must consider multiple situations, where the neonate is at risk of having an adverse effect. One of the main interventions that health professionals must practice when interacting with hospitalized newborns is skin care. Neonates often suffer from diaper rash or intravenous drugs extravasation. Recently, hospitalized neonates and especially those in an unstable clinical situation are also at a risk of developing pressure ulcers. The presence of a pressure ulcer in a neonate can lead to serious problems to survival (eg, sepsis, clinical instability. This is the reason why, with this literature review, we attempt to answer questions from health professionals caring for neonates about the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers. Keywords: infant, pressure ulcer, treatment, prevention, wound, assessment

  19. Clustering Information of Non-Sampled Area in Small Area Estimation of Poverty Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, V. Y.; Kurnia, A.; Sadik, K.

    2017-03-01

    Empirical Bayes (EB) is one of indirect estimates methods which used to estimate parameters in small area. Molina and Rao has been used this method for estimates nonlinear small area parameter based on a nested error model. Problems occur when this method is used to estimate parameter of non-sampled area which is solely based on synthetic model which ignore the area effects. This paper proposed an approach to clustering area effects of auxiliary variable by assuming that there are similarities among particular area. A simulation study was presented to demonstrate the proposed approach. All estimations were evaluated based on the relative bias and relative root mean squares error. The result of simulation showed that proposed approach can improve the ability of model to estimate non-sampled area. The proposed model was applied to estimate poverty indicators at sub-districts level in regency and city of Bogor, West Java, Indonesia. The result of case study, relative root mean squares error prediction of empirical Bayes with information cluster is smaller than synthetic model.

  20. AN ANALYSIS OF TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES IN THE ENGLISH VERSION OF ARRAHMAN SURAH

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    Farida Repelita Wati Kembaren

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Holy Qur’an has been translated into many languages including English. However, different translator of the Holy Qur’an produces different English version of Al-Qur’an because every translator uses different translation techniques to translate Al-Qur’an. This study aims to compare the three English versions of Arrahman surah, and describe the most dominant translation techniques used by the three translators to translate the Holy Qur’an. Translation techniques proposed by Molina and Albir (2002, p.509-511 are used to analyze the data. The data for this study are words, phrases, and clauses in the 78 verses of Arrahman surah in Arabic and its three English versions translated by Maulawi Sher ‘Ali, Dr. Muhammad Taqi­ud­Din Al­Hilali and Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, and Talal Itani. The result shows that there are four most dominant techniques used by the three translators in translating the Holy Qur’an; Adaptation, Amplification, Established Equivalent, and Literal Translation technique. The first and the second translator prefer to use Amplification to introduce details in brackets or footnotes, but the third translator prefers to use Established Equivalent to find a term or expression recognized (by dictionaries or language in use as an equivalent.

  1. Larval development of the subantarctic king crabs Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa reared in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, J. A.; Anger, K.; Lovrich, G. A.; Thatje, S.; Kaffenberger, A.

    2004-02-01

    The larval development and survival in the two subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla (Jaquinot) and Paralomis granulosa (Molina) from the Argentine Beagle Channel were studied in laboratory cultures. In L. santolla, larval development lasted about 70 days, passing through three zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with a duration of approximately 4, 7, 11 and 48 days, respectively. The larval development in P. granulosa is more abbreviated, comprising only two zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with 6, 11 and 43 days' duration, respectively. In both species, we tested for effects of presence versus absence of food (Artemia nauplii) on larval development duration and survival rate. In P. granulosa, we also studied effects of different rearing conditions, such as individual versus mass cultures, as well as aerated versus unaerated cultures. No differences in larval development duration and survival were observed between animals subjected to those different rearing conditions. The lack of response to the presence or absence of potential food confirms, in both species, a complete lecithotrophic mode of larval development. Since lithodid crabs are of high economic importance in the artisanal fishery in the southernmost parts of South America, the knowledge of optimal rearing conditions for lithodid larvae is essential for future attempts at repopulating the collapsing natural stocks off Tierra del Fuego.

  2. El modelo criminológico de evaluación e intervención para menores en conflicto con la ley/The criminological model of assessment and intervention for children in conflict with the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Alba Robles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los países occidentales han experimentado en las cuatro últimas décadas una inclinación hacia modelos de justicia más reactivos, punitivos o retribucionistas (Garland, 2005; Giménez y Alba, 2014. Ha sido especialmente dentro del ámbito anglosajón (Estados Unidos y Gran Bretaña donde esta nueva cultura del delito ha sido más destacable (Ashworth, 2005; Fernández-Molina, 2008. Europa, sin embargo, ha sabido resistirse a esta tendencia punitiva, intentando mantener un precario equilibrio entre los modelos propiamente retribucionistas y las políticas de bienestar. Por su parte, en Latinoamérica, en un intento por suavizar esta corriente punitiva, en la última década se ha evolucionado hacia un cambio desde la terminología jurídica hacia las terminologías propias de las ciencias sociales en la justicia juvenil: De menores infractores a adolescentes en conflicto con la ley. Sin embargo, este cambio de conceptos no implica una disminución de las populistas corrientes penalistas que invaden todo el continente americano, pero sí posee importantes implicaciones a nivel jurídico, político y legal (Villanueva, 2009. (Continua en introducción.

  3. Society of Pediatric Psychology Diversity Award: Training Underrepresented Minority Students in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Monica J.; Crosby, Lori E.

    2016-01-01

    Improving diversity, particularly among trainees and professionals from underrepresented ethnic minority backgrounds, has been a long-stated goal for the field of Psychology. Research has provided strategies and best practices, such as ensuring cultural sensitivity and relevance in coursework, clinical and research training, promoting a supportive and inclusive climate, providing access to cultural and community opportunities, and increasing insight and cultural competence among professionals (Rogers & Molina, 2006). Despite this, the rates of psychologists from ethnically diverse and underrepresented minority (URM) backgrounds remain low and few published studies have described programmatic efforts to increase diversity within the field. This paper describes the INNOVATIONS training model, which provides community and culturally related research experiences, graduate-school related advising, and mentoring to high school and college students. The paper also examines how the model may support enrollment of URM students in doctoral programs in psychology. Findings indicate that INNOVATIONS supported students’ transition from high school and college to graduate programs (with approximately 75% of students enrolling in Master’s and Doctoral programs). INNOVATIONS also supported students, including those from URM backgrounds, enrolling in doctoral programs (41.7%). Students who were trained in the research assistant track were most likely to enroll in psychology doctoral programs, perhaps as a result of the intensive time and training committed to research and clinical experiences. Data support the importance of research training for URM students pursuing psychology graduate study and the need to ensure cultural relevance of the training. Implications for clinical and pediatric psychology are discussed. PMID:28603680

  4. [Chemical characterization of integral flour from the prosopis spp. of Bolivia and Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Abel González; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte; de Abreu, Celeste Maria Patto; Barcelos, Maria de Fatima Piccolo

    2008-09-01

    The mature fruits of three species of algarroba found in Bolivia (Prosopis chilensis (Molina) Stunz, P. alba Grisebach y P. nigra (Grisebach) Hieronymus) and of one of Brazil (P. juliflora (SW) DC) were analysed for some nutritional and antinutritional factors. P. nigra showed the highest levels of crude protein (11.33 g/100 g dry matter-DM) and ashes (4.12 g/100 g DM). P. juliflora presented the lowest levels of lipids (0.79 g/100 g DM), crude protein (8.84 g/100 g DM) and dietary fiber (40.15 g/100 g DM), and the highest levels of non reducing sugar (52.51 g/100 g DM) and in vitro protein digestibility (66.45%). Trypsin inhibitors concentration (0.29 to 9.32 UTI/mg DM) was inferior to that of raw soy; P. juliflora presented the higher values. Regarding saponin, hemagglutinin and poliphenol values, the levels found are considered low. As for nitrates, the levels found were higher than those reported for peas and beans, with P. chilensis presenting the highest value (2.92 g NO3(-)/kg DM). The levels of phytate varied from 1.31 a 1.53 g/100 g.

  5. Student Mobility and Transnational Social Ties as Factors of Reflexivity

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    Tea Golob

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to develop and apply new quantitative measurement instruments capable of significantly improving understanding of the relationship between the transnational mobility and transnational social ties of students, along with their reflexive capacities. With a focus on students building their personal networks, educational and professional activities that extend beyond the nation’s borders and organising their day-to-day routines in transnational social spaces, we analyse the role of mobility in their reflexive capacities. Applying a tool that is line with Archer’s theory and indicators to measure reflexivity, and transnational social ties as proposed by Molina et al., we analyse data collected via an on-line survey questionnaire administered to Slovenian students. In addition, students from the Middle East (Lebanon and the USA (Hawai’i are added for comparative purposes. The results of path analysis show the Slovenian students’ mobility as such implies higher scores for meta reflexivity, combined with lower scores for communicative and fractured reflexivity. Further, social transactions reaching beyond one’s physical localities in terms of transnational social ties implies they have higher levels of reflexivity in general.

  6. What would have happened to the ozone layer if chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs had not been regulated?

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    P. A. Newman

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs was first proposed by Molina and Rowland in their 1974 Nature paper. Since that time, the scientific connection between ozone losses and CFCs and other ozone depleting substances (ODSs has been firmly established with laboratory measurements, atmospheric observations, and modeling studies. This science research led to the implementation of international agreements that largely stopped the production of ODSs. In this study we use a fully-coupled radiation-chemical-dynamical model to simulate a future world where ODSs were never regulated and ODS production grew at an annual rate of 3%. In this "world avoided" simulation, 17% of the globally-averaged column ozone is destroyed by 2020, and 67% is destroyed by 2065 in comparison to 1980. Large ozone depletions in the polar region become year-round rather than just seasonal as is currently observed in the Antarctic ozone hole. Very large temperature decreases are observed in response to circulation changes and decreased shortwave radiation absorption by ozone. Ozone levels in the tropical lower stratosphere remain constant until about 2053 and then collapse to near zero by 2058 as a result of heterogeneous chemical processes (as currently observed in the Antarctic ozone hole. The tropical cooling that triggers the ozone collapse is caused by an increase of the tropical upwelling. In response to ozone changes, ultraviolet radiation increases, more than doubling the erythemal radiation in the northern summer midlatitudes by 2060.

  7. What Would Have Happened to the Ozone Layer if Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) had not been Regulated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Oman, L. D.; Douglass, A. R.; Fleming, E. L.; Frith, S. M.; Hurwitz, M. M.; Kawa, S. R.; Jackman, C. H.; Krotkov, N. A.; Nash, E. R.; hide

    2008-01-01

    Ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was first proposed by Molina and Rowland in their 1974 Nature paper. Since that time, the sci entific connection between ozone losses and CFCs and other ozone depl eting substances (ODSs) has been firmly established with laboratory m easurements, atmospheric observations, and modeling research. This science research led to the implementation of international agreements t hat largely stopped the production of ODSs. In this study we use a fu lly-coupled radiation-chemical-dynamical model to simulate a future world where ODSs were never regulated and ODS production grew at an ann ual rate of 3%. In this "world avoided" simulation 1.7 % of the globa lly-average column ozone is destroyed by 2020, and 67% is destroyed b y 2065 in comparison to 1980. Large ozone depletions in the polar region become year-round rather than just seasonal as is currently observ ed in the Antarctic ozone hole. Very large temperature decreases are observed in response to circulation changes and decreased shortwave radiation absorption by ozone. Ozone levels in the tropical lower strat osphere remain constant until about 2053 and then collapse to near ze ro by 2058 as a result of heterogeneous chemical processes (as curren tly observed in the Antarctic ozone hole). The tropical cooling that triggers the ozone collapse is caused by an increase of the tropical upwelling. In response to ozone changes, ultraviolet radiation increa ses, more than doubling the erythemal radiation in the northern summer midlatitudes by 2060.

  8. Learning and Recall of Medical Treatment-Related Information in Older Adults Using the Differential Outcomes Procedure

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    Victoria Plaza

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been reported that the differential outcomes procedure (DOP might be one of the therapeutical techniques focused at promoting autonomy in the elderly to deal with their medical issues. Molina et al. (2015 found that a group of healthy young adults improved their learning and long-term retention of six disorder/pill associations when each relationship to be learned was associated with a particular reinforcer (the differential outcomes condition compared to when they were randomly administered (the non-differential outcomes condition. In the present study, we extend these findings to older adults who usually show difficulties to remember to take their medications as prescribed. Participants were asked to learn the association between three pills and the specific time at the day when they had to take each medication. Two memory tests were also performed 1 h and 1 week after completing the training phase. Results showed a faster learning of the task and long-term retention of the previously learned associations (pill/time of day when differential outcomes were used. Furthermore, the older adults’ performance in the learning and memory phases did not differ from that of the younger adults in the DOP condition. These findings demonstrate that this procedure can help elderly people to ameliorate not only their learning, but also their long-term memory difficulties, suggesting the potential for the DOP to promote adherence to treatment in this population.

  9. Análisis semiótico en secuencias de interacción empáticas y no empáticas: un estudio microgenético

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    Pablo Fossa

    Full Text Available Resumen Este estudio tuvo por objetivo explorar y describir el proceso de regulación dialógica en interacciones conversacionales. Se registraron en video treinta díadas de estudiantes desconocidos entre sí en interacciones que tuvieron una manipulación orientada a generar una situación empática o bien no-empática. Se seleccionaron cuatro segmentos de conversación, dos por cada tipo de interacción. El texto fue analizado con un protocolo de análisis semiótico basado en el modelo de análisis propuesto por (Molina, 2007. Los resultados muestran que las interacciones empáticas se caracterizan por un proceso de coconstrucción de significados, con una adecuada administración de la tensión y una identificación con el signo lingüístico. Por otra parte, las interacciones no empáticas se caracterizan por la emergencia de signos lingüísticos que no continúan la secuencia de construcción de significados; con una alta tensión dialógica, y una estrategia de distanciamiento o abandono del campo de significado.

  10. Simulation Opportunity Index, A Simple and Effective Method to Boost the Hydrocarbon Recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Saputra, Wardana

    2016-09-08

    During periods of low oil prices, profitability of field developments drops drastically. To help with this difficulty, a cost-effective method has been proposed to boost the hydrocarbon recovery by optimizing well locations through the Simulated Opportunity Index (SOI). SOI is an intelligent method to identify zones with high potential for production which is empirically calculated from basic rock and fluid properties, and from reservoir pressure as its energy capacity. In order to obtain the best results, the original SOI formula (Molina et al., 2009) was extended to both oil and gas fields. Based on this modified SOI formula, a software program has been developed to locate the best well locations considering multilayer, existing wells, and fault existences. This paper describes how the SOI software helps as a simple, fast, and accurate way to obtain the higher hydrocarbon production than that of trial-error method and previous studies in two different fields located in offshore Indonesia. On one hand, the proposed method could save money by minimizing the required number of wells. On the other hand, it could maximize profit by maximizing recovery.

  11. Staged Memories: Spanish Drama and Cinema, Andalusian Identity and Flamenco Music in Argentina and Mexico

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    Emilio J. Gallardo-Saborido

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Culture, particularly cinema, drama and music, played a key role in order to keep and reinforce the identity of Spanish migrants in Argentina and Mexico during the first part of the 20th century. For decades, these countries had received thousands of migrants from Spain, and by the period following the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939 a notable colony of them settled in Buenos Aires and Mexico City. At the same time, several artists arrived to these places escaping from the war, political repression or, simply, looking for new work opportunities. For instance, famous singers, actors and flamenco players and dancers (v.g. Miguel de Molina, Angelillo, Niño de Utrera, or Sabicas achieved overwhelming successes in Buenos Aires and Mexico City’s theatres. Even more, they created a parallel Spanish stardom abroad. Hence, this proposal summarizes the contribution of some of these artists and the fusion between theatre and cinema, and typical Andalusian music as flamenco to preserve and evoke the collective memory of such a faraway motherland. Since Andalusia (the Southern region of Spain and its culture acted as a metonymic resource to represent that country during that period, migrants from different regions could recognize a common notion of the Spanish identity in them. In this sense, ‘home’ could be staged, remembered, fictionalized and, obviously, idealized.

  12. Crop improvement projects in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeshart, H.

    1978-01-01

    Only two percent of the territory of Peru consists of arable land. Sixteen million people depend on the production of about three million hectares of land, which means that on the average only 1800 square metres is available per person. It is clear that Peru is one of the poorest countries of the world as far as available arable land is concerned and consequently it will have to drastically increase its agricultural production per unit area or import large quantities of agricultural products to feed its rapidly growing population. Agricultural research on the efficient use of fertilizers is being carried out by the regional experiment station (CRIA), by the National University of Agriculture, La Molina, Lima, dealing with programmes on maize, potatoes, cereals and forage crops, by national universities in the country and by specialized research institutes for tropical agriculture on sugar-cane, cotton, coffee and tea. Isotope and radiation techniques are a particularly effective means of determining the best cultural practices for the efficient use of fertilizers and water, and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has been involved in the organization of field and greenhouse programmes at experiment stations and universities in Peru since 1963

  13. Ectoparasites of the black-chinned siskin Spinus barbatus (Passeriformes: Fringillidae in Chile

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    Danny Fuentes-Castillo

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite being a bird with a broad and extensive distribution in Chile, the black-chinned siskin, Spinus barbatus Molina, 1782 is not well studied in relation to its parasites. This paper aims to describe the ectoparasite fauna of S. barbatus in central and southern Chile. A total of 125 individuals caught with mist nets were examined alive; a total of 22 parasites were found dead and were exposed to parasit autopsy. The extracted parasites were preserved in 70% alcohol for subsequent mounting and identification. Ectoparasites were found in 56 black-chinned siskins (38%; 48 of them (33% had 870 mites – 680 feather mites (Astigmata: Analgoidea were identified as Proctophyllodes spini, 167 as Knemidokoptes jamaicensis, 19 as Strelkoviacarus critesi, and one as Analges passerinus. Moreover, three mites were chiggers belonging to the tribe Schoengastiini (Prostigmata: Trombiculidae. In 21 birds (14%, 54 lice were found, 21 of which were identified as Philopterus roehreri, 18 as Myrsidea serini, and 15 as Ricinus carolynae. Endoparasites were not found in the necropsied individuals. All of the parasites that were found represent new records for Chile, and they also serve as new records of host–parasite associations for S. barbatus.

  14. Using multilayer perceptron and a satellite image for the estimation of soil salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, A.; Ruiz, M.E.; Garcia, E.

    2008-01-01

    Applying the model of the Perceptron multilayer with momentum of an artificial neural network particularly and a multispectral image of high resolution spatial and radiometric, for the first time estimated the salinity of the soil cultivated with sugar cane. The study area is the UBPC 'Lazaro Romero' of the sugar company 'Hector Molina' of the locality San Nicolas de Bari, Havana province, located at 22° 44' North latitude and 81 ° 56' longitude West. The experiments were made in the framework of the El-479 project funded by the Inter universities Council of Flanders, Belgium. 36 samples geo referenced of soils were taken at 3 depths in each of the 4 sugar cane selected blocks, which determined the electrical conductivity of the saturation extract; half of that amount of data was used for the training of the network and the other half for control in a computer program of the artificial neural network created to that effect, together with the reflectance of vegetation indexes for the image, which were maps of electrical conductivity of each block and bands. They were compared with those obtained by simple linear regression between the normalized difference vegetation index and electrical conductivity, Ndv with the approach of the neuronal network, the correlation coefficient was 0.78 to 0.83, while the linear regression was between 0.65 to 0.75

  15. Teacher Accreditation Courses in Rural Education at UFT: Perspectives and challenges in the construction of a course

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    Darlene Araújo Gomes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a study about teacher accreditation in rural education at the Federal University at Tocantins (UFT. We analyzed the political and pedagogical aspects of the implementation of the course. We debated the protagonism of social movements in struggles for the right to education and in issues related to higher education policies for rural areas in Brazil. The methodological approach was inspired by oral history, using a qualitative approach. We interviewed teachers who participated in the implementation of the course at UFT, to grasp the expectations and constructions undertaken in the materialization of the accreditation course. The theoretical basis of this study involved a dialogue with authors such as: Caldart, Santos, Molina, Arroyo, Silva and Alberti. We discuss the pedagogy of alternance as a reference to the quality of alternance sought for the accreditation program for rural education and proposals for its enactment. We find that the implementation of the accreditation course in rural education represents an achievement for the population living in rural areas and is in a process of construction, which requires that its organizers adopt new positions in relation to conflicts and confrontations involved in its realization.

  16. Chilean clinic serves more than medical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, C L

    1993-10-01

    The experience of staff in treating adolescent pregnancy and the formidable problems (medical, educational, nutritional, and emotional) these girls face are discussed. The implementing agency was the Centro de Medicina Reproductiva del Adolescente (CEMERA) in Santiago, Chile. One 15-year old girl is reported to have felt comfortable at CEMERA because of friendships with other similarly pregnant girls. The director, Dr. Ramiro Molina, established CEMERA with a comprehensive approach to adolescent reproductive health; there was also sex education, medical student training, and research. The program began in 1981 as a research project and included a center of 1990. Presently, CEMERA treats about 1800 low-income adolescents/year, of whom 80% are female. The problem of teenage sexuality and pregnancy was identified in a 1988 survey, which revealed that 70% of first births in the 15-24 year old age group were out of wedlock, and 20% or fewer used contraceptives at first premarital intercourse. The program currently not only provides care for adolescents, but also gives workshops and assistance to partners and parents, and contraceptive counseling to young men and women. Most services are free. There has been an increase in clinics addressing adolescent reproductive health from 2 in 1981 to more than 95 presently; most of the health personnel in the current settings have been trained by CEMERA CEMERA is located in converted row houses in central Santiago, and provides an informal setting less threatening to adolescents. The traditional white medical clothes are not used very often.

  17. New beverages of lemon juice enriched with the exotic berries maqui, açaı́, and blackthorn: bioactive components and in vitro biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Valentão, Patrícia; Moreno, Diego A; Ferreres, Federico; García-Viguera, Cristina; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-07-04

    Following previous research on lemon juice enriched with berries, the aim of this work was to design new blends based on lemon juice mixed with different edible berries of exotic and national origin: maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz), açaı́ ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.), and blackthorn ( Prunus spinosa L.). The phytochemical characterization of controls and blends was performed by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). Their antioxidant capacity against DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorous acid and their potential to inhibit cholinesterases were also assessed. The profiling of the red fruits and lemon revealed a wide range of bioactive phenolics. The novel beverage based on lemon juice and maqui berry (LM) was the most interesting blend in terms of antioxidant capacity. Berry control samples displayed reduced effects on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, the lemon juice control being always the most active. This activity was also remarkable for lemon-blackthorn (LB) and lemon-açaı́ (LA) blends, the last being the most effective inhibitor of cholinesterases among all samples. The results suggested that lemon juice enriched with berries could be of potential interest in the design of new drinks with a nutritive related function on health for chronic diseases.

  18. Evaluation of sensorial, phytochemical and biological properties of new isotonic beverages enriched with lemon and berries during shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Mena, Pedro; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to design new isotonic drinks with lemon juice and berries: maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz), açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L.), following previous research. Quality parameters, sensorial attributes, antioxidant activities (ABTS(+), DPPH(•) and O2(•-) assays) and biological capacities (α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory assays) were evaluated over 70 days of shelf-life period. Maqui isotonic blends were the most active in all antioxidant assays (8.35 and 3.07 mmol L(-1) Trolox for ABTS(+) and DPPH(•)), in the lipase inhibitory assay (43.19 U L(-1)), and showed the highest total phenol content by the Folin-Ciocalteu test (80.97 mg 100 mL(-1) gallic acid), as a result of its higher content of total anthocyanins (42.42 mg 100 mL(-1)). Berry mixtures were also the most potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase between all samples, and displayed an attractive red colour and good sensorial attributes. All the studied parameters remained quite stable during preservation, in general, and the new isotonic drinks can be useful to equilibrate redox balance in acute and intense exercise, and support weight loss programmes, avoiding triglyceride absorption and hyperglycaemia involved in obesity and diabetes mellitus, respectively. Further research in vivo is necessary to verify their beneficial effects for sports, nutrition and health. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. The influence of Darwinism on racial concepts in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Juárez-Barrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been repeatedly pointed out that Vicente Riva Palacio and Andrés Molina Enríquez were influenced by Darwin’s ideas to develop their own racial concepts regarding the Mexican half-blood. However, after analysing said ideas both in their original biological context as in the social context they were transferred to, it is concluded that this affirmation can only be accepted sensu lato. Their thesis about the superiority of the half-blood is more strongly based on lineal conceptions of evolution and their own alterations than in the Darwinist model of natural selection. It is important to know the influence of Darwinism outside its original context as it helps to understand how the complex and unavoidable exchanges among science, society and politics occurred. Their appropriation of the Darwinist ideas may not be conceptually or methodologically accurate, but it contributed to the ideological construction of the half-blood as an advanced race in terms of evolution. This thesis contrasts with the most prevailing one in other Latin American countries, where the half-bloods were perceived as the personification of a racial degeneration.

  20. First isolation of Leptospira interrogans from Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox) in Argentina shows new MLVA genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialfa, Exequiel; Brihuega, Bibiana; Venzano, Agustín; Morris, Winston Eduardo; Bolpe, Jorge; Schettino, Mateo

    2013-01-01

    To identify carriers of Leptospira spp. in Argentina, wild animals were trapped in Buenos Aires Province during three nights, capturing 12 Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), six Chaetophractus villosus (big hairy armadillo), five Lycalopex griseus (South American gray fox), and two Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk). All were tested by microscopic agglutination test, and five (two gray foxes, two armadillos, and one skunk) were positive for Leptospira interrogans serovars Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae, L. borgpetersenii serovar Castellonis, and L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, at titers of 1:50 and 1:100. Kidney tissue from all animals was cultured, and one isolate of L. interrogans from a gray fox was obtained. Hamsters inoculated with the isolate died after 6 days with no macroscopic lesions at necropsy. However, histologic examination revealed glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, and pneumonia. The Leptospira strain from the South American gray fox was analyzed serologically and its pathogenicity was established. Genotyping through multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis showed that the strain was a new genotype related to the L. interrogans serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae.

  1. Recovery of black-necked swans, macrophytes and water quality in a Ramsar wetland of southern Chile: Assessing resilience following sudden anthropogenic disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Eduardo; Lagos, Nelson A; Labra, Fabio A; Paredes, Enrique; Acuña, Emilio; Melnick, Daniel; Manzano, Mario; Velásquez, Carlos; Duarte, Cristian

    2018-07-01

    In 2004 migration and mortality for unknown reasons of the herbivorous Black necked swan (Cygnus melancorhyphus (Molina, 1782)) occurred within the Río Cruces wetland (southern Chile), a Ramsar Site and nature sanctuary. Before 2004, this wetland hosted the largest breeding population of this water bird in the Neotropic Realm. The concurrent decrease in the spatial occurrence of the aquatic plant Egeria densa Planch. 1849 - the main food source of swans - was proposed as a cause for swan migration and mortality. Additionally, post-mortem analyses carried out on swans during 2004 showed diminished body weight, high iron loads and histopathological abnormalities in their livers, suggesting iron storage disease. Various hypotheses were postulated to describe those changes; the most plausible related to variations in water quality after a pulp mill located upstream the wetland started to operate in February 2004. Those changes cascaded throughout the stands of E. densa whose remnants had high iron contents in their tissues. Here we present results of a long-term monitoring program of the wetland components, which show that swan population abundance, body weights and histological liver conditions recovered to pre-disturbance levels in 2012. The recovery of E. densa and iron content in plants throughout the wetland, also returned to pre-disturbance levels in the same 8-year time period. These results show the temporal scale over which resilience and natural restoring processes occur in wetland ecosystems of temperate regions such as southern Chile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Examen del fenómeno del turismo contemporáneo y la Competitividad en la Frontera del Conocimiento

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    Carlos Mario Amaya Molinar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del inicio del presente siglo, el estudio de la competitividad turística es un tema que ha llamado la atención tanto de académicos del área como de organizaciones públicas y privadas de diversas categorías, con la expectativa de que su comprensión permita a países y destinos turísticos obtener ventajas en captación de visitantes, ingresos y sostenibilidad de su operación turística, de cara a la intensa contienda internacional por la preferencia del turista. El presente trabajo se deriva de la discusión que tuvo lugar en el Panel Competitividad y Turismo, en el marco de la 5ª Cátedra Patrimonial en Turismo Sergio Molina-Estrategias del Turismo en la Frontera del Conocimiento, organizado por el Departamento de Ciencias Administrativas del Instituto de Ciencias Sociales y Administración de la Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, efectuado en el mes de abril del año 2013. Para este fin, se analizaron un conjunto de trabajos académicos e institucionales, a fin de identificar sus marcos de referencia, definiciones y modelos teóricos, con la perspectiva de obtener una visión panorámica del estado del arte en la materia.

  3. TRANSLATION TECHNIQUE OF MODALITY ON INAUGURATION SPEECH OF UNITED STATE OF AMERICA ELECTED PRESIDENT (A SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL LINGUISTICS PERSPECTIVE

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    Siti Nuraisiah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the United State of America elected president‘s attitude on inauguration speech revealed through the use of modality. It investigates category, level and orientation of modality and its translation technique used by two different news media. It employed descriptive qualitative approach. Its data were obtained through content analysis and analyzed by Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL perspective as proposed by Halliday (1994 and translation technique as proposed by Molina and Albir (2002. The result indicates the followings. First, inauguration speech states inclination, probablity, obligation and usuality. It is dominated by median level of modality, then followed by high and low level. Its attitudes are expressed through subjective implicit, as the most frequent orientation, objective implicit, subjective explicit and objective explicit. Second, the first news media uses some translation techniques including established equivalent, reduction, combination and transposition. Third, the second news media uses some translation techniques including established equivalent, combination, reduction and transposition. It is argued that established equivalent produces the same category, level and orientation of modality. Besides, reduction and transposition tend to change modality into another linguistic entities.

  4. Dramaturgia carnavalesca o festiva (2a parte

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    Fernando Duque Mesa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo continúa la reflexión acerca de la Dramaturgia carnavalesca o festiva, enfocada en las búsquedas colectivas e individuales, más interesantes que se han venido dando en la práctica por parte de diversos grupos teatrales colombianos experimentales y latinoamericanos. Desde la década de los setenta hasta el momento presente, teniendo como referente las fuentes carnavalescas o festivas por parte de los grandes creadores de la literatura universal popular como: Aristófanes, Menandro, Plauto, Terencio, Teatro Popular Medieval, la Comedia del Arte, con Ángelo Beolco (Ruzzante, Carlo Goldoni, Pietro Aretino, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, Lope de Rueda, Félix Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina, Francisco de Quevedo y Villegas, William Shakespeare, Molière, François Rabelais, Giovanni Bocaccio, hasta llegar a Alfred Jarry, Bertolt Brecht, Darío Fo, Franca Rame, Gabriel García Márquez, Santiago García, Enrique Buenaventura, Juan José Arreola, entre muchos otros. Creaciones dadas en un tiempo y en un espacio en el que se comienza a ver y analizar desde las prácticas de la escena, los más diversos y complejos procesos histórico-sociales

  5. Dramaturgia carnavalesca o festiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Duque Mesa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo, Dramaturgia Carnavalesca o Festiva, de un tal Fernando Duque Mesa, es una reflexión sobre una de las búsquedas colectivas e individuales, más interesantes que se han venido dando por parte de muy diversos grupos teatrales colombianos experimentales o no, como latinoamericanos, en especial desde la década de los setenta hasta el momento presente, basadas en las fuentes carnavalescas o festivas de los más grandes creadores de la literatura universal popular como: Aristófanes, Menandro, Plauto, Terencio, Teatro Popular Medieval, La Comedia del Arte, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, Lope de Rueda, Félix Lope de Vega, Tirso de Molina, Francisco de Quevedo y Villegas, William Shakespeare, Moliere, Francois Rabelais, Giovanni Bocaccio, hasta llegar a Alfred Jarry, Gabriel García Márquez, Santiago García, Enrique Buenaventura, Juan José Arreola, entre muchos otros. Creaciones dadas en un tiempo y en un espacio en el que se comienza a ver y analizar desde las prácticas de la escena, los más diversos y complejos procesos histórico-sociales de ayer y del momento presente.

  6. Le stéréotype du bandit catalan dans la littérature espagnole du Siècle d’Or

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    Mathias Ledroit

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Le bandit catalan est un personnage que l’on rencontre fréquemment dans la littérature espagnole du Siècle d’Or et des auteurs tels que Cervantès, Lope de Vega et Tirso de Molina se sont beaucoup intéressés à lui à une époque où le banditisme resurgit avec force en Espagne. Le poncif littéraire présente de nombreux points communs avec le stéréotype social tel qu’il est représenté dans les documents contemporains qui exposent les origines du phénomène. Il est dans les deux cas dépeint comme un justicier qui n’écoute que ce que lui dicte son honneur. Toutefois, il s’agit d’une vision déformée de la réalité qui pose un problème d’interprétation : comment expliquer que les auteurs espagnols du XVIIe siècle aient pu voir dans ce criminel un modèle de vertu ?

  7. Model Selection in the Analysis of Photoproduction Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landay, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Scattering experiments provide one of the most powerful and useful tools for probing matter to better understand its fundamental properties governed by the strong interaction. As the spectroscopy of the excited states of nucleons enters a new era of precision ushered in by improved experiments at Jefferson Lab and other facilities around the world, traditional partial-wave analysis methods must be adjusted accordingly. In this poster, we present a rigorous set of statistical tools and techniques that we implemented; most notably, the LASSO method, which serves for the selection of the simplest model, allowing us to avoid over fitting. In the case of establishing the spectrum of exited baryons, it avoids overpopulation of the spectrum and thus the occurrence of false-positives. This is a prerequisite to reliably compare theories like lattice QCD or quark models to experiments. Here, we demonstrate the principle by simultaneously fitting three observables in neutral pion photo-production, such as the differential cross section, beam asymmetry and target polarization across thousands of data points. Other authors include Michael Doring, Bin Hu, and Raquel Molina.

  8. Virtual special issue on IODP Expedition 339: The Mediterranean outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodell, D. A.; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Stow, Dorrik A. V.; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    IODP Expedition 339 had two inter-related objectives to recover continuous sedimentary sequences for: (i) studying the Contourite Depositional System formed by the MOW; and (ii) reconstructing North Atlantic climate variability on orbital and suborbital time scales. This Elsevier Virtual Special Issue (VSI) ;Mediterranean Outflow; is comprised of two volumes that are roughly divided along these lines with Marine Geology devoted to (i) and Global and Planetary Change to (ii), although some papers overlap the two themes. The Marine Geology volume contains 9 contributions addressing specific aspects of IODP Expedition 339 related to contourite deposits including sedimentology, seismic interpretation, stratigraphy, physical properties, downhole logging and ichnofacies (Hernández-Molina et al., 2015; Lofi et al., 2015; Ducassou et al., 2015; Alonso et al., 2015; Takashimizu et al., 2016; Nishida, 2015; Dorador and Rodríguez-Tovar, 2015a, 2015b; Kaboth et al., 2015). The Global and Planetary Change volume consists of 18 papers described below, highlighting paleoclimatic results from sites drilled on the SW Iberian Margin and in the Gulf of Cadiz. The two volumes provide a sample of emerging results of Expedition 339 and foretell of the promising research yet to come.

  9. XI Symposium on Probability and Stochastic Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Juan; Rivero, Víctor; Bravo, Gerónimo

    2015-01-01

    This volume features lecture notes and a collection of contributed articles from the XI Symposium on Probability and Stochastic Processes, held at CIMAT Mexico in September 2013. Since the symposium was part of the activities organized in Mexico to celebrate the International Year of Statistics, the program included topics from the interface between statistics and stochastic processes. The book starts with notes from the mini-course given by Louigi Addario-Berry with an accessible description of some features of the multiplicative coalescent and its connection with random graphs and minimum spanning trees. It includes a number of exercises and a section on unanswered questions. Further contributions provide the reader with a broad perspective on the state-of-the art of active areas of research. Contributions by: Louigi Addario-Berry Octavio Arizmendi Fabrice Baudoin Jochen Blath Loïc Chaumont J. Armando Domínguez-Molina Bjarki Eldon Shui Feng Tulio Gaxiola Adrián González Casanova Evgueni Gordienko Daniel...

  10. A case of leucism in the burrowing owl Athene cunicularia (Aves: Strigiformes with confirmation of species identity using cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise M Nogueira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Leucism is an inherited disorder, characterized by the lack of pigments in part or all of the body, normal coloration of the eyes and, in birds, in naked parts such as the bill and legs. This kind of disorder is sometimes erroneously designated as albinism or partial albinism. In this study, we present a case of leucism in a wild owl. The studied individual presented completely white plumage, light-yellow coloration of legs and bill and normal coloration of eyes. According to morphological features, this owl is a specimen of burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782. To confirm the species identity, we used cytogenetic analyses for karyotypic determination, comparing it to the previously described one in the literature. We also studied a captive female of A. cunicularia to complement the species karyotype, which was described in the literature based only on a single male. The karyotype of the leucistic owl individual was compatible with the previously published one for A. cunicularia, confirming the bird was a male specimen. Cytogenetic analysis of the captive female showed that the W sex chromosome is metacentric and comparable to the seventh pair in size. This is the first description of a case of leucism in A. cunicularia for South America. Long-term studies are needed in the Neotropical region to evaluate survival and breeding success in leucistic birds.

  11. Overfishing population characteristics of razor clam, Ensis macha, from Independencia Bay, Peru, in 2004 year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tarazona

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative monthly samplings, in 2004, were carried out to estimate the density and biomass of Ensis macha (Molina 1782, from Morro Quemado area, Bay Independence, Pisco. The present study analyzes biometric relationships, growth parameters and somatic production using the ELEFAN I routine and the Crisp’s method. During the year 2004 the rate of exploitation (E= 0.69 y-1 was significantly bigger than the values of 2003 and the monthly landings (maximum of 335 t and fishing effort (maximum of 848 trips were twice increased. These changes induced in the same year a significant decrease of population mean density (D= 54.13 ind. m-2 and the halfway reduction of somatic production (P= 81.99 gAFDW m-2 y-1 and P/B rate (0.38 y-1 values, regarding the values of the previous year. Also, a significant increment of total mortality rate (2.84 y-1 and the fishing mortality rate (1.97 y-1 were twice increased, regarding the previous year. It is assumed that the population of razor clams already was a overfishing commercial resource in the 2003 and that the increment of fishing pressure in the 2004, particularly during the second semester, intensified its overfishing resource condition.

  12. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS OF 90SR AND 137CS CONCENTRATIONS IN AN ECOSYSTEM OF THE 'RED FOREST' AREA IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Caldwell, E.

    2011-10-01

    In the most highly contaminated region of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone: the 'Red Forest' site, the accumulation of the major dose-affecting radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) within the components of an ecological system encompassing 3,000 m{sup 2} were characterized. The sampled components included soils (top 0-10 cm depth), Molina caerulea (blue moor grass), Camponotus vagus (carpenter ants) and Pelobates fuscus (spade-footed toad). In a comparison among the components of this ecosystem, the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations measured in 40 separate grids exhibited significant differences, while the frequency distribution of the values were close to a logarithmically normal leptokurtic distribution with a significant right-side skew. While it is important to identify localized areas of high contamination or 'hot spots,' including these values in the arithmetic mean may overestimate the exposure risk. In component sample sets that exhibited logarithmically normal distribution, the geometrical mean more accurately characterizes a site. Ideally, risk assessment is most confidently achieved when the arithmetic and geometrical means are most similar, meaning the distribution approaches normal. Through bioaccumulation, the highest concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were measured in the blue moor grass and spade-footed toad. These components also possessed distribution parameters that shifted toward a normal distribution.

  13. Prosocial/hostile roles and emotion comprehension in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belacchi, Carmen; Farina, Eleonora

    2010-01-01

    Bullying occurs at approximately the same rate in kindergarten as in elementary school, but few studies inquired into preschool years [Alsaker and Nägele, 2008; Stassen Berger, 2007]. This study aimed at: (1) verifying the presence in preschoolers of two additional participant roles (Consoler and Mediator), besides the six traditional roles detected by Salmivalli et al. [1996], grouped in four latent macroroles, by means of teacher report version of the Eight Participant Roles Questionnaire (PRQ) [Belacchi, 2008]; (2) linking prosocial and hostile behaviors to age and gender; and (3) investigating the relationship between roles and emotion understanding. Two hundred and nineteen children (54% boys; aged 3-6 years: mean age 4;10) were administered the Italian version of the Test of Emotion Comprehension [Albanese and Molina, 2008]; 20 teachers (2 for each class) filled in the questionnaire, attributing frequency scores on 24 items (3 for each role) to each pupil. A confirmatory analysis supported the fit of the hetero-report version of the Eight PRQ, revealing four macroroles: Hostile Roles (Bully, Reinforcer and Assistant), Prosocial Roles (Defender, Consoler, and Mediator), Victim, and Outsider. Satisfactory interteachers agreement not only confirms the macroroles hypothized, but also their expected distribution for gender and age. Moreover, the Prosocial roles presented a significant positive correlation with all subdimensions of emotion comprehension (External, Mental, and Reflective). The Victim and Outsider roles negatively correlated only with the External subdimension. The implications of these results for prevention and intervention purposes are discussed. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Feeling and thinking of others: affective and cognitive empathy and emotion comprehension in prosocial/hostile preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belacchi, Carmen; Farina, Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the affective and cognitive components of empathy in relation to both emotion comprehension and prosocial/hostile behaviors in preschoolers. A total of 219 children (54% boys; aged between 3 and 6: mean age 4.10) and 20 teachers (two for each class: group A and group B) took part in this research. Pupils' empathy and hostile/prosocial roles were assessed by teacher reports [Belacchi and Farina, 2010] and children's emotion comprehension by a nonverbal test [Test of Emotion Comprehension: Pons and Harris, 2000; adapted by Albanese and Molina; 2008]. As expected, the results showed a significant influence of gender, with girls being more empathic than boys, according to all of the teachers' perception. Contrary to our expectations, no systematic age influence emerged. Regarding the relations of children's emotion comprehension with both empathy measures and their prosocial/hostile attitudes, we have found: (1) a low significant relation with the total empathy measure, according to all the teachers, but with the cognitive empathy only according to teachers B; (2) a robust negative relationship of both affective and cognitive empathy with Hostile roles and with Outsider role, contrary to a positive correlation of only affective empathy with Prosocial roles. No relationships emerged between empathy measures and Victim role. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Digital 3D reconstruction of Agustin de Betancourt's historical heritage: the machine for cutting grass in waterways

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    José Ignacio Rojas-Sola

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Agustín de Betancourt y Molina was one of the most distinguished engineers of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries with numerous contributions to various fields of engineering, including civil engineering. This research shows the process followed in the documentation of the cultural heritage of that Canary engineer, especially in the geometric documentation of a machine for cutting grass in waterways presented in England in 1795 after three years researching on theory of machines. The baseline information has been recovered from the Canary Orotava Foundation of History of Science who has spent years collecting information about the Project Betancourt, in particular, planimetric information as well as a small report on its operation and description of parts of machine. From this information, we have constructed a three dimensional (3D model using CAD techniques with the use of Solid Edge ST7 parametric software, which has enabled the team to create the 3D model as well as different detail plans and exploded views.

  16. Propuesta para una clasificación y terminología internacional de los sistemas / esquemas de garantía: conceptos, características y definiciones

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    Pablo Pombo González

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es identifi car y defi nir una tipología y clasifi cación las principales de sistemas/esquemas de garantía. Esto es necesario porque lo habitual es encontrarse con evaluaciones, análisis y clasifi caciones de sistemas/esquemas de garantía meramente descriptivos y evaluaciones de sistemas/esquemas heterogéneos como si fueran homogéneos. Esta propuesta se deriva de una investigación más profunda sobre los sistemas como lo son las de Pombo y Herrero (2001 y Pombo, Molina y Ramírez (2006b, 2007a. Nuestra principal conclusión es la identifi cación de dos grandes grupos de sistemas/esquemas de garantía: 1 las sociedades de garantía, que tienen dos opciones: las sociedades mutualistas o asociativas empresariales y las sociedades mercantiles – corporativas, y 2 los programas de garantía que incluyen los programas de garantía gestionados por instituciones públicas especializadas y los programas de garantía gestionados por organismos de la administración pública o institucionalidad delegada por ella.

  17. Ocorrência de Dioctophyma renale em Galictis cuja

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    Marivone V. Zabott

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A dioctofimose é uma parasitose causada pelo Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782 de ocorrência mundial e acomete animais domésticos e silvestres. Em março de 2010, um exemplar adulto (macho de Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782, encontrado morto por atropelamento no município de Guaíra, Paraná foi encaminhado ao laboratório de Patologia Veterinária de Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR, Campus Palotina, para a realização da necropsia. O cadáver apresentava bom estado nutricional e autólise moderada. Foram observados três exemplares de parasitos na cavidade abdominal, mas os rins encontravam-se preservados. Os parasitos foram fixados em formol acético e encaminhados ao laboratório de Parasitologia Veterinária da UFPR para identificação. Os exemplares coletados foram identificados como Dioctophyma renale, sendo duas fêmeas, uma com 39cm de comprimento por 4mm de largura e a outra com 16cm de comprimento por 4mm de largura e, um macho com 16cm de comprimento por 3mm de largura. O presente trabalho relata a ocorrência de parasitismo por D. renale em G. cuja na região oeste do estado do Paraná.

  18. CINE CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    CINE CLUB

    2010-01-01

    Thursday 11 November 2010 at 20:30 / Jeudi 11 Novembre 2010 à 20:30 CERN Main Auditorium / Amphithéâtre Principal LE CHOCOLAT By/de : Lasse Hallström (UK/USA, 2000) 121 min With/avec: Lena Olin, Juliette Binoche, Johny Depp, Judi Dench, Alfred Molina, Peter Stormare, Leslie Caron, Carrie-Anne Moss   Vianne Rocher and her young daughter are drifters who are met with skepticism and resistance when they move to a conservative town in rural France and open a chocolate shop during Lent. As Vianne begins to work her magic and help those around her, the townspeople are soon won over by her exuberance and her delicious chocolates - except for the mayor, who is determined to shut her down. When a group of river drifters visit the town, Vianne teaches the townspeople something about acceptance, and finds love for herself along the way. Original version english / french with german subtitles Version originale anglaise / française soutitr&...

  19. High Time Resolution Measurements of Methane Fluxes From Enteric Fermentation in Cattle Rumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerchinger, C. R.; Herndon, S.; Fortner, E.; Roscioli, J. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Knighton, W. B.; Molina, L. T.; Zavala, M.; Castelán, O.; Ku Vera, J.; Castillo, E.

    2013-12-01

    Methane accounts for roughly 20% of the global radiative climate forcing in the last two and a half centuries. Methane emissions arise from a number of anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In some areas enteric fermentation in livestock produces over 90% of agricultural methane. In the spring of 2013, as a part of the Short Lived Climate Forcer-Mexico field campaign, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory in partnership with the Molina Center for the Environment studied methane production associated with enteric fermentation in the rumen of cattle. A variety of different breeds and stocks being raised in two agricultural and veterinary research facilities located in different areas of Mexico were examined. Methane fluxes were quantified using two methods: 1) an atmospherically stable gaseous tracer release was collocated with small herds in a pasture, allowing tracer ratio flux measurements; 2) respiratory CO2 was measured in tandem with methane in the breath of individual animals allowing methane production to be related to metabolism. The use of an extensive suite of very high time response instruments allows for differentiation of individual methane producing rumination events and respiratory CO2 from possible background interferences. The results of these studies will be presented and compared to data from traditional chamber experiments.

  20. The Actual Problems of Modern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya E. Anikeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The important aim of national and Spanish historiography and political science is to study history and foreign policy of modern Spain. The author studied articles and monographies of spanish politicians and researchers ( M. Rahoy, I. Aries, A. Rubalcaba, I. Molina for the preparation of this article during the scientific trip to Madrid (Complutense University, Faculty of Political Science and Sociology, which was held in the framework of cooperation between the Bank Santander and MGIMO (University. The paper analyzes the political and economic aspects of life in Spain, and its foreign policy of the period of government of Mariano Rajoy (from 2011 to the present time. The article is dedicated to actual problems of modern Spain: the economy and the priorities of the government of M.Rajoy, the problem of separatism and political system of the country. Modern Spain is still recovering economically from the euro debt crisis and continues to struggle with near-record unemployment. Domestic economic recovery of Spain and the country's foreign position are closely linked. The European integration process still remains the main strategic task of the spanish foreign policy. Spain increases its role in world politics and obtains a non-permanent UN's Security Council seat for the 2015-2016 term.

  1. Análisis numérico de las especies de Prosopis L. (Fabaceae de las costas de Perú y Ecuador

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    Alicia D. Burghardt

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes revisiones coinciden en señalar 2 o 3 especies de Prosopis para el sur de Ecuador y norte de Perú: P. juliflora (SW DC, P. pallida (Humb. et Bonpl. ex Willd. Kunth y P. affinis Sprengel. En el presente trabajo se informa del análisis cuantitativo de caracteres foliares de especímenes del genero Prosopis, recolectados a lo largo de la costa desde Arequipa (Perú a Manta (Ecuador. Los resultados señalan tres grupos bien definidos. Del análisis comparativo de los tipos y ejemplares de herbario de todas las especies y sinónimos citados para la zona de estudio surge que los taxones existentes son: P. pallida, P. limensis Bentham, ambos de amplia distribución, y P. chilensis (Molina Stuntz emend Burkart restringido al valle del río Camaná. Estos tres taxones se corresponden con los tres grupos obtenidos del análisis numérico. Debe señalarse la exclusión del área de P. juliflora y P. affinis. Se sugiere no utilizar las numerosas variedades señaladas para P. pallida.

  2. ADHD symptoms, anticipated hangover symptoms, and drinking habits in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos A; Span, Sherry A

    2008-08-01

    One risk factor increasingly evaluated as a predictor of problem drinking over the last two decades is Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; e.g., [Smith, B.H., Molina, B.S.G., & Pelham, W.E., Jr. (2002). The clinically meaningful link between alcohol use and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Alcohol Research & Health, 26(2), 122-129.]). Previous research has shown an inconsistent link between these two constructs indicating that a third variable, such as anticipated hangover symptoms, may be moderating this relation. In the current study, 68 female college students completed measures assessing alcohol consumption over the previous three months, ADHD symptoms, and anticipated hangover symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression, with Body Mass Index as a covariate, revealed that anticipated hangover symptoms moderated the relation between ADHD symptoms and frequency of drinking per month, beta=-.25, t (63)=-2.07, p<.05. Simple slopes analyses indicated that only individuals anticipating lesser hangover symptoms demonstrated a positive relation between their ADHD symptoms and frequency of drinking per month, beta=.44, t (63)=2.64, p<.05. Individuals anticipating greater hangover symptoms showed no relation between these two constructs. These results support the traditional punishment model of hangover symptoms, suggesting that those who do not anticipate the punishing effects of hangover may be at greatest risk for problem drinking.

  3. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically. PMID:23961108

  4. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2011-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically.

  5. Climate change adaptation: Boosting quinoa production using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2015-01-01

    In the battle to help developing countries overcome threats from declining food production caused by climate change, one species of edible grain-like crop has caught international attention because of its unique nutritional value. New and improved varieties of quinoa, historically grown in the highlands of South America, will be made available to farmers in mutations adapted to challenging environments in Bolivia and Peru. Increased genetic diversity is the result of the use of nuclear techniques in collaboration with the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), said L. Gomez-Pando, Principal Professor and Head of the Cereals and Native Grains Research programme at the National Agrarian University of La Molina in Peru. “There are 64 mutant lines of quinoa selected by yield potential and quality for the market,” he said. “These mutant lines will be further evaluated and the best lines will be released as new varieties in 2015–2016.”

  6. Problemas associados ao uso de plantas medicinais comercializadas no Mercadão de Madureira, município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Problems associated with the use of medicinal plants commercialized in "Mercadão de Madureira", Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bochner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais pela população brasileira é prática tradicional, sendo muitas vezes o único recurso utilizado na atenção básica de saúde. O uso terapêutico dessas plantas envolve várias etapas da cadeia produtiva, sendo a procedência, coleta, secagem, armazenamento, comércio, modo de preparo pelo usuário e uso. O objetivo desse trabalho documental, de caráter exploratório, foi levantar a produção científica existente sobre os problemas associados a cada uma dessas etapas e discutir as questões relacionadas à carência de estudos para comprovar a eficácia farmacológica e a ausência de riscos toxicológicos, bem como a prática de autodiagnóstico. As vinte plantas mais comercializadas em grande mercado do município do Rio de Janeiro em agosto de 2007 serviram de base para o levantamento documental do presente estudo. Dessas, seis apresentaram propriedades tóxicas comprovadas dependendo do preparo e uso, a arnica (Solidago chilensis Meyen, aroeira (Shinus terebinthifolius Raddi., arruda (Ruta graveolens L., babosa (Aloe vera L., confrei (Symphytum officinale L. e poejo (Mentha pulegium Lam. & DC.. A Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária aponta contra indicações para boldo-do-Chile (Peumus boldus Molina, chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus Micheli, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba N.E.Br., erva-de-bicho (Polygonum spp., espinheira-santa (Maytenus spp., picão (Bidens pilosa L., poejo (Mentha pulegium Lam. e tanchagem (Plantago major L.. O abajerú, arnica, boldo-do-Chile, confrei, erva-de-bicho e espinheira-santa tiveram relato de problemas de identificação na coleta e comercialização frente a outras morfologicamente semelhantes. Plantas cultivadas e silvestres apresentam variabilidade de princípios ativos influenciados por fatores ambientais e genéticos, como chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus Micheli, erva-cidreira (Lippia alba N.E.Br. e erva-de-bicho (Polygonum spp.. A contaminação e

  7. L’ethos communicatif de la langue-culture étrangère et le culturème social dans la classe de FLE au niveau supérieur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Balduzzi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article résulte de l’approfondissement des études préliminaires et descriptives ayant eu trait à la pragmatique interculturelle et aux relations interpersonnelles dans le cadre de la classe de français langue étrangère au niveau supérieur. Nous constatons que dans les échanges interpersonnels et notamment dans le traitement de « tu »et« vous » entre professeurs-étudiants, il émerge ce que Lcía Molina appelle « culturème social » Celui-ci ne répondrait pas à l’ethos communicatif de la langue- culture étrangère mais à celui de la langue- culture du pays où l’on habite. Une situation de communication interculturelle authentique permettrait aux étudiants de découvrir l’ethos communicatif à travers la quotidienneté des signes culturels et ils parviendraient à une meilleure maîtrise et à une connaissance plus approfondie de leurs comportements culturels; autrement c’est la tâche aux enseignants de les faire réfléchir à la langue-culture étrangère ainsi qu’à leur propre langue et culture.

  8. Nanoparticulate Quillaja saponin induces apoptosis in human leukemia cell lines with a high therapeutic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kefei; Berenjian, Saideh; Larsson, Rolf; Gullbo, Joachim; Nygren, Peter; Lövgren, Tanja; Morein, Bror

    2010-02-02

    Saponin fractions of Quillaja saponaria Molina (QS) have cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro, but are too toxic to be useful in the clinic. The toxic effect was abolished by converting QS fractions into stable nanoparticles through the binding of QS to cholesterol. Two fractions of QS were selected for particle formation, one with an acyl-chain (ASAP) was used to form killing and growth-inhibiting (KGI) particles, and the other without the acyl-chain (DSAP) was used to formulate blocking and balancing effect (BBE) particles. KGI showed significant growth inhibiting and cancer cell-killing activities in nine of 10 cell lines while BBE showed that on one cell line. The monoblastoid lymphoma cell line U937 was selected for analyzing the mode of action. Low concentrations of KGI (0.5 and 2 microg/mL) induced irreversible exit from the cell cycle, differentiation measured by cytokine production, and eventually programmed cell death (apoptosis). Compared to normal human monocytes, the U937 cells were 30-fold more sensitive to KGI. The nontoxic BBE blocked the cell killing effect of KGI in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, the formulation of QS into nanoparticles has the potential of becoming a new class of anticancer agents.

  9. Structural classification of acyl-substituted Quillaja saponins by electrospray ionisation ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry in combination with multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankefors, Johan; Nord, Lars I; Kenne, Lennart

    2008-12-01

    Thirty-eight saponins in two chromatographic fractions (QH-B and QH-C) from Quillaja saponaria Molina have been separated by a two-step high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure and investigated by electrospray ionisation ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry (ESI-ITMS(n)) in positive ion mode. MS(2) and MS(3) spectra of the compounds were investigated by principal component analysis (PCA) and could be classified by partial least squares - discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) according to the structures of the oligosaccharides at C-3 and C-28 of the saponins. Four minor components with novel structures were found in a previously non-investigated fraction of QH-C. The structures of two of these components, J1 and J1a, were predicted by PLS-DA whereas the structures of the two others, J2 and J3, were only partly predicted. The structures of J1 and J1a were composed of structural elements found in the 34 known saponins whereas a new acyl substituent, not included in the training set used for calibration of the PLS-DA models, was found in J2 and J3, making these two components outliers. The complete structures of the four components were confirmed by monosaccharide analysis, MS(n) data and (1)H NMR spectroscopy.

  10. Exposure of tilapia pituitary cells to saponins: insight into their mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Hedvat, Rachel; Kanias, Tamir; Francis, George; Becker, Klaus; Kerem, Zohar

    2005-01-01

    Cell permeation and durable effects of triterpenoidal saponin preparations from soybean (SbS), Quillaja saponaria Molina (QsS) and Gypsophila paniculata (GypS), were studied. A concentration-dependent change in hemolysis rates was observed when cells were incubated with QsS or GypS, but not with SbS. Dose dependence was also observed for the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; MW 142,000) and of Luteinizing Hormone (LH; MW 35,000) from tilapia pituitary dispersed cells. Exposure of pituitary fragments to a combination of GnRH and GypS or QsS, resulted in a significantly high release of LH. GypS were shown to be more potent in inducing hemolysis of human RBC's and LH release from tilapia pituitary fragments. Interestingly, tilapia pituitary fragments treated with QsS were able to secrete LH in a characteristic manner, in response to a second Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) pulse, while fragments exposed to GypS did not respond to the second hormone pulse. The rapid recovery of pituitary fragments after the removal of QsS, may suggest a rearrangement of membranes rather than pore formation as the mechanism of action of QsS. Understanding the structural features underlying the reversible rearrangement of membranes and the lack of hemolysing activity by specific saponins may lead to the development of novel bioactive drugs.

  11. Metabolomic analysis of saponins in crude extracts of Quillaja saponaria by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for product authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Geoffrey C; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of 50% aqueous methanolic extracts of bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina (quillaja) by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), using negative ion electrospray, revealed over 100 saponins. The majority could be assigned to known structures or generalised variations of these from the product ion spectra obtained by serial mass spectrometry in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Ten saponins contained a fatty acid domain terminated with both a pentose and deoxyhexose unit, a feature thus far only reported in QS-III. Twenty saponins were based on a hydroxylated derivative of quillaic acid, whereas only six 22beta-hydroxyquillaic acid saponins have been described. The occurrence of pairs of saponins differing only by the presence of a rhamnose or xylose unit in the C-3-substituted saccharide was readily observed in two-dimensional mass maps, and these showed the presence of the unreported 'rhamnose partner' of QS-III. However, one sample labelled as Q. saponaria appeared to lack all saponins containing rhamnose in the C-3 saccharide. Methods to authenticate saponin extracts of quillaja by LC/MS are suggested based on the general metabolomic profile, the occurrence of specific major saponins covering known structural variations, or the presence of saponins containing the unusual fatty acid domain, revealed by neutral loss analysis. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Oligosaccharide sequences in Quillaja saponins by electrospray ionization ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Susanna; Nord, Lars I; Kenne, Lennart

    2004-06-01

    Ten different samples with 13 previously identified saponin structures from Quillaja saponaria Molina were investigated by electrospray ionization ion trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry (ESI-ITMS(n)) in positive and negative ion modes. Both positive and negative ion mode MS(1)-MS(4) spectra were analyzed, showing that structural information on the two oligosaccharide parts in the saponin can be obtained from positive ion mode spectra whereas negative ion mode spectra mainly gave information on one of the oligosaccharide parts. Analysis of MS(1)-MS(4) spectra identified useful key fragment ions important for the structural elucidation of Quillaja saponins. A flowchart involving a stepwise procedure based on key fragments from MS(1)-MS(3) spectra was constructed for the identification of structural elements in the saponin. Peak intensity ratios in MS(3) spectra were found to be correlated with structural features of the investigated saponins and are therefore of value for the identification of terminal monosaccharide residues. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Saponin Interactions with Model Membrane Systems - Langmuir Monolayer Studies, Hemolysis and Formation of ISCOMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Carolin; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2016-12-01

    Saponins are used in medicine due to their pharmacological and immunological effects. To better understand interactions of saponins with model membranes and natural membranes of, for example, erythrocytes, Langmuir film balance experiments are well established. For most saponins, a strong interaction with cholesterol was demonstrated in dependence of both the aglycone part and the sugar moieties and is suggested to be correlated with a strong hemolytic activity, high toxicity, and high surface activity, as was demonstrated for the steroid saponin digitonin. In general, changes in the sugar chain or in substituents of the aglycone result in a modification of the saponin properties. A promising saponin with regard to fairly low hemolytic activity and high adjuvant effect is α -tomatine, which still shows a high affinity for cholesterol. An interaction with cholesterol and lipids has also been proven for the Quillaja saponin from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina. This triterpene saponin was approved in marketed vaccines as an adjuvant due to the formation of immunostimulating complexes. Immunostimulating complexes consist of a Quillaja saponin, cholesterol, phospholipids, and a corresponding antigen. Recently, another saponin from Quillaja brasiliensis was successfully tested in immunostimulating complexes, too. Based on the results of interaction studies, the formation of drug delivery systems such as immunostimulating complexes or similar self-assembled colloids is postulated for a variety of saponins. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Hierarchical high internal phase emulsions and transparent oleogels stabilized by quillaja saponin-coated nanodroplets for color performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Jin-Mei; Guo, Jian; Wan, Zhi-Li; Yin, Shou-Wei; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2017-02-22

    Herein, we report novel high internal phase emulsions and transparent oleogels that exhibit a hierarchical configuration by manipulating the spatial assembly of a natural small molecular-weight quillaja saponin for color performance. Quillaja saponin (QS) is a natural triterpenoid bidesmosidic from the soapbark tree (Quillaja saponaria Molina). Fairly monodispersed QS-coated nanodroplets (∼154 nm) were prepared using the ultrasonic emulsification strategy, and then used as block stabilizers for the fabrication of stable oil-in-water high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs, ϕ = 0.75). The resulting HIPEs can be easily converted into transparent oleogels with a very high oil loading (99.7%) through oven drying (70 °C). The jelly-like oleogels exhibit weak elastic, shear thinning behavior, good thixotropic recovery, and thermostabilization properties, which might be provided by the percolating 3D network of QS fibrils in the oil phase. We spatially tuned the color performance of the HIPEs and subsequent oleogels by locating the compositions of food colorants in different sections of their hierarchal architecture. The design and construction of hierarchical HIPEs and oleogels provide a promising new route for multitask functional delivery applications in various fields including food, cosmetics, and medical applications.

  15. Influence of Quil A on liposomal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paepenmüller, T; Müller-Goymann, C C

    2014-11-20

    Quil A is the purified saponin fraction extracted from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina. Besides its utilisation as a surfactant, it is commonly used in a pseudo-ternary system with cholesterol and phospholipid to form colloidal structures known as ISCOMs (immunostimulating complexes). Their appropriateness as immune stimulating drug carriers has been widely demonstrated, albeit the evaluation of physico-chemical properties of the ISCOM matrix still draws a heterogeneous picture. The aim of our study was to elucidate the effects of Quil A on liposomal phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol dispersions as this interaction is regarded as the major step for the formation of the ISCOM matrix. Transmission electron microscopy was applied to observe structural changes of liposomal dispersions upon addition of Quil A. A formation of ISCOM matrices readily out of the liposomal membrane was proven. The entrapment efficiency (EE) of Arsenazo III as well as differential thermal analysis (DSC) also demonstrated an interaction between the components above a critical concentration of Quil A. To further clarify the effects of interaction, Langmuir trough experiments of insoluble monolayers of both cholesterol and PC and their interaction with Quil A were performed. Measurable effects even below the critical concentration of Quil A (derived from DSC and EE) were shown. Cholesterol had a major impact on the formation and stabilisation of the ISCOM matrix. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Multidimensional profiling of components in complex mixtures of natural products for metabolic analysis, proof of concept: application to Quillaja saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankefors, Johan; Nord, Lars I; Kenne, Lennart

    2010-02-01

    A method for separation and detection of major and minor components in complex mixtures has been developed, utilising two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography (2D-HPLC) combined with electrospray ionisation ion-trap multiple-stage mass spectrometry (ESI-ITMS(n)). Chromatographic conditions were matched with mass spectrometric detection to maximise the number of components that could be separated. The described procedure has proven useful to discern several hundreds of saponin components when applied to Quillaja saponaria Molina bark extracts. The discrimination of each saponin component relies on the fact that three coordinates (x, y, z) for each component can be derived from the retention time of the two chromatographic steps (x, y) and the m/z-values from the multiple-stage mass spectrometry (z(n), n=1, 2, ...). Thus an improved graphical representation was obtained by combining retention times from the two-stage separation with +MS(1) (z(1)) and the additional structural information from the second mass stage +MS(2) (z(2), z(3)) corresponding to the main fragment ions. By this approach three-dimensional plots can be made that reveal both the chromatographic and structural properties of a specific mixture which can be useful in fingerprinting of complex mixtures. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of different biomass production systems hydroponic corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Vicente Acosta Lozano

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It was assessed the effect of three nutritive solutions (Hoagland, La Molina y FAO and three harvesting time (12, 15 and 18 days on forage yield and nutritive value of green fodder hydroponic from maize (Zea mays, L.. The experiment was developed in “La Sevilla” farm placed in San Marcos town, municipality and province of Santa Elena, Ecuador. The maize seeds 2,5 kg/m2 were washed, disinfected, soaked during 24 hours and placed in germination plates (1 x 1 x 0,04 m in dark condition during three days. It was applied to a fully randomized design with factorial arrangement without interaction 4 x 3 (3 nutritive solutions + 1 control (water x 3 harvesting time and 3 repetitions per treatments. The highest yields in terms of dry matter (137 and 114 kg DM/m2/year and crude protein (21,3 y 15,5 kg CP/m2/year were reached with the Hoagland and FAO solutions at 12 days of age, respectively. It was concluded that the best harvesting time independently of the nutritive solution was at 12 days and in all harvesting time the Hoagland and FAO solutions showed the best agronomic and chemical results.

  18. Redes sociales: audiencias, contenidos e instrumentalización de mensajes en @ElNacionalWeb y @ElUniversal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlyn Orejuela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el tipo de interactividad que se produce en las cuentas de Twitter de los periódicos El Nacional y El Universal, @ElNacionalWeb y @ElUniversal respectivamente, de acuerdo a la clasificación que sobre ésta hace Rost (2006 y con base en los estudios de Puyosa (2007, Molina (2008, Bernal (2009, Hoare (2010, y Bonnelly (2011. Se estudia y analiza las repercusiones que la aplicación de esta red social tiene para ambos medios y también hacia sus usuarios, para concluir que los medios visibilizan poco las agendas sociales de los usuarios, al dar supremacía a la reproducción de su propia agenda, previamente consolidada en la versión impresa y digital. En tanto que sí se ofrece una variada gama de herramientas interactivas a través de sus cuentas twitter, los medios refuerzan el tipo de interactividad selectiva sin que haya interactividad comunicativa, que los lleve al nivel de diálogo con sus usuarios, lo que no permite una colaboración mutua en consecución de objetivos afines.

  19. Recognizing rural territorial heritage: characterization of Andean tuber production systems in Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavijo Ponce Neidy Lorena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    In the municipalities Ventaquemada and Turmequé (Boyacá- Colombia, we identified 20 small agricultures by their production systems including the following Andean tubers: Ullucus tuberosus Caldas (ulluco, Oxalis tuberosa Molina (oca, and Tropaeolum tuberosum R. & P. (Mashua, which were important in their family meals and culture, however, their use has declined and the area has not seen research and development processes that provide alternatives for handling, conservation, use and marketing, and now are at the risk of disappearing. This research conducted participatory assessment processes for the characterization of production systems and initiated reassessment processes of territorial heritage, identifying common sub-farm agrobiodiversity and projects for these traditional Andean tuber crops in order to enhance the special and knowhow knowledge surrounding the production.

  20. Recalibration of the Viyager PRA antenna for polarization sense measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Carr, T. D.

    1994-01-01

    The Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) antenna and receiver system provides an indication of the sense of elliptical or circular polarization of radiation that is not correct for all directions of incidence. The true sense could be determined for all directions if accurate calibration data were available. It was not feasible to make the calibration before the Voyagers were launched. Lecacheux & Ortega-Molina (1987), however, were able to derive such calibration data from planetary radio observations made in flight. They expressed their results in terms of the tilt of a plane (the E-plane) that divides the incident ray directions for which the indicated polarization sense is correct from those directions for which the indicated sense is reversed. We demonstrate that there are certain directions for which this calibration is itself in error, and that the surface dividing the two sets of incident rays is more complex than a tilted plane. We are able to make a crude approximation to the true surface from the limited data available.

  1. [Emergency department triage: independent nursing intervention?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corujo Fontes, Sergio José

    2014-03-01

    The branch hospital triage aimed at, as well as exercised by nurses, has evolved to meet their needs to organize and make visible the nurses' duties. However, it is still not properly considered as independent nursing intervention. Evidencing practice triage nurse in hospital as experienced by their protagonists disclosed the possible causes of this paradoxical competence. In a sample of 41 nurses, of the 52 possible with previous experience in hospital triage in the Emergency Department of the Hospital General Dr. José Molina Orosa in Lanzarote, the nurses themselves carried out an opinion survey that group together statements about different aspects of the triaje nurse. In its results, 65.8% of those polled thought the triaje nursing training to be deficient and even though nearly half 48.7%, was considered competent to decide the level of emergency, 46.3% disagreed to take this task part of their duty. It is conclusive that the training received in hospital triage, regulated and sustained, is deficient, that is the main reason why professionals have their doubts to take on an activity they are not familiar with. Triage systems do not record the entire outcome of the nursing work and nursing methodology does not seem to be quite indicative for this task.

  2. LA MEMORIA Y EL OLVIDO: LA CENSURA DEL ESTADO NOVO EN PORTUGAL A TRAVÉS DE TRES PIEZAS DE AUTORES ESPAÑOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cabrera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el funcionamiento de la censura del teatro en Portugal a partir del análisis de tres obras de teatro: La casa de Bernarda Alba de Federico García Lorca (presentada en 1947; Las quinas de Portugal, de Tirso de Molina (presentada en 1968; y El Triciclo, de Fernando Arrabal (presentada en 1968. El estudio se centra en dos momentos distintos del Estado Novo: el final de los años 40, época en la que la organización censoria entra en un proceso de restauración; y el período de los años 60, durante el cual se endurecieron los procesos de censura como consecuencia del recrudecimiento del régimen de Salazar. Este trabajo, que se basa en un estudio de fuentes documentales, pretende dar a conocer la representación de los procesos de censura y sus efectos en la sociedad y la cultura portuguesas.

  3. Práticas pedagógicas na alfabetização de uma turma multisseriada no campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilda Ribeiro Chagas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo refletir a respeito das práticas pedagógicas de alfabetizaçãode uma turma multisseriada no campo, onde as crianças da respectiva turma são considerados sujeitos históricos e de direitos. A metodologia de pesquisa qualitativa teve como procedimentos a escuta das falas, hipóteses, estratégias de aprendizagens das crianças, as quais possibilitaram a reflexão a respeito da trajetória profissional e acadêmica da professora-pesquisadora. Os estudos de Paulo Freire, Magda Soares, Mônica Molina, dentre outros, nos possibilitaram destacar que as crianças do campo necessitam que se articulem os saberes da vida coletiva do campo no processo de alfabetização. A formação docente na especificidade da educação do campo precisa ser considerada nas políticas públicas. Palavras-chave: educação do campo; alfabetização; turma multisseriada. 

  4. Soil moisture under contrasted atmospheric conditions in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin-Molina, César; Cerdà, Artemi; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture plays a key role on the recently abandoned agriculture land where determine the recovery and the erosion rates (Cerdà, 1995), on the soil water repellency degree (Bodí et al., 2011) and on the hydrological cycle (Cerdà, 1999), the plant development (García Fayos et al., 2000) and the seasonality of the geomorphological processes (Cerdà, 2002). Moreover, Soil moisture is a key factor on the semiarid land (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013), on the productivity of the land (Qadir et al., 2013) and soils treated with amendments (Johnston et al., 2013) and on soil reclamation on drained saline-sodic soils (Ghafoor et al., 2012). In previous study (Azorin-Molina et al., 2013) we investigated the intraannual evolution of soil moisture in soils under different land managements in the Valencia region, Eastern Spain, and concluded that soil moisture recharges are much controlled by few heavy precipitation events; 23 recharge episodes during 2012. Most of the soil moisture recharge events occurred during the autumn season under Back-Door cold front situations. Additionally, sea breeze front episodes brought isolated precipitation and moisture to mountainous areas within summer (Azorin-Molina et al., 2009). We also evidenced that the intraanual evolution of soil moisture changes are positively and significatively correlated (at pGeoderma, 160, 599-607. 10.1016/j.geoderma.2010.11.009 Cerdà, A. 1995. Soil moisture regime under simulated rainfall in a three years abandoned field in Southeast Spain. Physics and Chemistry of The Earth, 20 (3-4), 271-279. Cerdà, A. 1999. Seasonal and spatial variations in infiltration rates in badland surfaces under Mediterranean climatic conditions. Water Resources Research, 35 (1) 319-328. Cerdà, A. 2002. The effect of season and parent material on water erosion on highly eroded soils in eastern Spain. Journal of Arid Environments, 52, 319-337. García-Fayos, P. García-Ventoso, B. Cerdà, A. 2000. Limitations to Plant establishment

  5. Interaction of on-site and near real time measured turbidity and enzyme activity in stream water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Zessner, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    On-site and on-line systems that provide an integrated surveillance of physicochemical and microbiological parameters gain significance in water quality monitoring. Particular relating to diffuse pollution from agricultural areas and use-orientated protection of waters the detection of faecal pollution is a fundamental part. For the near real time and on-site detection of microbiological faecal pollution of water, the beta-D- Glucuronidase (GLUC) enzymatic activity has been suggested as a surrogate parameter. Due to possible short measure intervals of three hours, this method has high potential as a water quality monitoring tool. While cultivation based standard determination takes more than one working day (Cabral 2010) the potential advantage of detecting the GLUC activity is the high temporal measuring resolution. Yet, there is still a big gap of knowledge on the sensitivity and specificity concerning the faecal indication capacity of GLUC in relation to standard assays (Cabral 2010). Interference effects of physicochemical parameters on the enzymatic activity respectively fluorescence have been discussed (Molina-Munoz et al. 2007; Tryland and Fiksdal 1998, Biswal et al. 2003). Results from a monitoring of a rivulet in an agricultural catchment in Lower Austria (HOAL - Hydrological Open Air Laboratory) are presented here. The HOAL offers technical resources that allow measurements at high temporal and spatial resolution and to apply various hydrological methods in one catchment. Two automated enzymatic measuring devices (Coliguard, mbOnline, Austria) and physicochemical in-stream measurements are used, as well as in-stream spectroscopy (spectrolyser, s::can, Austria). Accuracy of both enzymatic measuring devices is compared through diverse hydrological and seasonal conditions. Reference analyses by cultivation based determination were performed. Data from Coliguard devices is combined with physicochemical and spectroscopy data to gain information about the

  6. The Offlap Break Position Vs Sea Level: A Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropeano, M.; Pieri, P.; Pomar, L.; Sabato, L.

    Sedimentary lithosomes with subhorizontal topsets, basinward prograding foresets and subhorizontal bottomsets are common in the geologic record, and most of them display similar bedding architectures and/or seismic reflection patterns (i.e. Gylbert- type deltas and shelf wedges). Nevertheless, in shallow marine settings these bodies may form in distinct sedimentary environments and they result from different sed- imentary processes. The offlap break (topset edge) occurs in relation to the posi- tion of baselevel and two main groups of lithosomes can be differentiated with re- spect to the position of the offlap break within the shelf profile. The baselevel of the first group is the sea level (or lake level); the topsets are mainly composed by continental- or very-shallow-water sedimentary facies and the offlap break practi- cally corresponds to the shoreline. Exemples of these lithosomes are high-constructive deltas (river-dominated deltas) and prograding beaches. For the second group, base- level corresponds to the base of wave/tide traction, and their topsets are mostly composed by shoreface/nearshore deposits. Examples of these lithosomes are high- destructive deltas (wave/tide-dominated deltas) and infralittoral prograding wedges (i.e Hernandez-Molina et al., 2000). The offlap break corresponds to the shelf edge (shoreface edge), which is located at the transition between nearshore and offshore set- tings, where a terrace prodelta- or transition-slope may develop (Pomar &Tropeano, 2001). Two main problems derive from these alternative interpretations of shallow- marine seaward prograding lithosomes: 1) both in ancient sedimentary shallow-marine successios (showing seaward prograding foresets) and in high resolution seismic pro- files (showing shelf wedges), the offlap break is commonly considered to correspond to the sea-level (shoreline) and used to inferr paleo sea-level positions and to construct sea-level curves. Without a good facies control, this use of

  7. Reseñas de libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Galindo Lucas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ali, Tariq, Bush en Babilonia. La recolonización de Irak. Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 2004, 286 pp.Páginas 183-185Alfonso Galindo LucasÁlvarez Espinosa, Daniel, Cristianos y marxistas contra Franco. Cádiz, Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Cádiz, 2003, 454 pp.Páginas 185-187Gonzalo Ruiz BidónBonhoeffer, Dietrich, Resistencia y sumisión. Cartas y apuntes desde el cautiverio. Salamanca, Sígueme, 2003, 300 pp.Páginas 187-188Daniel Francisco Álvarez EspinosaCabrera, Miguel Ángel, Historia, Lenguaje y Teoría de la Sociedad. Madrid, Cátedra Universitat de Valencia, 2001, 188 pp.Páginas 188-191Alejandro Estrella GonzálezCobo Romero, Francisco, De campesinos a electores. Modernización agraria en Andalucía, politización campesina y derechización de los pequeños propietarios y arrendatarios. El caso de la provincia de Jaén, 1931-1936. Madrid, B. Nueva, 2003, 358 pp.Páginas 191-193David Molina RabadánColomer Viadel, Antonio, Crisis y Reformas en Iberoamérica ¿... y la Revolución? Valencia, Editorial Nomos, 2002, 231 pp.Páginas 193-196Jesús Fernández GarcíaCué, Carlos E., ¡Pásalo!: Los cuatro días de marzo que cambiaron el país. Barcelona, Ediciones Península Atalaya, 2004, 143 pp.Páginas 196-198Inmaculada Ramírez PérezCuenca Toribio, José Manuel, Catolicismo social y político en la España contemporánea (1870-2000. Madrid, Unión Editorial, 2003, 451 pp.Páginas 198-200Fernando López MoraKagan, Robert, Poder y debilidad. Europa y EEUU en el nuevo orden mundial. Madrid, Taurus, 2003, 165 pp.Páginas 201-202David Molina RabadánNapoleoni, Loretta, Yihad. Cómo se financia el terrorismo en la nueva economía. Barcelona, Ediciones Urano, 2004, 462 pp.Páginas 202-204Andrés Herrera FeligrerasPaksoy, H.B., How Governed, Who Pays? Lawrence (KS, Carrie, 2001, 79 pp.Páginas 204-206Dan KrejciReinares, Fernando, Terrorismo Global. Madrid, Taurus, 2003, 180 pp.Páginas 206-208Marcela Iglesias OnofrioSala Rose

  8. Links between extreme UV-radiation, total ozone, surface albedo and cloudiness: An analysis of 30 years of data from Switzerland and Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, H. E.; Staehelin, J.; Weihs, P.; Vuilleumier, L.; Blumthaler, M.; Holawe, F.; Lindfors, A.; Maeder, J. A.; Simic, S.; Wagner, J. E.; Walker, D.; Ribatet, M.

    2009-04-01

    Since the discovery of anthropogenic ozone depletion in the early 1970s (e.g. Molina and Rowland, 1974; Farman et al., 1985) the interest in stratospheric ozone trends and solar UV-B increased within the scientific community and the general public because of the link between reduced total column ozone and increased UV-radiation doses. Stratospheric ozone (e.g. Koch et al., 2005) and erythemal UV-radiation (e.g. Rieder et al., 2008) in the northern mid-latitudes are characterized by strong temporal variability. Long-term measurements of UV-B radiation are rare and datasets are only available for few locations and most of these measurements do not provide spectral information on the UV part of the spectra. During strong efforts in the reconstruction of erythemal UV, datasets of past UV-radiation doses became available for several measurement sites all over the globe. For Switzerland and Austria reconstructed UV datasets are available for 3 measurement sites (Davos, Sonnblick and Vienna) (Lindfors and Vuilleumier, 2005; Rieder et al., 2008). The world's longest ozone time series dating back to 1926 is available from Arosa, Switzerland, and is discussed in detail by Staehelin et al. (1998a,b). Recently new tools from extreme value theory have been applied to the Arosa time series to describe extreme events in low and high total ozone (Rieder et al., 2009). In our study we address the question of how much of the extremes in UV-radiation can be attributed to extremes in total ozone, high surface albedo and cloudiness. An analysis of the frequency distributions of such extreme events for the last decades is presented to gain a better understanding of the links between extreme erythemal UV-radiation, total ozone, surface albedo and clouds. References: Farman, J. C., Gardiner, B. G., and Shanklin, J. D.: Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction, Nature, 315, 207-210, 1985. Koch, G., Wernli, H., Schwierz, C., Staehelin, J., and Peter, T

  9. Consumo tecnológico y educación tecnológica: fundamentos filosóficos para un proyecto futuro Technological consumption and technological education: philosophical foundations for a future project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Tula Molina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan cuatro conceptos que se consideran claves para reformular la educación en tecnología, con el objetivo de orientar el rumbo en la construcción colectiva de relaciones más equitativas y participativas entre innovación tecnológica y metas sociales. Estos conceptos son los de "código técnico" (A. Feenberg, "epistemología cívica" (J. Jasanoff, "ciudadanía socio-técnica" (H. Thomas y "contexto de implicación" (F. Tula Molina. Se plantea una relación de sinergia entre tales conceptos en una visión amplia que considera a los estudiantes principalmente en su dimensión ciudadana, pensándolos como futuros jueces, abogados, economistas, ingenieros, educadores, etc. Bajo esta consideración se busca proporcionarles una opinión crítica e informada sobre las políticas tecnológicas que los afectarán tanto en su dimensión humana como social. Resulta razonable esperar que la formación adquirida permita al alumno desarrollar actitudes de responsabilidad personal en relación con el ambiente natural y la calidad de vida. Con esta línea curricular que los alumnos adquieran capacidades críticas para la participación en las instituciones donde se elaboran, diseñan y regulan las innovaciones tecnológicas y sus prácticas asociadas. Desde mi punto de vista, este abordaje permite que el sistema educativo consolide los procesos de alfabetización tecnológica con una posición activa hacia la participación ciudadana responsable.Four concepts are presented herein, deemed keys to reformulating technological education, with the purpose of guiding the collective construction of more equitable and participative relationships between technological innovation and social goals. These concepts are: "technical code" (A. Feenberg, "civic epistemology" (J. Jasanoff, "socio-technical citizenship" (H. Thomas and "implication context" (F. Tula Molina. We propose a synergistic relationship between these concepts, through a broad perspective that

  10. Reseñas de Libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Iturriaga Barco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Beck, Ulrich, Sobre el terrorismo y la guerra. Barcelona, Paidós, 2002, 62 pp.Páginas 187-188Diego Iturriaga BarcoBurleigh, Michael, Sangre y rabia. Una historia cultural del terrorismo. Madrid, Taurus, 2008, 736 pp.Páginas 188-190David Molina RabadánColectivo IOÉ, Barómetro Social de España. Análisis del período 1994-2006. Madrid, Traficantes de Sueños y Centro de Investigación para la Paz (CIP-Ecosocial, 2008, 469 pp.Páginas 190-192Gema González FerreraDavis, Mike, Planeta de Ciudades Miseria. Madrid, Foca, 2007, 283 pp.Páginas 192-194Jesús Rodríguez GonzálezGonzález Madrid, Damián A. (coord., El Franquismo y la Transición en España: Desmitificación y Reconstrucción de la memoria de una época. Madrid, Catarata, 2008, 273 pp.Páginas 194-196Antonio Muñoz de Arenillas ValdésIllades, Carlos, Las otras ideas. El primer socialismo en México 1850-1935. UAM, Era. 2008, 327 pp.Páginas 196-199Alejandro Estrella GonzálezOrtega López, Teresa María (ed., Por una Historia Global. El debate historiográfico en los últimos tiempos. Granada, Universidad de Granada, Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza, 2007, 440 pp.Páginas 199-201Francisco de Paula Villatoro SánchezOrtiz Heras, Manuel (coord., Movimientos sociales en la crisis de la dictadura y la transición: Castilla-La Mancha, 1969-1979. Ciudad Real, Almud Ediciones, 2008, 337 pp.Páginas 201-203Antonio Muñoz de Arenillas ValdésRevista de Estudios Europeos, 46-47 (Mayo/Diciembre 2007Páginas 204-206Miguel Ángel González ClarósTitos Martínez, Manuel, Música y finanzas. Biografía económica de Manuel de Falla. Granada, Publicaciones del Archivo Manuel de Falla, 2008, 473 pp.Páginas 206-209Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaSloterdijk, Peter, En el mundo interior del Capital. Para una teoría filosófica de la globalización. Madrid, Siruela, 2007, 336 pp.Páginas 209-212José Antonio Ruiz GilWeiner, Tim, Legado de cenizas. Historia secreta de la CIA. Barcelona, Debate, 2008, 718

  11. Reflexiones sobre la empresa cultural del rey Don Sancho IV de Castilla

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    Bizzarri, Hugo O.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last times we have seen the reappraisal of the cultural period during the last quarter of the XIII Century, specially in that concerning to the participation of king Sancho IV in the patronage of the artistic works (literary as architectonic and in considering this epoch as a period of flowering of tendencies which signed the culture of XIV Century. This provoked the revision by the critics of the King Bravo's role in this cultural renewal and the intent of outlining an intellectual group around him or even to sustain the influence of the queen Doña María de Molina. At the same time, it was accepted the existence of a "cultural model" which binds together all the manifestations of this epoch. The present work poses a series of reflexions about two aspects of the culture of this period: to search external signs to the king Don Sancho's artistic works which let perceive the clue of a real king's patronage, and, finally, to consider ideological aspects of these works, which even without denying the unity of this cultural model, present it as the fruit of heterogeneous working groups.

    Dans ces dernières années, on a revalorisé certains aspects du domaine culturel de la fìn du XIIIe siècle, tout en particulier le patronage du roi Sancho IV des belles lettres et de l'architecture et sa participation dans le développement de tendances qui ont marqué la culture du XIVe siècle. Ces constatation ont entraîné, dune part, un nouvel analyse du rôle du roi brave dans cet épanouissement culturel et, d'autre part, l'examen du groupe intellectuel construit autour du roi ainsi que la possible ingérence de la reine Doña María de Molina dans cet équipe. Tandis que ces recherches se développaient, on a confirmé l´existence d'un modèle culturel qui englobe toutes les manifestations de cette époque. Cet article examine deux points capitaux de la culture de cette période: dune part on cherchera des signes extérieurs dans les

  12. Synthesis of hydrogen cyanide under simulated hydrothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo-González, Paulina

    have been conducted with pyrite and quantified by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These results indicate that catalysis induced by the mineral surface under hydrothermal conditions does not stop with the production of HCN, but the reaction continues leading to more complex nitriles. The experiments also reveal a clear trend between time and the production of more complex molecules, which are measurable by the chromatographic method. Brandes, J.A., Boctor, N.Z., Cody, G.D., Cooper, B. A., Hazen, R. M. and Yoder Jr, H.S. (1998). Abiotic nitrogen reduction on the early Earth. Nature 395, 365-367. Kasting J.F. (1993) Earth's early atmosphere. Science 259, 920-926. Mather, T.A., Pyle, D.M., and Allen, A.G. (2004) Volcanic source of fixed nitrogen in the early Earth's atmosphere. Geology 32, 905-908. Navarro-Gonźlez, R., Molina, M.J. and. Molina, L.T. (1998) Nitrogen fixation by volcanic a lightning in the early Earth. Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3123-3126. Navarro-Gonźlez, R., McKay, C.P. and Nna Mvondo, D. ( 2001) A possible nitrogen crisis for a Archean life due to reduced nitrogen fixation by lightning. Nature 412, 61-64. Stribling, R., and Miller, S.L. (1987) Energy yields for the hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde synthesis: the HCN and amino acid concentrations in the primitive ocean. Origins Life 17, 261-273.

  13. Efeito da irradiação na microbiota fúngica de plantas medicinais Irradiation effect on mycoflora of medicinal plants

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    Guilherme Prado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O aumento do consumo de produtos de origem natural tem ocasionado problemas de saúde pública devido ao risco da contaminação fúngica e a possível presença de micotoxinas. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, identificar as espécies fúngicas com potencial micotoxigênico e avaliar o efeito da irradiação gama (60Co na destruição da microbiota fúngica natural de cinco plantas medicinais: Alcachofra (Cynara scolymus L., Boldo (Peumusboldus Molina, Camomila (Matricaria recutita L., Chapéu de couro (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli e Sene (Cassia acutifolia Delile. A quantificação de fungos filamentosos e leveduras foi efetuada pela Técnica de Diluição Seriada em meio DRBC. Em Camomila foram identificados 8 isolados de Aspergillus flavus, sendo 2 (25% produtores de aflatoxina B1 e B2 e 5 isolados de Aspergillus ochraceus, sendo 2 (40% produtores de ocratoxina A. Em Alcachofra foi identificado 1 isolado de Aspergillus ostianus produtor de ocratoxina A. Observou-se redução total da contagem de fungos em Boldo a partir de 3 kGy e em Chapéu de couro e Sene a partir de 5 kGy. Em Alcachofra, a contagem inicial de 5,0 x 10(6 UFC/g foi reduzida para 3,5 x 10² UFC com dose de 10 kGy. Nessa mesma dose a contagem fúngica em Camomila foi reduzida de 3,0 x 10(5 UFC/g para 2,2 x 10³ UFC/g.The increasing consumption of natural products has brought about problems related to public health due to the risk of fungi contamination and the considerable possibility of mycotoxin presence. The aim of this work was to identify the fungi species with mycotoxigenic potential and to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation (60Co on killing the natural fungi microbiota of five medicinal plants: artichoke (Cynara scolymus L., boldo (Peumusboldus Molina, chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., burhead (Echinodorusgrandiflorus Micheli, and senna (Cassia acutifolia Delile. The qualification of filamentous fungi and yeast was carried out utilizing the Technique of Serial

  14. Reseñas de Libros

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    Joaquín Piñeiro Blanca

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Affaya, Noureddine; Guerraoui, Driss, La imagen de España en Marruecos. Barcelona, Fundación CIDOB, 2005, 222 pp.Páginas 197-198Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaBengoa, José, Historia de un conflicto: El Estado y los mapuches en el siglo XX. Santiago, Planeta/Ariel, 1999, 237 pp.Páginas 198-201Danny Monsálvez AranedaBernstein, Richard J., El abuso del mal. La corrupción de la política y la religión desde el 11/9. Buenos Aires, Katz Editores, 2006, 228 pp.Páginas 201-202Alejandro Piñero GonzálezCarroll, James, La casa de la guerra. El Pentágono es quien manda. Barcelona, Crítica, 2007, 996 pp.Páginas 203-205David Molina RabadánEsparza, José Javier, Los ocho pecados capitales del arte contemporáneo. Córdoba, Ed. Almuzara, 2006, 172 pp.Páginas 205-206Juan José López CabralesFerguson, Niall, Coloso. Auge y decadencia del imperio americano. Barcelona, Debate, 2005, 504 pp.Páginas 206-208David Molina RabadánFernández Navarro, Antonio, Sindicatos y empresarios almerienses ante la construcción de la democracia. Almería, Instituto de Estudios Almerienses-Diputación de Almería, 2005, 263 pp.Páginas 209-211Áurea Vidal GómezGraham, Helen, La República española en guerra (1936-1939. Barcelona, 2006, 611 pp.Páginas 211-214Carmen González MartínezHerrerín López, Ángel, La CNT durante el franquismo. Clandestinidad y exilio (1939-1975. Madrid, Siglo XXI, 2004, 468 pp.Páginas 214-216Alberto Carrillo LinaresHyde-Price, Adrian, European Security In The Twenty First Century. The Challenge Of Multipolarity. Oxon, Routledge, 2007, 241 pp.Páginas 216-218Javier Lión BustilloOrellana, Luis, El fuego y la nieve. Historia del movimiento pentecostal en Chile: 1909-1932. Concepción, CEEP Ediciones, 2006, 165 pp.Páginas 218-220David Oviedo SilvaQuiroga Fernández de Soto, Alejandro, Los orígenes del nacionalcatolicismo. José Pemartín y la Dictadura de Primo de Rivera. Granada, Editorial Comares, 2006, 154 pp.Páginas 221-223Miguel

  15. Reseñas de Libros

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    Jesús María Ramos Pérez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alfaro Monsalve, Karen et al., Historia sociopolítica del Concepción contemporáneo: memoria, identidad y territorio. Santiago-Concepción, Universidad ARCIS-Ediciones Escaparate, 2006 (Taller de Ciencias Sociales “Luis Vitale”.Páginas 195-196Jesús María Ramos PérezCarroll, Tim, La Gran Evasión. La verdadera historia de la fuga más famosa de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Barcelona, Puzzle Editorial, 2005, 352 pp.Páginas 197-201Daniel Francisco Álvarez EspinosaCerón Torreblanca, Cristian Matías, “La paz de Franco”, la posguerra en Málaga: desde los oscuros años 40 a los grises años 50. Málaga, Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Málaga, 2007, 408 pp.Páginas 201-203Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaChang, Ha Joon; Grabel, Ilene, Reivindicar el desarrollo. Un manual de política económica alternativa. Barcelona, Intermón Oxfam, 2006, 208 pp.Páginas 203-206Fernando López CastellanoDel Amo, Mercedes; García Rey, Marcos y Ortega, Rafael (eds., El 11-M en la prensa árabe. Sevilla, Mergablum, 2004, 136 pp.Páginas 206-208Diego Iturriaga BarcoHardt, Michael; Negri, Antonio, Imperio. Barcelona, Paidós, 2002, 432 pp.Páginas 208-213Flavia PascarielloJudt, Tony, Postguerra. Una historia de Europa desde 1945. Madrid, Taurus, 2006, 1212 pp.Páginas 213-215David Molina RabadánLópez Castillo, Antonio, El republicanismo de centro. El Partido Republicano Radical de Almería durante la Segunda República (1931-1936. Almería, Instituto de Estudios Almerienses, 2006, 229 pp.Páginas 215-217Mónica Fernández AmadorMarsi, Luca, Estrategias corporativas. Aspectos sociales y consecuencias para la comunidad. Nanterre, Centre de Recherches Ibériques et Ibéro-Américaines, Universidad de Paris X–Nanterre, 2006, 295 pp.Páginas 217-219Alvar De la LlosaMorgan Philip, The Fall of Mussolini. Oxford-New York, Oxford University Press, 2007, 263 pp.Páginas 219-220Jan NelisPisanty Valentina, La difesa della razza. Antologia 1938-1943, con un

  16. Reseñas de Libros

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    Juan Gustavo Núñez Olguín

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Amorós, Mario, Compañero Presidente. Salvador Allende, una vida por la democracia y el socialismo. Valencia, Universitat de València, 2008, 372 pp.Páginas 215-217Juan Gustavo Núñez OlguínCoppola Salvatore, El pontífice sumamente bondadoso. Diplomazia, chiesa e politica ai tempi di Giovanni XXIII (1958-1963, Editan, Galatina, 2009Páginas 217-218Romina De CarliDel Arco Blanco, Miguel Ángel, Hambre de Siglos. Mundo rural y apoyos sociales del franquismo en Andalucía Oriental, 1936-1951. Granada, Comares, 2007, 513 pp.Páginas 218-220Damián González MadridGómez Morales, Jesús (Coord., La Gestión de Proyectos Europeos de Cooperación Transfronteriza. Cádiz, Universidad de Cádiz-Aula Universitaria del Estrecho, 2008, 483 pp.Páginas 220-221Héctor Vega DeloyaLacomba, Josep, Historia de las migraciones internacionales. Historia, geografía análisis e interpretación. Madrid, Catarata, 2008, 253 pp.Páginas 222-224Francisco de Paula Villatoro SánchezOliver Olmo, Pedro, La utopía insumisa de Pepe Beunza. Barcelona, Virus, 2002, 174 pp.Páginas 224-225María Francisca Fernández CáceresPiatigorsky, Jacques; Sapir, Jacques (coord., Le Grand Jeu: Les enjeux géopolitiques de l’Asie Centrale. Paris, Éditions Autrement, 2009, 252 pp.Páginas 225-227Manuel Pérez SalinasShapiro, Robert J., 2020: un nuevo paradigma. Cómo los retos del futuro cambiarán nuestra forma de vivir y trabajar. Barcelona, Ediciones Urano, 2009, 574 pp.Páginas 227-229David Molina RabadánVelarde, Juan, Cien años de economía española. Madrid, Ediciones Encuentro, 2009, 360 pp.Páginas 229-231Ubaldo Cuadrado MartínezVarios autores, Explosión urbana y globalización. Madrid, Editorial Popular, 2008, 185 pp.Páginas 231-232Miguel Ángel González ClarósVarios autores, Atlas Cronológico de la Historia de España. Madrid, Real Academia de la Historia-Grupo SM, 2007, 446 pp.Páginas 232-234Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaZakaria, Fareed, El mundo después de USA

  17. Extensional Detachment faulting in melange rocks. Plurikilometres migration by W the External Zone (Cordillera Bética, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Francisco Javier; Azañon, Jose Miguel; Rodríguez, Jose; Mateos, Rosa Maria

    2014-05-01

    The synthesis and correlation of units carried out in the continuous geological map (Roldán et al., 2012), has revealed a fragmentation of the carbonate outcrops belong to the Subbetic Domain (García-Hernández et al., 1980). Subbetic NW verging thrust and fold axial traces have not lateral continuity and Jurassic carbonate outscrops appear as klippes on the olistotromic unit. These ductile structures that can be observed in the internal structure of these jurassic blocks are unrelated to the brittle-ductile deformation bands observed at the basal pelitic levels. Basal detachments are rooted in: a) the Olistostromic unit, a Upper Langhian-Lower Serravallian breccia constituted by gypsum-bearing clay and marls; b) Cretaceous-Tertiary marly sedimentary rocks (Rodríguez-Fernández, et al., 2013) . In both kind of rocks, cataclastic structures allows to infer a top-to-the WSW displacement. Paleostress measurements, made on these detachments levels, are compatible with a extensional regime (Roldán et al., 2012). At the same time, the analysis and interpretation of subsurface data (seismic surveys and borehole testing) shows that the Subbetic Domain (External Subbetic, Molina 1987) are affected by westward low-angle normal faults. A balanced cross-section, based on morphological and cartographic data in the area between Sierra de Cabra and Sierra de Alta Coloma (Valdepeñas de Jaén), shows plurikilometric displacements which has been produced during Late Serravallian-Early Tortonian times. References: García-Hernández, M., López-Garrido, A.C., Rivas, P., Sanz de Galdeano, C., Vera, J.A. (1980): Mesozoic paleogeographic evolution of the zones of the Betic Cordillera. Geol. Mijnb. 59 (2). 155-168. Molina, J.M. (1987). Análisis de facies del Mesozoico en el Subbético. Tesis Doctoral, Univ. Granada. 518 p. Rodríguez-Fernández, J., Roldán, F. J., Azañón, J.M. y García-Cortés, A. (2013). El colapso gravitacional del frente orogénico a lpino en el Dominio Subb

  18. Human-induced changes on wetlands: a study case from NW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Merino, Lourdes; Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; López-Sáez, José Antonio

    2011-09-01

    Wetlands are exceptional ecosystems that contribute to biodiversity and play a key role in the hydrological and carbon cycles. Knowledge of their long-term ecology is essential for a proper understanding of these valuable ecosystems. We present the application of multi-proxy analyses to a 115 cm-thick core from La Molina mire (Alto de la Espina) located in NW Iberia, with a chronology spanning since ˜500 BC. The mire is located in an area intensively mined for gold during the Roman period, and close to a water-canalization system used for mining operations at that time. Our aim was to get insights into the development of the wetland by combining palynological records of hydro-hygrophytes, non-pollen palynomorphs and geochemical analyses, supported by 14C datings and multivariate statistics. The results indicate a complex pattern of ecological succession. During the local Iron Age the wetland was minerotrophic. Since ˜20 AD it was subjected to dramatic hydrological changes due to a rise of the water-table, fluctuating between the presence of open water and phases of drawdown. Finally, by ˜745 AD, the wetland experienced a rapid evolution towards ombrotrophic conditions. High grazing pressure was detected for the last decades. The significant change occurred during Early Roman Empire seems to have been the consequence of the direct use of the wetland as a water-reservoir of the canalisation system used for gold-mining. Thus, the current nature of the mire may be the result of human impact, although multiple human- and climate-induced causes were potentially linked to the detected shifts. However, the system seems to have been resilient, successfully buffering the changes without substantial alterations of its functioning. Our investigation shows that palaeoecological research is necessary to understand modifications in the structure of wetland ecosystems, their long-term ecology and the role of human-induced changes.

  19. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences-An ongoing science and policy success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stephen O; Halberstadt, Marcel L; Borgford-Parnell, Nathan

    2013-06-01

    In 1974, Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland warned that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) could destroy the stratospheric ozone layer that protects Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. In the decade after, scientists documented the buildup and long lifetime of CFCs in the atmosphere; found the proof that CFCs chemically decomposed in the stratosphere and catalyzed the depletion of ozone; quantified the adverse effects; and motivated the public and policymakers to take action. In 1987, 24 nations plus the European Community signed the Montreal Protocol. Today, 25 years after the Montreal Protocol was agreed, every United Nations state is a party (universal ratification of 196 governments); all parties are in compliance with the stringent controls; 98% of almost 100 ozone-depleting chemicals have been phased out worldwide; and the stratospheric ozone layer is on its way to recovery by 2065. A growing coalition of nations supports using the Montreal Protocol to phase down hydrofluorocarbons, which are ozone safe but potent greenhouse gases. Without rigorous science and international consensus, emissions of CFCs and related ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) could have destroyed up to two-thirds of the ozone layer by 2065, increasing the risk of causing millions of cancer cases and the potential loss of half of global agricultural production. Furthermore, because most ODSs are also greenhouse gases, CFCs and related ODSs could have had the effect of the equivalent of 24-76 gigatons per year of carbon dioxide. This critical review describes the history of the science of stratospheric ozone depletion, summarizes the evolution of control measures and compliance under the Montreal Protocol and national legislation, presents a review of six separate transformations over the last 100 years in refrigeration and air conditioning (A/C) technology, and illustrates government-industry cooperation in continually improving the environmental performance of motor vehicle A/C. [Box

  20. Implementing Climate Services in Peru: CLIMANDES Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavado-Casimiro, Waldo; Mauchle, Fabian; Diaz, Amelia; Seiz, Gabriela; Rubli, Alex; Rossa, Andrea; Rosas, Gabriela; Ita, Niceforo; Calle, Victoria; Villegas, Esequiel; Ambrosetti, Paolo; Brönnimann, Stefan; Hunziker, Stefan; Jacques, Martin; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Konzelmann, Thomas; Gubler, Stefanie; Rohrer, Mario

    2014-05-01

    The climate variability and change will have increasing influence on the economic and social development of all countries and regions, such as the Andes in Latin America. The CLIMANDES project (Climate services to support decision-making in the Andean Region) will address these issues in Peru. CLIMANDES supports the WMO Regional Training Centre (RTC) in Lima, which is responsible for the training of specialized human resources in meteorology and climatology in the South American Andes (Module 1). Furthermore, CLIMANDES will provide high-quality climate services to inform policy makers in the Andean region (Module 2). It is coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and constitutes a pilot project under the umbrella of the WMO-led Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). The project is funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and runs from August 2012 - July 2015. Module 1 focuses on restructuring the curricula of Meteorology at the La Molina Agraria University (UNALM) and applied training of meteorologists of the Peruvian National Service of Meteorology and Hydrology (SENAMHI). In Module 2, the skills will be shared and developed in the production and delivery of high-quality climate products and services tailored to the needs of the decision makers in the pilot regions Cusco and Junín. Such services will benefit numerous sectors including agriculture, education, health, tourism, energy, transport and others. The goals of the modules 1 and 2 will be achieved through the collaboration of the UNALM, SENAMHI and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, with the support of the University of Bern (UNIBE), Meteodat and WMO.

  1. Una mirada a la planificación estratégica curricular

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    Navarro, Yasmile

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene como objetivo fundamental explorar la planificación curricular de la educación formal en su devenir histórico a partir de las teorías curriculares y disciplinas auxiliares. La metodología de la investigación es descriptiva documental sustentada en autores de reconocida trayectoria en los temas de planificación, currículo y planificación curricular, entre los que destacan Peñaloza (1995, Taba (1984, Tyler (1982, Díaz Barriga (1984, Arnaz (1981, López (2001, Corredor (2004, Ander-Egg (2004, Jáuregui (1988, Villarroel (1990, Orta de Useche y Useche (2000, Iafrancesco (2004, Correa de Molina (2004, Vílchez (1995 y Tobón et al. (2006. Los resultados evidencian que la planificación curricular surge a partir de la década de los veinte y se sistematiza a mediados de los cincuenta. A partir de entonces se define el currículo como plan, al tiempo que se asumen los enfoques vigentes de planificación administrativa, ésta última inicialmente relacionada más con la organización de estrategias instruccionales y recursos didácticos que como instrumento orientador del desarrollo curricular. En décadas posteriores, diversos autores han propuesto la planificación curricular con una visión estratégica. Se concluye que el currículo responde fundamentalmente a la perspectiva de los planificadores curriculares. Se propone considerar al currículo como una estrategia que se formule, ejecute y evalúe de acuerdo a un plan estratégico institucional que oriente la gestión curricular.

  2. Electrophysiological evidence of the time course of attentional bias in nonpatients reporting symptoms of depression with and without co-occurring anxiety

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    Sarah M. Sass

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is characterized by attentional biases to threat, but findings are inconsistent for depression. To address this inconsistency, the present study systematically assessed the role of co-occurring anxiety in attentional bias in depression. In addition, the role of emotional valence, arousal, and gender was explored. Ninety-two nonpatients completed the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ; Meyer et al., 1990; Molina & Borkovec, 1994 and portions of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ; Watson, Clark, et al., 1995; Watson, Weber, et al., 1995. Individuals reporting high levels of depression and low levels of anxiety (depression only, high levels of depression and anxiety (combined, or low levels of both (control completed an emotion-word Stroop task during event-related brain potential (ERP recording. Pleasant and unpleasant words were matched on emotional arousal level. An attentional bias was not evident in the depression-only group. Women in the combined group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, and the combined group as a whole had larger right-lateralized P300 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early and later attentional bias that is specific to unpleasant valence in the combined group. Men in the control group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early attentional bias that is specific to pleasant valence. The present study indicates that the nature and time course of attention prompted by emotional valence and not arousal differentiates depression with and without anxiety, with some evidence of gender moderating early effects. Overall, results suggest that co-occurring anxiety is more important than previously acknowledged in demonstrating evidence of attentional biases in depression.

  3. Analyse préliminaire de la situation et des perspectives de la culture du haricot de Lima (Phaseolus lunatus L. sur la Côte péruvienne (Vallées d'Ica, Pisco et Casma

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    Baudoin J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary analysis of the situation and prospects of the Lima bean crop (Phaseolus lunatus L. in the Peruvian Coast (Valleys of Ica, Pisco and Casma. The Lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus L., is a crop of regional importance on the Peruvian Coast. Within the framework of a collaborative project between the ""faculté universitaire des Sciences agronomiques'"" in Gembloux and the ""Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina"" in Lima, we carried out a diagnosis of this speculation in the Ica, Pisco and Casma valleys in order to define the constraints which limit crop yields and to suggest improvements within the reach of the smallholders. To achieve these objectives we carried out a formal survey, centred on the Lima bean crop and smallholder relations with the agro-socio-economical environment, and an informal survey, centred on the studied farm systems. To complete these data we met some key informants belonging to all the sectors in contact with agriculture. This study allowed us to identify five undersystems in the farm systems of the Peruvian Coastal Valleys. These undersystems are: cotton, commercial food crops, self-subsistence food crops, livestock and fruit trees. The Lima bean usually belongs to the commercial food crops undersystem. There are two types of constraints. External constraints affect all the components of the farm system and are mainly: end of State support to agriculture, liberalization of trade and unavailability of credit. Internal constraints directly affect the Lima bean crop. Low income leads to a deficiency in pest control and adequate crop management. The Lima bean is also in competition with other components of the system such as cotton and common beans

  4. Planificación y diseño de una asignatura no presencial en el Campus Andaluz Virtual

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    Torrico González, Angel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se enmarca dentro del nuevo escenario docente que se deduce de la adaptación del Sistema Universitario Español al Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior. El nuevo sistema de asignación de créditos ECTS no sólo implica un cambio conceptual que afecta al estudiante sino que también va a repercutir al profesor, puesto que “lo no presencial” va a adquirir una mayor importancia en el proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje universitario.Dentro de los nuevos retos que el nuevo milenio trae consigo para la Educación Superior en Andalucía, el gobierno de nuestra Comunidad Autónoma ha puesto en marcha este curso 2006-07 el Campus Andaluz Virtual, proyecto para el que la Universidad de Málaga eligió la asignatura “Problemas interesantes de la Investigación Operativa en el ámbito económico y empresarial”, la cual está siendo impartida, junto con los profesores Caballero Fernández, González Lozano y Molina Luque, por los autores de este trabajo.El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo presentar cómo hemos resuelto los problemas de planificación y diseño de una asignatura de tipo cuantitativo que tiene que ser impartida de forma completamente virtual y dentro de la plataforma de enseñanza Moodle creada por la Universidad de Málaga para tal fin http://www.cav.cv.uma.es/course/view.php?id=4.

  5. Contaminação fúngica de plantas medicinais utilizadas em chás

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    Ravely Lucena Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade microbiológica quanto à presença de fungos filamentosos em ervas do tipo Peumus boldus Molina (Boldo, Pimpinella anisum L. (erva-doce e Matricaria chamomilla L. (Camomila comercializadas na cidade de Campina Grande (Paraíba. Nove amostras de cada planta foram analisadas, totalizando 27 amostras, obtidas aleatoriamente nas feiras livres e barracas informais da cidade. Cada 10 g de amostra foram suspensas em 90 mL de solução salina 0,89% estéril, obtendo-se o concentrado, a partir do qual foram realizadas diluições sucessivas. A seguir, uma alíquota de 0,1mL de cada diluição foi semeada em placas de Petri contendo Ágar Sabouraud Dextrose, as quais foram incubadas à temperatura ambiente por cinco a dez dias. Após este período foram contadas as colônias fúngicas presentes e realizados seus respectivos microcultivos para identificação através de microscópio óptico. Foram encontrados fungos toxigênicos como Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. e Fusarium sp., estando o primeiro presente em todas as amostras avaliadas. Também foram identificados os fungos Exophiala sp. e Fonsecaea sp., que possuem importância clínica, podendo causar micose. A forma como estas plantas são armazenadas para comercialização e a falta de fiscalização torna questionável a qualidade das plantas comercializadas para obtenção de chás, o que pode comprometer a saúde do consumidor ao utilizar esses produtos na forma de Chá.

  6. Growth and yield of grafted cucumbers in soil infested with root-knot nematodes

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    Smiljana Goreta Ban

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rootstocks on the growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. plants in soils infested with root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. Cucumber 'Adrian' was grown with its own roots or was grafted onto three rootstocks of Lagenariasiceraria (Molina Standi. ('Emphasis', 'S-1', and 'Gourd', two interspecific hybrid rootstocks of Cucurbita maxima Duchesne x C. moschata Duchesne ('Strong Tosa' and 'RS 841 Improved' and zucchini Cucurbita pepo L. ('Romanesco Zucchini'. The experiments were conducted in commercial greenhouse, with cucumber grafted onto three rootstocks in the first season and onto six rootstocks in the second spring-summer season. The number of leaves was considerably affected by the rootstock in both seasons, and was the highest for the plants grafted onto interspecific rootstocks (28.0 in the first and 44.9 in the second season. The plants grafted onto 'Strong Tosa' had higher total number of fruits (19.9 and yield (5.38 kg compared to other rootstocks or non-grafted plants in first season, and the same result was found for two interspecific rootstocks in the second season (6.96 kg and more than 28.9 fruits per plant. The total soluble solids, pH and electrical conductivity of the fruit were not affected by rootstock, while titratable acidity changed with the rootstock type. The grafting of cucumber plants onto different rootstocks was confirmed as an acceptable non-chemical method to compete with the limitations of soils infected with root-knot nematodes, but the effect was highly dependent on the choice of the rootstock.

  7. SVVM. Scripta volant, verba manent «los escritos vuelan, las palabras quedan».

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    Alicia G. Hierro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dramaturgia para un discurso inédito de Miguel de Unamuno en París.El pasado año –con ocasión del octogésimo aniversario– tuvo lugar el «Acto de reinauguración del Colegio de España en París 1935-2015. Miguel de Unamuno revisitado», que reunió una serie de acciones performativas impulsadas por cuatro mujeres artistas: Mireya Martín Larumbe, María Martín Muñoz, María del Carmen Molina Barea y Alicia Grueso Hierro, sobre las palabras, inéditas hasta hacía poco, del escritor vasco. Recientemente, en septiembre de 2016, se ha publicado el audiolibro derivado de este trabajo a 20 voces por el Grupo de Performance Colesp, cuyo título, SVVM, recoge los diferentes episodios de la experiencia vivida. Partiendo de una idea de inauguración como «acto performativo del habla» (J. L. Austin, en el discurso oral se propuso la reflexión sobre la deconstrucción del lenguaje, el poder de los illocutionary acts y las implicaciones identitarias de la voz, entablando un diálogo con la arquitectura del Colegio de España y su resonancia pasada. Otros referentes conceptuales de la pieza remitieron a las prácticas experimentales de la vanguardia española de los años veinte y treinta, en especial, los «actos de reinauguración de monumentos», así como las derivas surrealistas o las manifestaciones situacionistas de los años sesenta.https://vimeo.com/user36467306Z

  8. Análisis geográfico y conservación del zorro andino Lycalopex culpaeus (Mammalia, Canidae en Colombia

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    Elkin A. Noguera-Urbano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El zorro andino Lycalopex culpaeus (Molina, 1782 ha sido incluido en la categoría de amenaza Vulnerable en Colombia, sin embargo, no se han realizado estudios que validen la inclusión de la especie en dicha categoría a nivel nacional. En el presente trabajo se delimitó el área de distribución potencial (DP de la especie en Colombia y se discute su categoría de amenaza. Para ello se usó modelamiento de nicho ecológico en el algoritmo de Máxima Entropía (Maxent. Con procesamiento en Sistemas de Información Geográfico resaltamos las áreas donde la especie se encuentra protegida. Los resultados muestran que el zorro andino se podría encontrar desde los departamentos de Nariño hasta el Huila (8,877 km2, y el 19.6% (1,742 km2 del área de distribución potencial de la especie se encuentra dentro del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas de Colombia. A pesar, que la especie es considerada Vulnerable en Colombia, se encontró que no cumple con los criterios para su asignación en dicha categoría debido a la ausencia de evidencias tangibles que sustenten una reducción poblacional, disminución del área de ocupación o la calidad del hábitat en la década previa a la asignación de la categoría de amenaza. Teniendo en cuenta los registros verificables e información sobre el área de distribución de la especie en Colombia, se propone una reasignación de la categoría de amenaza nacional a Casi Amenazada (NT.

  9. Megacities, air quality and climate: Seamless prediction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Molina, Luisa T.; Gauss, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The rapid urbanization and growing number of megacities and urban complexes requires new types of research and services that make best use of science and available technology. With an increasing number of humans now living in urban sprawls, there are urgent needs of examining what the rising number of megacities means for air pollution, local climate and the effects these changes have on global climate. Such integrated studies and services should assist cities in facing hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in changing climates. While important advances have been made, new interdisciplinary research studies are needed to increase our understanding of the interactions between emissions, air quality, and regional and global climates. Studies need to address both basic and applied research and bridge the spatial and temporal scales connecting local emissions and air pollution and local weather, global atmospheric chemistry and climate. This paper reviews the current status of studies of the complex interactions between climate, air quality and megacities, and identifies the main gaps in our current knowledge as well as further research needs in this important field of research. Highlights • Climate, air quality and megacities interactions: gaps in knowledge, research needs. • Urban hazards: pollution episodes, storm surge, flooding, heat waves, public health. • Global climate change affects megacities' climate, environment and comfort. • Growing urbanization requires integrated weather, environment and climate monitoring systems. • New generation of multi-scale models and seamless integrated urban services are needed. Reference Baklanov, A., L.T. Molina, M. Gauss (2016) Megacities, air quality and climate. Atmospheric Environment, 126: 235-249. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.11.059

  10. La Tilapia en el Perú: acuicultura, mercado, y perspectivas

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    Paúl M. Baltazar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tilapia es el nombre común con el cual se conocen a diversas especies de los géneros Oreochromis y Tilapia. Las Tilapias son peces de agua dulce endémicos y originarios de África y el Cercano Oriente, aprovechando sus características y adaptabilidad, a comienzos del siglo XIX se inician las investigaciones para utilizarlas en la piscicultura rural, especialmente en el Congo Belga (actualmente Zaire. A partir de 1924 se intensifica su cultivo en Kenia, sin embargo fue en el Extremo Oriente, en Malasia en donde se obtuvieron los mejores resultados y se iniciara su progresivo cultivo en diferentes partes del mundo. En Perú, en la década del 50, la Dirección General de Caza y Pesca del Ministerio de Fomento y Agricultura realizó las primeras introducciones con la especie Tilapia rendalli, utilizada como forraje para el paiche (Arapaina gigas; en la década de los 70, el IMARPE y la Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina introdujeron las especies Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis hornorum y Oreochromis mossambica (Ramos y Gálvez, 2000, con fines de investigación y cultivo en las zonas de selva. La Tilapia roja, Oreochromis spp., ingresa a nuestro país entre los meses de octubre y noviembre de 1996, como parte complementaria de otro lote de reproductores grises, (con el objetivo de evitar la endogamia, procedentes de la Estación DIVISA, Panamá.

  11. Evaluating simplistic methods to understand current distributions and forecast distribution changes under climate change scenarios: an example with coypu (Myocastor coypus

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    Catherine S. Jarnevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species provide a unique opportunity to evaluate factors controlling biogeographic distributions; we can consider introduction success as an experiment testing suitability of environmental conditions. Predicting potential distributions of spreading species is not easy, and forecasting potential distributions with changing climate is even more difficult. Using the globally invasive coypu (Myocastor coypus [Molina, 1782], we evaluate and compare the utility of a simplistic ecophysiological based model and a correlative model to predict current and future distribution. The ecophysiological model was based on winter temperature relationships with nutria survival. We developed correlative statistical models using the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling and biologically relevant climate data with a global extent. We applied the ecophysiological based model to several global circulation model (GCM predictions for mid-century. We used global coypu introduction data to evaluate these models and to explore a hypothesized physiological limitation, finding general agreement with known coypu distribution locally and globally and support for an upper thermal tolerance threshold. Global circulation model based model results showed variability in coypu predicted distribution among GCMs, but had general agreement of increasing suitable area in the USA. Our methods highlighted the dynamic nature of the edges of the coypu distribution due to climate non-equilibrium, and uncertainty associated with forecasting future distributions. Areas deemed suitable habitat, especially those on the edge of the current known range, could be used for early detection of the spread of coypu populations for management purposes. Combining approaches can be beneficial to predicting potential distributions of invasive species now and in the future and in exploring hypotheses of factors controlling distributions.

  12. Racionalidad y valores éticos en las ciencias y la tecnología

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    Olivé, León

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Not available.En este artículo se critica la concepción según la cual la tecnología está libre de valores y que en sí misma no plantea problemas éticos. Frente a ella, se defiende la concepción de acuerdo con la cual las personas y los fines que ellas persiguen intencionalmente forman parte de los sistemas técnicos mismos, al igual que los conocimientos y creencias que se ponen en juego al operar esos sistemas; y, por tanto, la tecnología ya no puede concebirse como indiferente al bien y al mal. Se analiza, además, el problema que afrontaron los científicos Mario Molina y Sherwood Rowland —Premios Nobel de Química 1995— en sus estudios sobre el agujero de la capa de ozono en la atmósfera terrestre, para ilustrar, por un lado, que es factible actuar de manera responsable en una situación en la que un sistema técnico está produciendo daños, aun cuando no exista evidencia contundente para aceptar una relación causal entre la operación del sistema y los daños en cuestión; y, por otro lado, que hay situaciones en las que los científicos y los tecnólogos tienen responsabilidades morales qua científicos y tecnólogos. El artículo concluye con una revisión de los deberes para los científicos y tecnólogos, para el Estado y las instituciones de educación e investigación, así como para los ciudadanos en general, con respecto a ciertos problemas éticos que plantea la tecnología.

  13. [The examination of men's wits by Juan Huarte de San Juan, and the dawn of the neurobiology of intelligence in the Spanish renaissance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Araguz, A; Bustamante-Martínez, C

    The Spanish renaissance doctor Juan Huarte de San Juan (1529-1588) was the author of a unique and immortal work, The Examination of Men's Wits, the edition princeps of which was printed in Baeza in 1575. Since then it has been reprinted at least 80 times and translated into seven languages, which makes it the most influential Spanish contribution to medicine ever published. In this paper we review the unjustly little-known figure of Huarte as the founder of Neuropsychology, and we also analyse his works from a historical and neuroscientific point of view. Huarte's writings deal with the problem of the organic relations between the brain and understanding, and accept the possible influences exerted by temper on the will within the field of the Neurobiology of Intelligence. Thus, over four centuries ago Huarte became the founder of Differential or Physiological Psychology, Neuropsychology, Eugenics and Career Guidance. Huarte's work not only played a fundamental role in the history and development of the body of neuroscientific knowledge, but has also been a clear (although not always cited) influence on scientists, philosophers and men of letters such as Alarcón, Bacon, Cabanis, Cervantes (whose Don Quixote was inspired by him), Charron, Chomsky, Gall, Goethe, Hume, Kant, Kretchmer, Lessing, Lope de Vega, Montaigne, Montesquieu, Nietzsche, Quevedo, Rousseau, Schopenhauer, Thomasius, Tirso de Molina and Ziegler. In the middle of the 16th century, Huarte and his Examination of Men's Wits, together with the works of the naturalist philosophers Gómez Pereira (Antoniana Margarita, 1554) and Miguel Sabuco (New Philosophy, 1587), constituted the prestigious triumvirate of Spanish Renaissance scholars who, for the first time in history, contemplated the workings of the brain from a point of view that had more to do with science than the supernatural.

  14. Genotype by Environment Effects on Potato Mini-Tuber Seed Production in an Aeroponics System

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    Julián F. Mateus-Rodriguez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the environmental effect on plant development and mini-tuber production of a diverse group of potato genotypes grown under an aeroponic system, a G × E interaction experiment was carried out in greenhouses located at CIP’s experimental stations in La Molina (Lima and Huancayo (Junín. Five contrasting environments were set-up and evaluated. A combined Analysis of Variance was performed for the variables “days to tuber set”, “days to senescence” and “plant height”. An Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI Analysis was performed for yield variables: mini-tuber “weight” and “number of mini-tubers” per plant. There was a high variation in all the responses to the treatments. “Days to tuber set” was influenced by genetic responses, temperature and greenhouse Photosynthetically Active Radiation intensity. Considerable increases in the length of the vegetative cycle and plant height were recorded for all genotypes, and these were particularly notable in the warmer coastal environments. AMMI analysis showed that yield variables were primarily influenced by the genotypic effect followed by the genotype by environment interaction effect. The Venturana variety (T2 was the best performing genotype with a total average mini-tuber “weight” of 644 g per plant while the Chucmarina variety (T1 performed best for the variable “number of mini-tubers” with an overall average of 60.2 mini-tubers per plant. Both showed stability across different environments for these variables. The advanced clones T3 (395434.1, T5 (397077.16 and T6 (397073.16 showed stability for yield variables, but their performance was below the overall average of the trial. It is recommended that the environment and management should ideally be tailored to the genotype as this will result in significant yield gains.

  15. Temperature regulation of young coypus (Myocastor coypus) in air and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doncaster, C P; Dumonteil, E; Barré, H; Jouventin, P

    1990-12-01

    Coypus (Myocastor coypus Molina) have recently colonized temperate regions of Europe in large numbers, originating from populations indigenous to subtropical regions of South America. Observations of coypu behavior in the wild and in enclosures under a temperate climate showed a preference for close proximity to water and frequent swimming bouts. Little change was observed in the semiaquatic habit in winter, despite high mortality during this period, particularly among young and adult male coypus. Evidence for constraints on thermal adaptation was sought from measurements in a thermostatic chamber of the resting metabolic rate (RMR) of young coypus caught from wild populations in France and of the body (Tb) and skin (Tsk) temperatures as a function of ambient temperature (Ta). A light heterothermic response with deep Tb falling by 0.8 degree C and stabilizing at a new level of 36.7 degrees C was observed in water and air at Ta below the lower critical temperatures. In common with other semiaquatic mammals, RMR (2.94 W/kg) was high relative to terrestrial mammals of equivalent body mass. Minimal thermal conductance was 0.10 W.kg-1.degree C-1 in air for Ta between -10 and +20 degrees C, and conductance varied in water from 0.24 to 1.18 W.kg-1.degrees C-1 for Ta between 5 and 35 degrees C. The physiological adaptations to cold and particularly the high insulative value of the fur (80-90% of the insulation) help to explain the successful extension of the coypu's range to temperate regions. Energetic costs were nevertheless high in cold water, suggesting that social factors may be implicated in severe winter mortality, particularly dominance hierarchy regulating the persistent use of water bodies even under freezing conditions.

  16. Overview Of Cal-Mex 2010: US-Mexico Collaborative Project On Air Quality And Climate Change In The California-Mexico Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L. T.; Cal-Mex Science Team

    2010-12-01

    The composition of the atmosphere over the US-Mexico border region is affected by cross-border transport of emissions in both directions. Air quality issues in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border are associated with air masses originating in the portion of the border region adjacent to California, which includes two of the sister city pairs (Tijuana-San Diego and Mexicali-Calexico) that have the most severe air pollution problems, posing a serious health threat to their inhabitants as well as affecting ecosystem viability and regional climate for large downwind distances. During May-June 2010, an intensive field study was undertaken by US-Mexico collaborative teams to characterize the major sources of primary and secondary particulate matter and precursor gases in the California-Mexico (Cal-Mex) border region, their transport and transformation, and the impact of these emissions on regional air quality and climate. The ground-based measurements included a central fixed site located in Tijuana that housed state-of-the-science instruments to measure gases, aerosols, radiation and meteorological parameters; a mobile eddy covariance laboratory that measured surface-atmosphere exchange fluxes of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particle number; several mobile units for criteria pollutants and meteorological parameters; and measurements of fine particles and trace gases at the border crossing areas. Preliminary results from the field study will be presented. Cal-Mex Science Team includes: Molina Center for Energy and the Environment, Texas A & M University, Scripps Institution of Oceanography/University of California at San Diego, Virginia Tech, San Diego State University, National University of Mexico, National Institute of Ecology/Mexican Ministry of the Environment, University of the State of Morelos, LT Consulting Group, University of Baja California (Mexicali, Tijuana, Ensenada, Valle de Las Palmas campuses), Secretary of the Environment of Baja California

  17. Ingested Nitrate and Breast Cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Pollan, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria; Boldo, Elena; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Altzibar, Jone M.; Amiano, Pilar; Zabala, Ana Jiménez; Ardanaz, Eva; Guevara, Marcela; Molina, Antonio J.; Barrio, Juan Pablo; Gómez-Acebo, Ines; Tardón, Adonina; Peiró, Rosana; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Palau, Margarita; Muñoz, Montse; Font-Ribera, Laia; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ingested nitrate leads to endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds that are breast carcinogens in animals, but human evidence is limited. Objective: We evaluated ingested nitrate as a risk factor for breast cancer (BC) in a multicase–control study. Methods: Hospital-based incident BC cases and population-based controls were recruited in eight Spanish regions in 2008–2013; participants provided residential and water consumption from 18 years of age and information on known BC risk factors. Long-term nitrate levels (1940–2010) were estimated and linked with residential histories and water consumption to calculate waterborne ingested nitrate (milligrams/day). Dietary ingested nitrate (milligrams/day) was calculated using food frequency questionnaires and published dietary nitrate contents. Interactions with endogenous nitrosation factors and other variables were evaluated. A total of 1,245 cases and 1,520 controls were included in the statistical analysis. Results: Among the study regions, average ± SD waterborne ingested nitrate ranged from 2.9 ± 1.9 to 13.5 ± 7.5 mg/day, and dietary ingested nitrate ranged from 88.5 ± 48.7 to 154 ± 87.8 mg/day. Waterborne ingested nitrate was not associated with BC overall, but among postmenopausal women, those with both high nitrate (> 6 vs. Zabala AJ, Ardanaz E, Guevara M, Molina AJ, Barrio JP, Gómez-Acebo I, Tardón A, Peiró R, Chirlaque MD, Palau M, Muñoz M, Font-Ribera L, Castaño-Vinyals G, Kogevinas M, Villanueva CM. 2016. Ingested nitrate and breast cancer in the Spanish Multicase-Control Study on Cancer (MCC-Spain). Environ Health Perspect 124:1042–1049; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510334 PMID:26942716

  18. El perfil de los entrenadores de balonmano. La formación como factor de cambio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio José Ibáñez Godoy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Feu, S. (2006 El perfil de los entrenadores de balonmano. La formación como factor de cambio. Cáceres. Ilustre Colegio de Licenciados en Educación Física y Ciencias de la actividad Física y el Deporte de Extremadura. 250 pp.  ISSN:  84-689-7612-1   Resumen El Ilustre Colegio de Licenciados en Educación Física y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte de Extremadura edita los resultados, aplicaciones y prospectiva de una investigación subvencionada por el Consejo Superior de Deportes. La publicación ha sido subvencionada a través  de una ayuda concedida por la Consejería de Cultura de la Junta de Extremadura al autor, Sebastián Feu Molina. El manuscrito se estructura en nueve capítulos que van desbrozando paso a paso, en los capítulos del uno al octavo, las fases de una investigación que surge con el objetivo de identificar los perfiles de entrenador y las variables que afectan a los entrenadores en la adopción de los mismos. En el capítulo nueve el autor expone las aplicaciones que surgen de la investigación, poniendo el acento en la formación como principal medio para orientar la adopción de los perfiles más adecuados en un entrenador. Palabras clave: Balonmano, Entrenador, Perfil, Variables

  19. Chorégraphie sentimentale. Coreografía sentimental

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    Claude Murcia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sagitario (2001, film à la fois enjoué et mélancolique, présente une structure «mosaïque» qui substitue à la hiérarchisation des événements selon une logique causale la restitution d’un «état du monde». L’arbitraire de la contiguïté spatiale se joint à l’ubiquité énonciative pour construire un monde dominé par la discontinuité et l’inconstance. A l’éclatement structurel et à la dispersion du récit correspond la vision d’un sujet changeant et multiple qui semble mettre en échec tout principe de continuité malgré le recours –qu’on peut penser plaisamment générique– au «happy ending».Sagitario (2001 de Vicente Molina, película a la vez alegre y melan-cólica, presenta una estructura «mosaica» que frente a la jerar-quización de los hechos según una lógica causal, se sustituye por un «estado del mundo». La arbitra-riedad de la contigüidad espacial se une a la ubicuidad enunciativa para construir un mundo dominado por la discontinuidad y la inconstancia. A la ruptura estructural y a la dispersión del relato corresponde la visión de un sujeto cambiante y múltiple que parece derrotar todo principio de continuidad a pesar del recurso –que puede uno suponer lúdicamente genérico– al «happy end».

  20. “COOPEDALEANDO”: UNA ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA EN BICICLETA PARA NIÑOS Y NIÑAS CON TRASTORNOS DEL ESPECTRO AUTISTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene María Villalba Urbaneja,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Las personas con necesidades educativas especiales, particularmente con Trastornos del Espectro Autista (TEA, se han sentido alejados de las actividades físicas y lúdicas, a pesar de que la legislación vigente exige tenerlos en cuenta (Ley Orgánica 2/2006.El autismo es “una de las alteraciones más graves del desarrollo durante la primera infancia que constituye uno de los problemas más serios desde el punto de vista personal, familiar y social” (Crespo, 2001. Según señala el DSM-IV-TR (2000, los TEA son una serie de Trastornos Neuropsiquiátricos catalogados como Trastornos Generalizados del Desarrollo. Por todo ello, “todos los sujetos que presentan rasgos autistas tienen una enorme necesidad de practicar y desarrollar sus capacidades motoras de manera regular y el deterioro de las mismas es consecuencia de su discapacidad en establecer mecanismos propios para desarrollarlas por medio de juegos, educación psicomotriz o actividad física” (Molina, 2006.“Coopedalenado” fue una propuesta físico-educativa llevada a cabo con los niños y niñas de la Asociación Autismo Palencia durante el año 2014 en las instalaciones deportivas del Complejo Universitario de La Yutera, Palencia.Objetivos: Desarrollar las Habilidades Motrices Básicas y las Habilidades Perceptivas de los participantes, Mejorar las Habilidades Sociales a partir de actividades físicas específicamente diseñadas; Adquirir una mayor autonomía en el área psíquico y sensorial a partir de su estimulación.

  1. Nanoparticulate Quillaja saponin induces apoptosis in human leukemia cell lines with a high therapeutic index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefei Hu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kefei Hu1, Saideh Berenjian1, Rolf Larsson2, Joachim Gullbo2, Peter Nygren3, Tanja Lövgren4, Bror Morein11Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Virology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden; 3Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden; 4Department of Molecular Bioscience, Section for Veterinary Immunology and Virology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, SwedenAbstract: Saponin fractions of Quillaja saponaria Molina (QS have cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro, but are too toxic to be useful in the clinic. The toxic effect was abolished by converting QS fractions into stable nanoparticles through the binding of QS to cholesterol. Two fractions of QS were selected for particle formation, one with an acyl-chain (ASAP was used to form killing and growth-inhibiting (KGI particles, and the other without the acyl-chain (DSAP was used to formulate blocking and balancing effect (BBE particles. KGI showed significant growth inhibiting and cancer cell-killing activities in nine of 10 cell lines while BBE showed that on one cell line. The monoblastoid lymphoma cell line U937 was selected for analyzing the mode of action. Low concentrations of KGI (0.5 and 2 µg/mL induced irreversible exit from the cell cycle, differentiation measured by cytokine production, and eventually programmed cell death (apoptosis. Compared to normal human monocytes, the U937 cells were 30-fold more sensitive to KGI. The nontoxic BBE blocked the cell killing effect of KGI in a concentrationdependent manner. In conclusion, the formulation of QS into nanoparticles has the potential of becoming a new class of anticancer agents.Keywords: anticancer drug, Quillaja saponin, nanoparticle, apoptosis

  2. Interaction of Quillaja bark saponins with food-relevant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezwon, Aleksandra; Wojciechowski, Kamil

    2014-07-01

    The surface activity and aggregation behaviour of two Quillaja bark saponins (QBS) are compared using surface tension, conductometry and light scattering. Despite formally of the same origin (bark of the Quillaja saponaria Molina tree), the two QBS show markedly different ionic characters and critical micelle concentrations (7.7·10(-6) mol·dm(-3) and 1.2·10(-4) mol·dm(-3)). The new interpretation of the surface tension isotherms for both QBS allowed us to propose an explanation for the previous discrepancy concerning the orientation of the saponin molecules in the adsorbed layer. The effect of three food-related proteins (hen egg lysozyme, bovine β-lactoglobulin and β-casein) on surface tension of the saponins is also described. Dynamic surface tension was measured at fixed protein concentrations and QBS concentrations varying in the range 5·10(-7)-1·10(-3) mol·dm(-3). Both dynamic and extrapolated equilibrium surface tensions of the protein/QBS mixtures depend not only on the protein, but also on the QBS source. In general, the surface tension for mixtures of the QBS with lower CMC and less ionic character shows less pronounced synergistic effects. This is especially well visible for β-casein/QBS mixtures, where a characteristic maximum in the surface tension isotherm around the molar ratio of one can be noticed for one saponin product, but not for the other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Quillaja saponaria bark saponin protects Wistar rats against ferrous sulphate-induced oxidative and inflammatory liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Abdel-Reheim, Mustafa; Messiha, Basim Anwar Shehata; Abo-Saif, Ali Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Saponins from different sources are historically reported in Chinese medicine to possess many beneficial effects. However, insufficient experimental data are available regarding the hepatoprotective potential of Quillaja bark saponin. The protective effect of Quillaja saponaria Molina (Quillajaceae) bark triterpenoid saponin against iron-induced hepatotoxicity is compared to the standard N-acetylcysteine in adult male Wistar rats. Animals were divided into (six) groups, namely a normal control, an N-acetylcysteine control (300 mg/kg/day, p.o., 10 days), a saponin control (100 mg/kg/day, p.o., for 10 days), a hepatotoxicity control (two doses of ferrous sulphate, 30 mg/kg/day each, i.p., on 9th and 10th day), an N-acetylcysteine plus ferrous sulphate (standard treatment) and a saponin plus ferrous sulphate (test treatment) group. Hepatocyte integrity loss markers (serum ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and LDH), oxidative stress markers (hepatic MDA, GSH and NO x ), dyslipidaemic markers (serum TC and TG) and hepatocyte functioning markers (serum bilirubin and albumin) were assessed. Quillaja bark saponin decreased iron-induced elevation of ALT (reaching 57% of hepatotoxicity control), AST (66%), ALP (76%), GGT (60%), LDH (54%), MDA (65%), NO x (77%), TC (70%), TG (54%), and total (54%), direct (54%) and indirect (54%) bilirubin, coupled with increased GSH (219%) and albumin (159%) levels. Histopathological study strongly supported biochemical estimations, while immunohistochemical study showed marked effect on eNOS and iNOS expression. Quillaja bark saponin has a good hepatoprotective effect. Amelioration of oxidative stress and suppression of NOS expression, with resultant maintenance of hepatocyte integrity and functioning, may explain this beneficial effect.

  4. Acylated and deacylated saponins of Quillaja saponaria mixture as adjuvants for the FML-vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Freitas, E; Casas, C P; Borja-Cabrera, G P; Santos, F N; Nico, D; Souza, L O P; Tinoco, L W; da Silva, B P; Palatnik, M; Parente, J P; Palatnik-de-Sousa, C B

    2006-05-01

    The adjuvant of the FML-vaccine against murine and canine visceral leishmaniasis, the Riedel de Haen saponin mixture, was fractionated by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose to afford one TLC homogeneous Quillaja saponaria Molina QS21 saponin fraction (18.0%), a mixture of two deacylsaponins (19.4%), sucrose (39.9%), sucrose and glucose (19.7%), rutin (0.8%) and quercetin (2.2%), that were identified by comparison of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The QS21 shows the typical aldehyde group in C-23 (65% equatorial) and a normonoterpene moiety acylated in C-28. The deacylsaponins show the aldehyde group but do not have the normonoterpene moiety. Balb/c mice were vaccinated with 150 microg of FML antigen of Leishmania donovani and 100 microg of each obtained fraction and further challenged by infection with 10(8) amastigotes of Leishmania chagasi. The safety analysis and the effect on humoral and cellular immune responses and in clinical signs showed that the QS21 saponin and the deacylsaponins are the most active adjuvant compounds of the Riedel the Haen saponin mixture. Both induced the highest and non-significantly different increases in DTH, CD4+ T lymphocytes in spleen, IFN-gamma in vitro, body weight gain and the most pronounced reduction of parasite burden in liver (95% for QS21 and 86% for deacylsaponins; p>0.05). While the QS21 showed mild toxicity, significant adjuvant effect on the anti-FML humoral response before and after infection, and decrease in liver relative weight, the deacylsaponins showed no toxicity, less haemolysis and antibody and DTH responses increased mainly after infection, still inducing a stronger Leishmania-specific in vitro splenocyte proliferation. Our results confirm in the Riedel de Haen saponin extract the presence of deacylsaponins normonoterpene-deprivated which are non-toxic and capable of inducing a specific and strong immunoprotective response in vaccination against murine visceral leishmaniasis.

  5. Saponins - Self-assembly and behavior at aqueous interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Sandra; Drusch, Stephan

    2017-05-01

    Saponins are interfacially active ingredients in plants consisting of a hydrophobic aglycone structure with hydrophilic sugar residues. Variations in aglycone structure as well as type and amount of sugar residues occur depending on the botanical origin. Saponins are a heterogeneous and broad class of natural substances and therefore the relationship between molecular structure and interfacial properties is complex and, yet, not completely understood. A wide range of research focused either on structural elucidation of saponins or interfacial properties. This review combines recent knowledge on structural features with interfacial properties and draws conclusions on how saponin structure affects interfacial properties. Fundamental understanding on interfacial configuration of individual saponin molecules at the interface distinctly increased. It was shown that interfacial configuration may differ depending on botanical origin and thus structure of the saponins. The formation of strong viscoelastic interfacial films by some saponins was attributed to hydrogen bonds between neighboring sugar residues. Few studies analyzed the relationship between botanical origin and interfacial rheology and derived main conclusions on important structural features. Saponins with a triterpenoid structure are most likely to form viscoelastic films, which result in stable foams and emulsions. The aglycone subtype may also affect interfacial properties as triterpenoid saponins of oleanane type formed most stable interfacial networks. But for more reliable conclusions more saponins from other aglycone subtypes (dammarane, ursolic) have to be analyzed. To-date only extracts from Quillaja saponaria Molina are approved for food products and many studies focused on these extracts. From experiments on interfacial rheology a reasonable model for supramolecular structure of Quillaja saponins was developed. It was further shown that Quillaja saponins may form micelles loaded with hydrophobic

  6. Unusual penetration of phospholipid mono- and bilayers by Quillaja bark saponin biosurfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Kamil; Orczyk, Marta; Gutberlet, Thomas; Trapp, Marcus; Marcinkowski, Kuba; Kobiela, Tomasz; Geue, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The interactions between a model phospholipid 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and a biosurfactant Quillaja Bark Saponin (QBS) obtained from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina were studied using simple models of biological membranes. QBS is known to interact strongly with the latter, exerting a number of haemolytic, cytotoxic and anti-microbial actions. The interaction of QBS dissolved in the subphase with DPPC monolayers and silicon-supported bilayers was studied above the cmc (10(-3)M). Surface pressure relaxation and surface dilatational rheology combined with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and neutron reflectivity (NR) were employed for this purpose. The DPPC-penetrating abilities of QBS are compared with those of typical synthetic surfactants (SDS, CTAB and Triton X-100). We show that the penetration studies using high surface activity (bio)surfactants should be performed by a subphase exchange, not by spreading onto the surfactant solution. In contrast to the synthetic surfactants of similar surface activity, QBS does not collapse DPPC mono- and bilayers, but penetrates them, improving their surface dilatational elastic properties even in the highly compressed solid state. The dilatational viscoelasticity modulus increases from 204 mN/m for pure DPPC up to 310 mN/m for the QBS-penetrated layers, while it drops to near zero values in the case of the synthetic surfactants. The estimated maximum insertion pressure of QBS into DPPC monolayers exceeds the maximum surface pressure achievable in our setup, in agreement with the surface rheological response of the penetrated layers. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Groundwater-Quality Survey of the South Coast Aquifer of Puerto Rico, April 2 through May 30, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The increased potential for variability of groundwater quality in the South Coast aquifer of Puerto Rico due to saline water encroachment from the Caribbean Sea and from deep parts of the aquifer has become a major concern of water planners and managers. In an effort to determine the extent and sources of this encroachment, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources conducted a synoptic groundwater-quality survey from April 2 through May 30, 2007, for the South Coast aquifer between Ponce and Arroyo (fig. 1). Groundwater resources in this aquifer extend 150 square miles in south-central Puerto Rico and provide an estimated 44.2 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) or about 61 percent of the total water needs. This amount includes: 15.3 Mgal/d for irrigation, 27.4 Mgal/d for public supply, and 1.5 Mgal/d for industrial and other uses (W.L. Molina-Rivera, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2007). Since 1980 when most of the south coastal plain was intensively cultivated for sugarcane, total groundwater withdrawals have declined about 32 Mgal/d with the greatest decline occurring in irrigation (37.2 Mgal/d) and the greatest increase occurring in public supply (5.5 Mgal/d). Although withdrawals have declined substantially, a major concern is that aquifer recharge provided by irrigation return flow from surface-water irrigation canals has essentially dropped to zero because of the large-scale implementation of groundwater drip irrigation systems.

  8. Special Judo Fitness Test Level and Anthropometric Profile of Elite Spanish Judo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Cristina; Huertas, Jesús R; Franchini, Emerson; Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Gutiérrez-García, Carlos; Escobar-Molina, Raquel

    2017-05-01

    Casals, C, Huertas, JR, Franchini, E, Sterkowicz-Przybycień, K, Sterkowicz, S, Gutiérrez-García, C, and Escobar-Molina, R. Special judo fitness test level and anthropometric profile of elite spanish judo athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1229-1235, 2017-The aim of this study was to determine the anthropometric variables that best predict Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) performance. In addition, anthropometric profiles of elite Spanish judo athletes were compared by sex and age category (seniors and juniors). In this cross-sectional study, a total of 51 (29 females) athletes from the Spanish National Judo Team were evaluated during a competitive period. All athletes performed the SJFT and underwent an anthropometric assessment through skinfold thickness measurements. Mann-Whitney comparisons by sex and age category showed that males had significantly higher muscle mass and lower fat mass than females (p < 0.001), whereas juniors and seniors exhibited few differences in body composition. Linear regression analyses (stepwise method) were performed to explore the relationships between anthropometric characteristics and SJFT variables. Model 1 included sex, age category, and body mass as predictors. Body mass and sex significantly predicted the SJFT index (R = 0.27, p < 0.001); thus, both criteria should be considered before interpreting the test. The predictors of model 2 were quick-assessment variables, including skinfolds, breadths, girths, and height. This regression model showed that the biceps skinfold significantly predicted the SJFT index in elite athletes (R = 0.31, p < 0.001). Model 3 included body compositions and somatotypes as predictors. Higher muscle and bone masses and lower ectomorphy were associated with better SJFT performance (R = 0.44, p < 0.001). Hence, training programs should attempt to increase the muscle mass percentage and reduce the upper arm fat, whereas the bone percentage could be considered in the selection of talented athletes in

  9. Stratospheric ozone, global warming, and the principle of unintended consequences--an ongoing science and policy success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stephen O; Halberstadt, Marcel L; Borgford-Parnell, Nathan

    2013-06-01

    In 1974, Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland warned that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) could destroy the stratospheric ozone layer that protects Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. In the decade after scientists documented the buildup and long lifetime of CFCs in the atmosphere; found the proof that CFCs chemically decomposed in the stratosphere and catalyzed the depletion of ozone; quantified the adverse effects; and motivated the public and policymakers to take action. In 1987, 24 nations plus the European Community signed the Montreal Protocol. Today, 25 years after the Montreal Protocol was agreed, every United Nations state is a party (universal ratification of 196 governments); all parties are in compliance with the stringent controls; 98% of almost 100 ozone-depleting chemicals have been phased out worldwide; and the stratospheric ozone layer is on its way to recovery by 2065. A growing coalition of nations supports using the Montreal Protocol to phase down hydrofluorocarbons, which are ozone safe but potent greenhouse gases. Without rigorous science and international consensus, emissions of CFCs and related ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) could have destroyed up to two-thirds of the ozone layer by 2065, increasing the risk of causing millions of cancer cases and the potential loss of half of global agricultural production. Furthermore, because most, ODSs are also greenhouse gases, CFCs and related ODSs could have had the effect of the equivalent of 24-76 gigatons per year of carbon dioxide. This critical review describes the history of the science of stratospheric ozone depletion, summarizes the evolution of control measures and compliance under the Montreal Protocol and national legislation, presents a review of six separate transformations over the last 100 years in refrigeration and air conditioning (A/C) technology, and illustrates government-industry cooperation in continually improving the environmental performance of motor vehicle A/C.

  10. A inteligência dos Futuros Contingentes: Interrogando G. W. Leibniz sobre Deus e a Verdade

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    Paulo Renato Jesus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A presente investigação questiona a essência teo-lógica dos futuros contingentes. Para o efeito, analisa-se, primeiramente, a argumentação segundo a qual, sob certas condições lógicas, teológicas, ontológicas e cosmológicas antinecessitantes, detetadas por G. W. Leibniz (conciliando a posição de St. Agostinho com a de L. Molina e W. Ockham, a abertura contingente do futuro parece ser compatível com o regime das "verdades contingentes pré-determinadas", regime enquadrado teologicamente pelo princípio do "futuro melhor" ou do "único futuro verdadeiro". No entanto, os futuros contingentes incitam, com e contra Aristóteles, ao desenvolvimento de uma lógica temporal e plurivalente, ao modo de J. Łukasiewicz ou A. Prior. Essa lógica garante a abertura do futuro sem o oneroso custo metafísico da adesão a uma teo-lógica omnideterminante. A crítica do determinismo lógico, daí resultante, afigura-se mais coadunável com as condições pós-metafísicas inerentes à episteme agnósticacontemporânea, mas, nesse caso, a abertura do futuro implicaria uma profunda redefinição das próprias ideias e funções de "Deus", "matéria", "história" e "verdade".

  11. État de droit, qualité de la démocratie et gouvernance démocratique au Pérou Rule of Law, Democratic Values and Democratic Governance in Peru Gobierno De La Ley, Calidad De La Democracia Y Gobernabilidad Democrática En El Perú

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    Jorge Aragón Trelles

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Le présent article analyse la relation entre l’État de droit (rule of law, l’administration de la justice, la qualité démocratique et la gouvernance démocratique au Pérou. Ce thème est incontournable puisque la majorité des travaux contemporains en sciences politiques (qui débattent et évaluent la qualité des régimes démocratiques reconnaissent la prévalence du système juridique – effectivité, prévisibilité, équivalence pour tous, capacité d’imposer la justice – sur les trajectoires des régimes (O´Donnell 2004; Morlino y Diamond 2005; Levine y Molina 2007. La première section de ce travail aborde l’intérêt que présente une lecture politiste du développement du droit et des lois ainsi que de leur impact sur la société. La seconde section présente et questionne les diverses interprétations du concept de rule of lawdans les champs de la qualité de la démocratie et gouvernabilité démocratique. Cette section ouvre également la discussion sur les approches qui articulent État de droit et fonctionnement des régimes démocratiques. La troisième et dernière section dresse la situation juridique du Pérou contemporain.This article analyzes the relation between the rule of law, the administration of justice, democratic values and democratic governance in Peru.  This theme is unavoidable since most contemporary works in political science (discussing and evaluating the democratic principles of regimes acknowledge the prevailing role of the legal system – effectiveness, consistency, equal protection, capacity to enforce the law – on the trajectory of regimes (O’Donnell 2004; Morlino and Diamond 2005; Levine and Molina 2007.  The first section of the present work considers the merits of a political analysis of the development of law and laws from the standpoint of their impact on society.  The second section presents and interrogates diverse interpretations of the concept rule of law in the fields of

  12. Book Reviews

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    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Maximilian C. Forte; Ruins of Absence, Presence of Caribs: (PostColonial Representations of Aboriginality in Trinidad and Tobago (Neil L. Whitehead Nick Nesbitt; Voicing Memory: History and Subjectivity in French Caribbean Literature (H. Adlai Murdoch Camilla Stevens; Family and Identity in Contemporary Cuban and Puerto Rican Drama (Lydia Platón Jonathan Goldberg; Tempest in the Caribbean (Jerry Brotton Michael Chanan; Cuban Cinema (Tamara L. Falicov Gemma Tang Nain, Barbara Bailey (eds.; Gender Equality in the Caribbean: Reality or Illusion (A. Lynn Bolles Ernesto Sagás, Sintia E. Molina (eds.; Dominican Migration: Transnational Perspectives (Rosemary Polanco Christine M. Du Bois; Images of West Indian Immigrants in Mass Media: The Struggle for a Positive Ethnic Reputation (Dwaine Plaza Luis Raúl Cámara Fuertes; The Phenomenon of Puerto Rican Voting (Annabelle Conroy Philip Gould; Barbaric Traffic: Commerce and Antislavery in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World (William A. Pettigrew Laurent Dubois; Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution (Yvonne Fabella Sibylle Fischer; Modernity Disavowed: Haiti and the Cultures of Slavery in the Age of Revolution (Ashli White Philip D. Morgan, Sean Hawkins (eds.; Black Experience and the British Empire (James Walvin Richard Smith; Jamaican Volunteers in the First World War: Race, Masculinity and the Development of National Consciousness (Linden Lewis Muriel McAvoy; Sugar Baron: Manuel Rionda and the Fortunes of Pre-Castro Cuba (Richard Sicotte Ned Sublette; Cuba and Its Music: From the First Drums to the Mambo (Pedro Pérez Sarduy Frances Negrón-Muntaner; Boricua Pop: Puerto Ricans and the Latinization of American Culture (Halbert Barton Gordon Rohlehr; A Scuffling of Islands: Essays on Calypso (Stephen Stuempfle Shannon Dudley; Carnival Music in Trinidad: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture (Donald R. Hill Jean

  13. Assessing the reduction of the hydrological connectivity of gully systems through vegetation restoration: field experiments and numerical modelling

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    A. Molina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of degraded land in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes has led to alterations in the functioning of degraded catchments. Recovery of vegetation on areas affected by overgrazing, as well as the reforestation or afforestation of gully areas have given rise to modifications of hydrological connectivity within the catchments. Recent research has highlighted the ability of gully channels to trap sediment eroded from steep slopes, especially if vegetation is established along the gully bed. However, vegetation cover not only induces sediment deposition in the gully bed, but may also have a potential to reduce runoff water volume. The performance of gully beds in reducing the transfer of runoff was investigated by conducting controlled concentrated flow experiments in the field. Experimental field data for nine gullies were derived by pouring concentrated inflow into the upstream end and measuring the outflow at the downstream end of the channel. Two consecutive flow experiments per gully were carried out, so that data for dry and wet soil conditions were collected. The hydrological response to concentrated flow was estimated for each experiment by calculating its cumulative infiltration coefficient, IC (%. The results showed a great difference in IC between dry and wet soil conditions. The IC for wet soil conditions was on average 24%, whereas it was 60% for dry conditions. Gullies with more than 50% surface vegetation cover exhibit the highest cumulative infiltration coefficients (81% for dry runs, and 34% for wet runs, but runoff transmission losses were not as clearly related to vegetation cover as sediment storage as shown in Molina et al. (2009. The experimental field data of 16 experiments were used to calibrate a hydrological model developed by Fiener and Auerswald (2005 in order to simulate the transfer of concentrated flow along the gully beds. The calibrated model was able to simulate the transfer of runoff water

  14. Marine primary production changes recorded by algal biomarkers in sediments from West Iberian Margin and Gulf of Cadiz during the latest Miocene to mid Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furota, S.; Sawada, K.

    2014-12-01

    been established since 2.1 Ma (Hernadez-Molina et al., 2014), when major glaciation was expanded (Rohling et al., 2014). Hence, high DI trends after 2.1 Ma imply the ocean circulation change caused by the establishment of present MOW system, and/or global change of ocean / wind circulation related to glaciation.

  15. Persistence of Metal-rich Particles Downstream Zones of Acid Drainage Mixing in Andean Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasten, P.; Montecinos, M.; Guerra, P. A.; Bonilla, C. A.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Dabrin, A.; Coquery, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Andes mountain range provides the setting for watersheds with high natural background of metals and for mining operations that enhance contaminant mobilization, notably in Northern and Central Chile. Dissolved and solid metal species are actively transported by streams to the Pacific Ocean from area and point sources, like acid drainage. We examine the response of metal rich particle suspensions downstream zones of mixing where shifts in the chemical environment occur. We propose a conceptual model which is used to analyze the fate of copper in the upper Mapocho watershed. The main source of copper is the Yerba Loca river, a naturally impacted stream with pH ranging from 3 to 7 and high concentrations of Cu (0.8 - 6.3 mg/L), Al (1.3 - 7.6 mg/L) and Fe (0.4 - 4.2 mg/L). Steep chemical shifts occur after the confluences with the San Francisco and the Molina rivers. We characterized stream chemistry, hydrological variables and suspended particles, including particle size distribution (PSD), turbidity, and total suspended solids. A marked seasonal behavior was observed, with a higher total Cu flux during smelting periods and a shift towards the dissolved phase during summer. When acid drainage is discharged into a receiving stream, incomplete mixing occurs thereby promoting the formation of a range of metal-rich solids with a characteristic PSD. Similarly, areas of chemical heterogeneity control the partition of metals associated to suspended geomaterials coming from bank and slope erosion. A highly dynamic process ensues where metastable phases shift to new equilibria as fully mixed conditions are reached. Depending on the reaction kinetics, some particles persist despite being exposed to thermodynamically unfavorable chemical environments. The persistence of metal-rich particles downstream zones of acid drainage mixing is important because it ultimately controls the flux of metals being delivered to the ocean by watersheds impacted by acid drainage. Funding from

  16. ÍNDICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA JESUS MARRON GAITE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PRESENTACIÓN: La investigación en Educación GeográficaCOORDINACIÓN: Ramón Martínez Medina.................................................... 7ARTÍCULOSFormer ses élèves à L’abstraction en géographieBernadette Mérenne-Schoumaker................................................................ 25El paisaje en la Educación Secundaria Obligatoria. Una oportunidad educativa en el cambio curricular LOE-LOMCEMaría Casas Jericó y Luis Erneta Altarriba ...................................................... 4Parques naturales: la necesaria conceptualización transformadora en la Educación Primaria y SecundariaDiana Santana Martín, Antonio José Morales Hernández, Juan Carlos Colomer Rubio, Benito Campo Pais, Carlos Caurín Alonso............................................ 73Le territoire, un concept sensible : enjeux didactiques et politiques dans le contexte scolaire françaisEric Ratzel et Jean-François Thémines..................................................................................................95La obra La recogida de la manzana como pretexto para la lectura e interpretación del paisaje tradicional a través de una fuente iconográfica: un estudio con alumnado de 2º de BachilleratoRoberto García-Morís..................................................................................................... 115Propuesta didáctica para la interpretación del espacio geográfico: la ciudad de Segovia y su entornoLuis Carlos Martínez Fernández, Berta Fernández-Vega Peláez e Ignacio Molina de la Torre.................................................................................................. 135Aportes del enfoque de género para una enseñanza inclusiva de la Geografía escolarMaría Victoria Fernández Caso y Daniela Guberman....................................... 165El modelo TPACK en los estudios de Grado para la formación inicial del profesorado en TIC Isabel Mª Gómez Trigueros

  17. ¿Obesidad o desnutrición?: Problema actual de los niños peruanos menores de 5 años

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    Rosana Tazza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el estado nutricional de los niños peruanos menores de 5 años. Diseño: Evaluación de indicadores antropométricos. Lugar: Programa de Post Grado en Nutrición Pública, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, y Departamento de Estadística e Informática. Material y Métodos: Se analizó las bases de datos nacionales de las Encuestas Demográficas y de Salud Familiar (Endes, de los años 1991/1992, 1996 y 2000. Principales medidas de resultados: Desnutrición en niños menores de 5 años. Resultados: Durante el período evaluado, la desnutrición crónica disminuyó de 39% a 32%, la desnutrición global de 12% a 9% y la desnutrición aguda de 2% a 1%. Mientras tanto, el sobrepeso y la obesidad ascendieron de 17% y 5% a 19% y 7%, respectivamente. La Endes 2000 muestra un promedio nacional de sobrepeso y obesidad en niños menores de cinco años de 25,19%, siendo los mas afectados Tacna (57%, Moquegua (42% y Lima (41%; niños de 48 a 59 meses, extremadamente pobres y del área urbana. Según las proyecciones departamentales, Tumbes y Ucayali, a partir del año 2004, sobrepasarían el 50% de sobrepeso. Las variables más influyentes para el desencadenamiento del problema son el nivel de pobreza, la edad del niño y el área de residencia, descartándose el género, la instrucción de la madre y el departamento de proveniencia, como variables significativas. Conclusiones: Aunque persiste el problema de desnutrición en los niños peruanos, el sobrepeso y la obesidad vienen alcanzando valores considerablemente elevados, con proyecciones que van en rápido incremento.

  18. Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.martinez.cortizas@usc.es [Departamento de Edafoloxía e Química Agrícola, Facultade de Bioloxía, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); López-Merino, Lourdes, E-mail: lourdes.lopez-merino@brunel.ac.uk [Institute of Environment, Health and Societies, Brunel University London, UB8 3PH Uxbridge (United Kingdom); Bindler, Richard, E-mail: richard.bindler@umu.se [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Mighall, Tim, E-mail: t.mighall@abdn.ac.uk [Department of Geography & Environment, School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3UF (United Kingdom); Kylander, Malin E., E-mail: malin.kylander@geo.su.se [Department of Geological Sciences and the Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, SE-10691, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-03-01

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to ~ 3500–3200 cal. yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (> 2100 cal. yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spain), a mire located in the proximity (35–100 km) of mines which were exploited in the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, with the aim of assessing evidence of this early mining/metallurgy. Analyses included the determination of C as a proxy for organic matter content, lithogenic elements (Si, Al, Ti) as markers of mineral matter, and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb) and stable Pb isotopes as tracers of atmospheric metal pollution. From ~ 8000 to ~ 4980 cal. yr. BP the Pb composition is similar to that of the underlying sediments (Pb 15 ± 4 μg g{sup −1}; {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb 1.204 ± 0.002). A sustained period of low {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios occurred from ~ 4980 to ~ 2470 cal. yr. BP, which can be divided into four phases: Chalcolithic (~ 4980–3700 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios decline to 1.175 and Pb/Al ratios increase; Early Bronze Age (~ 3700–3500 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb increase to 1.192 and metal/Al ratios remain stable; Late Bronze Age (~ 3500–2800 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb decline to their lowest values (1.167) while Pb/Al and Zn/Al increase; and Early Iron Age (~ 2800–2470 cal. yr. BP), {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb increase to 1.186, most metal/Al ratios decrease but Zn/Al shows a peak. At the beginning of the Late Iron Age, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios and metal enrichments show a rapid return to pre-anthropogenic values. These results provide evidence of regional/local atmospheric metal pollution triggered by the

  19. Intensity-distance attenuation law in the continental Portugal using intensity data points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Boris; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Borges, José Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Hazard Analysis. [1] Lopez Casado, C., Molina Palacios, S., Delgado, J., and Pelaez, J.A., 2000, BSSA, 90, 1, pp. 34-47 [2] Sousa, M. L., and Oliveira, C. S., 1997, Natural Hazard, 14: 207-225 [3] Bakun, W. H., and Wentworth, C. M., 1997, BSSA, vol.87, No. 6, pp. 1502-1521

  20. Antibiotic treatment of exacerbations of COPD in general practice: long-term impact on healthrelated quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Miravitlles

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Marc Miravitlles1, Carles Llor2, Jesús Molina3, Karlos Naberan4, Josep M Cots5, Fernando Ros6 on behalf of the EVOCA Study Group1Fundació Clínic. Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS, Hospital Clínic, Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, Spain; 2Primary Health Care Center ‘Jaume I’, Societat Catalana de Medicina Familiar i Comunitària, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain; 3Primary Health Care Center ‘Francia’, Grupo de Respiratorio de la Sociedad Madrileña de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria, Madrid, Spain; 4Primary Health Care Center ‘Fuentes de Ebro’, Grupo de Investigación del Instituto Aragonés Ciencias de la Salud (IACS, Zaragoza, Spain; 5Primary Health Care Center ‘La Marina’, Societat Catalana de Medicina Familiar i Comunitària, Facultat de Medicina, Barcelona, Spain; 6Medical Department, Bayer Healthcare, Barcelona, SpainObjective: To investigate the impact of exacerbations in health-related quality of life (HRQL of patients with COPD and to compare the effect of treatment of COPD exacerbations with moxifloxacin (400 mg/day for 5 days and amoxicillin/clavulanate (500/125 mg 3 times a day for 10 days on HRQL.Methods: 229 outpatients with stable COPD (mean age 68.2 years; mean FEV1 % predicted 49.3% participated in a prospective, observational study of 2 years’ duration. The St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ was completed at baseline and every 6 months thereafter.Results: COPD exacerbations (mean 2.7 episodes/patient occurred in 136 patients (124 patients received the study medications [amoxicillin/clavulanate 54, moxifloxacin 70]. Differences between baseline and the final visit were higher for moxifloxacin compared with amoxicillin/clavulanate for total SGRQ score (-2.60 [13.1] vs 4.21 [16.2], P = 0.05 and “Symptoms” subscale (-5.64 [16.7] vs 8.27 [21], P = 0.02. The same findings were observed in patients with two or more

  1. Redesign 3 R Machine as a Refrigerant Waste Treatment Alternative in Environmental Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negara, I. P. S.; Arsawan, I. M.

    2018-01-01

    Cooling machine technologies really affect nowadays’ modern life, not only limited in enhancement of life quality and comfort, but it has also reached the essential things of humans’ life supporter (Arora, 2001). Cooling machine technologies have direct contribution toward environmental damage such as depletion of ozone layer and global warming through synthetic refrigerant waste and leakage (CFC and HFC) to environment. The refrigerant release to the environment is 60% of the service sector. Destructive characteristics of ozone possessed by CFC were first proposed by Rowland and Molina which were then supported by yard measurement. It is estimated that ozone layer damage occurs for about 3% every decade. The ozone layer located in the stratosphere is functioned to prevent ultraviolet-B ray from entering into earth surface. This Ultraviolet-B is suspected to be the cause of health problem for humans and disorder for plants on earth. As for the purpose of this research is to obtain a product design of refrigerant waste processing system (recovery and recycle refrigerant) as well as to acknowledge the work method (COP) of cooling machines that use CFC refrigerant (R-12) as the result of recovery and recycle compared to CFC refrigerant (R-12)/pure R134a. One method that can be used is by redesigning existing equipment namely 3R machine that cannot be used anymore thus it can be reused. This research will be conducted through modifying the existing 3R machine therefore it can be reused and be easily operated as well as doing the maintenance, after that the refrigerant as the result of recovery will be tried on a refrigeration system and a test of refrigeration system work method will be conducted by using the refrigerant recycle product which is obtained and compared with the work method of the one with pure refrigeration.The result has been achieved that the redesign product of refrigerant waste processing equipment can be reused and able to perform the recovery

  2. Use of Damage Data for Calibration of GMPE's in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Y.; Molina, S.; Navarro, M.; Benito, B.

    2013-05-01

    After the 12 January 2010 earthquake that occurred in the south of Haiti, the Earthquake Engineering Researching Group (GIIS) of the Technical University of Madrid (UPM, Spain) set up a cooperative line with the National Observatory of the Environment and Vulnerability of Haiti (ONEV), under the Ministry of the Environment. Within the frame of that working line, the project SISMO-HAITI was launched to estimate the seismic hazard in the country and the seismic risk in Port-au-Prince, the capital city. It was financed by the UPM. In the frame of the seismic risk study, an approach aimed at calibrating the Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPE`s) using damage data, was proposed and applied. This approach is presented here and may be useful in absence of strong motion data. The seismic risk estimation was carried out by following the capacity spectrum method as implemented in the software SELENA (Molina et al., 2010). The method requires two main inputs: classification of the building stock into predominant building typologies and a ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) to estimate the seismic demand. We found six building typologies in the city, and were assigned capacity and fragility curves (damage functions) taken from HAZUS and RISK-UE, which account for their vulnerability. Regarding the GMPE, as there are not relationships developed specifically for Haiti, we decided to use the next four: Boore & Atkinson (2008-2011), Abrahamson & Silva, (2008), Campbell & Bozorgnia (2008), Chiou & Youngs (2008). All of them belong to the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) models and allow including several parameters to define the seismic scenario, the source and the soil geotechnical characteristics. In this paper we present the results of the GMPE's calibration, a step aimed at figure out which is the most suitable relationship for the study area. We could not use acceleration records, since there were no accelerometers at the moment of the earthquake occurrence. Instead

  3. Assessment of relationship between Macro Ergonomic conditions and employees work satisfaction Touse-eh and Omran factory

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    M. Rismanchian

    2008-04-01

    results in our study in terms of macro ergonomic situation with the result of similar studies of barariyan (2006 and rajabzadeh (2002 that have used RSI (Relative Stress Index. Also there is a correlation between the result of  our study job satisfaction with the results of similar studies such as Bassy's (2002 in Swedish employees , Garcia and Molina's (1999 in Spanish employees and the result of Partovi study  (2006 in Esfahan steel plant employees and Davari's (2003 in employees of Esfahan Shahid PowerStation.

  4. Sedimentation survey of Lago La Plata, Toa Alta, Puerto Rico, March–April 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta

    2016-10-31

    IntroductionLago La Plata is operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) and is part of the San Juan Metropolitan Water District. The reservoir serves a population of about 425,000 people. During 2013 the reservoir provided 0.307 million cubic meters (Mm3 ) of water per day (about 81 million gallons per day), which is equivalent to 31 percent of the total water demand for the metropolitan area (Wanda L. Molina, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2015). The dam was constructed in 1974 and is located about 5 kilometers (km) south of the town of Toa Alta and 5 km north of the town of Naranjito (fig. 1). The drainage area upstream from the Lago La Plata dam is about 469 square kilometers (km2 ). The storage capacity at construction in 1974 was 26.84 Mm3 with a spillway elevation of 47.12 meters (m) above mean sea level (msl). Storage capacity was increased to 40.21 Mm3 in 1989 after the installation of bascule gates to provide a normal dam pool elevation at 52 m above msl (Puerto Rico Electric and Power Authority, 1979). The maximum height of the dam is about 40 m above the river bottom near the dam, and the intake structure consists of six 1.82-m-diameter ports facing upstream, with 6-m vertical spacing that begins at an elevation of 19 m above msl. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the PRASA, conducted a bathymetric survey of the Lago La Plata reservoir during March and April 2015. The hydrographic survey was designed to provide an update of the reservoir storage capacity and sedimentation rate. Areas with substantial sediment accumulation are also discussed in this report. The results of the survey were used to prepare a bathymetric map showing the reservoir bottom (fig. 2) referenced with respect to the spillway elevation. This report also includes a summary of a previous bathymetric survey conducted in 2006 (Soler-López, 2008).

  5. “A quien perturbe el orden público le caerá el rigor de las penas, hasta la de muerte”. Aproximaciones al tratamiento de la pena capital en el Río de la Plata en la década de 1820.

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    María Cecilia Guerra Orozco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A finales de 1823, la Sala de Representantes de San Miguel de Tucumán, dispuso la aprobación del decreto de pena de muerte para el gobernador Bernabé Aráoz, exiliado en la vecina ciudad de Salta. El entonces presidente de la Sala, el Presbítero José Manuel Moure, acudió a la formación de una comisión de eclesiásticos integrada por Diego León Villafañe (Jesuita, Pedro Miguel Aráoz y José Agustín Molina, para que se expresaran sobre el tema. Es a partir de este caso particular que nos preguntamos a cerca de la discusión sobre la pena de muerte, tanto en ámbito laico como eclesiástico; y de que manera este acontecimiento nos revela algunos rasgos de la relación entre “lo político” y lo religioso después de la revolución. Nos interesa indagar sobre las herramientas teóricas y jurídicas con las que se contaba en la época, para promulgarse sobre la materia. Abordar la decisión de la aplicación de la pena de muerte –en este caso a Bernabé Aráoz- desde un aspecto político jurídico eclesiástico, partiendo del hecho de que es una comisión eclesiástica la que finalmente avala la decisión. El clero fue uno de los actores fundamentales dentro del entramado social colonial. Este rol principal sufrió algunas modificaciones a partir de mayo de 1810, cuando la revolución empezó a delinear una nueva forma de relación entre la Iglesia y los individuos que la componían, y los nuevos poderes emergentes. La revolución y los nuevos gobiernos comenzaron a apropiarse de espacios específicos del clero, como el púlpito, al tiempo que éstos participaban de espacios políticos cada vez más “públicos”.

  6. Intervenciones de enfermería para disminuir la sobrecarga en cuidadores: un estudio piloto

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    Rosa Tulia Sánchez Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los cuidadores informales, son  personas familiares o no, que  asumen el cuidado directo a una persona por voluntad, necesidad u obligación cultural,  no reciben remuneración y se exponen  a problemáticas debidas al contexto y desgaste que significa cuidar, convirtiéndose en sujetos de cuidados para el profesional de enfermería,  requiriendo generar estrategias de acompañamiento y fortalecimiento para evitar la sobrecarga del cuidador. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio cuasi-experimental sin grupo control, con medición pre y post de las escalas de Zarit y APGAR familiar para evidenciar el efecto de las  intervenciones de enfermería en el nivel de sobrecarga del cuidador  derivadas de las necesidades de cuidado identificadas en la valoración previa de la diada cuidador-adulto mayor. Resultados: Muestra compuesta por  diadas, el 88% de los cuidadores eran mujeres, edad media de 52± 16 años, dedicaban 24 horas al cuidado. El 100% de receptores de cuidado eran dependientes del cuidador. Las intervenciones, disminuyeron la sobrecarga percibida por los cuidadores. Discusión: El cuidado de enfermería brindado en otros espacios extra hospitalarios y centrados en personas no enfermas,  contribuye a disminuir la  sobrecarga requiriendo del apoyo permanente del profesional de enfermería. Conclusiones: Se evidenció  la disminución de la sobrecarga de  cuidadores y el aumento del grado de funcionalidad de las familias  al medirlos después de realizar las intervenciones identificación rol de cuidador, autocuidado, estrategias para brindar cuidado con calidad, manejo de conflictos intrafamiliares, comunicación, relajación y habilidades de cuidado. Cómo citar este artículo: Sánchez RT, Molina EM, Gómez-Ortega OR. Intervenciones de enfermería para disminuir la sobrecarga en cuidadores: un estudio piloto. Rev Cuid. 2016; 7(1: 1171-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v7i1.251

  7. Early atmospheric metal pollution provides evidence for Chalcolithic/Bronze Age mining and metallurgy in Southwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; López-Merino, Lourdes; Bindler, Richard; Mighall, Tim; Kylander, Malin E

    2016-03-01

    Although archaeological research suggests that mining/metallurgy already started in the Chalcolithic (3rd millennium BC), the earliest atmospheric metal pollution in SW Europe has thus far been dated to ~3500-3200 cal.yr. BP in paleo-environmental archives. A low intensity, non-extensive mining/metallurgy and the lack of appropriately located archives may be responsible for this mismatch. We have analysed the older section (>2100 cal.yr. BP) of a peat record from La Molina (Asturias, Spain), a mire located in the proximity (35-100 km) of mines which were exploited in the Chalcolithic/Bronze Age, with the aim of assessing evidence of this early mining/metallurgy. Analyses included the determination of C as a proxy for organic matter content, lithogenic elements (Si, Al, Ti) as markers of mineral matter, and trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb) and stable Pb isotopes as tracers of atmospheric metal pollution. From ~8000 to ~4980 cal.yr. BP the Pb composition is similar to that of the underlying sediments (Pb 15 ± 4 μg g(-1); (206)Pb/(207)Pb 1.204 ± 0.002). A sustained period of low (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios occurred from ~4980 to ~2470 cal.yr. BP, which can be divided into four phases: Chalcolithic (~4980-3700 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios decline to 1.175 and Pb/Al ratios increase; Early Bronze Age (~3700-3500 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.192 and metal/Al ratios remain stable; Late Bronze Age (~3500-2800 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb decline to their lowest values (1.167) while Pb/Al and Zn/Al increase; and Early Iron Age (~2800-2470 cal.yr. BP), (206)Pb/(207)Pb increase to 1.186, most metal/Al ratios decrease but Zn/Al shows a peak. At the beginning of the Late Iron Age, (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios and metal enrichments show a rapid return to pre-anthropogenic values. These results provide evidence of regional/local atmospheric metal pollution triggered by the earliest phases of mining/metallurgy in the area, and reconcile paleo-environmental and

  8. El perfil de los entrenadores de balonmano. La formación como factor de cambio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio José Ibáñez Godoy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Feu, S. (2006 El perfil de los entrenadores de balonmano. La formación como factor de cambio. Cáceres. Ilustre Colegio de Licenciados en Educación Física y Ciencias de la actividad Física y el Deporte de Extremadura. 250 pp.  ISSN:  84-689-7612-1   Resumen El Ilustre Colegio de Licenciados en Educación Física y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte de Extremadura edita los resultados, aplicaciones y prospectiva de una investigación subvencionada por el Consejo Superior de Deportes. La publicación ha sido subvencionada a través  de una ayuda concedida por la Consejería de Cultura de la Junta de Extremadura al autor, Sebastián Feu Molina. El manuscrito se estructura en nueve capítulos que van desbrozando paso a paso, en los capítulos del uno al octavo, las fases de una investigación que surge con el objetivo de identificar los perfiles de entrenador y las variables que afectan a los entrenadores en la adopción de los mismos. En el capítulo nueve el autor expone las aplicaciones que surgen de la investigación, poniendo el acento en la formación como principal medio para orientar la adopción de los perfiles más adecuados en un entrenador. Palabras clave: Balonmano, Entrenador, Perfil, Variables

  9. Phytochemical evaluation and molecular characterization of some important medicinal plants

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    Varahalarao Vadlapudi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Phytochemical evaluation and molecular characterization of plants is an important task in medicinal botany and drug discovery. In the current study, Ocimum species, Pimenta officinalis and Piper betel were considered as medicinal plants by evaluation of phytochemical composition like phenol content, Flavonoid content, antioxidant content and other activities like antibacterial, antifungal, lethal dosage (LD 50 of the plant extracts. Among the selected plants P. officinalis shown higher medicinal properties and is selected for molecular characterization. Methods: Antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method and also estimated Total phenols, flavonoids content, Total Antioxidants, Cytotoxic assay on Artemia salina for determining lethal dosage (LD50, matK gene was sequenced by using ABI Prism 3700. Leaf extract of P. officinalis plant is further selected for GC-chromatographic analysis to know its chemical composition. DNA was isolated by different protocols, optimized, and is used for the PCR amplification of trnL-gene which is a universal marker among plants in molecular taxonomy. The trnL-gene is amplified by using PCR. The product obtained from PCR is purified and the sample is used for sequencing so that it can be used for comparative studies. Results: P.offcinalis has shown good antimicrobial activity against all organisms . A. flavus is resistant against O. sanctum (B. Phenolic content (26.5 毺 g/g is found to be rich in P. betel where as flavonoid and Antioxidant content are significant in P. betel. The chromatogram revealed the presence of high concentration of Eugenol in the leaf sample. On submitting to BLASTN, the genetic sequence has found similarity with Pimenta dioica plastid partial matK gene and Ugni molinae trnK gene. MatK did not shown any interactions with trnK or trnL genes. MatK has shown interactions with various genes like ycf5, pclpp, psbh, atph, NDVI, rpoc1, ndha, ndhd, psai. Conclusions: we can

  10. Water infiltration and hydraulic conductivity in a natural Mediterranean oak forest: impacts of hydrology-oriented silviculture on soil hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Prima, Simone; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Cerdà, Artemi; Cullotta, Sebastiano; del Campo, Antonio; González-Sanchis, María; Iovino, Massimo; Maetzke, Federico

    2016-04-01

    In the last years researchers reported an increasing need to have more awareness on the intimate link between land use and soil hydrological properties (soil organic matter storage, water infiltration, hydraulic conductivity) and their possible effects on water retention (e.g., Bens et al., 2006; del Campo et al., 2014; González-Sanchis et al., 2015; Molina and del Campo, 2012). In the Mediterranean ecosystems, special attention needs to be paid to the forest-water relationships due to the natural scarcity of water. Adaptive forest management (AFM) aims to adapt the forest to water availability by means of an artificial regulation of the forest structure and density in order to promote tree and stand resilience through enhancing soil water availability (del Campo et al., 2014). The opening of the canopy, due to the removal of a certain number of trees, is an important practice for the management of forests. It results in important modifications to the microclimatic conditions that influence the ecophysiological functioning of trees (Aussenac and Granier, 1988). However, the effect of thinning may vary depending on the specific conditions of the forest (Andréassian, 2004; Brooks et al., 2003; Cosandey et al., 2005; Lewis et al., 2000; Molina and del Campo, 2012). Different authors reported that a reduction in forest cover increases water yield due to the subsequent reduction in evapotranspiration (Brooks et al., 2003; González-Sanchis et al., 2015; Hibbert, 1983; Zhang et al., 2001). On the other hand, the water increase may be easily evaporated from the soil surface (Andréassian, 2004). In this context, determining soil hydraulic properties in forests is essential for understanding and simulating the hydrological processes (Alagna et al., 2015; Assouline and Mualem, 2002), in order to adapt a water-saving management to a specific case, or to study the effects of a particular management practice. However, it must be borne in mind that changes brought about by

  11. Evaluation of data for atmospheric models: master equation/RRKM calculations on the combination reaction, BrO + NO2 --> BrONO2, a conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Robin; Golden, David M

    2008-05-01

    Experimental data for the title reaction were modeled using master equation (ME)/RRKM methods based on the Multiwell suite of programs. The starting point for the exercise was the empirical fitting provided by the NASA (Sander, S. P.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.; Friedl, R. R.; Golden, D. M.; Huie, R. E.; Kolb, C. E.; Kurylo, M. J.; Molina, M. J.; Moortgat, G. K.; Orkin, V. L.; Ravishankara, A. R. Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Atmospheric Studies, Evaluation Number 15; Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Pasadena, California, 2006)1 and IUPAC (Atkinson, R.; Baulch, D. L.; Cox, R. A.; R. F. Hampson, J.; Kerr, J. A.; Rossi, M. J.; Troe, J. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 2000, 29, 167)2 data evaluation panels, which represents the data in the experimental pressure ranges rather well. Despite the availability of quite reliable parameters for these calculations (molecular vibrational frequencies (Parthiban, S.; Lee, T. J. J. Chem. Phys. 2000, 113, 145)3 and a value (Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S. J. Phys. Chem. 1996, 100, 19398)4 of the bond dissociation energy, D298(BrO-NO2) = 118 kJ mol-1, corresponding to DeltaH0o = 114.3 kJ mol-1 at 0 K) and the use of RRKM/ME methods, fitting calculations to the reported data or the empirical equations was anything but straightforward. Using these molecular parameters resulted in a discrepancy between the calculations and the database of rate constants of a factor of ca. 4 at, or close to, the low-pressure limit. Agreement between calculation and experiment could be achieved in two ways, either by increasing DeltaH0o to an unrealistically high value (149.3 kJ mol-1) or by increasing DeltaEd, the average energy transferred in a downward collision, to an unusually large value (>5000 cm-1). The discrepancy could also be reduced by making all overall rotations fully active. The system was relatively insensitive to changing the moments of inertia in the transition state to increase the centrifugal effect. The possibility of

  12. Seismic microzoning projects and their implementation in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, M.; Cano, V.; Olbrich, F.; Vallee, M.; Morales, C.; Arreaza, A.; Mendes, K.; Klarica, S.; Alvarez Gomez, J.; Aray, J.; Vielma, J.; Pombo, A.; Diaz, J.; Grupo de trabajo

    2013-05-01

    analysis. Further members of the "Grupo de trabajo: Investigaciones aplicadas a la gestion integral del riesgo en espacios urbanos" are: Oscar Andrés López, Milgreya Cerrada, Rafael Torres, Oscar Ramírez, Elieser Sanzonetti, José Heredia, Jaime Avendaño, Fernando Mazuera, Luis Molina, Alexi Suárez, Víctor Rocabado, Mónica Paolini, Luis Yegres, Leonardo Alvarado, Herbert Rendón, Luz Rodríguez, Jorge González.

  13. Targeting PD-1/PD-L1 in lung cancer: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Cao M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available María González-Cao,1 Niki Karachaliou,1 Santiago Viteri,1 Daniela Morales-Espinosa,1 Cristina Teixidó,2 Jesús Sánchez Ruiz,3 Miquel Ángel Molina-Vila,2 Mariacarmela Santarpia,4 Rafael Rosell1,2,5,61Translational Cancer Research Unit, Instituto Oncológico Dr Rosell, Quirón Dexeus University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain; 2Pangaea Biotech SL, Barcelona, Spain; 3Centro Nacional de Investigación Oncología (CNIO, Madrid, Spain; 4Medical Oncology Unit, Human Pathology Department, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; 5Cancer Biology and Precision Medicine Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Germans Trias i Pujol Health Sciences Institute and Hospital, Campus Can Ruti, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain; 6Fundación Molecular Oncology Research, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Increased understanding of tumor immunology has led to the development of effective immunotherapy treatments. One of the most important advances in this field has been due to pharmacological design of antibodies against immune checkpoint inhibitors. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies are currently in advanced phases of clinical development for several tumors, including lung cancer. Results from Phase I–III trials with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in non-small-cell lung cancer have demonstrated response rates of around 20% (range, 16%–50%. More importantly, responses are long-lasting (median duration of response, 18 months and fast (50% of responses are detected at time of first tumor evaluation with very low grade 3–4 toxicity (less than 5%. Recently, the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA breakthrough therapy designation for treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer, supported by data from a Phase Ib trial. Another anti-PD-1 antibody, nivolumab, has also been approved for lung cancer based on survival advantage demonstrated in recently released data from a Phase III trial in squamous cell lung cancer.Keywords: immunotherapy, immunoncology

  14. Response to crizotinib in a non-small-cell lung cancer patient harboring an EML4-ALK fusion with an atypical LTBP1 insertion

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    Aguado C

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cristina Aguado,1,* Maria-de-los-Llanos Gil,2,* Zaira Yeste,1 Ana Giménez-Capitán,1 Cristina Teixidó,1 Niki Karachaliou,2 Santiago Viteri,2 Rafael Rosell,1,2 Miguel A Molina-Vila1 1Laboratory of Oncology, Pangaea Oncology, 2Dr Rosell Oncology Institute, Quirón Dexeus University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Fusion of the anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK with the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein 4 gene (EML4 is the second most common actionable alteration in non-small-cell lung cancer, with a frequency of 5%. Here, we present a case of an EML4-ALK-positive patient with an atypical in-frame insertion from the LTBP1 gene in the canonical junction of variant 1. The patient was a 39-year-old never-smoker female diagnosed with Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma. A core biopsy was negative for EGFR and KRAS mutations but positive for ALK immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization. When submitted to nCounter, the sample showed a 3'/5' imbalance indicative of an ALK rearrangement, but failed to give a positive signal for any of the variants tested. Finally, a band with a molecular weight higher than expected appeared after reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. When Sanger sequencing was performed, the band revealed an atypical EML4-ALK fusion gene with an in-frame 129 bp insertion. A 115 bp segment of the insertion corresponded to an intronic region of LTBP1, a gene located in the short arm of chromosome 2, between ALK and EML4. The patient received crizotinib and showed a good therapeutic response that is still ongoing after 12 months. Our result suggests that short in-frame insertions of other genes in the EML4-ALK junction do not affect the sensitivity of the EML4-ALK fusion protein to crizotinib. Keywords: lung cancer, NSCLC, EML4-ALK, LTBP1, crizotinib, targeted therapy

  15. Immunisation of Sheep with Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus, E2 Protein Using a Freeze-Dried Hollow Silica Mesoporous Nanoparticle Formulation.

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    Donna Mahony

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1 is arguably the most important viral disease of cattle. It is associated with reproductive, respiratory and chronic diseases in cattle across the world. In this study we have investigated the capacity of the major immunological determinant of BVDV-1, the E2 protein combined with hollow type mesoporous silica nanoparticles with surface amino functionalisation (HMSA, to stimulate immune responses in sheep. The current work also investigated the immunogenicity of the E2 nanoformulation before and after freeze-drying processes. The optimal excipient formulation for freeze-drying of the E2 nanoformulation was determined to be 5% trehalose and 1% glycine. This excipient formulation preserved both the E2 protein integrity and HMSA particle structure. Sheep were immunised three times at three week intervals by subcutaneous injection with 500 μg E2 adsorbed to 6.2 mg HMSA as either a non-freeze-dried or freeze-dried nanoformulation. The capacity of both nanovaccine formulations to generate humoral (antibody and cell-mediated responses in sheep were compared to the responses in sheep immunisation with Opti-E2 (500 μg together with the conventional adjuvant Quil-A (1 mg, a saponin from the Molina tree (Quillaja saponira. The level of the antibody responses detected to both the non-freeze-dried and freeze-dried Opti-E2/HMSA nanoformulations were similar to those obtained for Opti-E2 plus Quil-A, demonstrating the E2 nanoformulations were immunogenic in a large animal, and freeze-drying did not affect the immunogenicity of the E2 antigen. Importantly, it was demonstrated that the long term cell-mediated immune responses were detectable up to four months after immunisation. The cell-mediated immune responses were consistently high in all sheep immunised with the freeze-dried Opti-E2/HMSA nanovaccine formulation (>2,290 SFU/million cells compared to the non-freeze-dried nanovaccine formulation (213-500 SFU/million cells

  16. Selected Abstracts of the 6th International Congress of UENPS; Valencia (Spain; November 23rd-25th 2016; Session “Neonatology and NICU clinical care and practices”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2016-11-01

    ON NEWBORNS • L. KorkmazABS 25. ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, A THERAPEUTIC CHALLENGE IN NEONATAL PERIOD • A. Gonzalez, A. Gregoraci, J. Comuñas, S. Hernández, F. Camba, C. Tripodi, J. Quintero, J. Ortega, J. Juanperez, F. CastilloABS 26. NEONATAL RESUSCITATION PROGRAM (NRP: RESULTS OF A SECONDARY HOSPITAL WITH 3 YEARS EXPERIENCE • R. Moreno Novillo, R. Menéndez Hernando, C. Fariñas Salto, M. Martín Molina, R. Pescador Chamorro, M.I. Galán Gómez, V. Chacón AguilarABS 27. EVALUATION OF NEONATAL ATTENDANCE TO THE EMERGENCY SERVICE AFTER THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A PROTOCOL OF ONGOING CARE BETWEEN HOSPITALIZATION AND PRIMARY CARE • R. Moreno Novillo, R. Repeto Rodriguez, A. Menéndez Hernando, C. Martín Molina, R. Pescador Chamorro, M.I. Galán Gómez, V. Fariñas Salto, M. Chacón Aguilar, R. González Vives, L. Sancho PérezABS 28. RARE LOCATIONS OF CONGENITAL TERATOMA: A REPORT OF TWO CASES • A. Bouraoui, A. Ben thabet, M. Charfi, M. Derbel, D. Abid, Kh. Ben Ghriba, R. Regaieg, N. Hamida, A. Gargouri

  17. De Sancie à Bérengère

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia ROCHWERT-ZUILI

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Pour les règnes de Ferdinand Ier à Ferdinand III, il n’existe aucun témoignage manuscrit de la Version concise de l’Histoire d’Espagne (1270. Seule la confrontation des différentes versions – Chronique de vingt rois, Version sancienne, Chronique de Castille –, indépendantes les unes des autres mais dépendant toutes de la Version alphonsine primordiale, permet de la reconstituer. On peut ainsi définir le modèle de femme régnante qu’élabore l’historiographe alphonsin à partir des sources latines. Reines, infantes et régentes, de Sancie, femme de Ferdinand Ier, à Bérengère, mère de Ferdinand III, se distinguent par leurs actions pieuses et leurs bons conseils, qu’elles peuvent légitimement prodiguer au roi car elles sont toutes dotées d’une qualité essentielle : le bon entendement. Les écarts entre les différentes versions historiographiques témoignent aussi de l’évolution de ce modèle en fonction du contexte socio-politique de production des textes. Plus radicale, la Chronique de vingt rois, écrite à la fin du règne d’Alphonse X, sanctionne sévèrement les débordements. La Chronique de Castille, écrite sous la minorité de Ferdinand IV, accentue le modèle alphonsin en présentant une lignée de femmes exemplaires dont la régente Marie de Molina est la digne descendante. En outre, les femmes de la Chronique de Castille excellent en un domaine, le spirituel, et veillent ainsi à la préservation et à la pérennité de l’image de la royauté.No existe ningún testimonio manuscrito de la Versión concisa de la Historia de España (1270 para los reinados de Fernando I a Fernando III. Para reconstituirla, sólo se pueden cotejar las distintas versiones –Crónica de veinte reyes, Versión sanciana, Crónica de Castilla–, independientes unas de otras pero que se fundamentan todas en la Versión alfonsí primordial. Este cotejo permite definir el modelo de mujer reinante que elabora el

  18. Selected Abstracts of the 6th International Congress of UENPS; Valencia (Spain; November 23rd-25th 2016; Session “Epidemiology, perinatology and DOHaD”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 6th International Congress of UENPS; Valencia (Spain; November 23rd-25th 2016; Session “Epidemiology, perinatology and DOHaD”ABS 1. THE INFLUENCE OF MATERNAL PREGESTATIONAL OBESITY IN OFFSPRING. A NEW PUBLIC HEALTH PROBLEM • P. Priego, N. Sancho, I. Tofe, A. Torre, M.D. CañeteABS 2. UNPLANNED NEONATAL ADMISSION RATE AFTER ELECTIVE FAMILY CENTERED CAESAREAN SECTIONS • I.C. Narayen, E.E.M. Mulder, L.M. Freeman, J.J. Van Vonderen, K.E. Boers, A.B. Te PasABS 3. CESAREAN DELIVERY AMONG FOREIGN-BORN CHINESE AND US-BORN CHINESE WOMEN IN THE USA • T.A. Yen, M. Lahiff, N. Hosang, K. Harley, B. EskenaziABS 4. THE RELATION BETWEEN OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION AND SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME – A POPULATION-BASED CASE-CONTROL STUDY • Y.S. Chang, C.H. Liu, P.N. Tsao, P.S. ChenABS 5. LONGITUDINAL GROWTH OF TURKISH VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANTS • S. Sancak, M. Hayran, T. Gursoy, F. OvalıABS 6. FETAL SONOGRAPHIC FINDINGS IN A CONFIRMED CASE OF BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME (BWS • M.D. Ordónez Díaz, M.A. Pino Gálvez, C. De la Cámara Morano, D. Trassierra Molina, M.P. Priego Ruiz, M.J. Párraga Quiles, A.B. López Marmol, J.L. Pérez Navero, M. Miño MoraABS 7. CORD BLOOD PENTRAXIN 3/CD36 IN FETAL MACROSOMIA • T. Boutsikou, K. Germanou, D.D. Briana, M. Boutsikou, N. Athanasopoulos, A. Marmarinos, D. Gourgiotis, A. Malamitsi-PuchnerABS 8. NEWBORN GENETIC SCREENING FOR CONGENITAL CENTRAL HYPOVENTILATION SYNDROME IN 41,152 NEWBORNS • P.C. Kuo, C.C. Hung, Y.N. Su, C.Y. Chen, H.C. Chou, W.S. Hsieh, P.N. TsaoABS 9. OFFSPRING OF DIABETIC MOTHER: THE IMPORTANCE OF MATERNAL GLYCEMIC CONTROL • M. Miñambres Rodríguez, A. Pino Vázquez, C. Villa Francisco, I. Sanz Fernández, M. Brezmes Raposo, L. C. Bermúdez BarrezuetaABS 10. PREVALENCE AND PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL • M.P. Priego Ruiz, M.D. Ordónez Díaz, M.V. Rodriguez Benitez, D. Trassierra Molina, L. Rueda García, J.L. P

  19. Reseñas de Libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Iturriaga Barco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Aznar López, José María, Ocho años de gobierno. Una visión personal de España. Barcelona, Planeta, 2004.Páginas 201-203Diego Iturriaga BarcoChamocho Cantudo, Miguel Ángel, La Justicia del Pueblo. Los tribunales populares de Jaén durante la Guerra Civil. Jaén, Instituto de Estudios Giennenses, 2004, 296 pp.Páginas 203-205Eduardo Cebreiros ÁlvarezCobo Romero, Francisco, Revolución campesina y contrarrevolución franquista en Andalucía. Granada, Universidad de Granada, Universidad de Córdoba, 2004, 396 pp.Páginas 205-207David Molina RabadánDay, Timothy, Un siglo de música grabada. Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 2002, 312 pp.Páginas 207-209Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaDos Santos, Theotonio, La teoría de la dependencia. Balance y perspectivas. México, Plaza & Janés, 2003, 170 pp.Páginas 209-213Andre Gunder FrankGoodman, Amy, En la cama con el enemigo. Contra los políticos untados de petróleo, los empresarios que se benefician de las guerras y los medios de comunicación que los encubren. Madrid, Temas de Hoy, 2004, 364 pp.Páginas 213-215Inmaculada Ramírez PérezGu, Zhibin, China's Global Reach. Markets, Multinationals, and Globalization. Binghamton, Haworth Press, 2005, 359 pp.Páginas 215-216Jorge Nascimento RodriguesJiménez Bautista, Francisco, Las gentes del área metropolitana de Granada. Relaciones, percepciones y conflictos. Granada, Universidad de Granada, Instituto de la Paz y los Conflictos, 2004, 872 pp.Páginas 217-218David Molina RabadánKaye, H.J., Los historiadores marxistas británicos: un análisis introductorio. Zaragoza, Prensas Universitarias, 1989, 240 pp.Páginas 218-220Alejandro Estrella GonzálezKüng, Hans, Libertad conquistada: memorias. Madrid, Trotta, 2003, 619 pp.Páginas 221-222Gonzalo Ruiz BidónLópez Martínez, Mario (dir., Enciclopedia de Paz y Conflictos. Granada, Editorial Universidad de Granada, Junta de Andalucía-Consejería de Educación y Ciencia, 1.228 pp.Páginas 222-225Francisco Jim

  20. Tropospheric Halogen Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Glasow, R.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2003-12-01

    Halogens are very reactive chemicals that are known to play an important role in anthropogenic stratospheric ozone depletion chemistry, first recognized by Molina and Rowland (1974). However, they also affect the chemistry of the troposphere. They are of special interest because they are involved in many reaction cycles that can affect the oxidation power of the atmosphere indirectly by influencing the main oxidants O3 and its photolysis product OH and directly, e.g., by reactions of the Cl radical with hydrocarbons (e.g., CH4).Already by the middle of the nineteenth century, Marchand (1852) reported the presence of bromine and iodine in rain and other natural waters. He also mentions the benefits of iodine in drinking water through the prevention of goitres and cretinism. In a prophetic monograph "Air and Rain: The Beginnings of a Chemical Climatology," Smith (1872) describes measurements of chloride in rain water, which he states to originate partly from the oceans by a process that he compares with the bursting of "soap bubbles" which produces "small vehicles" that transfer small spray droplets of seawater to the air. From deviations of the sulfate-to-chloride ratio in coastal rain compared to seawater, Smith concluded that chemical processes occur once the particles are airborne.For almost a century thereafter, however, atmospheric halogens received little attention. One exception was the work by Cauer (1939), who reported that iodine pollution has been significant in Western and Central Europe due to the inefficient burning of seaweed, causing mean gas phase atmospheric concentrations as high as or greater than 0.5 μg m-3. In his classical textbook Air Chemistry and Radioactivity, Junge (1963) devoted less than three pages to halogen gas phase chemistry, discussing chlorine and iodine. As reviewed by Eriksson (1959a, b), the main atmospheric source of halogens is sea salt, derived from the bursting of bubbles of air which are produced by ocean waves and other