WorldWideScience

Sample records for austrian water supplies

  1. Water uptake and water supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The water uptake and the water supply do not directly affect the mineral absorption of plants. However, many connections exist between the management of minerals and water. The most evident of those connections are following

  2. Food and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  3. Water demand for ski resort development in the Austrian Alps: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiling, M.; Sokratov, S.

    2012-04-01

    were the most important irrigated land, now high altitude mountain areas and winter are the largest irrigated areas. We assume the production of 6000 cubic metres of artificial snow per hectare per season. This results in around 100 million cubic metres of artificial snow to cover a slope area of 17,000 hectares that would be produced using 57 million cubic metres of water (incluing losses). In winter, Austrian skiing areas use almost as much water as the capital city of Vienna during the same period. The water demand could again be reduced up to 30% by snow making with help of the dendrite generator, a recent innovation that has not entered the market yet. Water savings also affect the energy requirements where savings of up to 40% are predicted and leads to improved resoure use, greater ecological compatibility and an increase in profitability.

  4. Public Water Supply Systems (PWS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset includes boundaries for most public water supply systems (PWS) in Kansas (525 municipalities, 289 rural water districts and 13 public wholesale water...

  5. Potable water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

  6. Mozambique - Rural Water Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report provides the results from (1) an impact evaluation of the MCA's Rural Water Point Implementation Program ('RWPIP') in Nampula and (2) an evaluation of...

  7. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  8. Interaction with customers: The Application of Social Media within the Austrian Supply Chain for Food and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Meixner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media marketing has become a powerful tool of interaction with stakeholders. An increasing number of companies are using social media platforms to initiate active interaction and communication with current and prospective customers. Within this study, certain content and contact features, as well as social media activities of companies of the Austrian food and beverage industry were evaluated. Empirical findings concerning the threats, risks, and opportunities connected with the application of social media are presented. The results imply that social media applications are innovative alternatives for customer relationship management. However, more knowledge on how to properly use social media marketing seems to be necessary.

  9. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless...

  10. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at...

  11. Water supply and demand in an energy supply model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbey, D; Loose, V

    1980-12-01

    This report describes a tool for water and energy-related policy analysis, the development of a water supply and demand sector in a linear programming model of energy supply in the United States. The model allows adjustments in the input mix and plant siting in response to water scarcity. Thus, on the demand side energy conversion facilities can substitute more costly dry cooling systems for conventional evaporative systems. On the supply side groundwater and water purchased from irrigators are available as more costly alternatives to unappropriated surface water. Water supply data is developed for 30 regions in 10 Western states. Preliminary results for a 1990 energy demand scenario suggest that, at this level of spatial analysis, water availability plays a minor role in plant siting. Future policy applications of the modeling system are discussed including the evaluation of alternative patterns of synthetic fuels development.

  12. 25 CFR 137.1 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 137.1 Section 137.1 Indians BUREAU OF... CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.1 Water supply. The engineering report dealt with in... capacity of the San Carlos reservoir created by the Coolidge Dam and the water supply therefor over...

  13. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State...

  14. 18 CFR 801.6 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 801.6 Section 801.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.6 Water supply. (a) The Susquehanna River Basin is rich in water resources. With...

  15. Acidification and Nitrogen Eutrophication of Austrian Forest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jandl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of acidic deposition and nitrogen on Austrian forests soils. Until thirty years ago air pollution had led to soil acidification, and concerns on the future productivity of forests were raised. Elevated rates of nitrogen deposition were believed to cause nitrate leaching and imbalanced forest nutrition. We used data from a soil monitoring network to evaluate the trends and current status of the pH and the C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils. Deposition measurements and nitrogen contents of Norway spruce needles and mosses were used to assess the nitrogen supply. The pH values of soils have increased because of decreasing proton depositions caused by reduction of emissions. The C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils is widening. Despite high nitrogen deposition rates the increase in forest stand density and productivity has increased the nitrogen demand. The Austrian Bioindicator Grid shows that forest ecosystems are still deficient in nitrogen. Soils retain nitrogen efficiently, and nitrate leaching into the groundwater is presently not a large-scale problem. The decline of soil acidity and the deposition of nitrogen together with climate change effects will further increase the productivity of the forests until a limiting factor such as water scarcity becomes effective.

  16. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  17. Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on Water Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the combined impacts of climate change and human activities, a series of water issues, such as water shortages, have arisen all over the world. According to current studies in Science and Nature, water security has become a frontier critical topic. Water supply security (WSS, which is the state of water resources and their capacity and their capacity to meet the demand of water users by water supply systems, is an important part of water security. Currently, WSS is affected by the amount of water resources, water supply projects, water quality and water management. Water shortages have also led to water supply insecurity. WSS is now evaluated based on the balance of the supply and demand under a single water resources condition without considering the dynamics of the varying conditions of water resources each year. This paper developed an optimal allocation model for water resources that can realize the optimal allocation of regional water resources and comprehensively evaluate WSS. The objective of this model is to minimize the duration of water shortages in the long term, as characterized by the Water Supply Security Index (WSSI, which is the assessment value of WSS, a larger WSSI value indicates better results. In addition, the simulation results of the model can determine the change process and dynamic evolution of the WSS. Quanzhou, a city in China with serious water shortage problems, was selected as a case study. The allocation results of the current year and target year of planning demonstrated that the level of regional comprehensive WSS was significantly influenced by the capacity of water supply projects and the conditions of the natural water resources. The varying conditions of the water resources allocation results in the same year demonstrated that the allocation results and WSSI were significantly affected by reductions in precipitation, decreases in the water yield coefficient, and changes in the underlying surface.

  18. Sustainability evaluation of water supply technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit

    data was extracted from the national implementation of the EU water framework directive. When incorporating the impacts of freshwater withdrawal in addition to the standard LCA the rank order is partly reversed since rain- & stormwater harvesting and desalination are significantly more preferable......Sustainability evaluation of water supply systems is important to include in the decision making process when planning new technologies or resources for water supply. In Denmark the motivations may be many and different for changing technology, but since water supply is based on groundwater...... the main driver is the limitations of the available resource from the groundwater bodies. The environmental impact of products and systems can be evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) which is a comprehensive and dominant decision support tool capable of evaluating a water system from the cradle...

  19. Chemical contamination of water supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shy, C.M.

    1985-10-01

    Man-made organic chemicals have been found in drinking water for many years. Their numbers and varieties increase as our analytical capabilities improve. The identified chemicals comprise 10 to 20% of the total organic matter present. These are volatile or low molecular weight compounds which are easily identified. Many of them are carcinogenic or mutagenic. Chlorinated compounds have been found in untreated well water at levels up to 21,300 micrograms/L and are generally present at higher levels in chlorine-treated water than in untreated water. Aggregate risk studies for cancer are summarized. The most common sites are: bladder, stomach, colon, and rectum. Such studies cannot be linked to individual cases. However, they are useful for identifying exposed populations for epidemiologic studies. Five case-control studies were reviewed, and significant associations with water quality were found for: bladder cancer in two studies, colon cancer in three and rectal cancer in four. A large study by the National Cancer Institute found that there had been a change in the source of raw water for 50% of the persons in one area between the years 1955 and 1975. Such flaws in the data may preclude finding a causal relation between cancer and contaminants in drinking water. Large case-control and cohort studies are needed because of the low frequency of the marker diseases, bladder and rectal cancer. Cohort studies may be precluded by variations in the kinds of water contaminants. Definitive questions about these issues are posed for cooperative effort and resolution by water chemists, engineers, and epidemiologists.

  20. Selected Works in Water Supply, Water Conservation and Water Quality Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    Reuse of water (unspecified) 3. Flushinb toilet with greywater 4. Reduce amount of water used per shower and/or bath 5. Reduce frequency of showers and/or...government, and has held training seminars on water supply and water conservation planning and on water reuse . A water supply and conservation...Planning 9 Water Reuse 9 Water Demand Forecast and Analysis 9 Drought Management 10 Water Conservation in Water Supply Planning 10 Urban Water Supply 11

  1. 24 CFR 3285.603 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 3285.603 Water supply. (a) Crossover. Multi-section homes with plumbing in both sections require water-line crossover connections to join all sections of the home. The crossover design requirements are located in, and must be designed in accordance with, § 3280.609 of this chapter. (b) Maximum...

  2. Water crisis: the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, regional water supply conflict

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-07-01

    Many large population centres are currently facing considerable difficulties with planning issues to secure future water supplies, as a result of water allocation and environmental issues, litigation, and political dogma. A classic case occurs in the metropolitan Atlanta area, which is a rapidly growing, large population centre that relies solely on surface water for supply. Lake Lanier currently supplies about 70% of the water demand and has been involved in a protracted legal dispute for more than two decades. Drought and environmental management of the reservoir combined to create a water shortage which nearly caused a disaster to the region in 2007 (only about 35 days of water supply was in reserve). While the region has made progress in controlling water demand by implementing a conservation plan, per capita use projections are still very high (at 511 L/day in 2035). Both non-potable reuse and indirect reuse of treated wastewater are contained in the most current water supply plan with up to 380,000 m3/day of wastewater treated using advanced wastewater treatment (nutrient removal) to be discharged into Lake Lanier. The water supply plan, however, includes no additional or new supply sources and has deleted any reference to the use of seawater desalination or other potential water sources which would provide diversification, thereby relying solely on the Coosa and Chattahoochee river reservoirs for the future. © 2014 IWA Publishing.

  3. Water Supply and Treatment Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-15

    for the specific membrane ; b. For technologies employing membrane ultrafiltration and/or membrane microfiltration , identification of the...interesting challenges. Source water temperatures must remain below 35 oC (95 oF) during test conduct to prevent damage to the RO membranes . If employing a...below 35 °C (95 °F) during test conduct to prevent damage to the RO membranes . Due to the extended storage requirement for this test procedure, a

  4. Quantifying the Army Supply Chain Water Bootprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ways to economize. For example, in its effort to enhance its corporate water stewardship, Coca - Cola undertook a study to determine how much fresh...water is actually used (directly at the bottling facility and indirectly through the supply chain) to produce Coca - Cola in a 0.5 liter polyethylene...tial demands on the water resource as do those of Coca - Cola , Walmart, Ford, General Motors, and other large corporations that manufacture, purchase, or

  5. MPC control of water supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunsgaard, Kenneth Marx Hoe; Ravn, Ole; Kallesoe, Carsten Skovmose;

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the modelling and predictive control of a drinking water supply network with the aim of minimising the energy and economic cost. A model predictive controller, MPC, is applied to a nonlinear model of a drinking water network that follows certain constraints to maintain...... consumer pressure desire. A model predictive controller, MPC, is based on a simple model that models the main characteristics of a water distribution network, optimizes a desired cost minimisation, and keeps the system inside specified constraints. In comparison to a logic (on/off) control design......, controlling the drinking water supply network with the MPC showed reduction of the energy and the economic cost of running the system. This has been achieved by minimising actuator control effort and by shifting the actuator use towards the night time, where energy prices are lower. Along with energy cost...

  6. Activities in water supply and sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Economic and Social Council for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) held a regional workshop in Thailand in 1992 to demonstrate how women's involvement at all levels of environmentally sound and sustainable water supply and sanitation programs and projects could be made more effective, easier, and productive. Using the same modules, with the support of other organizations such as the Department of Development Support and Management Services, ESCAP conducted four more workshops in the Philippines, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Vietnam, and Thailand in 1995. In the Philippines, the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women expressed its intention to adapt the modules for the country. In the Lao PDR, three project ideas were proposed which would assist the Lao Women Union in gaining knowledge on the planning, implementation, operation, and management of water supply and sanitation projects at the national, regional and project levels. In Vietnam, three main directions for action were identified for the promotion of close and active cooperation between the Rural Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Centres and the system of the Women Union of Vietnam. In Thailand, the National Committee on Health and Environment of the National Commission on Women's Affairs expressed its willingness to seek budgetary allocation for the promotion of women's role in water supply and sanitation.

  7. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water supply restoration. 874.14 Section 874.14... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.14 Water supply restoration. (a) Any... supply restoration projects. For purposes of this section, “water supply restoration projects” are...

  8. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a) Municipal and private water supplies consist of surface water or ground water which is directed to the intake...

  9. Intermittent Water Supply: Prevalence, Practice, and Microbial Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2016-01-19

    Intermittent water supplies (IWS), in which water is provided through pipes for only limited durations, serve at least 300 million people around the world. However, providing water intermittently can compromise water quality in the distribution system. In IWS systems, the pipes do not supply water for periods of time, supply periods are shortened, and pipes experience regular flow restarting and draining. These unique behaviors affect distribution system water quality in ways that are different than during normal operations in continuous water supplies (CWS). A better understanding of the influence of IWS on mechanisms causing contamination can help lead to incremental steps that protect water quality and minimize health risks. This review examines the status and nature of IWS practices throughout the world, the evidence of the effect of IWS on water quality, and how the typical contexts in which IWS systems often exist-low-income countries with under-resourced utilities and inadequate sanitation infrastructure-can exacerbate mechanisms causing contamination. We then highlight knowledge gaps for further research to improve our understanding of water quality in IWS.

  10. Scheduling Future Water Supply Investments Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskova, I.; Matrosov, E. S.; Harou, J. J.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Reed, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertain hydrological impacts of climate change, population growth and institutional changes pose a major challenge to planning of water supply systems. Planners seek optimal portfolios of supply and demand management schemes but also when to activate assets whilst considering many system goals and plausible futures. Incorporation of scheduling into the planning under uncertainty problem strongly increases its complexity. We investigate some approaches to scheduling with many-objective heuristic search. We apply a multi-scenario many-objective scheduling approach to the Thames River basin water supply system planning problem in the UK. Decisions include which new supply and demand schemes to implement, at what capacity and when. The impact of different system uncertainties on scheme implementation schedules are explored, i.e. how the choice of future scenarios affects the search process and its outcomes. The activation of schemes is influenced by the occurrence of extreme hydrological events in the ensemble of plausible scenarios and other factors. The approach and results are compared with a previous study where only the portfolio problem is addressed (without scheduling).

  11. Installation of potable water supply and heat supply at base of subsoil water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysova Alla Evseevna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Removal of groundwater with further use of it for potable water supply and heat supply with the use of heat pump is an important problem. A new revolutionary approach to the decision of energy and water saving that provides rational accommodation of groundwater boreholes ensuring the required flow rate of water through the heat pump evaporator with simultaneously high intensity of heat exchange process is proposed. The method of calculation which allows determining the necessary depth of borehole, quantity of boreholes, in consideration of flow rate and temperature of subsoil water determining capacity of heat pump installation is worked out.

  12. Climate vulnerability of drinking water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmeczi, Pál; Homolya, Emese; Rotárné Szalkai, Ágnes

    2016-04-01

    Extreme weather conditions in Hungary led to difficulties in drinking water management on diverse occasions in the past. Due to reduced water resources and the coexisting high demand for drinking water in dry summer periods the availability of a number of water supplies became insufficient therefore causing limitations in water access. In some other cases, as a result of floods and flash floods over karstic areas evolving in consequence of excessive precipitation, several water supplies had to be excluded in order to avoid the risk of infections. More frequent occurrence of extreme weather conditions and further possible changes in the future induce the necessity for an analysis of the vulnerability of drinking water resources to climate change. Since 95% of the total drinking water supply in Hungary originates from subsurface layers, significance of groundwater resources is outstanding. The aim of our work carried out in the frames of the NAGiS (National Adaptation Geo-information System) project was to build up a methodology for the study and determination of the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to climate. The task covered analyses of climatic parameters influencing drinking water supplies principally and hydrogeological characteristics of the geological media that significantly determines vulnerability. Effects on drinking water resources and their reduction or exclusion may imply societal and economic consequences therefore we extended the analyses to the investigation of possibilities concerning the adaptation capacity to changed conditions. We applied the CIVAS (Climate Impact and Vulnerability Assessment Scheme) model developed in the frames of the international climate research project CLAVIER (Climate Change and Variability: Impact on Central and Eastern Europe) to characterize climate vulnerability of drinking water supplies. The CIVAS model, being based on the combined evaluation of exposure, sensitivity and adaptability, provides a unified

  13. Artesian water supply control system in transient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Костянтин Олегович Буравченко

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an artesian water supply control system in the transition mode. The control system searches for the optimal performance trajectory of the water supply on the basis of a maximum return with a view to the fastest mode of stabilization. The analysis of artesian water supply control systems in transition mode and methods of improvement was conducted

  14. Indirect economic impacts in water supplies augmented with desalinated water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    and clothes washer replacements is expected to decrease by 14%. In economic terms these changes are equal to 24–85% of water production costs in 2005. Our calculations further indicate that the economic impact from changing the water quality can be at least as significant as the change in operating costs......Several goals can be considered when optimizing blends from multiple water resources for urban water supplies. Concentration-response relationships from the literature indicate that a changed water quality can cause impacts on health, lifetime of consumer goods and use of water additives like...... softeners. This paper describes potential economic consequences of diluting Copenhagen's drinking water with desalinated water. With a mineral content at 50% of current levels, dental caries and cardiovascular diseases are expected to increase by 51 and 23% respectively. Meanwhile, the number of dish...

  15. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  16. Oahu, Hawaii's Water Supply: 1848-2020 A.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, John Henry

    Demand projections indicate that Oahu's natural ground water supply will be fully developed by the year 2000. Supplementary water resources will need to be developed in keeping with the growth of the economy and population. The author, chairman of the Honolulu Board of Water Supply, authoritatively discusses types of ground water in Hawaii, and…

  17. Austrian Social Security Database

    OpenAIRE

    Zweimüller, Josef; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf; Lalive, Rafael; Kuhn, Andreas; Wuellrich, Jean-Philippe; Ruf, Oliver; Büchi, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The Austrian Social Security Database (ASSD) is a matched firm-worker data set, which records the labor market history of almost 11 million individuals from January 1972 to April 2007. Moreover, more than 2.2 million firms can be identified. The individual labor market histories are described in the follow- ing dimensions: very detailed daily labor market states and yearly earnings at the firm-worker level, together with a limited set of demographic characteris- tics. Additionally the ASSD pr...

  18. 46 CFR 76.25-15 - Pumps and water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps and water supply. 76.25-15 Section 76.25-15... EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-15 Pumps and water supply. (a) An automatically... water from the two highest fire hose outlets in a manner similar to that described in §...

  19. Microflora of drinking water distributed through decentralized supply systems (Tomsk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvaschevskaya, A. A.; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Shestakova, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers microbiological quality of waters from decentralized water supply systems in Tomsk. It has been proved that there are numerous microbial contaminants of different types. The authors claim that the water distributed through decentralized supply systems is not safe to drink without preliminary treatment.

  20. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  1. Water supply and tree growth. Part I. Water deficits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, T.T.

    1982-02-01

    Water supply is the most important environmental factor determining distribution, species composition and growth of forests. Net annual primary production of forests varies from as much as 3000 g/m/sub 2/ in wet regions to negligible amounts in dry regions. The water balance of trees has been characterized by visible wilting, tissue moisture content, relative water content, saturation deficit, and water potential. Water deficits develop readily in forest trees, even in trees growing in wet soil, because of excess transpiration over absorption of water. Water deficits adversely affect seed germination and cause shrinkage of leaves, stems, roots, fruits, and cones. Some of the decrease in photosynthesis during drought is the result of increased resistance to diffusion of CO/sub 2/ to chloroplasts and some to decrease in photosynthetic capacity. Water deficits inhibit shoot growth, wood production, and root growth. Yield of fruits and seeds can be inhibited at various stages of reproductive growth such as flower bud initiation, anthesis, pollination, fertilization, embryo growth, and fruit and seed enlargement. Water deficits may also induce leaf scorching and abscission, dieback of twigs and branches, and drought cracks. Severe water deficits often kill trees. Drought tolerance of trees may reflect desiccation avoidance or desiccation tolerance, with the former much more important. Among the most important of these are reduction in number and size of leaves; small, few, and sunken stomata; rapid stomatal closure; abundant leaf waxes; leaf shedding during droughts; extensive root development; capacity for twig and stem photosynthesis; living wood fibers; and strong development of palisade mesophyll.

  2. Development of city water supply net information system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJing; GUOShiquan; LUJun

    2003-01-01

    Through analyzing the present conditions of water supply networks technical administration files in Chongqing, this paper points out the significance and urgency for exploiting advanced water supply networks information system. It also gives the concept of GIS and some suggestions for the exploitation.

  3. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  4. Water supply studies. [management and planning of water supplies in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Churchman, C. W.; Thomas, R. W.; Lauer, D. T.; Hoos, I.; Krumpe, P. F.; Nichols, J. D.; Gialdini, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    The primary test site for water supply investigations continues to be the Feather River watershed in northeastern California. This test site includes all of the area draining into and including the Oroville Reservoir. The principal effort is to determine the extent to which remote sensing techniques, when properly employed, can provide information useful to those persons concerned with the management and planning of lands and facilities for the production of water, using the Oroville Reservoir and the California Water Project as the focus for the study. In particular, emphasis is being placed on determining the cost effectiveness of information derived through remote sensing as compared with that currently being derived through more conventional means.

  5. Optimal Dispatching of Large-scale Water Supply System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of optimal control techniques in large-scale water distribution networks. According to the network characteristics and actual state of the water supply system in China, the implicit model, which may be solved by utilizing the hierarchical optimization method, is established. In special, based on the analyses of the water supply system containing variable-speed pumps, a software tool has been developed successfully. The application of this model to the city of Shenyang (China) is compared to experiential strategy. The results of this study show that the developed model is a very promising optimization method to control the large-scale water supply systems.

  6. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Water Act (see 40 CFR 141), is exceeded. (ii) The water supply has been identified as a source of... contaminated water source. 203.61 Section 203.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT... PROCEDURES Emergency Water Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.61...

  7. STANDARDIZED COSTS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presented within the report are cost data for construction and operation/maintenance of domestic water distribution and transmission pipelines, domestic water pumping stations, and domestic water storage reservoirs. To allow comparison of new construction with rehabilitation of e...

  8. Indirect potable reuse: a sustainable water supply alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-03-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  9. Modeling Integrated Water-User Decisions with Intermittent Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J. R.; Rosenberg, D.

    2006-12-01

    We present an economic-engineering method to estimate urban water use demands with intermittent water supplies. A two-stage, probabilistic optimization formulation includes a wide variety of water supply enhancement and conservation actions that individual households can adopt to meet multiple water quality uses with uncertain water availability. We embed the optimization in Monte-Carlo simulations to show aggregate effects at a utility (citywide) scale for a population of user conditions and decisions. Parametric analysis provides derivations of supply curves to subsidize conservation, demand responses to alternative pricing, and customer willingness-to-pay to avoid shortages. Results show a good empirical fit for the average and distribution of billed residential water use in Amman, Jordan. Additional outputs give likely market penetration rates for household conservation actions, associated water savings, and subsidies required to entice further adoption. We discuss new insights to size, target, market, and finance conservation programs and interpret a demand curve with block pricing.

  10. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  11. Water Supply of Indian Wells Valley, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    finite. Water pumipage and consuniptive water use exceeds (he natura rehre to the idale ’s griund-water supplN. In 1984 28.000 acre feet of’ water was...XEROPHY’TES ARTEMISiA PHREATOPHYTES SALTBRUSH PICKLEWEED WATER TABLE 𔃻A 60 ~50 SALTGRASS, ALKALI SACATONE, SAITBAUSH ~40 C-. z cc PASTURE ...limit on the amount of useful water stored in the Valley (Photo 12). MAIN GATE NWC B ONTI 2500 / MODERN ALLUVIUM "-, ~GOO’’- -0.S.5 -300 PPM _ Lu 2000

  12. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements. (a) Where water spray devices are... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements. 75.1107-7 Section 75.1107-7 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  13. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  14. Considerations of the Skilled Manpower Needs for Water Supply Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Gregor

    1981-01-01

    General methods for determining skilled labor needs for water supply and wastewater treatment plant operation as applied in Turkey are outlined along with a model program for training personnel to meet these needs. (DC)

  15. Cache County Water Demand/Supply Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Trevor C.; Norby, Gregory J.; Thyagarajan, Laxman

    1996-01-01

    This report descibes a municipal water demand forecasting model for use in areas of mixed rural and urban housing types. A series of residential demand functions were derived which forecast water demand based on the ype and density of housing and season. Micro sampling techniques were used to correlate water use data and explanatory variable data for low, medium, and high density housing. The demand functions were...

  16. Method of Distinguishing Hydrologic Drought for Water Supply System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to design water supply system to adjust runoff. Thus it will not meet the practical needs if only the hydrologic drought in natural basin is studied. In practice the natural water balance and water deficits must be researched, i. e., the adjusting effects of the water supply system such as a reservoir should be considered, and the drought event be distinguished according to the special system. The problem of drought identification under adjusted runoff was investigated in this study. By considering water transfer during different periods, a method to distinguish hydrologic drought for the water supply system was developed, and a standard drought severity index SWDSI was proposed. The method has been applied in Pan Jiakou water supply system in China. From 1953 to 1997, a total of 14 hydrologic droughts were identified in the water supply system, among which there were 3 severe droughts, 6 moderate droughts and 5 light droughts. The results are in good agreement with the historic drought records.

  17. 7 CFR 612.5 - Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data... SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.5 Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data. Water supply outlook reports prepared by NRCS and its cooperators containing water supply forecasts and basic data are...

  18. Water supply network district metering theory and case study

    CERN Document Server

    Di Nardo, Armando; Di Mauro, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The management of a water supply network can be substantially improved defining permanent sectors or districts that enhances simpler water loss detection and pressure management. However, the water network partitioning may compromise water system performance, since some pipes are usually closed to delimit districts in order not to have too many metering stations, to decrease costs and simplify water balance. This may reduce the reliability of the whole system and not guarantee the delivery of water at the different network nodes. In practical applications, the design of districts or sectors is generally based on empirical approaches or on limited field experiences. The book proposes a design support methodology, based on graph theory principles and tested on real case study. The described methodology can help water utilities, professionals and researchers to define the optimal districts or sectors of a water supply network.

  19. Lesotho - Rural Water and Sanitation Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The impact evaluation design of the rural water intervention proposes two separate approaches so as to ensure a “defensive evaluation” that is, so that results can...

  20. Drought risk and vulnerability in water supply systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrote de Marcos, Luis; Cubillo, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the challenges presented to the managers of water supply systems by drought and water scarcity. Risk assessment is an essential tool for the diagnostic of water scarcity in this type of systems. The evaluation of the risk of water shortage is performed with the use of complex mathematical models. Different alternatives to address the problem are presented, covering a range of methodological approaches. The actions adopted to prevent or mitigate the effects o...

  1. Intermittent Water Supplies: Challenges and Opportunities for Residential Water Users in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, David E.; Talozi, Samer; Lund, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Intermittent access to improved urban water supplies is a large and expanding global problem. This paper describes 16 supply enhancement and 23 demand management actions available to urban residential water users in Jordan to cope with intermittent supplies. We characterize actions by implementation, costs, and water quantities and qualities acquired or conserved. This effort systematically identifies potential options prior to detailed study and shows that water users have significant capaci...

  2. Vulnerability of drinking water supplies to engineered nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troester, Martin; Brauch, Heinz-Juergen; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-06-01

    The production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) inevitably leads to their release into aquatic environments, with the quantities involved expected to increase significantly in the future. Concerns therefore arise over the possibility that ENPs might pose a threat to drinking water supplies. Investigations into the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs are hampered by the absence of suitable analytical methods that are capable of detecting and quantifiying ENPs in complex aqueous matrices. Analytical data concerning the presence of ENPs in drinking water supplies is therefore scarce. The eventual fate of ENPs in the natural environment and in processes that are important for drinking water production are currently being investigated through laboratory based-experiments and modelling. Although the information obtained from these studies may not, as yet, be sufficient to allow comprehensive assessment of the complete life-cycle of ENPs, it does provide a valuable starting point for predicting the significance of ENPs to drinking water supplies. This review therefore addresses the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs. The risk of ENPs entering drinking water is discussed and predicted for drinking water produced from groundwater and from surface water. Our evaluation is based on reviewing published data concerning ENP production amounts and release patterns, the occurrence and behavior of ENPs in aquatic systems relevant for drinking water supply and ENP removability in drinking water purification processes. Quantitative predictions are made based on realistic high-input case scenarios. The results of our synthesis of current knowledge suggest that the risk probability of ENPs being present in surface water resources is generally limited, but that particular local conditions may increase the probability of raw water contamination by ENPs. Drinking water extracted from porous media aquifers are not generally considered to be prone to ENP

  3. The Economics of Groundwater Replenishment for Reliable Urban Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential economic benefits of water banking in aquifers to meet drought and emergency supplies for cities where the population is growing and changing climate has reduced the availability of water. A simplified case study based on the city of Perth, Australia was used to estimate the savings that could be achieved by water banking. Scenarios for investment in seawater desalination plants and groundwater replenishment were considered over a 20 year period of growing demand, using a Monte Carlo analysis that embedded the Markov model. An optimisation algorithm identified the minimum cost solutions that met specified criteria for supply reliability. The impact of depreciation of recharge credits was explored. The results revealed savings of more than A$1B (~US$1B or 37% to 33% of supply augmentation costs by including water banking in aquifers for 95% and 99.5% reliability of supply respectively. When the hypothetically assumed recharge credit depreciation rate was increased from 1% p.a. to 10% p.a. savings were still 33% to 31% for the same reliabilities. These preliminary results show that water banking in aquifers has potential to offer a highly attractive solution for efficiently increasing the security of urban water supplies where aquifers are suitable.

  4. Mean Residence Time and Emergency Drinking Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Martin; Humer, Franko

    2013-04-01

    Immediately after securing an endangered population, the first priority of aid workers following a disaster is the distribution of drinking water. Such emergency situations are reported from many parts of the world following regional chemical or nuclear pollution accidents, floods, droughts, rain-induced landslides, tsunami, and other extreme events. It is often difficult to organise a replacement water supply when regular water systems with short residence times are polluted, infiltrated or even flooded by natural or man-made disasters. They are either unusable or their restoration may take months or even years. Groundwater resources, proven safe and protected by the geological environment, with long residence times and the necessary infrastructure for their exploitation, would provide populations with timeous replacement of vulnerable water supply systems and make rescue activities more rapid and effective. Such resources have to be identified and investigated, as a substitute for affected drinking water supplies thereby eliminating or reducing the impact of their failure following catastrophic events. Even in many areas such water resources with long residence times in years or decades are difficult to find it should be known which water supply facilities in the region are matching these requirements to allow in emergency situation the transport of water in tankers to the affected regions to prevent epidemics, importing large quantities of bottled water. One should know the residence time of the water supply to have sufficient time to plan and install new safe water supply facilities. Development of such policy and strategy for human security - both long term and short term - is therefore needed to decrease the vulnerability of populations threatened by extreme events and water supplies with short residence times. Generally: The longer the residence time of groundwater in the aquifer, the lower its vulnerability. The most common and economic methods to estimate

  5. Indemnification of the quality of water supply in residential areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJing; GUOShiquan

    2003-01-01

    Most cities of our country now adopt the method of concentative pipe nets in water supply. In order to meet the users'' request of hydraulic pressure, some small residential areas or building groups have established water supply systems of secondary compression. Now most water supply enterprises do much work in purification processes of waterworks so as to improve the water quality; however, the secondary pollution because of water supply pipe nets is ignored. An investigation was done by special team of “security technology of water quality in residential areas” and they investigated water quality of waterworks and health and quarantine stations in big and middle cities of the whole country. The result indicates that secondary pollution of pipeline networks indeed exists. So, in order to resolve the question of secondary pollution and to provide people with clean and secure drinking water, the reason that secondary pollution came into being must be understood, moreover, concrete methods and measures aimed at each reason should be found out.

  6. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... the surface water supplies within the service area are insufficient from both a quality and quantity... Scoping Meetings MSU-Bottineau, Nelson Science Center Room 125, 105 Simrall Boulevard, Bottineau, ND Sleep... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to...

  7. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the surface water supplies within the service area are insufficient from both a quality and quantity... MSU-Bottineau, Nelson Science Center Room 125, 105 Simrall Boulevard, Bottineau, ND. Sleep Inn--Inn... of the proposed action is to provide a reliable source of high quality treated water to...

  8. Calculation of Water Supply to Hydraulic Jet Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Krautsou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependence for calculation of working fluid supply to water-air ejector is proposed. The de­pendence has been derived via analysis and processing of data being obtained by experimental research of water-jet devices.

  9. Advanced control of a water supply system: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional automatic production flow control and pump pressure control of water supply systems are robust and simple: production flow is controlled based on the level in the clear water reservoir and pump pressure is controlled on a static set-point. Recently, more advanced computer-based control

  10. [Sanitary quality of water supply for human consumption in Campeche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Márquez, A P; Lezama-Dávila, C M; Ku-Pech, P P; Tamay-Segovia, P

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents data of a study undertaken to know the sanitary features of water supply (deep pools) for human consumption in the city of Campeche, Mexico. Levels of intestinal bacteria (total and fecal coliforms) were monitored, as well as heterotrophic plate counts and the surroundings of each deep pool were inspected. Each water supply was monitored three times from January to July, 1993 and presented unacceptable levels of heterotrophic plate counts and coliforms which is a strong evidence of fecal contamination of animal or human origin. These findings are a clear indication of unacceptable contamination of water supply for human consumption which requires an improvement and systematic inspection in order to provide good quality water to the population of Campeche.

  11. Rapid evaluation of water supply project feasibility in Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mega cities in developing countries are mostly dependent on external funding for improving the civic infrastructures like water supply. International and sometimes national agencies stipulate financial justifications for infrastructure funding. Expansion of drinking water network with external funding therefore requires explicit economic estimates. A methodology suitable for local condition has been developed in this study. Relevant field data were collected for estimating the cost of supply. The artificial neural network technique has been used for cost estimate. The willingness to pay survey has been used for estimating the benefits. Cost and benefit have been compared with consideration of time value of money. The risk and uncertainty have been investigated by Monte Carlo's simulation and sensitivity analysis. The results in this case indicated that consumers were willing to pay for supply of drinking water. It has been also found that supply up to 20 km from the treatment plant is economical after which new plants should be considered. The study would help to plan for economically optimal improvement of water supply. It could be also used for estimating the water tariff structure for the city.

  12. Rapid evaluation of water supply project feasibility in Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mega cities in developing countries are mostly dependent on external funding for improving the civic infrastructures like water supply. International and sometimes national agencies stipulate financial justifications for infrastructure funding. Expansion of drinking water network with external funding therefore requires explicit economic estimates. A methodology suitable for local condition has been developed in this study. Relevant field data were collected for estimating the cost of supply. The artificial neural network technique has been used for cost estimate. The willingness to pay survey has been used for estimating the benefits. Cost and benefit have been compared with consideration of time value of money. The risk and uncertainty have been investigated by Monte Carlo's simulation and sensitivity analysis. The results in this case indicated that consumers were willing to pay for supply of drinking water. It has been also found that supply up to 20 km from the treatment plant is economical after which new plants should be considered. The study would help to plan for economically optimal improvement of water supply. It could be also used for estimating the water tariff structure for the city.

  13. Volumetric Pricing of Agricultural Water Supplies: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ronald C.; Perry, Gregory M.

    1985-07-01

    Models of water consumption by rice producers are conceptualized and then estimated using cross-sectional time series data obtained from 16 Texas canal operators for the years 1977-1982. Two alternative econometric models demonstrate that both volumetric and flat rate water charges are strongly and inversely related to agricultural water consumption. Nonprice conservation incentives accompanying flat rates are hypothesized to explain the negative correlation of flat rate charges and water consumption. Application of these results suggests that water supply organizations in the sample population converting to volumetric pricing will generally reduce water consumption.

  14. Integrated Water Supply and Land Resource Management in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, A. J.; Croke, B. F.; Croke, B. F.; Dietrich, C. R.; Letcher, R. A.; Merritt, W.; Perez, P.

    2001-05-01

    Intensification of agricultural development has led to water supply conflicts and exacerbation of environmental problems in many developing countries. In Thailand, for example, issues of water access between upstream and downstream users and on-site erosion and off-site water quality are common in the Northern Highlands. The authors report on a framework which has been developed to assist improved land use planning and water allocation. It can be used to assess the water supply, environmental and socioeconomic impacts of land use, climate and government policy. This framework utilises the integration of catchment supply models, crop, water allocation and erosion models, as well as models of household decision making. For the Mae Chaem catchment in Thailand, the authors present details of the particular method of integration of these models and results for the individual model components. The effects of changes in land use and climate variations on the distribution of water supply, crop yields and erosion illustrate the types of tradeoffs that have to be made. Crucial to the effectiveness of such integrated tools is an understanding of the reliability of the integrated model's predictions of different outcomes. The authors present a relevant framework for analysing model uncertainty in order to appreciate the degree to which one can confidently differentiate among different model outcomes resulting from different land use changes.

  15. Domestic Water Consumption under Intermittent and Continuous Modes of Water Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2014-01-01

    Although an extensive literature emphasizes the disadvantages of intermittent water supply, it remains prevalent in rural areas of developing countries. Understanding the effects of water supply time restrictions on domestic water use activities and patterns, especially for hygienic purposes, is imp

  16. Ground-water supplies of the Ypsilanti area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Charles L.; Poindexter, O.F.; Otton, E.G.

    1949-01-01

    As of the date of this report (August 1945), the major water users in the Ypsilanti area are: (1) the city of Ypsilanti, (2) the Willow Run bomber plant, built by the Federal Government and operated by the Ford Motor Co., and (3) the war housing project of the Federal Public Housing Authority, designated in this report the Willow Run Townsite. The city, bomber plant, and townsite have required large quantities of water for domestic and industrial uses, and the necessary water supplies have been developed from wells. The Federal Works Agency had the responsibility of deciding whether the existing water facilities were adequate to meet the expected demands and determining the character of any additional public water-supply facilities that might be constructed with Federal assistance. In order to appraise the ground-water resources of the area the Federal Works Agency requested the Geological Survey to investigate the adequacy of the existing supplies and the availability of additional water. The present report is the result of the investigation, which was made in cooperation with the Michigan Geological Survey Division.The water supplies of the three major users are obtained from wells penetrating glacial and associated sands and gravels. Supplies for the city of Ypsilanti and the Willow Run bomber plant are obtained from wells in the valley of the Huron River; the supply for the Willow Run Townsite is obtained from wells penetrating glacial gravels underlying the upland northeast of the valley. The bedrock formations of the area either yield little water to wells or yield water that is too highly mineralized for most uses.The water supply for the bomber plant is obtained from three closely spaced, highly productive wells at the northern edge of the Huron River, a little more than 3 miles southeast of Ypsilanti. The water receives complete treatment in a modern treatment plant. River water also can be treated and has been used occasionally in the winter and spring

  17. Renewable energy water supply - Mexico program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a program directed by the US Agency for International Development and Sandia National Laboratory which installed sustainable energy sources in the form of photovoltaic modules and wind energy systems in rural Mexico to pump water and provide solar distillation services. The paper describes the guidelines which appeared most responsible for success as: promote an integrated development program; install quality systems that develop confidence; instill local project ownership; train local industry and project developers; develop a local maintenance infrastructure; provide users training and operations guide; develop clear lines of responsibilities for system upkeep. The paper emphasizes the importance of training. It also presents much collected data as to the characteristics and performance of the installed systems.

  18. Optimization of urban water supply portfolios combining infrastructure capacity expansion and water use decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Azuara, J.; Fraga, C. C. S.; Marques, G.; Mendes, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The expansion and operation of urban water supply systems under rapidly growing demands, hydrologic uncertainty, and scarce water supplies requires a strategic combination of various supply sources for added reliability, reduced costs and improved operational flexibility. The design and operation of such portfolio of water supply sources merits decisions of what and when to expand, and how much to use of each available sources accounting for interest rates, economies of scale and hydrologic variability. The present research provides a framework and an integrated methodology that optimizes the expansion of various water supply alternatives using dynamic programming and combining both short term and long term optimization of water use and simulation of water allocation. A case study in Bahia Do Rio Dos Sinos in Southern Brazil is presented. The framework couples an optimization model with quadratic programming model in GAMS with WEAP, a rain runoff simulation models that hosts the water supply infrastructure features and hydrologic conditions. Results allow (a) identification of trade offs between cost and reliability of different expansion paths and water use decisions and (b) evaluation of potential gains by reducing water system losses as a portfolio component. The latter is critical in several developing countries where water supply system losses are high and often neglected in favor of more system expansion. Results also highlight the potential of various water supply alternatives including, conservation, groundwater, and infrastructural enhancements over time. The framework proves its usefulness for planning its transferability to similarly urbanized systems.

  19. Potable water supply in U.S. manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Straub, John E., II

    1992-01-01

    A historical review of potable water supply systems used in the U.S. manned flight program is presented. This review provides a general understanding of the unusual challenges these systems have presented to the designers and operators of the related flight hardware. The presentation concludes with the projection of how water supply should be provided in future space missions - extended duration earth-orbital and interplanetary missions and lunar and Mars habitation bases - and the challenges to the biomedical community that providing these systems can present.

  20. Geolocation Support for Water Supply and Sewerage Projects in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qocamanov, M. H.; Gurbanov, Ch. Z.

    2016-10-01

    Drinking water supply and sewerage system designing and reconstruction projects are being extensively conducted in Azerbaijan Republic. During implementation of such projects, collecting large amount of information about the area and detailed investigations are crucial. Joint use of the aerospace monitoring and GIS play an essential role for the studies of the impact of environmental factors, development of the analytical information systems and others, while achieving the reliable performance of the existing and designed major water supply pipelines, as well as construction and exploitation of the technical installations. With our participation the GIS has been created in "Azersu" OJSC that includes systematic database of the drinking water supply and sewerage system, and rain water networks to carry out necessary geo information analysis. GIScreated based on "Microstation" platform and aerospace data. Should be mentioned that, in the country, specifically in large cities (i.e. Baku, Ganja, Sumqait, etc.,) drinking water supply pipelines cross regions with different physico-geographical conditions, geo-morphological compositions and seismotectonics.Mains water supply lines in many accidents occur during the operation, it also creates problems with drinking water consumers. In some cases the damage is caused by large-scale accidents. Long-term experience gives reason to say that the elimination of the consequences of accidents is a major cost. Therefore, to avoid such events and to prevent their exploitation and geodetic monitoring system to improve the rules on key issues. Therefore, constant control of the plan-height positioning, geodetic measurements for the detailed examination of the dynamics, repetition of the geodetic measurements for certain time intervals, or in other words regular monitoring is very important. During geodetic monitoring using the GIS has special significance. Given that, collecting geodetic monitoring measurements of the main pipelines

  1. 7 CFR 612.6 - Application for water supply forecast service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for water supply forecast service. 612.6... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.6 Application for water supply forecast service. Requests for obtaining water supply forecasts...

  2. Visit of the Austrian Ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The Austrian Ambassador Wolfgang Petritsch (light raincoat) learns about superconducting magnets at the LHC magnet test facility in building SM18 during a visit to CERN. The blue pipe-like structure in the left background is String 2: the 120-m long full-scale model of an LHC cell, which is used to test LHC systems.

  3. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  4. Barcelona's water supply, 1867–1967 : the transition to a modern system

    OpenAIRE

    Guàrdia Bassols, Manuel; Rosselló i Nicolau, Maribel; Garriga Bosch, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Barcelona's water supply since 14th century to 1867, the Eixample's water supply problem the development of modern water supply since 1867 to 1967 the new sanitation system impact on water consumption water's slow entry into the domestic sphere from post-war restrictions to widespread water consumption. Peer Reviewed

  5. Monitoring water supply systems for anomaly detection and response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Lapikas, T.; Tangena, B.H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2012-01-01

    Water supply systems are vulnerable to damage caused by unintended or intended human actions, or due to aging of the system. In order to minimize the damages and the inconvenience for the customers, a software tool was developed to detect anomalies at an early stage, and to support the responsible s

  6. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  7. Capacity expansion modelling to aid water supply investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Padula, S

    2015-01-01

    Increasing population, economic development, and environmental changes imply that maintaining the water supply-demand balance will remain a top priority. Water resource systems may need to be expanded in order to respond to demand growth. Capacity expansion studies can be used to answer the question of what the optimal expansion size, timing and location of new infrastructure should be. This thesis develops and applies capacity expansion optimisation modelling approaches. We begin with the 'E...

  8. Public-supply water use in Kansas, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.; Eslick, Patrick J.

    2015-10-27

    This report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Kansas Department of Agriculture’s Division of Water Resources, presents derivative statistics of water used by Kansas public-supply systems in 2013. The published statistics from the previous 4 years (2009–12) are also shown with the 2013 statistics and are used to calculate a 5-year average. An overall Kansas average and regional averages also are calculated and presented.

  9. Isotopic Fingerprint for Phosphorus in Drinking Water Supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooddy, Daren C; Lapworth, Dan J; Ascott, Matthew J; Bennett, Sarah A; Heaton, Timothy H E; Surridge, Ben W J

    2015-08-01

    Phosphate dosing of drinking water supplies, coupled with leakage from distribution networks, represents a significant input of phosphorus to the environment. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate (δ(18)OPO4), a novel stable isotope tracer for phosphorus, offers new opportunities to understand the importance of phosphorus derived from sources such as drinking water. We report the first assessment of δ(18)OPO4 within drinking water supplies. A total of 40 samples from phosphate-dosed distribution networks were analyzed from across England and Wales. In addition, samples of the source orthophosphoric acid used for dosing were also analyzed. Two distinct isotopic signatures for drinking water were identified (average = +13.2 or +19.7‰), primarily determined by δ(18)OPO4 of the source acid (average = +12.4 or +19.7‰). Dependent upon the source acid used, drinking water δ(18)OPO4 appears isotopically distinct from a number of other phosphorus sources. Isotopic offsets from the source acid ranging from -0.9 to +2.8‰ were observed. There was little evidence that equilibrium isotope fractionation dominated within the networks, with offsets from temperature-dependent equilibrium ranging from -4.8 to +4.2‰. While partial equilibrium fractionation may have occurred, kinetic effects associated with microbial uptake of phosphorus or abiotic sorption and dissolution reactions may also contribute to δ(18)OPO4 within drinking water supplies.

  10. Framework for Enhancing the Supply-Demand Balance of a Tri-Supply Urban Water Scheme in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Edoardo Bertone; Rodney A. Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Fit-for-purpose potable source substitution of appropriate water end uses with rainwater or recycled water is often essential to maintain water security in growing urban regions. This paper provides the results of a detailed supply-demand forecasting review of a unique tri-supply (i.e., potable, A+ recycled and rain water sources reticulated to household) urban water scheme located in Queensland, Australia. Despite the numerous benefits of this scheme, system efficiency (e.g., reduced demand ...

  11. Hospital Water Supply as a Potential Source of Opportunistic Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. El-Zanfaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt as well as in many other developing countries, there are no specific standards for hospital water. Even water is free from the traditional bacterial indicators, it may represent a source of health hazards especially for elderly, children and patients under dialysis due to the presence of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. The study was carried out on the bacteriological water quality at the intakes as well as the end of water treatment train of two water treatment plants that supplying three hospitals located in Greater Cairo, Egypt with water that used for different purposes. Samples of the raw water supply for the two water treatment plants (Nile River water showed ranges of 102-105 cfu mL-1, 102-104 MPN 100 mL-1, 102-104 MPN 100 mL-1 and 102-103 MPN 100 mL-1 for Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC bacteria, Total Coliforms (TC, Fecal Coliforms (FC and Fecal Streptococci (FS, respectively. Treated water showed considerable reduction in HPC while the other bacterial indicators reached the undetectable level. The distribution system impact on treated water quality was limited to causing an increase in HPC bacteria. A study was carried out to determine the presence of Pseudomonas aeuginosa, Aeromonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals tap water, water reservoirs, as well as water for preparation of hemodialysis fluids. Although the post-chlorinated water in both water treatment plants was free from bacterial indicators, it still contaminated with the three studied opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. The detected opportunistic pathogens may be attributed to the distribution system condition and/or the presence of storage tanks. Hemodialysis water samples showed the higher percentage of P. aeruginosa isolates which represent a major source of health risk to patient’s attending dialysis process in hospitals and clinics. The presence of opportunistic bacteria in drinking water and dialysate with absence of coliform and low HPC

  12. Importance of pressure reducing valves (PRVs) in water supply networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoreti, R. O. S.; Camargo, R. Z.; Canno, L. M.; Pires, M. S. G.; Ribeiro, L. C. L. J.

    2016-08-01

    Challenged with the high rate of leakage from water supply systems, these managers are committed to identify control mechanisms. In order to standardize and control the pressure Pressure Reducing Valves (VRP) are installed in the supply network, shown to be more effective and provide a faster return for the actual loss control measures. It is known that the control pressure is while controlling the occurrence of leakage. Usually the network is sectored in areas defined by pressure levels according to its topography, once inserted the VRP in the same system will limit the downstream pressure. This work aims to show the importance of VRP as loss reduction for tool.

  13. 7 CFR 612.2 - Snow survey and water supply forecast activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. 612... SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.2 Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. To carry out the cooperative snow survey and water supply forecast program, NRCS: (a) Establishes, maintains, and operates...

  14. Modeling integrated water user decisions in intermittent supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, David E.; Tarawneh, Tarek; Abdel-Khaleq, Rania; Lund, Jay R.

    2007-07-01

    We apply systems analysis to estimate household water use in an intermittent supply system considering numerous interdependent water user behaviors. Some 39 household actions include conservation; improving local storage or water quality; and accessing sources having variable costs, availabilities, reliabilities, and qualities. A stochastic optimization program with recourse decisions identifies the infrastructure investments and short-term coping actions a customer can adopt to cost-effectively respond to a probability distribution of piped water availability. Monte Carlo simulations show effects for a population of customers. Model calibration reproduces the distribution of billed residential water use in Amman, Jordan. Parametric analyses suggest economic and demand responses to increased availability and alternative pricing. It also suggests potential market penetration for conservation actions, associated water savings, and subsidies to entice further adoption. We discuss new insights to size, target, and finance conservation.

  15. Optimizing intermittent water supply in urban pipe distribution networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lieb, Anna M; Wilkening, Jon

    2015-01-01

    In many urban areas of the developing world, piped water is supplied only intermittently, as valves direct water to different parts of the water distribution system at different times. The flow is transient, and may transition between free-surface and pressurized, resulting in complex dynamical features with important consequences for water suppliers and users. Here, we develop a computational model of transition, transient pipe flow in a network, accounting for a wide variety of realistic boundary conditions. We validate the model against several published data sets, and demonstrate its use on a real pipe network. The model is extended to consider several optimization problems motivated by realistic scenarios. We demonstrate how to infer water flow in a small pipe network from a single pressure sensor, and show how to control water inflow to minimize damaging pressure gradients.

  16. Effects of rainwater harvesting on centralized urban water supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandet, C.; Binning, Philip John; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2010-01-01

    The potential effect of widespread rainwater harvesting practices on mains water demand and quality management are investigated for three different types of urban areas characterized by different roof area to water demand ratios. Two rainfall patterns are considered with similar average annual de...... if they enable the deferment of requirements for new mains water infrastructure.......The potential effect of widespread rainwater harvesting practices on mains water demand and quality management are investigated for three different types of urban areas characterized by different roof area to water demand ratios. Two rainfall patterns are considered with similar average annual...... depths but very different temporal distributions. Supply reliability and the extent of reliance on the public distribution system are identified as suitable performance indicators for mains water infrastructure. A uniform temporal distribution of rainfall in an oceanic climate like that of Dinard...

  17. Public-supply water use in Kansas, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning-Rush, Jennifer; Restrepo-Osorio, Diana

    2017-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Data Release provides derivative statistics of water used by Kansas public-supply systems in 2015. Gallons per capita per day is calculated using self-reported information in the “Part B: Monthly Water Use Summary” and “Part C: Population, Service Connections, and Water Rates” sections of the Kansas Department of Agriculture, Division of Water Resources' (DWR) annual municipal water use report (see appendixes at http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds964 for an example of a municipal water use report form.) Percent unaccounted for water is calculated using self-reported information in “Part B: Monthly Water Use Summary” of the DWR’s municipal water-use report. The published statistics from the previous 4 years (2011–2014) are also shown with the 2015 statistics and are used to calculate a 5-year average. Derivative statistics of 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 5-year averages for gallons per capita per day (gpcd) are also provided by the Kansas Water Authority's 14 regional planning areas, and the DWR regions used for analysis of per capita water use in Kansas. An overall Kansas average (yearly and 5-year average) is also calculated. Kansas state average per capita municipal water use in 2015 was 105 gpcd.

  18. IMPROVEMENT OF WAYS OF FRUIT TREES WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gegechkori B. S.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, fruit trees are subjected to influence of abiotic stress-factors. The reaction of fruit plants on the influence of media plays an important role. Experiments were conducted in two (Northern and Central fruit zones of the Krasnodar region since 2013 to 2015, there was shown the possibility of application of hydroabsorbents as a stable source of water supply of fruit trees in specific natural conditions of the South of Russia in the conditions of field experiment. There were shown the peculiarities of technological ways of water supply of fruit trees in specific natural conditions of the south of Russia. There was determined that the necessity in watering of a garden’s plots with the use of hydroabsorbents Ecogel-1 and Ecogel-2 with the supporting of soil’s moisture in 80% in Northern zone in the end of May, in central fruit zone in the middle of May. There was proven that the application of hydroabsorbents Ecogel-1 and Ecogel-2 guarantees the stable water supply in limits of 75-80% from NV since planting in apple-trees of varieties of Renet Simirenko and Golden Delicious grafted on the stock M9 and planted on the scheme 4,0 х 1,0 м during three years. The work of the system of “soil-roots-leaves” independently on weather and soil conditions is provided

  19. Public perceptions of drinking water: a postal survey of residents with private water supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Scott A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, the legal responsibility for the condition of private water supplies, including private wells and cisterns, rests with their owners. However, there are reports that Canadians test these water supplies intermittently and that treatment of such water is uncommon. An estimated 45% of all waterborne outbreaks in Canada involve non-municipal systems. An understanding of the perceptions and needs of Canadians served by private water supplies is essential, as it would enable public health professionals to better target public education and drinking water policy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the public perceptions of private water supplies in the City of Hamilton, Ontario (Canada, with the intent of informing public education and outreach strategies within the population. Methods A cross-sectional postal survey of 246 residences with private water supplies was conducted in May 2004. Questions pertained to the perceptions of water quality and alternative water sources, water testing behaviours and the self-identified need for further information. Results Private wells, cisterns or both, were the source of household water for 71%, 16% and 13% of respondents, respectively. Although respondents rated their water quality highly, 80% also had concerns with its safety. The most common concerns pertained to bacterial and chemical contamination of their water supply and its potential negative effect on health. Approximately 56% and 61% of respondents used in-home treatment devices and bottled water within their homes, respectively, mainly due to perceived improvements in the safety and aesthetic qualities compared to regular tap water. Testing of private water supplies was performed infrequently: 8% of respondents tested at a frequency that meets current provincial guidelines. Two-thirds of respondents wanted more information on various topics related to private water supplies. Flyers and newspapers were the two

  20. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vogel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure for its total water content. The stalagmites' water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (δ18Ocalcite. Low δ18Ocalcite values are thereby accompanied by low water yields and vice versa. Based on the paleoclimatic interpretation of the δ18Ocalcite records, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. High drip water supply caused by high precipitation rates supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleoclimate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated precipitation rates.

  1. Water quality effects of intermittent water supply in Arraiján, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, John J; Smith, Charlotte D; Goodridge, Amador; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-05-01

    Intermittent drinking water supply is common in low- and middle-income countries throughout the world and can cause water quality to degrade in the distribution system. In this study, we characterized water quality in one study zone with continuous supply and three zones with intermittent supply in the drinking water distribution network in Arraiján, Panama. Low or zero pressures occurred in all zones, and negative pressures occurred in the continuous zone and two of the intermittent zones. Despite hydraulic conditions that created risks for backflow and contaminant intrusion, only four of 423 (0.9%) grab samples collected at random times were positive for total coliform bacteria and only one was positive for E. coli. Only nine of 496 (1.8%) samples had turbidity >1.0 NTU and all samples had ≥0.2 mg/L free chlorine residual. In contrast, water quality was often degraded during the first-flush period (when supply first returned after an outage). Still, routine and first-flush water quality under intermittent supply was much better in Arraiján than that reported in a previous study conducted in India. Better water quality in Arraiján could be due to better water quality leaving the treatment plant, shorter supply outages, higher supply pressures, a more consistent and higher chlorine residual, and fewer contaminant sources near pipes. The results illustrate that intermittent supply and its effects on water quality can vary greatly between and within distribution networks. The study also demonstrated that monitoring techniques designed specifically for intermittent supply, such as continuous pressure monitoring and sampling the first flush, can detect water quality threats and degradation that would not likely be detected with conventional monitoring.

  2. Mr. Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Dr.Peter Schmid/CERN/EP, Dr.Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador, Permanent representative at UN, Mrs.Nora Petritsch, Dr.Kurt Hubner/CERN/AC, Mrs. Frederike Klaus-Salesin, Adviser, Mrs.Andrea Strohmeier, Secretary of the Ambassador, Mr.Heinz Klaus, Attaché, Dr.Theodor Tortschanoff/CERN/LHC, Mr.Peter Storer, Advisor. Dr.Peter Schmid/CERN/EP, Dr.Wolfgang Petritsch, Austrian Ambassador, Permanent representative at UN, Mrs.Nora Petritsch, Dr.Kurt Hubner/CERN/AC, Mrs. Frederike Klaus-Salesin, Adviser, Mrs.Andrea Strohmeier, Secretary of the Ambassador, Mr.Heinz Klaus, Attaché, Dr.Theodor Tortschanoff/CERN/LHC, Mr.Peter Storer, Advisor.

  3. Water Supply at Los Alamos 1998-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard J. Koch; David B. Rogers

    2003-03-01

    impacts by production on long-term water supply sustainability at Los Alamos. This report summarizes production data and aquifer conditions for water production and monitor wells in the Los Alamos, New Mexico, and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) area (Figure 1). Water production wells are grouped within the Guaje, Pajarito, and Otowi fields, the locations of which are shown on Figure 1. Wells from these fields supply all the potable water used for municipal and most industrial purposes in Los Alamos County (LAC), at LANL, and at Bandelier National Monument. This report has three primary objectives: (1) Provide a continuing historical record of metered well production and overall water usage; (2) Provide data to the Department of Energy (DOE) and LANL management, and Los Alamos County planners for operation of the water supply system and for long-range water resource planning; and (3) Provide water-level data from regional aquifer production wells, test wells, and monitoring wells.

  4. IMPROVEMENT OF WAYS OF FRUIT TREES WATER SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    Gegechkori B. S.; Chumakov S. S.; Orlenko S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, fruit trees are subjected to influence of abiotic stress-factors. The reaction of fruit plants on the influence of media plays an important role. Experiments were conducted in two (Northern and Central) fruit zones of the Krasnodar region since 2013 to 2015, there was shown the possibility of application of hydroabsorbents as a stable source of water supply of fruit trees in specific natural conditions of the South of Russia in the conditions of field experiment. There were shown th...

  5. The Financing of Water Supply and Sewerage Services in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Florentina CUCOS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Water supply and sewerage services represent utilities that must be provided to all users, both the urban and the rural. The responsibility to ensure these services in terms of non-discrimination and affordability belongs to the local authorities, which in the spirit of decentralization have exclusive jurisdiction on their establishment, organization and operation. Regardless of the chosen management, the funding of water supply and sewerage services, is accomplished by means of the prices and tariffs paid by the users. Their quantum, specific to some social services, covers the costs without allowing the accumulation of consistent profit margins, which would ensure the development of the specific infrastructure from the operators' own funds. It is therefore necessary that funding for the creation and rehabilitation of water supply and sewerage systems to be provided from other sources than the budgets of operators, such as: budgetary allocations of local public authorities, government or European funding programs. This paper is of interest because it captures just how the prices and tariffs for these services are composed, and the entire procedure for foundation, adjustment and modification that follows different rules from those of pricing in the market economy, and it provides a review of the types of programs through which the development of the specific technical-urban infrastructure and the significant increase in the number of users in the past 25 years.

  6. Watershed management for water supply in developing world city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车越; 杨凯; 吕永鹏; 张宏伟; 吴健; 杨永川

    2009-01-01

    The water supply system in Shanghai provides about 2.55×109 m3/a,of which more than 50% is derived from the Upper Huangpu River Watershed. During the process of rapid urbanization and industrialization,the role of watershed management in sustaining clean drinking water quality at surface sources is emphasized in Shanghai. This paper proposes an integrated watershed management (IWM) approach in the context of the current pressures and problems of source water protection at the Upper Huangpu River Watershed in Shanghai. Based on data sets of land use,water quality and regional development,multi-criteria analysis and system dynamics techniques were used to evaluate effectiveness and improve decision-making of source water protection at a watershed scale. Different scenarios for potential source water quality changing from 2008 to 2020 were predicted,based on a systematic analysis and system dynamics modeling,a watershed management approach integrating land use prioritization and stakeholder involvement was designed to conserve the source water quality. The integrated watershed management (IWM) approach may help local authorities better understand and address the complex source water system,and develop improved safe drinking water strategies to better balance urban expansion and source water protection.

  7. Framework for Enhancing the Supply-Demand Balance of a Tri-Supply Urban Water Scheme in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Bertone

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fit-for-purpose potable source substitution of appropriate water end uses with rainwater or recycled water is often essential to maintain water security in growing urban regions. This paper provides the results of a detailed supply-demand forecasting review of a unique tri-supply (i.e., potable, A+ recycled and rain water sources reticulated to household urban water scheme located in Queensland, Australia. Despite the numerous benefits of this scheme, system efficiency (e.g., reduced demand levels, water treatment, low chemical and energy use and economic viability (i.e., capital and operating costs per kL of supply aspects need to be considered against derived potable water savings. The review underpinned the design of a framework to enhance the schemes supply-demand balance and reduce the unit cost of alternative source supplies. Detailed scenario and sensitivity analysis identified the possibility of a refined scheme design, whereby the A+ recycled water supply would be reticulated to the cold water input tap to the washing machine, and the rain tank that originally supplied this end use be removed from future constructed households. The refined scheme design enhances the present recycled plant utilisation rate and reduces the cost to home owners when building their dwelling due to the removed requirement to install a rain tank to indoor end uses; such actions reduce the overall unit cost of the scheme.

  8. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of repair and equipment restoration. A large number of leaks occur in old buildings, where the regulatory service life of pipelines has come to an end, and the scheduled repair for some reason has not been conducted. Steel pipelines are used in the systems without any protection from corrosion and they get out of order. Leakages in new houses are also not uncommon. They usually occur as a result of low-quality adjustment of the system by workers. It also important to note the absence of certain skills of plumbers, who don’t conduct the inspections of in-house systems in time. Sometimes also the residents themselves forget to keep their pipeline systems and water fittings in their apartment in good condition. Plumbers are not systematically invited for preventive examinations to detect possible leaks in the domestic plumbing. The amount of unproductive losses increases while simultaneous use of valve tenants, and at the increase of the number of residents in the building. Water leaks in the system depend on the amount of water system piping damages, and damages of other elements, for example, water valves, connections, etc. The pressure in the leak area also plays an important role.

  9. [Medical and environmental aspects of the drinking water supply crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Él'piner, L I

    2013-01-01

    Modern data determining drinking water supply crisis in Russia have been considered. The probability of influence of drinking water quality used by population on current negative demographic indices was shown. The necessity of taking into account interests of public health care in the process of formation of water management decisions was grounded. To achieve this goal the application of medical ecological interdisciplinary approach was proposed Its use is mostly effective in construction of goal-directed medical ecological sections for territorial schemes of the rational use and protection of water resources. Stages of the elaboration of these sections, providing the basing of evaluation and prognostic medical and environmental constructions on similar engineering studies of related disciplinary areas (hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrobiological, hydrochemical, environmental, socio-economic, technical and technological) were determined.

  10. GENDER MAIN STREAMING IN WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FRONE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we have stated in the previous year conference paper, the human right to water and sanitation entitles everyoneto water and sanitation services which are available, accessible, affordable, acceptable and safe. Developmentprograms for water and sanitation services, as many other socio-economic development programs have often beenassumed to be neutral in terms of gender. However, sometimes there can be failures in the implementation andharnessing of such projects because of errors arising from lack of adequate integration of gender equality. In thispaper are highlighted some aspects and issues of gender mainstreaming in water supply and sanitation developmentprojects, including conclusions from a case study conducted by an NGO in a commune of Romania and ownrecommendations.

  11. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process.

  12. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  13. Environmental management plan (EMP) for Melamchi water supply project, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Ram B; Khanal, Anil B

    2008-11-01

    More than 1.5 million people live in the Kathmandu valley. The valley is facing an extreme shortage of water supply. At the same time the demand is escalating rapidly. To address this issue of scarcity of water, the government of Nepal has proposed a project of inter-basin transfer of water from Melamchi River located 40 km north-east of the Kathmandu valley. The project will cover two districts and three municipalities and will potentially have significant impacts on the environment. In accordance with the Environmental Protection Regulation of Nepal (1997), the Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) has undergone an EIA during the feasibility study stage of the proposed project. The recommendations contained in the EIA were integrated into the project design for implementation in 2006. This paper summarizes the background of MWSP, the environmental concerns described in the EIA and the status of Environmental Management Plan (EMP) developed to address environmental compliance and other issues involving participation and support of the local people. This paper also provides some lessons to learn on the modalities of addressing the demands and grievances of the local people concerning environmental management.

  14. A new concept for the water supply at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Inigo-Golfin, J

    1998-01-01

    The present state of the station Le Vengeron (the main pumping station supplying CERN with drinking water), and also to comply with the new Swiss standards impose a thorough consolidation and upgrade of this station which is shared with the Services Industriels de Genève (SIG). The total cost of the works (around 62 MCHF) would be shared proportionally to the nominal flow-rate demand which, at present, is of 2/3 for CERN and 1/3 for SIG. An alternative to the above is a complete review of CERN's water consumption, reducing our needs by half, thus allowing savings in both investment and operation. This reduction in investment cost would be diverted towards much needed consolidation works for the existing facilities within CERN. This paper also reviews the planning and possible ways for the execution of the works and the future responsibilities of operation of the water distribution systems (drinking and machine) inside CERN's sites.

  15. Urban Water Supply Industry Marketization of China in View of Public Water Service and Water Resource Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yining

    2010-01-01

    Started with the discussions on the value orientation of urban water supply industry marketization,the article points out that the current urban water supply industry marketization reform is inconsistent with the goal of public water service equalization to some extent.The article also analyzes the problems emerged in urban water supply industry marketization reform and various reasons in view of efficiency and fairness.An efficiency and fairness oriented management model is built in this article to illustrate how the government should conciliate interests of various communities involved in the process of marketization reform of the urban water supply industry so as to actualize the coordination of efficiency and fairness.At the end,an assumption on urban water price is put forward to help achieve the public water service equalization.

  16. 43 CFR 404.3 - What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.3 What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program? This program addresses domestic, municipal, and industrial...

  17. Assessment of climate change impact on water diversion strategies of Melamchi Water Supply Project in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Sangam; Shrestha, Manish; Babel, Mukand S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyzes the climate change impact on water diversion plan of Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) in Nepal. The MWSP is an interbasin water transfer project aimed at diverting water from the Melamchi River of the Indrawati River basin to Kathmandu Valley for drinking water purpose. Future temperature and precipitation of the basin were predicted using the outputs of two regional climate models (RCMs) and two general circulation models (GCMs) under two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios which were then used as inputs to Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict the water availability and evaluate the water diversion strategies in the future. The average temperature of the basin is projected to increase by 2.35 to 4.25 °C under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively, by 2085s. The average precipitation in the basin is projected to increase by 6-18 % in the future. The annual water availability is projected to increase in the future; however, the variability is observed in monthly water availability in the basin. The water supply and demand scenarios of Kathmandu Valley was also examined by considering the population increase, unaccounted for water and water diversion from MWSP in the future. It is observed that even with the additional supply of water from MWSP and reduction of unaccounted for water, the Kathmandu Valley will be still under water scarcity in the future. The findings of this study can be helpful to formulate water supply and demand management strategies in Kathmandu Valley in the context of climate change in the future.

  18. Public water supplies in Gloucester County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, William F.

    1963-01-01

    . The average per capita public water supply consumption in 1959 was approximately 75 gallons per day. This report includes a summary of the history of the present installations, groundwater conditions, quality and availability of water, and potential future yield for the 2 public water systems in Gloucester County.

  19. [Uranium Concentration in Drinking Water from Small-scale Water Supplies in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostendorp, G

    2015-04-01

    In this study the drinking water of 212 small-scale water supplies, mainly situated in areas with intensive agriculture or fruit-growing, was analysed for uranium. The median uranium concentration amounted to 0.04 µg/lL, the 95(th) percentile was 2.5 µg/L. The maximum level was 14 µg/L. This sample exceeded the guideline value for uranium in drinking water. The uranium concentration in small-scale water supplies was found to be slightly higher than that in central water works in Schleswig-Holstein. Water containing more than 10 mg/L nitrate showed significantly higher uranium contents. The results indicate that the uranium burden in drinking water from small wells is mainly determined by geological factors. An additional anthropogenic effect of soil management cannot be excluded. Overall uranium concentrations were low and not causing health concerns. However, in specific cases higher concentrations may occur.

  20. The Forgotten Austrian Economics Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bianca Vieru

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In light of the current events, namely the crisisthat economy has to face for quite someyears now, plenty of questions are raised, not only among specialists in the field but also amongordinary people as they prove to be most impoverished by these imbalances. Thus, this paper aims, asa first objective, to explain, froma general perspective and using an inductive-subjectivemethodology based on a brief survey as well as on observation, two of the most important causes that,according to the Austrian Business Cycle Theory, are the leading motives for triggering crises. Weare referring particularly to an excessivestate interventionismmanifested throughout itsexpansionary monetary policy.Secondly, we seek to establish the interconnections between theseelements and the case of the Great Depression as well as the current recession. The results we cameacross point out towards the same pattern designed by the Austrian economists, although thecircumstances are, each time, different. Hence, the contribution of this paper consists of handling thedetails that surround the subject by extracting only the essential aspects regarding the triggering ofcrises; we refer to the main ideas that need to be underlined for a better comprehension of the topic.

  1. Water supply of Rome in antiquity and today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, P.; Boni, C.

    1996-03-01

    In ancient Rome, water was considered a deity to be worshipped and most of all utilized in health and art. The availability of huge water supplies was considered a symbol of opulence and therefore an expression of power. The countryside around Rome offered a spectacular view: it was adorned with an incalculable number of monuments, temples, and villas, and it was crossed by sturdy aqueducts with magnificent arcades. The aqueduct as a superelevated monumental work is a typical concept of the Roman engineering, although it is possible to recognize that the inspiration and the basic ideas came from Etruscan technology. The Etruscans did not construct real aqueducts, even though they built hydraulic works as irrigation channels, drainage systems, dams, etc. The Greeks had also built similar hydraulic structures, before the Roman influence. Interesting aqueduct remains are in Rome, Segovia (Spain), Nimes (France), and Cologne (Germany), among other places.

  2. Trends in Rural Water Supply: Towards a Service Delivery Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Moriarty

    2013-10-01

    The papers in this special issue argue that tackling these challenges requires a shift in emphasis in rural water supply in developing countries: away from a de-facto focus on the provision of hardware for first-time access towards the proper use of installed hardware as the basis for universal access to rural water services. The outline of the main actions required to achieve this shift are becoming clearer. Chief amongst these are the professionalisation of community management and/or provision of direct support to community service providers; adoption of a wider range of service delivery models than community management alone; and addressing the sustainable financing of all costs with a particular focus on financing capital maintenance (asset management and direct support costs. This introductory paper provides an overview of these issues and a guide to the other articles, which demonstrate these points.

  3. Vulnerability of water supply systems to cyber-physical attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, Stefano; Taormina, Riccardo; Tippenhauer, Nils; Salomons, Elad; Ostfeld, Avi

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of smart meters, distributed sensor networks and industrial control systems has largely improved the level of service provided by modern water supply systems. Yet, the progressive computerization exposes these critical infrastructures to cyber-physical attacks, which are generally aimed at stealing critical information (cyber-espionage) or causing service disruption (denial-of-service). Recent statistics show that water and power utilities are undergoing frequent attacks - such as the December power outage in Ukraine - , attracting the interest of operators and security agencies. Taking the security of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) as domain of study, our work seeks to characterize the vulnerability of WDNs to cyber-physical attacks, so as to conceive adequate defense mechanisms. We extend the functionality of EPANET, which models hydraulic and water quality processes in pressurized pipe networks, to include a cyber layer vulnerable to repeated attacks. Simulation results on a medium-scale network show that several hydraulic actuators (valves and pumps, for example) can be easily attacked, causing both service disruption - i.e., water spillage and loss of pressure - and structural damages - e.g., pipes burst. Our work highlights the need for adequate countermeasures, such as attacks detection and reactive control systems.

  4. Intrusion problematic during water supply systems' operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Jesus; Lopez-Jimenez, P. Amparo [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain); Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department and CEHIDRO, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-07-01

    Intrusion through leaks occurrence is a phenomenon when external fluid comes into water pipe systems. This phenomenon can cause contamination problems in drinking pipe systems. Hence, this paper focuses on the entry of external fluids across small leaks during normal operation conditions. This situation is especially important in elevated points of the pipe profile. Pressure variations can origin water volume losses and intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes. This work focuses in obtaining up the physical representation on a specific case intrusion in a pipe water system. The combination of two factors is required to generate this kind of intrusion in a water supply system: on one hand the existence of at least a leak in the system; on the other hand, a pressure variation could occur during the operation of the system due to consumption variation, pump start-up or shutdown. The potential of intrusion during a dynamic or transient event is here analyzed. To obtain this objective an experimental case study of pressure transient scenario is analyzed with a small leak located nearby the transient source.

  5. Water Supply or ‘Beautiful Latrines’? Microcredit for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Reis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Around half of the Mekong Delta’s rural population lacks year-round access to clean water. In combination with inadequate hygiene and poor sanitation this creates a high risk of diseases. Microcredit schemes are a popular element in addressing such problems on the global policy level. The present paper analyses the contradictory results of such a microcredit programme for rural water supply and sanitation in the context of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, through a qualitative study primarily based on semi-structured interviews in rural communes of Can Tho City. We come to the conclusion that the programme has a positive effect regarding the safer disposal of human excreta as well as surface water quality, but a marginal impact on poverty reduction as it only reaches better-off households already having access to clean water. The paper shows how the outcome of rural water supply and sanitation policies are strongly influenced by the local ecological, technological, and social settings, in particular by stakeholders’ interests. The authors challenge the assumption that water supply and sanitation should be integrated into the same policy in all circumstances. ----- Etwa die Hälfte der ländlichen Bevölkerung des Mekong-Deltas hat nicht das ganze Jahr über Zugang zu sauberem Wasser. Zusammen mit unzureichender Hygiene und mangelnder sanitärer Grundversorgung erhöht diese Situation das Krankheitsrisiko. Auf globaler Ebene sind Mikrokreditprogramme eine gefragte Strategie, um diese Probleme zu behandeln. Der vorliegende Artikel analysiert die widersprüchlichen Ergebnisse eines solchen Mikrokreditprogramms für ländliche Wasser- und sanitäre Grundversorgung im Mekong-Delta in Vietnam im Rahmen einer qualitativen Studie, die auf halbstrukturierten Interviews im Raum Can Tho City basiert. Die Studie kommt zu dem Schluss, dass das Programm eine positive Wirkung in Bezug auf die sichere Entsorgung von Fäkalien und die Qualität des Regenwassers

  6. Bioinspired materials for water supply and management: water collection, water purification and separation of water from oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip S; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-08-06

    Access to a safe supply of water is a human right. However, with growing populations, global warming and contamination due to human activity, it is one that is increasingly under threat. It is hoped that nature can inspire the creation of materials to aid in the supply and management of water, from water collection and purification to water source clean-up and rehabilitation from oil contamination. Many species thrive in even the driest places, with some surviving on water harvested from fog. By studying these species, new materials can be developed to provide a source of fresh water from fog for communities across the globe. The vast majority of water on the Earth is in the oceans. However, current desalination processes are energy-intensive. Systems in our own bodies have evolved to transport water efficiently while blocking other molecules and ions. Inspiration can be taken from such to improve the efficiency of desalination and help purify water containing other contaminants. Finally, oil contamination of water from spills or the fracking technique can be a devastating environmental disaster. By studying how natural surfaces interact with liquids, new techniques can be developed to clean up oil spills and further protect our most precious resource.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'.

  7. Water supply project feasibilities in fringe areas of Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply management to the peri-urban areas of the developing world is a complex task due to migration, infrastructure and paucity of fund. A cost-benefit methodology particularly suitable for the peri-urban areas has been developed for the city of Kolkata, India. The costs are estimated based on a neural network estimate. The water quality of the area is estimated from samples and a water quality index has been prepared. A questionnaire survey in the area has been conducted for relevant information like income, awareness and willingness to pay for safe drinking water. A factor analysis has been conducted for distinguishing the important factors of the survey and subsequent multiple regressions have been conducted for finding the relationships for the willingness to pay. A system dynamics model has been conducted to estimate the trend of increase of willingness to pay with the urbanizations in the peri-urban areas. A cost benefit analysis with the impact of time value of money has been executed. The risk and uncertainty of the project is investigated by Monte Carlos simulation and tornado diagrams. It has been found that the projects that are normally rejected in standard cost benefit analysis would be accepted if the impacts of urbanizations in the peri-urban areas are considered.

  8. Water supply project feasibilities in fringe areas of Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water supply management to the peri-urban areas of the developing world is a complex task due to migration, infrastructure, paucity of fund etc. A cost-benefit methodology particularly suitable for the peri-urban areas has been developed for the city of Kolkata, India. The costs are estimated based on a neural network estimate. The water quality of the area is estimated from samples and a water quality index has been prepared. A questionnaire survey in the area has been conducted for relevant information like income, awareness and willingness to pay for safe drinking water. A factor analysis has been conducted for distinguishing the important factors of the survey and subsequent multiple regressions have been conducted for finding the relationships for the willingness to pay. A system dynamics model has been conducted to estimate the trend of increase of willingness to pay with the urbanizations in the peri-urban areas. A cost benefit analysis with the impact of time value of money has been executed. The risk and uncertainty of the project is investigated by Monte Carlos simulation and tornado diagrams. It has been found that the projects that are normally rejected in standard cost benefit analysis would be accepted if the impacts of urbanizations in the peri-urban areas are considered.

  9. FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS CONDUCTED IN THE LABORATORIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF WATER SUPPLY OF MGSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Irina Nikolaevna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the work of the laboratories of the Department of Water Supply of MGSU. The laboratory of pipe-lines, pumping equipment and sanitary equipment operates in MGSU affiliated to the department of water supply. A hydraulic stand for testing and defining the the hydraulic characteristics of pressure and free-flow pipelines of water supply and sewerage systems is installed there. There are also stands for investigating the sanitary equipment of the buildings, the fire and hot water supply systems. The main research directions of the department of water supply are diverse: hydraulics of water supply systems, recon-struction of pipelines using trenchless technologies, reliable water supply and distribution systems, purification of natural water for drinking and industrial water supply, post-treatment of natural water for domestic water supply, resource conservation in domes-tic water supply systems, etc. The laboratory also has a computer lab, able to simultane-ously hold up to 30 students. In collaboration with the laboratory there operates a scien-tific circle for students and Master students, which provides a lot of interesting and useful information on the latest developments.

  10. A Holistic ICT Solution to Improve Matching between Supply and Demand over the Water Supply Distribution Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Anzaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While many water management tools exist, these systems are not usually interconnected and therefore cannot communicate between one another, preventing Integrated Water Resources Management to be fully achieved. This paper presents the solution proposed by WatERP project* where a novel solution enables better matching between water supply and demand from holistic perspective. Subsystems that control the production, management and consumption of water will be interconnected through both information architecture and intelligent infrastructure. The main outcome will consist of, a web-based Open Management Platform integrating near real-time knowledge on water supplies and demand, from sources to users, across geographic and organizational scales and supported by a knowledge base where information will be structured in water management ontology to ensure interoperability and maximize usability. WatERP will thus provide a major contribution to: 1 Improve coordination among actors, 2 Foster behavioural change, 3 Reduce water and energy consumption, 4 Optimize water accountability.

  11. Arsenic in drinking water: a worldwide water quality concern for water supply companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. van Dijk

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available For more than a decade it has been known that shallow tube wells in Bangladesh are frequently contaminated with arsenic concentrations at a level that is harmful to human health. By now it is clear that a disaster of an unheard magnitude is going on: the World Health Organization has estimated that long-term exposure to arsenic in groundwater, at concentrations over 500 μg L−1, causes death in 1 in 10 adults. Other studies show that problems with arsenic in groundwater/drinking water occur in many more countries worldwide, such as in the USA and China. In Europe the focus on arsenic problems is currently confined to countries with high arsenic levels in their groundwater, such as Serbia, Hungary and Italy. In most other European countries, the naturally occurring arsenic concentrations are mostly lower than the European drinking water standard of 10 μg L−1. However, from the literature review presented in this paper, it is concluded that at this level health risks cannot be excluded. As consumers in European countries expect the drinking water to be of impeccable quality, it is recommended that water supply companies optimize arsenic removal to a level of <1 μg L−1, which is technically feasible.

  12. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact § 401.36 Water supply projects—Conservation requirements. Maximum feasible efficiency in the...

  13. 78 FR 42945 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon AGENCY... that the State of Oregon has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; Ground Water Rule; and Lead and Copper...

  14. The Shanggongshan Tunnel Kunming Zhangjiuhe River Water Diversion and Water Supply Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. P. Kaegi; M. Bachmann; A. Colombi

    2004-01-01

    Kunming is the political and economical centre of the Yunnan Province in the south -west of China and one of the most beautiful historical and cultural cities in China. It is also one of the 14 cities in China that are severely short of water. In order to solve the supply problem and to allow for future development of the local society and economy, the "Kunming Zhangjiuhe River Water Diversion and Water Supply Project" was implemented. The total investment for the project is about USD 476 million.The objective is to establish a water supply system with a capacity of 0.6 million tons of water per day.Major parts of the project are:capacity by 0. 442 billion m3 and an annual water supply of 0. 245 billion m3;tunnels, but also some siphons);pacity of 0.4 million tons per day in the initial stage and 0.6 million tons per day once completed;length of 93.43 km;sons.Project completion is planned for the end of 2006.

  15. Global net irrigation water requirements from various water supply sources during past and future periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Cho, J.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation (e.g. rivers and reservoirs) are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use is considered unsustainable and threatens food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependence of irrigation water requirements from water supply sources, with a particular focus on variations in irrigation area during past (1960-2001) and future (2002-2050) periods using the global water resources model, H08. The H08 model can simulate water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0° latitude and longitude. The sources of irrigation water requirements in the past simulations were specified using four categories: rivers (RIV), large reservoirs (LR), medium-size reservoirs (MSR), and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). The simulated results from 1960 to 2001 showed that RIV, MSR and NNBW increased significantly from the 1960s to the early 1990s globally, but LR increased at a relatively low rate. After the early 1990s, the increase in RIV declined as it approached a critical limit, due to the continued expansion of irrigation area. MSR and NNBW increased significantly, during the same time period, following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of the medium-size reservoirs. We also estimated future irrigation water requirements from the above four water supply sources and an additional water supply source (ADD) in three future simulation designs; irrigation area change, climate change, and changes in both irrigation area and climate. ADD was defined as a future increase in NNBW. After the 2020s, MSR was predicted to approach the critical limit, and ADD would account for 11-23% of the total requirements in the 2040s.

  16. 40 CFR 125.62 - Attainment or maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality which assures protection of public water supplies; assures the protection and propagation of a... maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies; assures the protection and... zone of initial dilution: (i) All applicable water quality standards; and (ii) All applicable EPA...

  17. Balancing supply and demand of fresh water under increasing drought and salinisation in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Jeuken, A.; Beek, E. van; Duinen, R.; Veen, van der, M.Q.; Bocalon, A.; Delsman, J.; Pauw, P.S.; Oude Essink, G.; Zee, van der, KG Kristoffer; Stofberg, S.F.; Zuurbier, K.; Stuyfzand, P.; Appelman, W.; Creusen, R.; Paalman, M.

    2012-01-01

    The latest climate impact assessments show that climate change will cause an increasing mismatch between demand and supply of fresh water in many densely populated deltas around the world. Recent studies for the Netherlands show that the current water supply strategy is not climate proof in the long-run. Therefore, a future ‘climate proof’ fresh water supply is national priority on the Dutch water policy agenda

  18. Arsenic in public water supplies and cardiovascular mortality in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano, Ma Jose, E-mail: pmedrano@isciii.es [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Boix, Raquel; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Palau, Margarita [Subdireccion General de Sanidad Ambiental y Salud Laboral, Direccion General de Salud Publica y Sanidad Exterior, Ministerio de Sanidad y Politica Social, Madrid (Spain); Damian, Javier [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Ramis, Rebeca [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Barrio, Jose Luis del [Departamento de Salud Publica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2010-07-15

    water were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality at the municipal level. Prospective cohort studies with individual measures of arsenic exposure, standardized cardiovascular outcomes, and adequate adjustment for confounders are needed to confirm these ecological findings. Our study, however, reinforces the need to implement arsenic remediation treatments in water supply systems above the World Health Organization safety standard of 10 {mu}g/L.

  19. Hydraulic analysis of water supply networks and controlling the leak using WATER GEMS model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Motevalizadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Given that the discussion on water is strategic in terms of economic and social aspects as well as environmental impact, water leak in urban water-supply systems is very important, so, dealing with it is necessary and inevitable. Controlling and reducing water leak are of the main goals of water supplier organization due to limitations in terms of water resources, especially in dry lands which have few water resources. Pressure management is an efficient tool to reduce costs, enhance the operation of the network and therefore, it reduces the leak and increases the life of facilities and equipment and reduces the number of accidents. Smart pressure containment is a good way to prevent excess pressure in network to control undesirable phenomenon of leak which is directly related to pressure. In this study, Badamuiyeh water supply complex in Kerman City was selected to study on adjusting the pressure to control the leak of water and the hydraulic analysis was performed with demand-based method (DDSM, which is common technique and demand is constant, by Water GEMS software. For this end, the pressure reducing valves (prv were installed in critical point and they were timed to provide standard pressure in all nodes of the network and then, the impact of smart pressure management on water supply system has been investigated. Then its impact on the leak was examined and the results show that smart pressure control through pressure-reducing valve is a proper method for optimal management of water and reducing the leak significantly that with 45.15% reduction in average pressure, one can reduce the leak as much as 25.67% that as its result, 15380 m3 of water is annually saved in this region which is equal to 27.18% of consuming water.

  20. Designing water supplies: Optimizing drinking water composition for maximum economic benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygaard, M; Arvin, E; Bath, A; Binning, P J

    2011-06-01

    It is possible to optimize drinking water composition based on a valuation of the impacts of changed water quality. This paper introduces a method for assessing the potential for designing an optimum drinking water composition by the use of membrane desalination and remineralization. The method includes modeling of possible water quality blends and an evaluation of corrosion indices. Based on concentration-response relationships a range of impacts on public health, material lifetimes and consumption of soap have been valued for Perth, Western Australia and Copenhagen, Denmark. In addition to water quality aspects, costs of water production, fresh water abstraction and CO(2)-emissions are integrated into a holistic economic assessment of the optimum share of desalinated water in water supplies. Results show that carefully designed desalination post-treatment can have net benefits up to €0.3 ± 0.2 per delivered m(3) for Perth and €0.4(±0.2) for Copenhagen. Costs of remineralization and green house gas emission mitigation are minor when compared to the potential benefits of an optimum water composition. Finally, a set of optimum water quality criteria is proposed for the guidance of water supply planning and management.

  1. Failure Analysis of a Water Supply Pumping Pipeline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Pozos-Estrada

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the most important results of a theoretical, experimental and in situ investigation developed in connection with a water supply pumping pipeline failure. This incident occurred after power failure of the pumping system that caused the burst of a prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP. Subsequently, numerous hydraulic transient simulations for different scenarios and various air pockets combinations were carried out in order to fully validate the diagnostic. As a result, it was determined that small air pocket volumes located along the pipeline profile were recognized as the direct cause of the PCCP rupture. Further, a detail survey of the pipeline was performed using a combination of non-destructive technologies in order to determine if immediate intervention was required to replace PCC pipes. In addition, a hydraulic model was employed to analyze the behavior of air pockets located at high points of the pipeline.

  2. More efficient optimization of long-term water supply portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Brian R.; Characklis, Gregory W.; Dillard, Karen E. M.; Kelley, C. T.

    2009-03-01

    The use of temporary transfers, such as options and leases, has grown as utilities attempt to meet increases in demand while reducing dependence on the expansion of costly infrastructure capacity (e.g., reservoirs). Earlier work has been done to construct optimal portfolios comprising firm capacity and transfers, using decision rules that determine the timing and volume of transfers. However, such work has only focused on the short-term (e.g., 1-year scenarios), which limits the utility of these planning efforts. Developing multiyear portfolios can lead to the exploration of a wider range of alternatives but also increases the computational burden. This work utilizes a coupled hydrologic-economic model to simulate the long-term performance of a city's water supply portfolio. This stochastic model is linked with an optimization search algorithm that is designed to handle the high-frequency, low-amplitude noise inherent in many simulations, particularly those involving expected values. This noise is detrimental to the accuracy and precision of the optimized solution and has traditionally been controlled by investing greater computational effort in the simulation. However, the increased computational effort can be substantial. This work describes the integration of a variance reduction technique (control variate method) within the simulation/optimization as a means of more efficiently identifying minimum cost portfolios. Random variation in model output (i.e., noise) is moderated using knowledge of random variations in stochastic input variables (e.g., reservoir inflows, demand), thereby reducing the computing time by 50% or more. Using these efficiency gains, water supply portfolios are evaluated over a 10-year period in order to assess their ability to reduce costs and adapt to demand growth, while still meeting reliability goals. As a part of the evaluation, several multiyear option contract structures are explored and compared.

  3. National water summary 1987: Hydrologic events and water supply and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jerry E.; Chase, Edith B.; Paulson, Richard W.; Moody, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Water use in the United States, as measured by freshwater withdrawals in 1985, averaged 338,000 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), which is enough water to cover the 48 conterminous States to a depth of about 2.4 inches. Only 92,300 Mgal/d, or 27.3 percent of the water withdrawn, was consumptive use and thus lost to immediate further use; the remainder of the withdrawals (72.7 percent) was return flow available for reuse a number of times as the water flowed to the sea. The 1985 freshwater withdrawals were much less than the average 30 inches of precipitation that falls on the conterminous States each year; consumptive use accounted for only 7 percent of the estimated annual runoff of 1,230,000 Mgal/d. Nonetheless, as the State summaries on water supply and use clearly show, water is not always available when and where it is needed. Balancing water demands with available water supplies constitutes one of the major resource allocation issues that will face the United States in the coming decade. Of the 1985 freshwater withdrawals, 78.3 percent (265,000 Mgal/d) came from surface-water sources (streams and lakes), and 21.7 percent (73,300 Mgal/d) came from ground water. Surface water provided drinking water for about 47 percent of the Nation's total population. It was the source of 59.9 percent of the Nation's public-supply systems. For self-supplied withdrawals, surface water accounted for 1.6 percent of the domestic and commercial uses; 64.0 percent of the industrial and mining use; 99.4 percent of the thermoelectric generation withdrawals, mainly for cooling water; and 65.6 percent of the agricultural withdrawals. Eight States accounted for 43 percent of the surface-water use; California, Colorado, and Idaho used surface water primarily for irrigation, and Dlinois, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas used surface-water primarily for cooling condensers or reactors in thermoelectric plants. Ground water provided drinking water for 53 percent of the Nation's total

  4. Effects of water-supply reservoirs on streamflow in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    State and local water-resource managers need modeling tools to help them manage and protect water-supply resources for both human consumption and ecological needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, has developed a decision-support tool to estimate the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflow. The Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool is a model that simulates the daily water balance of a reservoir. The reservoir simulation tool provides estimates of daily outflows from reservoirs and compares the frequency, duration, and magnitude of the volume of outflows from reservoirs with estimates of the unaltered streamflow that would occur if no dam were present. This tool will help environmental managers understand the complex interactions and tradeoffs between water withdrawals, reservoir operational practices, and reservoir outflows needed for aquatic habitats.A sensitivity analysis of the daily water balance equation was performed to identify physical and operational features of reservoirs that could have the greatest effect on reservoir outflows. For the purpose of this report, uncontrolled releases of water (spills or spillage) over the reservoir spillway were considered to be a proxy for reservoir outflows directly below the dam. The ratio of average withdrawals to the average inflows had the largest effect on spillage patterns, with the highest withdrawals leading to the lowest spillage. The size of the surface area relative to the drainage area of the reservoir also had an effect on spillage; reservoirs with large surface areas have high evaporation rates during the summer, which can contribute to frequent and long periods without spillage, even in the absence of water withdrawals. Other reservoir characteristics, such as variability of inflows, groundwater interactions, and seasonal demand patterns, had low to moderate effects on the frequency, duration, and magnitude of spillage. The

  5. An Assessment of Global Net Irrigation Water Requirements from Various Water Supply Sources to Sustain Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Cho, Jail; Yamada, Hannah; Khajuria, Anupam; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2014-05-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation, such as rivers, reservoirs, and groundwater, are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use threatens sustainable food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependence of irrigation water requirements from water supply sources, with a particular focus on variations in irrigation area during the period 1960-2050 using the global water resources model, H08. The H08 model simulates water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0° . The sources of irrigation water requirements in the past simulations were specified using four categories: rivers (RIV), large reservoirs (LR) with a storage capacity greater than 1.0 km3, medium-size reservoirs (MSR) with storage capacities ranging from 1.0 km3 to 3.0 M m3, and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). We also estimated future irrigation water requirements from the above four water supply sources and an additional water supply source (ADD) in three future simulation designs; irrigation area change, climate change, and changes in both irrigation area and climate. ADD was defined as the difference between NNBW in the 1990s and NNBW in the 2040s, because it was difficult to distinguish the types of future water supply sources except for RIV. The simulated results showed that RIV, MSR, and NNBW increased significantly through the 1960s to the early 1990s globally, but LR increased at a relatively low rate. After the early 1990s, RIV approached a critical limit due to the continued expansion of the irrigation area. Furthermore, MSR and NNBW increased significantly following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of the medium-size reservoirs. After the 2020s, MSR could be expected to approach the critical limit without the construction of medium-size reservoirs. ADD would account for 11-23% of the total requirements in the 2040s. We found that an expansion of

  6. Determination of aluminium and physicochemical parameters in the palm oil estates water supply at Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Farizwana, M R; Mazrura, S; Zurahanim Fasha, A; Ahmad Rohi, G

    2010-01-01

    The study was to determine the concentration of aluminium (Al) and study the physicochemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, and residual chlorine) in drinking water supply in selected palm oil estates in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Water samples were collected from the estates with the private and the public water supplies. The sampling points were at the water source (S), the treatment plant outlet (TPO), and at the nearest houses (H1) and the furthest houses (H2) from the TPO. All estates with private water supply failed to meet the NSDWQ for Al with mean concentration of 0.99 ± 1.52 mg/L. However, Al concentrations in all public water supply estates were well within the limit except for one estate. The pH for all samples complied with the NSDWQ except from the private estates for the drinking water supply with an acidic pH (5.50 ± 0.90). The private water supply showed violated turbidity value in the drinking water samples (14.2 ± 24.1 NTU). Insufficient amount of chlorination was observed in the private water supply estates (0.09 ± 0.30 mg/L). Private water supplies with inefficient water treatment served unsatisfactory drinking water quality to the community which may lead to major health problems.

  7. Determination of Aluminium and Physicochemical Parameters in the Palm Oil Estates Water Supply at Johor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Siti Farizwana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was to determine the concentration of aluminium (Al and study the physicochemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS, turbidity, and residual chlorine in drinking water supply in selected palm oil estates in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Water samples were collected from the estates with the private and the public water supplies. The sampling points were at the water source (S, the treatment plant outlet (TPO, and at the nearest houses (H1 and the furthest houses (H2 from the TPO. All estates with private water supply failed to meet the NSDWQ for Al with mean concentration of 0.99 ± 1.52 mg/L. However, Al concentrations in all public water supply estates were well within the limit except for one estate. The pH for all samples complied with the NSDWQ except from the private estates for the drinking water supply with an acidic pH (5.50 ± 0.90. The private water supply showed violated turbidity value in the drinking water samples (14.2 ± 24.1 NTU. Insufficient amount of chlorination was observed in the private water supply estates (0.09 ± 0.30 mg/L. Private water supplies with inefficient water treatment served unsatisfactory drinking water quality to the community which may lead to major health problems.

  8. Cities as Water Supply Catchments to deliver microclimate benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beringer, J.; Tapper, N. J.; Coutts, A.; Loughnan, M.

    2010-12-01

    Urban development extensively modifies the natural hydrology, biodiversity, carbon balance, air quality and climate of the local and regional environment mainly due to increased impervious surface area (roads, pavements, roofs, etc.). Impervious surface are a legacy of urban infrastructure planning based on a ‘drained city’ to minimise flood risk. The result is a modification of the microclimate around buildings and on a city scale results in the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect where the urban areas are much hotter than the surrounding rural areas. Such heating comes on top of 20th century human induced climate change, namely decreased rainfall and higher temperatures. Drought conditions have triggered water restrictions in many Australian cities that have dramatically reduced ‘irrigation’ in urban areas. Ironically the drying influence from climate change has now been compounded by the drying influence of water restrictions and the efficient removal of stormwater resulting in desert like climates during summer. This will be further exacerbated by the projected increases in hot days, extreme hot days, heat waves, etc. In turn this excessive heating will compromise the health and liveability of urban dwellers. Stormwater is a potential critical resource that could be used to keep water in the landscape to irrigate urban areas to improve urban micro-climates, sustain vegetation and provide other multiple benefits to create more liveable and resilient urban environments. In Australia's major cities, stormwater harvesting has the potential to provide a low cost, low energy, fit-for-purpose source of water to help secure city supplies. Stormwater reuse not only provides a potential mitigation tool for the UHI and global climate change but has multiple benefits to provide resilience such as 1) Improved human thermal comfort to reduce heat related stress and mortality, 2) Healthy and productive vegetation and increased carbon sequestration, 3) Decreased stormwater

  9. RELIABILITY BASED OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK FOR MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Malleswararao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The history of water supply and distribution is as old as the history of civilization. In the present society, water supply system has become an important and necessary element. It also gives an indication of level of advancement of society. Water Distribution Network (WDN is an important component of water supply system which contributes to nearly 70% of the total cost. Optimal design of water distribution network is the aim of any agency dealing with water supply distribution. Consideration of reliability in water istribution networks has been received increasing attention over the past few years. In the present research work, the main focus is onto develop a new parameter for assessing the overall network reliability using fuzzy logic concepts based on the excess pressures available at the demand nodes and to be incorporated in the optimal design and to incorporate this parameter in a two objective optimization model for design of water distribution network using the combination of Genetic Algorithms and EPANET tool kit in the MATLABenvironment.The best range of excess of minimum residual pressures is considered in the present study in such a way that the reliability of the network is maximum. The proposed methodology is applied on a two loop gravity network which is referred by most of the researchers. 54optimal solutions are identified for the network. The Network Reliability Parameter (NRP, Cost Reliability Ration (CRR and Cost per Unit Reliability and Unit Length (CURUL parameters are used to compare the results with the previous researchers. It is found that the present study shows better results of when comparing withthe results of the previous researchers.

  10. HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlatky, T.

    2009-04-01

    HORA - an Austrian platform for natural hazards as a new way in risk communication One initiatives launched in Austria demonstrate that public participation not only bears the risk of a partial transfer of responsibility by the authorities; it may above all prepare the ground for entirely new approaches and create new links. The recent installation of the first internet risk zoning system in Austria underscores the importance of involving private parties in natural disaster protection. This public-private partnership (PPP) between the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW) and the Austrian Insurance Association (VVO) was launched in the wake of the 2002 flood disaster. The first project phase, the Austrian flood risk zoning system called HORA (screenshot see fig. 1), has now been accessible on the Web since 1st June 2006. In accordance with a risk partnership concluded between federal government, insurance companies and private parties, the project initiators seek to offer the public a preliminary risk assessment tool for evaluation of their home, industrial enterprise, of infrastructure. Digital risk maps shall provide information on 30-year, 100-year and 200-year flood events as they occur alongside the 26.000-km-long domestic river network. The probability with which a certain block of land is immersed in water during a flood event can be calculated by means of hydraulic engineering methods. These have traditionally relied on statistical figures, which are known to be very inaccurate, especially when major events such as flooding are concerned. The Vienna University of Technology (TU) (Institute of Hydraulic and Water Resources Engineering) has dedicated many years to developing more accurate, process oriented risk assessment techniques. The starting points was to identify different flood-triggering processes and to divide them into specific categories as long-duration rainfalls, short-duration rainfalls, storms

  11. A Framework for Sustainable Urban Water Management through Demand and Supply Forecasting: The Case of Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalçıntaş

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The metropolitan city of Istanbul is becoming overcrowded and the demand for clean water is steeply rising in the city. The use of analytical approaches has become more and more critical for forecasting the water supply and demand balance in the long run. In this research, Istanbul’s water supply and demand data is collected for the period during 2006 and 2014. Then, using an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model, the time series water supply and demand forecasting model is constructed for the period between 2015 and 2018. Three important sustainability metrics such as water loss to supply ratio, water loss to demand ratio, and water loss to residential demand ratio are also presented. The findings show that residential water demand is responsible for nearly 80% of total water use and the consumption categories including commercial, industrial, agriculture, outdoor, and others have a lower share in total water demand. The results also show that there is a considerable water loss in the water distribution system which requires significant investments on the water supply networks. Furthermore, the forecasting results indicated that pipeline projects will be critical in the near future due to expected increases in the total water demand of Istanbul. The authors suggest that sustainable management of water can be achieved by reducing the residential water use through the use of water efficient technologies in households and reduction in water supply loss through investments on distribution infrastructure.

  12. [Use od ozone for disinfection of ships' system of water supply contaminated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanin, Iu A; Strikalenko, T V; Mokienko, A V; Stoianova, N V; Gutsel', Iu I

    1990-11-01

    Experimental substantiation is given of the use of ozone in doses, recommended for disinfection of water and ship water supply systems infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The positive effect of ozonation of water supply systems infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was confirmed by results of field testing on ships of the Black sea marine steam-navigation.

  13. 77 FR 33456 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington AGENCY... that the State of Washington has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy... Water, ] 243 Israel Road SE., 2nd floor, Tumwater, Washington 98501 and between the hours of 9:00...

  14. 76 FR 5157 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... that the State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program...; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; and Lead and Copper Short-Term Regulatory...

  15. 76 FR 366 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington AGENCY... that the State of Washington has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Washington has adopted a definition for public water system that is analogous to EPA's...

  16. 76 FR 45253 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... AGENCY Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska AGENCY... State of Alaska has revised its approved State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Alaska has adopted regulations analogous to the EPA's Ground Water Rule. The EPA has determined that...

  17. 75 FR 18190 - New Jersey Water Supply Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New Jersey Water Supply Authority; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application.... On March 17, 2009, the New Jersey Water Supply Authority (New Jersey WSA) filed an application... generation of about 628 megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Edward Buss, P.E., New Jersey Water...

  18. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is...

  19. Effects of Local Nitrogen Supply on Water Uptake of Bean Plants in a Split Root System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwei Guo; Qirong Shen; Holger Brueck

    2007-01-01

    To study the effects of local nitrogen supply on water and nutrient absorption, French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)plants were grown in a split root system. Five treatments supplied with different nitrogen forms were compared:homogeneous nitrate (NN) and homogenous ammonium (AA) supply, spatially separated supply of nitrate and ammonium (NA), half of the root system supplied with N-free nutrient solution, the other half with either nitrate (NO) or ammonium (AO). The results showed that 10 d after onset of treatments, root dry matter (DM) in the nitratesupplied vessels treated with NA was more than two times higher than that in the ammonium-supplied vessels.Water uptake from the nitrate-supplied vessels treated with NA was 281% higher than under ammonium supply. In treatments NO and AO, the local supply of N resulted in clearly higher root DM, and water uptake from the nitratesupplied vessels was 82% higher than in the -N vessels. However, in AO plants, water uptake from the -N nutrient solution was 129% higher than from the ammonium-supplied vessels. This indicates a compensatory effect, which resulted in almost identical rates of total water uptake of treatments AA and AO, which had comparable shoot DM and leaf area. Ammonium supply reduced potassium and magnesium absorption. Water uptake was positively correlated with N, Mg and K uptake.

  20. Evaluating Water Supply and Water Quality Management Options for Las Vegas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.

    2007-05-01

    The ever increasing population in Las Vegas is generating huge demand for water supply on one hand and need for infrastructure to collect and treat the wastewater on the other hand. Current plans to address water demand include importing water from Muddy and Virgin Rivers and northern counties, desalination of seawater with trade- payoff in California, water banking in Arizona and California, and more intense water conservation efforts in the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). Water and wastewater in the LVV are intrinsically related because treated wastewater effluent is returned back to Lake Mead, the drinking water source for the Valley, to get a return credit thereby augmenting Nevada's water allocation from the Colorado River. The return of treated wastewater however, is a major contributor of nutrients and other yet unregulated pollutants to Lake Mead. Parameters that influence the quantity of water include growth of permanent and transient population (i.e., tourists), indoor and outdoor water use, wastewater generation, wastewater reuse, water conservation, and return flow credits. The water quality of Lake Mead and the Colorado River is affected by the level of treatment of wastewater, urban runoff, groundwater seepage, and a few industrial inputs. We developed an integrated simulation model, using system dynamics modeling approach, to account for both water quantity and quality in the LVV. The model captures the interrelationships among many variables that influence both, water quantity and water quality. The model provides a valuable tool for understanding past, present and future pathways of water and its constituents in the LVV. The model is calibrated and validated using the available data on water quantity (flows at water and wastewater treatment facilities and return water credit flow rates) and water quality parameters (TDS and phosphorus concentrations). We used the model to explore important questions: a)What would be the effect of the water transported from

  1. Groundwater for urban water supplies in northern China - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaisheng, Han

    Groundwater plays an important role for urban and industrial water supply in northern China. More than 1000 groundwater wellfields have been explored and installed. Groundwater provides about half the total quantity of the urban water supply. Complete regulations and methods for the exploration of groundwater have been established in the P.R. China. Substantial over-exploitation of groundwater has created environmental problems in some cities. Some safeguarding measures for groundwater-resource protection have been undertaken. Résumé Les eaux souterraines jouent un rôle important dans l'approvisionnement en eau des agglomérations et des industries du nord de la Chine. Les explorations ont conduit à mettre en place plus de 1000 champs de puits captant des eaux souterraines. Les eaux souterraines satisfont environ la moitié des besoins en eau des villes. Une réglementation complète et des méthodes d'exploration des eaux souterraines ont étéétablies en République Populaire de Chine. Une surexploitation très nette est à l'origine de problèmes environnementaux dans certaines villes. Des mesures ont été prises pour protéger la ressource en eau souterraine. Resumen El agua subterránea desempeña un papel importante en el suministro de agua para uso doméstico e industrial en la China septentrional. Se han explorado y puesto en marcha más de 1000 campos de explotación de aguas subterráneas, que proporcionan cerca de la mitad del total del suministro urbano. En la República Popular de China se han definido totalmente la legislación y la metodología para realizar estas explotaciones. La gran sobreexplotación en algunas ciudades ha creado algunos problemas medioambientales. Como consecuencia, se han llevado a cabo algunas medidas de protección de los recursos de aguas subterráneas.

  2. Nanotechnology for a safe and sustainable water supply: enabling integrated water treatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaolei; Brame, Jonathon; Li, Qilin; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2013-03-19

    Ensuring reliable access to clean and affordable water is one of the greatest global challenges of this century. As the world's population increases, water pollution becomes more complex and difficult to remove, and global climate change threatens to exacerbate water scarcity in many areas, the magnitude of this challenge is rapidly increasing. Wastewater reuse is becoming a common necessity, even as a source of potable water, but our separate wastewater collection and water supply systems are not designed to accommodate this pressing need. Furthermore, the aging centralized water and wastewater infrastructure in the developed world faces growing demands to produce higher quality water using less energy and with lower treatment costs. In addition, it is impractical to establish such massive systems in developing regions that currently lack water and wastewater infrastructure. These challenges underscore the need for technological innovation to transform the way we treat, distribute, use, and reuse water toward a distributed, differential water treatment and reuse paradigm (i.e., treat water and wastewater locally only to the required level dictated by the intended use). Nanotechnology offers opportunities to develop next-generation water supply systems. This Account reviews promising nanotechnology-enabled water treatment processes and provides a broad view on how they could transform our water supply and wastewater treatment systems. The extraordinary properties of nanomaterials, such as high surface area, photosensitivity, catalytic and antimicrobial activity, electrochemical, optical, and magnetic properties, and tunable pore size and surface chemistry, provide useful features for many applications. These applications include sensors for water quality monitoring, specialty adsorbents, solar disinfection/decontamination, and high performance membranes. More importantly, the modular, multifunctional and high-efficiency processes enabled by nanotechnology provide a

  3. Water residence times and nutrient budgets across an urbanizing gradient (Croton water supply area, NY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; Mitchell, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    Water residence times and nutrient budgets in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY, were examined. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different level of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on roads and slow flow through subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes) . Measurements of the comprehensive chemical suite incl. components of nitrogen budget in the throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were performed bi-weekly over a period up to 2 years. Mean water residence times of the stream water were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes. There are significant differences in the chemical composition and decrease of nitrification intensity and of mean streamwater residence time along the increasing watershed development. Within each watershed, longer water residence times (up to over 2 years) were estimated in the wetland zones without direct communication with streams in comparison to hillslope areas (up to over 1 year). The results can be used in watershed management and planning of the further urbanization of this water supply area.

  4. Optimal crop selection and water allocation under limited water supply in irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Peter; Grießbach, Ulrike; Schütze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions such as droughts may have an increasing impact on irrigated agriculture. To cope with limited water resources in irrigation systems, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand at the same time. For modeling the regional water demand, local (and site-specific) water demand functions are used which are derived from optimized agronomic response on farms scale. To account for climate variability the agronomic response is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF). These functions take into account different soil types, crops and stochastically generated climate scenarios. The SCWPF's are used to compute the water demand considering different conditions, e.g., variable and fixed costs. This generic approach enables the consideration of both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance IRrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies.

  5. The Consumer in Austrian Economics and the Austrian Perspective on Consumer Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis I examined the place of the competitive-entrepreneurial consumer in Austrian economic thought. For a neoclassical economist, competition among consumers is hard to find. For an Austrian economist, however, it is a necessity. The introduction puts forward the problem that although an A

  6. Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Godskesen, B.; Jørgensen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing stress on water resources is driving urban water utilities to establish new concepts for water supply. This paper presents the consequences of proposed alternative water supply options using a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative methods from different research fields...... assessed using lifecycle assessment and freshwater use impact methods. The holistic assessment method exposes conflicting preference solutions depending on assessment criteria, and reveals multi-faceted consequences for choices in urban water management. Not one concept turns out unambiguously positive...

  7. Many-objective optimization and visual analytics reveal key trade-offs for London's water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Huskova, Ivana; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Harou, Julien J.; Lambert, Chris; Reed, Patrick M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we link a water resource management simulator to multi-objective search to reveal the key trade-offs inherent in planning a real-world water resource system. We consider new supplies and demand management (conservation) options while seeking to elucidate the trade-offs between the best portfolios of schemes to satisfy projected water demands. Alternative system designs are evaluated using performance measures that minimize capital and operating costs and energy use while maximizing resilience, engineering and environmental metrics, subject to supply reliability constraints. Our analysis shows many-objective evolutionary optimization coupled with state-of-the art visual analytics can help planners discover more diverse water supply system designs and better understand their inherent trade-offs. The approach is used to explore future water supply options for the Thames water resource system (including London's water supply). New supply options include a new reservoir, water transfers, artificial recharge, wastewater reuse and brackish groundwater desalination. Demand management options include leakage reduction, compulsory metering and seasonal tariffs. The Thames system's Pareto approximate portfolios cluster into distinct groups of water supply options; for example implementing a pipe refurbishment program leads to higher capital costs but greater reliability. This study highlights that traditional least-cost reliability constrained design of water supply systems masks asset combinations whose benefits only become apparent when more planning objectives are considered.

  8. Effects of water-supply reservoirs on streamflow in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    State and local water-resource managers need modeling tools to help them manage and protect water-supply resources for both human consumption and ecological needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, has developed a decision-support tool to estimate the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflow. The Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool is a model that simulates the daily water balance of a reservoir. The reservoir simulation tool provides estimates of daily outflows from reservoirs and compares the frequency, duration, and magnitude of the volume of outflows from reservoirs with estimates of the unaltered streamflow that would occur if no dam were present. This tool will help environmental managers understand the complex interactions and tradeoffs between water withdrawals, reservoir operational practices, and reservoir outflows needed for aquatic habitats.A sensitivity analysis of the daily water balance equation was performed to identify physical and operational features of reservoirs that could have the greatest effect on reservoir outflows. For the purpose of this report, uncontrolled releases of water (spills or spillage) over the reservoir spillway were considered to be a proxy for reservoir outflows directly below the dam. The ratio of average withdrawals to the average inflows had the largest effect on spillage patterns, with the highest withdrawals leading to the lowest spillage. The size of the surface area relative to the drainage area of the reservoir also had an effect on spillage; reservoirs with large surface areas have high evaporation rates during the summer, which can contribute to frequent and long periods without spillage, even in the absence of water withdrawals. Other reservoir characteristics, such as variability of inflows, groundwater interactions, and seasonal demand patterns, had low to moderate effects on the frequency, duration, and magnitude of spillage. The

  9. The Austrian UV monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumthaler, Mario; Klotz, Barbara; Schwarzmann, Michael; Schreder, Josef

    2017-02-01

    The Austrian UV Monitoring network is operational since 1998 providing a large data set of erythemally weighted UV irradiance recorded with broadband UV biometer at 12 stations distributed all over Austria. In order to obtain high quality data all biometer are recalibrated once a year, the detectors are checked regularly for humidity and quality control is done routinely. The collected data are processed and then published on the website http://www.uv-index.at where the UV-Index of all measurement sites is presented in near real time together with a map of the distribution of the UV-Index over Austria. These UV-Index data together with measurements of global radiation and ozone levels from OMI are used to study long term trends for the stations of the monitoring network. Neither for all weather conditions nor for clear sky conditions is a statistically significant trend found for the UV-Index (with one exception) and for ozone. Furthermore, the radiation amplification factor (RAF) is determined experimentally from the power law correlation between UV-Index and ozone level for the site Innsbruck (577 m above sea level, 47.26°N, 11.38°E) for 19°solar elevation. A value of 0.91 ± 0.05 is found for the RAF for clear sky days with low ground albedo and a value of 1.03 ± 0.08 for days with high ground albedo (snow cover).

  10. Energy Cost Optimization in a Water Supply System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the life cycle costs (LCC of a pump are related to the energy spent in pumping, with the rest being related to the purchase and maintenance of the equipment. Any optimizations in the energy efficiency of the pumps result in a considerable reduction of the total operational cost. The Fátima water supply system in Portugal was analyzed in order to minimize its operational energy costs. Different pump characteristic curves were analyzed and modeled in order to achieve the most efficient operation point. To determine the best daily pumping operational scheduling pattern, genetic algorithm (GA optimization embedded in the modeling software was considered in contrast with a manual override (MO approach. The main goal was to determine which pumps and what daily scheduling allowed the best economical solution. At the end of the analysis it was possible to reduce the original daily energy costs by 43.7%. This was achieved by introducing more appropriate pumps and by intelligent programming of their operation. Given the heuristic nature of GAs, different approaches were employed and the most common errors were pinpointed, whereby this investigation can be used as a reference for similar future developments.

  11. Evaluation and optimization of secondary water supply system renovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Due to pollution in second water supply system (SWSS), nine renovation alternative plans were proposed and comprehensive evaluations of different plan based on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) were presented in this paper. Comparisons of advantages and disadvantages among the plans of SWSS renovations provided solid foundation for selecting the most appropriate plan for engineering projects. In addition, a mathematical model of the optimal combination of renovation plans has been set up and software Lingo was used to solve the model. As a case study, the paper analyzed 15 buildings in Tianjin City. After simulation of the SWSS renovation system, an optimal scheme was obtained, the result of which indicates that 10 out of those 15 buildings need be renovated in priority. The renovation plans selected for each building are the ones ranked higher in the comprehensive analysis. The analysis revealed that the optimal scheme, compared with two other randomly calculated ones, increased the percentage of service population by 19.6% and 13.6% respectively, which significantly improved social and economical benefits.

  12. Rural drinking water at supply and household levels: quality and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Bilqis A; Hallman, Kelly; Levy, Jason; Bouis, Howarth; Ali, Nahid; Khan, Feroze; Khanam, Sufia; Kabir, Mamun; Hossain, Sanower; Shah Alam, Mohammad

    2006-09-01

    Access to safe drinking water has been an important national goal in Bangladesh and other developing countries. While Bangladesh has almost achieved accepted bacteriological drinking water standards for water supply, high rates of diarrheal disease morbidity indicate that pathogen transmission continues through water supply chain (and other modes). This paper investigates the association between water quality and selected management practices by users at both the supply and household levels in rural Bangladesh. Two hundred and seventy tube-well water samples and 300 water samples from household storage containers were tested for fecal coliform (FC) concentrations over three surveys (during different seasons). The tube-well water samples were tested for arsenic concentration during the first survey. Overall, the FC was low (the median value ranged from 0 to 4 cfu/100ml) in water at the supply point (tube-well water samples) but significantly higher in water samples stored in households. At the supply point, 61% of tube-well water samples met the Bangladesh and WHO standards of FC; however, only 37% of stored water samples met the standards during the first survey. When arsenic contamination was also taken into account, only 52% of the samples met both the minimum microbiological and arsenic content standards of safety. The contamination rate for water samples from covered household storage containers was significantly lower than that of uncovered containers. The rate of water contamination in storage containers was highest during the February-May period. It is shown that safe drinking water was achieved by a combination of a protected and high quality source at the initial point and maintaining quality from the initial supply (source) point through to final consumption. It is recommended that the government and other relevant actors in Bangladesh establish a comprehensive drinking water system that integrates water supply, quality, handling and related educational

  13. Automated Water Supply System and Water Theft Identification Using PLC and SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Anubha Panchal,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world rapid growing urban residential areas, to avoid scarcity of water problems and requirements of consumers, therefore it is supposed to supply adequate water distribution networks are managed automatically. Along with this another problem in the water supply system is that public is using suction pumps to suck the water directly from the home street pipeline. The best way to improve the automation and monitoring architectures which contain a supervision and control system for the real time installation, programmable logic controllers with basic functions communication systems, standard interfaces or dedicated ones with proximity sensors, electrical drive elements, measuring devices, etc. In this project it is proposed to develop the PLC & SCADA based water monitoring and theft prevention. Control System is further coupled to SCADA unit .This paper focuses particularly to a control system for controlling and monitoring within a Water Distribution System. Process automation system based upon utilization of an industrial PLC and PC systems including all the network components represents the best way to improve the water distribution technological process.

  14. Water Quality, Mitigation Measures of Arsenic Contamination and Sustainable Rural Water Supply Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN M. ANAWAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater has created a serious public health issue in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India, because groundwater is widely used for drinking, household and agriculture purposes. Given the magnitude of the problem of groundwater contamination facing Bangladesh, effective, acceptable and sustainable solutions are urgently required. Different NGOs (Non-government organizations and research organizations are using their extensive rural networks to raise awareness and conduct pilot projects. The implication of the results from the previous studies is robust, but coastly arsenic reduction technologies such as activated alumina technology, and As and Fe removal filters may find little social acceptance, unless heavily subsidized. This review paper analysed the quality of surface water and ground water, all mitigation measures and the most acceptable options to provide sustainable access to safe- water supply in the rural ares of Bangladesh. Although there are abundant and different sources of surface water, they can not be used for drinking and hosehold purposes due to lack of sanitation, high faecal coliform concentration, turibidity and deterioration of quality of surface water sources. There are a few safe surface water options; and also there are several methods available for removal of arsenic and iron from groundwater in large conventional treatments plants. This review paper presented a short description of the currently available and most sustainable technologies for arsenic and iron removal, and alternative water supply options in the rural areas.

  15. National water summary 1987: Hydrologic events and water supply and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jerry E.; Chase, Edith B.; Paulson, Richard W.; Moody, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Water use in the United States, as measured by freshwater withdrawals in 1985, averaged 338,000 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), which is enough water to cover the 48 conterminous States to a depth of about 2.4 inches. Only 92,300 Mgal/d, or 27.3 percent of the water withdrawn, was consumptive use and thus lost to immediate further use; the remainder of the withdrawals (72.7 percent) was return flow available for reuse a number of times as the water flowed to the sea. The 1985 freshwater withdrawals were much less than the average 30 inches of precipitation that falls on the conterminous States each year; consumptive use accounted for only 7 percent of the estimated annual runoff of 1,230,000 Mgal/d. Nonetheless, as the State summaries on water supply and use clearly show, water is not always available when and where it is needed. Balancing water demands with available water supplies constitutes one of the major resource allocation issues that will face the United States in the coming decade. Of the 1985 freshwater withdrawals, 78.3 percent (265,000 Mgal/d) came from surface-water sources (streams and lakes), and 21.7 percent (73,300 Mgal/d) came from ground water. Surface water provided drinking water for about 47 percent of the Nation's total population. It was the source of 59.9 percent of the Nation's public-supply systems. For self-supplied withdrawals, surface water accounted for 1.6 percent of the domestic and commercial uses; 64.0 percent of the industrial and mining use; 99.4 percent of the thermoelectric generation withdrawals, mainly for cooling water; and 65.6 percent of the agricultural withdrawals. Eight States accounted for 43 percent of the surface-water use; California, Colorado, and Idaho used surface water primarily for irrigation, and Dlinois, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas used surface-water primarily for cooling condensers or reactors in thermoelectric plants. Ground water provided drinking water for 53 percent of the Nation's total

  16. 43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration? 404.51 Section 404.51 Public Lands: Interior... SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies § 404.51 Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program... the Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program. This includes review under Executive Order 12322...

  17. Calculation method and operation optimization of water supply and distribution systems equipped with water wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Y. Pobereznichenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, there has been proposed a method of hydraulic and feasibility studies for water systems equipped with water wells which allows determining the optimal set of system structures and the most efficient regimes of their joint performance during operation. Some of the most difficult for hydraulic and feasibility calculations are water supply and distribution systems (hereinafter - SPRV, which contain water wells with borehole pumps. When designing new systems, setting up newly built ones and reconstructing the existing systems, it is necessary to choose the optimal set of structures, their optimal sizes and the most efficient regime of their joint performance. Currently, such systems are the most common for the underground water intake, and the complexity of the optimization calculations of their interacting structures joint performance, is accounted for with the need to specify the characteristics of all wells, their mutual interdependence, and the changes of their characteristics during operation.

  18. An Assessment of Factors Having Impact on Water Quality in Water Supply Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auksė Amosenkienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Water samples were collected from Vilnius drinking water distribution system fed by treated and different groundwater. Parameters related to bacterial growth have been measured considering these samples: temperature, concentration of free residual chlorine, ammonium, nitrates and nitrites. Results showed that treated groundwater was less susceptible to favour bacterial growth in the pipelines. The obtained results also showed that the potential growth induced by the distribution of treated water could be reduced if: ammonium levels were below 0.5 mg/l at the outlet of the water treatment plant; biological ammonium removal treatment implementation should reduce the levels of the nitrates and nitrites of the treated supplied water. Article in Lithuanian

  19. Comparison of nitrate levels in raw water and finished water from historical monitoring data on Iowa municipal drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Peter J; Smith, Brian J; Feng, Zhen-Fang; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Riley, David G

    2006-05-01

    Nitrate contamination of water sources is a concern where large amounts of nitrogen fertilizers are regularly applied to soils. Ingested nitrate from dietary sources and drinking water can be converted to nitrite and ultimately to N-nitroso compounds, many of which are known carcinogens. Epidemiologic studies of drinking water nitrate and cancer report mixed findings; a criticism is the use of nitrate concentrations from retrospective drinking water data to assign exposure levels. Residential point-of-use nitrate data are scarce; gaps in historical data for municipal supply finished water hamper exposure classification efforts. We used generalized linear regression models to estimate and compare historical raw water and finished water nitrate levels (1960s-1990s) in single source Iowa municipal supplies to determine whether raw water monitoring data could supplement finished water data to improve exposure assessment. Comparison of raw water and finished water samples (same sampling date) showed a significant difference in nitrate levels in municipalities using rivers; municipalities using other surface water or alluvial groundwater had no difference in nitrate levels. A regional aggregation of alluvial groundwater municipalities was constructed based on results from a previous study showing regional differences in nitrate contamination of private wells; results from this analysis were mixed, dependent upon region and decade. These analyses demonstrate using historical raw water nitrate monitoring data to supplement finished water data for exposure assessment is appropriate for individual Iowa municipal supplies using alluvial groundwater, lakes or reservoirs. Using alluvial raw water data on a regional basis is dependent on region and decade.

  20. Water Residence Times and Runoff Sources Across an Urbanizing Gradient (Croton Water Supply Area, New York)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2002-12-01

    Water residence times and nutrient budgets were measured in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different levels of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on impervious surfaces and slow flow through the subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes). Throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were sampled bi-weekly during a period of up to 2 years and analyzed for major chemical constituents, oxygen-18 content, and nitrogen species. Mean residence times of the stream water of about 30 weeks were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes for all 3 watersheds. There was no significant difference in mean residence times among the three study watersheds, despite their different levels of urbanization. However, residence times from a few weeks up to ca 2 years vary within the watersheds, depending on the local runoff sources and their geographical conditions (riparian and hillslope topography, aquifer type). The runoff sources were quantified for selected streamwater and groundwater sampling sites using the end member mixing analysis technique (EMMA). The mixing analysis shows the impact of the runoff sources on runoff generation in the selected watersheds, i.e. it shows how big is the impact of urbanization on the runoff generation and how big is the natural control. These results may be useful in watershed management and planning of further urbanization in the Croton water supply area.

  1. Remaking Waste as Water: The Governance of Recycled Effluent for Potable Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Meehan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Water managers increasingly rely on the indirect potable reuse (IPR of recycled effluent to augment potable water supplies in rapidly growing cities. At the same time, the presence of waste – as abject material – clearly remains an object of concern in IPR projects, spawning debate and opposition among the public. In this article, we identify the key governance factors of IPR schemes to examine how waste disrupts and stabilises existing practices and ideologies of water resources management. Specifically, we analyse and compare four prominent IPR projects from the United States and Australia, and identify the techno-scientific, legal, and socio-economic components necessary for successful implementation of IPR projects. This analysis demonstrates that successful IPR projects are characterised by large-scale, centralised infrastructure, state and techno-scientific control, and a political economy of water marked by supply augmentation and unchecked expansion. We argue that – despite advanced treatment – recycled effluent is a parallax object: a material force that disrupts the power geometries embedded in municipal water management. Consequently, successful IPR schemes must stabilise a particular mode of water governance, one in which recycled effluent is highly regulated and heavily policed. We conclude with insights about the future role of public participation in IPR projects.

  2. Optimal demand reponse to water pricing policies under limited water supply in irrigation: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grießbach, Ulkrike; Stange, Peter; Schuetze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions such as droughts may have an increasing impact on irrigated agriculture. To cope with the higher demand of water, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand. For modeling the regional water demand, local stochastic water demand functions are used which are derived from optimized agronomic response on farms scale. These functions take into account different soil types, crops, stochastically generated climate scenarios considering different economic conditions, e.g., variable and fixed costs. This generic approach enables the consideration of both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance IRrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed and applied for a case study in Saxony which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies on a regional level.

  3. On-plot drinking water supplies and health: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbo, Alycia; Williams, Ashley R; Evans, Barbara; Hunter, Paul R; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-07-01

    Many studies have found that household access to water supplies near or within the household plot can reduce the probability of diarrhea, trachoma, and other water-related diseases, and it is generally accepted that on-plot water supplies produce health benefits for households. However, the body of research literature has not been analyzed to weigh the evidence supporting this. A systematic review was conducted to investigate the impacts of on-plot water supplies on diarrhea, trachoma, child growth, and water-related diseases, to further examine the relationship between household health and distance to water source and to assess whether on-plot water supplies generate health gains for households. Studies provide evidence that households with on-plot water supplies experience fewer diarrheal and helminth infections and greater child height. Findings suggest that water-washed (hygiene associated) diseases are more strongly impacted by on-plot water access than waterborne diseases. Few studies analyzed the effects of on-plot water access on quantity of domestic water used, hygiene behavior, and use of multiple water sources, and the lack of evidence for these relationships reveals an important gap in current literature. The review findings indicate that on-plot water access is a useful health indicator and benchmark for the progressive realization of the Sustainable Development Goal target of universal safe water access as well as the human right to safe water.

  4. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY... Moines, IA 50309-2180, telephone: 515-284- 4769. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A Notice of Intent (NOI) to... http://www.ia.nrcs.usda.gov . A map of the Clarke County Water Supply proposed study sites will also...

  5. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... which have a capacity not greater than 454 liters (120 U.S. gallons) must have a current carrying... current carrying capacity of not less than 100 percent of the current rating of the appliance. Wiring... water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than...

  6. 77 FR 42486 - Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... determine if changes to the current allocation of storage for M&I water supply may be warranted, and what... allocation of storage has been made for M&I. The Water Supply Act of 1958 provides the Assistant Secretary of... to St. Louis, MO. In contemplating an allocation of storage to M&I to meet needs in the basin,...

  7. Water Supply Intakes, water blowoff, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Supply Intakes dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'water...

  8. Water Supply Intakes, water vlv, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Supply Intakes dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'water...

  9. Arsenic occurrence in drinking water supply systems in ten municipalities in Vojvodina Region, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Dragana; Jakovljević, Branko; Rašić-Milutinović, Zorica; Paunović, Katarina; Peković, Gordana; Knezević, Tanja

    2011-02-01

    Vojvodina, a northern region of Serbia, belongs to the Pannonian Basin, whose aquifers contain high concentrations of arsenic. This study represents arsenic levels in drinking water in ten municipalities in Serbia. Around 63% of all water samples exceeded Serbian and European standards for arsenic in drinking water. Large variations in arsenic were observed among supply systems. Arsenic concentrations in public water supply systems in Vojvodina were much higher than in other countries in the Pannonian Basin.

  10. Drinking water quality monitoring and surveillance for safe water supply in Gangtok, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadse, Gajanan K; Kalita, Morami; Pimpalkar, Sarika N; Labhsetwar, Pawan K

    2011-07-01

    To ascertain the quality of drinking water being supplied, water quality monitoring and surveillance was conducted in Gangtok city at various treatment stages, service reservoirs, distribution network, public standposts, and households. No significant change in raw water quality was observed on day-to-day basis. Residual chlorine was found in the range of nil to 0.2 mg/l in the sump water/finished water. Throughout the year (i.e., during summer, winter, and monsoon seasons), the total coliform and fecal coliform counts were ranged from nil to 7 CFU/100 ml and nil to 3 CFU/100 ml, respectively, in sump water of Selep and VIP complex water treatment plant; however, at consumer end, those were observed as nil to 210 CFU/100 ml and nil to 90 CFU/100 ml, respectively. These variations in bacterial counts among the different service reservoirs and consumer ends may be attributed to the general management practices for maintenance of service reservoirs and the possibility of enroute contamination. Evaluation of the raw water quality indicates that the water is suitable for drinking after conventional treatment followed by disinfection. The finished water quality meets the level of standards described as per Bureau of Indian Standard specifications (BIS:10500 1991) for potability in terms of its physicochemical characteristics.

  11. The Ambiguity of Community: Debating Alternatives to Private-Sector Provision of Urban Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Bakker

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of community has become increasingly important in debates over alternatives to privatisation, and is invoked by both proponents and opponents of private sector provision of water supply. This paper presents a critique of the concept of community water supply when it is invoked as an alternative to privatisation. The analysis presents a typology of proposals for community ownership and governance of water supply, and proceeds to critique some of the flawed assumptions in the concepts of community deployed in these proposals, together with references to more general debates about the viability of the 'commons' as enacted through community-controlled water supply systems. The paper closes with a brief discussion of the future evolution of the debate over 'community' alternatives to privatisation, focusing on water supply.

  12. Hydrogeological interpretation of natural radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Gerhard; Berka, Rudolf; Hörhan, Thomas; Katzlberger, Christian; Landstetter, Claudia; Philippitsch, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) stores comprehensive data sets of radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwater. There are several analyses concerning Rn-222, Ra-226, gross alpha and gross beta as well as selected analyses of Ra-228, Pb-210, Po-210, Uranium and U-234/U-238. In a current project financed by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, AGES and the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) are evaluating these data sets with regard to the geological backgrounds. Several similar studies based on groundwater monitoring have been made in the USA (for instance by Focazio, M.J., Szabo, Z., Kraemer, T.F., Mullin, A.H., Barringer, T.H., De Paul, V.T. (2001): Occurrence of selected radionuclides in groundwater used for drinking water in the United States: a reconnaissance survey, 1998. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4273). The geological background for the radionuclide contents of groundwater will be derived from geological maps in combination with existing Thorium and Uranium analyses of the country rocks and stream-sediments and from airborne radiometric maps. Airborne radiometric data could contribute to identify potential radionuclide hot spot areas as only airborne radiometric mapping could provide countrywide Thorium and Uranium data coverage in high resolution. The project will also focus on the habit of the sampled wells and springs and the hydrological situation during the sampling as these factors can have an important influence on the Radon content of the sampled groundwater (Schubert, G., Alletsgruber, I., Finger, F., Gasser, V., Hobiger, G. and Lettner, H. (2010): Radon im Grundwasser des Mühlviertels (Oberösterreich) Grundwasser. - Springer (in print). Based on the project results an overview map (1:500,000) concerning the radionuclide potential should be produced. The first version should be available in February 2011.

  13. Water Supply and Treatment Equipment. Change Notice 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-05

    Coagulation Filtration Total Dissolved Solids Water Quality Conductivity Potable water Turbidity Water Treatment/ Purification Disinfection... purification /treatment system testing is to employ appropriate natural source waters to assess the operation and performance criteria. Reliability testing...on the management of wastes associated with the purification of field water . TOP 09-2-270 Change Notice 1 5 August 2014 6 e. Water Quality

  14. Effects of modifying water environments on water supply and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, S.; Nguyen, H. T.; Takeda, T.; Tran, N. T.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increasing population and per-capita water demand, demands for water are increasing in many parts of the world. Consequently, overuse of limited water resources leaves only small amounts of water in rivers and is bringing about rapid drawdown of groundwater tables. Water resources are affected by human activities such as excessive inputs of nutrients and other contaminants, agriculture and aquaculture expansions, and many development activities. The combined effects of modifying the water environments, both in terms of quantity and quality, on water supply and human health are presented in the paper with some examples from the Asian countries. In rural and sub-urban areas in Bangladesh and Vietnam, for example, the traditional way of obtaining surface water from ponds had been replaced by taking groundwaters to avert the microbial health risks that had arisen from contamination by human wastes. Such a change of water sources, however, has brought about human health impact caused by arsenic on a massive scale. In Thailand, the industrial development has driven the residents to get groundwater leaden with very high fluoride. Monitoring the urine fluoride levels reveal the risk of drinking fluoride-laden groundwaters. Rivers are also affected by extensive exploitation such as sand mining. As a result, turbidity changes abruptly after a heavy rainfall. In cities, due to shrinking water resources they have to take poor quality waters from contaminated sources. Algal blooms are seen in many reservoirs and lakes due to increasing levels of nutrients. Hence, it is likely that algal toxins may enter the water supply systems. Because most of the water treatment plants are not designed to remove those known and unknown contaminants, it is estimated that quite a large number of people are now under the threat of the public health "gtime bomb,"h which may one day bring about mass-scale health problems. In order to mitigate the negative impacts of modifying the water

  15. Optimum combination of water drainage, water supply and eco-environment protection in coal-accumulated basin of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武强; 董东林; 石占华; 武雄; 孙卫东; 叶责钧; 李树文; 刘金韬

    2000-01-01

    The conflict among water drainage, water supply and eco-environment protection is getting more and more serious due to the irrational drainage and exploitation of ground water resources in coal-accumulated basins of North China. Efficient solutions to the conflict are to maintain long-term dynamic balance between input and output of the ground water basins, and to try to improve resourcification of the mine water. All solutions must guarantee the eco-environment quality. This paper presents a new idea of optimum combination of water drainage, water supply and eco-environment protection so as to solve the problem of unstable mine water supply, which is caused by the changeable water drainage for the whole combination system. Both the management of hydraulic techniques and constraints in economy, society, ecology, environment, industrial structural adjustments and sustainable developments have been taken into account. Since the traditional and separate management of different departments of water drainage,

  16. Occurrence of selected volatile organic compounds and soluble pesticides in Texas public water-supply source waters, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara June; Canova, Michael G.; Gary, Marcus O.

    2002-01-01

    During 1999?2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, collected samples of untreated water from 48 public water-supply reservoirs and 174 public water-supply wells. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and soluble pesticides; in addition, well samples were analyzed for nitrite plus nitrate and tritium. This fact sheet summarizes the findings of the source-water sampling and analyses. Both VOCs and pesticides were detected much more frequently in surface water than in ground water. The only constituent detected at concentrations exceeding the maximum contaminant level for drinking water was nitrate. These results will be used in the Texas Source-Water Assessment Program to evaluate the susceptibility of public water-supply source waters to contamination.

  17. The economic impact of restricted water supply: a computable general equilibrium analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrittella, Maria; Hoekstra, Arjen Y; Rehdanz, Katrin; Roson, Roberto; Tol, Richard S J

    2007-04-01

    Water problems are typically studied at the level of the river catchment. About 70% of all water is used for agriculture, and agricultural products are traded internationally. A full understanding of water use is impossible without understanding the international market for food and related products, such as textiles. The water embedded in commodities is called virtual water. Based on a general equilibrium model, we offer a method for investigating the role of water resources and water scarcity in the context of international trade. We run five alternative scenarios, analyzing the effects of water scarcity due to reduced availability of groundwater. This can be a consequence of physical constraints, and of policies curbing water demand. Four scenarios are based on a "market solution", where water owners can capitalize their water rent or taxes are recycled. In the fifth "non-market" scenario, this is not the case; supply restrictions imply productivity losses. Restrictions in water supply would shift trade patterns of agriculture and virtual water. These shifts are larger if the restriction is larger, and if the use of water in production is more rigid. Welfare losses are substantially larger in the non-market situation. Water-constrained agricultural producers lose, but unconstrained agricultural produces gain; industry gains as well. As a result, there are regional winners and losers from water supply constraints. Because of the current distortions of agricultural markets, water supply constraints could improve allocative efficiency; this welfare gain may more than offset the welfare losses due to the resource constraint.

  18. President Hans Ager of Austrian Federal Council Visits China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>An Austrian goodwill delegation led by Hans . Ager, president of the Austrian Federal Coun-cil and board member of the Austrian Association for Promotion of Friendship and Cultural Relations with China (AAPFCRC), paid a friendly visit to China in November, 2003 at the invitation of the CPAFFC. On the delegation were Dietmar Bachmann, president of the Industrial Federation of

  19. Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Godskesen, Berit; Jørgensen, C.;

    2013-01-01

    the pressure on the primary and conventional groundwater based drinking water supply. Four alternative water resources for a secondary water supply have been considered: 1) polluted groundwater for use in toilets and laundry, 2) desalinated brackish water for use in toilets, laundry, and dishwashers, 3......) desalinated brackish water for all uses including drinking water and 4) local reclamation of rain and grey water for use in toilets and laundry. The project has been conducted by multiple stakeholders, including the municipality, landowners, the water utility, consultants, technology providers and research......Nordhavn, a former industrial harbour area is under development into an integrated part of Copenhagen City. All infrastructures will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. Our project assesses the potential for establishing a secondary water supply to relieve...

  20. Modelling Water Supply-Billing and Collection Systems for Effective Utility Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water is a strong constraint to the attainment of Millennium Development Goals by 2020. The water supply coverage of 38.3% of the total population corresponds to 45 litres per person and an average supply period of 3.5 hours daily. This further explains the degree of water-stress in Ikare. Annual non-revenue of 18.3% represented $6.2 million USD which was lost to physical water loss, thus leading to gradual increase in operation ratio value of 1.05. Chlorination water treatment is cost effective for large water scheme than ultraviolent (UV with a price index of $ 0.01 per 1m 3 of water. The predicted cost for plant with 5 million m 3 capacity. Increasing water supply coverage requires the reduction of non-revenue water and creates effective tariff system.

  1. Development of Water Supply and Billing Systems for Effective Utility Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipa O. Idogho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Safe drinking water is a strong constraint to the attainment of Millennium Development Goals by 2020. The water supply coverage of 38.3% of the total population corresponds to 45 litres per person and an average supply period of 3.5 hours daily. This further explains the degree of water-stress in Ikare. Annual non-revenue of 18.3% represented $6.2 million USD which was lost to physical water loss, thus leading to gradual increase in operation ratio value of 1.05. Chlorination water treatment is cost effective for large water scheme than ultraviolent (UV with a price index of $ 0.01 per 1m 3 of water. The predicted cost for plant with 5 million m 3 capacity. Increasing water supply coverage requires the reduction of non-revenue water and creates effective tariff system.

  2. Water supply in the long term: a risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Integrated water assessment studies are often confined to a study of physical aspects, considering the relation between surface and groundwater, water quantity and water quality, and between water, land and climate. The interaction between changes in the water system and socio-economic development i

  3. Augmenting water supply by combined desalination/water recycling methods: an economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teusner, Adam; Blandin, Gaetan; Le-Clech, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Dry coastal communities increasingly need to consider non-traditional methods of augmenting their water supply. This study presents a preliminary economic comparison of three alternatives for increasing the water supply by 50% for a hypothetical baseline coastal scenario: increasing desalination (Scenario A), direct potable water reuse (DPWR) (Scenario B), and a novel retrofitted configuration of a hybrid forward osmosis-reverse osmosis (FO-RO) plant (Scenario C). The latter used the dilution of the seawater feed to increase the recovery and overall output water of the original RO step. To account for the time value of money, levelised cost (LC) was used as the primary economic metric. The hybrid FO-RO configuration had a comparable LC to DPWR (0.59 vs. 0.61 $ m(-3)) and was 12% cheaper than desalination (0.67 $ m(-3)). Furthermore, hybrid FO-RO was 7% more energy efficient than conventional desalination due to reduced intake and pretreatment flows. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that incremental reductions in LC were possible for increased FO membrane flux, including in pressure-assisted osmosis scenarios with applied pressure ranging from 2 to 6 bar. These findings validate the examination of hybrid FO-RO configurations that deviate from the energy-reduction paradigms typically studied.

  4. An Integrated Framework for Analysis of Water Supply Strategies in a Developing City: Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Goulder, L.

    2009-12-01

    Indian cities are facing a severe water crisis: rapidly growing population, low tariffs, high leakage rates, inadequate reservoir storage, are straining water supply systems, resulting in unreliable, intermittent piped supply. Conventional approaches to studying the problem of urban water supply have typically considered only centralized piped supply by the water utility. Specifically, they have tended to overlook decentralized actions by consumers such as groundwater extraction via private wells and aquifer recharge by rainwater harvesting. We present an innovative integrative framework for analyzing urban water supply in Indian cities. The framework is used in a systems model of water supply in the city of Chennai, India that integrates different components of the urban water system: water flows into the reservoir system, diversion and distribution by the public water utility, groundwater flow in the urban aquifer, informal water markets and consumer behavior. Historical system behavior from 2002-2006 is used to calibrate the model. The historical system behavior highlights the buffering role of the urban aquifer; storing water in periods of surplus for extraction by consumers via private wells. The model results show that in Chennai, distribution pipeline leaks result in the transfer of water from the inadequate reservoir system to the urban aquifer. The systems approach also makes it possible to evaluate and compare a wide range of centralized and decentralized policies. Three very different policies: Supply Augmentation (desalination), Efficiency Improvement (raising tariffs and fixing pipe leaks), and Rainwater Harvesting (recharging the urban aquifer by capturing rooftop and yard runoff) were evaluated using the model. The model results suggest that a combination of Rainwater Harvesting and Efficiency Improvement best meets our criteria of welfare maximization, equity, system reliability, and utility profitability. Importantly, the study shows that

  5. A Rapid, Safe Drinking Water Supply Production Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-24

    water contaminated with E. coli as a demonstration of electrolytic water pui-ification. For this series of tests, water was collected from Frijoles ...electrolysis unit. The tank which corresponds to raw water intake - (Figure 4-1) was filled with 110 gallons of turbid Frijoles Creek water spiked 28 i~~i...chlorine-hypochlorite. This increased ozone satisfied the ozone demand due to organic material in the Frijoles Creek water more rapidly, which may

  6. Piped-Water Supplies in Rural Areas of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: Water Quality and Household Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert-Jan Wilbers

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Mekong Delta (MD in Vietnam, piped-water supply stations are being intensively built to reach the millennium development goal (MDG to provide safe and clean drinking water resources to communities. However, studies focusing on the effectiveness of supply stations in reaching these goals are scarce to date. Water samples from 41 water supply stations in the MD were collected between June and October 2012. Water samples were analyzed for general parameters, salinity, nutrients, metal(loids and microbial indicator bacteria and compared with World Health Organization (WHO and Vietnamese drinking water guidelines. In addition, 542 household interviews were conducted to investigate the connection rate to piped-water and people’s perceptions regarding piped-water supplies. The results show that water guidelines were exceeded for pH (min. 6.2, turbidity (max. 10 FTU, Cl (max. 1,576 mg·L−1, NH4 (max. 7.92 mg·L−1, Fe (431.1 µg·L−1, Hg (11.9 µg·L−1, and microbial indicator bacteria (max. total coliform 50,000 CFU 100 mL−1. Moreover, more than half of the interviewed households with access to a piped-water supply did not use this supply as a source of drinking water due to (i high connection fees; (ii preference for other water sources; and (iii perceived poor quality/quantity. Our study shows that the maintenance and distribution of water supply stations should significantly improve in order for piped-water to become a reliable drinking water source. Additionally, alternatives, such as rainwater harvesting and decentralized treatment facilities, should also be considered.

  7. Quantitative assessment of resilience of a water supply system under rainfall reduction due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasinghe, Pradeep; Liu, An; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Barnes, Paul; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-09-01

    A water supply system can be impacted by rainfall reduction due to climate change, thereby reducing its supply potential. This highlights the need to understand the system resilience, which refers to the ability to maintain service under various pressures (or disruptions). Currently, the concept of resilience has not yet been widely applied in managing water supply systems. This paper proposed three technical resilience indictors to assess the resilience of a water supply system. A case study analysis was undertaken of the Water Grid system of Queensland State, Australia, to showcase how the proposed indicators can be applied to assess resilience. The research outcomes confirmed that the use of resilience indicators is capable of identifying critical conditions in relation to the water supply system operation, such as the maximum allowable rainfall reduction for the system to maintain its operation without failure. Additionally, resilience indicators also provided useful insight regarding the sensitivity of the water supply system to a changing rainfall pattern in the context of climate change, which represents the system's stability when experiencing pressure. The study outcomes will help in the quantitative assessment of resilience and provide improved guidance to system operators to enhance the efficiency and reliability of a water supply system.

  8. Constraining uncertainties in water supply reliability in a tropical data scarce basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaune, Alexander; Werner, Micha; Rodriguez, Erasmo; de Fraiture, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Assessing the water supply reliability in river basins is essential for adequate planning and development of irrigated agriculture and urban water systems. In many cases hydrological models are applied to determine the surface water availability in river basins. However, surface water availability and variability is often not appropriately quantified due to epistemic uncertainties, leading to water supply insecurity. The objective of this research is to determine the water supply reliability in order to support planning and development of irrigated agriculture in a tropical, data scarce environment. The approach proposed uses a simple hydrological model, but explicitly includes model parameter uncertainty. A transboundary river basin in the tropical region of Colombia and Venezuela with an approximately area of 2100 km² was selected as a case study. The Budyko hydrological framework was extended to consider climatological input variability and model parameter uncertainty, and through this the surface water reliability to satisfy the irrigation and urban demand was estimated. This provides a spatial estimate of the water supply reliability across the basin. For the middle basin the reliability was found to be less than 30% for most of the months when the water is extracted from an upstream source. Conversely, the monthly water supply reliability was high (r>98%) in the lower basin irrigation areas when water was withdrawn from a source located further downstream. Including model parameter uncertainty provides a complete estimate of the water supply reliability, but that estimate is influenced by the uncertainty in the model. Reducing the uncertainty in the model through improved data and perhaps improved model structure will improve the estimate of the water supply reliability allowing better planning of irrigated agriculture and dependable water allocation decisions.

  9. Price System for Water Supply and its Economic Impact Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In light of the actual economic circumstances and water price level, the CGE model to simulate the price policy for multiple water sources is modified and expanded. A water price reform plan is proposed to meet water-saving requirements and water resources allocation. The affected scale and scope for implementing the water price policy is evaluated on a quantitative basis. Research results indicate that a reasonable water price system in Tianjin in 2020 should be set up as follows: the comprehensive tap water price stands at 4$/m3, the tap water price for industrial, administrative and business service sectors is 2.4$/m3, and the tap water price for special industry and domestic use are 8.8$/m3 and 1.4$/m3 respectively. The adjusted water price will bring about tangible results to water resources allocation optimization and water conservation. Although most sectors are negatively affected to varying degrees after raising the water price, particularly the lodging and catering sectors, a 100% water price rising will produce only little impact on price index, and sectoral output and employment will not cause economic fluctuations or social instability. Water price adjustments, as long as it is reasonable, will be more positive than negative on the whole. Research outcomes will provide a scientific decision-making basis for formulating the local water price policy.

  10. Implementation of the national desalination and water purification technology roadmap : structuring and directing the development of water supply solutions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Kevin M.; Dorsey, Zachary; Miller, G. Wade; Brady, Patrick Vane; Mulligan, Conrad; Rayburn, Chris

    2006-06-01

    In the United States, economic growth increasingly requires that greater volumes of freshwater be made available for new users, yet supplies of freshwater are already allocated to existing users. Currently, water for new users is made available through re-allocation of xisting water supplies-for example, by cities purchasing agricultural water rights. Water may also be made available through conservation efforts and, in some locales, through the development of ''new'' water from non-traditional sources such as the oceans, deep aquifer rackish groundwater, and water reuse.

  11. Optimal operation of water supply systems with tanks based on genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ting-chao; ZHANG Tu-qiao; LI Xun

    2005-01-01

    In view of the poor water supply system's network properties, the system's complicated network hydraulic equations were replaced by macroscopic nodal pressure model and the model of relationship between supply flow and water source head. By using pump-station pressure head and initial tank water levels as decision variables, the model of optimal allocation of water supply between pump-sources was developed. Genetic algorithm was introduced to deal with the model of optimal allocation of water supply. Methods for handling each constraint condition were put forward, and overcome the shortcoming such as premature convergence of genetic algorithm;a solving method was brought forward in which genetic algorithm was combined with simulated annealing technology and self-adaptive crossover and mutation probabilities were adopted. An application example showed the feasibility of this algorithm.

  12. A Data Mining Approach to Modelling of Water Supply Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babovic, V.; Drecourt, J.; Keijzer, M.

    2002-01-01

    supply assets are mainly situated underground, and therefore not visible and under the influence of various highly unpredictable forces. This paper proposes the use of advanced data mining methods in order to determine the risks of pipe bursts. For example, analysis of the database of already occurred...

  13. Feedback control of water supply in an NFT growing system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, Th.H.; Janssen, H.J.J.; Vries, de H.C.; Loef, P.

    2001-01-01

    The paper explores a concept of irrigation control, where the supply of nutrient solution is controlled without the use of predictive uptake models but rather by the use of a direct feedback of a drain flow measurement. This concept proves to be a viable approach. Results are presented, showing the

  14. Austrian Airlines:Safety is our Business!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mighty Capacity Managed "Although Austrian Airlines is a middle-sized company, it has a mighty capacity of over 10 million customers every year. Because it has an extensive European service network." G(o)tz stressed to China's Foreign Trade.

  15. The Continuing Relevance of Austrian Capital Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory and the w...... and the works of Hayek on political philosophy and cultural evolution....

  16. Bacteriological problems in water supply systems; Bakteriologische Probleme bei Wassersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, P.

    2007-07-01

    This article takes a look at bacteriological problems in hot-water distribution system and, in particular looks at the situation concerning legionella bacteria which thrive in standing water at temperatures often encountered in domestic hot water systems. The article is based on experience gained in the analysis of over 1500 hot-water systems. Diseases caused by the inhalation of water droplets emanating from domestic hot-water systems are discussed and showers are mentioned as being a problem zone. An ecological thermal protective system is described. Problems that can be encountered in ventilation and air-conditioning systems and other potential sources are also mentioned.

  17. Sustainability of water-supply at military installations, Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Linkov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The Kabul Basin, including the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, is host to several military installations of Afghanistan, the United States, and other nations that depend on groundwater resources for water supply. These installations are within or close to the city of Kabul. Groundwater also is the potable supply for the approximately four million residents of Kabul. The sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin is a concern to military operations, and Afghan water-resource managers, owing to increased water demands from a growing population and potential mining activities. This study illustrates the use of chemical and isotopic analysis, groundwater flow modeling, and hydrogeologic investigations to assess the sustainability of groundwater resources in the Kabul Basin.Water supplies for military installations in the southern Kabul Basin were found to be subject to sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow-water supply wells as a result of declining water levels. Model simulations indicate that new withdrawals from deep aquifers may have less of an impact on surrounding community water supply wells than increased withdrawals from near- surface aquifers. Higher rates of recharge in the northern Kabul Basin indicate that military installations in that part of the basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Simulations of groundwater withdrawals may be used to evaluate different withdrawal scenarios in an effort to manage water resources in a sustainable manner in the Kabul Basin.

  18. Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

  19. Exploring geophysical processes influencing U.S. West Coast precipitation and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, F.M.; Prather, K.; Cayan, D.

    2011-01-01

    CalWater Science Workshop; La Jolla, California, 8-10 June 2011 CalWater is a multiyear, multiagency research project with two primary research themes: the effects of changing climate on atmospheric rivers (ARs) and associated extreme events, and the potential role of aerosols in modulating cloud properties and precipitation, especially regarding orographic precipitation and water supply. Advances made in CalWater have implications for both water supply and flood control in California and other West Coast areas, both in the near term and in a changing climate.

  20. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water years 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2016-02-02

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2009 through September 2010 (water year 2010) and October 2010 through September 2011 (water year 2011). Major findings for this data-collection effort include Annual precipitation was approximately 4 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2010 and approximately 6 percent below the long-term mean in 2011.

  1. Louisiana Coastal Area, Louisiana. Notice of Study Findings. Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    GRAND ISLE - PLAN 2 Seawater Desalinization 73 11 GRAND ISLE - PLAN 3 Brackish Water Desalinization 75 12 GRAND ISLE - PLAN 4 Recycle Wastewater 76 13...32 CAYERON-HOLLY BEACH - PLAN 20 Import Water from Intracoastal Waterway 127 33 CAMERON-HOLLY BEACH - PLAN 21 Brackish Water Desalinization 129 34...becomes salty and an alternate source, Bayou Black, must be used. However, Bayou Black is also connected to the GIWW so its use for fre~h water is

  2. 43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have to comply with the requirements in this rule... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404.58 Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have to comply...

  3. Yakima/Klickitat Production Preliminary Design Report, Appendix B: Water Supply Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bureau of Reclamation.

    1990-03-01

    From May 1988 to January 1990 the Bureau of Reclamation, under an interagency agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration, conducted the water supply analysis required by Task II of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (Council) approval of predesign work on the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project. The purposes of the analysis were to (1) document the adequacy of water supplies (quantity and quality) for the proposed artificial production facilities, and for anadromous fish spawning, incubation, rearing, and migration in the Yakima and Klickitat Rivers and their tributaries; (2) determine the availability and quality of existing anadromous fish habitat in both basins; (3) document existing constraints to achieving anadromous fish production potentials in both basins; and (4) develop a listing of streams in both basins where existing water supplies, access, and habitat are adequate for anadromous fish production; where water supplies, access, and habitat would be adequate if improvements were made and agreements reached with existing water users; and where existing water supplies, access, and habitat are inadequate or unattainable in the near term (water supply analysis will be reviewed by project managers and a technical work group, and recommendations will be made to the Council for any changes needed in the location and/or design of the proposed production project facilities.

  4. Al Nahrwan Water Supply Project. Al Nahrwan, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-15

    This contract was for the design and construction of water pipelines , connection of fifty houses to the new water pipeline, and removal of illegal...to change the length and diameter of the required water pipelines . This modification increased the total contract value from $163,035 to $289,980

  5. Mutagenicity of the drinking water supply in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusamran, Wannee R; Tanthasri, Nopsarun; Meesiripan, Nuntana; Tepsuwan, Anong

    2003-01-01

    Seventeen samples of tap water in Bangkok and 2 neighboring provinces were collected in winter and summer, concentrated and tested for mutagenic activity using the Ames Salmonella mutagenesis assay. Preliminary results demonstrated that concentrated tap water exhibited clear mutagenicity towards S. typhimurium TA100 and YG1029, but not towards TA98 and YG1024, in the absence of S9 mix, and the addition of S9 mix markedly decreased the mutagenicity to both tester strains. Amberlite( ) XAD-2 resin, but not blue rayon, was able to adsorb mutagens from water at pH 2. Our data clearly demonstrated that all tap water samples prepared by chlorination of Chao Phraya River water were mutagenic to strain TA100 without S9 mix, inducing 3,351 + 741 and 2,216 + 770 revertants/l, in winter and summer, respectively. On the other hand, however, tap water samples prepared from ground water were not mutagenic. Furthermore, it was found that boiling for only 5 min and filtration through home purifying system containing activated charcoal and mixed resin units were very effective to abolish the mutagenicity of water. Storage of water also significantly decreased the mutagenicity, however, it took 2-3 weeks to totally abolish it. Additionally, we also found 1 out of 6 brands of commercially available bottled drinking water to be mutagenic, with about 26 % of the average mutagenicity of tap water. The results in the present study clearly demonstrated that chlorinated tap water in Bangkok and neighboring provinces contain direct-acting mutagens causing capable of causing base-pair substitution. Boiling and filtration of tap water through home purifying systems may be the most effective means to abolish the mutagenicity. Some brands of commercial bottled waters may also contain mutagens which may be derived from tap water.

  6. Estimated Public Supply Water Use of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a 100-meter cell resolution raster of estimated use of public supply water for the southwestern United States. The dataset was generated from...

  7. Back-Propagation Artificial Neural Networks for Water Supply Pipeline Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱东海; 张土乔; 毛根海

    2002-01-01

    Water supply pipelines are the lifelines of a city. When pipelines burst, the burst site is difficult to locate by traditional methods such as manual tools or only by watching. In this paper, the burst site was identified using back-propagation (BP) artificial neural networks (ANN). The study is based on an indoor urban water supply model experiment. The key to appling BP ANN is to optimize the ANN's topological structure and learning parameters. This paper presents the optimizing method for a 3-layer BP neural network's topological structure and its learning parameters-learning ratio and the momentum factor. The indoor water supply pipeline model experimental results show that BP ANNs can be used to locate the burst point in urban water supply systems. The topological structure and learning parameters were optimized using the experimental results.

  8. 76 FR 49787 - Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... for appraisal investigations and feasibility studies for rural water supply projects intended to serve... alternative that warrants a more detailed investigation through a feasibility study. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... address those needs through appraisal investigations and feasibility studies. ] Background The...

  9. Washoe County : Regional water supply and quality study : Phase II final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The major goal of this study was to help structure a solution to the fragmented responsibilities for conservation, resource management, water supply, wastewater,...

  10. Water Supply Intakes, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Farmer.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Supply Intakes dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. Data by this...

  11. The sustainability of urban water supply in low income countries: a livelihoods model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadipuro, W.; Wiering, M.A.; Naerssen, A.L. van

    2013-01-01

    Urban water supply can be managed by public institutions, private companies, communities, or by combinations thereof. Controversy continues over which system can most effectively improve livelihoods. Responding to this discussion, an extended model of sustainable livelihoods analysis is proposed tha

  12. 43 CFR 404.12 - Can Reclamation provide assistance with the construction of a rural water supply project under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the construction of a rural water supply project under this program? 404.12 Section 404.12 Public... RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.12 Can Reclamation provide assistance with the construction of a rural water supply project under this program? Reclamation may provide assistance with...

  13. 43 CFR 404.56 - If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than one Indian tribe, is the approval of... Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404.56 If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project...

  14. 76 FR 28025 - East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Project No. 14142-000 East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC; Notice of... Competing Applications On April 1, 2011, East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply LCC filed an application for... the feasibility of the East Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply Project to be located on the Miliko...

  15. 76 FR 30936 - West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit... April 1, 2011, West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC, filed an application for a preliminary permit... supply project effluent water to an existing irrigation system; (5) a powerhouse with two...

  16. Geography in the Social Studies: High School Simulation on Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James M.

    2009-01-01

    This is a ready-to-use simulation that has high school students portraying all of the key players that decide how water from the Colorado River will be allocated. Students act as judges, lobbyists, news analysts, and even protesters during a mock water conference. Water supply is promised beyond nature's delivery, so the problem is real and will…

  17. Drought and Water Supply. Implications of the Massachusetts Experience for Municipal Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Clifford S.; And Others

    This book uses the 1962-66 Massachusetts drought data as a base of information to build a planning model of water resources that is of interest to students and professionals involved with water management. Using a demand-supply ratio to measure the relative inadequacy of a given water system, the authors then project demand into the drought period…

  18. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Vögele, S.; Rübbelke, D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power

  19. Prolonged exposure to arsenic in UK private water supplies: toenail, hair and drinking water concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D R S; Watts, M J; Hamilton, E M; Fletcher, T; Leonardi, G S; Close, R M; Exley, K S; Crabbe, H; Polya, D A

    2016-05-18

    Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) in drinking water is an established cause of cancer and other adverse health effects. Arsenic concentrations >10 μg L(-1) were previously measured in 5% of private water supplies (PWS) in Cornwall, UK. The present study investigated prolongued exposure to As by measuring biomarkers in hair and toenail samples from 212 volunteers and repeated measurements of As in drinking water from 127 households served by PWS. Strong positive Pearson correlations (rp = 0.95) indicated stability of water As concentrations over the time period investigated (up to 31 months). Drinking water As concentrations were positively correlated with toenail (rp = 0.53) and hair (rp = 0.38) As concentrations - indicative of prolonged exposure. Analysis of washing procedure solutions provided strong evidence of the effective removal of exogenous As from toenail samples. Significantly higher As concentrations were measured in hair samples from males and smokers and As concentrations in toenails were negatively associated with age. A positive association between seafood consumption and toenail As and a negative association between home-grown vegetable consumption and hair As was observed for volunteers exposed to hair biomarkers. Substantial variation in biomarker As concentrations remained unaccounted for, with soil and dust exposure as possible explanations.

  20. Iron isotopes in bottom waters from the Bransfield Strait: Implications for deep water Fe supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichel, Torben; Homoky, William; Connelly, Douglas; Klar, Jessica; Mills, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    Iron (Fe) is an important micro-nutrient in the global ocean. However, its low bioavailability due to poor solubility in oxygenated waters, leads to a strongly limiting character of this trace metal as a nutrient. The major sources of Fe to seawater are largely known (i.e. aeolian dust deposition, riverine and groundwater input, seawater-sediment interaction, and hydrothermal vents) but the relative significance of these sources to the marine Fe supply are not yet well quantified. Areas with low atmospheric inputs, such as the Southern Ocean, are severely Fe limited in surface waters. Here, strong upwelling and a deeply penetrating surface mixed layer fuel one of the largest biogeochemical cycles of trace metals in the global ocean. One significant pathway to bottom waters is the benthic flux of trace metals from hydrothermal systems, where Fe can be stabilised in the water column by different dissolved species. For example, benthic fauna, such as tube-worms, may enhance transportation of dissolved trace metals from pore waters through oxic surface layers of sediments into the deep ocean. Concentrations of total dissolvable Fe (DFe) in these bottom waters have been reported to be significantly higher than surrounding seawater (Aquilina et al., 2014). Here we present DFe isotope composition of bottom water from the Hook Ridge, a shallow (~1100m) sediment covered volcanic feature within a rifted margin. On the basis of Fe isotopes we will determine whether Fe is released by non-reductive dissolution from poorly oxygenated sediments via the presence of tubeworms Sclerolinum spec. This will help to evaluate whether benthic fluxes from hydrothermal fields can be a major source of bioavailable Fe to the deep Southern Ocean. References: Aquilina, A., Homoky, W.B., Hawkes, J. A., Lyons, T.W., Mills, R. a., 2014. Hydrothermal sediments are a source of water column Fe and Mn in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 137, 64-80. doi:10.1016/j.gca.2014.04.003

  1. Safe drinking water: Experience with Water Safety Plans and assessment of risk factors in water supply

    OpenAIRE

    María J. Gunnarsdóttir 1947

    2012-01-01

    Access to adequate and clean drinking water is one of the fundamentals of a good and prosperous society. A comprehensive regulatory framework as well as institutional guidelines and procedures are necessary to secure this at any time. Iceland was one of the first countries to categorize drinking water as food in legislation passed in 1995. According to the legislation water utilities are obligated to implement systematic preventive management, Water Safety Plan (WSP), to ensure good quality w...

  2. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: Impacts on electricity prices

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle T.H. van Vliet; Vögele, Stefan; Rübbelke, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availabilty for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power production. Here, we show the impacts of climate change and changes in water availability and water temperature on European electricity production and prices. Using simulations of daily river flo...

  3. Water supply and hydrosocial scarcity in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area

    OpenAIRE

    Britto, Ana Lucia; Johnsson, Rosa Maria Formiga; Carneiro,Paulo Roberto Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper aims to analyse the water supply systems in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area in the light of the hydrosocial scarcity concept and the human right to water. It also assesses how bulk water availability may aggravate this situation. We argue that water access-related problems are directly related to several aspects: the way that water and sanitation services are managed, deficiencies in planning, technical choices, and the way in which existing systems are operated. In a...

  4. Assessment of Sustainability of Urban Water Supply and Demand Management Options: A Comprehensive Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kumudu Rathnayaka; Hector Malano; Meenakshi Arora

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation framework that can assess a wide range of water supply and demand management policy options in terms of economic, social, environmental, risk-based, and functional performance is crucial to ascertain their level of sustainability. However, such a detailed, generic, and holistic policy evaluation framework is not found in the literature. This paper reviews studies to evaluate water supply and/or demand management options conducted during 2000–2016. Primarily, the pap...

  5. Opportunities for renewable energy technologies in water supply in developing country villages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niewoehner, J.; Larson, R.; Azrag, E.; Hailu, T.; Horner, J.; VanArsdale, P. [Water for People, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    This report provides the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) with information on village water supply programs in developing countries. The information is intended to help NREL develop renewable energy technologies for water supply and treatment that can be implemented, operated, and maintained by villagers. The report is also useful to manufacturers and suppliers in the renewable energy community in that it describes a methodology for introducing technologies to rural villages in developing countries.

  6. Economic feasibility, cost and issues related to acquiring water right options to secure drought water supplies for Lahontan Valley Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The focus of this study, prepared for The Nature Conservancy, is on the economic feasibility and issues related to implementing water supply option contracts to...

  7. Review: Natural tracers in fractured hard-rock aquifers in the Austrian part of the Eastern Alps—previous approaches and future perspectives for hydrogeology in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilberg, Sylke

    2016-08-01

    Extensive in-depth research is required for the implementation of natural tracer approaches to hydrogeological investigation to be feasible in mountainous regions. This review considers the application of hydrochemical and biotic parameters in mountain regions over the past few decades with particular reference to the Austrian Alps, as an example for alpine-type mountain belts. A brief introduction to Austria's hydrogeological arrangement is given to show the significance of fractured hard-rock aquifers for hydrogeological science as well as for water supply purposes. A literature search showed that research concerning fractured hard-rock aquifers in Austria is clearly underrepresented to date, especially when taking the abundance of this aquifer type and the significance of this topic into consideration. The application of abiotic natural tracers (hydrochemical and isotope parameters) is discussed generally and by means of examples from the Austrian Alps. The potential of biotic tracers (microbiota and meiofauna) is elucidated. It is shown that the meiofauna approach to investigating fractured aquifers has not yet been applied in the reviewed region, nor worldwide. Two examples of new approaches in mountainous fractured aquifers are introduced: (1) use of CO2 partial pressure and calcite saturation of spring water to reconstruct catchments and flow dynamics (abiotic approach), and, (2) consideration of hard-rock aquifers as habitats to reconstruct aquifer conditions (biotic approach).

  8. An Overview of Hybrid Water Supply Systems in the Context of Urban Water Management: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Sapkota

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a critical review of the physical impacts of decentralized water supply systems on existing centralized water infrastructures. This paper highlights the combination of centralized and decentralized systems, which is referred to as hybrid water supply systems. The system is hypothesized to generate more sustainable and resilient urban water systems. The basic concept is to use decentralized water supply options such as rainwater tanks, storm water harvesting and localized wastewater treatment and reuse in combination with centralized systems. Currently the impact of hybrid water supply technologies on the operational performance of the downstream infrastructure and existing treatment processes is yet to be known. The paper identifies a number of significant research gaps related to interactions between centralized and decentralized urban water services. It indicates that an improved understanding of the interaction between these systems is expected to provide a better integration of hybrid systems by improved sewerage and drainage design, as well as facilitate operation and maintenance planning. The paper also highlights the need for a framework to better understand the interaction between different components of hybrid water supply systems.

  9. Improved Sustainability of Water Supply Options in Areas with Arsenic-Impacted Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. McBean

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The supply of water for rural populations in developing countries continues to present enormous problems, particularly where there is arsenic contamination in the groundwater, as exists over significant parts of Bangladesh. In response, improvements in the sustainability of water supplies are feasible through the use of a combination of water sources wherein rainwater harvesting is employed for a portion of the year. This can potentially reduce the duration of the year during which arsenic-contaminated groundwater is utilized. As demonstrated, a rainwater cistern volume of 0.5 m3 in the Jessore district area of Bangladesh can provide rainwater for periods averaging 266 days of the year, which allows groundwater at 184 µg/L arsenic to be used as a water supply for the remainder of the year. This dual supply approach provides the body burden equivalent to the interim drinking water guideline of arsenic concentration of 50 µg/L for 365 days of the year (assuming the water consumption rate is 4 L/cap/day for a family of five with a rainwater collection area of 15 m2. If the water use rate is 20 L/cap/day, the same cistern can provide water for 150 days of the year; however, although this is insufficient to supply water to meet the body burden equivalent guideline of 50 µg/L. Results are provided also for different rooftop areas, sizes of cisterns and alternative arsenic guidelines [World Health Organization (WHO and Bangladeshi]. These findings provide useful guidelines on supply options to meet sustainability targets of water supply. However, they also demonstrate that the use of cisterns cannot assist the meeting of the 10 µg/L WHO target arsenic body burden, if the arsenic contamination in the groundwater is high (e.g., at 100 µg/L.

  10. Water safety plans. Hazard study and risk assessment of a water supply system in Bizkaia. Application to the water catchment stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Astillero Pinilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The best way to guarantee a safe and high quality water supply is to establish a control and management plan for the water supply system that focuses on risk prevention. In this study, the methodology and analytical steps established in the Water Safety Plan Manual (WHO and the Guide to the Control and Management of Water Supply Systems (Autonomous Government of the Basque Country were used to carry out hazard and risk assessment in a water supply system in Bizkaia. Although the application has only been carried out in the water catchment stage, it has already provided information about the benefits, as well as the problems encountered. Therefore, from the results obtained, it can be seen that this methodology is clearly effective for determining risks that had passed unnoticed, and for establishing new control measures. It also demonstrates the importance of co-operation between the bodies not directly related to the operation of the water supply system.

  11. [Variation of nitrogen during the high suspended sediments concentration water supply in an artificial shallow lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You-yuan; Shen, Yu; Yang, Shi-ying

    2013-09-01

    The effect of water quality and suspended sediments in the process of water supply is of an increasing concern recently in an artificial shallow lake. The water supply from the Yellow River to Dongchang Lake happened on April 23rd to 25th, 2012. The synchronous monitoring of flow velocity, suspended sediment concentration, dissolved nitrogen and particulate nitrogen concentration was conducted during the three days in five monitoring sites of the longitudinal profile from inlet to outlet. The spatio-temporal variation of nitrogen and the relationship between nitrogen concentration and suspended sediment concentration was analyzed. Moreover, the analysis of different nitrogen forms in surface water and bottom sediment was also made in the whole lake before and after the water supply. Results showed that the process of water supplement had an obvious effect on flow velocities and suspended sediment concentrations around the inlet area. The influence area was a limited scope. The spatial distribution of nitrogen presented a certain concentration gradient along the flow direction. Around the water inlet, concentrations of all nitrogen forms in water and bottom sediment was higher than those in other lake zones. The amplitude of variation of all nitrogen concentrations in surface water, suspended sediments showed a decreasing trend from water inlet to outlet. And concentrations of total dissolved and particulate nitrogen increased at different ratios after water supply in the lake. Total particulate nitrogen concentration increase was higher. It revealed the water supply of the Yellow River had a great influence on lake water. The dissolved nitrogen was the main nitrogen form in water supply. The ratio of total dissolved nitrogen to particulate nitrogen was 7.3 : 1. Nitrate was the primary form in dissolved nitrogen, and ammonium was the primary form in particulate nitrogen, respectively. The correlation between concentration of suspended sediments and ammonium, total

  12. Metropolitan Washington Area Water Supply Study. Appendix F. Structural Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Influent Chamber L,C Filtered Water Clearwell L,C Backwash Water Holding Tank L,C Carbon Column Effluent Clearwell L,C Finished Water Clearwell C...in fiters and carbon columns, f. Clearwell levels, g. Chemical dosage rates, h. Filter and GAG backwash times, i. On-line turbidity and chlorine... Clearwell levels, b. Flows through each unit processes-recorded as gallons per 24 hours, c. Flow losses-through backwashing, sludge withdrawal, d

  13. Analytical Bibliography for Water Supply and Conservation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Garden. Organic Gardening and Farming 24:83-86. This article discusses methods for reuse of greywater as household irrigation water. It was noted that it...Free distribution and installation of oil flush toilet water-saving devices freeze toilet Distribution of leak detection kits packaging toilet Reuse ...saving devices, and discussed the design and installa- tion of small on-site residential water reuse systems. Shelton and Soporowski (1976) are editors

  14. Influence of radioactive fallout on water supply and sewerage in Finland; Radioaktiivisen laskeuman vaikutukset vesihuoltoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A.; Saxen, R.; Puhakainen, M. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Hatva, T.; Ahosilta, P.; Tenhunen, J. [National Board of Waters and the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    The report reviews the practices and organization of water supply and sewerage in Finland and is related to their response to radioactive fallout situations. The contribution of drinking water to the internal radiation dose caused by radioactive fallout has earlier been small in Finland. However, in a wide-scale fallout situation, the decreasing of collective dose received from water may be justified, if the dose can be reduced at a reasonable cost, for instance by a temporary change of the raw water source. Efficient exchange of information between radiation protection and water supply experts is important for successful dose reduction measures. In Finland waterworks deliver tap water to 4.2 million people. Half of the water is ground water, and generally very well protected against fallout radioactivity. The other half is treated surface water. (6 figs., 5 tabs.).

  15. Ambient water quality in aquifers used for drinking-water supplies, Gem County, southwestern Idaho, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Hopkins, Candice B.

    2016-12-20

    In recent years, the rapid population growth in Gem County, Idaho, has been similar to other counties in southwestern Idaho, increasing about 54 percent from 1990 to 2015. Because the entire population of the study area depends on groundwater for drinking water supply (either from self-supplied domestic, community, or municipal-supply wells), this population growth, along with changes in land use (including potential petroleum exploration and development), indicated to the public and local officials the need to assess the quality of groundwater used for human consumption. To this end, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Gem County and the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, assessed the quality of groundwater from freshwater aquifers used for domestic supply in Gem County. A total of 47 domestic or municipal wells, 1 spring, and 2 surface-water sites on the Payette River were sampled during September 8–November 19, 2015. The sampled water was analyzed for a variety of constituents, including major ions, trace elements, nutrients, bacteria, radionuclides, dissolved gasses, stable isotopes of water and methane, and either volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or pesticides.To better understand analytical results, a conceptual hydrogeologic framework was developed in which three hydrogeologic units were described: Quaternary-Tertiary deposits (QTd), Tertiary Idaho Group rocks (Tig), and Tertiary-Cretaceous igneous rocks (TKi). Water levels were measured in 30 wells during sampling, and a groundwater-level altitude map was constructed for the QTd and Tig units showing groundwater flow toward the Emmett Valley and Payette River.Analytical results indicate that groundwater in Gem County is generally of good quality. Samples collected from two wells contained water with fluoride concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 4 milligrams per liter (mg/L), six wells contained arsenic at

  16. White root tips supply plants with oxygen, water and nutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2016-01-01

    The main, most important function of roots belonging to horticultural crops is the uptake of water and nutrients. Healthy roots are essential for a healthy plant. After all, if the uptake of water and nutrients is not functioning properly, then other aspects also leave a lot to be desired

  17. Internal Corrosion Control of Water Supply Systems Code of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Code of Practice is part of a series of publications by the IWA Specialist Group on Metals and Related Substances in Drinking Water. It complements the following IWA Specialist Group publications: 1. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Lead in Drinking Water 2. Best Prac...

  18. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2016-12-22

    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  19. Social Perception of Public Water Supply Network and Groundwater Quality in an Urban Setting Facing Saltwater Intrusion and Water Shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameddine, Ibrahim; Jawhari, Gheeda; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-04-01

    Perceptions developed by consumers regarding the quality of water reaching their household can affect the ultimate use of the water. This study identified key factors influencing consumers' perception of water quality in a highly urbanized coastal city, experiencing chronic water shortages, overexploitation of groundwater, and accelerated saltwater intrusion. Household surveys were administered to residents to capture views and perceptions of consumed water. Concomitantly, groundwater and tap water samples were collected and analyzed at each residence for comparison with perceptions. People's rating of groundwater quality was found to correlate to the measured water quality both in the dry and wet seasons. In contrast, perceptions regarding the water quality of the public water supply network did not show any correlation with the measured tap water quality indicators. Logistic regression models developed to predict perception based on salient variables indicated that age, apartment ownership, and levels of total dissolved solids play a significant role in shaping perceptions regarding groundwater quality. Perceptions concerning the water quality of the public water supply network appeared to be independent of the measured total dissolved solids levels at the tap but correlated to those measured in the wells. The study highlights misconceptions that can arise as a result of uncontrolled cross-connections of groundwater to the public supply network water and the development of misaligned perceptions based on prior consumption patterns, water shortages, and a rapidly salinizing groundwater aquifer.

  20. Water supply as a constraint on transmission expansion planning in the Western interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Bailey, Michael; Zemlick, Katie M.; Moreland, Barbara D.

    2016-12-01

    Consideration of water supply in transmission expansion planning (TEP) provides a valuable means of managing impacts of thermoelectric generation on limited water resources. Toward this opportunity, thermoelectric water intensity factors and water supply availability (fresh and non-fresh sources) were incorporated into a recent TEP exercise conducted for the electric interconnection in the Western United States. The goal was to inform the placement of new thermoelectric generation so as to minimize issues related to water availability. Although freshwater availability is limited in the West, few instances across five TEP planning scenarios were encountered where water availability impacted the development of new generation. This unexpected result was related to planning decisions that favored the development of low water use generation that was geographically dispersed across the West. These planning decisions were not made because of their favorable influence on thermoelectric water demand; rather, on the basis of assumed future fuel and technology costs, policy drivers and the topology of electricity demand. Results also projected that interconnection-wide thermoelectric water consumption would increase by 31% under the business-as-usual case, while consumption would decrease by 42% under a scenario assuming a low-carbon future. Except in a few instances, new thermoelectric water consumption could be accommodated with less than 10% of the local available water supply; however, limited freshwater supplies and state-level policies could increase use of non-fresh water sources for new thermoelectric generation. Results could have been considerably different if scenarios favoring higher-intensity water use generation technology or potential impacts of climate change had been explored. Conduct of this exercise highlighted the importance of integrating water into all phases of TEP, particularly joint management of decisions that are both directly (e.g., water

  1. Analysis of the Possible Use of Solar Photovoltaic Energy in Urban Water Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Đurin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of the importance of water supply for the sustainability of urban areas, and due to the significant consumption of energy with prices increasing every day, an alternative solution for sustainable energy supply should be sought in the field of Renewable Energy Sources (RES. An innovative solution as presented in this paper has until now not been comprehensively analyzed. This work presents the solution with the application of a (Photovoltaic PV generator. The main technological features, in addition to the designing methodology and case study are presented in this paper. The critical period approach has been used for the first time for system sizing. The application of this sizing method provides a high reliability of the proposed system. The obtained results confirm the assumption that the PV generator is a promising energy sustainable solution for urban water supply systems. The service reservoir, which acts as water and energy storage for the proposed system, provides the basis for a sustainable solution of water and energy supply. In accordance with the proposed, the reliability of such system is high. This concept of energy supply operation does not generate any atmospheric emission of greenhouse gases, which contributes significantly to the reduction of the impacts of climate changes. The proposed solution and designing methodology are widely applicable and in accordance with the characteristics of the water supply system and climate.

  2. Mitigating Corporate Water Risk: Financial Market Tools and Supply Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Larson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A decision framework for business water-risk response is proposed that considers financial instruments and supply management strategies. Based on available and emergent programmes, companies in the agricultural, commodities, and energy sectors may choose to hedge against financial risks by purchasing futures contracts or insurance products. These strategies address financial impacts such as revenue protection due to scarcity and disruption of direct operations or in the supply chain, but they do not directly serve to maintain available supplies to continue production. In contrast, companies can undertake actions in the watershed to enhance supply reliability and/or they can reduce demand to mitigate risk. Intermediate strategies such as purchasing of water rights or water trading involving financial transactions change the allocation of water but do not reduce overall watershed demand or increase water supply. The financial services industry is playing an increasingly important role, by considering how water risks impact decision making on corporate growth and market valuation, corporate creditworthiness, and bond rating. Risk assessment informed by Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR measures is described, and the role of the financial services industry is characterised. A corporate decision framework is discussed in the context of water resources management strategies under complex uncertainties.

  3. Rainwater Harvesting Potential for Domestic Water Supply in Edo State

    OpenAIRE

    S. I. Oni; Emmanuel Ege

    2008-01-01

    In the face of increasing scarcity of water resources, there is a need for communities to undertake audits of their current rainwater harvesting potential as a practical and promising alternative solution for water shortage. Despite the importance of rainwater harvest in socio-economic development of communities, very little information exists in the literature concerning it. This paper is an attempt to bridge this gap by examining the techniques and materials used for rainwater harvest with ...

  4. Fragmented Flows: Water Supply in Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincetl, Stephanie; Porse, Erik; Cheng, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    In the Los Angeles metropolitan region, nearly 100 public and private entities are formally involved in the management and distribution of potable water—a legacy rooted in fragmented urban growth in the area and late 19th century convictions about local control of services. Yet, while policy debates focus on new forms of infrastructure, restructured pricing mechanisms, and other technical fixes, the complex institutional architecture of the present system has received little attention. In this paper, we trace the development of this system, describe its interconnections and disjunctures, and demonstrate the invisibility of water infrastructure in LA in multiple ways—through mapping, statistical analysis, and historical texts. Perverse blessings of past water abundance led to a complex, but less than resilient, system with users accustomed to cheap, easily accessible water. We describe the lack of transparency and accountability in the current system, as well as its shortcomings in building needed new infrastructure and instituting new water rate structures. Adapting to increasing water scarcity and likely droughts must include addressing the architecture of water management.

  5. The inter-relationships between urban dynamics and water resource and supply based on multitemporal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldea, Alexandru; Aldea, Mihaela

    2016-08-01

    The growth and concentration of population, housing and industry in urban and suburban areas in the continuous evolution of a city over time causes complex social, economic, and physical challenges. The population and its relationship with the use and development of the land and water is a critical issue of urban growth, and since ancient times land, water and man were directly involved in the human populations' survival. Nevertheless the current potential of study over this relationship between urban growth, water supply, drainage and water resources conditions becomes more and more attractive due to the possibility to make use of the broader variety of information sources and technologies readily available in recent years, with emphasis on the open data and on the big data as primary sources. In this regard we present some new possibilities of analyses over the demographics, land use/land cover and water supply and conservation based on a study over a Romanian region of development (Bucharest-Ilfov). As urban development usually outgrows the existing water supply systems, the resolution consists in drilling new and deeper wells, building new water distribution pipelines, building longer aqueducts and larger reservoirs, or finding new sources and constructing completely new water supply systems, water supplies may evolve this way from a result into a cause and driver of urban growth. The evolution trends of the studied area was estimated based on the open satellite time-series imagery and remote sensing techniques by land use/land cover extraction and the identification of the changes in urbanization. The survey is mainly focused on the expansion of the water network in terms of areal, total length and number of connections correlated with the amount of water produced, consumed and lost within a supply zone. Some urban human activities including the industrial ones alter water resource by pollution, over pumping of groundwater, construction of dams and reservoirs

  6. Optimum contracted-for water supply for hotels in arid coastal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamei, A; von Münch, E; van der Zaag, P; Imam, E

    2009-01-01

    Hotels in arid coastal areas use mainly desalinated water for their domestic water demands, and treated wastewater for irrigating green areas. Private water companies supply these hotels with their domestic water needs. There is normally a contractual agreement stating a minimum requirement that has to be supplied by the water company and that the hotel management has to pay for regardless of its actual consumption ("contracted-for water supply"). This paper describes a model to determine what value a hotel should choose for its contracted-for water supply in order to minimize its total annual water costs. An example from an arid coastal tourism-dominated city is presented: Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt.The managers of hotels with expected high occupancy rates (74% and above) can contract for more than 80%. On the other hand, hotels with expected lower occupancy rates (60% and less) can contract for less than 70% of the peak daily domestic water demand. With a green area ratio of 40 m(2)/room or less, an on-site wastewater treatment plant can satisfy the required irrigation demand for an occupancy rate as low as 42%. Increasing the ratio of green irrigated area to 100 m(2)/room does not affect the contracted-for water supply at occupancy rates above 72%; at lower occupancy rates, however, on-site treated wastewater is insufficient for irrigating the green areas. Increasing the green irrigated area to 120 m(2)/room increases the need for additional water, either from externally sourced treated wastewater or potable water. The cost of the former is much lower than the latter (0.58 versus 1.52 to 2.14 US$/m(3) in the case study area).

  7. Surface water supply for the Clearlake, California Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, A.R.

    1996-03-01

    It is proposed to construct a demonstration Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal plant in the vicinity of the City of Clearlake. An interim evaluation has been made of the availability of surface water to supply the plant. The evaluation has required consideration of the likely water consumption of such a plant. It has also required consideration of population, land, and water uses in the drainage basins adjacent to Clear Lake, where the HDR demonstration project is likely to be located. Five sources were identified that appear to be able to supply water of suitable quality in adequate quantity for initial filling of the reservoir, and on a continuing basis, as makeup for water losses during operation. Those sources are California Cities Water Company, a municipal supplier to the City of Clearlake; Clear Lake, controlled by Yolo County Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Borax Lake, controlled by a local developer; Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant, controlled by Lake County; and wells, ponds, and streams on private land. The evaluation involved the water uses, water rights, stream flows, precipitation, evaporation, a water balance, and water quality. In spite of California`s prolonged drought, the interim conclusion is that adequate water is available at a reasonable cost to supply the proposed HDR demonstration project.

  8. Assessing the Impact of Active Land Management in Mitigating Wildfire Threat to Source Water Supply Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladon, K. D.; Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.; Flannigan, M.; Dupont, D.; Robinne, F.; Wang, X.; Parisien, M. A.; Stone, M.; Thompson, D. K.; Tymstra, C.; Schroeder, D.; Kienzle, S. W.; Anderson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The vast majority of surface water supplies in Alberta originates in forested regions of the province, and supports approximately 94 municipal utilities, 208 communities, and 67% of the provincial population. These surface water supplies are highly vulnerable to contamination inputs and changing water conditions associated with wildfires. A provincial scale risk analysis framework is being used to investigate the magnitude and likelihood of wildfire occurrence in source water regions to evaluate the potential for altered water quality and quantity. The initial analysis identified which forested regions and which municipal drinking water treatment facilities are most at risk from wildfire. The efficacy of several current and potential landscape treatments to mitigate wildfire threats, along with the likely outcome of these treatments on mitigation of potential impacts of wildfire to drinking water treatment, are being modeled. A Monte Carlo modeling approach incorporating wildfire regime characteristics is used to simulate the ignition and growth of wildfires and generate outcome distributions for the different mitigation strategies. Cumulative changes in water quality at large river basin scales are being modeled and linked to water treatment impacts with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). A critical foundation of this approach is the close interaction of a large, trans-disciplinary team of researchers capable of integrating highly diverse issues of landscape wildfire dynamics, cross-scale water supply issues, and their linkage to downstream risks to drinking water treatment engineering.

  9. Climate threats, water supply vulnerability and the risk of a water crisis in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (Northeastern Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, Nicholas P.; Ramírez, Aldo I.; Aguilar-Barajas, Ismael; Magaña-Rueda, Víctor

    2016-02-01

    This paper evaluates the risk of a water crisis - a substantial, sudden reduction in water supply - in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA), posed by climate threats and the vulnerability of its water supply system. Our analysis of long-term precipitation, water supply and water availability data reveals that the MMA is highly vulnerable to recurring periods of exceptionally low precipitation and scarce surface water availability. We identify two episodes in the recent past (1998 and 2013) when the MMA water supply system almost collapsed as reservoirs neared depletion in the face of abnormally dry weather. Furthermore our climate projections point to warmer and drier future conditions for the region and consequently, heightened climate threats. We conclude that the risk of a water crisis in the MMA is substantial and probably will increase due to climate change. This establishes a clear and pressing need for a comprehensive package of adaptation measures to mitigate the consequences of a water crisis should one occur as well as to reduce the likelihood of such an event.

  10. The voice of Austrians at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 7 May the Austrian Minister for Science announced that, after over 50 years of membership, Austria would withdraw from CERN. By 18 May the Austrian Chancellor had reversed the decision. The Bulletin spoke to some of the Austrian community at CERN about the rollercoaster of events in between. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 533, 300, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1180837', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056/CERN-MOVIE-2009-056-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); To watch this video in German click here. There was jubil...

  11. Global costs and benefits of reaching universal coverage of sanitation and drinking-water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy

    2013-03-01

    Economic evidence on the cost and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply supports higher allocation of resources and selection of efficient and affordable interventions. The study aim is to estimate global and regional costs and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply interventions to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target in 2015, as well as to attain universal coverage. Input data on costs and benefits from reviewed literature were combined in an economic model to estimate the costs and benefits, and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs). Benefits included health and access time savings. Global BCRs (Dollar return per Dollar invested) were 5.5 for sanitation, 2.0 for water supply and 4.3 for combined sanitation and water supply. Globally, the costs of universal access amount to US$ 35 billion per year for sanitation and US$ 17.5 billion for drinking-water, over the 5-year period 2010-2015 (billion defined as 10(9) here and throughout). The regions accounting for the major share of costs and benefits are South Asia, East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Improved sanitation and drinking-water supply deliver significant economic returns to society, especially sanitation. Economic evidence should further feed into advocacy efforts to raise funding from governments, households and the private sector.

  12. Nationwide occurrence of radon and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, T. R.

    1985-10-01

    The nationwide study, which began in November of 1980, was designed to systematically sample water supplies in all 48 contiguous states. The results of the study will be used, in cooperation with EPA's Office of Drinking Water, to estimate population exposures nationwide and to support possible future standards for radon, uranium, and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies. Samples from more than 2500 public water supplies representing 35 states were collected. Although we sampled only about five percent of the total number of groundwater supplies in the 48 contiguous states of the US, those samples represent nearly 45 percent of the water consumed by US groundwater users in the 48 contiguous states. Sample results are summarized by arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and population weighted arithmetic mean for each state and the entire US. Results include radon, gross alpha, gross beta, Ra-226, Ra-228, total Ra, U-234, U-238, total U, and U-234/U-238 ratios. Individual public water supply results are found in the appendices. 24 refs., 91 figs., 51 tabs.

  13. The child health implications of privatizing Africa's urban water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosec, Katrina

    2014-05-01

    Can private sector participation (PSP) in the piped water sector improve child health? I use child-level data from 39 African countries during 1986-2010 to show that PSP decreases diarrhea among urban-dwelling, under-five children by 2.6 percentage points, or 16% of its mean prevalence. Children from the poorest households benefit most. PSP is also associated with a 7.8 percentage point increase in school attendance of 7-17 year olds. Importantly, PSP increases usage of piped water by 9.7 percentage points, suggesting a possible causal channel explaining health improvements. To attribute causality, I exploit time-variation in the private water market share controlled by African countries' former colonizers. A placebo analysis reveals that PSP does not affect respiratory illness, nor does it affect a control group of rural children.

  14. The interaction of mineral nutrition and water supply in the process of winter wheat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Šhivra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In pot experiments performed in 1972-1976 with winter wheat variety 'Ilyichovka' grown at three levels of increasing mineral nutrition and at different levels of water supply (70% and 40% of maximal water capacity an interaction was observed between mineral nutrition and water availability on the yield and some physiological characteristics of the plants. Water stress during heading stage reduced nearly by one half the grain yield per plant, mostly by decreasing the number of completely filled grains. The quicker leaf senescence and grain number reduction as well as the total grain yield due to water stress differed between the nutritional levels. The relations between leaf surface area and grain yields were nearly linear in treatments with optimal water supply, but were markedly changed by water stress.

  15. Proposal for a Model of Co-Management for the Small Community Water Supplies in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bernal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the conceptual evolution of Community Based Monitoring (CBM from different approaches : social capital, common pool resources and co-management or collaborative management, and presents the main co-management strategies applied to water supply at small scale: local and community driven development (LCDD and sustainable services at scale (SSS. Supported by this theoretical background, and in order to improve access to drinking water in rural communities in Colombia, the authors propose a co-management model for small and community water supplies.

  16. Coordination in urban water supply networks using distributed model predictive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leirens, S.; Zamora, C.; Negenborn, R.R.; De Schutter, B.

    2010-01-01

    Urban water supply networks are large-scale systems that transport potable water over vast geographical areas to millions of consumers. A safe and efficient operation of these networks is crucial, as without it living in today’s cities would be impossible. To achieve an adequate operation, these net

  17. Concerns in Water Supply and Pollution Control: Legal, Social, and Economic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, D. Barlow, Jr.; And Others

    This bulletin contains three articles which focus on ground water's potential as a dependable supply source and some of the problems impeding the development of that potential. The authors' concerns are discussed from the vantage point of their areas of specialization: law, sociology, and economics. The first author states that water law abounds…

  18. Potential water supply of a small reservoir and alluvial aquifer system in southern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, de W.; Love, D.; Owen, R.; Booij, M.J.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2007-01-01

    Groundwater use by accessing alluvial aquifers of non‐perennial rivers can be an important additional water resource in the semi‐arid region of southern Zimbabwe. The research objective of the study was to calculate the potential water supply for the upper‐Mnyabezi catchment under current conditions

  19. Potential water supply of a small reservoir and alluvial aquifer system in southern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamer, de W.; Love, D.; Owen, R.; Booij, M.J.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Groundwater use by accessing alluvial aquifers of non-perennial rivers can be an important additional water resource in the semi-arid region of southern Zimbabwe. The research objective of the study was to calculate the potential water supply for the upper-Mnyabezi catchment under current conditions

  20. Assessing the relative effects of emissions, climate means, and variability on large water supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whateley, Sarah; Brown, Casey

    2016-11-01

    Some of the greatest societal risks of climate change rise from the potential impacts to water supply. Yet prescribing adaptation policies in the near term is made difficult by the uncertainty in climate projections at relevant spatial scales and the conflating effects of uncertainties in emissions, model error, and internal variability. In this work, a new framework is implemented to explore the vulnerability of reservoir systems in the northeastern U.S. to climate change and attribute vulnerabilities to changes in mean climate, natural variability, or emission scenarios. Analysis of variance is used to explore the contributions of uncertainties to system performance. Diagnosing the relative risks to water supply will help water resource engineers better adapt to uncertain future conditions. The results indicate that uncertainty in water supply system performance can be attributed mostly to uncertainty in internal variability over policy-relevant planning horizons, and thus, adaptation efforts should focus on managing variability.

  1. Intermittent Domestic Water Supply: A Critical Review and Analysis of Causal-Consequential Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Galaitsi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Communities in many parts of the world, especially in developing countries, face obstacles in supplying continuous water to household consumers. Authorities often cite water scarcity as the cause, but we demonstrate that environmental constraints constitute only one aspect of a multi-dimensional problem. By asking what causes intermittent domestic water supply, this literature review (129 articles identifies 47 conditions of intermittent systems and the causal-consequential pathways between them that can reinforce intermittency. These pathways span several disciplines including engineering, government administration and anthropology, and when viewed together they (1 emphasize the human drivers of intermittency; (2 suggest generalized interventions; and (3 reveal a gap in the literature in terms of meaningful categorizations of the reliability of intermittent supplies. Based on the reliability of consumers’ water access, we propose three categories of intermittency—predictable, irregular, and unreliable—to facilitate comparisons between case studies and transfers of solutions.

  2. Problems of Water Supply and Sanitation in Kpakungu Area of Minna (Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamiji Adeleye

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Access to clean water and adequate sanitation has been a challenging issue in Kpakungu. Due to the unavailability of clean water sources and poor sanitation most of the inhabitants of Kpakungu are threaten with the spread of diseases such as diarrhoea and cholera and this has led to the degenerating situation of Kpakungu. Assessing the problems of water supply and sanitation in Kpakungu area of Minna, Niger State using GIS (Geographic Information System is aimed at providing access to adequate portable water supply and a better sanitation through the use of research and advocacy. This is achieved by identifying the pattern of access to public water supply and sanitation in Kpakungu and the creation of a database of the existing water source and their yield was determined to enhance planning. This research involved the use of both primary and secondary data to achieve a thorough assessment of the problems of poor water supply and sanitation in the study area. It was discovered that the problems of poor water supply and sanitation often leave most women and children on queues for several hours and those that cannot endure are forced to travel long miles in search for alternative source of water, which may not be fit for drinking. In the light of this, mothers are prevented from domestic work and most children are kept away from school. At the end of the research water and sanitation blue print for the study area was designed and a proposal was sent to relevant government agencies and ministries for the provision of more sources of potable water in the community. In this regard, Public Private Dialogue (PPD was initiated and adequate follow up process was made until the aim of the research was achieved.

  3. Radioactivity in drinking water supplies in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M; Wallner, G; Jennings, P

    2014-04-01

    Radiochemical analysis was carried out on 52 drinking water samples taken from public outlets in the southwest of Western Australia. All samples were analysed for Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210. Twenty five of the samples were also analysed for Po-210, and 23 were analysed for U-234 and U-238. Ra-228 was found in 45 samples and the activity ranged from Ra-226 was detected in all 52 samples and the activity ranged from 3.200 to 151.1 mBq L(-1). Po-210 was detected in 24 samples and the activity ranged from 0.000 to 114.2 mBq L(-1). These data were used to compute the annual radiation dose that persons of different age groups and also for pregnant and lactating females would receive from drinking this water. The estimated doses ranged from 0.001 to 2.375 mSv y(-1) with a mean annual dose of 0.167 mSv y(-1). The main contributing radionuclides to the annual dose were Ra-228, Po-210 and Ra-226. Of the 52 drinking water samples tested, 94% complied with the current Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, while 10% complied with the World Health Organization's radiological guidelines which many other countries use. It is likely that these results provide an overestimate of the compliance, due to limitations, in the sampling technique and resource constraints on the analysis. Because of the increasing reliance of the Western Australian community on groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes, it is likely that the radiological content of the drinking water will increase in the future. Therefore there is a need for further monitoring and analysis in order to identify problem areas.

  4. Future Water-Supply Scenarios, Cape May County, New Jersey, 2003-2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Pierre J.; Carleton, Glen B.; Pope, Daryll A.; Rice, Donald E.

    2009-01-01

    Stewards of the water supply in New Jersey are interested in developing a plan to supply potable and non-potable water to residents and businesses of Cape May County until at least 2050. The ideal plan would meet projected demands and minimize adverse effects on currently used sources of potable, non-potable, and ecological water supplies. This report documents past and projected potable, non-potable, and ecological water-supply demands. Past and ongoing adverse effects to production and domestic wells caused by withdrawals include saltwater intrusion and water-level declines in the freshwater aquifers. Adverse effects on the ecological water supplies caused by groundwater withdrawals include premature drying of seasonal wetlands, delayed recovery of water levels in the water-table aquifer, and reduced streamflow. To predict the effects of future actions on the water supplies, three baseline and six future scenarios were created and simulated. Baseline Scenarios 1, 2, and 3 represent withdrawals using existing wells projected until 2050. Baseline Scenario 1 represents average 1998-2003 withdrawals, and Scenario 2 represents New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) full allocation withdrawals. These withdrawals do not meet projected future water demands. Baseline Scenario 3 represents the estimated full build-out water demands. Results of simulations of the three baseline scenarios indicate that saltwater would intrude into the Cohansey aquifer as much as 7,100 feet (ft) to adversely affect production wells used by Lower Township and the Wildwoods, as well as some other near-shore domestic wells; water-level altitudes in the Atlantic City 800-foot sand would decline to -156 ft; base flow in streams would be depleted by 0 to 26 percent; and water levels in the water-table aquifer would decline as much as 0.7ft. [Specific water-level altitudes, land-surface altitudes, and present sea level when used in this report are referenced to the North American

  5. [Preventive measures for improvement of suitability of water from individual water supply objects in the areas ravaged by war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venus, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article was to test the success of sanation of unsatisfactory individual water supply objects in the areas ravages of war. 198 individual water supply objects were consolidated in the area of Voćin, with hyperchlorination and pumping out of water, after which desinfection with chlorine preparation was carried out. Samples of drinking water taken for bacteriological analysis were analyzed on total coliform bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria and fecal streptococci by method of membranous filtration, while the number of colonies of aerobic bacteria at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C were determined on triptosis-glucosis-yeast agar. Good samples, considering the Regulations on health suitability of drinking water, were 152, or 77%. In unfit samples, which were 46, or 23%, the most common isolates were fecal streptococci, with frequency of 30%. Although public waterworks represent the best way to supply people with good drinking water, it is possible to achieve a satisfactory degree of water quality from individual water supply objects with implementation of public health activities, if we execute them periodically and professionally.

  6. Hedging Rules for Water Supply Reservoir Based on the Model of Simulation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a hedging rule model which is composed of a two-period reservior operation model considering the damage depth and hedging rule parameter optimization model. The former solves hedging rules based on a given poriod’s water supply weighting factor and carryover storage target, while the latter optimization model is used to optimize the weighting factor and carryover storage target based on the hedging rules. The coupling model gives the optimal poriod’s water supply weighting factor and carryover storage target to guide release. The conclusions achieved from this study as follows: (1 the water supply weighting factor and carryover storage target have a direct impact on the three elements of the hedging rule; (2 parameters can guide reservoirs to supply water reasonably after optimization of the simulation and optimization model; and (3 in order to verify the utility of the hedging rule, the Heiquan reservoir is used as a case study and particle swarm optimization algorithm with a simulation model is adopted for optimizing the parameter. The results show that the proposed hedging rule can improve the operation performances of the water supply reservoir.

  7. Analysis And Assessment Of The Security Method Against Incidental Contamination In The Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main types of surface water incidental contaminations and the security method against incidental contamination in water sources. Analysis and assessment the collective water supply system (CWSS protection against incidental contamination was conducted. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA was used. The FMEA method allow to use the product or process analysis, identification of weak points, and implementation the corrections and new solutions for eliminating the source of undesirable events. The developed methodology was shown in application case. It was found that the risk of water contamination in water-pipe network of the analyzed CWSS caused by water source incidental contamination is at controlled level.

  8. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China.

  9. Water-supply options in arsenic-affected regions in Cambodia: targeting the bottom income quintiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Jim F; Sabatini, David A

    2014-08-01

    In arsenic-affected regions of Cambodia, rural water committees and planners can choose to promote various arsenic-avoidance and/or arsenic-removal water supply systems. Each of these has different costs of providing water, subsequently born by the consumer in order to be sustainable. On a volumetric basis ($/m3-yr) and of the arsenic-avoidance options considered, small-scale public water supply - e.g., treated water provided to a central tap stand - is the most expensive option on a life-cycle cost basis. Rainwater harvesting, protected hand dug wells, and vendor-supplied water are the cheapest with a normalized present worth value, ranging from $2 to $10 per cubic meter per year of water delivered. Subsidization of capital costs is needed to make even these options affordable to the lowest (Q5) quintile. The range of arsenic-removal systems considered here, using adsorptive media, is competitive with large-scale public water supply and deep tube well systems. Both community level and household-scale systems are in a range that is affordable to the Q4 quintile, though more research and field trials are needed. At a target cost of $5.00/m3, arsenic removal systems will compete with the OpEx costs for most of the arsenic-safe water systems that are currently available. The life-cycle cost approach is a valuable method for comparing alternatives and for assessing current water supply practices as these relate to equity and the ability to pay.

  10. Use of the water supply system of special purpose in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    Full Text Available A water supply system of a special purpose is a necessary element in hot and cold shops of the industrial enterprises, office buildings and the medical centers, and also other rooms. The water supply systems of a special purpose, which give subsalty, sparkling water and water sated with oxygen, allow people to prevent, for example, strong dehydration of an organism, which is possible at big losses of water, especially in case of the people working in hot shops. Various elements of special drinking water supply system are given in the article, their main functions are described. Different types of the water folding devices pumping water to consumers, one of which is drinking fountain, are considered. Possible systems of water filtration, which can be established for quality improvement, are transferred. Among them the great role is played by membrane technologies and the return osmosis, which is widely applied now. Today there is a possibility of construction, both the centralized water supply system of a special purpose, and local. Besides, the least is a more preferable option taking into account capital expenditure for construction and operation, and also it can lead to solid resource-saving as a result of the electric energy saving going for water heating in heaters. Automatic machines of drinking water for a local water supply system of a special purpose have indisputable advantages. They are capable to carry out several functions at the same time, and also to distribute water to consumers. It allows placing all the necessary equipment, which will be well in harmony with the environment in their small and compact case, and will fit into any difficult interior of the room. Also they are very easily connected to the systems of an internal water supply system by means of a propylene tube that allows to change their sposition in space and to transfer to any place of the room with fast installation of equipment. Also the ecological effect was

  11. Contaminated small drinking water supplies and risk of infectious intestinal disease: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Risebro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study sought to identify whether elevated risk of infectious intestinal disease (IID exists in contaminated small water supply consumers compared with consumers drinking from small supplies complying with current standards and whether this effect is modified by age. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A prospective cohort study of 611 individuals receiving small supplies in England was conducted. Water supplies received sanitary inspection and examination for indicator bacteria and participants maintained a daily record of IID. Regression modeling with generalized estimating equations that included interaction terms between age and indicators of fecal pollution was performed. Crude IID prevalence was 9 · 3 days with symptoms/1000 person days (95%CI: 8 · 4, 10 · 1 and incidence was 3 · 2 episodes/1000 person days (95%CI, 2 · 7, 3 · 7 or 1 · 2 episodes per person year. Although there was no overall association between IID risk and indicator presence, there was strong interaction between age and indicator presence. In children under ten, relative risk (RR of IID in those drinking from enterococci contaminated supplies was 4.8 (95%CI: 1.5, 15.3 for incidence and 8.9 (95%CI: 2.8, 27.5 for prevalence. In those aged 10 to 59, IID risk was lower but not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Contaminated small water supplies pose a substantial risk of IID to young children who live in homes reliant on these supplies. By contrast older children and adults do not appear to be at increased risk. Health care professionals with responsibility for children living in homes provided by very small water supplies should make parents aware of the risk.

  12. Emergency Water Supply Planning for Fixed Army Installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    rapid sand filters - Hypochlorite for final disinfection - One 150,000-gal clearwell - Three discharge pumps % - One 0.5-million-gal storage tank. b...systems, the clearwell level indicators to the raw water intake system, and any pressure indicators used in the distribution system. The communication...reduced capacity such that the pump is operating with the clearwell drawn down below the required level for NPSH, cavitation and associated permanent

  13. Drinking Water Quality and Occurrence of Giardia in Finnish Small Groundwater Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Pitkänen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological and chemical drinking water quality of 20 vulnerable Finnish small groundwater supplies was studied in relation to environmental risk factors associated with potential sources of contamination. The microbiological parameters analyzed included the following enteric pathogens: Giardia and Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter species, noroviruses, as well as indicator microbes (Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, coliform bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, Aeromonas spp. and heterotrophic bacteria. Chemical analyses included the determination of pH, conductivity, TOC, color, turbidity, and phosphorus, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen, iron, and manganese concentrations. Giardia intestinalis was detected from four of the water supplies, all of which had wastewater treatment activities in the neighborhood. Mesophilic Aeromonas salmonicida, coliform bacteria and E. coli were also detected. None of the samples were positive for both coliforms and Giardia. Low pH and high iron and manganese concentrations in some samples compromised the water quality. Giardia intestinalis was isolated for the first time in Finland in groundwater wells of public water works. In Europe, small water supplies are of great importance since they serve a significant sector of the population. In our study, the presence of fecal indicator bacteria, Aeromonas and Giardia revealed surface water access to the wells and health risks associated with small water supplies.

  14. Optimization and coordination of South-to-North Water Diversion supply chain with strategic customer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-song CHEN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The South-to-North Water Diversion (SNWD Project is a significant engineering project meant to solve water shortage problems in North China. Faced with market operations management of the water diversion system, this study defined the supply chain system for the SNWD Project, considering the actual project conditions, built a decentralized decision model and a centralized decision model with strategic customer behavior (SCB using a floating pricing mechanism (FPM, and constructed a coordination mechanism via a revenue-sharing contract. The results suggest the following: (1 owing to water shortage supplements and the excess water sale policy provided by the FPM, the optimal ordering quantity of water resources is less than that without the FPM, and the optimal profits of the whole supply chain, supplier, and external distributor are higher than they would be without the FPM; (2 wholesale pricing and supplementary wholesale pricing with SCB are higher than those without SCB, and the optimal profits of the whole supply chain, supplier, and external distributor are higher than they would be without SCB; and (3 considering SCB and introducing the FPM help increase the optimal profits of the whole supply chain, supplier, and external distributor, and improve the efficiency of water resources usage.

  15. The impact of forest thinning on the reliability of water supply in central Arizona.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Simonit

    Full Text Available Economic growth in Central Arizona, as in other semiarid systems characterized by low and variable rainfall, has historically depended on the effectiveness of strategies to manage water supply risks. Traditionally, the management of supply risks includes three elements: hard infrastructures, landscape management within the watershed, and a supporting set of institutions of which water markets are frequently the most important. In this paper we model the interactions between these elements. A forest restoration initiative in Central Arizona (the Four Forest Restoration Initiative, or 4FRI will result in thinning of ponderosa pine forests in the upper watershed, with potential implications for both sedimentation rates and water delivery to reservoirs. Specifically, we model the net effect of ponderosa pine forest thinning across the Salt and Verde River watersheds on the reliability and cost of water supply to the Phoenix metropolitan area. We conclude that the sediment impacts of forest thinning (up to 50% of canopy cover are unlikely to compromise the reliability of the reservoir system while thinning has the potential to increase annual water supply by 8%. This represents an estimated net present value of surface water storage of $104 million, considering both water consumption and hydropower generation.

  16. Future water supply management adaptation measures - case study of Ljubljana field aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čenčur Curk, B.; Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Bogardi, I.

    2012-04-01

    The main drinking water supply problems are related to the significant change of groundwater quantity and quality observed in the last decades as an effect of land use practices and very likely also climate change. The latter may affect the ability of drinking water suppliers to provide enough water of sufficient quality to the consumers. These topics were studied in the frame of SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impact on Water Supply) with the main goal to develop a water supply management system regarding optimisation of water extraction and land use restrictions under climate change scenarios for water suppliers, since existing management practices are mostly inadequate to reduce impacts of CC on water supply reliability. The main goal was a designation of appropriate measures and risk assessment to adapt water supply to changing climate and land use activities considering socio-economic aspects. This was accomplished by using 'Fuzzy Decimaker', which is a tool for selecting and ranking risk reduction measures or management actions for local waterworks or water authorities under the pressure of climate change. Firstly, management options were selected and ranked. For public water supply of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, several management options were selected. For improvement of water supply and preservation of water resource quantities there is a need for engineering interventions, such as reducing water losses on pipelines. For improving drinking water safety and preserving water resource quality farmers are not allowed to use fertilisers in the first safeguarding zone and they get compensations for income reduction because of lower farming production. Compensations for farming restrictions in the second safeguarding zone were applied as additional management option. On the other hand, drinking water treatment is another management option to be considered. Trends in groundwater level are decreasing, above all recharge areas of waterworks

  17. Static Characteristics of Absorption Chiller-Heater Supplying Cold and Hot Water Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Irie, Tomoyoshi

    Absorption chiller-heaters which can supply both chilled water and hot water at the same time, are used for cooling and heating air conditioning systems. In this paper, we classified absorption cold and hot water generating cycles and control methods, studied these absorption cycles by cycle simulation. In economizer cycle, condensed refrigerant which heats hot water is transported to cooling cycle and used effectively for cooling chilled water, Concerning with transported condensed refrigerant, there are two methods, all condensed refrigerant or required refrigerant for cooling are transported to cooling cycle, and required refrigerant method is better for energy saving. Adding improvement of solution control to this economizer cycle, simultaneous cold and hot water supplying chiller-heaters have good characteristics of energy saving in the all region.

  18. Study on the Technology of Supplying Water Safely by Long-Distance Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yanbo; YU Taipin; LIU Junhua; ZHAO Hongbin

    2008-01-01

    The extensively built long-distance water transmission pipelines have become the main water sources for urban areas.To ensure the reliability and safety of the water supply,from the viewpoint of overall management, it would be necessary to establish a system of information management for the pipeline.The monitoring,calculating and analyzing functions of the system serve to give controlling instructions and safe operating rules to the automatic equipment and technician, making sure the resistance coefficient distribution along the pipeline is reasonable;the hydraulic state transition is smooth when operating conditions change or water supply accidents occur,avoiding the damage of water hammer.This paper covered the composition structures of the information management system of long-distance water transmission pipelines and the functions of the subsystems, and finally elaborated on the approaches and steps ofbuilding a mathematics model for the analysis of dynamic hydraulic status.

  19. Understanding the influence of climate change on the embodied energy of water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weiwei; Wang, Haiying; Jacobs, Jennifer M

    2016-05-15

    The current study aims to advance understandings on how and to what degree climate change will affect the life cycle chemical and energy uses of drinking water supply. A dynamic life cycle assessment was performed to quantify historical monthly operational embodied energy of a selected water supply system located in northeast US. Comprehensive multivariate and regression analyses were then performed to understand the statistical correlation among monthly life cycle energy consumptions, three water quality indicators (UV254, pH, and water temperature), and five climate indicators (monthly mean temperature, monthly mean maximum/minimum temperatures, total precipitation, and total snow fall). Thirdly, a calculation was performed to understand how volumetric and total life cycle energy consumptions will change under two selected IPCC emission scenarios (A2 and B1). It was found that volumetric life cycle energy consumptions are highest in winter months mainly due to the higher uses of natural gas in the case study system, but total monthly life cycle energy consumptions peak in both July and January because of the increasing water demand in summer months. Most of the variations in chemical and energy uses can be interpreted by water quality and climate variations except for the use of soda ash. It was also found that climate change might lead to an average decrease of 3-6% in the volumetric energy use of the case study system by the end of the century. This result combined with conclusions reached by previous climate versus water supply studies indicates that effects of climate change on drinking water supply might be highly dependent on the geographical location and treatment process of individual water supply systems.

  20. Improved Filtration Technology for Pathogen Reduction in Rural Water Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Tellen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent bio-sand filtration (BSF is a low-cost process for improving water quality in rural households. This study addresses its two drawbacks: flow limitations requiring excessive waiting, and inadequate purification when high flows are imposed. Two modifications were examined: increasing the sand’s effective size, and adding zero-valent iron (ZVI into the media as a disinfectant. After 65 days, percent reductions in total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococci averaged 98.9% for traditional BSF and 99% for the improved BSF. Both modifications showed statistically significant improvements. Increased sand size and ZVI addition can counter the drawbacks of traditional BSF.

  1. Water Supply Analysis for the Guam Comprehensive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    240 Agana Heights Reservoir 18 38 206 * -. Fena Clearwell 18 14 300 Umatac Tank 18-19 0 401 Merizo Reservoir 19 36 411 Windward Hills Large Reservoir 19...BPUHP card would be 8PUMP 50 200 400. d. Pumping from Tank. In specifying a pump taking suction from a tank, clearwell or pressure pipe, not part of...suction from a buried clearwell with water surface at 390 ft and produces 200 ft of head at 300 gpm (HGL at 590 ft), the following statements would be

  2. Active space heating and hot water supply with solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaki, S.; Loef, G. O.G.

    1981-04-01

    Technical and economic assessments are given of solar water heaters, both circulating, and of air-based and liquid-based solar space heating systems. Both new and retrofit systems are considered. The technical status of flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors and of thermal storage is also covered. Non-technical factors are also briefly discussed, including the participants in the use of solar heat, incentives and deterrents. Policy implications are considered as regards acceleration of solar use, goals for solar use, means for achieving goals, and interaction of governments, suppliers, and users. Government actions are recommended. (LEW)

  3. Evolution of Water Supply, Sanitation, Wastewater, and Stormwater Technologies Globally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas N. Angelakis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an outline of history of hydro-technologies in the west and the east. It is an overview of the special issue on “the evolution of hydro-technologies globally”, in which the key topics regarding the history of water and sanitation worldwide, and its importance to future cities are presented and discussed. It covers a wide range of relevant historical issues, and is presented in three categories: productivity assessment, institutional framework and mechanisms, and governance aspects. This paper concludes by discussing the challenges on future research in this field of study.

  4. [Quality assessment of the public water supply in Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Aguila, P S; Roque, O C; Miranda, C A; Ferreira, A P

    2000-01-01

    This study proposes to develop methodologies for public water supply quality control by implementing evaluation and control mechanisms and enhancing environmental health surveillance decision-making. These objectives were based on data for waterborne diseases recorded at the Rio de Janeiro State Health Department. We selected the following neighborhoods: Posse (1st Township) and Caioaba (5th Township), with dissimilar situations, allowing us to produce a model of water supply coverage in the Municipality of Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro State. The study underscored the poor quality of the water supply in the two townships, since 61% of the samples were positive on bacteriological examination, showing the undesirable effects of differential sanitation, especially in developing countries.

  5. Energy efficiency in a water supply system:Energy consumption and CO2 emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helena M.RAMOS; Filipe VIEIRA; Didia I.C.COVAS

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents important fundamentals associated with water and energy efficiency and highlights the importance of using renewable energy sources.A model of multi-criteria optimization for energy efficiency based on water and environmental management policies,including the preservation of water resources and the control of water pressure and energy consumption through a hybrid energy solution,was developed and applied to a water supply system.The methodology developed includes three solutions:(1)the use of a water turbine in pipe systems where pressures are higher than necessary and pressure-reducing valves are installed,(2)the optimization of pumping operation according to the electricity tariff and water demand,and(3)the use of other renewable energy sources,including a wind turbine,to supply energy to the pumping station,with the remaining energy being sold to the national electric grid.The use of an integrated solution(water and energy)proves to be a valuable input for creating benefits from available hydro energy in the water supply system in order to produce clean power,and the use of a wind source allows for the reduction of energy consumption in pumping stations,as well as of the CO2 emission to the atmosphere.

  6. Game theory competition analysis of reservoir water supply and hydropower generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.

    2013-12-01

    The total installed capacity of the power generation systems in Taiwan is about 41,000 MW. Hydropower is one of the most important renewable energy sources, with hydropower generation capacity of about 4,540 MW. The aim of this research is to analyze competition between water supply and hydropower generation in water-energy systems. The major relationships between water and energy systems include hydropower generation by water, energy consumption for water system operation, and water consumption for energy system. In this research, a game-theoretic Cournot model is formulated to simulate oligopolistic competition between water supply, hydropower generation, and co-fired power generation in water-energy systems. A Nash equilibrium of the competitive market is derived and solved by GAMS with PATH solver. In addition, a case study analyzing the competition among water supply and hydropower generation of De-ji and Ku-Kuan reservoirs, Taipower, Star Energy, and Star-Yuan power companies in central Taiwan is conducted.

  7. Balance of Water Supply-demand in Paddy Fields in Hilly Regions in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong ZHANG; Xinlu JIANG; Hongzhu FAN; Jiaguo ZHENG

    2012-01-01

    Abstract [Objective] The aim was to study the effects of water supply and con- sumption on water saving and drought resistance. [Method] Controlling field experi- ment was conducted to explore water balance between supply and demand in paddy fields in hilly regions in Sichuan Province. [Result] Rainfall in hilly areas was 3 611.10 m3/hm2; water for irrigation was 6 299.25 m3/hm~, evapotranspiration of rice was 6 424.95 m3/hm2; deep leakage was 2 459.55 m3/hm2; overflowing amount was 1 026.00 m3/hm2. In addition, water consumption totaled 8 884.50 m3/hm2 during rice production; water use was 0.99 kg/m3 and use efficiency of irrigated water was 1.40 kg/m3, [Conclu- sion] Water supply and consumption should be further organized to save water and fight against drought in hilly areas in Sichuan Province.

  8. Uncertainty in future water supplies from forests: hydrologic effects of a changing forest landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. A.; Achterman, G. L.; Alexander, L. E.; Brooks, K. N.; Creed, I. F.; Ffolliott, P. F.; MacDonald, L.; Wemple, B. C.

    2008-12-01

    Forests account for 33 percent of the U.S. land area, process nearly two-thirds of the fresh water supply, and provide water to 40 percent of all municipalities or about 180 million people. Water supply management is becoming more difficult given the increasing demand for water, climate change, increasing development, changing forest ownership, and increasingly fragmented laws governing forest and watershed management. In 2006, the US National Research Council convened a study on the present understanding of forest hydrology, the hydrologic effects of a changing forest landscape, and research and management needs for sustaining water resources from forested landscapes. The committee concluded that while it is possible to generate short-term water yield increases by timber harvesting, there are a variety of reasons why active forest management has only limited potential to sustainably increase water supplies. These include the short-term nature of the increases in most environments, the timing of the increases, the need for downstream storage, and that continuing ground- based timber harvest can reduce water quality. At the same time, past and continuing changes in forest structure and management may be altering water supplies at the larger time and space scales that are of most interest to forest and water managers. These changes include the legacy of past forest management practices, particularly fire suppression and clearcutting; exurban sprawl, which permanently converts forest land to nonforest uses; effects of climate change on wildfires, insect outbreaks, forest structure, forest species composition, snowpack depth and snowmelt; road networks; and changes in forest land ownership. All of these changes have the potential to alter water quantity and quality from forests. Hence, the baseline conditions that have been used to estimate sustained water yields from forested watersheds may no longer be applicable. Stationarity also can no longer be assumed for the

  9. The uncertainty of future water supply adequacy in megacities: Effects of population growth and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon, T.; Garcia, M. E.; Small, D. L.; Portney, K.; Islam, S.

    2013-12-01

    Providing water to the expanding population of megacities, which have over 10 million people, with a stressed and aging water infrastructure creates unprecedented challenges. These challenges are exacerbated by dwindling supply and competing demands, altered precipitation and runoff patterns in a changing climate, fragmented water utility business models, and changing consumer behavior. While there is an extensive literature on the effects of climate change on water resources, the uncertainty of climate change predictions continues to be high. This hinders the value of these predictions for municipal water supply planning. The ability of water utilities to meet future water needs will largely depend on their capacity to make decisions under uncertainty. Water stressors, like changes in demographics, climate, and socioeconomic patterns, have varying degrees of uncertainty. Identifying which stressors will have a greater impact on water resources, may reduce the level of future uncertainty for planning and managing water utilities. Within this context, we analyze historical and projected changes of population and climate to quantify the relative impacts of these two stressors on water resources. We focus on megacities that rely primarily on surface water resources to evaluate (a) population growth pattern from 1950-2010 and projected population for 2010-2060; (b) climate change impact on projected climate change scenarios for 2010-2060; and (c) water access for 1950-2010; projected needs for 2010-2060.

  10. Investigating the Effectiveness of Ultraviolet (UV Water Purification as Replacement of Chlorine Disinfection in Domestic Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaoye

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Domestic water supply to residential buildings through hand-dug wells has been widely accepted as a reliable substitute to government owned municipal water supply system in Nigeria. This Paper investigates theeffectiveness of Ultraviolet (UV Water Sterilizers as a suitable replacement of chlorine disinfection in the removal of microbiological contaminants in domestic water supply. Water from an established contaminated well in Ogbomoso, Nigeria, were subjected, simultaneously and in parallel, to chlorine dosing and contact withUV light, over a period of seven (7 days without pre-filtration, and additional seven (7 days with pre-filtration. Pre-filtration was accomplished by the use of a calibrated pressure filter. Effluent water samples were taken daily for the two (2 scenarios to the laboratory for physical, chemical and biological analyses. The resultsindicated that UV water purification method was more effective only when pre-filtration of raw water was introduced. With monitored prefiltration prior to ultraviolet purification, the colony count, MPN Coliform Organisms and MPN E. Coli Organisms recorded seven day-average values of 1, 0 and 0, respectively. In both scenarios, it was confirmed that UV method produced no bi-products and did not alter the taste, pH or other properties of water, in contradistiction to chlorine disinfection method

  11. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle Area of North Carolina, water years 2012–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2016-09-07

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2011 through September 2012 (water year 2012) and October 2012 through September 2013 (water year 2013). Major findings for this period include:Annual precipitation was approximately 2 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2012 and approximately 3 percent below the long-term mean in 2013.In water year 2012, streamflow was generally below the long-term mean during most of the period for the 10 project streamflow gaging stations. Streamflow was near or above the long-term mean at the same streamflow gaging stations during the 2013 water year.More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 17 sites—6 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-three water-quality properties or constituents were measured; State water-quality standards exist for 23 of these.All observations met State water-quality standards for pH, temperature, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium.North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved-oxygen percent saturation, turbidity, chlorophyll a, copper, iron, manganese, mercury, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at all 17 sites.Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 19 water-quality constituents relative to non-storm events.

  12. Applying the Msharpp Method in Risk Assessment for the Water Supply Critical Infrastructure Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea Dorel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights a manner to assess risks for an important sector of critical infrastructure, that of water supply, frequently regulated in international legal systems. We took into consideration the fact that risk is a problem related to the processes of decision making under conditions of uncertainty in most cases, so that by this approach we bring to the attention of critical infrastructure managers, drawing on their experience, a simple method that can be considered in a preliminary stage of risk assessment specific to water supply.

  13. Innovative Approaches to Teaching Packaging Design Using the Example of Mineral Water Supply Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestyánszka Škůrková, Katarína; Bajor, Peter; Trafela, Sabrina

    2013-12-01

    Designing the packaging of a product has many critical factors. In our paper, we present some of them on the example of a simple product: mineral water. In spite of the fact that today not only products, but also supply chains are competing with each other, designers sometimes pay little attention to considering the packaging system not only from the customer and the producer side, but for warehousing and transportation as well. We cover a lot of "what can go wrong" scenarios on the example of mineral water packaging for the purpose of defining the critical points in the supply chain.

  14. Water Supply Protection Areas, Surface Water Protection Areas; Drainage areas contributing to drinking water supply reservoirs serving public water systems in Rhode Island. Includes areas in Massachusetts contributing to Woonsocket Water Supply, Published in 2002, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Supply Protection Areas dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2002....

  15. Improved biostability assessment of drinking water with a suite of test methods at a water supply treating eutrophic lake water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Dick; Martijn, Bram; Schaap, Peter G; Hoogenboezem, Wim; Veenendaal, Harm R; van der Wielen, Paul W J J

    2015-12-15

    Assessment of drinking-water biostability is generally based on measuring bacterial growth in short-term batch tests. However, microbial growth in the distribution system is affected by multiple interactions between water, biofilms and sediments. Therefore a diversity of test methods was applied to characterize the biostability of drinking water distributed without disinfectant residual at a surface-water supply. This drinking water complied with the standards for the heterotrophic plate count and coliforms, but aeromonads periodically exceeded the regulatory limit (1000 CFU 100 mL(-1)). Compounds promoting growth of the biopolymer-utilizing Flavobacterium johnsoniae strain A3 accounted for c. 21% of the easily assimilable organic carbon (AOC) concentration (17 ± 2 μg C L(-1)) determined by growth of pure cultures in the water after granular activated-carbon filtration (GACF). Growth of the indigenous bacteria measured as adenosine tri-phosphate in water samples incubated at 25 °C confirmed the low AOC in the GACF but revealed the presence of compounds promoting growth after more than one week of incubation. Furthermore, the concentration of particulate organic carbon in the GACF (83 ± 42 μg C L(-1), including 65% carbohydrates) exceeded the AOC concentration. The increased biomass accumulation rate in the continuous biofouling monitor (CBM) at the distribution system reservoir demonstrated the presence of easily biodegradable by-products related to ClO2 dosage to the GACF and in the CBM at 42 km from the treatment plant an iron-associated biomass accumulation was observed. The various methods applied thus distinguished between easily assimilable compounds, biopolymers, slowly biodegradable compounds and biomass-accumulation potential, providing an improved assessment of the biostability of the water. Regrowth of aeromonads may be related to biomass-turnover processes in the distribution system, but establishment of quantitative relationships is needed for

  16. Towards risk-based drought management in the Netherlands: making water supply levels transparent to water users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat Judith, Ter; Marjolein, Mens; Vuren Saskia, Van; der Vat Marnix, Van

    2016-04-01

    To prepare the Dutch Delta for future droughts and water scarcity, a nation-wide 4-year project, called Delta Programme, assessed the impact of climate change and socio-economic development, and explored strategies to deal with these impacts. The Programme initiated a joint approach to water supply management with stakeholders and developed a national adaptation plan that is able to adapt to future uncertain conditions. The adaptation plan consists of a set of preferred policy pathways - sequences of possible actions and measures through time - to achieve targets while responding in a flexible manner to uncertain developments over time, allowing room to respond to new opportunities and insights. With regard to fresh water allocation, the Delta Programme stated that supplying water of sufficient quality is a shared responsibility that requires cohesive efforts among users in the main and regional water system. The national and local authorities and water users involved agreed that the water availability and, where relevant, the water quality should be as transparent and predictable as possible under normal, dry and extremely dry conditions. They therefore introduced the concept of "water supply service levels", which should describe water availability and quality that can be delivered with a certain return period, for all regions and all relevant water users in the Netherlands. The service levels form an addition to the present policy and should be decided on by 2021. At present water allocation during periods of (expected) water shortage occurs according to a prearranged ranking system (a water hierarchy scheme based on a list of priorities), if water availability drops below a critical low level. The aim is to have supply levels available that are based on the probability of occurrence and economic impact of water shortage, and that are transparent for all water users in the regional water systems and the main water system. As part of the European project

  17. Assessing protozoan risks for surface drinking water supplies in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krkosek, Wendy; Reed, Victoria; Gagnon, Graham A

    2016-02-01

    Protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, pose a human health risk when present in drinking water. To minimize health risks, the Nova Scotia Treatment Standards for surface water and groundwater under the direct influence of surface water require a 3-log reduction for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. This study determined the protozoan risk of municipal surface source waters in Nova Scotia, through the use of a pre-screening risk analysis of water supplies, followed by subsequent water quality analysis of the seven highest risk supplies. The water supplies were monitored monthly for 1 year to obtain baseline data that could be used for a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). The QMRA model outcomes were compared to the Health Canada health target of 10(-6) disability-adjusted life years/person/year. QMRA modeling shows that the treatment facilities meet the required log reductions and disability-adjusted life year target standards under current conditions. Furthermore, based on the results of this work, Nova Scotia should maintain the current 3-log reduction standard for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. The results of this study show that a pre-screening step can help to inform water sources that are particularly vulnerable to protozoan contamination, which can lead to more focused, cost-effective sampling, and monitoring programs.

  18. A framework for planning sustainable seawater desalination water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Maedeh P; McHugh, Adam; Anda, Martin; Ho, Goen

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative framework for sustainable desalination planning in metropolitan areas, which integrates the tools of mixed integer linear programming and life cycle assessment, is presented. The life cycle optimisation framework allows for optimal desalination planning by considering choices over intake type, staging and location of the infrastructure under different land-use, environmental and economic policies. Optimality is defined by the decision maker's selected objective function, being either an environmental impact or a levelised cost indicator. The framework was tested for future desalination planning scenarios in the northern metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. Results indicate that multi-staged construction and decentralised planning solutions may produce lower life cycle environmental impacts (58%) and at a lower levelised cost (24%) than a centralised desalination solution currently being considered by Western Australian water planners. Sensitivity analysis results suggest that the better environmental and economic performance of decentralised planning over centralised planning is highly sensitive to the proportion of land that can be made available for the siting of decentralised plants near the demand zone. Insight into land use policies is a critical factor to the initiation and success of decentralised solution in developed metropolitan areas.

  19. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in a water supply system and related human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Gaffney, Vanessa; Almeida, Cristina M M; Rodrigues, Alexandre; Ferreira, Elisabete; Benoliel, Maria João; Cardoso, Vitor Vale

    2015-04-01

    A monitoring study of 31 pharmaceuticals along Lisbon's drinking water supply system was implemented, which comprised the analysis of 250 samples including raw water (surface water and groundwater), and drinking water. Of the 31 pharmaceutical compounds, only sixteen were quantified in the analyzed samples, with levels ranging from 0.005 to 46 ng/L in raw water samples and 0.09-46 ng/L in drinking water samples. The human health risk assessment performed showed that appreciable risks to the consumer's health arising from exposure to trace levels of pharmaceuticals in drinking water are extremely unlikely, as RQs values were all below 0.001. Also, pharmaceuticals were selected as indicators to be used as a tool to control the quality of raw water and the treatment efficiency in the drinking water treatment plants.

  20. Dublin Ireland: a city addressing challenging water supply, management, and governance issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kelly-Quinn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The population of Dublin City and its suburbs currently stands at 1.3 million and is projected to reach 2.1 million by 2022. There is pressure on its water supply system (inadequate catchment sources, ageing infrastructure including treatment facilities, and distribution network with little or no spare capacity despite Ireland's relatively high rainfall that is well distributed throughout the year; albeit the greatest rainfall occurs in the west and southwest and at some remove from Dublin. The current governance approach to addressing the projected water supply deficit relies heavily on a combination of identifying new supply sources to secure the long-term water supply needs of the city together with an intense drive toward achieving "demand-side" reduced usage and conservation targets in accordance with EU benchmarks for various individual and sectoral users. This potentially emerging crisis of water scarcity in Dublin, with drivers including population growth, greater industrial and institutional demands, migration, and climate change, has generated one of the most significant public water works projects proposed in Irish history, which is to abstract raw water from the Shannon River Basin in the midland region and, following treatment, pump it to a storage reservoir in a cut-away bog before piping to the Greater Dublin Area. The preparations for this scheme have brought to the forefront some longstanding Irish water resources governance issues and challenges. This provides a unique opportunity and imperative at this time to take a more comprehensive look at the decision-making process in this regard, one done in the context of new European and national policies requiring incorporation of integrated planning to sustain ecosystem services, water resources management, water services management, and flood defense principles, and one taking account of the current unprecedented state of flux in which water resources management institutions in

  1. Nitrate, sulphate and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco; Bonfanti, Pietro; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi; Maugeri, Roberto

    2012-05-01

    Water samples collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily were analysed for electric conductivity and for their chloride, sulphate and nitrate contents. The samples were collected as uniformly as possible from throughout the Sicilian territory, with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. Chloride contents that ranged from 5.53 to 1,302 mg/l were correlated strongly with electric conductivity, a parameter used as a proxy for water salinity. The highest values are attributable to seawater contamination along the coasts of the island. High chloride and sulphate values attributable to evaporitic rock dissolution were found in the central part of Sicily. The nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 296 mg/l, with 31 samples (4.7% of the total) exceeding the maximum admissible concentration of 50 mg/l. Anomalous samples always came from areas of intensive agricultural usage, indicating a clear anthropogenic origin. The same parameters were also measured in bottled water sold in Sicily, and they all were within the ranges for public drinking water supplies. The calculated mean nitrate intake from consuming public water supplies (16.1 mg/l) did not differ significantly from that of bottled water (15.2 mg/l). Although the quality of public water supplies needs to be improved by eliminating those that do not comply with the current drinking water limits, at present it does not justify the high consumption of bottled water (at least for nitrate contents).

  2. External control of the public water supply in 29 Brazilian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzely Adas Saliba Moimaz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The fluoridation of public water supplies is considered the most efficient public health measure for dental caries prevention. However, fluoride levels in the public water supply must be kept constant and adequate for the population to gain preventive benefit. The aim of this study was to analyze fluoride levels in the public water supply of 29 Brazilian municipalities during a 48-month period from November 2004 to October 2008. Three collection sites were defined for each source of municipal public water supply. Water samples were collected monthly and analyzed at the Research Laboratory of the Nucleus for Public Health (NEPESCO, Public Health Postgraduate Program, Araçatuba Dental School (UNESP. Of the 6862 samples analyzed, the fluoride levels of 53.5% (n = 3671 were within the recommended parameters, those of 30.4% (n = 2084 were below these parameters, and those of 16.1% (n = 1107 were above recommended values. Samples from the same collection site showed temporal variability in fluoride levels. Variation was also observed among samples from collection sites with different sources within the same municipality. Although 53.5% of the samples contained the recommended fluoride levels, these findings reinforce the importance of monitoring to minimize the risk of dental fluorosis and to achieve the maximum benefit in the prevention of dental caries.

  3. Transforming Water Supply Regimes in India: Do Public-Private Partnerships Have a Role to Play?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Gopakumar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Public-private partnerships (PPP are an important governance strategy that has recently emerged as a solution to enhance the access of marginalised residents to urban infrastructures. With the inception of neo-liberal economic reforms in India, in Indian cities too PPP has emerged as an innovative approach to expand coverage of water supply and sanitation infrastructures. However, there has been little study of the dynamics of partnership efforts in different urban contexts: What role do they play in transforming existing infrastructure regimes? Do reform strategies such as partnerships result in increased privatisation or do they make the governance of infrastructures more participative? Reviewing some of the recent literature on urban political analysis, this article develops the concept of water supply regime to describe the context of water provision in three metropolitan cities in India. To further our understanding of the role of PPP within regimes, this article sketches five cases of water supply and sanitation partnerships located within these three metropolitan cities. From these empirical studies, the article arrives at the conclusion that while PPP are always products of the regime-context they are inserted within, quite often strategic actors in the partnership use the PPP to further their interests by initiating a shift in the regime pathway. This leads us to conclude that PPPs do play a role in making water supply regimes more participative but that depends on the nature of the regime as well as the actions of partners.

  4. Free-living protozoa in drinking water supplies: community composition and role as hosts for Legionella pneumophila

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valster, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Free-living protozoa in drinking water supplies: community composition and role as hosts for Legionella pneumophila
    Free-living protozoa, which feed on bacteria, play an important role in the communities of microorganisms and invertebrates in drinking water supplies and in (warm) tap water i

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance, Virulence Factors and Genetic Diversity of Escherichia coli Isolates from Household Water Supply in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.K. Talukdar (Prabhat Kumar); M. Rahman (Mahdia); A. Nabi (Ashikun); Z. Islam (Zhahirul); M.M. Hoque (Mahfuzul); H.P. Endtz (Hubert)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Unsafe water supplies continue to raise public health concerns, especially in urban areas in low resource countries. To understand the extent of public health risk attributed to supply water in Dhaka city, Bangladesh, Escherichia coli isolated from tap water samples collected

  6. A triangular fuzzy TOPSIS-based approach for the application of water technologies in different emergency water supply scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; Yu, Huan; You, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Because of the increasing frequency and intensity of unexpected natural disasters, providing safe drinking water for the affected population following a disaster has become a global challenge of growing concern. An onsite water supply technology that is portable, mobile, or modular is a more suitable and sustainable solution for the victims than transporting bottled water. In recent years, various water techniques, such as membrane-assisted technologies, have been proposed and successfully implemented in many places. Given the diversity of techniques available, the current challenge is how to scientifically identify the optimum options for different disaster scenarios. Hence, a fuzzy triangular-based multi-criteria, group decision-making tool was developed in this research. The approach was then applied to the selection of the most appropriate water technologies corresponding to the different emergency water supply scenarios. The results show this tool capable of facilitating scientific analysis in the evaluation and selection of emergency water technologies for enduring security drinking water supply in disaster relief.

  7. Integrated Water Resource Management and Energy Requirements for Water Supply in the Copiapó River Basin, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Suárez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Population and industry growth in dry climates are fully tied to significant increase in water and energy demands. Because water affects many economic, social and environmental aspects, an interdisciplinary approach is needed to solve current and future water scarcity problems, and to minimize energy requirements in water production. Such a task requires integrated water modeling tools able to couple surface water and groundwater, which allow for managing complex basins where multiple stakeholders and water users face an intense competition for limited freshwater resources. This work develops an integrated water resource management model to investigate the water-energy nexus in reducing water stress in the Copiapó River basin, an arid, highly vulnerable basin in northern Chile. The model was utilized to characterize groundwater and surface water resources, and water demand and uses. Different management scenarios were evaluated to estimate future resource availability, and compared in terms of energy requirements and costs for desalinating seawater to eliminate the corresponding water deficit. Results show a basin facing a very complex future unless measures are adopted. When a 30% uniform reduction of water consumption is achieved, 70 GWh over the next 30 years are required to provide the energy needed to increase the available water through seawater desalination. In arid basins, this energy could be supplied by solar energy, thus addressing water shortage problems through integrated water resource management combined with new technologies of water production driven by renewable energy sources.

  8. Inequalities in microbial contamination of drinking water supplies in urban areas: the case of Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye-Ansah, Akosua Sarpong; Ferrero, Giuliana; Rusca, Maria; van der Zaag, Pieter

    2016-10-01

    Over past decades strategies for improving access to drinking water in cities of the Global South have mainly focused on increasing coverage, while water quality has often been overlooked. This paper focuses on drinking water quality in the centralized water supply network of Lilongwe, the capital of Malawi. It shows how microbial contamination of drinking water is unequally distributed to consumers in low-income (unplanned areas) and higher-income neighbourhoods (planned areas). Microbial contamination and residual disinfectant concentration were measured in 170 water samples collected from in-house taps in high-income areas and from kiosks and water storage facilities in low-income areas between November 2014 and January 2015. Faecal contamination (Escherichia coli) was detected in 10% of the 40 samples collected from planned areas, in 59% of the 64 samples collected from kiosks in the unplanned areas and in 75% of the 32 samples of water stored at household level. Differences in water quality in planned and unplanned areas were found to be statistically significant at p water are produced by decisions both on the development of the water supply infrastructure and on how this is operated and maintained.

  9. Optimal reconstruction of historical water supply to a distribution system: A. Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, M M; Guan, J; Maslia, M L; Sautner, J B; Gillig, R E; Reyes, J J; Williams, R C

    2004-09-01

    The New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services (NJDHSS), with support from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) conducted an epidemiological study of childhood leukaemia and nervous system cancers that occurred in the period 1979 through 1996 in Dover Township, Ocean County, New Jersey. The epidemiological study explored a wide variety of possible risk factors, including environmental exposures. ATSDR and NJDHSS determined that completed human exposure pathways to groundwater contaminants occurred in the past through private and community water supplies (i.e. the water distribution system serving the area). To investigate this exposure, a model of the water distribution system was developed and calibrated through an extensive field investigation. The components of this water distribution system, such as number of pipes, number of tanks, and number of supply wells in the network, changed significantly over a 35-year period (1962--1996), the time frame established for the epidemiological study. Data on the historical management of this system was limited. Thus, it was necessary to investigate alternative ways to reconstruct the operation of the system and test the sensitivity of the system to various alternative operations. Manual reconstruction of the historical water supply to the system in order to provide this sensitivity analysis was time-consuming and labour intensive, given the complexity of the system and the time constraints imposed on the study. To address these issues, the problem was formulated as an optimization problem, where it was assumed that the water distribution system was operated in an optimum manner at all times to satisfy the constraints in the system. The solution to the optimization problem provided the historical water supply strategy in a consistent manner for each month of the study period. The non-uniqueness of the selected historical water supply strategy was addressed by the formulation of a second

  10. Long-term climate sensitivity of an integrated water supply system: The role of irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyennon, Nicolas; Romano, Emanuele; Portoghese, Ivan

    2016-09-15

    The assessment of the impact of long-term climate variability on water supply systems depends not only on possible variations of the resources availability, but also on the variation of the demand. In this framework, a robust estimation of direct (climate induced) and indirect (anthropogenically induced) effects of climate change is mandatory to design mitigation measures, especially in those regions of the planet where the groundwater equilibrium is strongly perturbed by exploitations for irrigation purposes. The main goal of this contribution is to propose a comprehensive model that integrates distributed crop water requirements with surface and groundwater mass balance, able to consider management rules of the water supply system. The proposed overall model, implemented, calibrated and validated for the case study of the Fortore water supply system (Apulia region, South Italy), permits to simulate the conjunctive use of the water from a surface artificial reservoir and from groundwater. The relative contributions of groundwater recharges and withdrawals to the aquifer stress have been evaluated under different climate perturbations, with emphasis on irrigation practices. Results point out that irrigated agriculture primarily affects groundwater discharge, indicating that ecosystem services connected to river base flow are particularly exposed to climate variation in irrigated areas. Moreover, findings show that the recharge both to surface and to groundwater is mainly affected by drier climate conditions, while hotter conditions have a major impact on the water demand. The non-linearity arising from combined drier and hotter conditions may exacerbate the aquifer stress by exposing it to massive sea-water intrusion.

  11. An application of MC-SDSS for water supply management during a drought crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeihouni, Mehrdad; Toomanian, Ara; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem; Shahabi, Mahmoud; Bazdar, Saba

    2015-07-01

    Climate change influences many countries' rainfall patterns and temperatures. In Iran, population growth has increased water demands. Tabriz is the capital of East Azerbaijan province, in northwestern Iran. A large proportion of the water required for this city is supplied from dams; thus, it is important to find alternatives to supply water for this city, which is the largest industrial city in northwestern Iran. In this paper, the groundwater quality was assessed using 70 wells in Tabriz Township. This work seeks to define the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as chloride, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, hardness, and sulfate using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and geostatistics; map groundwater quality for drinking purposes employing multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM), such as the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, in the study area; and develop an Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) for managing a water crisis in the region. The map produced by the AHP is more accurate than the map produced using fuzzy logic because in the AHP, priorities were assigned to each parameter based on the weights given by water quality experts. The final map indicates that the groundwater quality increases from the north to the south and from the west to the east within the study area. During critical conditions, the groundwater quality maps and the presented SDSS core can be utilized by East Azerbaijan Regional Water Company to develop an SDSS to drill new wells or to select existing wells to supply drinking water to Tabriz City.

  12. Inter-basin water transfer-supply model and risk analysis with consideration of rainfall forecast information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a new inter-basin water transfer-supply and risk assessment model with consideration of rainfall forecast information. Firstly, based on the current state of reservoir and rainfall forecast information from the global forecast system (GFS), the actual diversion amount can be determined according to the inter-basin water transfer rules with the decision tree method; secondly, the reservoir supply operation system is used to distribute water resource of the inter-basin water transfer reservoir; finally, the integrated risk assessment model is built by selecting the reliability of water transfer, the reliability (water shortage risk), the resiliency and the vulnerability of water supply as risk analysis indexes. The case study shows that the inter-basin water transfer-supply model with rainfall forecast information considered can reduce the comprehensive risk and improve the utilization efficiency of water resource, as compared with conventional and optimal water distribution models.

  13. Effect of different water supply on morphology, growth and photosynthetic characteristcs of Salix Psammophila seedlings in Maowusu sandland, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Response pattern was investigated for seedlings of Salixpsammophila, a dominant shrub in Maowusu sandland, to the simulated precipitation change by artificially controlling water supply at four levels. The growth characters, in term of plant height, stemdiameter, total branch number, total leaf number and area, total bifurcation ratio, total branch length and branch number, length, leaf number, leaf area of each branch order, and leaf, branch, root mass significantly increased when water supply increased. Thatwater supply had significant effect on biomass allocation showed different investment pattern of biomass resource of the seedlings grwn different water supply treatments. Stomatal density of abaxial leaf surface decreased, and stomatal apparatus length and width of adaxial and abaxial leaf surface increased with the increase in water supply, while Stomatal density of adaxial leaf surface was not affected by water supply. Water supply obviously affected the diurnal changes of photosynthetic rate, and the photo synthetic rate of the seedlings showed strongly midday depression growing under the 157.5 mm water supply, but not growing under higher water supply. Additionally the Assimilation-light response curves and fluorescence efficiency more showed that water supply improve photosynthesis capacity. Finally, S.psammophila seedlings stood out by their slow growth and relatively high investments in root growth in order to reduce tissue losing rate and consumption of water resource for keeping water balance under water stress. The seedlings that grown under high water supply did by their fast growth and relatively high investments in branch and leaf growth in order to improve the power of capturing light energy for higher photosynthesis.

  14. Forecasting drought risks for a water supply storage system using bootstrap position analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Gary; Dunne, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Forecasting the likelihood of drought conditions is an integral part of managing a water supply storage and delivery system. Position analysis uses a large number of possible flow sequences as inputs to a simulation of a water supply storage and delivery system. For a given set of operating rules and water use requirements, water managers can use such a model to forecast the likelihood of specified outcomes such as reservoir levels falling below a specified level or streamflows falling below statutory passing flows a few months ahead conditioned on the current reservoir levels and streamflows. The large number of possible flow sequences are generated using a stochastic streamflow model with a random resampling of innovations. The advantages of this resampling scheme, called bootstrap position analysis, are that it does not rely on the unverifiable assumption of normality and it allows incorporation of long-range weather forecasts into the analysis.

  15. Performance Measurement of Water Desalination Supply Chain Using Balanced Scorecard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Balfaqih

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical framework based on a balanced scorecard (BSC for performance measurement in the water desalination supply chain (WDSC. The reason for choosing this context is that the supply chain (SC of water desalination has received a great amount of attention, due to issues related to the increased need of fresh water for agricultural, industrial and human consumptions. The research methodology is based on literature analysis concerning performance measurement and metrics, the water desalination industry and the BSC model. Different SC performance measures which related to WDSC have been reviewed and distributed into four BSC perspectives: financial, customer, internal business, and learning & growth. The article provides a structured theoretical framework specific for WDSC. This is the first developed framework in WDSC which could serve as a reference to develop applicable performance indicators, and it is expected that both researchers and practitioners would benefit from the proposed framework.

  16. Waterborne norovirus outbreak in a municipal drinking-water supply in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera-Montes, M; Brus Sjölander, K; Allestam, G; Hallin, E; Hedlund, K-O; Löfdahl, M

    2011-12-01

    During Easter 2009, almost 200 people resident in a small Swedish village fell ill with gastrointestinal symptoms. We conducted a retrospective cohort study and a molecular investigation in order to identify the source of the outbreak. Residents living in households connected to the public water network were at an increased risk of developing disease (relative risk 4·80, 95% confidence interval 1·68-13·73) compared to those with no connection to the public network. Norovirus genotype GI.3 was identified in stool samples from six patients and in a sample from the public water network. Contamination of one of the wells supplying the public water network was thought to be the source of the outbreak. This is a description of a norovirus outbreak linked to a municipal drinking-water supply in Sweden. Information from epidemiological and molecular investigations is of utmost importance to guide outbreak control measures and to prevent future outbreaks.

  17. Developing system robustness analysis for drought risk management: an application on a water supply reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. P. Mens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Droughts will likely become more frequent, of greater magnitude and of longer duration in the future due to climate change. Already in the present climate, a variety of drought events may occur with different exceedance frequencies. These frequencies are becoming more uncertain due to climate change. Many methods in support of drought risk management focus on providing insight into changing drought frequencies, and use water supply reliability as key decision criterion. In contrast, robustness analysis focuses on providing insight into the full range of drought events and their impact on a system's functioning. This method has been developed for flood risk systems, but applications on drought risk systems are lacking. This paper aims to develop robustness analysis for drought risk systems, and illustrates the approach through a case study with a water supply reservoir and its users. We explore drought characterization and the assessment of a system's ability to deal with drought events, by quantifying the severity and socio-economic impact of a variety of drought events, both frequent and rare ones. Furthermore, we show the effect of three common drought management strategies (increasing supply, reducing demand and implementing hedging rules on the robustness of the coupled water supply and socio-economic system. The case is inspired by Oologah Lake, a multipurpose reservoir in Oklahoma, United States. Results demonstrate that although demand reduction and supply increase may have a comparable effect on the supply reliability, demand reduction may be preferred from a robustness perspective. To prepare drought management plans for dealing with current and future droughts, it is thus recommended to test how alternative drought strategies contribute to a system's robustness rather than relying solely on water reliability as the decision criterion.

  18. Maintaining Water Supplies to a Remote Island Population When Source Water Becomes Contaminated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    water source – Rain Water • Rain water collected via water catchments (23 acres) (reference 3) •Daily Water Demand on Roi-Namur is...Lenswell Reliance • What are lenswells? - Fresh water less dense than salt water - Replenished by rain water (recharge) - Lenswells are shallow and...removal • 20/80 lenswell to rain water mixture recommended - PCE value of 3 ug/L (EPA MCL = 5 ug/L) - Extended water usage by

  19. IMPROVEMENTS IN WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS BASED ON OPTIMIZATION AND RECOGNITION OF CONSUMPTION PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. F. DINIZ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems consume large amounts of energy because of the pumping processes involved. The operational strategy of using frequency converters enables the system to work with better adjusted discharge rate to meet demand. In this case, an optimization strategy can establish an optimal procedure in order to schedule the rotational speed of pumps over a period and guarantee a volume of water in the supply tank. This work presents and solves an optimization problem that provides the optimal schedule for the rotational speed of pumps in a real water supply system considering minimizing the use of electricity and the cost thereof and maintenance. The optimization problem is based on two Artificial Neural Networks (ANN models that provide the total power consumption in the pumping system and level of water in the tank. Pattern recognition techniques in univariate time series based on the real data are used to forecast the demand curve according to the season ofthe year. The results show the potential savings generated by the proposed method and show the feasibility of scheduling the rotational speed of the pumps to ensure the minimum energy cost without affecting hourly demand and the security of the supply system.

  20. Water coolant supply in relation to different ultrasonic scaler systems, tips and coolant settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, T.J.G.; Timmerman, M.F.; Feilzer, A.J.; van der Velden, U.; van der Weijden, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated "in vitro" the consistency of the water coolant supply for five ultrasonic scaler systems in relation to the tip type and different coolant settings. Material and Methods: The systems were: EMS PM-400, EMS PM-600, Satelec P-max, Dürr Vector and Dentsply Cavitron. For

  1. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Guen Yoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6. The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply.

  2. Addressing stakeholder conflicts in rural South Africa using a water supply model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D' Hont, F.M.; Clifford-Holmes, J.K.; Slinger, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    A system dynamics modelling approach is adopted to deepen understanding of the effects of operational management on the performance of the Greater Kirkwood water supply system in South Africa. Currently, the interrupted operation of the system has led to perceptions of systemic social injustice on t

  3. Self-Supply as a Complementary Water Services Delivery Model in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Butterworth

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-supply, where households invest to develop their own easily-accessible water supplies, is identified as an alternative service delivery model that is potentially complementary to more highly subsidised community-level provision. The approach is widespread in Ethiopia with family wells bringing additional benefits that are in line with wider government objectives, such as supporting small-scale irrigation. However, two recent studies show the current performance of traditional or family wells to be far below potential with most sources providing unsafe water in the absence of adequate protection. Wider formal recognition of Self-supply in policy and the development of the government-led Self-supply Acceleration Programme (SSAP aim to extend access and improve aspects of performance including water quality. However, a key finding of the paper is that successful uptake of this programme requires a transformation in the attitudes of donor agencies and the roles of government regional- and woreda-level staff, amongst others. Necessary shifts in mindsets and revision of planning mechanisms, as well as the day-to-day operational support requirements, represent a challenge for an under-resourced sector. Other household-focused development interventions such as Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS and Household Water Treatment and Storage (HWTS face some similar challenges, so the processes for the development of one approach could help in the scaling up of all.

  4. A decision support system for optimization of regional drinking water supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, C.; Schot, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    Finding a strategy that allows economically efficient drinking water production in regional supply systems at minimal environmental cost is often a complex task. In order to determine the optimal spatial production configuration, a systematic trade off among costs and benefits of possible strategies

  5. Water Supply Deficiency and Implications for Rural Development in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwocha, E. E.

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the marginalization of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria in terms of infrastructural and social services provision. This study examined the water supply deficiency and its general implications for rural development within the region. Data and other study characteristics were extracted from 501 subjects drawn from…

  6. Impact of reservoirs on river discharge and irrigation water supply during the 20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, H.; Haddeland, I.; Kabat, P.; Ludwig, F.; Hutjes, R.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative estimation of the impact of reservoirs on discharge and irrigation water supply during the 20th century at global, continental, and river basin scale. Compared to a natural situation the combined effect of reservoir operation and irrigation extractions decreased me

  7. Long-term dynamics of dissolved organic carbon: implications for drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, José L J; Köhler, Stephan J; Futter, Martyn N

    2012-08-15

    Surface waters are the main source of drinking water in many regions. Increasing organic carbon concentrations are a cause for concern in Nordic countries since both dissolved and particulate organic carbon can transport contaminants and adversely affect drinking water treatment processes. We present a long-term study of dynamics of total (particulate and dissolved) organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in the River Fyris. This river supplies drinking water to approximately 200000 people in Uppsala, Sweden. The River Fyris is a main tributary to Lake Mälaren, which supplies drinking water to approximately 2 million people in the greater Stockholm area. Utilities responsible for drinking water supply in both Uppsala and Stockholm have expressed concerns about possible increases in TOC. We evaluate organic carbon dynamics within the Fyris catchment by calculating areal mass exports using observed TOC concentrations and modeled flows and by modeling dissolved organic carbon (as a proxy for TOC) using the dynamic, process based INCA-C model. Exports of TOC from the catchment ranged from 0.8 to 5.8 g m(-2) year(-1) in the period 1995-2010. The variation in annual exports was related to climatic variability which influenced seasonality and amount of runoff. Exports and discharge uncoupled at the end of 2008. A dramatic increase in TOC concentrations was observed in 2009, which gradually declined in 2010-2011. INCA-C successfully reproduced the intra- and inter-annual variation in concentrations during 1996-2008 and 2010-2011 but failed to capture the anomalous increase in 2009. We evaluated a number of hypotheses to explain the anomaly in 2009 TOC values, ultimately none proved satisfactory. We draw two main conclusions: there is at least one unknown or unmeasured process controlling or influencing surface water TOC and INCA-C can be used as part of the decision-making process for current and future use of rivers for drinking water supply.

  8. Rhode Island Water Supply System Management Plan Database (WSSMP-Version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.

    2004-01-01

    In Rhode Island, the availability of water of sufficient quality and quantity to meet current and future environmental and economic needs is vital to life and the State's economy. Water suppliers, the Rhode Island Water Resources Board (RIWRB), and other State agencies responsible for water resources in Rhode Island need information about available resources, the water-supply infrastructure, and water use patterns. These decision makers need historical, current, and future water-resource information. In 1997, the State of Rhode Island formalized a system of Water Supply System Management Plans (WSSMPs) to characterize and document relevant water-supply information. All major water suppliers (those that obtain, transport, purchase, or sell more than 50 million gallons of water per year) are required to prepare, maintain, and carry out WSSMPs. An electronic database for this WSSMP information has been deemed necessary by the RIWRB for water suppliers and State agencies to consistently document, maintain, and interpret the information in these plans. Availability of WSSMP data in standard formats will allow water suppliers and State agencies to improve the understanding of water-supply systems and to plan for future needs or water-supply emergencies. In 2002, however, the Rhode Island General Assembly passed a law that classifies some of the WSSMP information as confidential to protect the water-supply infrastructure from potential terrorist threats. Therefore the WSSMP database was designed for an implementation method that will balance security concerns with the information needs of the RIWRB, suppliers, other State agencies, and the public. A WSSMP database was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the RIWRB. The database was designed to catalog WSSMP information in a format that would accommodate synthesis of current and future information about Rhode Island's water-supply infrastructure. This report documents the design and implementation of

  9. The potential for snow to supply human water demand in the present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankin, Justin S.; Viviroli, Daniel; Singh, Deepti; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2015-11-01

    Runoff from snowmelt is regarded as a vital water source for people and ecosystems throughout the Northern Hemisphere (NH). Numerous studies point to the threat global warming poses to the timing and magnitude of snow accumulation and melt. But analyses focused on snow supply do not show where changes to snowmelt runoff are likely to present the most pressing adaptation challenges, given sub-annual patterns of human water consumption and water availability from rainfall. We identify the NH basins where present spring and summer snowmelt has the greatest potential to supply the human water demand that would otherwise be unmet by instantaneous rainfall runoff. Using a multi-model ensemble of climate change projections, we find that these basins—which together have a present population of ∼2 billion people—are exposed to a 67% risk of decreased snow supply this coming century. Further, in the multi-model mean, 68 basins (with a present population of >300 million people) transition from having sufficient rainfall runoff to meet all present human water demand to having insufficient rainfall runoff. However, internal climate variability creates irreducible uncertainty in the projected future trends in snow resource potential, with about 90% of snow-sensitive basins showing potential for either increases or decreases over the near-term decades. Our results emphasize the importance of snow for fulfilling human water demand in many NH basins, and highlight the need to account for the full range of internal climate variability in developing robust climate risk management decisions.

  10. Improving access to water supply and sanitation in urban India: microfinance for water and sanitation infrastructure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jenna; White, Gary; Damodaron, Said; Thorsten, Rich

    2008-01-01

    This article summarises initial findings of a study to explore the potential of providing micro-financing for low-income households wishing to invest in improved water supply and sanitation services. Through in-depth interviews with more than 800 households in the city of Hyderabad in India, we conclude that, even if provided with market (not concessional) rates of financing, a substantial proportion of poor households would invest in water and sewer network connections.

  11. Contamination of water supplies by volcanic ashfall: A literature review and simple impact modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, C.; Johnston, D. M.; Leonard, G. S.; Horwell, C. J.; Thordarson, T.; Cronin, S. J.

    2006-11-01

    Volcanic ash is the most widely-distributed product of explosive volcanic eruptions, and can disrupt vital infrastructure on a large scale. Previous studies of effects of ashfall on natural waters and water supplies have focused mainly on the consequences of increased levels of turbidity (ash suspended in water), acidity and fluoride, with very little attention paid to other contaminants associated with volcanic ash. The aims of this paper are twofold: firstly, to review previous studies of the effects of volcanic ashfall on water supplies and identify information gaps; and secondly, to propose a simple model for predicting effects of ashfall on water supplies using available information on ash composition. We reviewed reported impacts of historic eruptions on water supplies, drawing on case studies from New Zealand, Vanuatu, Argentina, the USA, Costa Rica, Montserrat, Iceland and Guadeloupe. Elevated concentrations of fluoride, iron, sulphate and chloride, as well as turbidity and acidity, have been reported in water supplies. From a public health perspective, the two main issues appear to be: (1) outbreaks of infectious disease caused by the inhibition of disinfection by high levels of suspended ash, and (2) elevated fluoride concentrations. We devised a simple model using volcanic ash leachate composition data to predict effects on receiving waters. Applying this model to the effects of Ruapehu ash, from the 1995/1996 eruptions, suggests that the primary effects of concern are likely to be an increase in acidity (decrease in pH), and increases in concentrations of the metals aluminium, iron and manganese. These metals are not normally considered to pose health risks, and are regulated only by secondary, non-enforceable guidelines. However, exceedences of guideline values for Al, Mn, Fe and pH will cause water to become undrinkable due to a bitter metallic taste and dark colour, and may also cause corrosion, staining and scale deposition problems in water tanks

  12. The occurrence of radioactivity in public water supplies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, C T; Michel, J; Horton, T R; Prichard, H M; Coniglio, W A

    1985-05-01

    Examination of the collected data for radionuclide concentration measurements in public water supplies in the United States show more than 51,000 measurements for gross alpha-particle activity and/or Ra, 89,900 measurements for U, and 9,000 measurements for Rn. These measurements were made as part of national and state surveys of radionuclide concentrations in utility water supplies for Ra and Rn; and the National Uranium Resource Evolution (NURE) survey for U which included non-utility water supplies. Surface water has low values for Ra and Rn but levels comparable to ground water for U. Separate isotope measurements were not taken for much of the Ra and U data. Because 226Ra to 228Ra ratios and 238U to 234U ratios are not fixed in water, further measurements are needed to establish the specific isotopic concentrations by region. Analysis of the state average values in geological provinces shows the highest provincial areas for Ra are the Upper Coastal Plain, the glaciated Central Platform, and the Colorado plateau. For U, the highest areas are the Colorado plateau, the West Central Platform, and the Rocky Mountains. For Rn, the highest provinces are New England and the Appalachian Highlands-Piedmont. Regional hydrogeological and geochemical models are suggested for guiding the formulation of regional standards and monitoring strategies. Utility supplies serving small populations have the highest concentration for each radionuclide and have the lowest fraction of samples measured, which shows a need for further measurements of these small population water supplies. Risk estimates for the average concentration of Ra in utility ground water give about 941 fatal cancers per 70.7-yr lifetime in the United States. Risk estimates for the average concentration of U in utility surface and ground water give about 105 fatal cancers per 70.7-yr lifetime in the United States. Using 1 pCi/liter in air for 10,000 pCi/l in water, the Rn in utility water risk estimate is for 4

  13. Contribution of Water Saving to a Stable Power Supply in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Otani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Vietnam, the rapid expansion of cities is exceeding the supply capacity for water and electricity, and restrictions on water supply and blackouts occur on a daily basis. In this study, the authors examined whether water-saving equipment could solve these problems. This paper focused on toilet bowls that consumed a large amount of water, and on showers for which heat consumption was high. In Vietnam, the main heat source for showers is the electric water heater, typically having a power consumption of 2500–4500 W. Although the current diffusion rate of such water heaters is just 13%, their use will spread widely in the future. These heaters have already placed a peak load on electricity consumption in winter when a large amount of energy is consumed for heating water, and they will become a significant factor in blackout risks as their use becomes commonplace nationwide. It is clear that the introduction of water-saving showers will allow not only a more efficient use of water resources, but will also mitigate against the risk of blackouts.

  14. Effects of seasonal operation on the quality of water produced by public-supply wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M; Jurgens, Bryant C

    2014-09-01

    Seasonal variability in groundwater pumping is common in many places, but resulting effects of seasonal pumping stress on the quality of water produced by public-supply wells are not thoroughly understood. Analysis of historical water-quality samples from public-supply wells completed in deep basin-fill aquifers in Modesto, California (134 wells) and Albuquerque, New Mexico (95 wells) indicates that several wells have seasonal variability in concentrations of contaminants of concern. In Modesto, supply wells are more likely to produce younger groundwater with higher nitrate and uranium concentrations during the summer (high) pumping season than during the winter (low) pumping season. In Albuquerque, supply wells are more likely to produce older groundwater with higher arsenic concentrations during the winter pumping season than during the summer pumping season. Seasonal variability in contaminant concentrations in Modesto is influenced primarily by effects of summer pumping on vertical hydraulic gradients that drive migration of shallow groundwater through the aquifer to supply wells. Variability in Albuquerque is influenced primarily by the period of time that a supply well is idle, allowing its wellbore to act as a conduit for vertical groundwater flow and contaminant migration. However, both processes are observed in each study area. Similar findings would appear to be likely in other alluvial basins with stratified water quality and substantial vertical head gradients. Results suggest that even in aquifers dominated by old groundwater, changes to seasonal pumping patterns and/or to depth of well completion can help reduce vulnerability to selected contaminants of either natural or anthropogenic origin.

  15. Extraction and Preference Ordering of Multireservoir Water Supply Rules in Dry Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new methodology of combined use of the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II and the approach of successive elimination of alternatives based on order and degree of efficiency (SEABODE in identifying the most preferred multireservoir water supply rules in dry years. First, the suggested operation rules consists of a two-point type time-varying hedging policy for a single reservoir and a simple proportional allocation policy of common water demand between two parallel reservoirs. Then, the NSGA-II is employed to derive enough noninferior operation rules (design alternatives in terms of two conflicting objectives (1 minimizing the total deficit ratio (TDR of all demands of the entire system in operation horizon, and (2 minimizing the maximum deficit ratio (MDR of water supply in a single period. Next, the SEABODE, a multicriteria decision making (MCDM procedure, is applied to further eliminate alternatives based on the concept of efficiency of order k with degree p. In SEABODE, the reservoir performance indices and water shortage indices are selected as evaluation criteria for preference ordering among the design alternatives obtained by NSGA-II. The proposed methodology was tested on a regional water supply system with three reservoirs located in the Jialing River, China, where the results demonstrate its applicability and merits.

  16. Domestic rainwater harvesting to improve water supply in rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-marc; Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Boroto, Jean R.

    Halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, is one of the targets of the 7th Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In South Africa, with its mix of developed and developing regions, 9.7 million (20%) of the people do not have access to adequate water supply and 16 million (33%) lack proper sanitation services. Domestic Rainwater Harvesting (DRWH), which provides water directly to households enables a number of small-scale productive activities, has the potential to supply water even in rural and peri-urban areas that conventional technologies cannot supply. As part of the effort to achieve the MDGs, the South African government has committed itself to provide financial assistance to poor households for the capital cost of rainwater storage tanks and related works in the rural areas. Despite this financial assistance, the legal status of DRWH remains unclear and DRWH is in fact illegal by strict application of the water legislations. Beyond the cost of installation, maintenance and proper use of the DRWH system to ensure its sustainability, there is risk of waterborne diseases. This paper explores challenges to sustainable implementation of DRWH and proposes some interventions which the South African government could implement to overcome them.

  17. The new Bracciano water supply system; Il nuovo acquedotto del lago di Bracciano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaco, Mario; Eramo, Biagio; Martino, Giorgio [ACEA, Azienda Comunale Energia ed Ambiente, Rome (Italy)

    1996-09-01

    The New Bracciano Aqueduct will almost complete the Rome Water Supply System planned since 1955; as well it represents the prosecution of the ancient Rome water supply tradition started more than two thousand years ago. The new aqueduct, with its present discharge of 3.2 m{sup 3}/s increasable to 8.0 m{sup 3}/s in the future, will improve Rome water system reliability. It will be possible, infact, to put ``out of service`` one of the other main roman aqueducts without creating any problem to users. This is of great importance for the reliability actually related to incertain stability condition of the oldest roman aqueduct as well as Peschiera (about 50 years old) and Acqua Marcia (more of 90 years old) Aqueducts.

  18. Urinary arsenic profiles reveal exposures to inorganic arsenic from private drinking water supplies in Cornwall, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D. R. S.; Watts, M. J.; Hamilton, E. M.; Ander, E. L.; Close, R. M.; Exley, K. S.; Crabbe, H.; Leonardi, G. S.; Fletcher, T.; Polya, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    Private water supplies (PWS) in Cornwall, South West England exceeded the current WHO guidance value and UK prescribed concentration or value (PCV) for arsenic of 10 μg/L in 5% of properties surveyed (n = 497). In this follow-up study, the first of its kind in the UK, volunteers (n = 207) from 127 households who used their PWS for drinking, provided urine and drinking water samples for total As determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and urinary As speciation by high performance liquid chromatography ICP-MS (HPLC-ICP-MS). Arsenic concentrations exceeding 10 μg/L were found in the PWS of 10% of the volunteers. Unadjusted total urinary As concentrations were poorly correlated (Spearman’s ρ = 0.36 (P private water supplies as the dominant source of inorganic As exposure in the study population of PWS users.

  19. Formation of nitrogenous disinfection by-products in 10 chlorinated and chloraminated drinking water supply systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Deborah; Linge, Kathryn L; Joll, Cynthia A

    2016-09-01

    The presence of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) in drinking water supplies is a public health concern, particularly since some N-DBPs have been reported to be more toxic than the regulated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation of the presence of N-DBPs in 10 drinking water supply systems in Western Australia is presented. A suite of 28 N-DBPs, including N-nitrosamines, haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloacetamides (HAAms) and halonitromethanes (HNMs), were measured and evaluated for relationships with bulk parameters in the waters before disinfection. A number of N-DBPs were frequently detected in disinfected waters, although at generally low concentrations (water, N-DBP concentrations were significantly correlated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ammonia, and these, in addition to high bromide in one of the waters, led to elevated concentrations of brominated HANs (26.6 μg/L of dibromoacetonitrile). There were significant differences in the occurrence of all classes of N-DBPs between chlorinated and chloraminated waters, except for HNMs, which were detected at relatively low concentrations in both water types. Trends observed in one large distribution system suggest that N-DBPs can continue to form or degrade within distribution systems, and redosing of disinfectant may cause further by-product formation.

  20. Energy efficiency in a water supply system: Energy consumption and CO2 emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. RAMOS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents important fundaments associated to the water/energy consumption and enhances the importance of renewable energy sources. A model of multi-criterion optimization for energy efficiency based on water and environment management policy, the preservation of the water resources, the control of water pressure and energy consumption, through a hybrid energy solution is developed and applied to a water supply system. The methodology developed includes three solutions: (i water turbine installation in pipes where there is a need to control the pressure by pressure reducing valves, (ii the optimization of pumping operations according to the electricity tariff and the water demand and (iii the addition of a renewable energy source, a wind turbine, to supply energy to the pump-station and to sell the remaining to the national grid. The use of an integrated solution (water/energy shows to be a valuable input to benefit from available hydro energy in WSS to produce clean power and the use of wind source allows reducing the energy consumption in pump-stations, which is still mostly based on fossil fuels with high levels of CO2 emissions.

  1. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lucas

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells.

    For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s−1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand, requiring only disinfection (900 l s−1 or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make

  2. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Stigter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells.

    For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s−1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand, requiring only disinfection (900 l s−1 or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make

  3. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigter, T. Y.; Monteiro, J. P.; Nunes, L. M.; Vieira, J.; Cunha, M. C.; Ribeiro, L.; Nascimento, J.; Lucas, H.

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells. For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s-1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand), requiring only disinfection (900 l s-1) or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make the water supply system extremely vulnerable, with a high

  4. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybel, A-M; Godskesen, B; Rygaard, M

    2015-09-01

    Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2) the river basin level, and (3) the regional level. The assessments showed that Copenhagen's water supply had the highest impact on the freshwater resource per cubic meter of water abstracted, with a WSI of 1.75 at Level 1. The WSI values were 1.64 for Aarhus's and 0.81 for Esbjerg's water supply. Spatial resolution was identified as a major factor determining the outcome of the impact assessment. For the three case studies, WTA and WSI were 27%-583% higher at Level 1 than impacts calculated for the regional scale. The results highlight that freshwater impact assessments based on regional data, rather than sub-river basin data, may dramatically underestimate the actual impact on the water resource. Furthermore, this study discusses the strengths and shortcomings of the applied indicator approaches. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that although WSI has the highest environmental relevance, it also has the highest uncertainty, as it requires estimations of non-measurable environmental water requirements. Hence, the development of a methodology to obtain more site-specific and relevant estimations of environmental water requirements should be prioritized. Finally, the demarcation of the groundwater resource in aquifers remains a challenge for establishing a consistent method for benchmarking freshwater impacts caused by groundwater abstraction.

  5. Optimization of operational planning for wind/hydro hybrid water supply systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Filipe; Ramos, Helena M. [Department of Civil Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-03-15

    Water supply systems (WSS) frequently present high-energy consumption values, which correspond to the major expenses of these systems. Energy costs are a function of its real consumption and of the variability of the daily energy tariff. This paper presents a model of optimization for the energy efficiency in a water supply system. The system is equipped with a pump station and presents excess of available energy in the gravity branch. First, a water turbine is introduced in the system in order to use this excess of hydraulic available energy. Then, an optimization method to define the pump operation planning along the 24 h of simulation, as well as the analysis of the economic benefits resulting from the profit of wind energy to supply the water pumping, while satisfying the system constraints and population demands, is implemented, in order to minimize the global operational costs. The model, developed in MATLAB, uses linear programming and provides the planning strategy to take in each time step, which will influence the following hours. The simulation period considered is one day, sub-divided in hourly time steps. The rules obtained as output of the optimization procedures are subsequently introduced in a hydraulic simulator (e.g. EPANET), in order to verify the system behaviour along the simulation period. The results are compared with the normal operating mode (i.e. without optimization algorithm) and show that energy cost's savings are achieved dependently of the initial reservoir levels or volume. The insertion of the water turbine also generates significant economical benefits for the water supply system. (author)

  6. Qualilty, isotopes, and radiochemistry of water sampled from the Upper Moenkopi Village water-supply wells, Coconino County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Rob; Beisner, Kimberly; Smith, Greg

    2013-01-01

    The Hopi Tribe Water Resources Program has granted contracts for studies to evaluate water supply conditions for the Moenkopi villages in Coconino County, Arizona. The Moenkopi villages include Upper Moenkopi Village and the village of Lower Moencopi, both on the Hopi Indian Reservation south of the Navajo community of Tuba City. These investigations have determined that water supplies are limited and vulnerable to several potential sources of contamination, including the Tuba City Landfill and a former uranium processing facility known as the Rare Metals Mill. Studies are ongoing to determine if uranium and other metals in groundwater beneath the landfill are greater than regional groundwater concentrations. The source of water supply for the Upper Moenkopi Village is three public-supply wells. The wells are referred to as MSW-1, MSW-2, and MSW-3 and all three wells obtain water from the regionally extensive N aquifer. The N aquifer is the principal aquifer in this region of northern Arizona and consists of thick beds of sandstone between less permeable layers of siltstone and mudstone. The relatively fine-grained character of the N aquifer inhibits rapid movement of water and large yields to wells. In recent years, water levels have declined in the three public-supply wells, causing concern that the current water supply will not be able to accommodate peak demand and allow for residential and economic growth. Analyses of major ions, nutrients, selected trace metals, stable and radioactive isotopes, and radiochemistry were performed on the groundwater samples from the three public-supply wells to describe general water-quality conditions and groundwater ages in and immediately surrounding the Upper Moenkopi Village area. None of the water samples collected from the public-supply wells exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standards. The ratios of the major dissolved ions from the samples collected from MSW-1 and MSW-2 indicate

  7. Combination of drainage, water supply and environmental protection as well as rational distribution of water resource in Zhengzhou mining district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qiang; LI Duo; DI Zhiqiang; MIAO Ying; ZHAO Suqi; GUO Qiwen

    2005-01-01

    The geological condition of coalfield is much complex in China. With increasing in mining depth and drainage amount, the contradiction of drainage, water supply and environmental protection is becoming more and more serious. However, the contradiction can be solved by the scientific management of optimizing combination of drainage, water supply and environmental protection. The Philip multiple objectives simplex method used in this article has searched for a possible solution at the first step, and then it goes on searching to find out whether there is a weight number that can lead the solution to the biggest. It can reduce the randomness and difficulty of traditional weight method which determine the weight number artificially. Some beneficial coefficients are vague and the number is larger in the model of water resource dispatch. So the vague layer analysis method can consider these vague factors fully, combining the qualitative and quantitative analysis together. Especially, this method can quantify the experiential judgement of policy decider, and it will turn to be more suitable if the structure of objective factors is complex or the necessary data are absent. In the paper, the two methods above are used to solve the plans of drainage, water supply and optimizing distribution of water resource in the Zhengzhou mining district.

  8. Cost analysis of ground-water supplies in the North Atlantic region, 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederstrom, Dagfin John

    1973-01-01

    The cost of municipal and industrial ground water (or, more specifically, large supplies of ground water) at the wellhead in the North Atlantic Region in 1970 generally ranged from 1.5 to 5 cents per thousand gallons. Water from crystalline rocks and shale is relatively expensive. Water from sandstone is less so. Costs of water from sands and gravels in glaciated areas and from Coastal Plain sediments range from moderate to very low. In carbonate rocks costs range from low to fairly high. The cost of ground water at the wellhead is low in areas of productive aquifers, but owing to the cost of connecting pipe, costs increase significantly in multiple-well fields. In the North Atlantic Region, development of small to moderate supplies of ground water may offer favorable cost alternatives to planners, but large supplies of ground water for delivery to one point cannot generally be developed inexpensively. Well fields in the less productive aquifers may be limited by costs to 1 or 2 million gallons a day, but in the more favorable aquifers development of several tens of millions of gallons a day may be practicable and inexpensive. Cost evaluations presented cannot be applied to any one specific well or specific site because yields of wells in any one place will depend on the local geologic and hydrologic conditions; however, with such cost adjustments as may be necessary, the methodology presented should have wide applicability. Data given show the cost of water at the wellhead based on the average yield of several wells. The cost of water delivered by a well field includes costs of connecting pipe and of wells that have the yields and spacings specified. Cost of transport of water from the well field to point of consumption and possible cost of treatment are not evaluated. In the methodology employed, costs of drilling and testing, pumping equipment, engineering for the well field, amortization at 5% percent interest, maintenance, and cost of power are considered. The

  9. The Method of Identification the Failure Risk on Water Supply Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchórzewska-Cieślak Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Daily exploitation of the water network, collecting of data concerning the failure of water pipes and knowledge of the repair team are the basis of the data used in the process of effectively removing and identifying failures. The paper proposes a methodology to identify the risk of failure of the water supply system that uses risk indexes according to the proposed three-stage scale of risk levels. An example of application methods for the actual operational data broken down by analysis and risk assessment for bus cables and a separate analysis for the distribution network.

  10. The Method of Identification the Failure Risk on Water Supply Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tchórzewska-Cieślak Barbara; Piegdoń Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Daily exploitation of the water network, collecting of data concerning the failure of water pipes and knowledge of the repair team are the basis of the data used in the process of effectively removing and identifying failures. The paper proposes a methodology to identify the risk of failure of the water supply system that uses risk indexes according to the proposed three-stage scale of risk levels. An example of application methods for the actual operational data broken down by analysis and r...

  11. Agricultural implications of reduced water supplies in the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, R. R.; Roach, F.; Gollehon, N. R.; Creel, B. J.

    1982-02-01

    The growth of the energy sector in the energy-rich but water-restricted Western US has presented a potential conflict with the irrigated agricultural sector. This study measures the direct impacts on farm income and employment resulting from the transfer of water from agriculture to energy in two specific geographical areas - the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins. We used a linear programming model to evaluate the impacts of reduced water supplies. Through the use of regional multipliers, we expanded our analysis to include regional impacts. Volume I provides the major analysis of these impacts. Volume II provides further technical data.

  12. Investigation af a solar heating system for space heating and domestic hot water supply with a high degree of coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    A solar storage tank for space heating and domestic hot water supply was designed and testet in af laboratory test facility.......A solar storage tank for space heating and domestic hot water supply was designed and testet in af laboratory test facility....

  13. THE USE OF RT-PCR FOR THE DETECTION OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN PRAIRIE SURFACE DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concerns over the microbial safety of drinking water supplies have focused on bacteria and parasites while the occurrence of pathogenic waterborne viruses have been largely ignored. In fact, water supplies are not routinely monitored for human enteric viruses. This is despite t...

  14. Water supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in low-income areas of Lilongwe City, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidya, Russel C. G.; Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.; Banda, Sembeyawo C. T.

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies in many developing countries have shown that Small Scale Independent Providers (SSIPs) in low-income areas (LIAs) are practical alternatives to water utilities. This study explored supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in four LIAs of Lilongwe City in Malawi using qualitative and quantitative methods. Household-level surveys (n = 120) and transect walks were employed to determine the socio-economic activities in the areas. One-on-one discussions were made with water source owners (SSIPs) (n = 24). Data on policy and institutional frameworks was collected through desktop study and Key Informant Interviews (n = 25). Quality of the water sources (shallow wells and boreholes) was determined by collecting grab samples (n = 24) in triplicate using 500 mL bottles. Selected physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were measured: pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, water temperature, salinity, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl-, F-, NO3-, alkalinity, water hardness, Fecal coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococci (FS) bacteria. Water quality data was compared with Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. Shallow wells were reported (65%, n = 120) to be the main source of water for household use in all areas. Some policies like prohibition of boreholes and shallow wells in City locations were in conflict with other provisions of water supply, sanitation and housing. High levels of FC (0-2100 cfu/100 mL) and FS (0-1490 cfu/100 mL) at several sites (>90%, n = 24) suggest water contamination likely to impact on human health. This calls for upgrading and recognition of the water sources for improved water service delivery.

  15. Water-supply potential from an asphalt-lined catchment near Holualoa Kona, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Salwyn S.W.

    1965-01-01

    The Jenkins-Whitesburg area includes approximately 250 square miles In Letcher and Pike Counties in the southeastern part of the Eastern Coal Field. In this area ground water is the principal source of water for nearly all rural families, most public supplies, several coal mines and coal processing plants, and one bottling plant. The major aquifers in the Jenkins-Whitesburg area are the Breathitt and Lee Formations of Pennsylvanian age. Other aquifers range in age from Devonian to Quaternary but are not important in this area because they occur at great depth or yield little or no water. The Breathitt Formation occurs throughout the area except along the crest and slopes of Pine Mountain and where it is covered by unconsolidated material of Quaternary age. The Breathitt Formation consists of shale, sandstone, and lesser amounts of coal and associated underclay. The yield of wells penetrating the Breathitt Formation ranges from less than 1 to 330 gallons per minute. Well yield is controlled by the type and depth of well, character of the aquifer, and topography of the well site. Generally, deep wells drilled in valleys of perennial streams offer the best potential for high yields. Although enough water for a minimum domestic supply (more than 100 gallons per day) may be obtained from shale, all high-yielding wells probably obtain water from vertical joints and from bedding planes which are best developed in sandstone. About 13 percent of the wells inventoried in the Breathitt Formation failed to supply enough water for a minimum domestic supply. Most of these are shallow dug wells or drilled wells on hillsides or hilltops. Abandoned coal mines are utilized as large infiltration galleries and furnish part of the water for several public supplies. The chemical quality of water from the Breathitt Formation varies considerably from place to place, but the water generally is acceptable for most domestic and industrial uses. Most water is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate

  16. Assessment of scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabihollah Yousefi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scaling and corrosion are the two most important indexes in water quality evaluation. Pollutants are released in water due to corrosion of pipelines. The aim of this study is to assess the scale formation and corrosion of drinking water supplies in Ilam city (Iran. Methods: This research is a descriptive and cross-sectional study which is based on the 20 drinking water sources in Ilam city. Experiments were carried out in accordance with the Water and Wastewater Co. standard methods for water and wastewater experiment. The data were analyzed by using Microsoft Excel and GraphPad Prism 5. The results were compared with national and international standards. Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD values of Ryznar, Langelier, Aggressive, Puckorius and Larson-Skold indices in year 2009 were equal to 7.833 (±0.28, -0.102 (±0.35, 11.88 (±0.34, 7.481 (±0.22 and 0.801 (±0.44, respectively, and were 7.861 (±0.28, -0.175 (±0.34, 11.84 (±0.37, 7.298(±0.32 and 0.633 (±0.47, for year 2013 respectively. The average of Langelier, Ryznar, Aggression, and Puckorius indices indicate that potable water resources in Ilam city have the tendency to be corrosive. Statistical analysis and figures carried out by GraphPad Prism version 5.04. Conclusion: The results of different indices for water resources of Ilam city revealed that water supplies of Ilam city were corrosive. Water quality control and replacement of distribution pipes in development of water network should be carried out. Moreover, water pipelines should be preserved with several modes of corrosion inhibition.

  17. The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Oliveira Scoaris

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of Aeromonas sp in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies. Positive samples were found for Aeromonas spp. 12.7% from the mineral water, 8.3% from the artesian water and 6.5% from the tap water. The recovery of Aeromonas spp. was significantly higher in the bottled mineral and artesian water than in the tap water from municipal supplies. The occurrence of the Aeromonas spp. did not correlate significantly with the contamination indicator bacteria (i.e. total coliforms in the artesian water samples. However, a significant correlation was found between Aeromonas spp. and total coliforms in the both mineral water and tap water samples. The presence or absence of a correlation between the indicator bacteria and Aeromonas could reflect the occasional appearance of the pathogen in the drinking water and the different rates of survival and recovery of these agents compared with those fecal indicators. The finding that 41.6, 14.8 and 9.0 % of the artesian water, bottled mineral water and tap water, respectively, sampled in the current study failed to meet the Brazilian standard for total coliforms in the drinking water should therefore be of concern.A porcentagem de amostras positivas para Aeromonas foi de 12.7% para água mineral, 8.3% para água de poço artesiano e 6.5% para água do sistema público de abastecimento. O isolamento de Aeromonas spp. foi significativamente maior em água mineral e água de poço artesiano do que em água do sistema público. A ocorrência de Aeromonas spp. não teve correlação significativa com os indicadores de contaminação tradicionalmente utilizados (coliformes totais em amostras de água de poço artesiano. No entanto, esta correlação foi positiva e significativa em água mineral e água do sistema público. A presença ou ausência de correlação entre bactérias indicadoras e a presença de Aeromonas pode refletir o

  18. Challenging pathways to safe water access in rural Uganda: From supply to demand-driven water governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resty Naiga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Uganda has experienced a major policy shift from a supply-driven to a demand-driven approach in rural water provision since 1990. The article sheds light on the rural population’s access to safe water within the changing institutional frameworks. We analysed individual and group interviews with key informants from national to community levels and relevant official documents with the ‘Social-Ecological Systems’ framework. Since the implementation of the demand-driven approach, rural safe water coverage has slightly improved but operation and maintenance of water sources pose a great challenge hampering, long-term access to safe water. The abrupt and top-down imposed policy shift has resulted in competing signals from old and new policies creating uncertainty and ambiguity about responsibilities, rules and incentives. The analysis shows the importance of taking into account the implications of national institutional disturbances on local collective action for long-term access to safe water.

  19. Manmade radionuclide vector in Austrian soil and vegetation near Temelin nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinojmeri, M.; Ringer, V. [Oesterreichische Agentur fuer Gesundheit und Ernaehrungssicherheit - AGES (Austria)

    2014-07-01

    Since Chernobyl NPP accident an environmental monitoring program concerning the Upper Austrian region near Czech Republic Nuclear Power Plant, NPP Temelin, is in progress between AGES and BMLFUV, the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment, Water and Food, in Austria. This paper presents the results obtained during the sampling campaign over biennial period of 2010-2011. Soil samples, grass and different cereal species were collected. Beside Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-89, Sr-90 isotopes, at this phase the number of isotopes determined was extended with plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241 and Am-241. A comparison of these results with the existing data so far is presented. New knowledge was obtained related the bio-kinetic parameters of these elements in the environment. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  20. Hydropower and water supply: competing water uses under a future drier climate modeling scenarios for the Tagus River basin, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Diogo, Paulo; Nunes, João Pedro; Carmona Rodrigues, António; João Cruz, Maria; Grosso, Nuno

    2014-05-01

    Climate change in the Mediterranean region is expected to affect existing water resources, both in quantity and quality, as decreased mean annual precipitation and more frequent extreme precipitation events are likely to occur. Also, energy needs tend to increase, together with growing awareness that fossil fuels emissions are determinately responsible for global temperature rise, enhancing renewable energy use and reinforcing the importance of hydropower. When considered together, these facts represent a relevant threat to multipurpose reservoir operations. Great Lisbon main water supply (for c.a. 3 million people), managed by EPAL, is located in Castelo de Bode Reservoir, in the Tagus River affluent designated as Zêzere River. Castelo de Bode is a multipurpose infrastructure as it is also part of the hydropower network system of EDP, the main power company in Portugal. Facing the risk of potential climate change impacts on water resources availability, and as part of a wider project promoted by EPAL (designated as ADAPTACLIMA), climate change impacts on the Zêzere watershed where evaluated based on climate change scenarios for the XXI century. A sequential modeling approach was used and included downscaling climate data methodologies, hydrological modeling, volume reservoir simulations and water quality modeling. The hydrological model SWAT was used to predict the impacts of the A2 and B2 scenarios in 2010-2100, combined with changes in socio-economic drivers such as land use and water demands. Reservoir storage simulations where performed according to hydrological modeling results, water supply needs and dam operational requirements, such as minimum and maximum operational pool levels and turbine capacity. The Ce-Qual-W2 water quality model was used to assess water quality impacts. According to climate scenarios A2 and B2, rainfall decreases between 10 and 18% are expected by 2100, leading to drier climatic conditions and increased frequency and magnitude of

  1. Variable Frequency Constant Pressure Water Supply System Design%变频恒压供水系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤志强

    2016-01-01

    小区供水是变频恒压供水系统经常应用的例子。随着人民的生活条件越来越好,所以供水方式要越来越高效节能。小区供水系统是用PLC和变频器制作的供水控制系统。%District water supply is an example of constant frequency and constant pressure water supply system.In recent years, the development of people's living conditions are getting better and better, so the way to water supply more and more efficient and energy saving.District water supply system is a water supply control system with PLC and frequency changer.

  2. Daphnia magna fitness during low food supply under different water temperature and brownification scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Much of our current knowledge about non-limiting dietary carbon supply for herbivorous zooplankton is based on experimental evidence and typically conducted at ~1 mg C L-1 and ~20°C. Here we ask how low supply of dietary carbon affects somatic growth, reproduction, and survival of Daphnia magna and test effects of higher water temperature (+3 °C relative to ambient and brownification (3X higher than natural water color; both predicted effects of climate change during fall cooling. We predicted that even at very low carbon supply (~5µg C L-1, higher water temperature and brownification will allow D. magna to increase its fitness. Neonates (<24 h old were incubated with lake seston for 4 weeks (October-November 2013 in experimental bottles submerged in outdoor mesocosms to explore effects of warmer and darker water. Higher temperature and brownification did not significantly affect food quality, as assessed by its fatty acid composition. Daphnia exposed to both increased temperature and brownification had highest somatic growth and were the only that reproduced, and higher temperature caused the highest Daphnia survival success. These results suggest that even under low temperature and thus lower physiological activity, low food quantity is more important than its quality for D. magna fitness.

  3. Water supply in households and conditions for tourism development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjenović Kosovka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The global structural change, together with "the green revolution", caused the economic growth to be based on the service sector today, instead on the traditional economic sectors. The main focus of this paper is on the factors that affect the decisions of households in Serbia to participate in the tourism industry in the context of the sustainable development. In particular, a significant portion of the analysis is devoted to the constraints that can be induced by inadequate drinking water supply and its quality in households. These factors can be considered the main limitations to those households that decide to provide accommodation and food services to the tourists in their local touristreceiver communities. The empirical analysis is based on survey data that describe conditions in the households, whereas the econometric framework is employed in order to determine structural relationships. The null hypothesis that drinking water supply and quality do not affect the likelihood of the household participating in the tourism industry is tested and accepted based on the probit model estimates. The difference between the public urban and local water supply systems that provide drinking water to the households is statistically confirmed, but it does not affect the likelihood of the household participating in the tourism industry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-47009 i br. OI- 179015

  4. Neurobehavioral Performance of Estate Residents with Privately-Treated Water Supply.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Farizwana Mohd Ridzwan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurotoxicants present in water supply may affect human functions in terms of attention, response speed and perceptual motor speed. Neurobehavioural performance can be influenced by gender, age and education levels. This study aims to assess the neurobehavioral performance of palm oil estate residents with private water supply in southern Peninsular of Malaysia.A total of 287 and 246 participants from estates with private (PWS and public water supply (PUB were recruited to complete a demographic and subjective symptom questionnaire followed by the Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery (NCTB.PWS participants who consumed privately-treated water performed poorly in all NCTB tests compared to PUB participants except for Santa Ana test. Significant group differences in neurobehavioral performance were found for Digit Span Backward (P=0.047, Benton Visual Retention (P=0.006 and Trail Making B tests (P<0.05; which measures the function of memory, attention and visual perception-conceptual. Gender, age and years of education influenced the NCTB scores (P<0.05. Female participants performed poorly in tests measuring latency but excellently tackled those tests that determined association. Younger participants from both PWS and PUB performed better on NCTB tests when compared to other age groups (P<0.05. PWS and PUB participants in this study who received a longer duration of education excelled in the NCTB tests (P=0.000.Poor neurobehavioral performance is associated with low water supply quality which affects neurofunctions in terms of attention, memory, response and perceptual motor speed.

  5. Network Topology of the Austrian Airline Flights

    CERN Document Server

    Han, D D; Qian, J H

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the directed, weighted and evolutionary Austrian airline flight network. It is shown that such a specific airline flight network displays features of small-world networks, namely large clustering coefficient and small average shortest-path length. We study the detailed flight information both in a week and on a whole. In both cases, the degree distributions reveal power law with exponent value of 2 $\\sim$ 3 for the small degree branch and a flat tail for the large degree branch. Similarly, the flight weight distributions have power-law for the small weight branch. The degree-degree correlation analysis shows the network has disassortative behavior, i.e. the large airports are likely to link to smaller airports.

  6. Climate change impacts on water supply: implications for reservoir management in Upper Sabor, northeast Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Santos, Claudia; Monteiro, António T.; Azevedo, João; Nunes, João Pedro

    2016-04-01

    Climate change scenarios project warmer temperatures and less precipitation in Mediterranean watersheds. This can aggravate drought conditions, with negative impacts on water supply. Here, reservoirs may play an important role to mitigate these impacts. However, the implications of climate change are not always considered in the reservoir planning and management. This study aimed to address this issue for the Upper Sabor watershed, northeast Portugal. This is a medium watershed (403km2), part of the Sabor river, a tributary of Douro (one of the major rivers in the Iberian Peninsula). It is a mountainous watershed (up to 1500m), characterized by humid Mediterranean climate, with three dry months in summer. Almost 52% of the area is occupied by shrubland and 18% agriculture. Water supply for about 33 000 people has been based almost exclusively in one reservoir, but constant problems of water supply in dry summers, which coincide with a doubling of population due to summer holidays, led to the construction of a new reservoir in 2015. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used for a climate change impact assessment, considering the current water supply regime (single reservoir) and the construction of the new reservoir. SWAT was calibrated and validated against daily-observed discharge and reservoir volume, with a good agreement between model predictions and observations. Results from four GCMs (General Circulation Models) for two scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) were statistically downscaled and bias-corrected with ground observations; climate scenarios for 2021-2040 and 2041-2060 were compared with a control period in 1981-2000. In the future, a general increase of temperatures is expected in the Upper Sabor watershed, especially in the maximum temperature under RCP 8.5 scenario for 2041-2060 (Tmax: +2.88°C). The change in precipitation is more uncertain, with larger differences according to the selected climate model. Annual precipitation would

  7. Risk indicators for water supply systems for a drought Decision Support System in central Tuscany (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Giuseppe; Garrote, Luis; Caporali, Enrica

    2010-05-01

    Identifying the occurrence, the extent and the magnitude of a drought can be delicate, requiring detection of depletions of supplies and increases in demand. Drought indices, particularly the meteorological ones, can describe the onset and the persistency of droughts, especially in natural systems. However they have to be used cautiously when applied to water supply systems. They show little correlation with water shortage situations, since water storage, as well as demand fluctuation, play an important role in water resources management. For that reason a more dynamic indicator relating supply and demand is required in order to identify situations when there is risk of water shortages. In water supply systems there is great variability on the natural water resources and also on the demands. These quantities can only be defined probabilistically. This great variability is faced defining some threshold values, expressed in probabilistic terms, that measure the hydrologic state of the system. They can identify specific actions in an operational context in different levels of severity, like the normal, pre-alert, alert and emergency scenarios. They can simplify the decision-making required during stressful periods and can help mitigate the impacts of drought by clearly defining the conditions requiring actions. The threshold values are defined considering the probability to satisfy a given fraction of the demand in a certain time horizon, and are calibrated through discussion with water managers. A simplified model of the water resources system is built to evaluate the threshold values and the management rules. The threshold values are validated with a long term simulation that takes into account the characteristics of the evaluated system. The levels and volumes in the different reservoirs are simulated using 20-30 years time series. The critical situations are assessed month by month in order to evaluate optimal management rules during the year and avoid conditions

  8. Optimizing the dammed: water supply losses and fish habitat gains from dam removal in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, Sarah E; Medellín-Azuara, Josué; Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lent, Michelle; Lund, Jay R

    2014-04-01

    Dams provide water supply, flood protection, and hydropower generation benefits, but also harm native species by altering the natural flow regime and degrading aquatic and riparian habitat. Restoring some rivers reaches to free-flowing conditions may restore substantial environmental benefits, but at some economic cost. This study uses a systems analysis approach to preliminarily evaluate removing rim dams in California's Central Valley to highlight promising habitat and unpromising economic use tradeoffs for water supply and hydropower. CALVIN, an economic-engineering optimization model, is used to evaluate water storage and scarcity from removing dams. A warm and dry climate model for a 30-year period centered at 2085, and a population growth scenario for year 2050 water demands represent future conditions. Tradeoffs between hydropower generation and water scarcity to urban, agricultural, and instream flow requirements were compared with additional river kilometers of habitat accessible to anadromous fish species following dam removal. Results show that existing infrastructure is most beneficial if operated as a system (ignoring many current institutional constraints). Removing all rim dams is not beneficial for California, but a subset of existing dams are potentially promising candidates for removal from an optimized water supply and free-flowing river perspective. Removing individual dams decreases statewide delivered water by 0-2282 million cubic meters and provides access to 0 to 3200 km of salmonid habitat upstream of dams. The method described here can help prioritize dam removal, although more detailed, project-specific studies also are needed. Similarly, improving environmental protection can come at substantially lower economic cost, when evaluated and operated as a system.

  9. Beneficial use of waste heat in municipal water supply. Technical report TR-79-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, R.W.

    1979-08-01

    The relatively low temperature of thermal discharges from steam-electric power plants makes waste-heat utilization difficult without modification of the power cycle and attendant reduction in electrical energy generated. In situ beneficial use of waste heat by direct once-through condenser discharge into a municipal water supply is discussed. Computations are presented regarding the matching of flow rates, heat losses in distribution and energy savings. A number of benefits and penalties are also assessed qualitatively including legal and operational aspects and reliability. Especially attractive are improvements in electrical generating efficiency, and savings in water-heater energy. Secondary advantages include alleviation of pipe freeze up in winter and improved efficiency of slightly heated waste-water treatment. Penalties include additional pumping power for distribution in the water supply due to increased back pressure on the steam turbines which employ condensers cooled by the water they pump. Additional chlorine is also required to maintain a residual concentration in the distribution system. There may also be difficulties with public acceptance of water preheated by up to about 24/sup 0/F, especially in summer. The water supply of greater Chicago and 4880 MW(e) of colocated fossil-fired load-following generating capacity were analyzed as a hypothetical test case. It was concluded that the net annual energy savings is 23 x 10/sup 12/B, equivalent to 4 million bbl of oil, with a net savings in cost of $12./capita for the population of 4.66 m. While not developed for energy conservation purposes, three actual systems with operating experience are summarized. In order to determine feasibility of application, site-specific systems analysis is required.

  10. Trading-off tolerable risk with climate change adaptation costs in water supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgomeo, Edoardo; Mortazavi-Naeini, Mohammad; Hall, Jim W.; O'Sullivan, Michael J.; Watson, Tim

    2016-02-01

    Choosing secure water resource management plans inevitably requires trade-offs between risks (for a variety of stakeholders), costs, and other impacts. We have previously argued that water resources planning should focus upon metrics of risk of water restrictions, accompanied by extensive simulation and scenario-based exploration of uncertainty. However, the results of optimization subject to risk constraints can be sensitive to the specification of tolerable risk, which may not be precisely or consistently defined by different stakeholders. In this paper, we recast the water resources planning problem as a multiobjective optimization problem to identify least cost schemes that satisfy a set of criteria for tolerable risk, where tolerable risk is defined in terms of the frequency of water use restrictions of different levels of severity. Our proposed method links a very large ensemble of climate model projections to a water resource system model and a multiobjective optimization algorithm to identify a Pareto optimal set of water resource management plans across a 25 years planning period. In a case study application to the London water supply system, we identify water resources management plans that, for a given financial cost, maximize performance with respect to one or more probabilistic criteria. This illustrates trade-offs between financial costs of plans and risk, and between risk criteria for four different severities of water use restrictions. Graphical representation of alternative sequences of investments in the Pareto set helps to identify water management options for which there is a robust case for including them in the plan.

  11. Sustainable water supply systems in India: The role of financial institutions and ethical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowda Krishne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is a scarce resource and an important basic necessity for the human survival. The quantity of potable water on earth is limited and its availability per person is reducing day by day due to increase in global population and damage to environment. Though water available in nature is free, sizeable investment is needed in order to supply water to the people at their doorsteps with required quality. This paper deals with the role of financial institutions in the balanced distribution of water for the public, the related problems with various regulatory instruments, and ethical perspectives for efficient utilization of this scarce resource through internal control aimed at long term sustainability.

  12. Selection of spatial scale for assessing impacts of groundwater-based water supply on freshwater resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybel, Anne-Marie; Godskesen, Berit; Rygaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    the highest uncertainty, as it requires estimations of non-measurable environmental water requirements. Hence, the development of a methodology to obtain more site-specific and relevant estimations of environmental water requirements should be prioritized. Finally, the demarcation of the groundwater resource......Indicators of the impact on freshwater resources are becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of urban water systems. To reveal the importance of spatial resolution, we investigated how the choice of catchment scale influenced the freshwater impact assessment. Two different indicators were...... used in this study: the Withdrawal-To-Availability ratio (WTA) and the Water Stress Index (WSI). Results were calculated for three groundwater based Danish urban water supplies (Esbjerg, Aarhus, and Copenhagen). The assessment was carried out at three spatial levels: (1) the groundwater body level, (2...

  13. Emerging and Innovative Techniques for Arsenic Removal Applied to a Small Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. Alçada

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of arsenic on human health has led its drinking water MCL to be drastically reduced from 50 to 10 ppb. Consequently, arsenic levels in many water supply sources have become critical. This has resulted in technical and operational impacts on many drinking water treatment plants that have required onerous upgrading to meet the new standard. This becomes a very sensitive issue in the context of water scarcity and climate change, given the expected increasing demand on groundwater sources. This work presents a case study that describes the development of low-cost techniques for efficient arsenic control in drinking water. The results obtained at the Manteigas WTP (Portugal demonstrate the successful implementation of an effective and flexible process of reactive filtration using iron oxide. At real-scale, very high removal efficiencies of over 95% were obtained.

  14. Integration of water footprint accounting and costs for optimal pulp supply mix in paper industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Piantella, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    studies have focused on these aspects, but there have been no previous reports on the integrated application of raw material water footprint accounting and costs in the definition of the optimal supply mix of chemical pulps from different countries. The current models that have been applied specifically...... that minimizes the water footprint accounting results and costs of chemical pulp, thereby facilitating the assessment of the water footprint by accounting for different chemical pulps purchased from various suppliers, with a focus on the efficiency of the production process. Water footprint accounting......Chemical pulp is one of the most important raw materials used in the paper industry. This material is known to make a significant contribution to the water footprint and cost of final paper products; therefore, chemical pulp is crucial in determining the competitiveness of final products'. Several...

  15. A Simple Discussion on the Supply and Demand of Water Resources in the Western Region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Hongbo

    2006-01-01

    We are accustomed to solve the problem of the water scarcity in the western region by the thought of increasing the effective supply of water to meet the needs of Go-west Campaign. After introducing the dynamic equilibrium principle on supply and demand in economy,we find that we should solve the problem of the water scarcity in the western region through reducing total demand to achieve the dynamic equilibrium of supply and demand. Finally water resources in the western region can be enlarged by an accumulated way.

  16. Integrating agricultural policies and water policies under water supply and climate uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    MejíAs, Patricia; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo; Flichman, Guillermo

    2004-07-01

    Understanding the interactions of water and agricultural policies is crucial for achieving an efficient management of water resources. In the EU, agricultural and environmental policies are seeking to converge progressively toward mutually compatible objectives and, in this context, the recently reformed Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the EU Water Framework Directive constitute the policy framework in which irrigated agriculture and hence water use will evolve. In fact, one of the measures of the European Water Directive is to establish a water pricing policy for improving water use and attaining a more efficient water allocation. The aim of this research is to investigate the irrigators' responses to these changing policy developments in a self-managed irrigation district in southern Spain. A stochastic programming model has been developed to estimate farmers' response to the application of water pricing policies in different agricultural policy scenarios when water availability is subject to varying climate conditions and water storage capacity in the district's reservoir. Results show that irrigators are price-responsive, but a similar water-pricing policy in different agricultural policy options could have distinct effects on water use, farmers' income, and collected revenue by the water authority. Water availability is a critical factor, and pricing policies are less effective for reducing water consumption in drought years. Thus there is a need to integrate the objectives of water policies within the objectives of the CAP programs to avoid distortion effects and to seek synergy between these two policies.

  17. Reconciling Scale Mismatch in Water Governance, Hydro-climatic Processes and Infrastructure Systems of Water Supply in Las Vegas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. E.; Alarcon, T.; Portney, K.; Islam, S.

    2013-12-01

    Water resource systems are a classic example of a common pool resource due to the high cost of exclusion and the subtractability of the resource; for common pool resources, the performance of governance systems primarily depends on how well matched the institutional arrangements and rules are to the biophysical conditions and social norms. Changes in water governance, hydro-climatic processes and infrastructure systems occur on disparate temporal and spatial scales. A key challenge is the gap between current climate change model resolution, and the spatial and temporal scale of urban water supply decisions. This gap will lead to inappropriate management policies if not mediated through a carefully crafted decision making process. Traditional decision support and planning methods (DSPM) such as classical decision analysis are not equipped to deal with a non-static climate. While emerging methods such as decision scaling, robust decision making and real options are designed to deal with a changing climate, governance systems have evolved under the assumption of a static climate and it is not clear if these methods are well suited to the existing governance regime. In our study, these questions are contextualized by examining an urban water utility that has made significant changes in policy to adapt to changing conditions: the Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) which serves metropolitan Las Vegas. Like most desert cities, Las Vegas exists because of water; the artesian springs of the Las Vegas Valley once provided an ample water supply for Native Americans, ranchers and later a small railroad city. However, population growth has increased demands far beyond local supplies. The area now depends on the Colorado River for the majority of its water supply. Natural climate variability with periodic droughts has further challenged water providers; projected climate changes and further population growth will exacerbate these challenges. Las Vegas is selected as a case

  18. Water Supply Changes N and P Conservation in a Perennial Grass Leymus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju-Ying Huang; Hai-Long Yu; Ling-Hao Li; Zhi-You Yuan; Samuel Bartels

    2009-01-01

    Changes in precipitation can influence soil water and nutrient availability, and thus affect plant nutrient conservation strategies. Better understanding of how nutrient conservation changes with variations in water availability is crucial for predicting the potential influence of global climate change on plant nutrient-use strategy. Here, green-leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations, N- and P-resorption proficiency (the terminal N and P concentration in senescent leaves,NRP and PRP, respectively), and N- and P-resorption efficiency (the proportional N and P withdrawn from senescent leaves prior to abscission, NRE and PRE, respectively) of Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel., a typical perennial grass species in northern China, were examined along a water supply gradient to explore how plant nutrient conservation responds to water change. Increasing water supply at low levels ( 9000 mL/year). These results indicated that changes in water availability at low levels could affect leaf-level nutrient characteristics, especially for the species in semiarid ecosystems. Therefore, global changes in precipitation may pose effects on plant nutrient economy, and thus on nutrient cycling in the plant-soil systems.

  19. Using a Geographical Information System to investigate the relationship between reported cryptosporidiosis and water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lake Iain

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports on a study investigating the epidemiology of sporadic cryptosporidiosis in the North West of England and Wales using a Geographical Information System (GIS to map location of residence of cases. Some 747 reports of cases were made to CDSC North West of which 649 reports were suitable for analysis. Cases were plotted on the maps of water supply zone and water quality area boundaries, provided by the two main water utilities. Results It was notable that there were major spatial variations in attack rate across the North West and Wales. The most dramatic example was the large difference between the Greater Manchester conurbation with many reports and Liverpool with none. Given the distribution of previously detected waterborne outbreaks in the region it was initially thought that drinking water source may be an explanation. However, an analysis of the distribution of cases in the Greater Manchester area showed no correlation with any of five water supplies that serve the conurbation. Conclusions Our study has shown a dramatic variation in the incidence of laboratory confirmed cryptosporidiosis within two regions of the United Kingdom. Further analysis has not been able to prove drinking water as a likely explanation of this variation which so far remains unexplained.

  20. Survey on fluoride, bromide and chloride contents in public drinking water supplies in Sicily (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco; Brusca, Lorenzo; Longo, Manfredi

    2008-10-01

    Six hundred and sixty-seven water samples were collected from public drinking water supplies in Sicily and analysed for electric conductivity and for their Cl(-), Br(-) and F(-) contents. The samples were, as far as possible, collected evenly over the entire territory with an average sampling density of about one sample for every 7,600 inhabitants. The contents of Cl(-) and Br(-), ranging between 5.53 and 1,302 mg/l and between <0.025 and 4.76 mg/l respectively, correlated well with the electric conductivity, a parameter used as a proxy for water salinity. The highest values were found both along the NW and SE coasts, which we attributed to seawater contamination, and in the central part of Sicily, which we attributed to evaporitic rock dissolution. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.023 to 3.28 mg/l, while the highest values (only three exceeding the maximum admissible concentration of 1.5 mg/l) generally correlated either with the presence in the area of crystalline (volcanic or metamorphic) or evaporitic rocks or with contamination from hydrothermal activity. Apart from these limited cases of exceeding F(-) levels, the waters of public drinking water supplies in Sicily can be considered safe for human consumption for the analysed parameters. Some limited concern could arise from the intake of bromide-rich waters (about 3% exceeding 1 mg/l) because of the potential formation of dangerous disinfection by-products.

  1. Evolving Groundwater Rights and Management in Metropolitan Los Angeles: Implications for Water Supply and Stormwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porse, E.; Pincetl, S.; Glickfeld, M.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater supports many aspects of human life. In cities, groundwater can provide a cost-effective source of water for drinking and industrial uses, while groundwater basins provide storage. The role of groundwater in a city's water supply tends to change over time. In the Los Angeles metropolitan area, groundwater is critical. Over decades, users in the region's many basins allocated annual pumping rights to groundwater among users through adjudications. These rights were determined through collective processes over decades, which contributed to the complex array of public and private organizations involved in water management. The rights also continue to evolve. We analyzed changes in the distribution of groundwater rights over time for adjudicated basins in Southern Los Angeles County. Results indicate that groundwater rights are increasingly: 1) controlled or regulated by public institutions and municipalities, and 2) consolidated among larger users. Yet, both the percentage of total supplies provided by groundwater, as well as the distribution of groundwater rights, varies widely among cities and communities throughout Los Angeles. As metropolitan Los Angeles faces reduced water imports and emphasizes local water reliance, access to pumping rights and storage capacity in groundwater basins will become even more vital. We discuss implications of our results for future urban water management.

  2. Transfer of adapted water supply technologies through a demonstration and teaching facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestmann, F.; Oberle, P.; Ikhwan, M.; Stoffel, D.; Blaß, H. J.; Töws, D.; Schmidt, S.

    2016-09-01

    Water scarcity can be defined as a lack of sufficient water resources or as the limited or even missing access to a safe water supply. Latter can be classified as `economic water scarcity' which among others can commonly be met in tropical and subtropical karst regions of emerging and developing countries. Karst aquifers, mostly consisting of limestone and carbonate rock, show high infiltration rates which leads to a lack of above ground storage possibilities. Thus, the water will drain rapidly into the underground and evolve vast river networks. Considering the lack of appropriate infrastructure and limited human capacities in the affected areas, these underground water resources cannot be exploited adequately. Against this, background innovative and adapted technologies are required to utilize hard-to-access water resources in a sustainable way. In this context, the German-Indonesian joint R&D project "Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) Indonesia" dealt with the development of highly adaptable water technologies and management strategies. Under the aegis of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), these innovative technical concepts were exemplarily implemented to remedy this deficiency in the model region Gunung Sewu, a karst area situated on the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. The experiences gained through the interdisciplinary joint R&D activities clearly showed that even in the case of availability of appropriate technologies, a comprising transfer of knowhow and the buildup of capabilities (Capacity Development) is inevitable to sustainably implement and disseminate new methods. In this context, an adapted water supply facility was developed by KIT which hereafter shall serve for demonstration, teaching, and research purposes. The plant's functionality, its teaching and research concept, as well as the design process, which was accomplished in collaboration with the

  3. An assessment of climate change impacts on micro-hydropower energy recovery in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jennifer; Patil, Sopan; McNabola, Aonghus; Gallagher, John; Coughlan, Paul; Harris, Ian; Packwood, Andrew; Williams, Prysor

    2015-04-01

    Continuity of service of a high quality water supply is vital in sustaining economic and social development. However, water supply and wastewater treatment are highly energy intensive processes and the overall cost of water provision is rising rapidly due to increased energy costs, higher capital investment requirements, and more stringent regulatory compliance in terms of both national and EU legislation. Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC, both Ireland and the UK are required to have 16% and 15% respectively of their electricity generated by renewable sources by 2020. The projected impacts of climate change, population growth and urbanisation will place additional pressures on resources, further increasing future water demand which in turn will lead to higher energy consumption. Therefore, there is a need to achieve greater efficiencies across the water industry. The implementation of micro-hydropower turbines within the water supply network has shown considerable viability for energy recovery. This is achieved by harnessing energy at points of high flow or pressure along the network which can then be utilised on site or alternatively sold to the national grid. Micro-hydropower can provide greater energy security for utilities together with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, potential climate change impacts on water resources in the medium-to-long term currently act as a key barrier to industry confidence as changes in flow and pressure within the network can significantly alter the available energy for recovery. The present study aims to address these uncertainties and quantify the regional and local impacts of climate change on the viability of energy recovery across water infrastructure in Ireland and the UK. Specifically, the research focuses on assessing the potential future effects of climate change on flow rates at multiple pressure reducing valve sites along the water supply network and also in terms of flow at a number of wastewater

  4. Contamination of Hospital Water Supplies in Gilan, Iran, with Legionella pneumophila, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumeh Ahmadi Jalali Moghadam; Hamidreza Honarmand; Sajad Asfaram Meshginshahr

    2015-01-01

    This study is designed to determine the contamination degree of hospital water supplies with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, and E. coli in Gilan, Iran. Samples were collected directly into sterile containers and concentrated by centrifuge. Half part of any sample transferred to yeast extract broth and the second part transferred to Trypticase Soy Broth and incubated for 3 days. DNA was extracted by using commercial kit. Four rounds of PCR were performed as follows: multiplex ...

  5. Climate change impacts on water supply: implications for reservoir management in upper Sabor, northeast Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho-Santos, Cláudia; Monteiro, António T.; Azevedo, João; Nunes, João Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Climate change scenarios project warmer temperatures and less precipitation in Mediterranean watersheds. This can aggravate drought conditions, with negative impacts on water supply. Here, reservoirs may play an important role to mitigate these impacts. However, the implications of climate change are not always considered in the reservoir planning and management. This study aimed to address this issue for the Upper Sabor watershed, northeast Portugal. This is a medium watershed...

  6. Ceramics Vitreous China Produced by Utilizing Sediment Soil from Water Supply Treatment Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wangrakdiskul Ubolrat; Wanasbodee Jindakarn; Sansroi Pornnapa

    2017-01-01

    Due to generating the abundant of sediment soil, it makes the high burden of disposal cost to the metropolitan waterworks authority. Enhancing the value of sediment soil has been explored. This research aims to utilize the sediment soil, wastes of water supply treatment process for producing ceramics vitreous china. In this experiment, five types of raw materials are exploited, namely, sediment soil, ball clay, kaolin, feldspar and silica sand. The formulas have been divided into two groups. ...

  7. Combined desalination, water reuse, and aquifer storage and recovery to meet water supply demands in the GCC/MENA region

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2013-01-01

    Desalination is no longer considered as a nonconventional resource to supply potable water in several countries, especially in the Gulf Corporation Countries (GCC) and Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region as most of the big cities rely almost 100% on desalinated water for their supply. Due to the continuous increase in water demand, more large-scale plants are expected to be constructed in the region. However, most of the large cities in these countries have very limited water storage capacity, ranging from hours to a few days only and their groundwater capacity is very limited. The growing need for fresh water has led to significant cost reduction, because of technological improvements of desalination technologies which makes it an attractive option for water supply even in countries where desalination was unthinkable in the past. In the GCC/MENA region, operating records show that water demand is relatively constant during the year, while power demand varies considerably with a high peak in the summer season. However, desalination and power plants are economically and technically efficient only if they are fully operated at close to full capacity. In addition, desalination plants are exposed to external constraints leading to unexpected shutdowns (e.g. red tides). Hybridization of different technologies, including reverse osmosis and thermal-based plants, is used to balance the power to water mismatch in the demand by using the idle power from co-generation systems during low power demand periods. This has led to consideration of storage of additional desalinated water to allow for maximum production and stability in operation. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) would then be a good option to store the surplus of desalinated water which could be used when water demand is high or during unexpected shutdowns of desalination plants. In addition, increased reuse of treated wastewater could bring an integrated approach to water resources management. In this

  8. Catastrophic regime shift in water reservoirs and São Paulo water supply crisis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The relation between rainfall and water accumulated in reservoirs comprises nonlinear feedbacks. Here we show that they may generate alternative equilibrium regimes, one of high water-volume, the other of low water-volume. Reservoirs can be seen as socio-environmental systems at risk of regime shifts, characteristic of tipping point transitions. We analyze data from stored water, rainfall, and water inflow and outflow in the main reservoir serving the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, b...

  9. Assessment of Sustainability of Urban Water Supply and Demand Management Options: A Comprehensive Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumudu Rathnayaka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive evaluation framework that can assess a wide range of water supply and demand management policy options in terms of economic, social, environmental, risk-based, and functional performance is crucial to ascertain their level of sustainability. However, such a detailed, generic, and holistic policy evaluation framework is not found in the literature. This paper reviews studies to evaluate water supply and/or demand management options conducted during 2000–2016. Primarily, the paper reviews the evaluation criteria used by different studies for decision making given their significant difference and the importance of a comprehensive set of criteria to complete a rigorous evaluation. In addition, a comprehensive set of water supply and demand management options are not considered together for a comparative assessment to prioritise best options for a certain area and time. Further, performance of these options needs to be evaluated for a range of uncertainties arising from changes of spatial and temporal variables of the system. While this paper highlights the important aspects that need to be included in a comprehensive policy evaluation framework, available studies collectively present a rich set of information to support it.

  10. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabio V.; Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal); Reis, Luisa Fernanda R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, EESC/USP, Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento., Avenida do Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400, Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator - CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator - HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  11. Hybrid energy system evaluation in water supply system energy production: neural network approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio V. Goncalves, Helena M. Ramos, Luisa Fernanda R. Reis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems are large consumers of energy and the use of hybrid systems for green energy production is this new proposal. This work presents a computational model based on neural networks to determine the best configuration of a hybrid system to generate energy in water supply systems. In this study the energy sources to make this hybrid system can be the national power grid, micro-hydro and wind turbines. The artificial neural network is composed of six layers, trained to use data generated by a model of hybrid configuration and an economic simulator – CES. The reason for the development of an advanced model of forecasting based on neural networks is to allow rapid simulation and proper interaction with hydraulic and power model simulator – HPS. The results show that this computational model is useful as advanced decision support system in the design of configurations of hybrid power systems applied to water supply systems, improving the solutions in the development of its global energy efficiency.

  12. Evaluation of actions for better water supply and demand management in Fayoum, Egypt using RIBASIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohie M. Omar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fayoum Governorate faces many water-related challenges being; compensating the water shortage and controlling the volumes of drainage water effluents into Quarun Lake. There are many actions, based on water resources management approach, which can help overcome these water-related challenges. These actions are classified to developing additional water resources (supply management, and properly using the existing water resources (demand management. This study investigates using the RIBASIM (RIver BAsin SIMulation model, the most suitable actions for the future. RIBASIM was used to simulate the current condition and evaluate various scenarios in 2017 based on different actions. Three scenarios were formulated being optimistic, moderate, and pessimistic which represent different implementation rates of the tested actions. RIBASIM results indicated a water shortage of 0.59, 1, and 1.85 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM/year, for the simulated scenarios, respectively. Since Fayoum is a miniature of Egypt with respect to both, the natural and water resources systems, the results of this study can be used as guidelines for optimization of the water resources system in Egypt.

  13. Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    This report describes the project `Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia`, which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev Municipality. The project proposal and application outlined the following objectives: Erection of system so that hot tap water, which is tapped directly from the district heating system, obtains an acceptable quality in health terms; Complete training and education, so that the plant can be operated and maintained by the power station`s staff and rehabilitation projects within supply of domestic water and district heating can be promoted to the greatest possible extent; Systems for heat treatment of make-up water were implemented in less than three months; The project was carried out in close Danish-Russian co-operation from the beginning of engineering to the commissioning and resulted in transfer and demonstration of know-how and technology; Information was recorded on the existing domestic water and heat supply systems as well as on the treatment of sewage, and recommendations for rehabilitation projects were made. Previously, when the temperature in the district heating system was relatively high, a heat treatment apparently took place in the district heating system. However, due to the current poor economic situation there are no means with which to buy the fuel quantities necessary to maintain the previously normal district heating temperature. In the new concept the cold make-up water is heated to >80 deg. C as required by the health authorities before it is led to the district heating return system and subsequently heated to the actual supply temperature of 50-60 deg. C. The energy consumption in the two concepts is approximately the same. A 1,000 m{sup 3} tank with heating coils was erected between the make-up water system and the district heating system. The tank should equalise the daily capacity

  14. The Austrian Approach: Entering the World of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistritzer, Patricia; Balcerack, Carl

    1979-01-01

    This photo-essay describes a Waldorf School. Developed by Austrian Rudolf Steiner, the Waldorf plan is dedicated to allowing the child a childlike environment. It emphasizes storytelling, creative dramatics, flexibility, improvisation, crafts, and movement. (SJL)

  15. Acidification and Nitrogen Eutrophication of Austrian Forest Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Jandl; Stefan Smidt; Franz Mutsch; Alfred Fürst; Harald Zechmeister; Heidi Bauer; Thomas Dirnböck

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of acidic deposition and nitrogen on Austrian forests soils. Until thirty years ago air pollution had led to soil acidification, and concerns on the future productivity of forests were raised. Elevated rates of nitrogen deposition were believed to cause nitrate leaching and imbalanced forest nutrition. We used data from a soil monitoring network to evaluate the trends and current status of the pH and the C : N ratio of Austrian forest soils. Deposition measurements and...

  16. Polycentrism and Poverty: Experiences of Rural Water Supply Reform in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Falk

    2009-02-01

    This paper investigates how polycentric rural water supply reform impacts on natural resource management and water users’ livelihoods in three communal areas of Namibia. The analysis takes into account the effects of historic discriminative policies and the resulting low financial, human and social capital of rural communities. We conclude that the devolution of institutional and financial responsibility for water supply to users has had a positive impact on rural water management. However, the introduction of cost recovery principles conflicts with the objectives of the Namibian government to alleviate poverty and inequality. The high level of inequality within the country as a whole and also within communities impedes the development of fair fee systems. Polycentrism faces the major challenge of building on existing structures without replicating historic injustices. It allows, however, for the state to mitigate any negative impact on livelihoods. While the reform is in the process of full implementation, the government is discussing various options of how the poor can be guaranteed access to water without diminishing their development opportunities. The Namibian experience demonstrates the difficulties in developing effective incentive mechanisms without undermining major social objectives. Our analyses show that, compared to naive monocentric governance approaches, polycentrism offers much broader opportunities for achieving multidimensional objectives. Nonetheless, a reform does not become successful simply because it is polycentric.

  17. Presence of potential bacterial pathogens in a municipal drinking water supply system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felföldi, T; Tarnóczai, Tímea; Homonnay, Z G

    2010-09-01

    The quality of drinking water is a major public concern, but the detection of most potential pathogens is not always included in drinking water hygienic monitoring or is only assessed with highly biased cultivation-based methods. In this study, the occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella spp. was examined with taxon-specific PCRs in samples taken at ten points of a municipal drinking water supply system in three months. Sequence analysis confirmed the positivity of samples and revealed a diverse community of legionellae. The results showed that chlorination was an important and effective disinfection method against pathogenic bacteria in drinking water, but pathogenic bacteria could reoccur in the system farther away from the chlorination point. No strong correlation was found between the presence of the investigated potentially pathogenic bacteria and the measured abiotic and biotic parameters within the investigated range. It is hypothesized that instead of physicochemical parameters, the main factors influencing the presence of pathogens in the drinking water were rather the composition of the microbial community, the biotic interactions between individual non-pathogenic and pathogenic microorganisms (competition or promotion of growth) and the structure of biofilm grown on the inner surface of the supply system.

  18. NSGA-II for optimizing water supply and hydroelectric power generation of Two-Reservoir System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Chang, L.; Chang, F.

    2008-12-01

    Taiwan is located at the subtropical zone, which has nonuniform temporal and spatial distributions of precipitation. The Jhuoshuei River is the Taiwan longest river (186 Km) and has abundant water resources. In the last several decades, the constant population growth and the dramatic economic development have resulted in a tremendous demand for natural resources, especially water. How to effectively manage the water resources is one of the most important task for hydrologist. This paper presents a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) to derive a set of optimal joint operating rule curves for a two-reservoir system, Wu-She Reservoir and Jih-Yueh-Tan Reservoir, in the Jhuoshuei river system. These two series reservoirs are the most important reservoirs for supplying water and hydroelectric power generation. The NSGA-II is coupled with an integrated operational simulation model to search the optimal joint rule curves for minimizing shortage indices (SI) and maximizing Hydroelectric Power generation. The Pareto-front solutions obtained from NSGA-II provide the decision maker with a wide range of choices. The results indicate that NSGA-II is a promising approach. The plentiful optimal solutions along the Pareto front allow the decision maker to choose the best compromise solution after consideration of the trade-offs between water supply and hydroelectric power generation.

  19. Potential Chemical Effects of Changes in the Source of Water Supply for the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical modeling was used by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (henceforth, Authority), to gain insight into the potential chemical effects that could occur in the Authority's water distribution system as a result of changing the source of water used for municipal and industrial supply from ground water to surface water, or to some mixture of the two sources. From historical data, representative samples of ground-water and surface-water chemistry were selected for modeling under a range of environmental conditions anticipated to be present in the distribution system. Mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water were compared with the compositions of precipitate samples collected from the current water distribution system and with mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from surface water and ground-water/surface-water mixtures. Several minerals that were calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water in the current distribution system were identified in precipitate samples from pipes, reservoirs, and water heaters. These minerals were the calcium carbonates aragonite and calcite, and the iron oxides/hydroxides goethite, hematite, and lepidocrocite. Several other minerals that were indicated by modeling to have the potential to precipitate were not found in precipitate samples. For most of these minerals, either the kinetics of formation were known to be unfavorable under conditions present in the distribution system or the minerals typically are not formed through direct precipitation from aqueous solutions. The minerals with potential to precipitate as simulated for surface-water samples and ground-water/surface-water mixtures were quite similar to the minerals with potential to precipitate from ground-water samples. Based on the modeling results along with kinetic considerations, minerals that appear most likely to

  20. Variability in the chemistry of private drinking water supplies and the impact of domestic treatment systems on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ander, E L; Watts, M J; Smedley, P L; Hamilton, E M; Close, R; Crabbe, H; Fletcher, T; Rimell, A; Studden, M; Leonardi, G

    2016-12-01

    Tap water from 497 properties using private water supplies, in an area of metalliferous and arsenic mineralisation (Cornwall, UK), was measured to assess the extent of compliance with chemical drinking water quality standards, and how this is influenced by householder water treatment decisions. The proportion of analyses exceeding water quality standards were high, with 65 % of tap water samples exceeding one or more chemical standards. The highest exceedances for health-based standards were nitrate (11 %) and arsenic (5 %). Arsenic had a maximum observed concentration of 440 µg/L. Exceedances were also high for pH (47 %), manganese (12 %) and aluminium (7 %), for which standards are set primarily on aesthetic grounds. However, the highest observed concentrations of manganese and aluminium also exceeded relevant health-based guidelines. Significant reductions in concentrations of aluminium, cadmium, copper, lead and/or nickel were found in tap waters where households were successfully treating low-pH groundwaters, and similar adventitious results were found for arsenic and nickel where treatment was installed for iron and/or manganese removal, and successful treatment specifically to decrease tap water arsenic concentrations was observed at two properties where it was installed. However, 31 % of samples where pH treatment was reported had pH water regulations), suggesting widespread problems with system maintenance. Other examples of ineffectual treatment are seen in failed responses post-treatment, including for nitrate. This demonstrates that even where the tap waters are considered to be treated, they may still fail one or more drinking water quality standards. We find that the degree of drinking water standard exceedances warrant further work to understand environmental controls and the location of high concentrations. We also found that residents were more willing to accept drinking water with high metal (iron and manganese) concentrations than

  1. Optimal allocation of public water supply to the urban sectors of Enugu, Nigeria: a linear programming approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwaji, Emma E.; Anyadike, Raymond N. C.; Igu, Nnaemeka I.

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies in water supply in Enugu urban area have observed that there is a persistent water supply shortage relative to demand. One of the strategies for achieving a good water supply under the circumstance is through efficient water allocation to consumers. The existing allocation system by the Enugu State Water Corporation is not achieving the desired goal, because it is not based on any scientific criteria. In this study, we have employed the linear programming modelling technique to optimise the allocation of 35,000,000 L of water produced daily by the State Water Corporation and supplied to the four sectors of the town. The result shows that the model allocated 27,470,000 L to the residential sector, 3,360,000 L to commercial, 3,120,000 L to industrial and 882,000 L to public institutions sectors leaving a balance of 168,000 L to be utilised in emergency situations. This allocation pattern departs sharply from the present management technique adopted by the corporation. It is then suggested that for urban water supply to be sustainable in the town, the corporation should rely on this technique for water supply.

  2. Responses of carbon isotope discrimination in C4 plant to variable N and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Li, Shenggong

    2016-04-01

    Understanding variations and underlying mechanisms of carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) in C4 species is critical for predicting the effects of change in C3/C4 ratio of plant community on ecosystem processes and functionning. However, little is known about the effects of soil resource gradients on Δ of C4 plants. To address Δ responses to drought and nitrogen supply, the leaf carbon isotope composition, bundle sheath leakiness (BLS), and leaf gas exchange (A, gs, Ci/Ca) were measured on Cleistogenes squarrosa, a dominant C4 species in the Inner Mongolia grassland. C. squarrosa were grown in controlled-environment pots from seed under a combination of water and N supply. High N availability and drought stimulated photosynthetic rate (A) and further decreased the ratio of internal and ambient CO2 concentrations (Ci/Ca) through increasing leaf N content. BLS was higher under high N supply and was unchanged by drought. There was significant interaction between N and water supply to affect BLS and Ci/Ca. Δ was negatively related to Ci/Ca and was positively related to BLS. Tradeoff between the responses of BLS and Ci/Ca to changing environmental conditions kept leaf Δ relatively stable, which was also supported by a field N addition experiment. Our results suggested leaf Δ of C4 plant was unchanged under variable water and N environment conditions although the operating efficiency of C4 pathway and CO2 concentration in photosynthesis were changed. Our findings have implications for predicting the change of C3/C4 ratio of plant community and understanding ecosystem processes and functionning.

  3. Reductions in urban outdoor water use as an adaptation to declining water supplies in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataki, D. E.; Hogue, T. S.; Litvak, E.; Mini, C.; Pincetl, S.

    2012-12-01

    Many irrigated cities in the semi-arid west wish to reduce their water consumption by more efficiently planning and managing outdoor landscapes. This requires accurate information about the actual water budget of these landscapes, which is still quite uncertain. We evaluated urban water use and the potential for reductions in outdoor water use in Los Angeles, which relies heavily on imported water from high elevation recharge outside the urban area, and is therefore very sensitive to declining snowpack as a result of climate change. Most landscapes in Los Angeles are irrigated, and outdoor water use constitutes a significant fraction of total municipal water use. Quantifying the fate of this water and the implications for water-conserving landscape designs requires a combination of direct measurements, hydrologic modeling, and analysis of water consumption data. We analyzed water billing records in relation to climatic and land use characteristics, directly measured transpiration in a variety of species and landscape types, and characterized regional evapotranspiration (ET) with a remote-sensing based model. We found that climate variables explaining approximately 1-30% of the variability in residential water use depending on neighborhood. Over a 10 year period, there was no correlation between interannual variability in water use and interannual variability in remote-sensing based vegetation greenness. Following the implementation of conservation measures, residential water use declined throughout the city, but greenness remained constant. Direct measurements of plant water use and plant water relations confirmed that most vegetation was well-watered and showed few signs of water stress. Transpiration rates were highly species specific, with the highest transpiration rates and lowest water use efficiency found in species originating from humid environments or from riparian habitats. Unshaded turfgrass showed the highest rates of ET in any measured landscape, but

  4. [Spatiotemporal variation of water source supply service in Three Rivers Source Area of China based on InVEST model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tao; Wu, Shao-Hong; Dai, Er-Fu; Liu, Yu-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The Three Rivers Source Area is the largest ecological function region of water source supply and conservation in China. As affected by a variety of driving factors, the ecosystems in this region are seriously degraded, giving definite impacts on the water source supply service. This paper approached the variation patterns of precipitation and runoff coefficient from 1981 to 2010, quantitatively estimated the water source supply of the ecosystems in the region from 1980 to 2005 based on InVEST model, and analyzed the spatiotemporal variation pattern and its causes of the water source supply in different periods. In 1981-2010, the precipitation in the Three Rivers Source Area had a trend of increase after an initial decrease, while the precipitation runoff coefficient presented an obvious decreasing trend, suggesting a reduced capability of runoff water source supply of this region. The potential evapotranspiration had a declining trend, but not obvious, with a rate of -0.226 mm x a(-1). In 1980-2005, the water source supply of the region represented an overall decreasing trend, which was most obvious in the Yellow River Source Area. The spatiotemporal variation of the water source supply in the Three Rivers Source Area was the results of the combined effects of climate and land use change, and the climate factors affected the water source supply mainly through affecting the precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Climate and land use change induced the ecosystem degradation and underlying surface change, which could be the main driving forces of the declined water source supply in the Three Rivers Source Area.

  5. Hot water supply in ''Smart Home''. Decentralized supply, decentralized control; Warmwasserversorgung im 'Smart Home'. Dezentral versorgen, dezentral steuern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechers, Olaf

    2013-10-01

    The separation of the heating system and domestic hot water is already established in commercial and residential construction. The decentralized hot water supply offers environmental and economic benefits. In this paper it is shown that one can also do this in a detached house. [German] Die Trennung von Heizsystem und Warmwasserbereitung ist im Gewerbe- und Wohnungsbau bereits etabliert. Die dezentrale Warmwasserversorgung bietet oekologische und oekonomische Vorteile. In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, dass man dies auch bei einem Einfamilienhaus durchfuehren kann.

  6. Designing water supplies: Optimizing drinking water composition for maximum economic benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Bath, A.

    2011-01-01

    .3 ± 0.2 per delivered m3 for Perth and €0.4(±0.2) for Copenhagen. Costs of remineralization and green house gas emission mitigation are minor when compared to the potential benefits of an optimum water composition. Finally, a set of optimum water quality criteria is proposed for the guidance of water...

  7. Increasing water productivity of irrigated crops under limited water supply at field scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vazifedoust, M.; Dam, van J.C.; Feddes, R.A.; Feizi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Borkhar district is located in an and to semi-arid region in Iran and regularly faces widespread drought. Given current water scarcity, the limited available water should be used as efficient and productive as possible. To explore on-farm strategies which result in higher economic gains and water pr

  8. RUNOFF ESTIMATES INTO THE WEIJA RESERVOIR AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER SUPPLY TO ACCRA, GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry S. Kuma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Accra has a population of about 2.3 million and is supplied with water from both the Kpong and Weija Water Works. Water from the Weija treatment plant is taken from the Weija Reservoir which is fed by Rivers in the Densu River Basin (DRB that flow into the Reservoir at Weija. With increasing annual population growth of Accra at 4.4% and inadequate water supply to it, this study has examined the hydrological data available on the Weija Reservoir from 1980 to 2007 in an attempt to estimate runoff into the Reservoir with the view of determining whether water is available to meet its present and future demands. Results show that even though water abstraction from the Reservoir has increased almost four times since 1980, to more than 67 million m3/year in 2007, and a maximum runoff of 7.97 ± 0.21 × 10-2 km3/year was estimated in 2005, this value is less than the true runoff into the Reservoir. It was also observed that potential evapotranspiration has increased by 0.14% while precipitation has decreased by 0.93% in the DRB, indicating that runoff from the Basin into the Reservoir is probably decreasing, albeit slowly. Additionally, fishing and waste disposal methods are poor; land use practices and other anthropogenic activities in the DRB pose a threat to the sustainability of the Reservoir. Serious educational programmes and enforcement measures need to be urgently adopted to safeguard continuous water flow into the Reservoir. Proper hydrological data collection and data management practices are recommended for the Reservoir and Densu River Basin if detailed planning of the water resources of the Reservoir are to be achieved.

  9. Water Residence Times and Their Relation to Soil and Aquifer Properties and Degree of Urbanization (Croton Water Supply Area, NY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D.; Kendall, C.; McDonnell, J.

    2002-05-01

    Water residence times were determined in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY. The watersheds (less than 1 km2 drainage area) have different amounts of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on roads and slow flow through subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wetlands, hillslopes) . Measurements of the Oxygen-18 content of throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were performed bi-weekly over a period of 2 years. Mean water residence times of the stream water, soil water and groundwater were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes. There are small but significant differences in the isotopic content of waters in each watershed, along with soil and aquifer properties as a function of the level of urbanization. Longer groundwater residence times (up to more than 2 years) were estimated in wetland zones without direct communication with streams in comparison to hillslope areas (up to more than 1 year). In highly urbanized areas, mixing of natural runoff generation processes with urbanization effects such as the influence of septic plumes results in a complex spectrum of residence times in soil waters and groundwaters. We illustrate the possibilities of using stable isotope measurements to describe small-scale complex runoff generation processes in watersheds.

  10. Availability, Sustainability, and Suitability of Ground Water, Rogers Mesa, Delta County, Colorado - Types of Analyses and Data for Use in Subdivision Water-Supply Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2008-01-01

    The population of Delta County, Colorado, like that in much of the Western United States, is forecast to increase substantially in the next few decades. A substantial portion of the increased population likely will reside in rural subdivisions and use residential wells for domestic water supplies. In Colorado, a subdivision developer is required to submit a water-supply plan through the county for approval by the Colorado Division of Water Resources. If the water supply is to be provided by wells, the water-supply plan must include a water-supply report. The water-supply report demonstrates the availability, sustainability, and suitability of the water supply for the proposed subdivision. During 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Delta County, Colorado, began a study to develop criteria that the Delta County Land Use Department can use to evaluate water-supply reports for proposed subdivisions. A table was prepared that lists the types of analyses and data that may be needed in a water-supply report for a water-supply plan that proposes the use of ground water. A preliminary analysis of the availability, sustainability, and suitability of the ground-water resources of Rogers Mesa, Delta County, Colorado, was prepared for a hypothetical subdivision to demonstrate hydrologic analyses and data that may be needed for water-supply reports for proposed subdivisions. Rogers Mesa is a 12-square-mile upland mesa located along the north side of the North Fork Gunnison River about 15 miles east of Delta, Colorado. The principal land use on Rogers Mesa is irrigated agriculture, with about 5,651 acres of irrigated cropland, grass pasture, and orchards. The principal source of irrigation water is surface water diverted from the North Fork Gunnison River and Leroux Creek. The estimated area of platted subdivisions on or partially on Rogers Mesa in 2007 was about 4,792 acres of which about 2,756 acres was irrigated land in 2000. The principal aquifer on Rogers

  11. Infiltration of pesticides in surface water into nearby drinking water supply wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguerra, F.; Albrechtsen, H.; Binning, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Drinking water wells are often placed near streams because streams often overly permeable sediments and the water table is near the surface in valleys, and so pumping costs are reduced. The lowering of the water table by pumping wells can reverse the natural flow from the groundwater to the stream, inducing infiltration of surface water to groundwater and consequently to the drinking water well. Many attenuation processes can take place in the riparian zone, mainly due to mixing, biodegradation and sorption. However, if the water travel time from the surface water to the pumping well is too short, or if the compounds are poorly degradable, contaminants can reach the drinking water well at high concentrations, jeopardizing drinking water quality. Here we developed a reactive transport model to evaluate the risk of contamination of drinking water wells by surface water pollution. The model was validated using data of a tracer experiment in a riparian zone. Three compounds were considered: an older pesticide MCPP (Mecoprop) which is mobile and persistent, glyphosate (Roundup), a new biodegradable and strongly sorbed pesticide, and its degradation product AMPA. Global sensitivity analysis using the method of Morris was employed to identify the dominant model parameters. Results showed that the presence of an aquitard and its characteristics (degree of fracturing and thickness), pollutant properties and well depth are the crucial factors affecting the risk of drinking water well contamination from surface water. Global sensitivity analysis results were compared with rank correlation statistics between pesticide concentrations and geological parameters derived from a comprehensive database of Danish drinking water wells. Aquitard thickness and well depth are the most critical parameters in both the model and observed data.

  12. In-pipe water quality monitoring in water supply systems under steady and unsteady state flow conditions: a quantitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Stoianov, Ivan; Graham, Nigel J D

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the quality of drinking water from the treatment plant to the consumers tap is critical to ensure compliance with national standards and/or WHO guideline levels. There are a number of processes and factors affecting the water quality during transmission and distribution which are little understood. A significant obstacle for gaining a detailed knowledge of various physical and chemical processes and the effect of the hydraulic conditions on the water quality deterioration within water supply systems is the lack of reliable and low-cost (both capital and O & M) water quality sensors for continuous monitoring. This paper has two objectives. The first one is to present a detailed evaluation of the performance of a novel in-pipe multi-parameter sensor probe for reagent- and membrane-free continuous water quality monitoring in water supply systems. The second objective is to describe the results from experimental research which was conducted to acquire continuous water quality and high-frequency hydraulic data for the quantitative assessment of the water quality changes occurring under steady and unsteady-state flow conditions. The laboratory and field evaluation of the multi-parameter sensor probe showed that the sensors have a rapid dynamic response, average repeatability and unreliable accuracy. The uncertainties in the sensor data present significant challenges for the analysis and interpretation of the acquired data and their use for water quality modelling, decision support and control in operational systems. Notwithstanding these uncertainties, the unique data sets acquired from transmission and distribution systems demonstrated the deleterious effect of unsteady state flow conditions on various water quality parameters. These studies demonstrate: (i) the significant impact of the unsteady-state hydraulic conditions on the disinfectant residual, turbidity and colour caused by the re-suspension of sediments, scouring of biofilms and tubercles from the

  13. Water Supply Source Evaluation in Unmanaged Aquifer Recharge Zones: The Mezquital Valley (Mexico Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Hernández-Espriú

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mezquital Valley (MV hosts the largest unmanaged aquifer recharge scheme in the world. The metropolitan area of Mexico City discharges ~60 m3/s of raw wastewater into the valley, a substantial share of which infiltrates into the regional aquifer. In this work, we aim to develop a comprehensive approach, adapted from oil and gas reservoir modeling frameworks, to assess water supply sources located downgradient from unmanaged aquifer recharge zones. The methodology is demonstrated through its application to the Mezquital Valley region. Geological, geoelectrical, petrophysical and hydraulic information is combined into a 3D subsurface model and used to evaluate downgradient supply sources. Although hydrogeochemical variables are yet to be assessed, outcomes suggest that the newly-found groundwater sources may provide a long-term solution for water supply. Piezometric analyses based on 25-year records suggest that the MV is close to steady-state conditions. Thus, unmanaged recharge seems to have been regulating the groundwater balance for the last decades. The transition from unmanaged to managed recharge is expected to provide benefits to the MV inhabitants. It will also be likely to generate new uncertainties in relation to aquifer dynamics and downgradient systems.

  14. Demand-Supply Optimization with Risk Management for a Multi-Connection Water Reservoir Network

    CERN Document Server

    Chatpatanasiri, Ratthachat

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a framework to solve a demand-supply optimization problem of long-term water resource allocation on a multi-connection reservoir network which, in two aspects, is different to the problem considered in previous works. First, while all previous works consider a problem where each reservoir can transfer water to only one fixed reservoir, we consider a multi-connection network being constructed in Thailand in which each reservoir can transfer water to many reservoirs in one period of time. Second, a demand-supply plan considered here is static, in contrast to a dynamic policy considered in previous works. Moreover, in order to efficiently develop a long-term static plan, a severe loss (a risk) is taken into account, i.e. a risk occurs if the real amount of water stored in each reservoir in each time period is less than what planned by the optimizer. The multi-connection function and the risk make the problem rather complex such that traditional stochastic dynamic programming and determi...

  15. Contribution of water-limited ecoregions to their own supply of rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Diego G.; Nieto, Raquel; McDowell, Nathan G.; Dorigo, Wouter A.; Verhoest, Niko EC; Liu, Yi Y.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Dolman, A. Johannes; Good, Stephen P.; Gimeno, Luis

    2016-12-01

    The occurrence of wet and dry growing seasons in water-limited regions remains poorly understood, partly due to the complex role that these regions play in the genesis of their own rainfall. This limits the predictability of global carbon and water budgets, and hinders the regional management of natural resources. Using novel satellite observations and atmospheric trajectory modelling, we unravel the origin and immediate drivers of growing-season precipitation, and the extent to which ecoregions themselves contribute to their own supply of rainfall. Results show that persistent anomalies in growing-season precipitation—and subsequent biomass anomalies—are caused by a complex interplay of land and ocean evaporation, air circulation and local atmospheric stability changes. For regions such as the Kalahari and Australia, the volumes of moisture recycling decline in dry years, providing a positive feedback that intensifies dry conditions. However, recycling ratios increase up to 40%, pointing to the crucial role of these regions in generating their own supply of rainfall; transpiration in periods of water stress allows vegetation to partly offset the decrease in regional precipitation. Findings highlight the need to adequately represent vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks in models to predict biomass changes and to simulate the fate of water-limited regions in our warming climate.

  16. Comparing risk of failure models in water supply networks using ROC curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debon, A., E-mail: andeau@eio.upv.e [Centro de Gestion de la Calidad y del Cambio, Dpt. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Carrion, A. [Centro de Gestion de la Calidad y del Cambio, Dpt. Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa Aplicadas y Calidad, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Cabrera, E. [Dpto. De Ingenieria Hidraulica Y Medio Ambiente, Instituto Tecnologico del Agua, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Solano, H. [Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-01-15

    The problem of predicting the failure of water mains has been considered from different perspectives and using several methodologies in engineering literature. Nowadays, it is important to be able to accurately calculate the failure probabilities of pipes over time, since water company profits and service quality for citizens depend on pipe survival; forecasting pipe failures could have important economic and social implications. Quantitative tools (such as managerial or statistical indicators and reliable databases) are required in order to assess the current and future state of networks. Companies managing these networks are trying to establish models for evaluating the risk of failure in order to develop a proactive approach to the renewal process, instead of using traditional reactive pipe substitution schemes. The main objective of this paper is to compare models for evaluating the risk of failure in water supply networks. Using real data from a water supply company, this study has identified which network characteristics affect the risk of failure and which models better fit data to predict service breakdown. The comparison using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) graph leads us to the conclusion that the best model is a generalized linear model. Also, we propose a procedure that can be applied to a pipe failure database, allowing the most appropriate decision rule to be chosen.

  17. INCORPORATING THE RURAL AREAS’ PARTICULARITIES IN THE WATER SUPPLY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orest Valentin TROFIN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The existence of the safe water supply and sewerage systems, especially in the rural areas of Romania, are mandatory for the insurance of the public health. In this context, a series of Romanian regional water and sewerage services suppliers developed Total Quality Management Systems, starting with the implementation of multiple ISO standards and in response to the need for answering to high requirements, both for constant development / modernization of the infrastructure and expansions to new consumers, as for the permanent improvement of the water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment’s quality. The Total Quality Management Systems inter-relate a series of quality components, all of them functioning in a unitary–integrated way, using specific rules and procedures for assuring the increase of the delivered services’ quality and performance. The results begin to be seen on all areas of the concerned water suppliers’ activity: from the operational field to the commercial, staff’s performance, environmental and customer care ones. one of the main fundaments of the monetary creation – aspect which is indissolubly related to the idea of evolution, more precisely, to the idea of economic development.

  18. The right to water in rural Punjab: assessing equitable access to water in the context of the ongoing Punjab Rural Water Supply Proejct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, Shamsher; Crowley, Julia; Smith Fawzi, Mary C

    2011-12-15

    Although India is poised to meet its Millennium Development Goal for providing access to safe drinking water, there remains a worrying discrepancy in access between urban and rural areas. In 2006, 96% of the urban population versus 86% of the rural population obtained their drinking water from an improved water source. To increase access to potable water in rural areas, the World Bank and the state of Punjab have implemented the Punjab Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project (PRWSS) to improve or construct water supply systems in 3,000 villages deemed to have inadequate access to clean drinking water. This study aimed to examine whether the right to water was fulfilled in six towns in rural Punjab during implementation of the PRWSS. The normative content of the right to water requires that water be of adequate quantity, safety, accessibility, affordability, and acceptability in terms of quality. While our findings suggest that the PRWSS improved water quality, they also indicate that access to water was limited due to affordability and the low socioeconomic status of some people living in the target communities.

  19. Distribution of Asellus aquaticus and microinvertebrates in a non-chlorinated drinking water supply system – Effects of pipe material and sedimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine; Nissen, Erling; Arvin, Erik;

    2011-01-01

    Danish drinking water supplies based on ground water without chlorination were investigated for the presence of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, microinvertebrates (......Danish drinking water supplies based on ground water without chlorination were investigated for the presence of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, microinvertebrates (...

  20. Improved water and child health in Egypt: impact of interrupted water supply and storage of household water on the prevalence of diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushdy, R; Sieverding, M

    2016-04-19

    Egypt is approaching universal access to improved water supply, but the variable quality of improved water may have a measureable health impact. We investigated the impact of different measures of improved water access on the prevalence of diarrhoea among children aged under 5 years. Using data from the 2008 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey and propensity score matching techniques we compared children in households with improved water supplies, with/without interruptions to supplies and with/without in-home storage of water. Access to improved water that was not subject to cuts resulted in a significant 2.6 percentage point reduction in the prevalence of diarrhoea (4.7% reduction in rural areas), and access to improved water that was not stored prior to use resulted in a 3.5% reduction. Further research is needed to better understand the nature and causes of piped water interruptions in Egypt, in order to address potential infrastructure challenges that are leading to poorer health outcomes.

  1. Operating Rule Classification System of Water Supply Reservoir Based on Learning Classifier System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-feng; WANG Xiao-lin; YIN Zheng-jie; LI Hui-qiang

    2008-01-01

    An operating rule classification system based on lesrning classifier system (LCS), which learns through credit assignment (bucket brigade algorithm, BBA) and rule discovery (genetic algorithm, GA), is established to extract water-supply reservoir operating rules. The proposed system acquires an online identification rate of 95% for training samples and an offline rate of 85% for testing samples in a case study. The performances of the rule classification system are discussed from the rationality of the obtained rules, the impact of training samples on rule extraction, and a comparison between the rule classification system and the artificial neural network (ANN). The results indicate that the LCS is feasible and effective for the system to obtain the reservoir supply operating rules.

  2. Water quality and communities associated with macrophytes in a shallow water-supply reservoir on an aquaculture farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Dias, S G

    2014-05-01

    Plankton communities and macrofauna associated to aquatic macrophyte stands in a shallow water-supply reservoir (21°14'09″S; 48°18'38″W) on an aquaculture farm were compared to evaluate the relationship between organism densities and some abiotic features of the reservoir. Water and communities associated were sampled at two sites, one in an area with the predominance of Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth and the other with the predominance of Salvinia auriculata Aublet. Communities associated with macrophytes were sampled with floating quadrants (0.5 m2); the macrophytes were washed and plankton and macrofauna were fixated with 4% formalin and 1% lugol iodine; the specimens were then identified and counted. Plankton and macrofauna communities associated with S. auriculata and E. azurea had a similar diversity of species but different (pmacrophytes presence in the shallow reservoir is a strong predictor of favourable conditions to maintain great diversity plankton community and macrofauna associated with plants. The role of macrophytes is important for not only stabilising the clear-water state and maintaining high diversity of organisms associated, but also it seems to be a good alternative to maintaining desirable water-supply quality for aquaculture farms.

  3. Compliance of Austrian tourists with prophylactic measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollaritsch, H; Wiedermann, G

    1992-03-01

    Physicians dealing with prophylactic measures for tourists going to developing countries will often not be able to foresee the outcome of their recommendations. Therefore an open study with 2,627 Austrian tourists on their flight home from a tropical destination was carried out to evaluate the behaviour of typical short-term travellers with respect to different kinds of precautionary measures. 94.1% of all tourists informed themselves before travelling abroad, but a high proportion of travellers tends to contact only their travel agency or their personal friends, this leading to inadequate information. Regarding the individual performance of precautionary measures the results indicate a few principal conclusions: Among the recommended inoculations the vaccinations against typhoid fever, poliomyelitis and tetanus are widely underestimated, the latter two in particular for adults, while compliance with the passive immunization against Hepatitis A is generally good (more than 80% of all travellers receive Hepatitis A immunoglobulins prophylactically). The most crucial point seems to be the chemoprophylaxis against malaria in as much as a) there seems to be a considerable lack of information about malaria endemic areas among physicians, b) tourists tend to use the most simple applicable drug unaware of epidemiological considerations and c) the regular intake of chemoprophylaxis declines significantly with the complexity of the intake procedure. In addition, tourists are in general well informed about nutritional risks, but only half of them will receive adequate information on the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and a basic medical travel kit.

  4. [Fight against epidemics: Austrian prisoners in Troyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Géraldine

    2014-01-01

    The victories near Ulm and Elchingen, where the Napoleonic army took 60000 prisoners between 15th and 20th of October 1805, lead to the arrival at Troyes (county "Aube") of nearly 2000 Austrian soldiers to be held inside former monasteries among whose, mainly the Jacobinians casern where more than half of them stayed. At the beginning of 1806, the government sent the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Desgenettes on an inspection tour to control the state of health of the populations of places where foreign prisoners were held, which lead him through several counties of the North-eastern part of France, where he surveyed several diseases ranging from all kinds offevers up to dysentery, scabies or gangrenes. With the means of acid fumigations invented by the chemist Guyton Morveau from Dijon, the authorities took care of combating and preventing the epidemics in the caserns. As soon as October 1805, the epidemics medical practitioner Dr Pigeotte from Troyes wrote to the county governor his observations recommending a better diet, airing of the rooms and also calls to take some exercise. All these precepts showed an astonishing modernity.

  5. Sociotechnical scenarios for the Austrian energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wächter Petra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing greenhouse gases by 80%, as demanded by the IPCC, is one of the great long-term challenges facing our societies today and will doubtless require transformative changes to current energy regimes. Large-scale system transitions such as the one envisaged for the global energy system in the next 30–40 years can only be realized through complex processes of change involving global, regional, national, and local levels. In this paper we use sociotechnical scenario analysis to contribute ideas for the transformative change of the current Austrian energy system over the long term and to identify some of the particular policy measures, as well as structural changes and broader shifts in perspective, that would be necessary to deal with such challenges. There is less emphasis on the technical issues involved than on the socio-economic and governance requirements such a shift would demand. We also explain our experiences with the sociotechnical scenario process and its outcomes. In particular, we identify examples of some critical issues and opportunities within one of the identified key action fields and discuss their various implications for energy policy and everyday practices.

  6. Groundwater Characteristic and Fresh Water Supplying System of the East Slope Merapi Volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Priyana

    2004-01-01

    The result of the study shows that the quality of groundwater in every morphological unit is good enough, but in general the contents of element Ca, Mg, N03, CI, SO4, HCO3 shows that the lower the region is, the higher the content of the element . But if it is seen from the depth of its groundwater, so that the fluvial volcanic plain is the shallowest, then the fluvial volcanic foot plain and the last the volcanic foot area. Supplying system of fresh water, which derived from the dominant of well water, is especially used in morphological unit in fluvial "volcanic foot plain. The spring water is used by the population in the morphological unit in volcanic foot plain and then in morphological unit of fluvial volcanic foot plain. The population uses much rainwater in the morphological unit of volcanic foot plain.

  7. Development of a closed water supply system for the production of shale kerogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopachenok, L.V.; Ivanova, Ye.N.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    Results of development of closed water supply system for production of shale kerogen are presented. The studies were carried out under laboratory conditions. The possibility of excluding industrial runoff into open water collectors and limiting the collection of fresh water to the production of kerogen-70 by using clarified runoff for ash hydraulic removal system of shale central heating plants during grinding and flotation of shale is indicated. A system for producing kerogen-70 which is rational for this situation was developed. A technical and economic analysis of the measures related to preliminary treatment of thermal electric power plant runoff prior to their use in the production of kerogen was conducted on the basis of experimentally derived results.

  8. Bacterial community of biofilms developed under different water supply conditions in a distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huifang; Shi, Baoyou; Bai, Yaohui; Wang, Dongsheng

    2014-02-15

    In order to understand the bacterial community characteristics of biofilms developed under different finished water supply histories in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS), biofilm samples on different type of iron corrosion scales in a real DWDS were collected and systematically investigated using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene. The richness and diversity estimators showed that biofilms formed in DWDS transporting finished groundwater (GW) had the lowest level of bacterial diversity. From phylum to genus level, the dominant bacterial groups found in the biofilms under finished surface water (SW) and GW conditions were distinct. Proteobacteria was the dominant group in all biofilm samples (in the range of 40%-97%), but was relatively higher in biofilms with GW. The relative abundance of Firmicutes in biofilms with SW (28%-35%) was significantly higher (psupply condition. Several potential opportunistic pathogens, such as Burkholderia fungorum, Mycobacterium neoaurum, Mycobacterium frederiksbergense were detected in the biofilms.

  9. Moss cushions facilitate water and nutrient supply for plant species on bare limestone pavements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand; Hammer, Kathrine

    2012-01-01

    Dense moss cushions of different size are distributed across the bare limestone pavements on Øland, SE Sweden. Increasing cushion size is predicted to physically protect and improve performance and colonization by vascular plants. Therefore, we tested water balance, phosphorus supply, and species...... richness, and evaluated duration of plant activity during desiccation as a function of ground area, for a large collection of moss cushions. We found that lower evaporation and higher water storage contributed equally to extending the desiccation period with increasing cushion size. Evaporation rates...... under stagnant conditions. One moss species was added to the species pool for every nine-fold increase in cushion area. Vascular plants were absent from the smallest cushions, whereas one or two species, on average, appeared in 375- and 8,500-cm(2) cushions with water available for 6 and 10 days during...

  10. Inequalities in public water supply fluoridation in Brazil: An ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Simone T

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature is scarce on the social and geographic inequalities in the access to and implementation of the fluoridation of public water supplies. This study adds knowledge to the Brazilian experience of the chronic privation of water and wastewater policies, access to potable water and fluoridation in the country. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify possible inequalities in the population's access to fluoridated drinking water in 246 Brazilian municipalities. Methods The information on the process of water fluoridation in the municipalities and in the macro region in which each municipality is located was obtained from the national epidemiological survey which was concluded in 2003. The data relating to the human development index at municipal level (HDI-M and access to mains water came from the Brazilian Human Development Atlas, whilst the size of the population was obtained from a governmental source. The Fisher exact test (P Results The results clearly showed that there is a relationship between municipalities with larger populations, located in more socio-economically advantaged regions and with better HDI-M, and where fluoridation is both present and has been implemented for a longer period of time (started before 1990. Conclusion The findings suggest that the aim of treating water with fluoride may not be being adequately achieved, requiring more effective strategies so that access to this measure can be expanded equitably.

  11. Quality Improvement of a Small Water Supply. A Practical Application of a Full System of Nanofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marin Galvin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The THM level in the Spanish drinking water is limited to less than 0.100 mg/L, due to its potential toxicological effect on humans. This paper investigates the comparison of the results obtained in a small supply of water that historically presented THM contents out of the Spanish normative, versus the results there obtained when the treatment was modified with the inclusion of a nanofiltration system. So, the conventional treatment first applied was that of pre-oxidation with chlorine and/or KMnO4, followed by coagulation with aluminum salts directly on closed sand filter, and disinfection final by chlorination: with this system, THM levels lower than 0.100 mg/L were not always secured. Thus, to improve the water quality, a full system of nanofiltration was implemented, after the above treatment, consisting in: pre-filtration through cartridges, filtration over activated carbon, post-filtration for retaining impurities, and finally, nanofiltration and chlorination of water after nanofiltration. In this order, the new treatment scheme has usually produced water with maximum THM levels of 0.058 mg/L, and average values of 0.013 mg/L, 0.30 mg/L for organic matter concentrations, and water always microbiologically pure. Also, the contents of Fe, Mn and Al in the treated water were significantly reduced with respect to the previous situation without nanofiltration.

  12. Development of aquatic biomonitoring models for surface waters used for drinking water supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penders, E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Given the need for continued quality control of surface waters used for the production of drinking water by state-of-the-art bioassays and biological early warning systems, the objective of the present thesis was to validate and improve some of the bioassays and biological early warning systems used

  13. Moderate water stress affects tomato leaf water relations in dependence on the nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, A.L.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Garcia-Sanchez, F.; Nicolas, N.; Martinez, V.

    2007-01-01

    The responses of water relations, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and growth parameters of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Royesta) plants to nitrogen fertilisation and drought were studied. The plants were subjected to a long-term, moderate and progressive water stress by adding 80 % of the w

  14. The new Austrian tunnelling method in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierse, D.

    1987-12-03

    The new Austrian tunnelling method (NATM), as a composite support and lining system of bolts, steel mats and shotcrete, prevents the deconsolidation of the strata and activates the self-supporting properties of the strata envelope. By bringing in the strata for support it provides an exceptionally high support resistance, which outdoes steel supports and which is needed at increasing depths with their predictable high rock pressures and with large cross-sections in rooms where the limits of conventional steel arches are exceeded. Even thin shotcrete casing has a high support resistance. Where effects of other workings are present the NATM can be relied upon to have good stability over a long period and to be repair-friendly, as flaking off the casing can be made good by re-bolting and re-spraying. In contrast with the costly changing of entire support arches, partial surfaces can be repaired as required. The NATM is particularly cost-effective in the construction of drainage roads, which have to be lined against aggressive water, shaft porches, branch-offs, large rooms such as workshops, landings, belt drive rooms with internal cross-sections of 25 to 30 m/sup 2/ and shaft widening and traversing with irregular cross-sections. In geologically extremely difficult levels, such as those of the Laura and Zollverein 7/8 seams, the NATM has also been successfully used to construct drainage roads, branch-offs and shaft traverses. 30 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. HACCP and water safety plans in Icelandic water supply: preliminary evaluation of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, María J; Gissurarson, Loftur R

    2008-09-01

    Icelandic waterworks first began implementing hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) as a preventive approach for water safety management in 1997. Since then implementation has been ongoing and currently about 68% of the Icelandic population enjoy drinking water from waterworks with a water safety plan based on HACCP. Preliminary evaluation of the success of HACCP implementation was undertaken in association with some of the waterworks that had implemented HACCP. The evaluation revealed that compliance with drinking water quality standards improved considerably following the implementation of HACCP. In response to their findings, waterworks implemented a large number of corrective actions to improve water safety. The study revealed some limitations for some, but not all, waterworks in relation to inadequate external and internal auditing and a lack of oversight by health authorities. Future studies should entail a more comprehensive study of the experience with the use of HACCP with the purpose of developing tools to promote continuing success.

  16. Sustainable Water Supplies:Reducing The Organic Matter Content of Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Mary

    2009-07-01

    As freshwater becomes a limiting factor in sustainable development, water treatment processes which can efficiently oxidize both anthropogenic and natural sources of organic matter are becoming crucial. While many anthropogenic organic compounds found in freshwater pose a direct risk to human health, natural organic matter such as humic acids, pose an indirect risk through the production of disinfection byproducts resulting from chlorination. Removal of dissolved natural organic matter before disinfection of potable water is recommended for the production of potable water in water treatment facilities. Several promising developments in dissolved organic matter oxidation are described including hydroxyl radical, advanced oxidation processes and ferrate (VI). The feasibility of applying these processes to water treatment on a large scale is largely dependent on cost.

  17. Harmful algal blooms: a case study in two mesotrophic drinking water supply reservoirs in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journey, Celeste A.; Beaulieu, Karen M.; Knight, Rodney R.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Arrington, Jane M.; West, Rebecca; Westcott, John; Bradley, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Algal blooms can be harmful and a nuisance in a variety of aquatic ecosystems, including reservoirs and lakes. Cyanobacterial(blue-green algae) harmful algal blooms are notorious for producing both taste-and-odor compounds and potent toxins that may affect human health. Taste–and-odor episodes are aesthetic problems often caused by cyanobacterial-produced organic compounds (geosmin and methylisoborneol) and are common in reservoirs and lakes used as source water supplies. The occurrences of these taste-and-odor compounds and toxins (like microcystin) can be sporadic and vary in intensity both spatially and temporally. Recent publications by the U.S. Geological Survey address this complexity and provide protocols for cyanotoxin and taste-and-odor sampling programs. A case study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Spartanburg Water, monitored two mesotrophic reservoirs that serve as public drinking water supplies in South Carolina. Study objectives were (1) to identify spatial and temporal occurrence of the taste-and-odor compound geosmin and the cyanotoxin microcystin and (2) to assess the associated limnological conditions before, during, and after these occurrences. Temporal and spatial occurrence of geosmin and microcystin were highly variable from 2007 to 2009. The highest geosmin concentrations tended to occur in the spring. Microcystin tended to occur in the late summer and early fall, but occurrence was rare and well below World Health Organization guidelines for finished drinking water and recreational activities. No current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards are applicable to cyanotoxins in drinking or ambient water. In general, elevated geosmin and microcystin concentrations were the result of complex interactions between cyanobacterial ⬚community composition, nutrient availability, water clarity, hydraulic residence time, and stratification.

  18. NREPS Applications for Water Supply and Management in California and Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, P.; Scott, M.; Carery, L. D.; Petersen, W. A.

    2011-01-01

    Management of water resources is a balancing act between temporally and spatially limited sources and competitive needs which can often exceed the supply. In order to manage water resources over a region such as the San Joaquin Valley or the Tennessee River Valley, it is pertinent to know the amount of water that has fallen in the watershed and where the water is going within it. Since rain gauge networks are typically sparsely spaced, it is typical that the majority of rainfall on the region may not be measured. To mitigate this under-sampling of rainfall, weather radar has long been employed to provide areal rainfall estimates. The Next-Generation Weather Radars (NEXRAD) make it possible to estimate rainfall over the majority of the conterminous United States. The NEXRAD Rainfall Estimation Processing System (NREPS) was developed specifically for the purpose of using weather radar to estimate rainfall for water resources management. The NREPS is tailored to meet customer needs on spatial and temporal scales relevant to the hydrologic or land-surface models of the end-user. It utilizes several techniques to mitigate artifacts in the NEXRAD data from contaminating the rainfall field. These techniques include clutter filtering, correction for occultation by topography as well as accounting for the vertical profile of reflectivity. This presentation will focus on improvements made to the NREPS system to map rainfall in the San Joaquin Valley for NASA s Water Supply and Management Project in California, but also ongoing rainfall mapping work in the Tennessee River watershed for the Tennessee Valley Authority and possible future applications in other areas of the continent.

  19. REDUCING THE BOOSTER STATIONS ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY WAY OF ELIMINATING OVERPRESSURE IN THE WATER SUPPLY NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zdor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency improvement of the city housing-and-utilities infrastructure and watersupply and water-disposal systems poses an occurrent problem. The water-supply systems energy consumption sizable share falls on the pump plants. The article deals with the issues of the operating regime management of the existing booster stations equipped with a group of pumping units regulated with frequency converters. One of the optimization directions of their energy consumption is the reduction of over-pressure in the water-distribution network and its sustentation within the regulatory values. The authors offer the structure and methodology of the data collection-and-analysis automated system utilization for revealing and eliminating the overpressure in the water-supply network. This system is designed for the group management of booster-stations operating regimes on the ground of data obtained from the pressure controlling devices at the consumers. The data exchange in the system is realized via GSM.The paper presents results of the tests carried out at the booster stations in some major cities of the Republic of Belarus. The authors analyze dependence of overpressure in the network on the methods of the plant output pressure sustentation (daily graph or constant pressure. The authors study the elimination effect of over-pressure in the water distribution network on changing the booster station pumping units operation regimes. The study shows that eliminating over pressure in the water distributing network leads to lowering the booster station pressure. This in its turn decreases its energy consumption by 15–20 % depending on the over pressure fixed level.

  20. Microbiological evaluation of water quality from urban watersheds for domestic water supply improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibekwe, A Mark; Murinda, Shelton E; Graves, Alexandria K

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC), but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern due to possible

  1. Microbiological Evaluation of Water Quality from Urban Watersheds for Domestic Water Supply Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria K. Graves

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC, but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern

  2. Estimating Domestic Self-Supply Water Use for the Delaware River Basin, 1990 U.S. Census Blocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — According to the U.S. Geological Survey, an estimated 258 million people nationwide, or 86% of the U.S. population, relied on public water supplies for their...

  3. Estimating Domestic Self-Supply Water Use for the Delaware River Basin, 2000 U.S. Census Blocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — According to the U.S. Geological Survey, an estimated 258 million people nationwide, or 86% of the U.S. population, relied on public water supplies for their...

  4. Estimating Domestic Self-Supply Water Use for the Delaware River Basin, 2010 U.S. Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — According to the U.S. Geological Survey, an estimated 258 million people nationwide, or 86% of the U.S. population, relied on public water supplies for their...

  5. Estimating Domestic Self-Supply Water Use for the Delaware River Basin, 1990 U.S. Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — According to the U.S. Geological Survey, an estimated 258 million people nationwide, or 86% of the U.S. population, relied on public water supplies for their...

  6. Estimating Domestic Self-Supply Water Use for the Delaware River Basin, 2000 U.S. Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — According to the U.S. Geological Survey, an estimated 258 million people nationwide, or 86% of the U.S. population, relied on public water supplies for their...

  7. Austrian Economics and the Transaction Cost Approach to the Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai J. Foss

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As the transaction cost theory of the firm was taking shape in the 1970s, another important movement in economics was emerging: a revival of the ‘Austrian’ tradition in economic theory associated with such economists as Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek (1973; Dolan, 1976; Spadaro, 1978. As Oliver Williamson has pointed out, Austrian economics is among the diverse sources for transaction cost economics. In particular, Williamson frequently cites Hayek (e.g., Williamson, 1985, p. 8; 1991, p. 162, particularly Hayek’s emphasis on adaptation as a key problem of economic organisation (Hayek, 1945. Following Williamson’s lead, a reference to Hayek’s ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society’ (Hayek, 1945 has become almost mandatory in discussions of economic organisation (e.g., Ricketts, 1987, p. 59; Milgrom and Roberts, 1992, p. 56; Douma and Schreuder 1991, p. 9. However, there are many other potential links between Austrian and transaction cost economics that have not been explored closely and exploited.This article argues that characteristically Austrian ideas about property, entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge, and the temporal structure of capital have important implications for theories of economic organisation, transaction cost economics in particular. Austrian economists have not, however, devoted substantial attention to the theory of the firm, preferring to focus on business-cycle theory, welfare economics, political economy, comparative economic systems, and other areas. Until recently the theory of the firm was an almost completely neglected area in Austrian economics, but over the last decade, a small Austrian literature on the firm has emerged. While these works cover a wide variety of theoretical and applied topics, their authors share the view that Austrian insights have something to offer students of firm organisation.

  8. Impacts of Austrian Climate Variability on Honey Bee Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switanek, Matt; Brodschneider, Robert; Crailsheim, Karl; Truhetz, Heimo

    2015-04-01

    Global food production, as it is today, is not possible without pollinators such as the honey bee. It is therefore alarming that honey bee populations across the world have seen increased mortality rates in the last few decades. The challenges facing the honey bee calls into question the future of our food supply. Beside various infectious diseases, Varroa destructor is one of the main culprits leading to increased rates of honey bee mortality. Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite which strongly depends on honey bee brood for reproduction and can wipe out entire colonies. However, climate variability may also importantly influence honey bee breeding cycles and bee mortality rates. Persistent weather events affects vegetation and hence foraging possibilities for honey bees. This study first defines critical statistical relationships between key climate indicators (e.g., precipitation and temperature) and bee mortality rates across Austria, using 6 consecutive years of data. Next, these leading indicators, as they vary in space and time, are used to build a statistical model to predict bee mortality rates and the respective number of colonies affected. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by 21% with respect to predictions made with the mean mortality rate and the number of colonies. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo test is used to establish that the model's predictions are statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level. These results highlight the influence of climate variables on honey bee populations, although variability in climate, by itself, cannot fully explain colony losses. This study was funded by the Austrian project 'Zukunft Biene'.

  9. Extreme Hydrological Changes in the Western United States Drive Reductions in Water Supply by Mid Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, Brianna; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Naz, Bibi; Mei, Rui; Kendall, Donald; Pal, Jeremy

    2016-04-01

    The Western United States has a greater vulnerability to climate change impacts on water security due to a reliance on snowmelt driven imported water. The State of California, which is the most populous and agriculturally productive in the United States, depends on an extensive artificial water storage and conveyance system primarily for irrigated agriculture, municipal and industrial supply and hydropower generation. This study provides an integrated approach to assessing climate change impacts on the hydrologic cycle and hydrologic extremes for all water supplies to Southern California including the San-Joaquin River, Tulare Lake, Sacramento River, Owens Valley, Mono Lake, and Colorado River basins. A 10-member ensemble of coupled global climate models is dynamically downscaled forcing a regional and hydrological model resulting in a high-resolution 4-km output for the region. Greenhouse gas concentrations are prescribed according to historical values for the present-day (1965-2005) and the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 for the near to mid term future (2010-2050). While precipitation is projected to remain the same or slightly increase, rising temperatures result in a shift in precipitation type towards more rainfall, reducing cold season snowpack and earlier snowmelt. Associated with these hydrological changes are substantial increases in both dry and flood event frequency and intensity, which are evaluated by using the Generalized Extreme Value distribution, Standardized Precipitation Index and ratio of daily precipitation to annual precipitation. Daily annual maximum runoff and precipitation event events significantly increase in intensity and frequency. Return periods change such that extreme events in the future become much more common by mid-century. The largest changes occur in the Colorado River where the daily annual maximum runoff 100-year event, for example, becomes approximately ten times more likely and twice as likely in the other

  10. Sectoral Vulnerabilities to Changing Water Resources: Current and Future Tradeoffs between Supply and Demand in the Conterminous U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, J.; Averyt, K.; Caldwell, P.; Sun, G.; Huber-lee, A. T.; McNulty, S.

    2012-12-01

    Assessing the sustainability of human activities depends, in part, on the availability of water supplies to meet the demands of those activities. Thermoelectric cooling, agriculture, and municipal uses all compete for water supplies, but each sector differs in its characteristic ratio of water consumption versus withdrawals. This creates different implications for contributing to water supply stress and, conversely, vulnerabilities within each sector to changing water supplies. In this study, we use two measures of water stress, relating to water withdrawals and to water consumption, and calculate the role of each of these three sectors in contributing to the two different measures. We estimate water stress with an enhanced version of the Water Supply Stress Index (WaSSI), calculating the ratio of water demand to water supply at the 8-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) scale (Sun et al. 2008, 2011; Caldwell et al. 2011). Current water supplies are based on an integrated water balance and flow routing model of the conterminous United States, which accounts for surface water supply, groundwater supply, and major return flows. Future supplies are based on simulated regional changes in streamflow in 2050 from an ensemble of 12 climate models (Milly et al. 2005). We estimate water demands separately for agriculture, municipal uses, and thermoelectric cooling, with the first two based on Kenny et al. (2005) and the last on the approach of Averyt et al. (2011). We find substantial regional variation not only in the overall WaSSI for withdrawals and consumption but also in contribution of the three water use sectors to that total. Results suggest that the relative vulnerabilities of different sectors of human activity to water supply stress vary spatially and that policies for alleviating that stress must consider the specific, regional context of the tradeoffs between competing water demands. Ref's: Averyt, K., Fisher, J., Huber-Lee, A., Lewis, A., Macknick, J., Madden, N

  11. Water Wisdom: 23 Stand-Alone Activities on Water Supply and Water Conservation for High School Students. 2nd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    This water conservation education program for high schools consists of both stand-alone activities and teacher support materials. Lessons are divided into six broad categories: (1) The Water Cycle; (2) Water and Society; (3) Keeping Water Pure; (4) Visualizing Volumes; (5) The Economics of Water Use; and (6) Domestic Water Conservation. The…

  12. Robustness Analysis of Regional Water Supply Portfolios using Synthetic Inflow Scenarios with Variable Drought Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. D.; Zeff, H. B.; Lamontagne, J. R.; Reed, P. M.; Characklis, G. W.

    2015-12-01

    Robustness analyses of water supply systems have moved toward exploratory simulation to discover scenarios in which existing or planned policies may fail to meet stakeholder objectives. Such assessments rely heavily on the choice of plausible future scenarios, which, in the case of drought management, requires sampling or generating a broad ensemble of reservoir inflows which do not necessarily reflect the historical record. Here we adapt a widely used synthetic streamflow generation method to adjust the frequency of low-flow periods, which can be related to impactful historical events from the perspective of decision makers. Specifically, the modified generation procedure allows the user to specify parameters n, p such that events with observed weekly non-exceedance frequency p appear in the synthetic scenario with approximate frequency np (i.e., the pth percentile flow occurs n times more frequently). Additionally, the generator preserves the historical autocorrelation of streamflow and its seasonality, as well as approximate multi-site correlation. Using model simulations from recent work in multi-objective urban drought portfolio planning in North Carolina, a region whose water supply faces both climate and population pressures, we illustrate the decision-relevant consequences caused by raising the frequency of low flows associated with the 2007-2008 drought. This method explores system performance under extreme events of increasing frequency prior to reconciling these findings with climate model projections, and thus can be used to support bottom-up robustness methods in water systems planning.

  13. Regime-shifting streamflow processes: Implications for water supply reservoir operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, S. W. D.; Galelli, S.

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the extent to which regime-like behavior in streamflow time series impacts reservoir operating policy performance. We begin by incorporating a regime state variable into a well-established stochastic dynamic programming model. We then simulate and compare optimized release policies—with and without the regime state variable—to understand how regime shifts affect operating performance in terms of meeting water delivery targets. Our optimization approach uses a Hidden Markov Model to partition the streamflow time series into a small number of separate regime states. The streamflow persistence structures associated with each state define separate month-to-month streamflow transition probability matrices for computing penalty cost expectations within the optimization procedure. The algorithm generates a four-dimensional array of release decisions conditioned on the within-year time period, reservoir storage state, inflow class, and underlying regime state. Our computational experiment is executed on 99 distinct, hypothetical water supply reservoirs fashioned from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's Hydrologic Reference Stations. Results show that regime-like behavior is a major cause of suboptimal operations in water supply reservoirs; conventional techniques for optimal policy design may misguide the operator, particularly in regions susceptible to multiyear drought. Stationary streamflow models that allow for regime-like behavior can be incorporated into traditional stochastic optimization models to enhance the flexibility of operations.

  14. Initial characterization of the groundwater system near the Lower Colorado Water Supply Project, Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L.; Land, Michael; Densmore, Jill N.; Landrum, Michael T.; Beisner, Kimberly R.; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Macy, Jamie P.; Tillman, Fred D

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Needles, began a study of the hydrogeology along the All-American Canal, which conveys water from the Colorado River to the Imperial Valley. The focus of this study was to gain a better understanding of the effect of lining the All-American Canal, and other management actions, on future total dissolved solids concentrations in groundwater pumped by Lower Colorado Water Supply Project wells that is delivered to the All-American Canal. The study included the compilation and evaluation of previously published hydrogeologic and geochemical information, establishment of a groundwater-elevation and groundwater-quality monitoring network, results of monitoring groundwater elevations and groundwater quality from 2009 to 2011, site-specific hydrologic investigations of the Lower Colorado Water Supply Project area, examination of groundwater salinity by depth by using time-domain electromagnetic surveys, and monitoring of groundwater-storage change by using microgravity methods. 

  15. Clogging of water supply wells in alluvial aquifers by mineral incrustations, central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majkić-Dursun Brankica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of incrustations on public water supply well screens reduces their performance considerably. The incrustations increase hydraulic losses, reduce the capacity of the well and screen, affect the quality of the pumped water and increase maintenance costs. In alluvial environments, the most common deposits are iron and manganese hydroxides. However, the rates of formation, compositions and levels of crystallization vary, depending on the geochemical characteristics of the alluvial environment, the microbiological characteristics of the groundwater and the abstraction method. Samples of 15 incrustations were collected from wells that tap shallow alluvial aquifers and were found to be dominated by iron. XRD analyses detected low-crystalline ferrihydrite and manganese hydroxide in the samples collected from the water supply source at Trnovče (Velika Morava alluvial. The incrustations from the Belgrade Groundwater Source revealed the presence of ferrihydrite and a substantial amount of goethite α-FeOOH. Apart from goethite, greigite (Fe3S4 was detected in three samples, while one sample additionally contained bernalite Fe(OH3 and monoclinic sulfur S8. Among carbonates, only siderite was detected. Iron oxidizing bacteria generally catalyze deposition processes in wells, while sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB play a role in the biogenic formation of greigite. Determining the nature of the deposited material allows better selection of rehabilitation chemicals and procedure. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR37014

  16. A Direct Heat Exchanger Unit used for Domestic Hot Water Supply in a Single-family House Supplied by Low Energy District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Thorsen, Jan Eric; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    on the testing of the dynamic behaviour of an Instantaneous Heat Exchanger Unit(IHEU) designed for DHW heating and space heating in detached family houses supplied by LEDH ensuring an entry-to-substation temperature of 51 °C. We measured the time it takes for the IHEU to produce DHW with a temperature of 42 °C......The increasing number of new and renovated buildings with reduced heating requirements will soon make traditional District Heating (DH) systems uneconomic. To keep DH competitive in the future, the heat loss in DH networks needs to be reduced. One option is to reduce the supply temperature of DH...... as much as possible. This requires a review of the behaviour of the whole domestic hot water (DHW) supply system with focus on the user comfort and overall costs. This paper describes some practical approaches to the implementation of this Low Energy District Heating (LEDH) concept. It reports...

  17. Scheduling and adaptation of London's future water supply and demand schemes under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskova, Ivana; Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Harou, Julien J.; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Reed, Patrick M.

    2015-04-01

    The changing needs of society and the uncertainty of future conditions complicate the planning of future water infrastructure and its operating policies. These systems must meet the multi-sector demands of a range of stakeholders whose objectives often conflict. Understanding these conflicts requires exploring many alternative plans to identify possible compromise solutions and important system trade-offs. The uncertainties associated with future conditions such as climate change and population growth challenge the decision making process. Ideally planners should consider portfolios of supply and demand management schemes represented as dynamic trajectories over time able to adapt to the changing environment whilst considering many system goals and plausible futures. Decisions can be scheduled and adapted over the planning period to minimize the present cost of portfolios while maintaining the supply-demand balance and ecosystem services as the future unfolds. Yet such plans are difficult to identify due to the large number of alternative plans to choose from, the uncertainty of future conditions and the computational complexity of such problems. Our study optimizes London's future water supply system investments as well as their scheduling and adaptation over time using many-objective scenario optimization, an efficient water resource system simulator, and visual analytics for exploring key system trade-offs. The solutions are compared to Pareto approximate portfolios obtained from previous work where the composition of infrastructure portfolios that did not change over the planning period. We explore how the visual analysis of solutions can aid decision making by investigating the implied performance trade-offs and how the individual schemes and their trajectories present in the Pareto approximate portfolios affect the system's behaviour. By doing so decision makers are given the opportunity to decide the balance between many system goals a posteriori as well as

  18. Performance assessment of Saskatchewan's water resource system under uncertain inter-provincial water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Nazemi, Ali; Wheater, Howard

    2014-05-01

    The trans-boundary Saskatchewan River Basin supports livelihoods and the economy of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Water users include irrigated agriculture, hydropower, potash mining, urban centers, and ecosystem services. Water availability in Saskatchewan is highly dependent on the flows from the upstream province of Alberta. These flows mostly originate from the Rocky Mountains headwaters and are highly regulated, due to intensive water use and redistribution before they get to the Alberta/Saskatchewan border. Warming climate and increasing water demands in Alberta have changed the incoming flow characteristics from Alberta to Saskatchewan. It is critical to assess the performance and the viability of Saskatchewan's water resources system under uncertain future inter-provincial inflows. For this purpose, a possible range of future changes in the inflows from Alberta to Saskatchewan is considered in this study. The considered changes include various combinations of shifts in the timing of the annual peak and volumetric change in the annual flow volumes. These shifts are implemented using a copula-based stochastic simulation method to generate multiple realizations of weekly flow series at two key locations of inflow to Saskatchewan's water resources system, in a way that the spatial dependencies between weekly inflows are maintained. Each flow series is of 31-years length and constitutes a possible long term water availability scenario. The stochastically generated flows are introduced as an alternative to the historical inflows for water resources planning and management purposes in Saskatchewan. Both historical and reconstructed inflows are fed into a Sustainability-oriented Water Allocation, Management, and Planning (SWAMP) model to analyze the effects of inflow changes on Saskatchewan's water resources system. The SWAMP model was developed using the System Dynamics approach and entails irrigation/soil moisture, non-irrigation uses and economic

  19. The continuity of Roman water supply systems in post-Roman Spain: the case of Valentia, a reliable example?

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Jiménez, Javier (Archaeologist)

    2011-01-01

    Even if the general assumption is that Roman water supply systems (aqueducts in particular) ceased to function during the late Roman period, and that these were not present in medieval cities, recent archaeological research is proving that this was not always the case. Several cities in Spain show archaeological continuity in their water supply systems into the Visigothic period, and one of these seems to be Valencia. There is archaeological evidence to suggest a functioning aqueduct until th...

  20. The Evaluation of Water Conservation for Municipal and Industrial Water Supply: Illustrative Examples. Water Conservation and Supply Information Transfer and Analysis Program. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    percent is for toilets and none is for showers. (Although there are showers in hotels /motels, this consumption is small when compared to the total...commercial consumption. Since hotels /motels pay the water bill for guests, it is in their best interest to install water conserving showers and many have...appointment on the enclosed form and return it to us. Upon our arrival in Tucson we will call to confirm the appointment. We will be staying at the Marriot

  1. Risk-based prioritisation of point sources through assessment of the impact on a water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overheu, Niels D.; Tuxen, Nina; Troldborg, Mads

    2011-01-01

    A large number of point sources threaten groundwater resources. A tool is presented which enables a uniform and transparent risk assessment and prioritisation of these point sources at the catchment scale with respect to the needs of further investigation or remediation. The tool integrates aquifer...... vulnerability mapping, site-specific mass flux estimates on a local scale from all the sources, and 3-D catchment-scale fate and transport modelling. It handles sources at various knowledge levels and accounts for uncertainties. The tool estimates the impacts on the water supply in the catchment and provides...

  2. RI Mapping System for Identification of Radiological Contamination in Environmental Water Supply System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Teresa W.; Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Han Soo; Lee, Seung Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Na, Teresa W.; Lee, Rena [Ewha Womans Univ., Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The interest of radiation protection has risen due to accidents of the Nuclear Power Plant, nuclear terrorism, and the radiological contamination in the city, In this respect, the development of environmental radiation monitoring for the radiological contaminants has been studied. In this study, the experiment for the radiological contamination in the water supply pipe line system has been simulated and preliminarily tested. The CsI(Tl)-PIN diode detectors were used and the preliminary test of radiation monitoring system was performed as multi detection system. The 2D image reconstruction algorithm was also developed for feasibility of the constructed multi-detection system.

  3. Filamentous fungi in drinking water tanks of a water supply system in Recife-PE, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, P. B. R.; Santana, J. B. de; Oliveira, H. M. B.; Siqueira, Virgínia M.; Santos, C.; Lima, Nelson; Gusmão, N. B.

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water reservoirs are widely used in various building constructions in Brazil for as a source of potable water for users. However, they are susceptible to the growth of microorganisms such as fungi. From these, several negative factors may ensue, namely, unpleasant odors and flavours, pigments, biofilm formation and mycotoxins. This is caused fungal resistance to treatment and disinfection. Brazilian law and those of other countries offer no encouragement for the resear...

  4. DETERMINATION OF WATER FLOW CONNECTION IN WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    An important factor for selection of main water meters is a precise determination of design flow, value of “nieprzewyższenia”. Presently, technical norms, on which determination of design flow for diameter selection of waterworks selection and consequently water meters selection are based, are no reliable in relation to the actual flow. This gives arguments to ascertain that harmonized standards do not meet Polish conditions and it requires correction. The article presents the method of de...

  5. Modeling threat assessments of water supply systems using markov latent effects methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Consuelo Juanita

    2006-12-01

    Recent amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act emphasize efforts toward safeguarding our nation's water supplies against attack and contamination. Specifically, the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 established requirements for each community water system serving more than 3300 people to conduct an assessment of the vulnerability of its system to a terrorist attack or other intentional acts. Integral to evaluating system vulnerability is the threat assessment, which is the process by which the credibility of a threat is quantified. Unfortunately, full probabilistic assessment is generally not feasible, as there is insufficient experience and/or data to quantify the associated probabilities. For this reason, an alternative approach is proposed based on Markov Latent Effects (MLE) modeling, which provides a framework for quantifying imprecise subjective metrics through possibilistic or fuzzy mathematics. Here, an MLE model for water systems is developed and demonstrated to determine threat assessments for different scenarios identified by the assailant, asset, and means. Scenario assailants include terrorists, insiders, and vandals. Assets include a water treatment plant, water storage tank, node, pipeline, well, and a pump station. Means used in attacks include contamination (onsite chemicals, biological and chemical), explosives and vandalism. Results demonstrated highest threats are vandalism events and least likely events are those performed by a terrorist.

  6. Re-engineering the urban drainage system for resource recovery and protection of drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, B

    2000-01-01

    The Harare metropolis in Zimbabwe, extending upstream from Manyame Dam in the Upper Manyame River Basin, consists of the City of Harare and its satellite towns: Chitungwiza, Norton, Epworth and Ruwa. The existing urban drainage system is typically a single-use-mixing system: water is used and discharged to "waste", excreta are flushed to sewers and eventually, after "treatment", the effluent is discharged to a drinking water supply source. Polluted urban storm water is evacuated as fast as possible. This system not only ignores the substantial value in "waste" materials, but it also exports problems to downstream communities and to vulnerable fresh-water sources. The question is how can the harare metropolis urban drainage system, which is complex and has evolved over time, be rearranged to achieve sustainability (i.e. water conservation, pollution prevention at source, protection of the vulnerable drinking water sources and recovery of valuable materials)? This paper reviews current concepts regarding the future development of the urban drainage system in line with the new vision of "Sustainable Cities of the Future". The Harare Metropolis in Zimbabwe is taken as a case, and philosophical options for re-engineering the drainage system are discussed.

  7. Catastrophic Regime Shift in Water Reservoirs and Sao Paulo Water Supply Crisis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato M Coutinho

    Full Text Available The relation between rainfall and water accumulated in reservoirs comprises nonlinear feedbacks. Here we show that they may generate alternative equilibrium regimes, one of high water-volume, the other of low water-volume. Reservoirs can be seen as socio-environmental systems at risk of regime shifts, characteristic of tipping point transitions. We analyze data from stored water, rainfall, and water inflow and outflow in the main reservoir serving the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, by means of indicators of critical regime shifts, and find a strong signal of a transition. We furthermore build a mathematical model that gives a mechanistic view of the dynamics and demonstrates that alternative stable states are an expected property of water reservoirs. We also build a stochastic version of this model that fits well to the data. These results highlight the broader aspect that reservoir management must account for their intrinsic bistability, and should benefit from dynamical systems theory. Our case study illustrates the catastrophic consequences of failing to do so.

  8. Water supply patterns in two agricultural areas of Central Germany under climate change conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Tölle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases and increasing prices for fossil fuels have highlighted the demand for CO2 "neutral" renewable energy sources, e.g. short rotation forestry systems used for bioenergy. These systems might be vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation and occurrence of extreme weather events. To estimate success or failure of such short rotation coppices in a certain area we need regional climate projections and risk assessment. Changes of water supply patterns in two agriculturally extensively used regions in Central Germany (around Göttingen and Großfahner with different climate conditions but both in the temperate climate zone are explored. The study is carried out under present conditions as well as under projected climate change conditions (1971–2100 using A1B and B1 climate scenarios downscaled for Europe. Analysis of precipitation bias shows regional differences: a strong bias in Göttingen area and a weaker bias in the Großfahner area. A bias correction approach, Quantile mapping, is applied to the ensemble results for both areas for winter and summer seasons. By using quantile regression on the seasonal Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPIs as indicator for water supply conditions we found that precipitation is expected to increase in winter in all quantiles of the distribution for Göttingen area during the 21th century. Heavy precipitation is also expected to increase for Großfahner area suggesting a trend to wetter extremes in winter for the future. This winter precipitation increase could trigger runoff and soil erosion risk enhancing the severity of floods. Increasing winter availability of water could enhance local water supply in spring. For both areas no significant change in summer was found over the whole time period. Although the climate change signal of the SPI indicate mild dryer conditions in summer at the end of the 21st century which may trigger water shortage and

  9. Use of extract of moringa seeds as coagulant agent in treatment of water supply and wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe da Silva Nascimento

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the extract of moringa (Moringa oleifera seeds when used as a coagulant agent, in removal of turbidity and coliform in domestic sewage, pig wastewater and water to be used for public supply. To evaluate the effect of coagulant on each type of water, tests were performed using the Jar-test apparatus, and was evaluated the effects of the concentrations of 0.02; 0.04; 0.06; 0.1; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.2 g of powdered seeds per liter of analyzed water. Turbidity was measured in suspensions after 2 and 24 h and counting of organisms of the group total coliforms (TC and fecal or thermotolerants coliforms (FC after 24 h of application and mixing of the coagulant. Mathematical equations were fitted by regression, relating the concentration of the extract of moringa seeds in water samples with turbidity. It was found that in the water to be used for public supply, the concentration of 0.4 g L-1 of moringa seeds to a sedimentation time of 2 h presented the best turbidity removal (98%. In equal sedimentation time, the average removal of turbidity in the domestic wastewater was 22.3%. On a larger sedimentation time (24 h, the average removal is increased to 35.3%. The addition of extract of moringa seeds not presented turbidity removal of pig wastewater. With regard to the removal of TC and FC, the concentration of 0.2 g L-1 of seeds was the most suitable for water to be used for public supply, obtained 90% of FC removal. In the case of domestic sewage, the best concentration was 0.04 g L-1 of seeds, has been obtained removals of 95.6 and 94.3%, respectively, and in pig wastewater, the best concentration was 0.8 g L-1 of seeds, which presented removals of 96.5 and 94.8%, respectively.

  10. Water supply patterns in two agricultural areas of Central Germany under climate change conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölle, M. H.; Moseley, C.; Panferov, O.; Busch, G.; Knohl, A.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing emissions of greenhouse gases and increasing prices for fossil fuels have highlighted the demand for CO2 "neutral" renewable energy sources, e.g. short rotation forestry systems used for bioenergy. These systems might be vulnerable to changes in temperature, precipitation and occurrence of extreme weather events. To estimate success or failure of such short rotation coppices in a certain area we need regional climate projections and risk assessment. Changes of water supply patterns in two agriculturally extensively used regions in Central Germany (around Göttingen and Großfahner) with different climate conditions but both in the temperate climate zone are explored. The study is carried out under present conditions as well as under projected climate change conditions (1971-2100) using A1B and B1 climate scenarios downscaled for Europe. Analysis of precipitation bias shows regional differences: a strong bias in Göttingen area and a weaker bias in the Großfahner area. A bias correction approach, Quantile mapping, is applied to the ensemble results for both areas for winter and summer seasons. By using quantile regression on the seasonal Standardized Precipitation Indices (SPIs) as indicator for water supply conditions we found that precipitation is expected to increase in winter in all quantiles of the distribution for Göttingen area during the 21th century. Heavy precipitation is also expected to increase for Großfahner area suggesting a trend to wetter extremes in winter for the future. This winter precipitation increase could trigger runoff and soil erosion risk enhancing the severity of floods. Increasing winter availability of water could enhance local water supply in spring. For both areas no significant change in summer was found over the whole time period. Although the climate change signal of the SPI indicate mild dryer conditions in summer at the end of the 21st century which may trigger water shortage and summer drying associated with above

  11. Establishment of sustainable water supply system in small islands through rainwater harvesting (RWH): case study of Guja-do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mooyoung; Ki, Jaehong

    2010-01-01

    Many islands in Korea have problems related to water source security and supply. In particular, the water supply condition is worse in small islands which are remote from the mainland. A couple of alternatives are developed and suggested to supply water to islands including water hauling, groundwater extraction, and desalination. However, these alternatives require much energy, cost, and concern in installation and operation. Rainwater harvesting is a sustainable option that supplies water with low energy and cost. However, lack of practical or comprehensive studies on rainwater harvesting systems in these regions hinders the promotion of the system. Therefore, this research examines defects of current RWH systems on an existing island, Guja-do, and provides technical suggestions in quantitative and qualitative aspects. A simple system design modification and expansion of system capacity using empty space such as a wharf structure can satisfy both the qualitative and the quantitative water demand of the island. Since rainwater harvesting is estimated to be a feasible water supply option under the Korean climate, which is an unfavorable condition for rainwater harvesting, implies a high potential applicability of rainwater harvesting technology to other regions over the world suffering from water shortage.

  12. Discussion on campus water supply system design%谈校园给水系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晓虎

    2012-01-01

    结合某学校给水工程设计要点,对校园给水系统、用水量及给水管道水力计算等问题进行探讨,指出校园供水系统应考虑节能、经济及水资源的有效利用,对给水系统进行合理分区,采用分质供水,选取最经济的给水管径。%Combining with water supply engineering design key points of a school, this paper discussed campus water supply system, water use and water supply pipeline hydraulic calculation and other problems, pointed out should be considered energy-saving, economic and effective uti- lization of water resources in campus water supply systems, made reasonable zoning to water supply system, used sub-quality water, chose the most economic pipe diameter.

  13. Climate change and water supply, management and use: A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, L.H.; Draves, J.D.; Hunsaker, C.T.

    1992-05-01

    There is evidence that atmospheric concentrations Of C0{sub 2}, tropospheric 0{sub 3}, and CH{sub 4}, among other gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect, have increased in recent decades, and that these changes may induce changes in global air temperatures and regional climate features in coming years. A literature review was conducted to sample the literature base on which our understanding of the water resource impacts of climate change rests. Water resource issues likely to be important include hydrologic response to climate change, the resilience of water supply systems to changing climatic and hydrologic conditions, and the effects of climate change on water quality and water uses (such as navigation and energy generation). A computer-assisted search of literature on the effects of climate change on these subjects was conducted. All studies were classified by type of paper (e.g., review, discussion, case study), region, water resource variable studied, and source of climate scenario. The resulting bibliography containing more than 200 references was largely annotated. Case studies of potential hydrologic impacts have been more common than studies of impacts on water management or water use, but this apparent research gap is decreasing. Case studies demonstrating methods of incorporating potential risks of climate change into water project planning and management have been performed. Considerable variability in regional coverage exists; the Great Lakes basin and California receive relatively more attention than such regions as New England and the Missouri River basin. General circulation model-based and hypothetical climate scenarios have been the dominant sources of climate scenarios used in case studies, although a variety of other methods for developing climate scenarios have been developed.

  14. Drinking water quality in household supply infrastructure--A survey of the current situation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Sebastian; Schreiber, Christiane; Kistemann, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    As a result of the amendment to the German Drinking Water Ordinance in 2001, local public health authorities are obliged to monitor the water supply in installations providing water for public use (Section 18 German Drinking Water Ordinance). With a systematic and nationwide survey of locally available data relating to hygienic drinking water quality and the existing drinking water infrastructure in buildings, the extent of microbial contamination of in-building distribution systems in Germany is intended to be assessed. To gain an overview of the microbial contamination of drinking water in public buildings all 419 local public health authorities in Germany were contacted in 2007. In a detailed study with a representative cooperation level of 5% of these local public health authorities, the available data relating to microbiological, chemical, physical and technical parameters gained from in-building distribution systems were collected. Drinking water parameters were combined with regard to the total number of analyses and the absolute number as well as the percentage of limit compliance failures (n=108,288). Limits exceeded were classified as the failure to comply with the German Drinking Water Ordinance, DVGW technical regulations and Federal Environment Agency recommended limits. The highest rates of samples exceeding these limits were found for the parameter Legionella sp. which contaminated 12.8% of all samples (n=22,786; limit: 100 CFU/100ml), followed by heterotrophic plate count at 36 degrees C (3.5%, n=10,928; limit: 100 CFU/1 ml) and Pseudomonas sp. (2.9%, n=3468; limit: 0 CFU/100ml). Legionella sp. and Pseudomonas sp. pose a direct health risk to immunosuppressed users. Additionally, for some chemical parameters, such as nickel, iron and lead, a potential risk for the health of consumers was detected. Further data analysis may reveal whether this contamination is related to stagnation where there is only sporadic use or whether other factors are

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from alternative water supply processes in southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2012-12-01

    Burgeoning population centers and declining hydrological resources have encouraged the development of alternative water treatment systems, including desalination and wastewater recycling. These processes currently provide potable water for millions of people and assist in satisfying agricultural and landscaping irrigation demands. There are a variety of alternative water production methods in place, and while they help to reduce the demands placed on aquifers, during their operation they are also significant sources of greenhouse gases. The environmental advantages of these alternative water production methods need to be carefully weighed against their energy footprints and greenhouse gas emissions profiles. This study measured the greenhouse gas emissions of a wastewater treatment and recycling facility in Orange County, California to get a more complete picture of the carbon footprint of the plant. We measured atmospheric emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O throughout the water recycling process and at various times of the day and week. This allowed us to assemble a thorough, cross-sectional profile of greenhouse gas emissions from the facility. We then compared the measured emissions of the treatment plant to the modeled emissions of desalination plants in order to assess the relative carbon footprints of the two water production methods. Other water supply alternatives, including regional water importation, were also included in the comparison in order to provide a more complete understanding of the potential greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we assessed the significance of wastewater treatment as an urban greenhouse gas source when compared to other known emissions in the region. This research offers a valuable tool for sustainable urban and regional development by providing planners with a quantified comparison of the carbon footprints of several water production options.

  16. Relation of Root Growth of Rice Seedling with Nutrition and Water Use Efficiency Under Different Water Supply Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Bing-song; JIANG De-an; WU Ping; WENG Xiao-yan; LU Qing; WANG Ni-yan

    2006-01-01

    Water deficiency is one of the primary yield-limiting factors in rice. In plants, the nutrition and water use efficiency depend on root growth efficiency under different water supply conditions (WSC). Three rice genotypes, Azucena (an upland japonica),IR1552 (a lowland indica) and Jia 9522 (a lowland japonica), were grown under different WSC with 0 cm (submerged), 40 cm and 80cm groundwater levels below the soil surface to investigate the root parameters, water use efficiency, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium contents, net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of the rice plant. The relative parameters were defined as the ratio of the parameters under submerged conditions (0 cm groundwater level below soil surface) to these under upland conditions (40 cm and 80 cm groundwater levels below soil surface). The results indicated that different genotypes showed different relative root parameters and relative nutrition content and water use efficiency under different WSC. The length and number of adventitious root are more important than seminal root length in water and nutrition uptake, and maintaining the grain yield and increasing dry matter,but the adventitious root number could not be served as an index for screening drought-resistant genotypes. Furthermore, different drought-resistant genotypes have been also found, and Azucena was resistant to drought, IR1552 sensitive to drought and Jia 9522neither sensitive nor resistant to drought.

  17. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... attached. Thermal efficiency for an instantaneous water heater, a storage water heater or a hot water... the amount of energy consumed by the water heater as measured during the thermal efficiency test... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot...

  18. Evaluation of Bacterial Contamination of Water Supply in Dental Unit Water Lines at Zahedan Dental School 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollashahi Leila

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines has been focused on because of high risk of dangerous infections in immunocompromised patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bacterial contamination of water supply in dental unit water lines at Zahedan Dental School.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study we investigated 400 water samples collected from four parts of each unit including air/water syringe, turbine handpiece (before & after flushing, cup filler and 1 water sample collected from city water reservoir in Zahedan faculty of dentistry during 2008. Water samples were taken on Saturdays (the first working day in a week and Wednesdays (the last working day in a week, before and after treatment on the same unit. Samples were transported in closed sterile containers to microbiology laboratory. All samples were incubated on blood agar and McCankey plates for 72 hours at 37°C. Bacterial contamination were then evaluted. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and t-test.Results: Total mean bacterial count was 6914 cfu/ml. Mean bacterial contamination on Saturdays (8859 cfu/ml were higher than Wednesdays (4969 cfu/ml. Mean bacterial contamination before treatment was (5155 cfu/ml less than the end of treatment (8673 cfu/ml on the same unit. Mean bacterial contaminations of prosthetics clinic (13439cfu/ml was higher than other clinics. The mean of periodentology clinic bacterial contaminations (3012 cfu/ml was the least.Conclusion: The result of this study demonstrated that microbiological level of dental unit water lines is high. The dentists must be aware of the high level of microorganisms in the dental unit's water and thus minimize the risk of infection in both staff and patients.

  19. Infiltration of pesticides in surface water into nearby drinking water supply wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaguerra, Flavio; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Binning, Philip John

    data of a tracer experiment in a riparian zone. Three compounds were considered: an older pesticide MCPP (Mecoprop) which is mobile and persistent, glyphosate (Roundup), a new biodegradable and strongly sorbed pesticide, and its degradation product AMPA. Global sensitivity analysis using the method...... water. Global sensitivity analysis results were compared with rank correlation statistics between pesticide concentrations and geological parameters derived from a comprehensive database of Danish drinking water wells. Aquitard thickness and well depth are the most critical parameters in both the model...

  20. Overview of groundwater sources and water-supply systems, and associated microbial pollution, in Finland,